WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest plantation development

  1. Plantation Forests for Sustainable Wood Supply and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With the implementation of Natural Forests Protection Program, wood resource base in China is shifting from naturally grown forests to plantation forests. This paper reviews: 1) The evolution of Chinese decade-long reforestation program and its contribution to sustainable wood supply and development, and 2) impacts of "China's Natural Forest Protection Program and " Fast-Growing and High-Yield Plantation Program in China " on China's wood supply and sustainability. In addition, this paper highlights Chi...

  2. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik Sudarmalik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.Keywords: industrial plantation forest, property right, principal agent, the state position, authority

  3. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.

  4. The Development of Even-Aged Plantation Forests: An Exercise in Forest Stand Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E. R.; Leslie, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a field-based practical exercise that allows students in forestry, ecology and natural resources to develop their understanding of forest stand dynamics. The exercise involves measurement of key tree growth parameters in four even-aged, single-species plantation stands of different age but occupying sites with similar soil…

  5. Sustainable Land Allocation GIS-based decision support for industrial forest plantation development in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanuariadi, T.

    1999-01-01

    A land allocation model for sustainable industrial forest plantation (IFP) project establishment is developed in this research. The model provides the foundation for a spatial decision support system (DSS) that deals with analytical and practical problem solving in IFP land allocation in Indonesia.

  6. Plantation forests, climate change and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Pawson; A. Brin; E.G. Brockerhoff; D. Lamb; T.W. Payn; A. Paquette; J.A. Parrotta

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 4 % of the world’s forests are plantations, established to provide a variety of ecosystem services, principally timber and other wood products. In addition to such services, plantation forests provide direct and indirect benefits to biodiversity via the provision of forest habitat for a wide range of species, and by reducing negative impacts on natural forests...

  7. Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; John A. Parrotta; Christopher Quine; Jeffrey Sayer

    2008-01-01

    Losses of natural and semi-natural forests, mostly to agriculture, are a significant concern for biodiversity. Against this trend, the area of intensively managed plantation forests increases, and there is much debate about the implications for biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive review of the function of plantation forests as habitat compared with other land...

  8. Carbon storage and sequestration rate assessment and allometric model development in young teak plantations of tropical moist deciduous forest, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration through plantations is one of the important mitigation measures for rising levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This study aimed to assess C stocks and their sequestration rate, and to develop allometric models for estimation of C stocking in age-series young teak (Tectona grandis) planta-tions (1, 5, 11, 18, 24 and 30 years) by using biomass and productivity estimation and regression, respectively. These plantations were raised in tropical moist deciduous forests of Kumaun Himalayan tarai. Total C stocks estimated for these plantations were 1.6, 15.8, 35.4, 39.0, 61.5 and 73.2 Mg ha-1, respectively. Aboveground and belowground C storage in-creased with increasing plantation age;however, the range of their percentage contribution showed little variation (87.8–88.2 and 11.7–12.7%, respectively). The rate of C sequestration for these respective plantations was 1.06, 6.95, 5.46, 5.42, 3.39 and 5.37 Mg ha-1 a-1. Forty percent of the aboveground annual storage was retained in the tree while 60%was released in the form of foliage, twigs, and fruit litter. In the case of total (tree) annual production, 43%was retained while 57%was released as litter including root. C stock, C sequestration rate, accumulation ratio (1.4–18.1), root:shoot C ratio (0.61–0.13) and production efficiency (0.01–0.18) were comparable to some previous reports for other species and forests. These data could be useful in deciding the harvesting age for young teak with respect to C storage and sequestration rate. Four allometric models using linear regression equations were developed between biomass (twice the C stock) and diameter, girth, and height of the tree at different ages. The diameter model was found more suitable for C stock predic-tion in similar areas.

  9. The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development

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    Ivetić Vladan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass, additional products in the form of non-timber forest products and additional services in the form of shelterbelts and phytoremediation.

  10. Evaluating differences in forest fragmentation and restoration between western natural forests and southeastern plantation forests in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xinyu; Lv, Yingying; Li, Mingshi

    2017-03-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem structure and functions are considered some of the research issues in landscape ecology. In this study, advancing Forman's theory, we considered five spatially explicit processes associated with fragmentation, including perforation, dissection, subdivision, shrinkage, and attrition, and two processes associated with restoration, i.e., increment and expansion processes. Following this theory, a forest fragmentation and restoration process model that can detect the spatially explicit processes and ecological consequences of forest landscape change was developed and tested in the current analysis. Using the National Land Cover Databases (2001, 2006 and 2011), the forest fragmentation and restoration process model was applied to US western natural forests and southeastern plantation forests to quantify and classify forest patch losses into one of the four fragmentation processes (the dissection process was merged into the subdivision process) and to classify the newly gained forest patches based on the two restoration processes. At the same time, the spatio-temporal differences in fragmentation and restoration patterns and trends between natural forests and plantations were further compared. Then, through overlaying the forest fragmentation/restoration processes maps with targeting year land cover data and land ownership vectors, the results from forest fragmentation and the contributors to forest restoration in federal and nonfederal lands were identified. Results showed that, in natural forests, the forest change patches concentrated around the urban/forest, cultivated/forest, and shrubland/forest interfaces, while the patterns of plantation change patches were scattered sparsely and irregularly. The shrinkage process was the most common type in forest fragmentation, and the average size was the smallest. Expansion, the most common restoration process, was observed in both natural forests and plantations and often occurred around the

  11. From Spirit Forest to Rubber Plantation: The Accelerating Disaster of "Development" in Cambodia

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    Neal Keating

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rise of Cambodia’s GDP and other development indicators, continuing extreme poverty combined with very rapid conversion of traditional subsistence lands, forests, and waters into economic land concessions (ELCs to national and transnational companies is leading to intensified land insecurity issues and other human rights problems that may destabilize the country.  An elite sector of Cambodian society comprised of the heads of state, business, and the military is implicated as the central cause of ongoing poverty and land loss.   This paper outlines the problematic nature of the ELC processes that began in the post-conflict era and continue today, and adapts Roy Rappaport’s concepts of cognized/operational environments within a political and historical framework for analyzing the strategies of these elites, and compares their cognized environments with those of indigenous Kuoy peoples who are among those whose lands are threatened by ELCs, and suggests that the high-modern discourses of development adhered to by the elites is based on ultimate sacred postulates just as much as are the explicitly religious discourses of traditional Kuoy peoples.

  12. [Effects of different type urban forest plantations on soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-zhen; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

    2009-12-01

    Aimed to study the effects of different urban forest plantations on soil fertility, soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Picea koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in Northeast Forestry University's Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base in the 1950s, with two sites of neighboring farmland and abandoned farmland as the control. The soils in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica were near neutral, those in mixed plantation, L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis were slightly acidic, and that in Q. mongolica was acidic. The contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, available P and K, and hydrolysable N tended to decrease with soil depth. There existed significant differences in the chemical indices of the same soil layers among different plantations. The soil fertility was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > B. platyphylla > abandoned farmland > farmland > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > L. gmelinii > Q. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, suggesting that the soil fertility in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica and in mixed plantation increased, while that in needle-leaved forest plantations tended to decrease.

  13. Development narratives, notions of forest crisis, and boom of oil palm plantations in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Ari; Maryudi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia experienced massive deforestation in the last decades where rapid oil palm expansion has been considered as one of the main drivers. This article shows that the process of deforestation and the rapid oil palm expansion cannot be viewed in isolation from broader development contexts. Various actors at local, national, and global levels have used development narratives and poverty alleviation through various policies and institutional setting to create spaces and opportunities for oil...

  14. Development narratives, notions of forest crisis, and boom of oil palm plantations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Ari; Maryudi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia experienced massive deforestation in the last decades where rapid oil palm expansion has been considered as one of the main drivers. This article shows that the process of deforestation and the rapid oil palm expansion cannot be viewed in isolation from broader development contexts. Variou

  15. Development narratives, notions of forest crisis, and boom of oil palm plantations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Ari|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343704676; Maryudi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia experienced massive deforestation in the last decades where rapid oil palm expansion has been considered as one of the main drivers. This article shows that the process of deforestation and the rapid oil palm expansion cannot be viewed in isolation from broader development contexts.

  16. Development narratives, notions of forest crisis, and boom of oil palm plantations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Ari|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343704676; Maryudi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia experienced massive deforestation in the last decades where rapid oil palm expansion has been considered as one of the main drivers. This article shows that the process of deforestation and the rapid oil palm expansion cannot be viewed in isolation from broader development contexts. Variou

  17. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  18. Effects of Converting Secondary Forest on Peat to Oil Palm Plantation on Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chng H. Ywih

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Peat has been identified as one of the major groups of soils found in Malaysia. Sarawak as the largest state in Malaysia has the biggest reserve of peat-land. There are about 1.5 million ha of peat-land in Sarawak, which are relatively under developed. As is the case with any plant, oil palm trees do sequester carbon as they grow. Nevertheless, the process of clearing forest in order to establish a plantation may release more carbon. The carbon losses may be greater when the plantation established on peat-land, which store vast amounts of carbon but release it as they are drained. Little study has been done on the comparison of soil organic matter, soil organic carbon and yield of humic acids when secondary forest on peat soil is converted to oil palm plantation. The objectives of this study were to: (i Quantify Soil Organic Matter (SOM, Soil Organic Carbon (SOC, Humic Acids (HA and stable carbon upon the conversion of secondary forest on peat to different ages of oil palm plantation and (ii Compare carbon sequestration of a secondary forest with different ages of oil palm plantation. Approach: Soil samples were collected from the secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantation at the Tatau district. Ten samples were taken at random with a peat auger at 0-25 and 25-50 cm depths. The bulk densities at these depths were determined by the coring method. The bulk density method was used to quantify the total carbon, total organic carbon, total organic matter, total nitrogen, humic acids and stable carbon at the stated sampling depths on per hectare basis. Results: There were no significant differences in the amounts of stable C of both secondary forest and different ages of oil palm plantations at 0-25 and 25-50 cm. The amounts of stable C of secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantation at the depth of 0-25 cm were generally higher than those in the 25

  19. Mosaics of Exotic Forest Plantations and Native Forests as Habitat of Pumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolli, Marcelo

    2010-08-01

    There is a general lack of information on the impact of forest plantations and the presence of urban settlements on populations of resource-demanding species such as large felids. To partially address this problem, a project study was conducted to find out whether mosaics of forest plantations and native vegetation can function as an adequate habitat for pumas ( Puma concolor) in southern Brazil. The study was conducted within a 1255-km2 area, managed for planted stands of Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. Individual identification of pumas was carried out using a combination of track-matching analysis (discriminant analysis) and camera-trapping. Both techniques recorded closely similar numbers of individual pumas, either total (9-10 individuals) or resident (5-6 individuals). A new approach, developed during this study, was used to individualize pumas by their markings around the muzzle. The estimated density varied from 6.2 to 6.9 individuals/100 km2, ranking among the highest across the entire puma range and indicating a potential total population of up to 87 individuals in the study site. In spite of the availability of extensive areas without human disturbance, a radio-tracked female used a core home range that included forest plantations, an urbanized village, and a two-lane paved road with regular vehicular traffic. The high density of pumas and the species’ intensive use of modified landscapes are interpreted here as deriving from conditions rarely found near human settlements: mutual tolerance by pumas and humans and an adequate habitat (regardless of plantations) largely due to the inhibition of invasions and hunting and maintenance of sizable extents of native forest patches. More widely, it suggests the potential of careful management in forestry operations to provide habitat conditions for resource-demanding species such as the puma. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of curbing invasions and hunting, in this case provided by the presence of

  20. Conversion of natural forest to managed forest plantations decreases tree resistance to prolonged droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; John S. King; Eric Ward; A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Andrew Radecki; Dave M. Bell; Guofang Miao; Michael Gavazzi; Daniel M. Johnson; Steve G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Asko. Noormets

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the southern US, past forest management practices have replaced large areas of native forests with loblolly pine plantations and have resulted in changes in forest response to extreme weather conditions. However, uncertainty remains about the response of planted versus natural species to drought across the geographical range of these forests. Taking...

  1. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wei

    Full Text Available Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production

  2. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  3. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING TIMBER FROM PLANTATION FOREST TREATED WITH PLASTIC AND CCB FOR MARINE CONSTRUCTION

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    Mohammad Muslich

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, timber  estate or plantation forest plays an important role on wooden based industries.  However, the  plantation timber  quality is relatively low.  Some treatments  have been developed to improve  its low quality, such as preservation with CCB (Chromate Copper Boron and impregnation with plastic compounds. This study is to compare the durability of timber treated with  plastic and CCB,  non-treated from plantation forest timber  as well  as from natural  forest. The plantation timber  studied were  jeungjing  (Paraserianthes falcataria, damar  (Agathis sp., pinus  (Pinus merkusii, and rubberwood (Hevea brasilliensis. Non-treated timbers that usually used for marine construction were ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri, jati/teak  (Tectona grandis, laban (Vitex pubescens and merbau  (Instia bijuga. After  6 and 12 months,  the results showed that CCB  preserved  timber  were  more durable  than plastic  impregnated timber  and non- treated timber. Wood samples were mostly attacked by marine borer organisms from the family of  Pholadidae  and Teredinidae. The experiment results revealed the possibility of using those plantation forest timber species for marine construction purposes.

  4. Divergent stakeholder views of corporate social responsibility in the Australian forest plantation sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Melissa; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-12-30

    Although the Australian forest plantation industry acknowledges that there is a role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in forest management, there is confusion as to what this constitutes in practice. This paper describes the conflicts between internal and external stakeholder views on CSR in plantation forestry. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants across three plantation management regions in Australia: Tasmania, the Green Triangle and south-west Western Australia. We interviewed a range of stakeholders including forest company employees, local councils, Indigenous representatives, and environmental non-government organisations. CSR-related initiatives that stakeholders believed were important for plantation management included the need for community engagement, accountability towards stakeholders, and contribution to community development and well-being. Although there was wide support for these initiatives, some stakeholders were not satisfied that forest companies were actively implementing them. Due to the perception that forest companies are not committed to CSR initiatives such as community engagement, some stakeholder expectations are not being satisfied.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of subsidy schemes for industrial timber development and carbon sequestration in Japanese forest plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tohru Nakajima; Hidesato Kanomata; Mitsuo Matsumoto; Satoshi Tatsuhara; Norihiko Shiraishi

    2011-01-01

    This study uses simulations to investigate the effects of implementing two different Japanese forestry subsidy systems on timber production and carbon stock, and examines the consequences for harvesting strategies. An existing Local Yield Table Construction System (LYCS), a wood conversion algorithm, and a harvesting cost model were used in the simulations to test the applicability of different subsidies to the thinning of stands. Using forest inventory data collected by local government staff, simulation output was used to calculate forestry profits,carbon stocks, subsidies, the amount of labor required, and the cost effectiveness of investing in subsidies. By comparing the output of simulations based on two scenarios, we found that both the clear-cutting area and the amount of harvested timber were larger under Scenario 2, in which the rules governing subsidy allocations are more relaxed, than under Scenario 1, in which the rules are more restrictive. Because the harvested timber under Scenario 1 was mainly produced by clear-cutting, the forestry profits and the subsidy predicted in the early period of the simulation, were larger under Scenario 1 than under Scenario 2. In contrast, the carbon stock was larger under Scenario 2 than under Scenario 1. The simulation model is likely to be useful for improving Plan-Do-Check-Act cycles implemented in Japanese forest management systems.

  6. THE WATER USE BY FOREST PLANTATIONS – A REVIEW

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    Silvana Lucia Caldato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810562This review aims to present some of the main results and infer about the current state-of-the-art of the controversy related to the water use by forest plantations. Several studies have been carried out in this area in different regions, mainly in Australia, South Africa, Europe, India and Brazil. However, according to authors, the controversy persists and it is necessary that the scientific results are understood by the community in order to avoid the predominance of myths and half-truths. In this way, the current review intends to summarize some scientific results concerning the main hydrologic aspects of the plantations (interception, transpiration and catchment water balance, the relationship between the high productivity and the water use efficiency, and the importance of the establishment of forest management plan focused on the river watershed scale, in order to contribute to hydrological sustainability.  The results coincide that the relationship between the forest plantations and the water depends on the region, species, environmental conditions  and management practices on the watershed scale.

  7. Ranking of industrial forest plantations in terms of sustainability: A multicriteria approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Balteiro, L; Alfranca, O; González-Pachón, J; Romero, C

    2016-09-15

    As forest managers and owners must have precise assessments of sustainability, in this study we have proposed a methodology based on multi-criteria techniques for assessing sustainability in industrial forest plantations and establishing a ranking of these plantations in terms of sustainability. First, we identified and have briefly described a set of sustainability indicators (economic, environmental and social). Next, we developed a statistical procedure to determine if a linear relationship existed between the indicators. With this analysis, the final set of indicators was defined and normalized. Then, we formulated four goal programming models, by which to aggregate the different indicators. In these models, we introduced the preferences of the decision makers for each indicator, using a survey with questions formulated in a pairwise comparison format. The procedure was applied to 30 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in northwestern Spain and 11 indicators were selected in order to define the sustainability. The results showed several rankings under each goal programming model. Although the results may not be the same in the different models, some plantations are always the most sustainable, while others are always the worst in terms of sustainability. The combination of initial values of indicators, goal programming models and preferences of stakeholders (preferential weights and targets) influence the results, and it cannot be predicted a priori which plantation is the best/worst in terms of sustainability. In our case study, we show how changes in preferential weights and targets substantially modify the results obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

    2002-07-21

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that

  9. A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D; Corre, Marife D; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Klasen, Stephan; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tarigan, Suria; Tölle, Merja H; Tscharntke, Teja; Wiegand, Kerstin

    2016-08-11

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of plantation forests in the United States since the 1930s: an annual and gridded data set for regional Earth system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangsheng; Pan, Shufen; Hayes, Daniel J.; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-01

    Plantation forest area in the conterminous United States (CONUS) ranked second among the world's nations in the land area apportioned to forest plantation. As compared to the naturally regenerated forests, plantation forests demonstrate significant differences in biophysical characteristics, and biogeochemical and hydrological cycles as a result of more intensive management practices. Inventory data have been reported for multiple time periods on plot, state, and regional scales across the CONUS, but the requisite annual and spatially explicit plantation data set over a long-term period for analysis of the role of plantation management on regional or national scales is lacking. Through synthesis of multiple inventory data sources, this study developed methods to spatialize the time series plantation forest and tree species distribution data for the CONUS over the 1928-2012 time period. According to this new data set, plantation forest area increased from near zero in the 1930s to 268.27 thousand km2 in 2012, accounting for 8.65 % of the total forestland area in the CONUS. Regionally, the South contained the highest proportion of plantation forests, accounting for about 19.34 % of total forestland area in 2012. This time series and gridded data set developed here can be readily applied in regional Earth system modeling frameworks for assessing the impacts of plantation management practices on forest productivity, carbon and nitrogen stocks, and greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and water fluxes on regional or national scales. The gridded plantation distribution and tree species maps, and the interpolated state-level annual tree planting area and plantation area during 1928-2012, are available from https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873558.

  11. Assessing Forest Plantation Productivity of Exotic and Indigenous Species on Degraded Secondary Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetti Heryati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There is general agreement that human activities such as deforestation and land use change to other land use types have contributed to degraded secondary forests or forestland and increases the emission of greenhouse gases which ultimately led to global climate change. An establishment of forest plantation in particular is regarded as an important approach for sequestering carbon. However, limited information exists on productivity and potential of fast growth exotic and indigenous tree plantations for sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. This study aimed at assessing the productivity and biomass accumulation along with the potential for sequestering CO2 of planted exotic and indigenous species on degraded forestland. Approach: This study was conducted at Khaya ivorensis and Hopea odorata plantations, which was planted at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM Research Station in Segamat Johor, Malaysia five years ago. In order, to evaluate the forest productivity and biomass accumulation of both species, we established plots with a size of 40 × 30 m in three replications in each stand, followed by measuring all trees in the plots in terms of height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH. To develop allometric equation, five representative trees at each stand were chosen for destructive sampling. Results: The growth performance in terms of mean height, DBH, annual increment of height and diameter and basal area of exotic species (K. ivorensis was significantly higher than that of the indigenous species (H. odorata. We used the diameter alone as independent variable to estimate stem volume and biomass production of both species. The stem volume of K. ivorensis stand was 43.13 m3ha-1 and was significantly higher than H. odorata stands (33.66 m3 ha-1. The results also showed that the K. ivorensis and H. odorata stands have the potential to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere which was stored in aboveground

  12. Site Management and Productivity in Tropical Forest Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Tiarks; E.K.S. Nambiar; C. Cossalter

    1998-01-01

    Tropical countries are expanding plantation forestry to develop sustainable woodproduction systems. Much of this is based on short rotations of exotic species. These systems require large capital investments, represent intensive land use and increase the demands on the soil. To develop options for maintaining or increasing productivity a partner-project was initiated...

  13. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; LOREAU, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and...

  14. Low tortoise abundances in pine forest plantations in forest-shrubland transition areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caro, Roberto C.; Oedekoven, Cornelia S.; Graciá, Eva; Anadón, José D.; Buckland, Stephen T.; Esteve-Selma, Miguel A.; Martinez, Julia; Giménez, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    In the transition between Mediterranean forest and the arid subtropical shrublands of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, humans have transformed habitat since ancient times. Understanding the role of the original mosaic landscapes in wildlife species and the effects of the current changes as pine forest plantations, performed even outside the forest ecological boundaries, are important conservation issues. We studied variation in the density of the endangered spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in three areas that include the four most common land types within the species’ range (pine forests, natural shrubs, dryland crop fields, and abandoned crop fields). Tortoise densities were estimated using a two-stage modeling approach with line transect distance sampling. Densities in dryland crop fields, abandoned crop fields and natural shrubs were higher (>6 individuals/ha) than in pine forests (1.25 individuals/ha). We also found large variation in density in the pine forests. Recent pine plantations showed higher densities than mature pine forests where shrub and herbaceous cover was taller and thicker. We hypothesize that mature pine forest might constrain tortoise activity by acting as partial barriers to movements. This issue is relevant for management purposes given that large areas in the tortoise’s range have recently been converted to pine plantations. PMID:28273135

  15. Changes in Soil Carbon Pools Induced by Substitution of Plantation for Native Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU QIUFANG; XU JIANMING

    2003-01-01

    Changes in soil carbon pools under Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and bamboo (Phyllostachyspubescens) plantations substituted for a native forest ( Quereus acutissima, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Cas-tanopsis sclerophylla, Platycarya strobilacea, Lithocarpus glaber) were studied on the hills with acid parentrock and soils classified as red soils (Ferrisols) in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province of east China. It was foundthat total soil organic carbon (TSOC), easily oxidisable carbon (EOC) and water-soluble organic carbon(WSOC) under bamboo plantation were increased, but microbial biomass carbon (MBC) was decreased. Onthe contrary, Chinese fir induced declines of all fractions of C including TSOC, EOC, WSOC and MBC.The percentages of the active fractions of soil C (EOC and WSOC) were increased in the plantations ascompared to the native broad-leaved forest, but proportions of soil organic C as MBC were decreased. Itcould be concluded that bamboo plantation had a great ability of not only fixing C but also accelerating soilC pool cycle, improving nutrient and microorganism activity; therefore, it is a good ecosystem and could berecommended for wide development. Chinese fir would shrink the soil C pool and deteriorate soil biologicalfertility, so it did not benefit CO2 fixing and land sustainable utilization.

  16. Current Situation and Challenges of Plantation Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The area of plantation in China ranks the first in the world. But, many challenges are still faced in the development of China’s plantation. A review of plantation in China was presented and the challenges were analyzed. The plantation features juvenile and middle age class with low diameter at breast height. There are the risks of pests and diseases in plantation, the potential decline in land fertility and bio-diversity, all of which are unfavorable to a healthy development of plantations.

  17. Shades of green and REDD: Local and global contestations over the value of forest versus plantation development on the Indonesian forest frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    the emerging initiatives of ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation’ known as REDD+ in the province of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The paper argues that the general rush to implement REDD+ without intimate knowledge of the socio-political landscape of resource access and control...... is in danger of generating new enclosures of land and resources easily appropriated by local elites, excluding less fortunate sections of local society. The paper shows how divergent interpretations of REDD+ are triggering local land disputes, and how powerful actors readily appropriate REDD+ discourses...

  18. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel; Mereu, Simone; Messier, Christian; Muys, Bart; Nolet, Philippe; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John; Perring, Mike; Ponette, Quentin; Potvin, Catherine; Reich, Peter; Smith, Andy; Weih, Martin; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of mixed species plantations. The network currently consists of 18 experiments, distributed over 36 sites and five ecoregions. With plantations 1-15 years old, TreeDivNet can already provide relevant data for forest policy and management. In this paper, we highlight some early results on the carbon sequestration and pest resistance potential of more diverse plantations. Finally, suggestions are made for new, innovative experiments in understudied regions to complement the existing network.

  19. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes;

    2010-01-01

    Reforestation of ex-arable land in temperate regions increases the area of potential habitat for forest plants. However, the herbaceous plant layer of these plantations contains fewer forest species than comparable plantations at continuously forested sites. One of the reasons for this might......-generation forest plantations on ex-arable land and re-planted clear-cuts on continuously forested land. There was no recruitment following the experimental sowing of six commonwoody species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Frangula alnus, Sambucus nigra, Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus intermedia). Thus......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...

  20. Mountain cloud forest and grown-shade coffee plantations: A comparison of tree biodiversity in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo González-Zamora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this work is to compare tree diversity and richness among one grown-shade coffee plantation (CAE and two sites of montane cloud forests, one preserved (MCF1 and other perturbed (MCF2. We also develop an analysis of the importance of coffee plantations as a refuge of tree species, holding a potential role for conservation.Area of study: Our study area is the coffee region of Coatepec-Xico, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico.Material and methods: We compiled a list of all tree species in each site to determine tree diversity and floristic similarity (dissimilarity. We used different similarity indices and a cluster analysis to show relations among sites.Main results: 2721 individuals from 154 species were registered in the montane cloud forests as a whole. In the grown-shade coffee plantation we registered 2947 individuals from 64 species. The most similar sites were the perturbed montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation and the least similar were the preserved montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation. The high biodiversity found in all sites and the differences in tree composition between the two montane cloud forests supports evidence of the ecosystems richness in the region.Research highlight: Diversity differences among sites determine that the grown-shade coffee plantation is not substitute for montane cloud forest. CAE’s are developed under similar environmental conditions than the MCF; therefore, coexistence and recombination (replacement of species make them particularly complementary. CAE’s in Veracruz have a potential role as refuge for biodiversity.

  1. Mountain cloud forest and grown-shade coffee plantations: A comparison of tree biodiversity in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Zamora, A.; Esperón-Rodríguez, M.; Barradas, V.L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: The objective of this work is to compare tree diversity and richness among one grown-shade coffee plantation (CAE) and two sites of montane cloud forests, one preserved (MCF1) and other perturbed (MCF2). We also develop an analysis of the importance of coffee plantations as a refuge of tree species, holding a potential role for conservation. Area of study: Our study area is the coffee region of Coatepec-Xico, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and methods: We compiled a list of all tree species in each site to determine tree diversity and floristic similarity (dissimilarity). We used different similarity indices and a cluster analysis to show relations among sites. Main results: 2721 individuals from 154 species were registered in the montane cloud forests as a whole. In the grown-shade coffee plantation we registered 2947 individuals from 64 species. The most similar sites were the perturbed montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation and the least similar were the preserved montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation. The high biodiversity found in all sites and the differences in tree composition between the two montane cloud forests supports evidence of the ecosystems richness in the region. Research highlight: Diversity differences among sites determine that the grown-shade coffee plantation is not substitute for montane cloud forest. CAE’s are developed under similar environmental conditions than the MCF; therefore, coexistence and recombination (replacement) of species make them particularly complementary. CAE’s in Veracruz have a potential role as refuge for biodiversity. (Author)

  2. Evaluating Public Plantation and Community Planted Forests under the CDM and REDD+ Mechanism for Carbon Stock in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Public plantations (PPs and Community planted forests (CPFs are inimitable types of participatory forest management practices in Nepal, but their eligibility issues under the framework of clean development mechanism (CDM and reducing emission from the deforestation and forest degradation mechanism (REDD+ are not evaluated. So, to explore the management system of PP and CPF, we compared forest carbon stocks in plantations and evaluated these plantations under these mechanisms as objectives of this research. The relevant documents were revised and altogether 55 samples were collected from Shreepur, Banauta and Bisbity PPs and Sita, Ramnagar and Jogikuti CPFs, in Mahottary district, Nepal. The equation of Chave et al was used to calculate the biomass, which was further converted into carbon. Meanwhile, management practices were evaluated under the framework of CDM and REDD+. The PPs are public land managed, especially by disadvantaged communities, while CPFs are the patches of national forest managed by users. The variation in carbon stock was found to be highest (148.89 ton ha-1 in Sita CPF and lowest (30.34 ton ha-1 in Bisbitty PP. In fact, it is difficult to certify plantations under CDM, due to its complexity, but they can easily be candidate to the REDD+ mechanism, if they are bundled with large forest blocks.

  3. Creation and implementation of a certification system for insurability and fire risk classification for forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronica Loewe M.; Victor Vargas; Juan Miguel Ruiz; Andrea Alvarez C.; Felipe Lobo Q.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the Chilean insurance market sells forest fire insurance policies and agricultural weather risk policies. However, access to forest fire insurance is difficult for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with a significant proportion (close to 50%) of forest plantations being without coverage. Indeed, the insurance market that sells forest fire insurance...

  4. Losses of soil organic carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: Assessment of erosion and decomposition by new δ13C approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Muhammad, Damris; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi province on Sumatra Island. We developed and applied a new δ13C based approach to assess and separate two processes: 1) erosion and 2) decomposition. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced: up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). The C content in the subsoil was similar in the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ13C values in the subsoil of the plantations corresponds to the losses of the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ13C profiles in the undisturbed soils under forest with the disturbed soils under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35±8 cm) and rubber (33±10 cm) plantations. The 13C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. SOC availability, measured by microbial respiration rate and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy, was lower under oil palm plantations. Despite similar trends in C losses and erosion in intensive plantations, our results indicate that microorganisms in oil palm plantations mineralized mainly the old C stabilized prior to conversion, whereas microorganisms under rubber plantations mineralized the fresh C from the litter, leaving the old C pool mainly untouched. Based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC under oil palm plantations, which therefore are a less sustainable land

  5. [Characteristics of soil macrofaunal community structure in secondary forest and forest plantations in western Qinling Mountains of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Liang; Cao, Jing; Li, Shi-Jie; Pan, Chun-Lin; Pan, Cheng-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Long-term disturbance of human beings on secondary forest ecosystem would have profound impacts on belowground ecological processes, whereas the community structure and functional diversity of soil fauna would be sensitive to the changes of belowground ecological processes, with significance as an indicator of the changes. In this study, the method of hand-sorting was adopted to investigate the density of soil macrofaunal community in a secondary forest and the Pinus tabulaeformis, Larix kaempferi, Picea abie, and Picea asperata plantations of nearly 30 years old in Xiaolongshan forest area of western Qinling Mountains, and the PCA ordination and one-way ANOVA analysis were applied to analyze the community structure and trophic group composition of soil macrofauna in the five forest types. In the P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations, the density of soil macrofaunal community was 3.0 and 2.1 times of that in the secondary forest, respectively, and the consumers/decomposers ratio of the community was obviously higher than that in the secondary forest. Among the plantations, P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations had a significantly higher consumers/decomposers ratio of soil macrofaunal community than P. abies and P. asperata plantations. There was an obvious difference in community structure of soil macrofauna among the four plantations. The density of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations was 3.5 and 2.1 times higher than that in P. asperata plantation, respectively, whereas the group richness of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis plantation was 1.5 times of that in P. abies and P. asperata plantations.

  6. Carbon stock of oil palm plantations and tropical forests in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kho, Lip Khoon; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2015-01-01

    the case for Malaysian fallow systems and oil palm plantations. Here, we collate and analyse Malaysian datasets on total carbon stocks for both above- and below-ground biomass. We review the current knowledge on standing carbon stocks of 1) different forest ecosystems, 2) areas subject to shifting......In Malaysia, the main land change process is the establishment of oil palm plantations on logged-over forests and areas used for shifting cultivation, which is the traditional farming system. While standing carbon stocks of old-growth forest have been the focus of many studies, this is less...... cultivation (fallow forests) and 3) oil palm plantations. The forest ecosystems are classified by successional stage and edaphic conditions and represent samples along a forest succession continuum spanning pioneer species in shifting cultivation fallows to climax vegetation in old-growth forests. Total...

  7. Plantation-Seeding Forest Plantations – the New Method for Regeneration of Coniferous Forests at Large Clearings on Burned Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tarakanov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new method of restoration of coniferous stands on large felling areas on burnt lands that lack seed trees is discussed. It involves limited planting of big grafted seedlings of quality wood, that have a high level of seed production, with the purpose of the subsequent natural sowing on these territories. Results of two-year-old research on approbation of the method on cuttings on large felling areas on burnt lands in conditions of the mid-Ob' river pine forests are stated. A good viability of «seed cultures» is noted. There is damage of the grafting pines by elk. Therefore there is a problem of protecting plantations against elk. For preservation of a high level of genetic variability of pine stands it is desirable to use in «seed cultures» the best trees from local plantings.

  8. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  9. Impact of Logging and Forest Conversion to Oil Palm Plantations on Soil Bacterial Communities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Edwards, David P.; Tripathi, Binu M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil bacteria, which constitute a large proportion of total biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, is a major conservation frontier. Here we studied the effects of logging history and forest conversion to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo, on the soil bacterial community. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, to compare the bacterial communities in primary, once-logged, and twice-logged forest and land converted to oil palm plantations. Bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, and OTU richness and local-scale α-diversity showed no difference between the various forest types and oil palm plantations. Focusing on the turnover of bacteria across space, true β-diversity was higher in oil palm plantation soil than in forest soil, whereas community dissimilarity-based metrics of β-diversity were only marginally different between habitats, suggesting that at large scales, oil palm plantation soil could have higher overall γ-diversity than forest soil, driven by a slightly more heterogeneous community across space. Clearance of primary and logged forest for oil palm plantations did, however, significantly impact the composition of soil bacterial communities, reflecting in part the loss of some forest bacteria, whereas primary and logged forests did not differ in composition. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacteria of tropical forest are to some extent resilient or resistant to logging but that the impacts of forest conversion to oil palm plantations are more severe. PMID:24056463

  10. Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha(-1) in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha(-1) to an increase of 8 Mg C ha(-1). In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes.

  11. Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, D.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  12. Mapping forest plantations in Mainland China: combining remotely sensed land cover and census land use data in a land transition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Q.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chini, L. P.; Fisk, J.; Liang, S.; Hansen, M.; Dolan, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Forest plantations have played an important role in shaping the coverage and compositions of China's forests. Maps characterizing the spatial and temporal patterns of forest plantations in china are essential to both identifying and quantifying how forest plantations are driving changes to the countries ecosystem structure and terrestrial carbon cycle. At this time there are no detailed spatial maps of plantations in China accessible to public. Land transition model that employs Metropolis simulated annealing optimization has been demonstrated effective in land use mapping when land cover observations and land use census data are available. This study aims to map forest plantations in Mainland China by linking remote sensing observations of land cover and census statistics on land use in land transition model. Two models, a national model and a regional model were developed in the study. National model depicted a universal relationship between land cover and land use across the whole country. One of the land use data sources came from the 7th National Forest Inventory (NFI) that depicted forest plantation area in the period of 2004-2008 in each provincial jurisdictions of China (Data from Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau is not available). In accordance with land use data, MODIS yearly IGBP land cover product that contains sixteen-land cover types has been averaged upon the same time period and summarized for each province. The pairwise correlation coefficient between modeled value and reported value is 0.9996. In addition, the 95% confidence interval of true population correlation of these two variables is [0.9994, 0.9998]. Because the targeted forest plantations cover much less area compared to the other land use type of non-plantation, model precision on forest plantations was isolated to eliminate the dominance in area of non-plantation and the correlation coefficient is 0.8058. National model tends to underestimate plantation area. Due to distinct geographic and

  13. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations.

  14. Rubber and pulp plantations represent a double threat to Hainan's natural tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Cannon, Charles H; Slik, J W Ferry; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Dai, Zhi-Cong

    2012-04-15

    Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot and harbors large areas of tropical forests, particularly in the uplands. The Changhua watershed is the cradle of Hainan's main river and a center of endemism for plants and birds. The watershed contains great habitat diversity and is an important conservation area. We analyzed the impact of rubber and pulp plantations on the distribution and area of tropical forest in the watershed, using remote sensing analysis of Landsat images from 1988, 1995 and 2005. From 1988 to 1995, natural forest increased in area (979-1040 sq km) but decreased rapidly (763 sq km) over the next decade. Rubber plantations increased steadily through the study period while pulp plantations appeared after 1995 but occupied 152 sq km by 2005. Rubber and pulp plantations displace different types of natural forest and do not replace one another. Because pulp is not as profitable as rubber and existing pulp processing capacity greatly exceeds local supply, considerable pressure exists on remaining upland forests. We recommend for future management that these plantation forests be reclassified as 'industrial', making a clear policy distinction between natural and industrial forestry. Additionally, the local government should work to enforce existing laws preventing forest conversion on marginal and protected areas.

  15. Mixed forest plantations can efficiently filter rainfall deposits of sulfur and chlorine in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hairong; Yang, Wanqin; Wu, Fuzhong; Tan, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Forest filtering is a well-known and efficient method for diminishing atmospheric pollutant (such as SO42‑ and Cl‑) inputs to soil and water; however, the filtering efficiencies of forests vary depending on the regional vegetation and climate. The rainy area of West China has suffered from heavy rainfall and human activity, which has potentially resulted in large amounts of sulfur and chlorine deposition, but little information is available regarding the filtering effects of typical plantations. Therefore, the migration of SO42‑ and Cl‑ from rainfall to throughfall, stemflow and runoff were investigated in a camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) plantation, a cryptomeria (Cryptomeria fortunei) plantation and a mixed plantation in a 9-month forest hydrology experiment. The results indicated the following: (i) The total SO42‑ and Cl‑ deposition was 43.05 kg ha‑1 and 5.25 kg ha‑1, respectively. (ii) The cover layer had the highest interception rate (60.08%), followed by the soil layer (16.02%) and canopy layer (12.85%). (iii) The mixed plantation resulted in the highest SO42‑ (37.23%) and Cl‑ (51.91%) interception rates at the forest ecosystem scale, and the interception rate increased with increasing rainfall. These results indicate that mixed plantations can effectively filter SO42‑ and Cl‑ in this area and in similar areas.

  16. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  17. Effect of Converting Secondary Tropical Peat Swamp Forest into Oil Palm Plantation on Selected Peat Soil Physical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd S. Firdaus; Seca Gandaseca; Ahmed, Osumanu H.; Nik M.A. Majid

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The conversion of forest land into oil palm plantation is considered to be one of the causes of soil degradation and loss of tropical land forest in Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to compare selected peat soil physical properties of secondary tropical peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation to determine the effect of forest conversion. Approach: Peat soil samples were collected from secondary tropical peat swamp forest and oil palm pla...

  18. Applications of Photogrammetry for Analysis of Forest Plantations. Preliminary study: Analysis of individual trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, R.; Barahona, A.; Aguilar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a method for using high detail volumetric information, captured with a land based photogrammetric survey, to obtain information from individual trees. Applying LIDAR analysis techniques it is possible to measure diameter at breast height, height at first branch (commercial height), basal area and volume of an individual tree. Given this information it is possible to calculate how much of that tree can be exploited as wood. The main objective is to develop a methodology for successfully surveying one individual tree, capturing every side of the stem a using high resolution digital camera and reference marks with GPS coordinates. The process is executed for several individuals of two species present in the metropolitan area in San Jose, Costa Rica, Delonix regia (Bojer) Raf. and Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC., each one with different height, stem shape and crown area. Using a photogrammetry suite all the pictures are aligned, geo-referenced and a dense point cloud is generated with enough detail to perform the required measurements, as well as a solid tridimensional model for volume measurement. This research will open the way to develop a capture methodology with an airborne camera using close range UAVs. An airborne platform will make possible to capture every individual in a forest plantation, furthermore if the analysis techniques applied in this research are automated it will be possible to calculate with high precision the exploit potential of a forest plantation and improve its management.

  19. Ecosystem Carbon Stock Influenced by Plantation Practice: Implications for Planting Forests as a Measure of Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chengzhang; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha−1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age (plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation. PMID:20523733

  20. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhang Liao

    Full Text Available Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C. We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests. Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age ( or = 25 years, stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen, tree species origin (native vs. exotic of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt, and study regions (tropic vs. temperate. The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

  1. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chengzhang; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Li, Bo

    2010-05-27

    Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1) in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age ( or = 25 years), stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen), tree species origin (native vs. exotic) of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

  2. 77 FR 53839 - Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; East McCloud Plantations Thinning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Thinning Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact... disclose the predicted effects of the East McCloud Plantations Thinning project, which would treat conifer... construction and addition of new roads and selected existing unauthorized routes to the Forest Transportation...

  3. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.

    2016-02-01

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  4. Divergent stakeholder views of corporate social responsibility in the Australian forest plantation sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Melissa; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-01-01

    Although the Australian forest plantation industry acknowledges that there is a role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in forest management, there is confusion as to what this constitutes in practice. This paper describes the conflicts between internal and external stakeholder views on CSR i

  5. Divergent stakeholder views of corporate social responsibility in the Australian forest plantation sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Melissa; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-01-01

    Although the Australian forest plantation industry acknowledges that there is a role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in forest management, there is confusion as to what this constitutes in practice. This paper describes the conflicts between internal and external stakeholder views on CSR

  6. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Aboveground Biomass of Hybrid Eucalyptus Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Latifah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle. Forests sequester carbon by conducting photosynthesis, which is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar. Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.  The present investigation was carried out to determine carbon sequestration potential of hybrid Eucalyptus. This study was conducted primarily to develop a prediction model of carbon storage capacity for plantation forest of hybrid Eucalyptus in Aek Nauli, Simalungun District, North Sumatera. Models were tested and assessed for statistical validity and accuracy in predicting biomass and carbon, based on determination coefficient (R and correlation coefficient (r, aggregative deviation percentage (AgD, and the average deviation percentage (AvD. The best general model to estimate the biomass of hybrid Eucalyptus was Y = 1351,09x^0,876. e^(0,094.  Results showed that hybrid Eucalyptus had an average above-ground biomass in year 0 (the land without the eucalyptus trees up to year 3 as large as 1.36, 11.56, 43.18, and 63.84 t ha. The carbon content of hybrid Eucalyptus were 0.61, 5.2, 19.43 t^(-1, and 28,73  t^(-1 C ha while the carbon sequestration potential were 2.23, 19.08, 71.31, and 105.43 t^(-1 CO  ha^(-1 respectively.Keywords: biomass, carbon stock, model, hybrid Eucalyptus, plantation forest

  7. Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

    2013-09-01

    Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment.

  8. Soil characteristics pattern with the depth as affected by forest conversion to rubber plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Agustina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was an attempt to study the impact of forest conversion to intensive rubber plantation impact on soil characteristics. We selected three landuses (forest, jungle rubber, and rubber plantation in Bukit Duabelas and Harapan landscape, Jambi, and each repeated three times. Soil profiles were described and sampled at every 10 cm layer to 200 cm depth. Soil bulk density, pH, basic cations content, and CEC were determined. The result showed that in three landuses, bulk density is relatively low in the upper 20 cm, but increased with depth. Clay content was lower in forest than other landuses, and increased with depth in forest and jungle rubber. In rubber plantation however, fine clay however was accumulated at 60-140 cm depth. The CEC was in accordance with clay content. There was no significant difference in soil pH between all landuses. In rubber plantation, soil pH was commonly higher in the surface, which probably due to liming. Sum of bases decreased with depth and tended to be generally lower in rubber plantation.

  9. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Extant forest plantations as a potential bridge between social needs and ecological management: a comparative case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson Priebe, M E; Müller, J G

    2013-11-15

    In the face of global deforestation, there is a challenge to balance the management of areas of high conservation concern and social interests. As a response to the growing human-environment interface and the use of forests for subsistence, plantations became a management tool to provide for wood harvesting during the 1970s. Some plantations were subsequently protected from harvest as conservation of all forests increased. Plantations that are now illegal to harvest can cause local animosities toward forest protection to increase and may also result in concentrated harvesting impacts on surrounding natural forests. In this article, we analyzed case studies of plantations from El Salvador and Niger. By utilizing distinctly disparate case studies, commonalities between the two can illuminate possible management lessons. In the comparison of El Salvador and Niger forest plantations we found the following commonalities: utilizing plantations for sustainable harvest has the to potential to reduce animosity between managers and stakeholders; plantations can serve as a risk-averse testing ground for novel managerial practices; and the sustainable harvest of plantations can reduce deforestation and impacts on biodiversity in natural remnant forests. We argue that extant plantations currently under illegal harvesting legislation could become the epicenters of social and ecological conservation through a management shift to sustainable harvesting. By focusing on these relics, managers could work with stakeholders to change unduly burdening restrictions and promote cooperation between conservationists and local populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Woody species diversity in forest plantations in a mountainous region of Beijing, China: effects of sampling scale and species selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Zhang

    Full Text Available The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr., planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer, while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation.

  12. A comparative assessment on regeneration status of indigenous woody plants in Eucalyptus grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiferaw Alem; Tadesse Woldemariam

    2009-01-01

    Diversity, density and species composition of naturally regenerated woody plants under Eucalyptus grandis plantation and the adjacent natural forest were investigated and compared. Twenty plots, with an area of 20 m× 20 m for each, were established in both of E. Grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest, independently. In each plot, species name, abundance, diameter and height were recorded. Numbers of seedling were collected in five sub-plots (4 m2) within each major plot. A total of 46 species in the plantation, and 52 species in the natural forest, which belongs to 36 families were recorded. The diversity of species (H') is 2.19 in the plantation and 2.74 in the natural forest. The density of understory woody plant was 3842 stems/ha in the plantation and 4122 stems/ha in the natural forest. The densities of seedlings in the natural forest and the plantation were 8101 stems/ha and 4151 stems/ha, respectively. High similarity of woody species composition was found between the natural forest and the plantation. The E. Grandis plantation was found favoring the regeneration and growth of Millitia ferruginia and Coffea arabica in a much better way than other underneath woody species.

  13. Introducing Intensively Managed Spruce Plantations in Swedish Forest Landscapes will Impair Biodiversity Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Gustafsson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to pressure to raise forest productivity in Sweden, there are proposals to apply more intensive forestry methods, but they could have potentially large effects on biodiversity. Here we report a compilation and evaluation of the extent and significance of such effects. We evaluated potential effects on biodiversity by introducing intensively fertilized Norway spruce plantations as a management option in Swedish forests with low conservation values on insects, vascular plants, lichens, bryophytes, and red-listed species. Due to a lack of specific studies addressing this question, we based the evaluation on a combination of available and appropriate empiric and anecdotic knowledge; literature data, and expert judgments largely available in species data bases. Our evaluations suggest that such forests will only harbor species that are common and widespread in conventionally managed stands and that species of conservation interest will be lacking, due to the low heterogeneity and light intensity of even-aged monocultures with dense canopies, short rotation times and low availability of coarse woody debris. Effects at the landscape scale are more difficult to evaluate, but will be dependent on the area utilized and the conservation value of sites used. We conclude that negative effects on biodiversity can be reduced if: (1 only land with the lowest conservational value is utilized; (2 plantations are spatially arranged to minimize fragmentation of the landscape; (3 the quality and quantity of key structural elements (e.g., coarse woody debris, old living trees and snags are maintained at the landscape level; and (4 management intensity is relaxed on other land. For effective implementation of these measures, legislative frameworks and policy instruments need to be adjusted and new models for planning and monitoring need to be developed.

  14. Biophysical Impacts of Tropical Land Transformation from Forest to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knohl, Alexander; Meijide, Ana; Fan, Yuanchao; Gunawan, Dodo; Hölscher, Dirk; June, Tania; Niu, Furong; Panferov, Oleg; Ringeler, Andre; Röll, Alexander; Sabajo, Clifton; Tiralla, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia currently experiences rapid and large-scale land-use changes resulting in forest loss and the expansion of cash crop plantations such as oil palm and rubber. Such land transformations are associated with changes in surface properties that affect biophysical processes influencing the atmosphere. Yet, the overall effect of such land transformations on the atmosphere at local and regional scale remains unclear. In our study, we combine measurements of microclimate, transpiration via sap-flux, surface energy fluxes via eddy covariance, surface temperature via remote sensing, land surface (CLM) and regional climate modeling (WRF) for Jambi Province in Indonesia. Our microclimatic measurements showed that air temperature within the canopy was on average 0.7-0.8°C higher in monoculture plantations (oil palm and rubber) compared to forest. Remote sensing analysis using MODIS and Landsat revealed a higher canopy surface temperature for oil palm plantations (+1.5°C) compared to forest, but only little differences for rubber plantations. Transpiration (T) and evapotranspiration (ET) as well as the contribution of T to ET of oil palm showed a strong age-dependent increase. The sensible to latent heat flux ratio decreased with age. Overall, rubber plantations showed the lowest transpirations rates (320 mm year-1), oil palm intermediate rates (414 mm year-1), and forest the highest rates (558 mm year-1) indicating substantial differences in water use. Despite the differences in water use and the higher within-canopy and surface temperatures of the plantations compared to the forest, there was only a minor effect of land transformation on the atmosphere at the regional scale (<0.2 °C), irrespectively of the large spatial extend of the transformation. In conclusion, our study shows a strong local scale biophysical impact affecting the conditions at the stand level, which is however mitigated in the atmosphere at the regional level.

  15. Eucalypt plantations reduce the diversity of macroinvertebrates in small forested streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero–Rivera, A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use patterns of a river basin have a significant effect on the structure and function of river ecosystems. Changes in the composition of riparian plant communities modify the quantity, quality and seasonality of leaf–litter inputs, determining changes in macroinvertebrate colonization and activity. The main goal of this study was to test the effect of land–use modifications, and particularly the impact of eucalypt plantations, on the macroinvertebrate communities of sixteen headwater streams. Macroinvertebrates were counted and identified to family level. Land uses were classified in five categories using aerial photography: native forest, eucalypt plantations, agricultural land, shrubland, and urban areas. We found that macroinvertebrate diversity increased with basin size and with the proportion of basin covered by native forest. This variable correlated negatively with the land occupied by eucalypt plantations. Macroinvertebrate richness diminished with the increase of land surface covered by eucalypt plantations, and a similar tendency was observed with diversity. Furthermore, streams whose drainage basin was mainly covered by Eucalyptus were more likely to dry up in summer. This observation adds to evidence from previous studies that concluded that fast–growing tree plantations affect hydric resources, an important ecosystem service in the context of global warming. To minimize the impact of industrial sylviculture, we suggest that maintaining and/or restoring riparian forests could mitigate the effects of intensive eucalypt monocultures.

  16. Obstacles for Plantation to Get FSC Certification in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of plantation plays a very important role in forestry industry development in China because of its unique advantages. However, the ecological and environmental issues urgently require sustainable plantation development. FSC certification for sustainable forest management balances the economic, environmental and social benefits and contributes to sustainable development of plantation. FSC certification for plantation is significantly important to China with the most plantation area in the wor...

  17. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    be differences in recruitment. The present study addresses post-dispersal seed predation, mainly of woody plants, as the factor limiting the recolonization of young oak plantations in southern Sweden. Our objectives were to investigate differences in dispersal and post-dispersal seed predation between first......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...... plantations on ex-arable land. There was a high seed predation of Crataegus monogyna, Sorbus aucuparia and Viburnum opulus on ex-arable land, while that of Frangula alnus and Sambucus racemosa was not associated with site placement and land-use history. Seed predation is probably a more important factor...

  18. Short Rotations in Forest Plantations Accelerate Virulence Evolution in Root-Rot Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Soularue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As disease outbreaks in forest plantations are causing concern worldwide, a clear understanding of the influence of silvicultural practices on the development of epidemics is still lacking. Importantly, silvicultural practices are likely to simultaneously affect epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogen populations. We propose a genetically explicit and individual-based model of virulence evolution in a root-rot pathogenic fungus spreading across forest landscapes, taking the Armillaria ostoyae–Pinus pinaster pathosystem as reference. We used the model to study the effects of rotation length on the evolution of virulence and the propagation of the fungus within a forest landscape composed of even-aged stands regularly altered by clear-cutting and thinning operations. The life cycle of the fungus modeled combines asexual and sexual reproduction modes, and also includes parasitic and saprotrophic phases. Moreover, the tree susceptibility to the pathogen is primarily determined by the age of the stand. Our simulations indicated that the shortest rotation length accelerated both the evolution of virulence and the development of the epidemics, whatever the genetic variability in the initial fungal population and the asexuality rate of the fungal species

  19. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE

  20. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE ben

  1. [Effect of pine plantations on soil arthropods in a high Andean forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gamboa, Alba Lucía; Ramos, Carolina; García, Mary Ruth

    2010-09-01

    One of the most common problems in the Colombian mountains has been the replacement of native vegetation by pine plantations. Soil arthropods are a fundamental component of forest ecosystem, since they participate in the organic matter fragmentation, previous to decomposition. This role is more valuable in high altitude environments, where low temperatures limit the dynamics of biological processes, where the effects of pine plantations on soil arthropods are still not well-known. In a remnant of high-andean forest (Neusa - Colombia) and a pine plantation of about 50 years-old, it was evaluated the composition, richness and abundance of arthropods at surface (S), organic horizon (O) and mineral horizon (A) of soil, to establish the differences associated to the soil use transformation. It was used "Pitfall" sampling to register the movement of the epigeous fauna, and extraction by funnel Berlese for determining the fauna density from O and A horizons. The Shannon and Simpson indexes estimated the diversity at different places and horizons, and the trophic structure of the community was evaluated. Overall, there were collected 38 306 individuals from forest and 17 386 individuals from pine plantation, mainly distributed in Collembola (42.4%), Acari (27%), Diptera (17.6%) and Coleoptera (4.6%). The most important differences were given in the surface, where the mobilization in forest (86 individuals/day) almost triplicates the one in pine plantation (33 individuals/day). The differences in composition were given in Collembola, Araneae, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Hymenoptera. The dynamics of richness and abundance along the year had significant high values in the native forest than in the pine plantation. The general trophic structure was dominated by saprophagous (75%), followed by predators (14%) and phytophagous (9%), but in two layers of the pine plantation soil (S and O) this structural pattern was not given. Based on the results, it was concluded that pine

  2. Large carbon-sink potential by Kyoto forests in Sweden - a case study on willow plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grelle, Achim [Dept. of Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Upp sala (Sweden)]. e-mail: Achim.Grelle@ekol.slu.se; Aronsson, Paer [Dept. of Crop Prod uction Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Weslien, Per; Klemedtsson, Leif [Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg Univ. ( SE); Lindroth, Anders [Geobiospheric Science Centre, Physical Geography and Eco systems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    Fluxes of CO{sub 2} were measured in a 75-ha short-rotation willow plantation at Enkoeping, central Sweden. The plantation was irrigated with wastewater for fertilization and water-filtering purposes. The harvested biomass was used locally for combined heat and power production. The plantation was a sink of ca. 8 tonnes C/ha during 2003, of which ca. 50% was estimated to be attributed to fertilization. Biomass increment by shoot growth was 5 tonnes C/ha during the same year. Below ground carbon allocation was estimated to 3 tonnes C/ha/yr by a model that relates carbon allocation to shoot growth. Thus, the ecosystem carbon balance was closed by these estimations. The carbon uptake by the willow plantation was 5.5 times as high compared to a normally managed spruce forest, but only half as high as from an experimental, well-managed willow plantation in the same region. This illustrates the vast potential of short-rotation willow plantations for CO{sub 2} uptake from the atmosphere.

  3. Soil Biological Changes for a Natural Forest and Two Plantations in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Shui; YANG Yu-Sheng; XIE Jin-Sheng; LI Ling; GAO Ren

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of natural forests into pure plantation forests is a common management practice in subtropical China.To evaluate the effects of forest conversion on soil fertility, microbe numbers and enzyme activities in topsoils (0-10 cm)were quantified in two 33-year-old monoculture plantations of Castanopsis kawakamii Hayata (CK) and Cunninghamia lanceolata Lamb. (Chinese fir) (CF), and compared to a neighboring relict natural C. kawakamii forest (NF), in Sanming,Fujian. Five soil samples were collected once each in January, April, July, September and November in 2000 in each forest for laboratory analysis. Over the sampling year, there were significant differences for bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes between forests and between seasons (P < 0.05). The largest bacteria and fungi populations were in NF, while CF contained the greatest number of actinomycetes. There were also significant differences (P < 0.05) with microbial respiration for forests and seasons. Additionally, compared with NF, urease and acid phosphatase were significantly lower (P < 0.05)in CK and CF. Also, the correlations of soil hydrolysable N and available P to soil microbial and enzymatic activities were highly significant (P < 0.01). Thus, to alter the traditional Chinese fir monoculture so as to mimic the natural forest conditions, managing mixed stands of Chinese fir and broadleaf trees or conducting crop rotation of conifers and broadleaf trees as well as minimizing forest disturbances like clear-cutting, slash burning and soil preparing, could be utilized.

  4. Debris flow hazards in plantation forests in New Zealand: what we know and need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Chris; Basher, Les; Marden, Michael; Harrison, Duncan; Heaphy, Marie

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, extensive storm-induced landsliding has mobilised woody residue during or after plantation forest harvesting and caused debris flows that have affected houses, roads and bridges downstream of forests in several parts of New Zealand. In part, this relates to increasing levels of harvesting activity as many plantations originally planted for soil conservation purposes have reached merchantable size but could also be in response to an increasing incidence of high intensity storms affecting parts of New Zealand. In several cases these incidents have featured on national television and in newspaper headlines with members of the public complaining about the consequences of forestry operations on steep erodible hill country. Forestry companies have responded by developing more detailed environmental impact assessment and erosion and sediment control planning approaches, and by assisting with clean-up operations. Similarly regional councils (the regulatory bodies) have looked more closely at the environmental impacts of forest harvesting and some have modified erosion and sediment control guidelines, previously largely applied to urban earthworks, for forestry application. As part of a wider research programme that aims to raise the profitability and improve the sustainability of New Zealand's forestry sector, we collected information from both forestry companies and regional and unitary councils via survey and interviews to determine the size and scope of the issue, how individual forest companies were identifying and managing the risk, and to determine if national threshold conditions or standards could be established. Even with risk management and good management practices in place, it will not be possible to entirely avoid slope failures and debris flows following harvesting in the future. Thus the need to determine a national level of understanding of what can and can't be managed for is important to allow the development of risk management approaches

  5. Carbon sequestration in the trees, products and soils of forest plantations: an analysis using UK examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, R C; Cannell, M G

    1992-07-01

    A carbon-flow model for managed forest plantations was used to estimate carbon storage in UK plantations differing in Yield Class (growth rate), thinning regime and species characteristics. Time-averaged, total carbon storage (at equilibrium) was generally in the range 40-80 Mg C ha(-1) in trees, 15-25 Mg C ha(-1) in above- and belowground litter, 70-90 Mg C ha(-1) in soil organic matter and 20-40 Mg C ha(-1) in wood products (assuming product lifetime equalled rotation length). The rate of carbon storage during the first rotation in most plantations was in the range 2-5 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1).A sensitivity analysis revealed the following processes to be both uncertain and critical: the fraction of total woody biomass in branches and roots; litter and soil organic matter decomposition rates; and rates of fine root turnover. Other variables, including the time to canopy closure and the possibility of accelerated decomposition after harvest, were less critical. The lifetime of wood products was not critical to total carbon storage because wood products formed only a modest fraction of the total.The average increase in total carbon storage in the tree-soil-product system per unit increase in Yield Class (m(3) ha(-1) year(-1)) for unthinned Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. plantations was 5.6 Mg C ha(-1). Increasing the Yield Class from 6 to 24 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) increased the rate of carbon storage in the first rotation from 2.5 to 5.6 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in unthinned plantations. Thinning reduced total carbon storage in P. sitchensis plantations by about 15%, and is likely to reduce carbon storage in all plantation types.If the objective is to store carbon rapidly in the short term and achieve high carbon storage in the long term, Populus plantations growing on fertile land (2.7 m spacing, 26-year rotations, Yield Class 12) were the best option examined. If the objective is to achieve high carbon storage in the medium term (50 years) without regard to the initial rate

  6. New species of Mycosphaerella from Myrtaceae in plantations and native forests in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Angus J; Burgess, Treena I; Beilharz, Vyrna; Wingfield, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The majority of Mycosphaerella species from eucalypts (Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora) in Australia have been recorded only from trees growing in plantations. This illustrates a bias in research in the past two decades toward commercial enterprise, and it emphasises a lack of understanding of the occurrence of these important fungi under natural conditions. Surveys of foliar fungi in native forests in eastern Australia, as well as adjacent plantations, thus have been initiated in recent years. In this study we describe four new species of Mycosphaerella from Eucalyptus spp. as well as other Myrtaceae. Mycosphaerella tumulosa sp. nov. (anamorph: Pseudocercospora sp.) was found on more than seven species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia in native forests and plantations in northeastern New South Wales and southeastern Queensland and appears to be relatively common, although not damaging to these trees. Mycosphaerella multiseptata sp. nov. was recorded from several locations on species of Angophora in native forests and amenity plantings. Mycosphaerella pseudovespa sp. nov. was found in one location in native forest on E. biturbinata. The first species of Mycosphaerella to be described from Syncarpia, M. syncarpiae sp. nov., was found in native forests in numerous locations from Sydney through to northeastern New South Wales and appears to be relatively common.

  7. Biofuel plantations on forested lands: double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Finn; Beukema, Hendrien; Burgess, Neil D; Parish, Faizal; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Phalan, Ben; Reijnders, Lucas; Struebig, Matthew; Fitzherbert, Emily B

    2009-04-01

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the impact of the spread of oil-palm plantations on greenhouse gas emission and biodiversity. We assessed changes in carbon stocks with changing land use and compared this with the amount of fossil-fuel carbon emission avoided through its replacement by biofuel carbon. We estimated it would take between 75 and 93 years for the carbon emissions saved through use of biofuel to compensate for the carbon lost through forest conversion, depending on how the forest was cleared. If the original habitat was peatland, carbon balance would take more than 600 years. Conversely, planting oil palms on degraded grassland would lead to a net removal of carbon within 10 years. These estimates have associated uncertainty, but their magnitude and relative proportions seem credible. We carried out a meta-analysis of published faunal studies that compared forest with oil palm. We found that plantations supported species-poor communities containing few forest species. Because no published data on flora were available, we present results from our sampling of plants in oil palm and forest plots in Indonesia. Although the species richness of pteridophytes was higher in plantations, they held few forest species. Trees, lianas, epiphytic orchids, and indigenous palms were wholly absent from oil-palm plantations. The majority of individual plants and animals in oil-palm plantations belonged to a small number of generalist species of low conservation concern. As countries strive to meet obligations to reduce carbon emissions under one international agreement (Kyoto Protocol), they may not only fail to meet their obligations under another (Convention on Biological Diversity) but may actually hasten

  8. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) pesticide policy and integrated pest management in certified tropical plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Pedro Guilherme; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo; Lawson, Simon A

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was the first non-governmental organization composed of multi-stakeholders to ensure the social, environmental, and economic sustainability of forest resources. FSC prohibits certain chemicals and active ingredients in certified forest plantations. A company seeking certification must discontinue use of products so listed and many face problems to comply with these constraints. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of certification on pest management from the perspective of Brazilian private forestry sector. Ninety-three percent of Brazilian FSC-certified forest companies rated leaf-cutting ants as "very important" pests. Chemical control was the most important management technique used and considered very important by 82 % of respondents. The main chemical used to control leaf-cutting ants, sulfluramid, is in the derogation process and was classified as very important by 96.5 % of the certified companies. Certified companies were generally satisfied in relation to FSC certification and the integrated management of forest pests, but 27.6 % agreed that the prohibitions of pesticides for leaf-cutting ant and termite control could be considered as a non-tariff barrier on high-productivity Brazilian forest plantations. FSC forest certification has encouraged the implementation of more sustainable techniques and decisions in pest management in forest plantations in Brazil. The prohibition on pesticides like sulfluramid and the use of alternatives without the same efficiency will result in pest mismanagement, production losses, and higher costs. This work has shown that the application of global rules for sustainable forest management needs to adapt to each local reality.

  9. Proximity to forests drives bird conservation value of coffee plantations: implications for certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mandyam Osuri; Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Das, Arundhati

    2008-10-01

    Widespread loss of primary habitat in the tropics has led to increased interest in production landscapes for biodiversity conservation. In the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India, shade coffee plantations are located in close proximity to sites of high conservation value: protected and unprotected forests. Coffee is grown here under a tree canopy that may be dominated by native tree species or by nonnative species, particularly silver oak (Grevillea robusta). We investigated the influence of properties at the local scale and the landscape scale in determining bird communities in coffee plantations, with particular emphasis on species of conservation priority. We used systematic point counts in 11 coffee plantation sites and analyzed data in a randomized linear modeling framework that addressed spatial autocorrelation. Greater proportion of silver oak at the local scale and distance to contiguous forests at the landscape scale were implicated as factors most strongly driving declines in bird species richness and abundance, while increased basal area of native tree species, a local-scale variable, was frequently related to increased bird species richness and abundance. The influence of local-scale variables increased at greater distances from the forest. Distance to forests emerged as the strongest predictor of declines in restricted-range species, with 92% reduction in the abundance of two commonly encountered restricted-range species (Pompadour Green Pigeon and Yellow-browed Bulbul) and a 43% reduction in richness of bird species restricted to Indian hill forests within 8 km of forests. Increase in proportion of silver oak from 33% to 55% was associated with 91% reduction in the abundance of one commonly encountered restricted-range species (Crimson-fronted Barbet). One conservation strategy is providing incentives to grow coffee in a biodiversity-friendly manner. One implication of our study is that plantations located at varying distances to the forest

  10. Conversion of tropical forests to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations impacts nutrient leaching losses and nutrient retention efficiency in highly weathered soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Syahrul; Corre, Marife D.; Matson, Amanda L.; Schulte-Bisping, Hubert; Rahayu Utami, Sri; van Straaten, Oliver; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2017-04-01

    We examined the impact of forest conversion to rubber and oil palm plantations on nutrient leaching and nutrient retention efficiency in the soil. In Jambi province, Indonesia, we selected two landscapes with highly weathered Acrisol soils, which differed in texture: loam and clay. Within each landscape, we compared two reference land uses (lowland forest and jungle rubber, defined as rubber trees interspersed in secondary forest) with two converted land uses (smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations). The first three land uses were represented by four replicate sites and the oil palm by three sites within each landscape. We measured leaching losses using suction cup lysimeters, sampled biweekly to monthly from February to December 2013. In these highly weathered soils, texture controlled nutrient- and water-holding capacity and leaching losses. The clay Acrisol reference land uses had larger soil cation exchange capacity, base saturation and soil organic C than those in the loam Acrisol; this resulted in lower leaching of dissolved N and base cations (P=0.01-0.06) and in higher retention efficiency of N and base cations in the clay soils (Poil palm plantations resulted in increased leaching of dissolved N, organic C and base cation (Poil palm plantations had decreased soil solution pH and increased dissolved Al. The unfertilized rubber plantations had low nutrient leaching fluxes brought about by its reduced soil fertility. Our results highlight the importance of developing soil management practices to maintain soil fertility in unfertilized rubber plantations and to increase nutrient retention efficiency in fertilized oil palm plantations in order to minimize the reductions of ecosystem provisioning services (e.g., soil fertility and water quality) in these converted landscapes.

  11. ASSESSING PASSIVE RESTORATION OF AN ATLANTIC FOREST SITE FOLLOWING A Cupressus lusitanica MILL. PLANTATION CLEARCUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Cielo-Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus lusitanica has a relatively low potential for fostering colonization of native species beneath the forest canopy. However, following the clearcut of a Cupressus lusitanica plantation in the State Forest of Avaré (SFA, southeastern Brazil, a vigorous regeneration of Atlantic forest tree and shrub species was observed. We evaluated the passive restoration of this site by comparing its regenerating vegetation to the vegetation established in man-made gaps in Atlantic forest in the State Park of Cantareira (SPC, southeastern Brazil. The frequency distribution of dispersal syndromes for species and the rate of reduction in abundance of pioneer species in a rank/abundance plot did not differ between the two areas. The rarefaction curves for species richness and diversity of the SPC fall below the corresponding curves of the SFA. The proportions of non-pioneer species and of individuals of non-pioneer species were greater in the SFA. The frequency distribution of dispersal syndromes for individuals differed between the two areas due mainly to a more conspicuous predominance of zoochory in the SFA. The rate of reduction in abundance of non-pioneer species in a rank/abundance plot was smaller in the SFA. We concluded that passive restoration may successfully recover native vegetation attributes following the clearcut of forest plantations without conspicuous regeneration of native species beneath the forest canopy. However, this phenomenon may be influenced by particular properties of the forest species, logging practices and faunal seed dispersal integrity.

  12. Eco-exergy and emergy based self-organization of three forest plantations in lower subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bio-thermodynamic structures of a mixed native species plantation, a conifer plantation and an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China were quantified over a period of 15 years based on eco-exergy methods. The efficiencies of structural development and maintenance were qu...

  13. Eco-exergy and emergy based self-organization of three forest plantations in lower subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bio-thermodynamic structures of a mixed native species plantation, a conifer plantation and an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China were quantified over a period of 15 years based on eco-exergy methods. The efficiencies of structural development and maintenance were qu...

  14. DAMPAK PEMBANGUNAN HUTAN TANAMAN INDUSTRI Acacia crassicarpa DI LAHAN GAMBUT TERHADAP TINGKAT KEMATANGAN DAN LAJU PENURUNAN PERMUKAAN TANAH (The Impact of Development of Industrial Plantation Forest Acacia crassicarpa in Peatland Towards the Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Lisnawati

    2015-07-01

    with a decrease in the depth of water table which then result in a change of the original ecosystem. Long-term land reclamation activities for HTI Acacia crassicarpa is supposed to give a negative impact on changes in the peat soil characteristics such as level of maturity and the rate of decrease in surface peat soil (subsidence. Studies on the impact of HTI development in peat areas particularly on the level of maturity and rate of subsidence need to be done in order to provide information regarding the carrying capacity of the land exsisting condition. This study aims at evaluating the maturity level of the peat either vertically (based on the depth of peat or horizontally (based on the distance from the lips of the canal and determining the rate of subsidence as a result of reclamation of peatlands into plantations A. crassicarpa. The study was conducted in PT. AA, Rasau Kuning District, Siak, Riau. Research plots were placed in a 100 m long transects that were perpendicular to the tertiary canal. There are 12 plots and, transects consist of 3 observation points, so the total observation point is 36 points. Parameters measured were the dynamics of groundwater depth, the value of peat fiber content and the rate of subsidence. The results show that the impact of changes in the water table depth of peat soil in the study area only affects the level of maturity of peat at depths less than 2 m, whereas the tertiary canals distance of 125 m did not significantly affect the level of maturity of peat. At a depth of less than 2 m of peat maturity level is higher than the layer below it. A. crassicarpa plantation development in the study area leads to subsidence rate by an average of 5.5 cm / year.

  15. Wood dimensions and value in the Austrian pine plantations in Forest Estate "Sombor"-Forest Unit "Subotica"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship and interaction between quantitative (number and dimensions of trees and value indicators in Austrian pine plantations were researched in Forest Management Unit „Subotičke Šume” (Forest Estate „Sombor” - FA „Subotica”. As the measurement of quantitative elements is more simple, their effect on wood value can be used as a rather reliable support in the value estimation of standing trees. The analysis of the research results shows that there is a strong inter-relationship of the study elements, so they can be a good foundation for the estimation of standing timber value in artificial Austrian pine plantations at the given site.

  16. Natural Forest Biomass Estimation Based on Plantation Information Using PALSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Sawada, Haruo

    2014-01-01

    Forests play a vital role in terrestrial carbon cycling; therefore, monitoring forest biomass at local to global scales has become a challenging issue in the context of climate change. In this study, we investigated the backscattering properties of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data in cashew and rubber plantation areas of Cambodia. The PALSAR backscattering coefficient (σ0) had different responses in the two plantation types because of differences in biophysical parameters. The PALSAR σ0 showed a higher correlation with field-based measurements and lower saturation in cashew plants compared with rubber plants. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models based on field-based biomass of cashew (C-MLR) and rubber (R-MLR) plants with PALSAR σ0 were created. These MLR models were used to estimate natural forest biomass in Cambodia. The cashew plant-based MLR model (C-MLR) produced better results than the rubber plant-based MLR model (R-MLR). The C-MLR-estimated natural forest biomass was validated using forest inventory data for natural forests in Cambodia. The validation results showed a strong correlation (R2 = 0.64) between C-MLR-estimated natural forest biomass and field-based biomass, with RMSE  = 23.2 Mg/ha in deciduous forests. In high-biomass regions, such as dense evergreen forests, this model had a weaker correlation because of the high biomass and the multiple-story tree structure of evergreen forests, which caused saturation of the PALSAR signal. PMID:24465908

  17. Soil changes induced by rubber and tea plantation establishment: comparison with tropical rain forest soil in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Ma, Youxin; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-11-01

    Over the past thirty years, Xishuangbanna in Southwestern China has seen dramatic changes in land use where large areas of tropical forest and fallow land have been converted to rubber and tea plantations. In this study we evaluated the effects of land use and slope on soil properties in seven common disturbed and undisturbed land-types. Results indicated that all soils were acidic, with pH values significantly higher in the 3- and 28-year-old rubber plantations. The tropical forests had the lowest bulk densities, especially significantly lower from the top 10 cm of soil, and highest soil organic matter concentrations. Soil moisture content at topsoil was highest in the mature rubber plantation. Soils in the tropical forests and abandoned cultivated land had inorganic N (IN) concentrations approximately equal in NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N. However, soil IN pools were dominated by NH(4) (+)-N in the rubber and tea plantations. This trend suggests that conversion of tropical forest to rubber and tea plantations increases NH(4) (+)-N concentration and decreases NO(3) (-)-N concentration, with the most pronounced effect in plantations that are more frequently fertilized. Soil moisture content, IN, NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentrations within all sites were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Significant differences in the soil moisture content, and IN, NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentration was detected for both land uses and sampling season effects, as well as interactions. Higher concentrations of NH(4) (+)-N were measured at the upper slopes of all sites, but NO(3) (-)-N concentrations were highest at the lower slope in the rubber plantations and lowest at the lower slopes at all other. Thus, the conversion of tropical forests to rubber and tea plantations can have a profound effect on soil NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentrations. Options for improved soil management in plantations are discussed.

  18. Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmi, Aiman Hanis; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2011-11-02

    A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation) stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests). Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, Odontotermes sarawakensis Parrhinotermes aequalis, Macrotermes malaccensis and Hospitalitermes hospitalis. A total of 289 Araucaria trees were inspected for signs of termite attack. Termite infestation of trees was determined mainly by the presence of mud on the trunk, but particularly around their butts at ground line. The most dominant termite species discovered infesting the Araucaria trees was Coptotermes curvignathus; accountable for 74% of all infestations. Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus and Odontotermes sarawakensis were commonly found infesting dead trees and/or tree stumps. Approximately 21.5% of all Araucaria trees in the plantation forest at Teluk Bahang were infested by termites.

  19. Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hassan Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP, Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests. Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, Odontotermes sarawakensis Parrhinotermes aequalis, Macrotermes malaccensis and Hospitalitermes hospitalis. A total of 289 Araucaria trees were inspected for signs of termite attack. Termite infestation of trees was determined mainly by the presence of mud on the trunk, but particularly around their butts at ground line. The most dominant termite species discovered infesting the Araucaria trees was Coptotermes curvignathus; accountable for 74% of all infestations. Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus and Odontotermes sarawakensis were commonly found infesting dead trees and/or tree stumps. Approximately 21.5% of all Araucaria trees in the plantation forest at Teluk Bahang were infested by termites.

  20. Gene flow among different taxonomic units: evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers in Cedrus plantation forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fady, B; Lefèvre, F; Reynaud, M; Vendramin, G G; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, M; Anzidei, M; Pastorelli, R; Savouré, A; Bariteau, M

    2003-10-01

    Hybridization and introgression are important natural evolutionary processes that can be successfully investigated using molecular markers and open- and controlled-pollinated progeny. In this study, we collected open-pollinated seeds from Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus libani and C. libani x C. atlantica hybrids from three French-plantation forests. We also used pollen from C. libani and Cedrus brevifolia to pollinate C. atlantica trees. The progeny were analyzed using three different types of molecular markers: RAPDs, AFLPs and cpSSRs. Chloroplast DNA was found to be paternally inherited in Cedrus from the progeny of controlled-crosses. Heteroplasmy, although possible, could not be undoubtedly detected. There was no indication of strong reproductive isolating barriers among the three Mediterranean Cedrus taxa. Gene flow between C. atlantica and C. libani accounted for 67 to 81% of viable open-pollinated seedlings in two plantation forests. We propose that Mediterranean Cedrus taxa should be considered as units of a single collective species comprising two regional groups, North Africa and the Middle East. We recommend the use of cpSSRs for monitoring gene flow between taxa in plantation forests, especially in areas where garden specimens of one species are planted in the vicinity of selected seed-stands and gene-conservation reserves of another species.

  1. Aboveground biomass, wood volume, nutrient stocks and leaf litter in novel forests compared to native forests and tree plantations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo; O. Abelleira Martínez; J. Fonseca da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The article presents comparative data for aboveground biomass, wood volume, nutirent stocks (N, P, K) and leaf litter in different types of forests in Puerto Rico. The aim of the study is to assess how novel forests of Castilla elastica, Panama Rubber Tree, and Spathodea campanulata, African Tulip Tree, compare with tree plantations and native historical forests (both...

  2. Pathological Condition of Trees and Shrubs of Forest Plantations in the Middle and Lower Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolmukidi Svetlana Valeryevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The materials on the study of the characteristics of pathologies common in the protective forest plantations are presented. The basic factors of deterioration of woody species pathological conditions are identified. The most common and harmful diseases of the major tree species of the Lower and Middle Volga region are determined. The comparative tolerance of systematic structure of the main forest-forming species to diseases are revealed. The complex research of modern pathological condition of trees and shrubs agroforestry plantations in the steppe and dry steppe regions of Lower and Middle Volga is carried out. Arid climate and harsh growing conditions contribute to the weakening of the stability of trees and shrubs and the deterioration of the pathological state plantations. Abnormal weather conditions (high temperatures, insufficiency or lack of precipitation, strong winds, hot winds, careless use of fire were the reason of forest plantations death. The varying degrees of resistance to pathogens among systematic composition rocks of artificial planting: elm, poplar, birch, ash, maple and others are revealed. The diseases of various etiologies, aggressiveness and severity leading to partial or complete loss of epiphytotics are identified. The most harmful are the vascular pathology (Dutch elm disease, Verticillium of maple, necrotic and cancerous disease of poplar, rot, bacterial diseases. The Middle Volga region Submucusracemosa is the most immune to pathogens, but Ribesaureum is quite resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew, meanwhile it is subject to Verticillium wilt (Fungi of the genus Verticillium. In the Lower Volga region Cotinuscoggygria and Loniceratatarica are resistant to pathogens. Ribesaureum is subject to anthracnose and Verticillium wilt, on the branches of shadberry necrosis sore meets. Leaves of pea tree suffer from Septoria and rust, branch necrosis and cancer. The use of more sustainable, fast-growing species, hybrids

  3. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie;

    2015-01-01

    species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this could......Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass...... and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and determined...

  4. Nutrient leaching losses in lowland forests converted to oil palm and rubber plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Syahrul; Corre, Marife D.; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, Sumatra, Indonesia is experiencing rapid expansion of oil palm and rubber plantations by conversion of rainforest. This is evident from the 2.9 thousand km2 decrease in forest area in this region over the last 15 years. Such rapid land-use change necessitates assessment of its environmental impacts. Our study was aimed to assess the impact of forest conversion to oil palm and rubber plantations on nutrient leaching losses. Land-use conversion increases nutrient leaching losses due to changes in vegetation litter input, rooting depth, nutrient cycling and management (e.g. fertilization) practices. Our study area was in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We selected two soil landscapes in this region: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each soil landscape, we investigated four land-use systems: lowland secondary rainforest, secondary forest with regenerating rubber (referred here as jungle rubber), rubber (7-17 years old) and oil palm plantations (9-16 years old). Each land use in each soil landscape was represented by four sites as replicates, totaling to 32 sites. We measured leaching losses using suction lysimeters installed at 1.5-m soil depth, which was well below the rooting depth, with bi-weekly to monthly sampling from February to December 2013. In general, the loam Acrisol landscape, particularly the forest and oil palm plantations, had lower soil solution pH and higher leaching fluxes of dissolved organic N, Na, Ca, Mg, total Al, total S and Cl than the clay Acrisol of the same land uses (all P ≤ 0.05). Among land uses in the loam Acrisol landscape, oil palm had lower soil solution pH and higher leaching fluxes of NH4+, NO3-, dissolved organic C, total P, total S and Cl than rubber plantation whereas forest and jungle rubber showed intermediate fluxes (all P ≤ 0.05, except P ≤ 0.09 for total P); oil palm had also higher Na, Ca, Mg and total Al leaching fluxes than all the other land uses (all P ≤ 0.05, except P ≤ 0.09 for Na

  5. Overview of Rattan Plantation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Rattans are climbing spiny plants that are regarded as an important kind of commercial non-timber forest products. Rattan resources are dwindling rapidly due to over-exploitation in the wild and the loss of tropical forest cover. These threaten the sustainable utilization of rattan resources and long-term survival of the rattan industry. The development of rattan plantation and the improvement of management technique are hence important. The major issues on plantation management are reviewed in this pap...

  6. Seed dispersal turns an experimental plantation on degraded land into a novel forest in urban northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Abelleira; Elvia J. Meléndez Ackerman; Diana García Montiel; John A. Parrotta

    2015-01-01

    Planting tree species with desirable traits may catalyze forest regeneration in increasingly common degraded lands by restoring soil properties and attracting seed dispersers. We sampled forest regeneration in an experimental plantation of Albizia lebbek, an introduced N-fixing species, on a degraded pasture in northern Puerto Rico, 27 years after its establishment. We...

  7. Tigers need cover: multi-scale occupancy study of the big cat in Sumatran forest and plantation landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarto Sunarto

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 is generally known as a forest-dependent animal. With large-scale conversion of forests into plantations, however, it is crucial for restoration efforts to understand to what extent tigers use modified habitats. We investigated tiger-habitat relationships at 2 spatial scales: occupancy across the landscape and habitat use within the home range. Across major landcover types in central Sumatra, we conducted systematic detection, non-detection sign surveys in 47, 17×17 km grid cells. Within each cell, we surveyed 40, 1-km transects and recorded tiger detections and habitat variables in 100 m segments totaling 1,857 km surveyed. We found that tigers strongly preferred forest and used plantations of acacia and oilpalm, far less than their availability. Tiger probability of occupancy covaried positively and strongly with altitude, positively with forest area, and negatively with distance-to-forest centroids. At the fine scale, probability of habitat use by tigers across landcover types covaried positively and strongly with understory cover and altitude, and negatively and strongly with human settlement. Within forest areas, tigers strongly preferred sites that are farther from water bodies, higher in altitude, farther from edge, and closer to centroid of large forest block; and strongly preferred sites with thicker understory cover, lower level of disturbance, higher altitude, and steeper slope. These results indicate that to thrive, tigers depend on the existence of large contiguous forest blocks, and that with adjustments in plantation management, tigers could use mosaics of plantations (as additional roaming zones, riparian forests (as corridors and smaller forest patches (as stepping stones, potentially maintaining a metapopulation structure in fragmented landscapes. This study highlights the importance of a multi-spatial scale analysis and provides crucial

  8. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  9. [Nutrient content in litterfall and its translocation in plantation forests in south China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Lin, Y; Peng, S

    2000-06-01

    The amounts of litterfall, nutrient content in it and leaves of five plantation forests in south China were determined. The order of litterfall biomass was in sequence of Acacia mangium (11.1 t.hm-2) > Pinus elliotii (7.3 t.hm-2) > Schima superba (6.5 t.hm-2) > Acacia auriculaiformis (4.8 t.hm-2) > Eucalyptus citriodora (2.6 t.hm-2). A. mangium returned soil much more nutrient to soil through litterfall than other forests did. N, P and K were largely translocated from senescing leaves for all the five forests, and especially for A. mangium. Nutrient translocated varied greatly with seasons. The translocation of other elements was not definite.

  10. The Effects of Climate Change on the Development of Tree Plantations for Biodiesel Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Dai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from woody oil plants is a promising form of renewable energy but a combination of tree plantations’ long cultivation time and rapid climate change may put large-scale production at risk. If plantations are located in future-unsuitable places, plantations may fail or yield may be poor, then significant financial, labor, and land resources invested in planting programs will be wasted. Incorporating climate change information into the planning and management of forest-based biodiesel production therefore can increase its chances of success. However, species distribution models, the main tool used to predict the influence of future climate–species distribution modeling, often contain considerable uncertainties. In this study we evaluated how these uncertainties could affect the assessment of climate suitability of the long-term development plans for forest-based biodiesel in China by using Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn as an example. The results showed that only between 59% and 75% of the planned growing areas were projected suitable habitats for the species, depending on the set-up of simulation. Our results showed the necessity for explicitly addressing the uncertainty of species distribution modeling when using it to inform forest-based bioenergy planning. We also recommend the growing area specified in China’s national development plan be modified to lower the risk associated with climate change.

  11. Recovery time of soil carbon pools of conversional Chinese fir plantations from broadleaved forests in subtropical regions, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Chi; Wang, Hua; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Wang, Si-Long

    2017-06-01

    The conversion from natural forest to plantation has been widely applied, with consequences on ecosystem carbon pool. The experimental results of changes of soil carbon stocks after forest conversion are often contradictory. Moreover, the recovery time of soil carbon stocks after forest conversion varies among different sites. To examine the changes of soil carbon stocks following the forest conversions in the long-term and to estimate the recovery time, we selected 116 subtropical forests, including 29 pair-wise replicates for evergreen broadleaved forests (EBF, 40-100-year-old), young Chinese fir plantations (Cunninghamia lanceolata) (YCP, 4-8-year-old), middle-aged Chinese fir plantations (MACP, 13-20-year-old), and mature Chinese fir plantations (MCP, 23-32-year-old), and estimated soil carbon stocks. Soil carbon stocks of YCP and MACP decreased in average 12.5 and 28.7Mgha(-1) compared with EBF, and showed no variation between MCP and EBF. Soil carbon stocks were positively correlated to soil total nitrogen stocks and C:N ratio. Our results showed that the forest conversions didn't cause a variation of soil carbon stocks in the long-term, although there was a short-term decline after conversion. The recovery time of soil carbon stock is 27years. These results indicate that the conversion from evergreen broadleaved forests to Chinese fir plantations in subtropical region of China causes soil carbon release in early stage, but has no effect on soil carbon stocks in the long-term. Prolonging the rotation period (>27years) would offset the adverse effects of the forest conversion on soil carbon stocks, and be critical in alleviating global climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Contrasting responses to drought of forest floor CO2 efflux in a loblolly pine plantation and a nearby Oak-Hickory forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Palmroth; Chris A. Maier; Heather R. McCarthy; A. C. Oishi; H. S. Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Gabrial G. Katul; Ram Oren

    2005-01-01

    Forest floor C02 efflux (Fff) depends on vegetation type, climate, and soil physical properties. We assessed the effects of biological factors on Fff by comparing a maturing pine plantation (PP) and a nearby mature Oak-Hickory-type hardwood forest (HW). Fff was measured...

  13. Tracking deforestation, tree plantation expansion, and forest regrowth in a Costa Rican biological corridor using a Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, M. E.; Sesnie, S.; Arroyo, J.; Walker, W. S.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wood demand and voluntary carbon markets have driven a rapid global expansion in tropical tree plantations. To effectively monitor this expansion, new remote sensing-based methods are needed that can overcome difficulties in distinguishing between tree plantations, mature forests, and forest regrowth using low-cost moderate-resolution (10-100 m) satellite sensors. The objective of this study was to accurately map changes in the area of these three forest types in northern Costa Rica using Landsat imagery spanning a 25 year period (1986-2011). We mapped forest and tree plantation cover in a fragmented tropical landscape spanning approximately 2500 km2: the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC). In 1996, the Costa Rican government banned deforestation country-wide and concentrated payments for environmental services (PES) within Biological Corridors to promote native tree plantations and protect forests on private land. To evaluate this program's long-term success, we first tracked forest cover change over time and then distinguished between spectrally-similar forest types. We classified five dates (1986, 1996, 2001, 2005, and 2011) of multispectral Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (30 m resolution). Using Random Forests, we classified each single-date Landsat image first to forest/nonforest and then to thirteen land cover classes (Figures 1-3). To improve mapping of reforestation, final land cover classification was constrained by forest masks integrated over the time series. Training and validation data (1932 polygons covering 2185 ha) were collected using field data and aerial photography; final accuracy analysis was conducted by withholding twenty bootstrapped samples of the training data. Overall mean change-detection accuracy for the forest mask time series was 95.1% (Kappa= 0.93) and the overall land cover accuracy for all maps was greater than 80%. For tree plantations, the inclusion of multitemporal data improved classification accuracy over single

  14. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  15. [Biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes under six types of young coniferous forest plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weikai; Lei, Bo; Leng, Li

    2005-10-01

    This paper studied the biomass and carbon storage of the ground bryophytes under young Picea balfouriana (P), Pinus tabulaeformis (Y), Pinus armandii (H), Larix kaempferi (L), Picea balfouriana-Pinus tabulaeformis (P-Y), and Pinus tabulaeformis-Pinus armandii (Y-H) forest plantations in the upper reach of Minjiang River, Sichuan Province. The results showed that total biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes were relatively low, being 3.11 - 460.36 kg x hm(-2) and 1.12 +/- 0.03 x 168.95 +/- 0.92 kg x hm(-2), respectively. On plot level, only the bryophyte biomass between forest P and others, and the carbon storage between forest L and others were significantly different. The ground bryophyte had the highest biomass and carbon storage under forest P, while the lowest ones under forest H. Comprehensive analysis suggested that forest type and its structural feature might be the important factors determining the biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes, and thinning was an important measure to improve ground bryophyte growth and biomass production.

  16. [Biogeochemical cycles in natural forest and conifer plantations in the high mountains of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan Diego; González, María Isabel; Gallardo, Juan Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are two important processes in forest ecosystems, since they provide the main organic matter input to soil and regulate nutrient cycling. With the aim to study these processes, litterfall, standing litter and nutrient return were studied for three years in an oak forest (Quercus humboldtii), pine (Pinus patula) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantations, located in highlands of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Evaluation methods included: fine litter collection at fortnightly intervals using litter traps; the litter layer samples at the end of each sampling year and chemical analyses of both litterfall and standing litter. Fine litter fall observed was similar in oak forest (7.5 Mg ha/y) and in pine (7.8 Mg ha/y), but very low in cypress (3.5 Mg ha/y). Litter standing was 1.76, 1.73 and 1.3 Mg ha/y in oak, pine and cypress, respectively. The mean residence time of the standing litter was of 3.3 years for cypress, 2.1 years for pine and 1.8 years for oak forests. In contrast, the total amount of retained elements (N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the standing litter was higher in pine (115 kg/ha), followed by oak (78 kg/ha) and cypress (24 kg/ha). Oak forests showed the lowest mean residence time of nutrients and the highest nutrients return to the soil as a consequence of a faster decomposition. Thus, a higher nutrient supply to soils from oaks than from tree plantations, seems to be an ecological advantage for recovering and maintaining the main ecosystem functioning features, which needs to be taken into account in restoration programs in this highly degraded Andean mountains.

  17. Fiscal and Monetary Policy for The Development of Indonesian Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyadi Suharyadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global monetary crisis in 2007-2008 and the focus of development on climate changesmake it important to promote a healthy economic growth based on the local resources, Theeconomic crisis, which has slowed down the economic growth and has caused job losseswhich result in increasing unemployment and poverty, should alter the focus of Indonesianeconomic development in the future to be based on renewable and sustainable local resources.Indonesia is an agricultural and maritime country so these two aspects should be thecore of the growth. In agricultural culture, plantation sector is the source of sustainable economicgrowth because of its geographical, demographic, and cultural potentials. The problemsin plantation sector are the low growth of areas and productivity as well as its limitedend-products. The research findings indicated that in order to increase areas, there should bea guarantee on investment, interest rate, and little retribution or good governance. To increaseproductivity, we need a guarantee on fertilizer price, interest rate, and wages, as wellas pricing factors to avoid market distortion. This is very important relating to the economicstimulus policy which is essential to revitalize from the economic doom in the future.Keywords: plantation sector, area, productivity, investment, interest rate, and wages

  18. Relationships between spruce plantation age, solute and soil chemistry in Hafren forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Stevens

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Rain, throughfall, soil waters from surface peaty O horizon and deeper mineral B horizon, and stream water, were collected every four weeks for one year in a moorland catchment, and in four forested catchments. The four forested catchments represented an age sequence of first rotation Sitka spruce plantations, aged 14, 28, 37 and 53 years. All water samples were analysed for all major solutes, including dissolved organic nitrogen (DON-N; stream water and B horizon soil waters were also subjected to aluminium speciation. In each catchment, soil samples were collected on one occasion and pH was measured. Concentrations of most solutes were substantially higher in the 37 year old forest stand than in the moorland catchment, with intermediate concentrations in the two younger stands and 53 year old stand. In particular, higher nitrate-N concentrations were found in the soils and streams of the older forests, although these concentrations tended to be highest in the 37 year old stand. Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC of soil waters was lower in the B horizon of the forest stands than in the moorland, and tended to decline with increasing forest age. Soil water from both O and B horizons was most acid in the 37 year old stand, and the water from the soil O horizon in all four forest stands was more acid than that in moorland sites. The pH of the soil itself (as measured in a deionised water slurry was lower in the forest stands than in moorland, although trends with forest age were complex.

  19. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ą 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ą 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ą 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ą 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86ą 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83ą 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ą 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91ą 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ą 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  20. Coupling aquaculture with forest plantations for food, energy, and water resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Shawn Dayson; Culbreth, Allison; Hazel, Dennis; Daniels, Harry; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater aquaculture and forest bioenergy markets are expanding globally in areas concurrently experiencing human population growth, urbanization and water shortages. Coupling these agroecosystems can improve food, energy, and water resiliency by enhancing ecosystem services through fertilization, water-reuse, carbon storage, and bioenergy via biomass production. This study evaluated how a model aquaculture-managed forest plantation could (1) provision fish and woody biomass; (2) regulate carbon, groundwater infiltration, and groundwater quality; and (3) support nutrient cycling over a two-year period. A 0.5-hectare hardwood bioenergy plantation was established with 12 Populus spp. genotypes adjacent to a 0.6-hectare freshwater aquaculture operation (hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops×M. saxatilis); pond waters were land-applied on the plantation for two years. The aquaculture operation produced ~3.5Mg of fish and trees yielded 5.9Mgha(-1)yr(-1) of oven-dry biomass, sequestered 2.9Mg carbon (C) ha(-1)yr(-1) and stored 0.028Mg nitrogen (N) ha(-1)yr(-1). Biomass productivity, carbon storage, and nitrogen storage differed significantly among the evaluated Populus genotypes. Land application of pond water increased groundwater infiltration by 60% relative to the previous year. The integrated system regulated chlorophyll a, total organic carbon, and nitrogen in groundwater at concentrations below regulatory limits. This study demonstrated that coupled agroecosystems could deliver productive yields of food and bioenergy as well as support water re-use while meeting water quality regulations. More research is needed to evaluated long-term sustainability and economic viability of this coupled system and other land management practices that seek to improve food, energy, and water resiliency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  2. Monitoring endophyte populations in pine plantations and native oak forests in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Martin-Garcia, J.; Rodriguez-Ceinos, S.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The replacement of native forest with plantations of other species may have important impacts on ecosystems. Some of these impacts have been widely studied, but very little is known about the effects on fungal communities and specifically endo phytic fungi. In this study, endophyte assemblages in pine plantations (Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra and P. pinaster) and native oak forests (Quercus pyrenaica) in the north of the province of Palencia (Spain) were analyzed. For this purpose, samples of needles/leaves and twigs were collected from three trees in each of three plots sampled per host species. The samples were later processed in the laboratory to identify all of the endo phytic species present. In addition, an exhaustive survey was carried out of the twelve sites to collect data on the environmental, crown condition, dendrometric and soil variables that may affect the distribution of the fungi. The endophyte assemblages isolated from P. sylvestris and P. nigra were closely related to each other, but were different from those isolated from P. pinaster. The endophytes isolated from Q. pyrenaica were less closely related to those from the other hosts, and therefore preservation of oak stands is important to prevent the loss of fungal diversity. Finally, the distribution of the endophyte communities was related to some of the environmental variables considered. (Author) 42 refs.

  3. Effect of Converting Secondary Tropical Peat Swamp Forest into Oil Palm Plantation on Selected Peat Soil Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd S. Firdaus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The conversion of forest land into oil palm plantation is considered to be one of the causes of soil degradation and loss of tropical land forest in Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to compare selected peat soil physical properties of secondary tropical peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation to determine the effect of forest conversion. Approach: Peat soil samples were collected from secondary tropical peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation at Batang Igan, Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Experimental plots of 300 m3 were set up in both sites and thirty peat soil samples were collected randomly in both sites at 0-15 cm depth using a peat auger. Undisturbed cores and bulk samples were collected for analysis of bulk density and moisture content. Fiber content of the total mass of organic materials was determined by wet sieving method. Soil bulk density, moisture content, organic matter, mineral content, soil porosity and particle density were determined by standard procedures. Hydraulic conductivity was measured in the field using Model 2800K1 Guelph Permeameter and soil strength was determined using Hand Operated Cone Penetrometer Eijkelkemp. Unpaired T-test was used to compare the variables of the two sites. Results: Both sites had similar degree of decomposition classified as hemic peat. No significant differences in fiber content, moisture content and particle density. Bulk density, mineral content and soil strength were significantly higher in the oil palm plantation while organic matter content, porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity were significantly higher in the secondary tropical peat swamp forest. Conclusion: Conversion of secondary tropical peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation has significantly increased soil bulk density, mineral content and soil strength but significantly decreased organic matter content, porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, degree of

  4. Comparison of soil bacterial communities in a natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantations in perhumid subtropical low mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Te; Hu, Hsueh-Wen; Whitman, William B; Coleman, David C; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial community of forest soils is influenced by environmental disturbance and/or meteorological temperature and precipitation. In this study, we investigated three bacterial communities in soils of a natural hardwood forest and two plantations of conifer, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica, in a perhumid, low mountain area. By comparison with our previous studies with similar temperature and/or precipitation, we aimed to elucidate how disturbance influences the bacterial community in forest soils and whether bacterial communities in similar forest types differ under different climate conditions. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries revealed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in the three forest soil communities, with similar relative abundance of various bacterial groups. However, UniFrac analysis based on phylogenetic information revealed differences of bacterial communities between natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantation soils. The diversities of bacterial communities of the replanted Calocedrus and Cryptomeria forests were higher than that in natural hardwood forest. The bacterial diversity of these three forest soil were all higher than those in the same forest types at other locations with less precipitation or with lower temperature. In addition, the distribution of some of the most abundant operational taxonomic units in the three communities differed from other forest soils, including those related to Acidobacteria, α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Reforestation could increase the bacterial diversity. Therefore, soil bacterial communities could be shaped by the forestry management practices and climate differences in warm and humid conditions.

  5. Evaluation of splash erosion at forest floor in mature Japanese cypress plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanko, K.; Mizugaki, S.; Onda, Y.; Hiramatsu, S.

    2005-12-01

    Poorly managed mature Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantations in Japan have bared floor with little surface cover because cypress litter readily decomposes small pieces and weak penetration of sunlight results in poor growth of forest undergrowth, therefore suffered from surface erosion. In surface erosion process at forest floor, the effect of raindrop-impact-induced erosion would be high because the canopy produces large raindrops and promotes raindrops' erosive potential by increasing their kinetic energy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of slopes and transition of the splash erosion in order to investigate the process of surface erosion at bared forest floor. This study area is a mature Japanese cypress plantation in Taisho town, Shikoku Island, Japan. The splash erosion was observed by 27 splash cups (exposed soil area with 10cm in diameter) at forest slope with the inclination from 9 to 39°, respectively. The splash cups were divided five slope classes; each class value was 12.5, 20.5, 25.5, 29.5, and 37°. The splashed soil was separately collected in three split periods; each period had 86.2, 68.0, and 84.0 mm throughfall precipitation. Raindrop kinetic energy was simultaneously monitored by 2 laser raindrop-sizing instruments. Throughfall had similar drop size distribution and kinetic energy during each period and mean drop kinetic energy was 15.0 J m-2 mm-1. The splash rate during all observation period was 14.5, 11.4, 12.2, 9.1, and 4.6 g m-2 mm-1 at the each slope class, respectively. The splashed soil was found to reduce as time. Particularly the gentlest slope class had marked decrease for the splash rate; 25.2, 10.4, and 6.9 g m-2 mm-1 during 1st, 2nd, and 3rd period, respectively. On the other hand the steepest slope class had little change of the splash rate; 3.3, 6.7, and 4.2 g m-2 mm-1 . Some earlier studies using cultivated soil showed the splash rate increased with slopes, but this study showed contrary results. Although

  6. Atmospheric deposition and canopy exchange of anions and cations in two plantation forests under acid rain influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijun; Ren, Huili; Darrel Jenerette, G.; Hui, Dafeng; Ren, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition as a widely concerned environmental problem in China has been less studied in plantation forests compared to urban and secondary forests, albeit they constitute 1/3 of the total forested areas of the country. We measured the rainwater amount and chemistry outside and beneath the canopies of two widely distributed plantations (Acacia mangium and Dimocarpus longan) in the severe acid rain influenced Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China for two years. Our results showed that the frequency of acid rain was 96% on the basis of pH value 88%) and NH (10-38%). The two tree species showed distinct impacts on rainfall redistribution and rainwater chemistry due to their differences in canopy architecture and leaf/bark texture, suggesting that species-specific effects should not be overlooked while assessing the acid deposition in forested areas.

  7. Change in lignin content during litter decomposition in tropical forest soils (Congo): comparison of exotic plantations and native stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard-Reversat, France; Schwartz, Dominique

    1997-09-01

    Fast-growing tree plantations are being extended in tropical countries resulting in new forest ecosystems, the functioning of which is yet not well known. In particular, few data are available concerning lignin decay rate. Lignin, nitrogen and tannin contents of fresh and decaying litter were measured in natural rain forest and in planted stands of Eucalyptus hybrids. Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformisin Congo, together with litter-fall and forest-floor accumulation. Lignin evolution in aging litter exhibited different patterns. Lignin was accumulated under Eucalyptus plantation, but disappeared under natural forest, and was intermediate under Acaciaplantations. The relationships with decomposition rates and lignin degradation factors, such as white rot fungi and termites, are also discussed.

  8. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH GHEIBI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gheibi F, Akbarinia M, Kooch Y. 2015. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Biodiversitas 16: 10-15. Forest plantation is a common action in order to restore the degraded forests in Hyrcanian forests of Iran. This study compares the plant biodiversity in four 25-year-old stands of plantation, adjacent understory of alder (Alnus subcordata C. A. Mey., maple (Acer insigne Boiss., sequoia or red wood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl. and mixed stand (maple and sequoia, located in Salmanshahr of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Research carried out in, 10 sample plots with 20m × 20m area which taken by systematic-random in each plantation. All understory species were identified, recorded and then the biodiversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness were calculated. Our findings show that the planted species had significant effects on understory diversity. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest and lowest diversity (Simpson and Shanon-Winer and richness (Margalef and Menhinic indices occurred in sequoia and alder stands, respectively. The evenness indices (Camargo and Smith-Wilson were significantly greater in maple, sequoia and mixed stands compared with the alder type. As a conclusion, floristic change trends were different according to the planted tree species. A good understanding of the complexity of vegetation processes requires long-term monitoring of vegetation change.

  9. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-02-01

    Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and determined species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this could be that these stands were still young, and canopy closure had not always taken place, i.e. a situation where above- or below-ground competition did not yet exist. Another reason could be that the rooting traits of the tree species did not differ sufficiently to support niche differentiation. Our results suggested that functional group identity (i.e. conifers vs. broadleaved species) can be more important for below-ground biomass and production than the species richness itself, as conifers seemed to be more competitive in colonising the soil volume, compared to broadleaved species.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF OIL PALM PLANTATION AND TROPICAL PEAT SWAMP FOREST WATER QUALITY BY MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seca Gandaseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the spatio-temporal changes in river and canal water quality of peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation sites of Sarawak, Malaysia. To investigate temporal changes, 192 water samples were collected at four stations of BatangIgan, an oil palm plantation site of Sarawak, during July-November in 2009 and April-July in 2010. Nine water quality parameters including Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Turbidity (TER, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Temperature (TEMP, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, five-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5, ammonia-Nitrogen (NH3-N, Total Suspended Solids (TSS were analysed. To investigate spatial changes, 432water samples were collected from six different sites including BatangIgan during June-August 2010. Six water quality parameters including pH, DO, COD, BOD5, NH3-N and TSS were analysed to see the spatial variations. Most significant parameters which contributed in spatio-temporal variations were assessed by statistical techniques such as Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA, Factor Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (FA/PCA and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA. HACA identified three different classes of sites: Relatively Unimpaired, Impaired and Less Impaired Regions on the basis of similarity among different physicochemical characteristics and pollutant level between the sampling sites. DFA produced the best results for identification of main variables for temporal analysis and separated parameters (EC, TER, COD and identified three parameters for spatial analysis (pH, NH3-N and BOD5. The results signify that parameters identified by statistical analyses were responsible for water quality change and suggest the possibility the agricultural and oil palm plantation activities as a source of pollutants. The results suggest dire need for proper watershed management measures to restore the water quality of this tributary for a

  11. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D.; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems. PMID:26366576

  12. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Sahner

    Full Text Available Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization. Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra. We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  13. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  14. Age-surface temperature estimation model: When will oil palm plantation reach the same surface temperature as natural forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushayati, S. B.; Hermawan, R.; Meilani, R.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm plantation has often been accused as the cause of global warming. However, along with its growth, it would be able to decrease surface temperature. The question is ‘when will the plantation be able to reach the same surface temperature as natural forest’. This research aimed to estimate the age of oil palm plantation that create similar surface temperature to those in natural forest (land cover before the opening and planting of oil palm). The method used in this research was spatial analysis of land cover and surface temperature distribution. Based on the spatial analysis of surface temperature, five points was randomly taken from each planting age (age 1 15 years). Linear regression was then employed in the analysis. The linear regression formula between surface temperature and age of oil palm plantation was Y = 26.002 – 0.1237X. Surface temperature will decrease as much as 0.1237 ° C with one year age growth oil palm. Surface temperature that was similar to the initial temperature, when the land cover was natural forest (23.04 °C), was estimated to occur when the oil palm plantation reach the age 24 year.

  15. Development of a Compatible Taper Function and Stand-Level Merchantable Volume Model for Chinese Fir Plantations.

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    Xiaolu Tang

    Full Text Available Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook is one of the most important plantation tree species in China with good timber quality and fast growth. It covers an area of 8.54 million hectare, which corresponds to 21% of the total plantation area and 32% of total plantation volume in China. With the increasing market demand, an accurate estimation and prediction of merchantable volume at tree- and stand-level is becoming important for plantation owners. Although there are many studies on the total tree volume estimation from allometric models, these allometric models cannot predict tree- and stand-level merchantable volume at any merchantable height, and the stand-level merchantable volume model was not seen yet in Chinese fir plantations. This study aimed to develop (1 a compatible taper function for tree-level merchantable volume estimation, and (2 a stand-level merchantable volume model for Chinese fir plantations. This "taper function system" consisted in a taper function, a merchantable volume equation and a total tree volume equation. 46 Chinese fir trees were felled to develop the taper function in Shitai County, Anhui province, China. A second-order continuous autoregressive error structure corrected the inherent serial autocorrelation of different observations in one tree. The taper function and volume equations were fitted simultaneously after autocorrelation correction. The compatible taper function fitted well to our data and had very good performances in diameter and total tree volume prediction. The stand-level merchantable volume equation based on the ratio approach was developed using basal area, dominant height, quadratic mean diameter and top diameter (ranging from 0 to 30 cm as independent variables. At last, a total stand-level volume table using stand basal area and dominant height as variables was proposed for local forest managers to simplify the stand volume estimation.

  16. Spatial considerations of an area restriction model for identifying harvest blocks at commercial forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kašpar Jan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, ecological and environmental issues have dominated the forest industry worldwide, but economic aspects have been much less studied in this dynamic period. However, a sustainable and efficient forest biomass supply is critical for socio-economic development in many regions, particularly in rural areas. Nature protection efforts have contributed to reduced harvesting quotas, which have resulted in an imbalance of the environmental functions of the forests and forest management, particularly wood supply.

  17. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  18. [Water and soil conservation function of typical plantation forest ecosystems in semi-arid region of Western Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ping; Guo, Fang; Luo, Yue-Chu; Wei, Jing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Gang

    2007-12-01

    From the aspects of surface runoff and soil erosion, this paper quantitatively studied the water and soil conservation function of five plantation forest ecosystems in semi-arid region of Western Liaoning Province. The results showed that various types of test plantation forest ecosystems were all able to reduce surface runoff and soil erosion effectively. In June - September, the monthly mean surface runoff coefficient of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ecosystem, P. tabulaeformis - Hippophae rhamnoides forest ecosystem, H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem, P. simonii forest ecosystem, and P. simonii - H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem was 10.1%, 6.5%, 2.3%, 8.6% and 5.3% of that of barren hill, respectively, and the soil erosion quantity was 2.65%, 0.96%, 0.15%, 2.32% and 0.69% of that of barren hill, respectively. Among the five forest ecosystems, H. rhamnoides forest ecosystem had the least surface runoff and soil erosion, being the best in water and soil conservation function.

  19. Effect of vegetation change from native broadleaf forest to coniferous plantation on selected soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızal, Ahmet; Gökbulak, Ferhat; Zengin, Mustafa; Ercan, Mehmet; Karakaş, Ahmet; Tuğrul, Dilek

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of vegetation change from a native broadleaf forest to a coniferous plantation on selected soil properties, including soil texture, pH, organic matter, total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), exchangeable cations (Ca(2+), K(+), Na(+)), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Results showed that the amount of clay particles, Ca(2+), and K(+) values significantly increased, whereas Na(+), total N, and organic matter and soil pH values decreased on the treatment plot after vegetation change. Soil acidity also increased and soil textural group changed from moderately fine-textured soils (clay loam) to medium-textured soils (loam) under both control and treatment plots. Organic matter, total N, and Na(+) values increased, whereas Ca(2+) concentration decreased through time on the control plot. Soil pH, total P, K(+), and CEC did not show significant changes through time on the control plot.

  20. Insecticidal activity of alpha-cypermethrin against small banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest plantations and thickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokocka Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris plantations and thickets damaged by biotic and abiotic factors are particularly attractive to small-banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus, whose larvae excavate feeding tunnels in the stems of young trees, causing their death. There are no chemical methods that can be applied to protect forest plantations and thickets against this pest. Therefore, the studies were undertaken aimed at the assessment of the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin used to reduce the numbers of this pest within restock areas. The scope of work included laboratory and field estimation of insecticidal activity of alpha-cypermethrin.

  1. State and Trend Analysis of Industrial Plantation Development in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper firstly reviewed industrial plantation development in the main forestry countries worldwide, and then summarized the state and trend of the R & D of industrial plantation in foreign countries in terms of genetic improvement, breeding techniques, site evaluation techniques, density control techniques, long-term productivity maintenance techniques and diseases and pests control techniques. In the meantime, the three management models employed in industrial plantations abroad was introduced, i.e. int...

  2. Evaluation on the decomposability of tropical forest peat soils after conversion to an oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangok, Faustina E; Maie, Nagamitsu; Melling, Lulie; Watanabe, Akira

    2017-06-01

    To understand the variations in the decomposability of tropical peat soil following deforestation for an oil palm plantation, a field incubation experiment was conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia. Peat soils collected from three types of primary forest, namely Mixed Peat Swamp (MPS; Gonystylus-Dactylocladus-Neoscrotechinia association), Alan Batu (ABt; Shorea albida-Gonstylus-Strenonurus association), and Alan Bunga (ABg; Shorea albida association), were packed in polyvinyl chloride pipes and installed in an oil palm plantation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from soil were monthly measured for 3years. Environmental variables including soil temperature, soil moisture content, and groundwater table were also monitored. The pH, loss on ignition, and total carbon (C) content were similar among the three soils, while total N content was larger in the MPS than in the ABg soils. Based on (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, C composition of the MPS and ABg soils was characterized by the largest proportion of C present as alkyl C and O-alkyl C, respectively. The C composition of the ABt soil was intermediate between the MPS and ABg soils. The CO2 fluxes from the three soils ranged from 78 to 625mgCm(-2)h(-1) with a negative correlation to groundwater level. The CH4 fluxes ranged from -67 to 653μgCm(-2)h(-1). Both total CO2 and CH4 fluxes were larger in the order ABg>ABt>MPS (P<0.05). Annual rate of peat decomposition as was estimated from cumulative C loss differed up to 2 times, and the rate constant in exponential decay model was 0.033y(-1) for the MPS soil and 0.066y(-1) for the ABg soil. The field incubation results of the three forest peat soils seem to reflect the difference in the labile organic matter content, represented by polysaccharides.

  3. The effect of slope angle on splash detachment in steep forest plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizugaki, S.; Nanko, K.; Onda, Y.

    2007-12-01

    To study splash detachment rate and investigate the effects of rainfall and slope angle on splash detachment, the field observation of splash detachment was conducted for five months using 27 splash cups under natural rainfall events in Japanese cypress (Hinoki; Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation in the Shimanto River watershed, southern Japan. In this plantation forest, the unit kinetic energy of throughfall (unit KE; J/m2/mm) was found to be constant independent of rainfall intensity. The total rainfall over six observation periods was 853 mm and the maximum rainfall intensity for 1 h ( RI1h) varied from 8.0 to 19.6 mm h-1. A significantly high coefficient of linear regression was found between RI1h and the average splash detachment of all splash cups over six periods, although the splash detachment from the individual cups had larger variations with RI1h. This variation in splash detachment may attribute to the spatial variability in soil surface condition such as slope angle. In the relationship between the splash detachment and slope angle, no correlation was found over the entire periods. However, different correlations were found among the observation periods due to the differences in rainfall intensity. The splash detachment from a lower slope angle (14°) exhibited a strong relation with the maximum rainfall intensity for a shorter period, such as 10 to 30 minutes. In contrast, the splash detachment from a slope angle of over 35° exhibited high correlation with the maximum rainfall intensity for 3 h, suggesting that longer time is required for ponding in steeper slopes than gentler slopes. In gentler slopes, prolonged rainfall may cause the higher ponding depth, resulting in reducing the raindrop impact and less splash detachment. Therefore, under the forest canopies, the effect of slope angle on the rainfall parameter should be incorporated into the future splash erosion model.

  4. Complementary resource use by tree species in a rain forest tree plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anna E; Schmidt, Susanne

    2010-07-01

    Mixed-species tree plantations, composed of high-value native rain forest timbers, are potential forestry systems for the subtropics and tropics that can provide ecological and production benefits. Choices of rain forest tree species for mixtures are generally based on the concept that assemblages of fast-growing and light-demanding species are less productive than assemblages of species with different shade tolerances. We examined the hypothesis that mixtures of two fast-growing species compete for resources, while mixtures of shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant species are complementary. Ecophysiological characteristics of young trees were determined and analyzed with a physiology-based canopy model (MAESTRA) to test species interactions. Contrary to predictions, there was evidence for complementary interactions between two fast-growing species with respect to nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiency, and nutrient cycling. Fast-growing Elaeocarpus angustifolius had maximum demand for soil nutrients in summer, the most efficient internal recycling of N, and low P use efficiency at the leaf and whole-plant level and produced a large amount of nutrient-rich litter. In contrast, fast-growing Grevillea robusta had maximum demand for soil nutrients in spring and highest leaf nutrient use efficiency for N and P and produced low-nutrient litter. Thus, mixtures of fast-growing G. robusta and E. angustifolius or G. robusta and slow-growing, shade-tolerant Castanospermum australe may have similar or even greater productivity than monocultures, as light requirement is just one of several factors affecting performance of mixed-species plantations. We conclude that the knowledge gained here will be useful for designing large-scale experimental mixtures and commercial forestry systems in subtropical Australia and elsewhere.

  5. Relationship between environmental parameters and Pinus sylvestris L. site index in forest plantations in northern Spain acidic plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueis T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of forest productivity at early stages of stand development may help to define the most appropriate silviculture treatment to be applied for each stand. Site index (dominant height at a reference age is a useful tool for forest productivity estimation. The aim of this study was to develop a model to predict site index for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in northern Spain acidic plateau by using soil (physical, chemical and biochemical, climatic and physiographic parameters. To meet this objective, data from 35 stands classified into three different site quality classes and 63 soil, climatic and physiographic parameters were examined in order to develop a discriminant model. After selecting 12 discriminant models which were biologically consistent and presented the higher cross-validated rate of correct classification, a model including four parameters (latitude, inorganic Al, porosity and microbial biomass carbon as predictors was chosen. The discriminant model classified 71% of cases correctly and no inferior-quality stands were misassigned to the highest quality class. Soil and physiographic parameters included in the above model are easily obtainable in the field or by simple laboratory analysis, thus our results can be easily integrated in operational forestry to determine site quality.

  6. Developing Two Additive Biomass Equations for Three Coniferous Plantation Species in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihu Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantification of tree biomass is critical and essential for calculating carbon storage, as well as for studying climate change, forest health, forest productivity, nutrient cycling, etc. Tree biomass is typically estimated using statistical models. In this study, a total of 289 trees were harvested and measured for stem, root, branch, and foliage biomass from three coniferous plantation species in northeastern P.R. China. We developed two additive systems of biomass equations based on tree diameter (D only and both tree diameter (D and height (H. For each system, likelihood analysis was used to verify the error structures of power functions in order to determine if logarithmic transformation should be applied on both sides of biomass equations. The model coefficients were simultaneously estimated using seemingly unrelated regression (SUR. The results indicated that stem biomass had the largest relative contribution to total biomass, while foliage biomass had the smallest relative proportion for the three species. The root to shoot ratio averaged 0.27 for Korean pine, 0.25 for larch, and 0.23 for Mongolian pine. The two additive biomass systems obtained good model fitting and prediction performance, of which the model Ra2 > 0.80, and the percent mean absolute bias (MAB%, was <17%. The second additive system (D and H had a relatively greater Ra2 and smaller root mean square error (RMSE. The model coefficient for the predictor H was statistically significant in eight of the twelve models, depending on tree species and biomass component. Adding tree height into the system of biomass equations can marginally improve model fitting and performance, especially for total, aboveground, and stem biomass. The two additive systems developed in this study can be applied to estimate individual tree biomass of three coniferous plantation species in the Chinese National Forest Inventory.

  7. Solid Wood Products from Eucalypts Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To improve and diversify the use of tropical plantation timbers in Southern China, with support from International Tropical Timber Organizations (ITTO), a research project was started in 2002 focusing on development of processing and manufacturing technologies to promote production of value-added wood products from eucalypts plantations. This project will also facilitate the formulation of forest management strategy in China to supplement the diminishing supply of timber from the natural forests. The sp...

  8. Mapping tropical forests and deciduous rubber plantations in Hainan Island, China by integrating PALSAR 25-m and multi-temporal Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bangqian; Li, Xiangping; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhao, Bin; Dong, Jinwei; Kou, Weili; Qin, Yuanwei; Yang, Chuan; Wu, Zhixiang; Sun, Rui; Lan, Guoyu; Xie, Guishui

    2016-08-01

    Updated and accurate maps of tropical forests and industrial plantations, like rubber plantations, are essential for understanding carbon cycle and optimal forest management practices, but existing optical-imagery-based efforts are greatly limited by frequent cloud cover. Here we explored the potential utility of integrating 25-m cloud-free Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic product and multi-temporal Landsat images to map forests and rubber plantations in Hainan Island, China. Based on structure information detected by PALSAR and yearly maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), we first identified and mapped forests with a producer accuracy (PA) of 96% and user accuracy (UA) of 98%. The resultant forest map showed reasonable spatial and areal agreements with the optical-based forest maps of Fine Resolution Observation and Monitoring Global Land Clover (FROM-GLC) and GlobalLand30. We then extracted rubber plantations from the forest map according to their deciduous features (using minimum Land Surface Water Index, LSWI) and rapid changes in canopies during Rubber Defoliation and Foliation (RDF) period (using standard deviation of LSWI) and dense canopy in growing season (using maximum NDVI). The rubber plantation map yielded a high accuracy when validated by ground truth-based data (PA/UA > 86%) and evaluated with three farm-scale rubber plantation maps (PA/UA >88%). It is estimated that in 2010, Hainan Island had 2.11 × 106 ha of forest and 5.15 × 105 ha of rubber plantations. This study has demonstrated the potential of integrating 25-m PALSAR-based structure information, and Landsat-based spectral and phenology information for mapping tropical forests and rubber plantations.

  9. Sustainable forest management in poplar plantations: forest health and biodiversity criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Martín García, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    La implementación de la Gestión Forestal Sostenible se consigue a través de criterios e indicadores, y aunque diferentes conjuntos han sido desarrollados según el país, todos ellos están de acuerdo en que los criterios de sanidad forestal y biodiversidad deben ser piezas claves. El objetivo de esta tesis fue mejorar los actuales indicadores y buscar otros nuevos dentro de los criterios de sanidad forestal y biodiversidad. Para este propósito, se muestrearon una amplia variedad de plantaciones...

  10. Sustainable forest management in poplar plantations: forest health and biodiversity criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Martín García, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    La implementación de la Gestión Forestal Sostenible se consigue a través de criterios e indicadores, y aunque diferentes conjuntos han sido desarrollados según el país, todos ellos están de acuerdo en que los criterios de sanidad forestal y biodiversidad deben ser piezas claves. El objetivo de esta tesis fue mejorar los actuales indicadores y buscar otros nuevos dentro de los criterios de sanidad forestal y biodiversidad. Para este propósito, se muestrearon una amplia variedad de plantaciones...

  11. Numerical and functional responses of forest bats to a major insect pest in pine plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Charbonnier

    Full Text Available Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming [corrected]. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests.

  12. Numerical and functional responses of forest bats to a major insect pest in pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming [corrected]. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests.

  13. Carbon stored in forest plantations of Pinus caribaea, Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus deglupta in Cachí Hydroelectric Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylin Rojas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are considered the main carbon sinks thought to reduce the impact of climate change. Regarding many species, however, there is a lack of information in order to establish metrics on accumulation of biomass and carbon, principally due to the level of difficulty and the cost of quantification through direct measurement and destructive sampling. In this research, it was evaluated carbon stocks of forest plantations near the dam of hydroelectric project Cachí, which belongs to Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad. 25 unit samples were evaluated along some plantations that contain three different species. 30 Pinus caribacea trees, 14 Cupressus lusitanica and 15 Eucalyptus deglupta were extracted. The biomass was quantified by means of the destructive method. First of all, every component of the tree was weighed separately; then, sampling was obtained in order to determine the dry matter and the carbon fraction. 110 biomass samples from the three species were analyzed in laboratory, including all the components (leaves, branches, shaft, and root. The carbon fraction varied between 47,5 and 48,0 for Pinus caribacea; between 32,6 and 52,7 for Cupressus lusitanica, and beween 36,4 and 50,3% for Eucalyptus deglupta. The stored carbon was 230, 123, and 69 Mg ha-1 in plantations of P. caribaea, C. lusitanica and E. deglupta, respectively. Approximately, 75% of the stored carbon was detected in the shaft.

  14. Characteristics of soil seed bank in plantation forest in the rocky mountain region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeng-hui; YANG Yang; LENG Ping-sheng; DOU De-quan; ZHANG Bo; HOU Bing-fei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated characteristics (scales and composition) of soil seed banks at eight study sites in the rocky mountain region of Beijing by seed identification and germination monitoring.We also surveyed the vegetation communities at the eight study sites to explore the role of soil seed banks in vegetation restoration.The storage capacity of soil seed banks at the eight sites ranked from 766.26 to 2461.92 seedsm-2.A total of 23 plant species were found in soil seed banks,of which 63-80%of seeds were herbs in various soil layers and 60% of seeds were located in the soil layer at 0-5 cm depth.Biodiversity indices indicated clear differences in species diversity of soil seed banks among different plant communities.The species composition of aboveground vegetation showed low similarity with that based on soil seed banks.In the aboveground plant community,the afforestation tree species showed high importance values.The plant species originating from soil seed banks represented natural regeneration,which also showed relatively high importance values.This study suggests that in the rocky mountain region of Beijing the soil seed banks played a key role in the transformation from pure plantation forest to near-natural forest,promoting natural ecological processes,and the role of the seed banks in vegetation restoration was important to the improvement of ecological restoration methods.

  15. Soil nitrogen oxide fluxes from lowland forests converted to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; Kurniawan, Syahrul; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2017-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations cover large areas of former rainforest in Sumatra, Indonesia, supplying the global demand for these crops. Although forest conversion is known to influence soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes, measurements from oil palm and rubber plantations are scarce (for N2O) or nonexistent (for NO). Our study aimed to (1) quantify changes in soil-atmosphere fluxes of N oxides with forest conversion to rubber and oil palm plantations and (2) determine their controlling factors. In Jambi, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes that mainly differed in texture but were both on heavily weathered soils: loam and clay Acrisol soils. Within each landscape, we investigated lowland forests, rubber trees interspersed in secondary forest (termed as jungle rubber), both as reference land uses and smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations as converted land uses. In the loam Acrisol landscape, we conducted a follow-on study in a large-scale oil palm plantation (called PTPN VI) for comparison of soil N2O fluxes with smallholder oil palm plantations. Land-use conversion to smallholder plantations had no effect on soil N-oxide fluxes (P = 0. 58 to 0.76) due to the generally low soil N availability in the reference land uses that further decreased with land-use conversion. Soil N2O fluxes from the large-scale oil palm plantation did not differ with those from smallholder plantations (P = 0. 15). Over 1-year measurements, the temporal patterns of soil N-oxide fluxes were influenced by soil mineral N and water contents. Across landscapes, annual soil N2O emissions were controlled by gross nitrification and sand content, which also suggest the influence of soil N and water availability. Soil N2O fluxes (µg N m-2 h-1) were 7 ± 2 to 14 ± 7 (reference land uses), 6 ± 3 to 9 ± 2 (rubber), 12 ± 3 to 12 ± 6 (smallholder oil palm) and 42 ± 24 (large-scale oil palm). Soil NO fluxes (µg N m-2 h-1) were -0.6

  16. Identification of a system of ecologically homogeneous areas and of priority intervention levels for forest plantation planning in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzurro GM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation activities in Sicily have been widespreaded in the last century. The results of forestation activities indicate the need to adopt a operational tools to promote the extension of forest surface at regional and sub-regional levels. In this view, with the aim to produce useful tools for forest plantation planning, the entire regional area was analysed and ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified to join and target arboriculture and/or forestation plantation activities, to choose tree and shrub species for different environments and to identify priority areas of intervention. The map of Rivas-Martinez bioclimate and the map of litological types were used as basic information layers to map pedo-climatic homogeneous areas. In order to mitigate disruptive hydrogeological effects and to reduce desertification risk and forest fragmentation, the Corine Land Cover map (CLC2000, the hydrogeological bond map and the desertification risk map were used to identify areas characterized by urgent need of forest activities at high priority level. A total of 23 ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified in Sicily, while more than a quarter of the regional surface has been characterized as highest priority intervention level. At sub-regional level, the target of the analysis was carried out at administrative province and at hydrographic basin level.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir: a comparison of species richness in native western North American forests and Patagonian plantations from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroetaveña, C; Cázares, E; Rajchenberg, M

    2007-07-01

    The putative ectomycorrhizal fungal species registered from sporocarps associated with ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests in their natural range distribution (i.e., western Canada, USA, and Mexico) and from plantations in south Argentina and other parts of the world are listed. One hundred and fifty seven taxa are reported for native ponderosa pine forests and 514 taxa for native Douglas-fir forests based on available literature and databases. A small group of genera comprises a high proportion of the species richness for native Douglas-fir (i.e., Cortinarius, Inocybe, and Russula), whereas in native ponderosa pine, the species richness is more evenly distributed among several genera. The comparison between ectomycorrhizal species richness associated with both trees in native forests and in Patagonia (Argentina) shows far fewer species in the latter, with 18 taxa for the ponderosa pine and 15 for the Douglas-fir. Epigeous species richness is clearly dominant in native Douglas-fir, whereas a more balanced relation epigeous/hypogeous richness is observed for native ponderosa pine; a similar trend was observed for Patagonian plantations. Most fungi in Patagonian Douglas-fir plantations have not been recorded in plantations elsewhere, except Suillus lakei and Thelephora terrestris, and only 56% of the fungal taxa recorded in Douglas-fir plantations around the world are known from native forests, the other taxa being new associations for this host, suggesting that new tree + ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa associations are favored in artificial situations as plantations.

  18. Can we predict carbon stocks in tropical ecosystems from tree diversity? Comparing species and functional diversity in a plantation and a natural forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jaen, Maria C; Potvin, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    • Linking tree diversity to carbon storage can provide further motivation to conserve tropical forests and to design carbon-enriched plantations. Here, we examine the role of tree diversity and functional traits in determining carbon storage in a mixed-species plantation and in a natural tropical forest in Panama. • We used species richness, functional trait diversity, species dominance and functional trait dominance to predict tree carbon storage across these two forests. Then we compared the species ranking based on wood density, maximum diameter, maximum height, and leaf mass per area (LMA) between sites to reveal how these values changed between different forests. • Increased species richness, a higher proportion of nitrogen fixers and species with low LMA increased carbon storage in the mixed-species plantation, while a higher proportion of large trees and species with high LMA increased tree carbon storage in the natural forest. Furthermore, we found that tree species varied greatly in their absolute and relative values between study sites. • Different results in different forests mean that we cannot easily predict carbon storage capacity in natural forests using data from experimental plantations. Managers should be cautious when applying functional traits measured in natural populations in the design of carbon-enriched plantations.

  19. Soil CO{sub 2} flux dynamics in the two main plantation forest types in subtropical China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xinzhang; Yuan, Huanying [The Nurturing Station for the State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A and F University, Lin' an, 311300 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbon Cycling and Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems, Zhejiang A and F University, Lin' an, 311300 (China); Kimberley, Mark O. [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua 3046 (New Zealand); Jiang, Hong, E-mail: jianghong_china@hotmail.com [The Nurturing Station for the State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A and F University, Lin' an, 311300 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbon Cycling and Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems, Zhejiang A and F University, Lin' an, 311300 (China); Zhou, Guomo [The Nurturing Station for the State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A and F University, Lin' an, 311300 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbon Cycling and Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems, Zhejiang A and F University, Lin' an, 311300 (China); Wang, Hailong, E-mail: nzhailongwang@gmail.com [The Nurturing Station for the State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A and F University, Lin' an, 311300 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbon Cycling and Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems, Zhejiang A and F University, Lin' an, 311300 (China)

    2013-02-01

    Chinese Fir and Moso bamboo are the two most important forest plantation species in subtropical China. However, information on greenhouse gas emissions from these forests is still scarce. A field study was carried out to compare soil CO{sub 2} flux dynamics in Chinese Fir and Moso bamboo forests over a 12-month period using the LI-8100 Soil CO{sub 2} Flux System. The soil CO{sub 2} flux in both forest types showed similar daily and seasonal dynamic patterns with the highest soil CO{sub 2} efflux at 14:00–16:00 in summer and the lowest in winter. Moso bamboo forest showed significant higher (P < 0.01) annual mean soil CO{sub 2} fluxes (52.9 t CO{sub 2} ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}) than Chinese fir forest (27.9 t CO{sub 2} ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}). The large difference in soil CO{sub 2} fluxes may potentially influence the carbon cycle of the two forest types at the ecosystem scale. The CO{sub 2} flux from the soil showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.0001) with soil temperature at 5 cm depth, a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) with air relative humidity, and no significant correlation with soil moisture in either forest types. The Q{sub 10} value of soil respiration was higher in Chinese fir than Moso bamboo forest, indicating that soil respiration under Chinese fir forest will be more sensitive to temperature change. This study contributes to better understanding of the role Moso bamboo and Chinese fir forests may play in carbon cycle and global warming mitigation. - Highlights: ► We investigate soil CO{sub 2} flux in Chinese fir and Moso bamboo plantations. ► Soil CO{sub 2} flux in both forest types shows similar daily and seasonal dynamic patterns. ► CO{sub 2} flux in Chinese fir forest is more sensitive to temperature than Moso bamboo. ► Higher CO{sub 2} flux was observed in the Moso bamboo than in the Chinese fir forest. ► This may influence the carbon sequestration capacity of these two forest types.

  20. Land Rights of Community Forest Plantation Policy: Analysis from an Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramasto Nugroho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the land rights of bussiness permit for timber utilization from community forestplantation (IUPHHK-HTR in Indonesia and to predict its effectiveness based on property rights theory relatedto target group characteristics. Field survey was conducted in November 2008 to April 2009 in Riau and SouthKalimantan Provinces. The results showed that from the property rights theory perspective, the land rights forHTR could be categorized as lease or management rights consisted of rights to exclude, to manage, to use, andto access, without rights to transfer and to bequeath. This suggests that the mechanism of transfer of rights fromthe government to the holder of IUPHHK-HTR as a temporary transfer of rights. As a result, the government needsto regulate a rigid and detailed obligation for IUPHHK-HTR holders that may not be fulfilled by the farmers. Thegranting of permits for a long period (up to 95 years is predicted to lose the meanings, caused of the prohibitionon inheritance of the permits. From these findings it is predicted to reduce the interest of farmers to invest in theHTR.Keywords: land rights, community forest plantation, institutions, property rights, lease/management rights

  1. Forest thinning and soil respiration in a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianwu; Qi, Ye; Xu, Ming; Misson, Laurent; Goldstein, Allen H

    2005-01-01

    Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and chemical properties. Forest thinning changes soil temperature, soil water content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration monthly and soil temperature and volumetric soil water continuously in a young ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws.) plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California from June 1998 to May 2000 (before a thinning that removed 30% of the biomass), and from May to December 2001 (after thinning). Thinning increased the spatial homogeneity of soil temperature and respiration. We conducted a multivariate analysis with two independent variables of soil temperature and water and a categorical variable representing the thinning event to simulate soil respiration and assess the effect of thinning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water, but decreased total soil respiration by 13% at a given temperature and water content. This decrease in soil respiration was likely associated with the decrease in root density after thinning. With a model driven by continuous soil temperature and water time series, we estimated that total soil respiration was 948, 949 and 831 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the years 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively. Although thinning reduced soil respiration at a given temperature and water content, because of natural climate variability and the thinning effect on soil temperature and water, actual cumulative soil respiration showed no clear trend following thinning. We conclude that the effect of forest thinning on soil respiration is the combined result of a decrease in root respiration, an increase in soil organic matter, and changes in soil temperature and water due to both thinning and interannual climate variability.

  2. Home Range and Habitat Use of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae within a Plantation Forest: A Satellite Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tracked two adult and three juvenile New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae in Kaingaroa Forest pine plantation from 2002 to 2008 using Argos satellite technology. The home ranges for both adults and juveniles varied, ranging between 44 and 587 km2. The falcons occasionally utilised areas outside the forest and used stands of all ages within the forest, generally in proportion to their availability. For the most part, the juveniles remained within ca. 8 km of their nests and dispersed at 58, 69, and 68 days after fledging. Falcon movement information was obtained from an average of four location points per tracking day per falcon at a putative accuracy of 350 m. The transmitters, including their solar charge capability, performed well in the forest environment. The use of all stand ages highlights the importance of forestry practises that maintain a mosaic of different aged pine stands.

  3. Similar biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in set-aside plantations and ancient old-growth broadleaved forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spake, Rebecca; van der Linde, Sietse; Newton, Adrian C.; Suz, Laura M.; Bidartondo, Martin I.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Setting aside overmature planted forests is currently seen as an option for preserving species associated with old-growth forests, such as those with dispersal limitation. Few data exist, however, on the utility of set-aside plantations for this purpose, or the value of this habitat type for biodiversity relative to old-growth semi-natural ecosystems. Here, we evaluate the contribution of forest type relative to habitat characteristics in determining species richness and composition in seven forest blocks, each containing an ancient old-growth stand (> 1000 yrs) paired with a set-aside even-aged planted stand (ca. 180 yrs). We investigated the functionally important yet relatively neglected ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), a group for which the importance of forest age has not been assessed in broadleaved forests. We found that forest type was not an important determinant of EMF species richness or composition, demonstrating that set-aside can be an effective option for conserving ancient EMF communities. Species richness of above-ground EMF fruiting bodies was principally related to the basal area of the stand (a correlate of canopy cover) and tree species diversity, whilst richness of below-ground ectomycorrhizae was driven only by tree diversity. Our results suggest that overmature planted forest stands, particularly those that are mixed-woods with high basal area, are an effective means to connect and expand ecological networks of ancient old-growth forests in historically deforested and fragmented landscapes for ectomycorrhizal fungi. PMID:26917858

  4. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses.

  5. Mapping Species Composition of Forests and Tree Plantations in Northeastern Costa Rica with an Integration of Hyperspectral and Multitemporal Landsat Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Matthew E.; Defries, Ruth S.; Sesnie, Steven E.; Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo; Soto, Carlomagno; Singh, Aditya; Townsend, Philip A.; Chazdon, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient means to map tree plantations is needed to detect tropical land use change and evaluate reforestation projects. To analyze recent tree plantation expansion in northeastern Costa Rica, we examined the potential of combining moderate-resolution hyperspectral imagery (2005 HyMap mosaic) with multitemporal, multispectral data (Landsat) to accurately classify (1) general forest types and (2) tree plantations by species composition. Following a linear discriminant analysis to reduce data dimensionality, we compared four Random Forest classification models: hyperspectral data (HD) alone; HD plus interannual spectral metrics; HD plus a multitemporal forest regrowth classification; and all three models combined. The fourth, combined model achieved overall accuracy of 88.5%. Adding multitemporal data significantly improved classification accuracy (p less than 0.0001) of all forest types, although the effect on tree plantation accuracy was modest. The hyperspectral data alone classified six species of tree plantations with 75% to 93% producer's accuracy; adding multitemporal spectral data increased accuracy only for two species with dense canopies. Non-native tree species had higher classification accuracy overall and made up the majority of tree plantations in this landscape. Our results indicate that combining occasionally acquired hyperspectral data with widely available multitemporal satellite imagery enhances mapping and monitoring of reforestation in tropical landscapes.

  6. Mapping Species Composition of Forests and Tree Plantations in Northeastern Costa Rica with an Integration of Hyperspectral and Multitemporal Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Fagan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient means to map tree plantations is needed to detect tropical land use change and evaluate reforestation projects. To analyze recent tree plantation expansion in northeastern Costa Rica, we examined the potential of combining moderate-resolution hyperspectral imagery (2005 HyMap mosaic with multitemporal, multispectral data (Landsat to accurately classify (1 general forest types and (2 tree plantations by species composition. Following a linear discriminant analysis to reduce data dimensionality, we compared four Random Forest classification models: hyperspectral data (HD alone; HD plus interannual spectral metrics; HD plus a multitemporal forest regrowth classification; and all three models combined. The fourth, combined model achieved overall accuracy of 88.5%. Adding multitemporal data significantly improved classification accuracy (p < 0.0001 of all forest types, although the effect on tree plantation accuracy was modest. The hyperspectral data alone classified six species of tree plantations with 75% to 93% producer’s accuracy; adding multitemporal spectral data increased accuracy only for two species with dense canopies. Non-native tree species had higher classification accuracy overall and made up the majority of tree plantations in this landscape. Our results indicate that combining occasionally acquired hyperspectral data with widely available multitemporal satellite imagery enhances mapping and monitoring of reforestation in tropical landscapes.

  7. Development of an aerial counting system in oil palm plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulyma Miserque Castillo, Jhany; Laverde Diaz, Rubbermaid; Rueda Guzmán, Claudia Leonor

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of a counting aerial system capable of capturing, process and analyzing images of an oil palm plantation to register the number of cultivated palms. It begins with a study of the available UAV technologies to define the most appropriate model according to the project needs. As result, a DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ is used to capture pictures that are processed by a photogrammetry software to create orthomosaics from the areas of interest, which are handled by the developed software to calculate the number of palms contained in them. The implemented algorithm uses a sliding window technique in image pyramids to generate candidate windows, an LBP descriptor to model the texture of the picture, a logistic regression model to classify the windows and a non-maximum suppression algorithm to refine the decision. The system was tested in different images than the ones used for training and for establishing the set point. As result, the system showed a 95.34% detection rate with a 97.83% precision in mature palms and a 79.26% detection rate with a 97.53% precision in young palms giving an FI score of 0.97 for mature palms and 0.87 for the small ones. The results are satisfactory getting the census and high-quality images from which is possible to get more information from the area of interest. All this, achieved through a low-cost system capable of work even in cloudy conditions.

  8. Land-based Investments for Rural Development? A Grounded Analysis of the Local Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. German

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing biofuel sector in Africa has, in recent years, been received with divided interest. As part of a contemporary wave of agricultural modernization efforts, it could make invaluable contributions to rural poverty. Conversely, it could also engender socioeconomically and environmentally detrimental land use changes as valuable land resources are converted to plantation agriculture. This research analyzes the impacts and impact pathways of biofuel feedstock development in Ghana. It finds that companies are accessing large contiguous areas of customary land through opaque negotiations with traditional authorities, often outside the purview of government and customary land users. Despite lack of participation, most customary land users were highly supportive of plantation development, with high expectations of 'development' and 'modernization.' With little opposition and resistance, large areas of agricultural and forested land are at threat of being converted to plantation monoculture. A case study analysis shows that this can significantly exacerbate rural poverty as communities lose access to vital livelihood resources. Vulnerable groups, such as women and migrants, are found to be most profoundly affected because of their relative inability in recovering lost livelihood resources. Findings suggest that greater circumspection by government is warranted on these types of large-scale land deals.

  9. Effect of O horizon and Forest Harvest Residue Manipulations on Soil Organic Matter Content and Composition of a Loblolly Pine Plantation in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J.; Mack, J.; Dewey, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. While the forest floor is never purposely removed during operational harvesting and site preparation, they could become in high demand as bioenergy markets develop. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of forest-floor manipulation on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil size/density fractionation and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations

  10. Throughfall nutrients in a degraded indigenous Fagus orientalis forest and a Picea abies plantation in the of North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Abbasian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this study was to compare the quantity and quality of TF (throughfall in an indigenous, but degraded, stand of Fagus orientalis and Picea abies plantation.Area of study: Forests of Kelar-Dasht region located in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.Material and Methods: TF measured by twenty collectors that were distributed randomly underneath each stand. For 21 storms sampled in 2012 (August-December and 2013 (April-June, we analyzed pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and P of  gross rainfall (GR and TF.Main results: Cumulative interception (I for F. orientalis and P. abies were 114.2 mm and 194.8 mm of the total GR, respectively. The amount of K+ (13.4 mg L-1 and Ca2+ (0.9 mg L-1 were higher (for both elements, p = 0.001 in the TF of P. abies compared to those of F. orientalis (6.8 and 0.5, mg L-1, respectively and GR (3.2 and 0.37 mg L-1, respectively. Conversely, mean P concentration was doubled (p = 0.022 in the TF of F. orientalis (11.1 mg L-1 compared to GR (5.8 mg L-1.Research highlights: P. abies plantations may provide a solution for reforestation of degraded F. orientalis forests of northern Iran, yet how P. abies plantations differentially affect the quality and quantity of rainfall reaching subcanopy soils (TF compared to F. orientalis is unknown. Understanding the connection between hydrological processes and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems is crucial for choosing the appropriate species to rehabilitate the degraded indigenous forests with nonindigenous species.  Keywords: concentration; hydrological process; interception; reforestation.

  11. The relationship between leaf area index and microclimate in tropical forest and oil palm plantation: Forest disturbance drives changes in microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Stephen R; Toumi, Ralf; Pfeifer, Marion; Turner, Edgar C; Nilus, Reuben; Ewers, Robert M

    2015-02-15

    Land use change is a major threat to biodiversity. One mechanism by which land use change influences biodiversity and ecological processes is through changes in the local climate. Here, the relationships between leaf area index and five climate variables - air temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure deficit, specific humidity and soil temperature - are investigated across a range of land use types in Borneo, including primary tropical forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation. Strong correlations with the leaf area index are found for the mean daily maximum air and soil temperatures, the mean daily maximum vapour pressure deficit and the mean daily minimum relative humidity. Air beneath canopies with high leaf area index is cooler and has higher relative humidity during the day. Forest microclimate is also found to be less variable for sites with higher leaf area indices. Primary forest is found to be up to 2.5 °C cooler than logged forest and up to 6.5 °C cooler than oil palm plantations. Our results indicate that leaf area index is a useful parameter for predicting the effects of vegetation upon microclimate, which could be used to make small scale climate predictions based on remotely sensed data.

  12. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon

    OpenAIRE

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D.; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation for tree cash crop plantations such as oil palm, rubber, and cacao agroforest in the tropics results in strong decreases in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, with much of this carbon lost through carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and leaching. We found that SOC stock losses in oil palm, rubber, and cacao agroforestry plantations in Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru could be predicted by the amount of SOC in the original forests: the more SOC present initially, the more SOC lost after c...

  13. Surface fuels quantification in forest plantations and remaining of atlantic forest in the “Brejo” region in Paraíba State, Brazil”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the accumulation of combustible material in native forests and plantations are mainly important tool for estimating the risk of forest fires. This study aimed to determine the amount of combustible material in forest stands and in the remaining rain forest located in the municipality of Areia, in Brejo of Paraiba. The collection of combustible material was carried out in plots of 1m ², randomly selected areas. The fuel accumulated in the different areas were classified according to the physiological state of alive and dead. The largest amount of combustible material was obtained in the area of the Atlantic with 19.47 Mg ha-1. The amount of combustible material alive did not differ between the studied areas.

  14. 集体林权制度改革后FSC森林认证对我国人工林可持续经营的借鉴意义%Importance of FSC on Plantation Sustainable Management after Collective Forest Right System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵康

    2012-01-01

    我国人工林面积居世界之首,但人工林的质量并不高,且大多林分结构简单,生物多样性低,针叶化现象较严重,不利于地力维持和林分生产力提高.基于FSC森林认证体系及其认证模式,分析林改后FSC森林认证体系对人工林可持续经营的借鉴作用,包括人工林的经营应在法制的框架内实施,人工林的发展要考虑生物多样性和社区利益,实现“近自然化经营”,制定规范的人工林经营方案等我国人工林可持续经营对策.%Plantation forest area of China ranks first in the world, but with simple stand structure, low biological diversity and more serious coniferous phenomenon, the quality of plantation forest is not high and has disadvantage for soil fertility maintenance and forest productivity. Based on the FSC forest certification system and certification model, this paper analyzed the importance of FSC on plantation forest sustainable management after reform, and plantation forest sustainable management countermeasures were carried out. including plantation forest management should be implemented within the framework of the legal system, plantation forest development must consider the biodiversity and community interests, to a-chieve " close to natural management" , to make the standard for forest management plan etc.

  15. Mapping Spatial Distribution of Larch Plantations from Multi-Seasonal Landsat-8 OLI Imagery and Multi-Scale Textures Using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about spatial distribution of plantation forests is critical for forest management, monitoring programs and functional assessment. This study demonstrates the potential of multi-seasonal (spring, summer, autumn and winter Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager imageries with random forests (RF modeling to map larch plantations (LP in a typical plantation forest landscape in North China. The spectral bands and two types of textures were applied for creating 675 input variables of RF. An accuracy of 92.7% for LP, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.834, was attained using the RF model. A RF-based importance assessment reveals that the spectral bands and bivariate textural features calculated by pseudo-cross variogram (PC strongly promoted forest class-separability, whereas the univariate textural features influenced weakly. A feature selection strategy eliminated 93% of variables, and then a subset of the 47 most essential variables was generated. In this subset, PC texture derived from summer and winter appeared the most frequently, suggesting that this variability in growing peak season and non-growing season can effectively enhance forest class-separability. A RF classifier applied to the subset led to 91.9% accuracy for LP, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.829. This study provides an insight into approaches for discriminating plantation forests with phenological behaviors.

  16. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-01-01

    The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the v...

  17. Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

    2015-02-01

    The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management.

  18. Avian diversity and feeding guilds in a secondary forest, an oil palm plantation and a paddy field in riparian areas of the kerian river basin, perak, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nur Munira; Latip, Nurul Salmi Abdul; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Khairuddin, Nurul Liyana

    2011-12-01

    The diversity and the feeding guilds of birds in three different habitats (secondary forest, oil palm plantation and paddy field) were investigated in riparian areas of the Kerian River Basin (KRB), Perak, Malaysia. Point-count observation and mist-netting methods were used to determine bird diversity and abundance. A total of 132 species of birds from 46 families were recorded in the 3 habitats. Species diversity, measured by Shannon's diversity index, was 3.561, 3.183 and 1.042 in the secondary forest, the paddy field and the oil palm plantation, respectively. The vegetation diversity and the habitat structure were important determinants of the number of bird species occurring in an area. The relative abundance of the insectivore, insectivore-frugivore and frugivore guilds was greater in the forest than in the monoculture plantation. In contrast, the relative abundance of the carnivore, granivore and omnivore guilds was higher in the plantation. The results of the study show that the conversion of forest to either oil palm plantation or paddy fields produced a decline in bird diversity and changes in the distribution of bird feeding guilds.

  19. Simulation of hydrology of short rotation hardwood plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Parsons; Carl C. Trettin

    2001-01-01

    A 76 ha hardwood plantation at Trice Research Forest near Sumter, SC is being usedto study forest hydrology on an operational scale. The overall objective of this project is to develop tools to enable forest managers to assess and manage sustainable short rotation woody crop production systems. This paper reports on the use of the water management model, WATRCOM, as a...

  20. Changes in Biomass Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks following the Conversion from a Secondary Coniferous Forest to a Pine Plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaifeng; Su, Jianrong; Liu, Wande; Lang, Xuedong; Huang, Xiaobo; Jia, Chengxinzhuo; Zhang, Zhijun; Tong, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C) and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF) in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0-1 m). The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-year-old stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1) with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0-0.1 m) contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded.

  1. [Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Flórez, Claudia Patricia; León-Peláez, Juan Diego; Osorio-Vega, Nelson Walter; Restrepo-Llano, Manuel Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia. Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m2 plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were monitored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha) and N (2.4kg/ha), and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha). A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%), and the least was that of N (40%). P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek's index (IEV = 3176) and foliar nutrient resorption (35%). Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many

  2. Land use changes and GHG emissions from tropical forest conversion by oil palm plantations in Riau Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Fatwa; Hino, Masateru

    2013-01-01

    Increasing prices and demand for biofuel and cooking oil from importer countries have caused a remarkable expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia. In this paper, we attempt to monitor the expansion of oil palm plantations on peat land and in tropical forests. We measure the GHG emissions from the land conversion activities at provincial scale. Using Landsat images from three different periods (1990s, 2000s and 2012), we classified LULC of the Riau Province, which is the largest oil palm producing region in Indonesia. A hybrid method of integration, generated by combining automatic processing and manual analysis, yields the best results. We found that the tropical rainforest cover decreased from ∼63% in the 1990s to ∼37% in the 2000s. By 2012, the remaining tropical rainforest cover was only ∼22%. From the 1990s to the 2000s, conversion of forests and peat lands was the primary source of emissions, total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼26.6 million tCO2.y(-1), with 40.62% and 59.38% of the emissions from conversion of peat lands and forests, respectively. Between 2000 and 2012, the total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼5.2 million tCO2. y(-1), with 69.94% and 27.62% of the emissions from converted peat lands and converted forests, respectively. The results show that in the Riau Province, the oil palm industry boomed in the period from 1990 to 2000, with transformation of tropical forest and peat land as the primary source of emissions. The decrease of CO2 emissions in the period from 2000 to 2012 is possibly due to the enforcement of a moratorium on deforestation.

  3. Land use changes and GHG emissions from tropical forest conversion by oil palm plantations in Riau Province, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Ramdani

    Full Text Available Increasing prices and demand for biofuel and cooking oil from importer countries have caused a remarkable expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia. In this paper, we attempt to monitor the expansion of oil palm plantations on peat land and in tropical forests. We measure the GHG emissions from the land conversion activities at provincial scale. Using Landsat images from three different periods (1990s, 2000s and 2012, we classified LULC of the Riau Province, which is the largest oil palm producing region in Indonesia. A hybrid method of integration, generated by combining automatic processing and manual analysis, yields the best results. We found that the tropical rainforest cover decreased from ∼63% in the 1990s to ∼37% in the 2000s. By 2012, the remaining tropical rainforest cover was only ∼22%. From the 1990s to the 2000s, conversion of forests and peat lands was the primary source of emissions, total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼26.6 million tCO2.y(-1, with 40.62% and 59.38% of the emissions from conversion of peat lands and forests, respectively. Between 2000 and 2012, the total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼5.2 million tCO2. y(-1, with 69.94% and 27.62% of the emissions from converted peat lands and converted forests, respectively. The results show that in the Riau Province, the oil palm industry boomed in the period from 1990 to 2000, with transformation of tropical forest and peat land as the primary source of emissions. The decrease of CO2 emissions in the period from 2000 to 2012 is possibly due to the enforcement of a moratorium on deforestation.

  4. Mangrove Plantation Forest Assessment Using Structural Attributes Derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faelga, R. A. G.; Paringit, E. C.; Perez, G. J. P.; Ibanez, C. A. G.; Argamosa, R. A. L.; Posilero, M. A. V.; Zaragosa, G. P.; Tandoc, F. A. M.; Malabanan, M. V.

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the structural and functional attributes of forests is integral in performing management strategies and for understanding forest ecosystem functions. Field sampling methods through plot level is one of the known strategies in forest studies; however, these methods have its limitations and are prone to subjected biases. Remote Sensing data, particularly that of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) can be utilized to alleviate the limitations of extracting forest structure parameters. The study aims to characterize a Rhizophoraceae-dominated mangrove forest plantation. Point cloud distribution within a 1-hectare plot was processed by utilizing thirty (30) samples of 5x5 meter plots, which were analysed for the characterization and forest structure assessment. Point densities were grouped at intervals of 10% of the plot's maximum height (Height at Bincentile or HBn) to determine where the clustering of points occur per plot. The result shows that most of the points are clustered at HBn with height values ranging from 2.98 to 4.15 meters for plots located at the middle part of the forest, with a standard deviation of 1.78 to 3.69, respectively. On the other hand, sample plots that are located at the periphery part of the forest shows that the point clustering occurs at different heights ranging from 1.71 meters to 4.43 meters, with standard deviation values ranging from 1.69 to 3.81.Plots that are located along the fringes of the forest reflect a stunted clustering of points, while plots that explicitly show mangrove trimmings and cuts reflect even distribution in terms of point density within each HBn. Both species present in the area (R. mucronata and R. apiculata) exhibits similar clustering, which could represent detection of Rhizophoraceae mangroves.

  5. The effect of surface cover on infiltration rate in steep forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, M.; Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Ito, S.; Mizugaki, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Japanese cypress (Hinoki; Chamaecyparis obtusa) is a major commercial tree species in Japan, and without thinning of high-density stands, canopy closure prevents development of understory vegetation. Therefore there is a concern for overlandflow and sediment yield due to infiltration rate lowering from steep hillslopes of Japanese cypress plantation. We developed a light-weight rainfall simulator based on the design of Meyer and Harmon (1979). A flat fan Veejet 80150 spraying nozzle (Spraying systems Co., USA) is mounted on the manifold at 2.13 m high from the plot surface. The nozzle oscillates so that the spray fans swept across the targeting 1m x 1m plot. The Veejet 80150 spraying nozzle produces large raindrops larger than 2 mm in diameter, and can simulate the high raindrop kinetic energy of natural storm. A targeted rainfall rate is 180 mm/h. Total 25 sprinkling experiments have been conducted on 35-degree hillslopes with varying surface cover. We obtained the minimum infiltration rate of 14 mm/h where the surface cover is very little. The infiltration rates were plotted against the total understory vegetation and dry weight of total surface cover including litter. The infiltration rate increased with the increasing total surface cover, and higher regression coefficient is obtained for the case of the total surface cover. These results will contribute to the future modeling studies of overlandflow occurrences for the catchment scales.

  6. Hydrological eco-service of rubber plantations in Hainan Island and its effect on local economic development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ju-sheng; WANG Ru-song

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of economic forest on global environmental change(GEC) are one of the hot issues in environmental study. Based on the 3-year observation data and 40-year climate data, GEC and analysis of the hydrological dynamic characteristics of rubber plantations and estimate of the water balance in the rubber plantations in Hainan Island were made. The results showed that the rainfall intercepted by the canopy of the plantations accounted for 11.45% of the annual rainfall, the total runoff for 23.71%, the total evaporation and transpiration for 63.24%, the soil moisture storage for 1.6%. Analysis of the 40-year rainfall data in the 19 counties of Hainan Island during 1951-1990 showed that the large-scale substitution of the natural vegetation with the rubber plantations had no significant effect on the local rainfall in Hainan Island. The main reasons are (1) 80% of the rainfall in Hainan is brought by typhoons; (2) the proportion of 11.6% rubber plantations in total forest coverage in Hainan is not enough to influence the local rainfall in Hainan Island; and (3) although the rubber plantation is artificial vegetation, it has the similar function to the tropical rain forest. Analysis of the total water resource and total GDP of Hainan in 1997 showed that the economic benefit resulted from the water resource was 1.0 RMBYuan/m3. The value of hydrological of the rubber plantation in Hainan was 113.9 million RMB Yuan/a when compared with the tropical rain forest. The paper reaches conclusion that the hydrological eco-service function of rubber plantation has been enhanced after transformed from natural vegetation, which includes the natural service and powerful social service.

  7. Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omil, Beatriz; Merino, Agustin [Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain); Pineiro, Veronica [Centro de Apoyo Tecnologico (CACTUS), University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-08-01

    Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha{sup -} {sup 1} (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem - soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed. (author)

  8. Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Piñeiro, Verónica; Merino, Agustín

    2007-08-01

    Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha(-1) (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem--soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed.

  9. The Query of Suitable Areas for plantation and development of Taxus baccata L Species by Using GIS in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANOSHIRVAN ALAMI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxus baccata is a native species to the Caspian forests and is considered as the identification of these forests by some resources. The aim of this study was to understand the ecological characteristics of T. baccata in order to find suitable areas for its plantation in the Pone Aram preserve of Golestan province. Therefore, Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE methods based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP were used. In this process at first the needed and effective natural indexes were used as 10 parameters. Then the final map of suitable areas for T. baccata plantation were produced based on Bolian and MCE models. According to the results, in Bolian method about 6218 ha of the total area of the study site (30554 ha were estimated as suitable and semi suitable and 24336 ha were estimated as unsuitable for MCE model showed that about 2482 ha of the whole 30554 ha area of the study site is adequate for T. baccata plantation and 6181 ha is not adequate for T. baccata plantation. Regarding the results of the MCE and Bolian methods it has been concluded that for dynamic ecological parameters in delineation of suitable areas for T. baccata plantation the MCE weighting is more appropriate than Bolian. Using the results of this investigation it is possible to adequate areas for the presence of T. baccata and to execute a plan in order to facilitate the plantation of T. baccata in northern forests of Iran (watershed 88.

  10. Recent advances towards an integrated assessment of wildfire effects in forest plantations in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Jan Jacob; Abrantes, Nelson; Nunes, João Pedro; Caetano, Ana; Campos, Isabel; Faria, Silvia; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Hoogerwerf, Annelou; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; Methorst, Michael; Oliveira, Bruna; Prats, Sergio; Puga, João; Ré, Ana; Silva, Flávio; Serpa, Dalila; Varela, Marifé; Verheijen, Frank; Vieira, Diana

    2017-04-01

    sediment losses but also for organic matter/carbon losses, nutrient losses and pollutant export (PAHs and metals). Arguably, however, the most relevant advances that the esp team has been making in the past few years concern the following three topics: (i) the evolution of PAH and metal contents of ash and topsoil layers with time-since-fire (Campos et al., 2016); (ii) the eco-toxicological effects of post-fire runoff on aquatic organisms, especially through in-situ assays (Ré at al., 2017); (iii) mid-term effects of forest residue mulching on soil (fertility) losses as well as vegetation and soil physical, chemical and biological properties (Campos et al., 2016; Prats et al., 2016, Puga et al., in press) . Besides these three topics, the present presentation will address one topic of very recent nature (since summer 2016) and one topic of future work (from summer 2017 onwards), i.e. (iv) pre- vs. post-fire catchment behaviour and (v) post-fire carbon fluxes at the point to field scale, respectively. References Campos I., Abrantes N., Keizer J.J., Vale C., Pereira P., 2016. Major and trace elements in soils and ashes of eucalypt and pine forest plantations in Portugal following a wildfire. Science of the Total Environment 572, 1363-1376 Nunes J.P, Malvar M., Benali A.A., Rial M.E.R., Keizer J.J., 2016. A simple water balance model adapted for soil water repellency: application on Portuguese burned and unburned eucalypt stands. Hydrological Processes 30, 463-478. Nunes J.P, Vieira D., Keizer J.J., 2016. Comparing simple and complex approaches to simulate the impacts of soil water repellency on runoff and erosion in burnt Mediterranean forest slopes. EGU2017, session SSS2.22/HS9.12/NH9.24. Prats S.A., Wagenbrenner J., Malvar MC., Martins MAS., Keizer JJ., 2016. Mid-term effectiveness of mulching-based treatments in central Portugal. Science of the Total Environment 573, 1242-1254. Puga J.R.L., Abrantes N.J.C., de Oliveira M.J.S., Vieira D.C.S., Faria S.R., Gonçalves F

  11. Deep Soil Carbon Influenced Following Forest Organic Matter Manipulation In A Loblolly Pine Plantation In The Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J. A.; Mack, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.; Roberts, S.; Dewey, J.

    2013-12-01

    Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of the removal and addition of harvest residual and forest-floor on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil, size/density fractionation, and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO)-oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations in managed forests can have significant effects on deep soil carbon that may be resistant to mineralization or the effects of

  12. Reducing the infectivity and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous Quercus ilex forest through soil preparations for truffle plantation establishment: A bioassay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Reyna, Santiago

    2015-11-01

    In the early years of a black truffle plantation, the field proliferation of the nursery-inoculated fungi can be hampered by native ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising the seedling roots. Reducing the soil ectomycorrhizal infectivity in the planting hole before introducing the inoculated seedling could be an effective strategy to reduce this problem. Three bioassays were conducted to evaluate the impact of several soil preparations on the ectomycorrhizal infectivity and richness of a Quercus ilex soil in a truffle-producing region. Microwaves, quicklime, and acetic acid significantly decreased the percent root colonisation and morphotype richness of the native ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, they also decreased seedling survival or growth. Peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite did not show a significant negative effect on the soil ectomycorrhizal community. The results support the potential of soil preparation for reducing the ectomycorrhizal infectivity of forest soils, thus being a promising strategy to reduce the early colonisation by native fungi in truffle plantations. However, the indications of damage to the seedling development must be addressed.

  13. Using ecological memory as an indicator to monitor the ecological restoration of four forest plantations in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongyu Sun; Hai Ren; Val Schaefer; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    A large area of plantations has been established worldwide and especially in China. Evaluating the restoration status of these plantations is essential for their longterm management. Based on our previous work, we used an ecological memory (EM) approach to evaluate four 26-year-old plantations that represent four common kinds of plantations in subtropical China, i.e.,...

  14. Biofuel Plantations on Forested Lands : Double Jeopardy for Biodiversity and Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielsen, Finn; Beukema, Hendrien; Burgess, Neil D.; Parish, Faizal; Bruehl, Carsten A.; Donald, Paul F.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Phalan, Ben; Reijnders, Lucas; Struebig, Matthew; Fitzherbert, Emily B.

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the

  15. Biofuel plantations on forested lands: Double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielsen, F.; Beukema, H.; Burgess, N.D.; Parish, F.; Brühl, C.A.; Donald, P.F.; Murdiyarso, D.; Phalan, B.; Reijnders, L.; Struebig, M.; Fitzherbert, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the

  16. Biofuel Plantations on Forested Lands : Double Jeopardy for Biodiversity and Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielsen, Finn; Beukema, Hendrien; Burgess, Neil D.; Parish, Faizal; Bruehl, Carsten A.; Donald, Paul F.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Phalan, Ben; Reijnders, Lucas; Struebig, Matthew; Fitzherbert, Emily B.

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the

  17. Integration of Remote Sensing Products with Ground-Based Measurements to Understand the Dynamics of Nepal's Forests and Plantation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study assembles information from three sources - remote sensing, terrestrial photography and ground-based inventory data, to understand the dynamics of Nepal's tropical and sub-tropical forests and plantation sites for the period 1990-2015. Our study focuses on following three specific district areas, which have conserved forests through social and agroforestry management practices: 1. Dolakha district: This site has been selected to study the impact of community-based forest management on land cover change using repeat photography and satellite imagery, in combination with interviews with community members. The study time period is during the period 1990-2010. We determined that satellite data with ground photographs can provide transparency for long term monitoring. The initial results also suggests that community-based forest management program in the mid-hills of Nepal was successful. 2. Chitwan district: Here we use high resolution remote sensing data and optimized community field inventories to evaluate potential application and operational feasibility of community level REDD+ measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The study uses temporal dynamics of land cover transitions, tree canopy size classes and biomass over a Kayar khola watershed REDD+ study area with community forest to evaluate satellite Image segmentation for land cover, linear regression model for above ground biomass (AGB), and estimation and monitoring field data for tree crowns and AGB. We study three specific years 2002, 2009, 2012. Using integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level. 3. Nuwakot district: This district was selected to study the impact of establishment of tree plantation on total barren/fallow. Over the last 40 year, this area has went through a drastic changes, from barren land to forest area with tree species consisting of Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Michelia champaca, etc. In 1994, this district area was registered

  18. Photosynthesis of seedlings of Otoba novogranatensis (Myristicaceae) and Ruagea glabra (Meliaceae) in abandoned pasture, secondary forest and plantation habitats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loik, Michael E; Cole, Rebecca J; Holl, Karen D; Sady, Gabriel C

    2013-09-01

    Enrichment planting in naturally recovering secondary forests or in tree plantations is increasingly being used as strategy to restore later-successional, large-seeded tropical forest trees. We seeded two tree species (Otoba novogranatensis and Ruagea glabra) in three agricultural sites in Southern Costa Rica: abandoned pastures, eight to ten year old secondary forests and three year old tree plantations (containing two N-fixing of four total tree species). We measured micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, plant water potential, leaf area, foliar C and N, and photosynthesis to better understand mechanistic responses of seedlings to conditions in the different successional habitats. Micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, and plant water potential were generally similar across habitats. Certain aspects of leaves (such as Specific Leaf Area and foliar N content), and photosynthesis (e.g. quantum yield and electron transport rate) were highest in the plantations, intermediate in the secondary forests, and lowest in abandoned pastures. Enhanced rates of photosynthetic biochemistry (such as Vxmax and Jmax) and Photosystem II efficiency (e.g. thermal energy dissipation) occurred in leaves from the plantations compared to the abandoned pastures, which may be related to higher leaf %N content. Results suggest that foliar N may be of greater importance than soil water content and micrometeorological factors in driving differences in photosynthetic processes across planting habitats. Planting seeds of these two species in plantations containing three year old trees (including two N-fixing species) enhances certain aspects of their photosynthesis and growth, compared to seedlings in abandoned pastures with non-native grasses, and thus can help increase forest recovery on abandoned agricultural lands.

  19. Photosynthesis of seedlings of Otoba novogranatensis (Myristicaceae and Ruagea glabra (Meliaceae in abandoned pasture, secondary forest and plantation habitats in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Loik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Enrichment planting in naturally recovering secondary forests or in tree plantations is increasingly being used as strategy to restore later-successional, large-seeded tropical forest trees. We seeded two tree species (Otoba novogranatensis and Ruagea glabra in three agricultural sites in Southern Costa Rica: abandoned pastures, eight to ten year old secondary forests and three year old tree plantations (containing two N-fixing of four total tree species. We measured micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, plant water potential, leaf area, foliar C and N, and photosynthesis to better understand mechanistic responses of seedlings to conditions in the different successional habitats. Micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, and plant water potential were generally similar across habitats. Certain aspects of leaves (such as Specific Leaf Area and foliar N content, and photosynthesis (e.g. quantum yield and electron transport rate were highest in the plantations, intermediate in the secondary forests, and lowest in abandoned pastures. Enhanced rates of photosynthetic biochemistry (such as Vcmax and Jmax and Photosystem II efficiency (e.g. thermal energy dissipation occurred in leaves from the plantations compared to the abandoned pastures, which may be related to higher leaf %N content. Results suggest that foliar N may be of greater importance than soil water content and micrometeorological factors in driving differences in photosynthetic processes across planting habitats. Planting seeds of these two species in plantations containing three year old trees (including two N-fixing species enhances certain aspects of their photosynthesis and growth, compared to seedlings in abandoned pastures with non-native grasses, and thus can help increase forest recovery on abandoned agricultural lands.

  20. Timber production assessment of a plantation forest: An integrated framework with field-based inventory, multi-source remote sensing data and forest management history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Zhu, Jiaojun; Deng, Songqiu; Zheng, Xiao; Zhang, Jinxin; Shang, Guiduo; Huang, Liyan

    2016-10-01

    Timber production is the purpose for managing plantation forests, and its spatial and quantitative information is critical for advising management strategies. Previous studies have focused on growing stock volume (GSV), which represents the current potential of timber production, yet few studies have investigated historical process-harvested timber. This resulted in a gap in a synthetical ecosystem service assessment of timber production. In this paper, we established a Management Process-based Timber production (MPT) framework to integrate the current GSV and the harvested timber derived from historical logging regimes, trying to synthetically assess timber production for a historical period. In the MPT framework, age-class and current GSV determine the times of historical thinning and the corresponding harvested timber, by using a "space-for-time" substitution. The total timber production can be estimated by the historical harvested timber in each thinning and the current GSV. To test this MPT framework, an empirical study on a larch plantation (LP) with area of 43,946 ha was conducted in North China for a period from 1962 to 2010. Field-based inventory data was integrated with ALOS PALSAR (Advanced Land-Observing Satellite Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) data for estimating the age-class and current GSV of LP. The random forest model with PALSAR backscatter intensity channels and OLI bands as input predictive variables yielded an accuracy of 67.9% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.59 for age-class classification. The regression model using PALSAR data produced a root mean square error (RMSE) of 36.5 m3 ha-1. The total timber production of LP was estimated to be 7.27 × 106 m3, with 4.87 × 106 m3 in current GSV and 2.40 × 106 m3 in harvested timber through historical thinning. The historical process-harvested timber accounts to 33.0% of the total timber production, which component has been neglected in the

  1. Developing a dynamic growth model for teak plantations in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindhya Prasad Tewari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Tectona grandis (teak is one of the most important tropical timber speciesoccurring naturally in India. Appropriate growth models, based on advanced modeling techniques,are not available but are necessary for the successful management of teak stands in the country.Long-term forest planning requires mathematical models, and the principles of Dynamical SystemTheory provide a solid foundation for these. Methods The state-space approach makes it possible to accommodate disturbances and avarying environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a dynamic growthmodel based on the limited data, consisting of three annual measurements, collected from 22 teak sample plots in Karnataka, Southern India. Results A biologically consistent whole-stand growth model has been presented which uses thestate-space approach for modelling rates of change of three state-variables viz., dominant height,stems per hectare and stand basal area. Moreover, the model includes a stand volume equationas an output function to estimate this variable at any point in time. Transition functions werefitted separately and simultaneously. Moreover, a continuous autoregressive error structure isalso included in the modelling process. For fitting volume equation, generalized method of moments was used to get efficient parameter estimates under heteroscedastic conditions. Conclusions A simple model containing few free parameters performed well and is particularlywell suited to situations where available data is scarce.

  2. Does tree species richness attenuate the effect of experimental irrigation and drought on decomposition rate in young plantation forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masudur Rahman, Md; Verheyen, Kris; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Jactel, Hervé; Carnol, Monique

    2017-04-01

    Expected changes in precipitation in Europe due to climate change are likely to affect soil organic matter (OM) transformation. In forests, increasing tree species diversity might modulate the effect of changed precipitation. We evaluated the effect of tree species richness on the decomposition and stabilization rate in combination with reduced precipitation (FORBIO, Belgium) and irrigation treatment (ORPHEE, southern France) in young (6-8 yr.) experimental plantations. The species richness were one to four in FORBIO and one to five in ORPHEE. Twenty four rainout shelters of 3 m × 3 m were built around oak and beech trees in FORBIO plantation to impose a reduced precipitation treatment, whereas four of the eight blocks (175 m×100 m) in ORPHEE plantation was subjected to irrigation treatment. These treatments resulted in about 4% less soil moisture in FORBIO and about 7% higher soil moisture in ORPHEE compared to control. Commercially available green and rooibos tea bags were buried in the soil at 5-7 cm depth to measure two decomposition indices, known as 'tea bag index' (TBI). These TBI are (i) decomposition rate (k) and (ii) stabilization rate (S). The results showed no species richness effect on TBI indices in both reduced precipitation and irrigation treatment. In FORBIO, reduced precipitation resulted in decreased k and increased S compared to control around the beech trees only. In ORPHEE, both k and S were higher in the irrigation treatment compared to control. Overall, TBI indices were higher in FORBIO than ORPHEE and this might be explained by the sandy soils and poor nutrient content at the ORPHEE site. These results suggest that OM decomposition rate may be slower in drier condition and OM stabilization rate may be slower or faster in drier condition, depending on the site quality. The absence of tree species effects on OM transformation indicates that tree species richness would not be able to modulate the effects of changed precipitation patterns in

  3. The effect of surface cover and soil devastation on infiltration rate in steep forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Y.; Hiraoka, M.; Kato, H.; Gomi, T.; Miyata, S.; Mizugaki, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Japanese cypress (Hinoki; Chamaecyparis obtusa) is a major commercial tree species in Japan, and without thinning of high-density stands, canopy closure prevents development of understory vegetation. Therefore there is a concern for overlandflow and sediment yield due to infiltration rate lowering. We developed a light-weight rainfall simulator based on the design of Meyer and Harmon (1979). A flat fan Veejet 80150 spraying nozzle (Spraying systems Co., USA) is mounted on the manifold at 2.13 m high from the plot surface. The nozzle oscillates so that the spray fan sweeps across the targeting 1 m x 1 m plot. The Veejet 80150 spraying nozzle produces large raindrops larger than 2 mm in diameter, and can simulate the high raindrop kinetic energy of natural throughfall. A targeted rainfall rate is 180 mm/h. About 30 sprinkling experiments have been conducted on 35-degree hillslopes with varying surface cover in 5 locations in Japan. We obtained the minimum infiltration rate of 14 mm/h where the surface cover is very little. The infiltration rates were plotted against the total understory vegetation and dry weight of total surface cover including litter. The infiltration rate increased with the increasing total surface cover, and generally higher regression coefficient was found for the case of the total surface cover. In some cases, high infiltration rates were obtained where surface cover is low. Two possible explanations can be made; 1) surface soil (especially fine particles) has been washed away, where soil is mostly composed of gravel and the percentage of fine fraction is low, or 2) because of long-term soil loss by raindrop detachment, remaining soil looks like "ghanging"h between exposed fine root networks of Japanese cypress, where soil bulk density is significantly lower than other site. Therefore the infiltration rate in the devastated Japanese cypress plantations is not only controlled by loss of surface vegetation by low light condition, but soil

  4. Riparian reserves within oil palm plantations conserve logged forest leaf litter ant communities and maintain associated scavenging rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L; Lewis, Owen T; Chung, Arthur Y C; Fayle, Tom M

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests is causing declines in many species and altering ecosystem functions. Maintaining forest-dependent species and processes in these landscapes may therefore limit the negative impacts of this economically important industry. Protecting riparian vegetation may be one such opportunity; forest buffer strips are commonly protected for hydrological reasons, but can also conserve functionally important taxa and the processes they support.We surveyed leaf litter ant communities within oil palm-dominated landscapes in Sabah, Malaysia, using protein baits. As the scavenging activity of ants influences important ecological characteristics such as nutrient cycling and soil structure, we quantified species-specific rates of bait removal to examine how this process may change across land uses and establish which changes in community structure underlie observed shifts in activity.Riparian reserves had similar ant species richness, community composition and scavenging rates to nearby continuous logged forest. Reserve width and vegetation structure did not affect ant species richness significantly. However, the number of foraging individuals decreased with increasing reserve width, and scavenging rate increased with vegetation complexity.Oil palm ant communities were characterized by significantly lower species richness than logged forest and riparian reserves and also by altered community composition and reduced scavenging rates.Reduced scavenging activity in oil palm was not explained by a reduction in ant species richness, nor by replacement of forest ant species by those with lower per species scavenging rates. There was also no significant effect of land use on the scavenging activity of the forest species that persisted in oil palm. Rather, changes in scavenging activity were best explained by a reduction in the mean rate of bait removal per individual ant across all species in the community.Synthesis and

  5. Bat-Fruit Interactions Are More Specialized in Shaded-Coffee Plantations than in Tropical Mountain Cloud Forest Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montero, Jesús R.; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A.; Galindo-González, Jorge; Sosa, Vinicio J.

    2015-01-01

    Forest disturbance causes specialization of plant-frugivore networks and jeopardizes mutualistic interactions through reduction of ecological redundancy. To evaluate how simplification of a forest into an agroecosystem affects plant-disperser mutualistic interactions, we compared bat-fruit interaction indexes of specialization in tropical montane cloud forest fragments (TMCF) and shaded-coffee plantations (SCP). Bat-fruit interactions were surveyed by collection of bat fecal samples. Bat-fruit interactions were more specialized in SCP (mean H2 ' = 0.55) compared to TMCF fragments (mean H2 ' = 0.27), and were negatively correlated to bat abundance in SCP (R = -0.35). The number of shared plant species was higher in the TMCF fragments (mean = 1) compared to the SCP (mean = 0.51) and this was positively correlated to the abundance of frugivorous bats (R= 0.79). The higher specialization in SCP could be explained by lower bat abundance and lower diet overlap among bats. Coffee farmers and conservation policy makers must increase the proportion of land assigned to TMCF within agroecosystem landscapes in order to conserve frugivorous bats and their invaluable seed dispersal service. PMID:25992550

  6. Water-yield changes after clear-felling tropical rainforest and establishment of forest plantation in Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmer, A.

    1992-06-01

    A paired catchment experiment was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia to monitor water-yield changes due to different methods of clear-felling tropical rainforest and establishment of tree plantation with fast-growing trees ( Acacia mangium). The study included five catchments; treatments before planting were: (I) cutting and burning of secondary vegetation (forest fire 1982/1983), (2) clear-felling, manual log extraction and no burning, (3) clear-felling, tractor log extraction and burning. Two catchments were monitored as controls; one for the secondary vegetation and one for the rain forest. A calibration monitoring period for all catchments for 27.5 months started in August 1985. The results presented here include this calibration period and 32.5 months during and after treatments. Multiple regression analyses on runoff from treated and reference catchments before and after treatment were used to determine the increase in runoff due to treatments. Mean yearly areal rainfall was 3352 mm and mean yearly runoff 1956 mm for the control catchments for the 5 years of study. Calculated water-yield increases were for (1) 1008, (2) 447 and (3) 1190 mm for the first 32.5 months treatment and plantation establishment. The fastest runoff generation during storms was found after cutting, burning and no soil disturbance, leaving no vegetation to transpire and minimum disturbance to natural waterways. The use of tractors, causing soil disturbance, severe loss of infiltrability and top soil hydraulic conductivity resulted in decreased mean stormflow discharge during and after treatment. Later, with maintained low infiltrability and prolonged erosior clearing new waterways instead of the disturbed ones, a faster runoff generation and larger runoff increase were found in the last year of study.

  7. Soil carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from lowland forests converted to oil palm and rubber plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; Damris, Muhammad; Tjoa, Aiyen; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-04-01

    Demand for palm oil has increased strongly in recent decades. Global palm oil production quadrupled between 1990 and 2009, and although almost half of the global supply is already produced in Indonesia, a doubling of current production is planned for the next ten years. This agricultural expansion is achieved by conversion of rainforest. Land-use conversion affects soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes through changes in nutrient availability and soil properties which, in turn, influence plant productivity, microbial activity and gas diffusivity. Our study was aimed to assess changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes with forest conversion to oil palm and rubber plantations. Our study area was Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We selected two soil landscapes in this region: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each landscape, we investigated four land-use systems: lowland secondary rainforest, secondary forest with regenerating rubber (referred here as jungle rubber), rubber (7-17 years old) and oil palm plantations (9-16 years old). Each land use in each soil landscape was represented by four sites as replicates, totaling to 32 sites. We measured soil-atmosphere CH4 and CO2 fluxes using vented static chamber method with monthly sampling from November 2012 to December 2013. There were no differences in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes (all P > 0.05) between soil landscapes for each land-use type. For soil CO2 fluxes, in both clay and loam Acrisol soil landscapes oil palm were lower compared to the other land uses (P oil palm, and 195.9 ± 13.5 mg C m-2 h-1for forest, 185.3 ± 9.4 mg C m-2 h-1for jungle rubber and 182.8 ± 16.2 mg C m2 h-1for rubber. In the loam Acrisol, soil CO2 fluxes were 115.7 ± 11.0 mg CO2-C m2 h-1 for oil palm, and 186.6 ± 13.7, 178.7 ± 11.2, 182.9 ± 14.5 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 for forest, jungle rubber and rubber, respectively. The seasonal patterns of soil CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with water-filled pore space (WFPS) in loam Acrisol

  8. Review on Forest Policy Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Forest policy evolution was presented firstly in order to understand the background of forest policy development in China. The recent changes of forest policy were introduced in details, including forest policies on improving biodiversity conservation and securing national ecological safety, restoring key ecosystems, promoting sustainable forest management (SFM), clarifying forest land tenure and protecting farmer’s right on forest and forest land management, promoting healthy forestry industry development ...

  9. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kara; Corre, Marife D; Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber") as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05-0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass.

  10. Forested habitat preferences by Chilean citizens: Implications for biodiversity conservation in Pinus radiata plantations Preferencia por hábitats forestales por ciudadanos chilenos: Implicancias para la conservación de biodiversidad en plantaciones de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLE PÜSCHEL-HOENEISEN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for conservation outside protected areas has prompted the modification of productive practices to allow the maintenance of wild biota in productive landscapes such as those associated to timber production. Forest plantations could cooperate in conserving biodiversity outside protected areas if they have a developed understory. However, the success of the production changes depends on the social support they receive. Therefore, we evaluate Chilean citizens' preference for five habitats of different types of forest management. In addition, we assessed perceptions regarding the relationship between pine plantations and native wildlife through surveys administered in Chillán, Santiago and six rural localities in the VII and VIII region. Despite there is not a unanimous opinion regarding pine plantations as a threat to biodiversity, people prefer pine plantations that serve as habitat for endangered fauna. In fact, they agree on paying more for forest products to contribute to conservation in forest plantations, and actually prefer plantations with a developed understory better than those without it. This would suggest that measures aimed at conservation in forest plantations could be supported by the Chilean society.La necesidad de la conservación fuera de áreas protegidas ha llevado a la modificación de las prácticas productivas para permitir el mantenimiento de la biota silvestre en paisajes productivos tales como los asociados a la producción de madera. Las plantaciones forestales podrían cooperar en la conservación de la biodiversidad fuera de áreas protegidas si tienen un sotobosque desarrollado. Sin embargo, el éxito de los cambios en la producción depende del apoyo social que estos reciben. Así, evaluamos la preferencia por cinco paisajes con diferentes tipos de manejo forestal. Además, se evaluó la percepción acerca de la relación entre las plantaciones de pino y la fauna nativa a través de encuestas realizadas en

  11. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  12. How does conversion from peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation affect emissions of nitrous oxide from the soil? A case study in Jambi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Jodie; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Comeau, Louis-Pierre; Jo, Smith; Lou, Verchot

    2017-04-01

    Half of the peatlands across Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra are 'managed'. Conversion of peat swamp forest to workable oil palm plantation requires a drastic, potentially irreversible, change to the landscape, to which fertilizers are then routinely applied. A combination of these factors is now widely thought to increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, although there is high uncertainty due to gaps in the knowledge, both regionally and nationally. Despite the widespread use of fertilizers in plantations on peats, studies observing their effects remain very limited. Therefore, there is a need for in situ studies to evaluate how environmental parameters (edaphic properties, climate, soil moisture and N availability indicators) influence soil emissions. This 18 month study was located in plots local to each other, representing the start, intermediate and end of the land conversion process; namely mixed peat swamp forest, drained and logged forest and industrial oil palm plantation. Spatial variability was taken into account by differentiating the hollows and hummocks in the mixed peat swamp forest, and the fertilized zone and the zone without fertilizer addition in the oil palm plantation. Gas samples were collected each month from static chambers at the same time as key environmental parameters were measured. Intensive sampling was performed during a 35 day period following two fertilizer applications, in which urea was applied to palms at rates of 0.5 and 1 kg urea palm-1. Soil N2O emissions (kg N ha-1 y-1 ± SE) were low overall, but they were greater in the oil palm plantation (0.8 ± 0.1) than in the mixed peat swamp forest (0.3 ± 0.0) and the drained/logged forest (0.2 ± 0.0). In the mixed peat swamp forest, monthly average fluxes of N2O (g N ha-1 d-1 ± SE) were similar in the hollows (0.6 ± 0.2) and the hummocks (0.3 ± 0.1), whereas in the oil palm plantation they were consistently higher in the zone without fertilizer (2.5 ± 0.4) than in

  13. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, E.; Oral, H. V.; Akburak, S.; Makineci, E.; Yilmaz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils. Area of study: Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41° 09’-41° 12’ N latitude and 28° 54’-29° 00’ E longitude in Turkey. Material and methods: Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Research highlights: Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots. (Author)

  14. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ozdemir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study : To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils.Area of study : Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L. at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41°09' -41°12' N latitude and 28°54' - 29°00' E longitude in Turkey.Material and Methods : Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Research highlights : Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots.Keywords: carbon sequestration; C/N ratio; decomposition; exotic; tree provenance.

  15. An ant-plant by-product mutualism is robust to selective logging of rain forest and conversion to oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayle, Tom M; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance and the spread of non-native species disrupt natural communities, but also create novel interactions between species. By-product mutualisms, in which benefits accrue as side effects of partner behaviour or morphology, are often non-specific and hence may persist in novel ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis for a two-way by-product mutualism between epiphytic ferns and their ant inhabitants in the Bornean rain forest, in which ants gain housing in root-masses while ferns gain protection from herbivores. Specifically, we assessed how the specificity (overlap between fern and ground-dwelling ants) and the benefits of this interaction are altered by selective logging and conversion to an oil palm plantation habitat. We found that despite the high turnover of ant species, ant protection against herbivores persisted in modified habitats. However, in ferns growing in the oil palm plantation, ant occupancy, abundance and species richness declined, potentially due to the harsher microclimate. The specificity of the fern-ant interactions was also lower in the oil palm plantation habitat than in the forest habitats. We found no correlations between colony size and fern size in modified habitats, and hence no evidence for partner fidelity feedbacks, in which ants are incentivised to protect fern hosts. Per species, non-native ant species in the oil palm plantation habitat (18 % of occurrences) were as important as native ones in terms of fern protection and contributed to an increase in ant abundance and species richness with fern size. We conclude that this by-product mutualism persists in logged forest and oil palm plantation habitats, with no detectable shift in partner benefits. Such persistence of generalist interactions in novel ecosystems may be important for driving ecosystem functioning.

  16. Throughfall and soil properties in shaded and unshaded coffee plantations and a secondary forest: a case study from Southern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gaitán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia coffee production is facing risks due to an increase in the variability and amount of rainfall, which may alter hydrological cycles and negatively influence yield quality and quantity. Shade trees in coffee plantations, however, are known to produce ecological benefits, such as intercepting rainfall and lowering its velocity, resulting in a reduced net-rainfall and higher water infiltration. In this case study, we measured throughfall and soil hydrological properties in four land use systems in Cauca, Colombia, that differed in stand structural parameters: shaded coffee, unshaded coffee, secondary forest and pasture. We found that throughfall was rather influenced by stand structural characteristics than by rainfall intensity. Lower throughfall was recorded in the shaded coffee compared to the other systems when rain gauges were placed at a distance of 1.0 m to the shade tree. The variability of throughfall was high in the shaded coffee, which was due to different canopy characteristics and irregular arrangements of shade tree species. Shaded coffee and secondary forest resembled each other in soil structural parameters, with an increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity and microporosity, whereas bulk density and macroporosity decreased, compared to the unshaded coffee and pasture. In this context tree-covered systems indicate a stronger resilience towards changing rainfall patterns, especially in mountainous areas where coffee is cultivated.

  17. Dynamics of soil nutrients in larch plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Deren; Chen Jinglian

    1999-01-01

    The annual dynamic changes of soil nutrients were measured in pure larch plantation and in mixed larch plantation in the arboretum of Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science, Huhehaote. The results showed that soil nutrients in pure larch plantations changed rapidly in July and August. The variation of soil nutrients is more stable in mixed larch plantation. Compared with the pure larch plantation, the content of soil nutrients in mixed larch plantation obviously increased. The soil degradation occurred in the pure larch plantation, and related to the forest age.

  18. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steve [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); McDonald, Timothy [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Fasina, Oladiran [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gallagher, Tom [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Smidt, Mathew [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Mitchell, Dana [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Klepac, John [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Jason [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Sprinkle, Wes [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Carter, Emily [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Grace, Johnny [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Rummer, Robert [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Corley, Frank [Corley Land Services, Chapman, AL (United States); Somerville, Grant [Tigercat, Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a high-tonnage harvesting system designed specifically to operate efficiently in the expected stand types of a bioenergy scenario was built, deployed, and evaluated in a production setting. Stands on which the system was evaluated exhibited the heavy stocking levels (> 600 stems per acre) and tree size distributions with significant volume in small stems (down to 2” DBH) that were expected in the modified energy plantation silvicultural approach. The harvest system also was designed to be functional in the traditional plantation stands dominating the commercial forestry landscape in the region. The Tigercat 845D feller buncher, which was a prototype machine designed for the high tonnage harvest system, used a boom-mounted prototype DT1802 shear felling head and incorporated a number of options intended to maximize its small-stem productivity, including: a high-speed shear severing system that was cheaper to operate than a saw; a large-pocket felling head that allowed larger accumulations of small stems to be built before expending the time to drop them for the skidder; efficient, low ground pressure, tracked carrier system to decrease the amount of maneuvering, saving time and minimizing soil disturbance; and various energy-saving devices to lower fuel costs and minimize air quality impacts. Overall, the feller buncher represented a quantum advance in small-stem harvesting technology. Extensive testing showed the machine’s production rate to be relatively insensitive to piece size, much less so than comparable traditional equipment. In plantation stands, the feller buncher was able to produce approximately 100 green tons of biomass per productive machine hour (PMH), and in natural stands, it produced nearly 120 green tons per PMH. The ability of the high tonnage feller buncher to maintain high productivity in stands with smaller diameter stems is something that has not been achieved in previous feller buncher designs. The Tigercat 845D feller

  19. Simulating the impacts of land use in northwest Europe on Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE): the role of arable ecosystems, grasslands and forest plantations in climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mohamed; Saunders, Matthew; Hastings, Astley; Williams, Mike; Smith, Pete; Osborne, Bruce; Lanigan, Gary; Jones, Mike B

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we compared measured and simulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) values from three wide spread ecosystems in the southeast of Ireland (forest, arable and grassland), and investigated the suitability of the DNDC (the DeNitrification-DeComposition) model to estimate present and future NEE. Although, the field-DNDC version overestimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C, forest-DNDC under-estimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C. The results suggest that the field/forest DNDC models can successfully estimate changes in seasonal and annual NEE from these ecosystems. Differences in NEE were found to be primarily land cover specific. The annual NEE was similar for the grassland and arable sites, but due to the contribution of exported carbon, the soil carbon increased at the grassland site and decreased at the arable site. The NEE of the forest site was an order of magnitude larger than that of the grassland or arable ecosystems, with large amounts of carbon stored in woody biomass and the soil. The average annual NEE, GPP and Reco values over the measurement period were -904, 2379 and 1475 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), -189, 906 and 715 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and -212, 1653 and 1444 g C m(-2) (grasslands), respectively. The average RMSE values were 3.8 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), 0.12 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and 0.21 g C m(-2) (grasslands). When these models were run with climate change scenarios to 2060, predictions show that all three ecosystems will continue to operate as carbon sinks. Further, climate change may decrease the carbon sink strength in the forest plantations by up to 50%. This study supports the use of the DNDC model as a valid tool to predict the consequences of climate change on NEE from different ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    (Phytoseiidae in Brazilian natural environments, adjacent to coffee agroecosystems (Coffea spp., or about the influence exerted by neighbor vegetation as a reservoir of predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of these organisms in coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments. Samples of the species Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart., Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae and Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae were collected in eight forest fragments, from 5 to 51ha, adjacent to coffee plantations, in June (end of the rainy season and October (end of the dry season in the years of 2004 and 2005, in the Southern region of State of Minas Gerais. Leaf mites were extracted using the wash method, mounted in microscopy slides with Hoyer's medium for identification. A total of 2.348 phytoseiids was collected, being 2.090 in the forest fragments and 258 in adjacent coffee plantations, belonging to 38 species. According to fauna analysis, Iphiseiodes zuluaguai Denmark & Muma, the year of 1972 presented the best indexes in the coffee agroecosystem, being very frequent and constant in those periods. In the forest fragments, Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 and Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 were dominant, very abundant, very frequent and constant in those periods. One may conclude that the native vegetation shelters predator mite, natural enemies of mite-pests that still occur in coffee culture, making possible ecological management program development involving areas of natural vegetation and adjacent coffee agroecosystems.

  1. Worker’s Competency and Perception toward Safety and Health on Forest Harvesting Operation in Indonesian Long Rotation Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of prevention measures such as government regulations and recommendations through technical and managerial researches, unsafe working practices are still a common practice in Indonesia's forestry work, especially in tree harvesting operation.  In order to determine competency level of both field supervisor and workers as a baseline in developing participatory occupational safety and health (OSH protection program, a previously developed competency assessing instrument has been modified.  Further, the redesigned instrument was used to verify competency level of field supervisor and forestry workers (chainsawman, hauling workers, and truck drivers from 6 different forest sites with similar working method.  Results showed that both group of respondents had overestimated their competency level in practical aspect, indicated by the gap existence between OSH self-perception value and the standard-based assessment value.  The gap significantly occurred in knowledge, skill, and attitude elements; however working attitudes rest in the worst level.  This finding then indicated that improving working attitude should be taken as the goal priority in the OSH protection programs in Indonesia.  In short, when the discussion is pointed to practical activities, OSH protection program should adapt such strategies which put serious consideration on control mechanism.Keywords: tree harvesting, workers, safety and health, competency, attitude

  2. Assessing the impact of tree plantations on Water and CO2 Cycles in the peat swamp forest, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, O.

    2011-12-01

    The rapid deforestation in tropical countries contributes to the increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. On the other hand, the importance of bio-materials will be continuously increasing because of the demand of recyclable resources is increasing for the reduction of the consumption of fossil resources. We are trying to enhance the theoretical and empirical understanding of soil-vegetation -atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), and energy balance components based on in situ observation and modeling in peat swamp forest, West Kalimantan. Our research targets are following three: 1. To estimate water budget using ground water level, rain gauge and water flux data. 2. To observe Carbon exchange processes (CO2 budget) during and after ecological succession from secondary forest to plantation forest. 3. To propose new method of ground water management to improve timber productivity and to reduce environmental load using observation data and hydrological modeling. CO2 flux monitoring is started cooperate with local company (Pt. WSL) since May 2010. Wetlands ecosystems act as a sink (photosynthetic uptake) and source (due to soil decomposition) of carbon. Our target area is revealed as a net carbon sink in 2010-2011 season. Soil release CO2 into atmosphere, however photosynthetic activity absorption is much more efficient. The amount of CO2 release from peat swamp depends on water level and surface soil moisture. One year observation data is not enough to discuss carbon budget in peat swamp. For example, 2010-2011 season is La Niña (rainy) year in Indonesia. CO2 flux and hydrological observation will be continued until 2015 for understanding long-term carbon budget. Keywords: CO2 Flux, eddy covariance, peat decomposition, hydrological modeling

  3. Malaria-associated rubber plantations in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Kaewwaen, Wuthichai; Maneekan, Pannamas; Pimnon, Suntorn

    2013-01-01

    Rubber forestry is intentionally used as a land management strategy. The propagation of rubber plantations in tropic and subtropic regions appears to influence the economical, sociological and ecological aspects of sustainable development as well as human well-being and health. Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries are the world's largest producers of natural rubber products; interestingly, agricultural workers on rubber plantations are at risk for malaria and other vector-borne diseases. The idea of malaria-associated rubber plantations (MRPs) encompasses the complex epidemiological settings that result from interactions among human movements and activities, land cover/land use changes, agri-environmental and climatic conditions and vector population dynamics. This paper discusses apparent issues pertaining to the connections between rubber plantations and the populations at high risk for malaria. The following questions are addressed: (i) What are the current and future consequences of rubber plantations in Thailand and Southeast Asia relative to malaria epidemics or outbreaks of other vector-borne diseases? (ii) To what extent is malaria transmission in Thailand related to the forest versus rubber plantations? and (iii) What are the vulnerabilities of rubber agricultural workers to malaria, and how contagious is malaria in these areas?

  4. Appropriate Technological Development Guidelines for Rubber Plantation for Community Economic Development Using Local Wisdom in Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathip Channuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The agriculturists in northeastern Thailand had more rubber plantations. They faced the problem for high investments from using the new technologies. The purposes of the study was to examine appropriate technological development guide lines for rubber plantation for community economic development using local wisdom. Approach: As a qualitative research, documentary and fieldwork were carried out using a survey, interviews, observations and workshop. The research data were analyzed descriptively. Results: As each plantation owner expand his or her land for rubber trees, it was necessary for them to used appropriate technology handling the soil preparation, selecting the rubber saplings, spacing between rows and individual rubber tree, maintenance, fertilizer, pesticide and equipment needed for good quality rubber sheets. The rubber plantation owners realized that they needs appropriate technology and understanding to handle their own problem; They should know about the water drainage underneath each plot of land; the rubber stocks that could resist diseases and droughts and give more substance. Each rai of land should grow 76 rubber trees with 50×50×50 centimeters of each tree bed. The air flows for the plants should be calculated; homemade fertilizer, pesticide, equipment, the sipping and rubber sheets making should also be fully applied. Conclusion/Recommendation: The farmers developed the technologies for community economic development using local wisdom by improving the soils and adjusted to the climate and the geographical feature. They cooperated with the officials who support them to learn how using the appropriate technologies.

  5. 25 CFR 163.32 - Forest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest development. 163.32 Section 163.32 Indians BUREAU... Management and Operations § 163.32 Forest development. Forest development pertains to forest land management... development funds will be used to re-establish, maintain, and/or improve growth of commercial timber...

  6. Understanding community engagement in plantation forest management : Insights from practitioner and community narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    Community engagement (CE) processes are an essential component of modern forest management practices. Required under law and in line with modern business paradigms, CE processes need to produce positive social as well as operational outcomes, a balance that is often complicated and idealistic. This

  7. Understanding community engagement in plantation forest management : Insights from practitioner and community narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    Community engagement (CE) processes are an essential component of modern forest management practices. Required under law and in line with modern business paradigms, CE processes need to produce positive social as well as operational outcomes, a balance that is often complicated and idealistic. This

  8. Species-Specific Effects on Throughfall Kinetic Energy in Subtropical Forest Plantations Are Related to Leaf Traits and Tree Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebes, Philipp; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Kröber, Wenzel; Kühn, Peter; Li, Ying; Seitz, Steffen; von Oheimb, Goddert; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is a key threat to many ecosystems, especially in subtropical China where high erosion rates occur. While the mechanisms that induce soil erosion on agricultural land are well understood, soil erosion processes in forests have rarely been studied. Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE) is influenced in manifold ways and often determined by the tree's leaf and architectural traits. We investigated the role of species identity in mono-specific stands on TKE by asking to what extent TKE is species-specific and which leaf and architectural traits account for variation in TKE. We measured TKE of 11 different tree species planted in monocultures in a biodiversity-ecosystem-functioning experiment in subtropical China, using sand-filled splash cups during five natural rainfall events in summer 2013. In addition, 14 leaf and tree architectural traits were measured and linked to TKE. Our results showed that TKE was highly species-specific. Highest TKE was found below Choerospondias axillaris and Sapindus saponaria, while Schima superba showed lowest TKE. These species-specific effects were mediated by leaf habit, leaf area (LA), leaf pinnation, leaf margin, stem diameter at ground level (GD), crown base height (CBH), tree height, number of branches and leaf area index (LAI) as biotic factors and throughfall as abiotic factor. Among these, leaf habit, tree height and LA showed the highest effect sizes on TKE and can be considered as major drivers of TKE. TKE was positively influenced by LA, GD, CBH, tree height, LAI, and throughfall amount while it was negatively influenced by the number of branches. TKE was lower in evergreen, simple leaved and dentate leaved than in deciduous, pinnated or entire leaved species. Our results clearly showed that soil erosion in forest plantations can be mitigated by the appropriate choice of tree species.

  9. Species-Specific Effects on Throughfall Kinetic Energy in Subtropical Forest Plantations Are Related to Leaf Traits and Tree Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Goebes

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a key threat to many ecosystems, especially in subtropical China where high erosion rates occur. While the mechanisms that induce soil erosion on agricultural land are well understood, soil erosion processes in forests have rarely been studied. Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE is influenced in manifold ways and often determined by the tree's leaf and architectural traits. We investigated the role of species identity in mono-specific stands on TKE by asking to what extent TKE is species-specific and which leaf and architectural traits account for variation in TKE. We measured TKE of 11 different tree species planted in monocultures in a biodiversity-ecosystem-functioning experiment in subtropical China, using sand-filled splash cups during five natural rainfall events in summer 2013. In addition, 14 leaf and tree architectural traits were measured and linked to TKE. Our results showed that TKE was highly species-specific. Highest TKE was found below Choerospondias axillaris and Sapindus saponaria, while Schima superba showed lowest TKE. These species-specific effects were mediated by leaf habit, leaf area (LA, leaf pinnation, leaf margin, stem diameter at ground level (GD, crown base height (CBH, tree height, number of branches and leaf area index (LAI as biotic factors and throughfall as abiotic factor. Among these, leaf habit, tree height and LA showed the highest effect sizes on TKE and can be considered as major drivers of TKE. TKE was positively influenced by LA, GD, CBH, tree height, LAI, and throughfall amount while it was negatively influenced by the number of branches. TKE was lower in evergreen, simple leaved and dentate leaved than in deciduous, pinnated or entire leaved species. Our results clearly showed that soil erosion in forest plantations can be mitigated by the appropriate choice of tree species.

  10. Soil erosion: perennial crop plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Plantation agriculture is an important form of land-use in the tropics. Large areas of natural and regenerated forest have been cleared for growing oil palm, rubber, cocoa, coffee, and other perennial tree crops. These crops grown both on large scale plantations and by smallholders are important sou

  11. ESCORRENTÍA SUPERFICIAL EN BOSQUES MONTANOS NATURALES Y PLANTADOS DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA SURFACE RUNOFF IN NATURAL MONTANE FORESTS AND FOREST PLANTATIONS IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Andrés Ruiz Suescún

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. y plantados de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fueron medidos los flujos de escorrentía superficial (ES por un periodo de tiempo de 16 meses. Se implementaron parcelas cerradas de escorrentía superficial de 10 m de largo x 2 m de ancho, tanques colectores y sistemas de registro volumétrico. Los flujos fueron de 23,19 mm año-1 (1,07 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de roble; 35,13 mm año-1 (1,61 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de pino pátula y 230,64 mm año-1 (11,05 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de ciprés. Mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP se identificaron las relaciones existentes entre las variables hidrológicas y los flujos de ES, y por medio de análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos para los flujos de ES por cobertura en función de la precipitación, la precipitación en el bosque y la intensidad de lluvia promedio, variables que mostraron alta relación con la ES según el ACP.In natural montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., in pine (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, surface runoff flows (SRF were measured over 16 months. Runoff was measured using 10 m long x 2 m wide runoff bounded plots, collector tanks and a volumetric counter system. SRF were 23,19 mm year -1 (1,07 % of rainfall for oak forest; 35,13 mm year -1 (1,61 % of rainfall for pine and 230,64 mm year-1 (11,05 % of rainfall for cypress plantations. Relationships between hydrological variables and SRF were identified by a principal components analysis (PCA. For each one of the stands, multiple regression analysis was used to fit models of SRF on rainfall, throughfall and mean intensity of rainfall, variables that, according to the PCA

  12. Development and Evaluation of Models for the Relationship between Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height for Chinese-Fir Plantations in Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-qiong; Deng, Xiang-wen; Huang, Zhi-hong; Xiang, Wen-hua; Yan, Wen-de; Lei, Pi-feng; Zhou, Xiao-lu; Peng, Chang-hui

    2015-01-01

    Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) and height are the most important variables used in forest inventory and management as well as forest carbon-stock estimation. In order to identify the key stand variables that influence the tree height-dbh relationship and to develop and validate a suit of models for predicting tree height, data from 5961 tree samples aged from 6 years to 53 years and collected from 80 Chinese-fir plantation plots were used to fit 39 models, including 33 nonlinear models and 6 linear models, were developed and evaluated into two groups. The results showed that composite models performed better in height estimate than one-independent-variable models. Nonlinear composite Model 34 and linear composite Model 6 were recommended for predicting tree height in Chinese fir plantations with a dbh range between 4 cm and 40 cm when the dbh data for each tree and the quadratic mean dbh of the stand (Dq) and mean height of the stand (Hm) were available. Moreover, Hm could be estimated by using the formula Hm = 11.707 × l n(Dq)-18.032. Clearly, Dq was the primary stand variable that influenced the height-dbh relationship. The parameters of the models varied according to stand age and site. The inappropriate application of provincial or regional height-dbh models for predicting small tree height at local scale may result in larger uncertainties. The method and the recommended models developed in this study were statistically reliable for applications in growth and yield estimation for even-aged Chinese-fir plantation in Huitong and Changsha. The models could be extended to other regions and to other tree species only after verification in subtropical China.

  13. Quantifying the effectiveness of climate change mitigation through forest plantations and carbon sequestration with an integrated land-use model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, van J.G.; Strengers, B.J.; Eickhout, B.; Swart, R.J.; Leemans, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background - Carbon plantations are introduced in climate change policy as an option to slow the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Here we present a methodology to evaluate the potential effectiveness of carbon plantations. The methodology explicitly considers future

  14. Development of forest inventory methods in multifunctional forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borecki Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the protection of nature and environment.

  15. Increased Litter Build Up and Soil Organic Matter Stabilization in a Poplar Plantation After 6 Years of atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE): Final Results of POP-EuroFace Compared to Other Forest FACE Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, M.R.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2009-01-01

    Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in aggrading temperate forests and plantations have been initiated to test whether temperate forest ecosystems act as sinks for anthropogenic emissions of CO2. These FACE experiments have demonstrated increases in net primary production and carbon (C)

  16. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  17. Glyphosate Use in Forest Plantations Uso de Glifosato en Plantaciones Forestales

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    Marcelo Kogan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Under Chilean conditions the lack of weed control at forest tree establishment results in an average of at least 60% less biomass accumulation during the first year of growth of radiate pine or eucaliptus, and glyphosate offers a series of advantages in forestry weed management because its activity in both herbaceous weed groups, monocots and dicots, as well as annuals, biennials and perennials. Also, its efficacy in woody undesirable vegetation makes glyphosate a very important herbicide that can be applied to control herbaceous and woody weeds as pre-planting and during the second or third years of trees growth as strip applications. The aim of this review is to discuss the main uses of glyphosate in reforestation worldwide, during the first 2 yr after tree establishment, as broadcast application over the top of the forest trees and the most important factors that could affect glyphosate efficacy as a forest herbicide, like weed growth stage, application technique, volume and water quality, rainfastness, dew effect and the use of extra adjuvant with formulated glyphosate.Bajo las condiciones chilenas la falta de control de malezas al establecimiento de los árboles resulta en un promedio de al menos 60% menos acumulación de biomasa durante el primer año de crecimiento de pino radiata o eucalipto, y glifosato ofrece una serie de ventajas en el manejo de malezas forestales debido a su actividad en ambos grupos de malezas herbáceas, monocotiledóneas y dicotiledóneas, así como anuales, bianuales y perennes. Además, su eficacia en la vegetación leñosa indeseable hace al glifosato un herbicida muy importante que puede ser aplicado para controlar malezas herbáceas y leñosas en pre-plantación y durante el segundo o tercer año de crecimiento de los árboles como aplicaciones en franja. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir los principales usos de glifosato en reforestación a lo largo del mundo, durante los primeros 2 años despu

  18. Oil palm plantations fail to support mammal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Sam; Brodie, Jedediah F; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural expansion is the largest threat to global biodiversity. In particular, the rapid spread of tree plantations is a primary driver of deforestation in hyperdiverse tropical regions. Plantations tend to support considerably lower biodiversity than native forest, but it remains unclear whether plantation traits affect their ability to sustain native wildlife populations, particularly for threatened taxa. If animal diversity varies across plantations with different characteristics, these traits could be manipulated to make plantations more "wildlife friendly." The degree to which plantations create edge effects that degrade habitat quality in adjacent forest also remains unclear, limiting our ability to predict wildlife persistence in mixed-use landscapes. We used systematic camera trapping to investigate mammal occurrence and diversity in oil palm plantations and adjacent forest in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Mammals within plantations were largely constrained to locations near native forest; the occurrence of most species and overall species richness declined abruptly with decreasing forest proximity from an estimated 14 species at the forest ecotone to -1 species 2 km into the plantation. Neither tree height nor canopy cover within plantations strongly affected mammal diversity or occurrence, suggesting that manipulating tree spacing or planting cycles might not make plantations more wildlife friendly. Plantations did not appear to generate strong edge effects; mammal richness within forest remained high and consistent up to the plantation ecotone. Our results suggest that land-sparing strategies, as opposed to efforts to make plantations more wildlife-friendly, are required for regional wildlife conservation in biodiverse tropical ecosystems.

  19. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaveau, David L A; Leader-Williams, Nigel [Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom); Wich, Serge [Great Apes Trust of Iowa, 4200 SE 44th Avenue, Des Moines, IA 50320 (United States); Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202 (United States); Kanninen, Markku, E-mail: dgaveau@yahoo.co.u, E-mail: swich@greatapetrust.or, E-mail: justep22@myfastmail.co, E-mail: d.juhn@conservation.or, E-mail: m.kanninen@cgiar.or, E-mail: n.leader-williams@kent.ac.u [Center for International Forestry Research, Jalan CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sidang Barang, Bogor, West Java (Indonesia)

    2009-09-15

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km{sup 2} that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km{sup 2} protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km{sup 2} of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km{sup 2}) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km{sup 2}), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km{sup 2} of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an

  20. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Wich, Serge; Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel; Kanninen, Markku; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2009-09-01

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km2 that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km2 protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km2 of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km2) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km2), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km2 of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an upland PA may not significantly reduce

  1. Towards an integrated assessment of the impacts of forest residue mulching following wildfire in eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Jan Jacob; Abrantes, Nelson; Bastos, Ana; Brandsma, Micha; Campos, Isabel; Faria, Silvia; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; João Oliveira, Maria; Pimpão, Gabriel; Prats, Sergio; Puga, João; Ribeiro, Cristina; Rocha, João; Santos, Liliana; Serpa, Dalila; Silva, Flávio; Silva, Tiago; Valente, Sandra; Vieira, Diana

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 project RECARE (www.recare-project.eu) and, in particular, its WP6, the University of Aveiro partner has recently started testing two measures against the soil threat of post-fire erosion by water in an area in north-central Portugal, close to Coimbra that burnt during the summer of 2015. These measures - mulching with forest slash residues and contour ploughing - had been selected by the local and external stakeholders involved in the project, through two subsequent stakeholder workshops. While contour ploughing has still not taken place, the mulching was already carried out, using residues from eucalypt plantations as the burnt areas was dominated by eucalypt plantations, and applying them in a homogeneous fashion at two contrasting application rates, i.e. a "standard" rate of approximately 10 Mg ha-1 and a "reduced" rate of about 3 Mg ha-1. The standard rate was selected for having proved effective in reducing post-fire runoff and erosion in previous field studies in the region (Prats et al., 2012, 2014, 2015a), while the reduced rate had been found to be nearly as effective as the standard rate in a recent study in the hydraulic laboratory of the University of Coimbra (Prats et al., 2015b). Unlike the referred prior studies, however, the present study will also assess the impacts of mulching on two other soil threats - i.e. decline in soil organic matter and in soil biodiversity - and, ultimately, will compare the two measures in terms of their consequences for soil-based ecosystem services, using the framework being developed by RECARE (Schwilch et al. in Stolte et al., 2016). The proposed presentation will show the first results on the effects of the two mulch application rates on post-fire runoff as well as the associated losses of sediments, organic matter/C and nutrients (N, P), and on selected indicators of soil biological activity and diversity. Prats et al., 2015a (in press). LD&D (doi: 10.1002/ldr.2422) Prats et al., 2015

  2. Combined effect of pulse density and grid cell size on predicting and mapping aboveground carbon in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Alberto; Hudak, Andrew Thomas; Klauberg, Carine; Vierling, Lee Alexandre; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos; de Padua Chaves Carvalho, Samuel; Rodriguez, Luiz Carlos Estraviz; Cardil, Adrián

    2017-12-01

    LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying a variety of forest attributes, including aboveground carbon (AGC). Pulse density influences the acquisition cost of LiDAR, and grid cell size influences AGC prediction using plot-based methods; however, little work has evaluated the effects of LiDAR pulse density and cell size for predicting and mapping AGC in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LiDAR pulse density and grid cell size on AGC prediction accuracy at plot and stand-levels using airborne LiDAR and field data. We used the Random Forest (RF) machine learning algorithm to model AGC using LiDAR-derived metrics from LiDAR collections of 5 and 10 pulses m(-2) (RF5 and RF10) and grid cell sizes of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. The results show that LiDAR pulse density of 5 pulses m(-2) provides metrics with similar prediction accuracy for AGC as when using a dataset with 10 pulses m(-2) in these fast-growing plantations. Relative root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the RF5 and RF10 were 6.14 and 6.01%, respectively. Equivalence tests showed that the predicted AGC from the training and validation models were equivalent to the observed AGC measurements. The grid cell sizes for mapping ranging from 5 to 20 also did not significantly affect the prediction accuracy of AGC at stand level in this system. LiDAR measurements can be used to predict and map AGC across variable-age Eucalyptus plantations with adequate levels of precision and accuracy using 5 pulses m(-2) and a grid cell size of 5 m. The promising results for AGC modeling in this study will allow for greater confidence in comparing AGC estimates with varying LiDAR sampling densities for Eucalyptus plantations and assist in decision making towards more cost effective and efficient forest inventory.

  3. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  4. Breeding Strategy of Acacia Hybrid (Acacia mangium × A. auriculiformis to Increase Forest Plantation Productivity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sunarti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium× A.auriculiformis shows better growth and wood properties, and tolerance to pest and disease. Currently, acacia hybrid breeding strategy was developed through naturally hybrid selected from trees grown in plantation. However, mass propagation of acacia hybrid using such kind of strategy was not satisfied due to ageing effect. This study was aimed to develop a new acacia hybrid breeding strategy using controlled pollination hybridization technique. The strategy was developed through a series of research: flowering, crossing, hybrid identification, clone multiplication, and clonal test. The results of study showed that the series of research for developing acacia hybrid breeding strategy was achieved. Flowering time synchronization provided a high probability for the success of controlled pollination hybridization. Leaves taxonomy at seedling stage revealed to be an efective way to identify acacia hybrid with acuracy of 92.2%. The acacia hybrid was succesfully propagated using shoot cutting at rate of 78.1%. The best selected clones of acacia hybrid outperformed in height growth at rates of 17.28% over to superior pure parents, which is equivalent to the estimated stand productivity at around 48 m3 ha-1 y-1. The series of research provided a new effective and efficient breeding strategy for acacia hybrid.Keywords: Acacia auriculiformis,  Acacia mangium, acacia hybrid, controlled pollination, breeding strategyDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.128

  5. The water and energy exchange of a shaded coffee plantation in the lower montane cloud forest zone of central Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, F.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Barradas, V.; Cervantes, J.

    2012-12-01

    The water and energy fluxes of a shaded coffee plantation in the lower montane cloud forest (LMCF) zone of central Veracruz, Mexico, were measured over a two-year period (September 2006-August 2008) using the eddy covariance method. Complementary measurements of throughfall and stemflow were made to study rainfall interception. The sum of the observed sensible (H) and latent (λE) heat fluxes was almost 95% of the net radiation (Rn) minus the canopy heat storage fluxes, indicating very good energy balance closure. Monthly means of the mid-day (11:00-15:00 h) Bowen ratio (H/λE) and evaporative fraction (λE/Rn) averaged 0.74 +/- 0.12 and 0.56 +/- 0.05, respectively. Energy partitioning showed distinct seasonal variation, with significantly higher Bowen ratios prevailing during the dry season (0.81 +/- 0.13) compared to the rainy season (0.67 +/- 0.06). The lower evaporation rates during the dry season reflected a combination of lower soil moisture availability and a lower leaf area of the Inga shade trees during this part of the year. Both the eddy covariance, and the throughfall and stemflow measurements showed average wet-canopy evaporation rate to be very low (0.05 mm/h) compared to the corresponding rainfall rate (3.06 mm/h). As a result, and despite the low canopy storage capacity of the coffee plantation (Cm, 0.50 mm), interception was dominated by post-event evaporation of intercepted water rather than by within-event evaporation. Comparing the results for the coffee plantation with interception data from mature and secondary LMCFs in the study area suggests that the conversion of LMCF to shade-coffee may lead to a decrease in interception loss of 8-18% of incident rainfall. This decrease is caused by a three- to seven-fold decrease in Cm due to the lower leaf area and smaller epiphyte biomass of the coffee plantation. Comparing the eddy covariance-based estimate of dry-canopy evaporation for the coffee plantation with sapflow-based estimates of

  6. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  7. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development. PMID:27605501

  8. Ecotourism Development in Recreational Forest Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. A.H. Bhuiyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study explored the issues and strategies of ecotourism development in recreational forest areas of Malaysia. There are a number of forest recreational areas and reserves. The recreation forests are designated and managed under the forestry department. These recreational areas of scenic beauty comprise about 0.05% of the total forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotourism should be set in natural areas with special biological, ecological, or cultural interest. Objective: The aim of this study was to illustrate the potentiality to develop ecotourism in the recreational forests of ECER, especially in Sekayu recreational forest area. Approach: The data for analysis is obtained from the secondary sources. Results: The study showed that there are opportunities and potentialities in the recreational forests of ECER for ecotourism development. These are suitable location, availabilities of recreational forests, attractive natural beauty, pollution free environment, limited natural disaster and infrastructure development. There is some strategiesecological integrity, tourism urbanization, forest tourism development, government role and tour operator initiatives can be followed for ecotourism development in the recreational forests of this region. Conclusion: Appropriate policy, initiative and tourism development activities can be ensured ecotourism development in the recreational forests of Malaysia as well as ECER. In Sekayu, community participation must be increased for the sustainable ecotourism development in the forest.

  9. Quantifying the effectiveness of climate change mitigation through forest plantations and carbon sequestration with an integrated land-use model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Minnen, Jelle G; Strengers, Bart J; Eickhout, Bas; Swart, Rob J; Leemans, Rik

    2008-04-15

    Carbon plantations are introduced in climate change policy as an option to slow the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Here we present a methodology to evaluate the potential effectiveness of carbon plantations. The methodology explicitly considers future long-term land-use change around the world and all relevant carbon (C) fluxes, including all natural fluxes. Both issues have generally been ignored in earlier studies. Two different baseline scenarios up to 2100 indicate that uncertainties in future land-use change lead to a near 100% difference in estimates of carbon sequestration potentials. Moreover, social, economic and institutional barriers preventing carbon plantations in natural vegetation areas decrease the physical potential by 75-80% or more.Nevertheless, carbon plantations can still considerably contribute to slowing the increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration but only in the long term. The most conservative set of assumptions lowers the increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration in 2100 by a 27 ppm and compensates for 5-7% of the total energy-related CO2 emissions. The net sequestration up to 2020 is limited, given the short-term increased need for agricultural land in most regions and the long period needed to compensate for emissions through the establishment of the plantations. The potential is highest in the tropics, despite projections that most of the agricultural expansion will be in these regions. Plantations in high latitudes as Northern Europe and Northern Russia should only be established if the objective to sequester carbon is combined with other activities. Carbon sequestration in plantations can play an important role in mitigating the build-up of atmospheric CO2. The actual magnitude depends on natural and management factors, social barriers, and the time frame considered. In addition, there are a number of ancillary benefits for local communities and the environment. Carbon plantations are, however

  10. Quantifying the effectiveness of climate change mitigation through forest plantations and carbon sequestration with an integrated land-use model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swart Rob J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon plantations are introduced in climate change policy as an option to slow the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations. Here we present a methodology to evaluate the potential effectiveness of carbon plantations. The methodology explicitly considers future long-term land-use change around the world and all relevant carbon (C fluxes, including all natural fluxes. Both issues have generally been ignored in earlier studies. Results Two different baseline scenarios up to 2100 indicate that uncertainties in future land-use change lead to a near 100% difference in estimates of carbon sequestration potentials. Moreover, social, economic and institutional barriers preventing carbon plantations in natural vegetation areas decrease the physical potential by 75–80% or more. Nevertheless, carbon plantations can still considerably contribute to slowing the increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration but only in the long term. The most conservative set of assumptions lowers the increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration in 2100 by a 27 ppm and compensates for 5–7% of the total energy-related CO2 emissions. The net sequestration up to 2020 is limited, given the short-term increased need for agricultural land in most regions and the long period needed to compensate for emissions through the establishment of the plantations. The potential is highest in the tropics, despite projections that most of the agricultural expansion will be in these regions. Plantations in high latitudes as Northern Europe and Northern Russia should only be established if the objective to sequester carbon is combined with other activities. Conclusion Carbon sequestration in plantations can play an important role in mitigating the build-up of atmospheric CO2. The actual magnitude depends on natural and management factors, social barriers, and the time frame considered. In addition, there are a number of ancillary benefits for local

  11. Emergy and Eco-exergy Evaluation of Four Forest Restoration Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four different forest restoration modes (Acacia mangium plantation, mixed-native species plantation, conifer plantation and Eucalyptus plantation) were evaluated using Energy System Theory and the emergy synthesis method. In addition, the eco-exergies of the four forest restorati...

  12. Soil methane and CO2 fluxes in rainforest and rubber plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Rong; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Goldberg, Stefanie; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-04-01

    rubber plantations. Conversion the forest into rubber plantation decreased soil respiration in young plantation and it recovered during rubber development. However, the CH4consumption by tropical upland forest soil decreased in converted rubber plantations of all ages, with more decrement in old plantation. Change forest into rubber plantations weakened the soil function as CH4 sink.

  13. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Paul Hennon; Richard O' Hanlon; David D' Amore

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in...

  14. Development model for energy crop plantations in the Czech Republic for the years 2008-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havlickova, Kamila; Suchy, Jiri [Department of Phytoenergy, Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Publ. Res. Inst., Kvetnove nam. 391, 252 43 Pruhonice (Czech Republic)

    2010-09-15

    This paper deals with modelling the development of plantations for intentional biomass production. The model of plots for the areas of interest consider the following biomass sources: intentionally produced biomass from SRC of fast-growing trees and non-woody energy crops (sorrel, reed grass and triticale). Statistical data for the entire area of interest (NUTS1 size) and data for a part of this area (NUTS3 size - 18% of total area of interest) were used to determine data on the area of arable land and permanent grasslands in the initial year. This paper presents a model of the development of production plots for the period 2008-2030. Yields are calculated of selected energy crops with regard to their growing cycle using so-called triangular method. The core of the algorithm for calculation of growing area of energy crop is an optimalization of processes regarding economic and technical demands for long-term and sustainable production of biomass. (author)

  15. Changes in plant-soil feedback regulate ecosystem nitrogen retention during stand development of Japanese cedar plantation after clear-cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, K.; Tateno, R.; Katsuyama, M.; Tokuchi, N.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have documented the impacts of forest clear-cutting on nitrogen (N) cycling and retention, and most of them reported a large loss of N (mainly NO3--N) after cutting. However, the recovery process of N dynamics after clear-cutting and subsequent afforestation has been unclear. It is well known that internal N cycling creates ecosystem feedback between plant productivity (i.e. N uptake rate and nitrogen use efficiency) and soil N availability (i.e. soil N transformation rate and microorganism activities). Therefore, we focused on the relationship between hydrological N loss and internal N cycling during development of monoculture Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation stands. In our study site, stand age of planted trees is even within a watershed, but is various among watersheds. The use of these watersheds as chronosequence can help to isolate the effects of stand development processes after clear-cutting. We aimed to elucidate the factors regulating ecosystem N retention during forest development after clear-cutting. Our study site is located in Nara Prefecture, central Japan, which received 2,900 mm precipitation in annual means and 13 - 14 kg N ha-1 year-1 as mean bulk N deposition (2004-2007). Stream NO3- concentration, annual N export, litterfall, plant N uptake, soil N availability and transformation rates, carbon (C) and N content in forest-floor, mineral soil, and soil microbial biomass were examined in 1-, 6-, 17-, 32-, 43,- and 90-year-old-stand watersheds. After clear-cutting, early growth of Japanese cedar seedlings can be supported by higher soil N availability, resulting from enhanced decomposition processes by canopy opening. Thereafter in the 32-year-old stand, we found that the crucial increase in newly supplied litterfall on the forest floor can enhance N immobilization by C-limited soil microbes and decrease soil N availability, which can trigger a decline in net primary production and the increase in nitrogen use

  16. Shady Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between...

  17. Natural Regeneration of Plantation Forests under Drought%干旱影响下人工林的天然更新进程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晗生

    2012-01-01

    通过植被状况调查、气象条件分析以及地面处理试验,在分析人工林天然更新因子的同时,对更新幼苗的发生进行了探讨。结果表明:落种的萌发成苗过程是干旱影响下人工林天然更新的关键环节,其间水分因子起着显著的作用。更新幼苗与降水特点密切相关,冬季积雪、春季或旱季出现连续数日的降水过程或连阴雨天气,都是更新幼苗发生的有利条件。冬、春季缺少持续降水,干燥的地表使得更新幼苗难以发生。地面处理产生的覆土效果可改善落种的水分环境,克服降水条件的制约,从而促进更新幼苗的发生。为使成苗状况稳定和完成天然更新,进一步讨论了人工促进更新的一些措施。%Based on the investigation of some typical plantation forests and peripheral natural grasslands in a drought-prone semihumid area on the Loess Plateau, the analyses on meteorological conditions and the trial of shal-low scarification of plantation land with fallen seeds and seedlings for regeneration were mainly regarded the factors affecting the natural regeneration of plantation forests. The results indicated that the germination of fallen seeds on land surface and seedling formation would be the key links for the natural regeneration of plantation forests under drought, in which water factor might be a dominant factor. Closely related to rainfall, the favorable aspects to en-sure seedling occurrence for regeneration is snow cover accumulated in winter without thawing until early spring, and also precipitation lasting for a number of days or continuous rainy overcast appearing in spring or droughty sea-son. Owing to successive scarcity of precipitation in winter and spring, it is difficult to emerge seedlings for regen- eration in dry land. Nevertheless, to earth up may improve soil moisture conditions in dry land for fallen seeds and overcome the restriction of precipitation scarcity, thus the emergence of

  18. Development of the tree and shrub component and recovery techniques in a burnt pine forest, Castel Fusano, Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A five-year study (2000-2005 was established in a part of Castel Fusano (Rome pinewood burned in 2000. The aims of the research were: i to analyse the behaviour of the coenoses after fire; ii to verify the post-fire growth and canopy recovery of the Mediterranean maquis; iii to evaluate natural regeneration of italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.; iv to verify the effectiveness of italian stone pine plantation in enhancing the establishment of the forest cover. Permanent research plots were established to evaluate features and dynamics of the Mediterranean maquis as well as mortality and development of 1-year-old italian stone pine (ca.500 ha-1 seedlings. Two different plantation systems were applied: blocks of three seedlings at 8x8 m distance; one seedling at 5x5 m distance. After five growing seasons from the fire, only 700 stools ha-1 have resprouted, mainly holm oak (48%, whose only 38% of good vigour. Canopy cover of the broad-leaved species is not enough to assure a quick forest establishment. Combined pine plantation with the maquis species, has given satisfactory results, though the mortality was quite high because of the game damages. The block planting performed better for growth and survival of seedlings. This last plantation system could be a rational choice to assure, in a relative short time, forest recovery and mixed stands characterised by a considerable presence of natural vegetation.

  19. The Roll of Canopy on Interception and Redistribution of Anthropogenic Radionuclides Derived from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Coniferous Forest Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.; Onda, Y.; Kawaguchi, S.; Gomi, T.

    2011-12-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.1 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on Marchi 11, 2011. A large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest area are trapped by canopies, throughfall and stemflow are the most important pathways for the input of radionuclides into the soil of forest floor. In this study, to investigate the roll of forest canopy on interception and redistribution of the deposited radionuclides, a series of field monitoring experiment of throughfall and stemflow were conducted in coniferous forest plantations in Tochigi prefecture, 170 km southwest from the NPP. A set of 20 throughfall collectors with latticelike distribution and 5 stemflow collectors were located in the 10m × 10m interception plot, and the activities of caesium (137Cs, 134Cs) and radioiodine (131I) in throughfall and stemflow were quantified by using a high purity n-type germanium coaxial gamma ray detectors. Rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow samples were collected from 10 rainfall events, which includes first rainfall event after the NPP accident. The cumulative fallout of radionuclides in the study site was 3400 Bq m-2 for 137Cs, 3300 Bq m-2 for 134Cs, and 26000 Bq m-2 for 131I, respectively. The 137Cs in rainfall decreased exponentially with time since the NPP accident. For the rainfall event of 28 March, which is first rainfall event after the NPP accident, both the amount and concentration of caesium clearly increased with throughfall, whereas the concentration of radioiodine decreased with throughfall. For the subsequent rainfall events, the concentration of caesium decreased with throughfall, whereas radioiodine was not detected as a result of decay due to short half-life. At the end of May, approximately 30% and 60% of total caesium deposited after the NPP accident remained on the

  20. Temporal patterns of storage and flux of N and P in young Teak planta-tions of tropical moist deciduous forest, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2014-01-01

    Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) ranks among the top five tropical hardwood species and is being promoted for use in plantations in its non-native range due to its high economic value. However, there is a general lack of data on ecosystem functioning of teak plantations. We aimed at understanding storage and flux of nutrients related to young plantations of teak. Cycling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in a chronosequence of plantations (1, 5, 11, 18, 24 and 30 years) was studied in the Moist Deciduous Forest Region of North India with the objective of investigating the nutrient cycling pattern at younger age since the current trend of harvesting age of the species in several tropical countries is being drastically reduced for quick return from this high value crop. Standing state, nutrient uptake, nutrient return and nutrient retransloca-tion in these plantations were estimated by tree harvesting and chemical analysis methods. The range of total standing nutrient across all these plantations was 20.3 to 586.6 kg⋅ha-1 for N and 5.3 to 208.8 kg⋅ha-1 for P. Net uptake of N ranged from 19.4 to 88.9 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 and P from 3.8 to 18.1 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1. Retranslocation of N and P among all the stands ranged from 8.7 to 48.0 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 and 0.01 to 3.5 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1, respectively. Range of total nutrient return was 25.8 to 91.3 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 for N and 2.7 to 10.1 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 for P. N and P use efficiency was between 107.4 and 192.5 g dry organic matter (OM) g-1N, and 551.9 and 841.1 g OM g-1P, respec-tively. The turnover time ranged from 2.04-13.17 years for N and be-tween 2.40-22.66 years for P. Quantity of N and P in the soil nutrient pool ranged from 2566.8 to 4426.8 kg⋅ha-1 and 372 to 520 kg⋅ha-1, re-spectively. Storage and flux of components in different plant parts of different aged plantations were assessed and depicted in compartment models. Percentage storage in soil, litter and vegetation ranged from 82% to 99%, 0.6% to 2.4% and 0.5% to

  1. Occurrence of a black mildew in Santalum album plantation at Anakulam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Anakulam sub-unit of the Trivandrum Division of the Kerala Forest Development Corporation has planted 7.84 ha of sandal wood trees in Block V, including the plantation of 5200 plants in the year 2010 and 3000 plants during the year 2011 at a spacing of 3x3m. This area is located at an altitude of 300m. The entire sandal wood plantation is being affected with a black mildew fungus, identified as Asterina congesta.

  2. Occurrence of a black mildew in Santalum album plantation at Anakulam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Anakulam sub-unit of the Trivandrum Division of the Kerala Forest Development Corporation has planted 7.84 ha of sandal wood trees in Block V, including the plantation of 5200 plants in the year 2010 and 3000 plants during the year 2011 at a spacing of 3x3m. This area is located at an altitude of 300m. The entire sandal wood plantation is being affected with a black mildew fungus, identified as Asterina congesta.

  3. Is spatial structure the key to promote plant diversity in Mediterranean forets plantations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Moreno, P.; Quero, J.L.; Poorter, L.; Bonet, F.J.; Zamora, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean forest plantations are currently under an intense debate related to their ecological function, sustainability and future performance. In several Mediterranean countries, efforts are directed to convert pine plantations into mixed and more diverse forests. This research aims to evaluate

  4. Is spatial structure the key to promote plant diversity in Mediterranean forets plantations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Moreno, P.; Quero, J.L.; Poorter, L.; Bonet, F.J.; Zamora, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean forest plantations are currently under an intense debate related to their ecological function, sustainability and future performance. In several Mediterranean countries, efforts are directed to convert pine plantations into mixed and more diverse forests. This research aims to evaluate

  5. 沙棘经济林碳汇计量研究%Measurement of Carbon Sequestration of Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Forest Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党晓宏; 高永; 虞毅; 汪季; 李谦; 刘阳

    2011-01-01

    According to Guide of Carbon Sequestration Measurement and Monitoring of Afforestation Project of Green Carbon Fund in China.Carbon sequestration amount of Xanthoceras sorbiforlia forest planted was researched in Erdos City of Inner Mongolia.The results showed that Xanthoceras sorbifolia carbon content of every organs as follows.Carbon content of leaf,root,bark is 54.72%,45.26% and 54.58% respectively.After 20 years plantation of Xanthoceras sorbiforlia forest,the carbon reserve would be 81 911.53 t totally.In the process of plantation and tending,as a result of transport of seedling and fruit,water,fertilizer and other activities,carbon emission would be 834.60 t,and the net carbon sequestration would be 81 077 t.%根据《中国绿色碳基金造林项目碳汇计量与监测指南》的有关规定,对内蒙古自治区鄂尔多斯地区营造的沙棘经济林进行了碳汇计量研究。结果表明,沙棘各器官含碳率为:叶子54.72%,根45.26%,枝条54.58%。20a后的碳储量约为81 911.53t。在造林和培育过程中,由于苗木、果实运输、浇水、施肥等活动引起的CO2排放量为834.60t,因此可计算出在造林20a后的沙棘经济林的净碳汇量为81 077t。

  6. Carbon neutral? No change in mineral soil carbon stock under oil palm plantations derived from forest or non-forest in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van M.; Ningsih, H.; Rahayu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability criteria for palm oil production guide new planting toward non-forest land cover on mineral soil, avoiding carbon debts caused by forest and peat conversion. Effects on soil carbon stock (soil Cstock) of land use change trajectories from forest and non-forest to oil palm on mineral so

  7. Storage Problems of Poplar Chips from Short Rotation Plantations with Special Emphasis on Fungal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORVÁTH, Zsuzsanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several problems in storing wood chips freshly harvested from short rotation plantations, which result in quality losses as well as in dry matter and energy losses. The factors influencing the degradation of raw material are examined in this paper with special focus on fungal development. An excessive growth of fungi is connected to dry matter losses and also to an increased health risk during raw material handling.The following factors were measured during 6 months storage of poplar wood chips depending on particle size: box temperature, moisture content, pH-value, appearance of fungi in the storage and the concentration of fungal particles in the air. The results show a close connection between particle size, temperature and attack of fungi. During the storage mesophilic and termophilic species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor and Penicillium appeared. The concentration of fungal particles is the highest for fine chips and decreases in bigger particles. There was a special focus on the investigation of the properties of coarse chips (G 50, which represent a good compromise between handling, storage losses and health risk due to fungal development.

  8. Soil carbon budget in different-aged Chinese fir plantations in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shebao Yu; Dan Wang; Wei Dai; Ping Li

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the age effect on soil carbon balance in forest ecosystems is important for other material cycles and forest man-agement. In this research we investigated soil organic carbon density, litter production, litter decomposition rate, soil respiration, and soil mi-crobial properties in a chronosequence of four Chinese fir plantations of 7, 16, 23 and 29 years at Dagangshan mountain range, Jiangxi Province, south China. There was a significant increasing trend in litter production with increasing plantation age. Litter decomposition rate and soil respira-tion, however, declined from the 7-year to the 16-year plantation, and then increased after 16 years. This was largely dependent on soil micro-organisms. Soil carbon output was higher than carbon input before 16 years, and total soil carbon stock declined from 35.98 t·ha-1 in the 7-year plantation to 30.12 t·ha-1 in the 16-year plantation. Greater litter produc-tion could not explain the greater soil carbon stock, suggesting that forest growth impacted this microbial process that controlled rates of soil car-bon balance together with litter and soil respiration. The results highlight the importance of the development stage in assessing soil carbon budget and its significance to future management of Chinese fir plantations.

  9. Current Status and Advancements in Research of Plantation Nutrient Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; ZHANG Changshun; SUN Yongyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces concepts and current research status of plantation nutrients cyclings, and analyzes main contents of plantation nutrients cycling as nutrients contents, accumulation and distribution of nutrients elements, understory species and forest litter. At the same time, the paper summarizes the problems in plantation nutrients cycling and its prospects.

  10. Plantation future of bamboo in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; MikioKOBAYASHI

    2004-01-01

    In the past, utilization of bamboo resources in China has been traditionally dominated by direct consumption of local farmers as minor forest products with weak linkage with market. In recent years, the over-supply of grains and rapid degradation of agricultural environment call for alternative crops that can be developed through integrating the environmental plantation with the market demands. Closely associated with forestry and agriculture, bamboo is able to deal with the new challenges which China's agriculture is facing. Of 534 documented bamboo species in China, 153 species produce edibleshoots and of which 56 species are recommended for agricultural plantation; 139 species provide timbers and of which 58 species recommended; 116 species can be splited as good strips for weaving and of which 22 species recommended; 88 species are considered as garden bamboos and of which 34 species recommended; 45 species are able to produce paper pulp and of which 18 species recommended.

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis on Forest Certification for Forest Management and Forestry Industry Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper is based on the summarization of forest certification development to analyze and describe how forest certification promotes and pushes the setup of forest resources management model, forest management level and collective forest tenure reform. In terms of breaking green trade barrier, upgrading international competitiveness of forest products, facilitating forestry enterprise growth, etc, it elaborated the role of forest certification in promoting forestry industry development. The authors also ma...

  12. Selection bases of developing new varieties of willow family (Salicaceae Mirb. to create energy plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. Д. Фучило

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop an algorithm of creation of new highly productive clonal varieties of Salicaceae family representatives with improved agronomic characters that can be used at energy plantations Methods. Field investigations, laboratory analysis, analytical approach, selection method. Results. Flow chart of selection process with representatives of Salicaceae family included the following stages: the Ist stage – creation of primary families (F0; the IInd stage – creation of the second families, or branches; the 222rd stage – interfamily (individually-familial selection; IVth stage – familial-group selection; the Vth stage – clonal selection (selection of ramets. Conclusions. Breeding process with the use of complex of advanced methods of selection (individual, familial, group and clonal ones allows to get model populations with high-frequency of valuable alleles and genotypes and with the high level of genetic variety. Due to a negative multi-stage individual intrafamilial and interfamily selection, cleaning of artificial populations from undesirable forms takes place without the substantial decrease of genetic variety level.

  13. Agaricales em áreas de Floresta Ombrófila Densa e plantações de Pinus no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil Agaricales in Atlantic rain forest and Pinus plantations in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karstedt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas florestais de Santa Catarina são poucos estudados em relação à diversidade de Agaricales. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar e comparar a diversidade de Agaricales em dois sistemas florestais, no município de Joinville, SC. Parcelas de 20×20 m foram estabelecidas: três em Floresta Ombrófila Densa e três em plantações de Pinus. Basidiomas de fungos agaricóides foram coletados em janeiro, março, maio, julho, setembro e novembro/2004. Foram identificadas 40 espécies, 31 na Floresta e 10 nas plantações. A família mais representada foi Tricholomataceae, com 48% das espécies registradas na Floresta. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Camarophyllus buccinulus (41% na Floresta e Lactarius cf. fragilis (53% nas plantações. As mesmas espécies foram também as mais freqüentes, com 44% e 78% de freqüência de ocorrência, respectivamente. Considerando a riqueza de espécies e o índice de diversidade de Shannon, o estudo sugere que há maior diversidade de Agaricales na Floresta do que nas plantações de Pinus.Forest systems in Santa Catarina state are virtually unknown regarding Agaricales diversity. Our goal was to determine and compare the Agaricales diversity of two forest systems in Joinville municipality, SC. Plots of 20×20 m were established: three in the Atlantic rain forest and three in Pinus plantations. Basidiomata of Agaricales were collected in January, March, May, July, September and November/2004. Forty species were identified, 31 in the forest and 10 in the plantations. Tricholomataceae was the most important family, with 48% of the species found in the forest. The species with the highest relative abundance were Camarophyllus buccinulus (41% and Lactarius cf. fragilis (53% in the forest and in the plantations, respectively. These were also the most frequent species recovered in the forest and in the plantations, with frequency values of 44% and 78%, respectively. Considering species

  14. Potential Impact of Forest Bioenergy on Environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Forest bioenergy is an alternative to fossil energy.Although forest bioenergy is of great value to ease energy supply,there is still a strong call for the research of what impact forest bioenergy plantation will exert on environment if under large scale development.By discussing the resource potential and development status of forest bioenergy,the paper attempts to explore the potential impact of forest bioenergy on environment and give some recommendations to mitigate and even avoid negative impact.

  15. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sloan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management.

  16. Nontimber Forest Product Yield and Income from Thaumatococcus daniellii under a Mixed Tree Plantation System in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Boadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thaumatococcus daniellii is a wild sourced tropical understorey herb that is harvested for its foliage and fruits from which thaumatin—a proteinous sweetener—is extracted. With increased demand for natural sweeteners, uncontrolled harvesting of T. daniellii from the wild is suggested to be neither sustainable nor match industrial demands. This study determined the implication of controlled foliage harvesting of T. daniellii under a mixed indigenous tree plantation stand. T. daniellii plants within plots of dimension 3 m × 4 m were thinned to uniform foliage population of about 12 leaves/m2 and subsequently harvested at 16 weeks interval for 64 weeks at four different foliage harvesting intensities: (i no harvesting (control, (ii 25% harvest, (iii 50% harvest, and (iv 75% harvest. Data on agronomic characters and total income from the sale of fruit and harvested foliage were collected and analysed. We found that foliage harvest intensity affected (P 6 (25% ≥ 1 (50% and 0 (75%. Foliage harvest intensity also significantly (P=0.036 influenced fruit number and ranged from 11458/ha for the control to 4583/ha for the 75% harvest. Total income from fruit and foliage sales was greatest for the 50% harvest (US $ 17,191.32, followed by 75% harvest (US $ 12, 310.24 and lowest for the no harvest treatment (US $ 107.44. Thus, proper management of T. daniellii through controlled harvesting of the foliage under mixed tree plantation system could promote sustainable yield and income to farmers.

  17. The impact of integrating WorldView-2 sensor and environmental variables in estimating plantation forest species aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in uMgeni Catchment, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-09-01

    Reliable and accurate mapping and extraction of key forest indicators of ecosystem development and health, such as aboveground biomass (AGB) and aboveground carbon stocks (AGCS) is critical in understanding forests contribution to the local, regional and global carbon cycle. This information is critical in assessing forest contribution towards ecosystem functioning and services, as well as their conservation status. This work aimed at assessing the applicability of the high resolution 8-band WorldView-2 multispectral dataset together with environmental variables in quantifying AGB and aboveground carbon stocks for three forest plantation species i.e. Eucalyptus dunii (ED), Eucalyptus grandis (EG) and Pinus taeda (PT) in uMgeni Catchment, South Africa. Specifically, the strength of the Worldview-2 sensor in terms of its improved imaging agilities is examined as an independent dataset and in conjunction with selected environmental variables. The results have demonstrated that the integration of high resolution 8-band Worldview-2 multispectral data with environmental variables provide improved AGB and AGCS estimates, when compared to the use of spectral data as an independent dataset. The use of integrated datasets yielded a high R2 value of 0.88 and RMSEs of 10.05 t ha-1 and 5.03 t C ha-1 for E. dunii AGB and carbon stocks; whereas the use of spectral data as an independent dataset yielded slightly weaker results, producing an R2 value of 0.73 and an RMSE of 18.57 t ha-1 and 09.29 t C ha-1. Similarly, high accurate results (R2 value of 0.73 and RMSE values of 27.30 t ha-1 and 13.65 t C ha-1) were observed from the estimation of inter-species AGB and carbon stocks. Overall, the findings of this work have shown that the integration of new generation multispectral datasets with environmental variables provide a robust toolset required for the accurate and reliable retrieval of forest aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in densely forested terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. BIODIVERSIDAD VEGETAL ASOCIADA A PLANTACIONES FORESTALES DE Pinus caribaea MORELET Y Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL ESTABLECIDAS EN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA PLANT BIODIVERSITY ASSOCIATED TO FOREST PLANTATIONS WITH Pinus caribaea MORELET AND Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL. ESTABLISHED IN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández Méndez

    2012-06-01

    , within plantations by species, age and silvicultural treatment, also in the natural forest and savannah. Individuals were classified by size and habit. 49 families and 102 botanical species were identified. The highest and lowest diversity occurred in the natural forest and savannah with 53 and 18 species, respectively between plantations, there was greater diversity with P. caribaea with 46 species that in E. pellita with 38 species. The mixing ratio shows a heterogeneous vegetation in all uses. The richness indices of Margalef and Menhinick, show more species diversity in forest, plantations followed older and finally the savannah. Shannon and Simpson indices show all sites with heterogeneous vegetation. The treatments had statistically significant differences in number of individuals, species and size classes except forbs. Regarding abundance were three major groups: mature forest plantations, intermediate plantations, and young plantations with savannah. High diversity was observed between the threatments that shared less than 50% of species and abundances, according to indixes of Jaccard and Sorensen. Among plantations had the highert number of shared species.Concludes that in plantation grows understory plant biodiversity and don't prevent the establishment of native species.

  19. Soil fertility controls soil–atmosphere carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in a tropical landscape converted from lowland forest to rubber and oil palm plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hassler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of palm oil and rubber production, for which global demand is increasing, causes rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia and is expected to continue in the next decades. Our study aimed to (1 quantify changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes with land-use change, and (2 determine their controlling factors. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes on heavily weathered soils that differ mainly in texture: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each landscape, we investigated the reference land uses: forest and secondary forest with regenerating rubber, and the converted land uses: rubber (7–17 years old and oil palm plantations (9–16 years old. We measured soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes monthly from December 2012 to December 2013. Annual soil CO2 fluxes from the reference land uses were correlated with soil fertility: low extractable phosphorus (P coincided with high annual CO2 fluxes from the loam Acrisol soil that had lower fertility than the clay Acrisol soil (P 2 fluxes from the oil palm decreased compared to the other land uses (P 2 fluxes were positively correlated with soil organic carbon (C and negatively correlated with 15N signatures, extractable P and base saturation. This suggests that the reduced soil CO2 fluxes from oil palm was a result of strongly decomposed soil organic matter due to reduced litter input, and possible reduction in C allocation to roots due to improved soil fertility from liming and P fertilization in these plantations. Soil CH4 uptake in the reference land uses was negatively correlated with net nitrogen (N mineralization and soil mineral N, suggesting N limitation of CH4 uptake, and positively correlated with exchangeable aluminum (Al, indicating decrease in methanotrophic activity at high Al saturation. Reduction in soil CH4 uptake in the converted land uses compared to the reference land uses (P 2 and CH4 in a tropical landscape, a mechanism that we were able to detect by conducting this study at the

  20. Soil fertility controls soil-atmosphere carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in a tropical landscape converted from lowland forest to rubber and oil palm plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; Tjoa, A.; Damris, M.; Utami, S. R.; Veldkamp, E.

    2015-10-01

    Expansion of palm oil and rubber production, for which global demand is increasing, causes rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia, and is expected to continue in the next decades. Our study aimed to (1) quantify changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes with land-use change and (2) determine their controlling factors. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes on heavily weathered soils that differ mainly in texture: loam and clay Acrisol soils. In each landscape, we investigated the reference land-use types (forest and secondary forest with regenerating rubber) and the converted land-use types (rubber, 7-17 years old, and oil palm plantations, 9-16 years old). We measured soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes monthly from December 2012 to December 2013. Annual soil CO2 fluxes from the reference land-use types were correlated with soil fertility: low extractable phosphorus (P) coincided with high annual CO2 fluxes from the loam Acrisol soil that had lower fertility than the clay Acrisol soil (P oil palm (107.2 to 115.7 mg C m-2 h-1) decreased compared to the other land-use types (between 178.7 and 195.9 mg C m-2 h-1; P oil palm were the result of strongly decomposed soil organic matter and reduced soil C stocks due to reduced litter input as well as being due to a possible reduction in C allocation to roots due to improved soil fertility from liming and P fertilization in these plantations. Soil CH4 uptake in the reference land-use types was negatively correlated with net nitrogen (N) mineralization and soil mineral N, suggesting N limitation of CH4 uptake, and positively correlated with exchangeable aluminum (Al), indicating a decrease in methanotrophic activity at high Al saturation. Reduction in soil CH4 uptake in the converted land-use types (ranging from -3.0 to -14.9 μg C m-2 h-1) compared to the reference land-use types (ranging from -20.8 to -40.3 μg C m-2 h-1; P < 0.01) was due to a decrease in soil N availability in the converted land-use types. Our study

  1. The abundance and diversity of legume-nodulating rhizobia in 28-year-old plantations of tropical, subtropical, and exotic tree species: a case study from the Forest Reserve of Bandia, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene, Godar; Thiao, Mansour; Samba-Mbaye, Ramatoulaye; Khasa, Damase; Kane, Aboubacry; Mbaye, Mame Samba; Beaulieu, Marie-Ève; Manga, Anicet; Sylla, Samba Ndao

    2013-01-01

    Several fast-growing and multipurpose tree species have been widely used in West Africa to both reverse the tendency of land degradation and restore soil productivity. Although beneficial effects have been reported on soil stabilization, there still remains a lack of information about their impact on soil microorganisms. Our investigation has been carried out in exotic and native tree plantations of 28 years and aimed to survey and compare the abundance and genetic diversity of natural legume-nodulating rhizobia (LNR). The study of LNR is supported by the phylogenetic analysis which clustered the isolates into three genera: Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium. The results showed close positive correlations between the sizes of LNR populations estimated both in the dry and rainy seasons and the presence of legume tree hosts. There were significant increases in Rhizobium spp. population densities in response to planting with Acacia spp., and high genetic diversities and richness of genotypes were fittest in these tree plantations. This suggests that enrichment of soil Rhizobium spp. populations is host specific. The results indicated also that species of genera Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium were lacking in plantations of non-host species. By contrast, there was a widespread distribution of Bradyrhizobium spp. strains across the tree plantations, with no evident specialization in regard to plantation type. Finally, the study provides information about the LNR communities associated with a range of old tree plantations and some aspects of their relationships to soil factors, which may facilitate the management of man-made forest systems that target ecosystem rehabilitation and preservation of soil biota.

  2. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-08

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet oil palm, generating 26% of net carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  3. 油松人工林林木生物量研究%Research pinus tabulaeformis forest plantation biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马保明; 高海平; 颜楠

    2012-01-01

      以山西省吕梁地区方山县峪口花果山油松人工林为对象,在同一地区选择并设置4块标准地,然后利用直接收获法中的平均木法测定选定所在标准地的生物量,对峪口一带的油松人工林群落生物量、生物量在各器官的分配情况以及峪口地区各种林分密度下油松人工林的生物量进行研究和分析.结果显示:①样地 SX-LL-FC-P03-R1、SX-LL-FC-P03-R2、SX-LL-FC-P03-R3、SX-LL-DC-P08的群落生物量分别是70.03t/hm2、131.78t/hm2、122.75 t/hm2、99.83 t/hm2;②林分中乔木所包含的生物量在总生物量中占有的绝大部分,为97.99 t/hm2,枯落物层次之,3.03 t/hm2,草本层再次,0.62 t/hm2,灌木层最少,0.35 t/hm2;③油松人工林的树干、树枝、树叶、树根的生物量的分配虽然受立地条件和树龄等客观因素的影响而呈现一定差异性,但单株林木中各个器官生物量所占的比例仍呈现出一些规律:总生物量中树干约占38.44%,树枝约占27.47%,树叶约占18.05%,根系约占16.04%;④不同密度的油松人工林对群落的总生物量也有相当大的影响,SX-LL-FC-P03-R1样地的林分密度为790株/hm2,群落总生物量为70.03 t/hm2,SX-LL-FC-P03-R2样地的林分密度为2170株/hm2,群落总生物量为131.78 t/hm2,SX-LL-FC-P03-R3样地的林分密度为2120株/hm2,群落总生物量为122.75 t/hm2,SX-LL-DC-P08样地的林分密度为2250株/hm2,群落总生物量为99.83 t/hm2.%  To Shanxi Luliang Fangshan County yukou in Huaguoshan Chinese pine plantation select the object, in the same area and set of four standard ground, and then use the average wood Determination direct harvest method selected where the standard of biomassChinese pine planta-tion of yukou along the community biomass, biomass distribution in various organs, as well yukou regional variety of Chinese pine plantation stand density biomass research and analysis. The results showed that: ① The plot SX-LL-FC-P03-R1

  4. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-12-01

    Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their rotation period. It is of interest to know whether these plantations could be viable for future carbon sequestration through the accumulations of stand carbon stocks. Twelve even-aged Japanese cedar stands along a stand age gradient from 37 to 93 years were selected in Xitou of central Taiwan. The study aims were to investigate the basic stand characteristics and biomass carbon stock in current Japanese cedar stands, and determine the relationships among stand characteristics, tree biomass carbon, and stand age. Our results indicate that existing Japanese cedar plantations are still developing and their live tree biomass carbon continues to accumulate. At stands with a stand age of 90 years, tree density, canopy height, mean diameter at breast height, basal area, and live tree biomass carbon stocks reach to nearly 430 tree ha(-1), 27 m, 48 cm, 82 m(2) ha(-1) and 300 Mg C ha(-1), respectively. Therefore, with no harvesting, current Japanese cedar plantations provide a carbon sink by storing carbon in tree biomass.

  5. Is the simple auger coring method reliable for below-ground standing biomass estimation in Eucalyptus forest plantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levillain, Joseph; Thongo M'Bou, Armel; Deleporte, Philippe; Saint-André, Laurent; Jourdan, Christophe

    2011-07-01

    Despite their importance for plant production, estimations of below-ground biomass and its distribution in the soil are still difficult and time consuming, and no single reliable methodology is available for different root types. To identify the best method for root biomass estimations, four different methods, with labour requirements, were tested at the same location. The four methods, applied in a 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantation in Congo, were based on different soil sampling volumes: auger (8 cm in diameter), monolith (25 × 25 cm quadrate), half Voronoi trench (1·5 m(3)) and a full Voronoi trench (3 m(3)), chosen as the reference method. With the reference method (0-1m deep), fine-root biomass (FRB, diameter biomass (MRB diameter 2-10 mm) at 2·0 t ha(-1), coarse-root biomass (CRB, diameter >10 mm) at 5·6 t ha(-1) and stump biomass at 6·8 t ha(-1). Total below-ground biomass was estimated at 16·2 t ha(-1) (root : shoot ratio equal to 0·23) for this 800 tree ha(-1) eucalypt plantation density. The density of FRB was very high (0·56 t ha(-1)) in the top soil horizon (0-3 cm layer) and decreased greatly (0·3 t ha(-1)) with depth (50-100 cm). Without labour requirement considerations, no significant differences were found between the four methods for FRB and MRB; however, CRB was better estimated by the half and full Voronoi trenches. When labour requirements were considered, the most effective method was auger coring for FRB, whereas the half and full Voronoi trenches were the most appropriate methods for MRB and CRB, respectively. As CRB combined with stumps amounted to 78 % of total below-ground biomass, a full Voronoi trench is strongly recommended when estimating total standing root biomass. Conversely, for FRB estimation, auger coring is recommended with a design pattern accounting for the spatial variability of fine-root distribution.

  6. Development of Harvesting Machines for Willow Small-Sizes Plantations in East-Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Trzepieciński, Tomasz; Stachowicz, Feliks; Niemiec, Witold; Kępa, Leszek; Dziurka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The production of plant biomass in small farms within the Central and Eastern European countries requires the application of agricultural machines adjusted to the scale of production. In the article, new machines for small-sized plantations of energy crops have been presented. Furthermore, the results of strength analysis of three-point linkage mower frame are presented by finite element method. The advantage of the proposed solutions is their simple construction, which is connected with low ...

  7. Water quality, biodiversity, and codes of practice in relation to harvesting forest plantations in streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Philip J. Smethurst; Brenda Baillie; Kevin C. Petrone

    2011-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are special landscape units that include riparian areas and adjacent lands that mitigate the movement of sediment, nutrients and other chemicals from upland forest and agricultural management areas into streams. The size, shape, and management of SMZs are governed by various combinations of economic, ecological, and regulatory factors...

  8. Rapid indices of potential nitrogen mineralization for intensively managed hardwood plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Alixanna McLearen Norris; James A. Burger

    2005-01-01

    Short-rotation hardwood plantations generally require repeated applications of nitrogen (N) fertilizer to maintain desired growth and are being installed on two previous land uses: agricultural fields and cutover forest lands. Because the soil organic matter chemistry is different between agricultural field and cutover soils, indices of N availability developed for one...

  9. Understory succession in post-agricultural oak plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunet, Jörg; Valtinat, Karin; Mayr, Marian Lajos

    2011-01-01

    -agricultural plantation forests. We studied effects of stand age, forest fragmentation, and soil and canopy conditions on species richness and abundance of four species groups in the understory of post-arable oak plantations in southern Sweden: herbaceous forest specialists, habitat generalists and open land species......, and woody species. The group of forest specialists may approach the richness of continuously forested sites after 60-80 years in non-fragmented plantations, but many forest species were sensitive to habitat fragmentation. Open-land species richness decreased during succession, while the richness of woody...... species and of generalists remained stable, and were not affected by fragmentation. Abundance of generalists gradually decreased in non-fragmented plantations, probably due to competition from colonizing forest specialists. Soil pH in post-arable stands remained consistently higher than in continuously...

  10. A Study of Afforestation Subsidy for Multi-purpose Forestry Development under Global Climate Change:Overseas Experiments and Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Global climate change poses new opportunities and challenges for forestry development, and therefore developing multiple-purpose forestry is an important measure to strengthen forestry response to climate change. At present, plantation in China ranks the world first in area, but with relatively low productivity. Constantly expanding forest area and improving forest management for enhancing multiple functions and purposes of plantations are the key measures to upgrade plantation capacity to mitigate and adap...

  11. Demarcation of Seabuckthorn Plantations in Three Northern Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) planting areas in the three northern areas (north, northeast and northwest) of China are divided into five planting zones: the semi-humid forest prairie climate zone for ecological and economic types of seabuckthorn plantations in the southern part of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid steppe climate zone for similar types of plantations in the central part of the Loess Plateau; the arid desert steppe climate zone for ecological type of seabuckthorn plantations in the northern part of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid and semi-humid steppe climate zone again for ecological and economic types of plantations in northern Hebei and western Liaoning and the cold humid steppe climate zone for economic types of plantations in the northern part of northeast China. The aim of this demarcation is to avoid a random introduction of seabuckthorn. In each of the five zones,objectives should be set and suitable seabuckthorn species, subspecies and varieties should be planted according to site conditions,seed sources and methods of tree breeding. The cultivation centers, bases, stations, or units should be established and successful models of seedling and planting methods should be encouraged. The principle of matching trees with suitable site conditions and adjusting measures to local conditions should be practiced. From a strategic viewpoint of solving ecological and economic problems of seabuckthorn development in the three northern areas, every seabuckthorn center must have its own germplasm nursery, standard plantation for popularizing, excellent seed and seedling nurseries and sufficient afforestation areas for demonstration and propaganda purposes. These measures would improve the ecological environment and promote economic and social development in the three northern areas of China.

  12. 南方红豆杉用材林山地造林技术初探%Preliminary Study on Forestation Techniques for Timber Plantations of Taxus chinensis var.mairei in Mountain Lands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳卫斌; 傅松玲; 袁英菊; 张雪平

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,the main points of forestation techniques for timber plantations of Taxus chinensis var. Mairei in mountain lands were studied and summarized in order for its widespread promotion. The study showed that the seedlings grew fast in high -ridge seedbeds with good drainage. Rational forestation techniques and intensified tending management could improve their survival rates and ensure their fast growth. The results showed that selection of fine varieties and strong seedlings, application of standardized forestation techniques and tending management could provide protection for widespread forestation of timber plantations of Taxus chinensis var. Mairei in mountain lands, and intercropping could increase the young plantation increments and improve the comprehensive benefits of the forestland.%为了大面积推广南方红豆杉这一珍稀造林树种,本文研究和总结了南方红豆杉用材林山地造林技术要点。研究显示:苗木在排水良好的高垄苗床上生长较快;采用合理的造林技术和加强抚育管理可提高造林成活率,并保证林木较快生长。结果表明:选择良种壮苗,应用规范的造林技术和抚育管理能够为南方红豆杉用材林在当地大面积营造提供保障,间作能够提高幼林生长量和林地的综合效益。

  13. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  14. Rapid leaf development drives the seasonal pattern of volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes in a 'coppiced' bioenergy poplar plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Fares, Silvano; Terenzio, Zenone; Zona, Donatella; Gielen, Bert; Loreto, Francesco; Janssens, Ivan A; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2016-03-01

    Leaves of fast-growing, woody bioenergy crops often emit volatile organic compounds (VOC). Some reactive VOC (especially isoprene) play a key role in climate forcing and may negatively affect local air quality. We monitored the seasonal exchange of VOC using the eddy covariance technique in a 'coppiced' poplar plantation. The complex interactions of VOC fluxes with climatic and physiological variables were also explored by using an artificial neural network (Self Organizing Map). Isoprene and methanol were the most abundant VOC emitted by the plantation. Rapid development of the canopy (and thus of the leaf area index, LAI) was associated with high methanol emissions and high rates of gross primary production (GPP) since the beginning of the growing season, while the onset of isoprene emission was delayed. The highest emissions of isoprene, and of isoprene photo-oxidation products (Methyl Vinyl Ketone and Methacrolein, iox ), occurred on the hottest and sunniest days, when GPP and evapotranspiration were highest, and formaldehyde was significantly deposited. Canopy senescence enhanced the exchange of oxygenated VOC. The accuracy of methanol and isoprene emission simulations with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature increased by applying a function to modify their basal emission factors, accounting for seasonality of GPP or LAI. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effect of tree thinning and litter removal on the radiocesium (Cs-134, 137) discharge rates in the Kawauchi forest plantation (Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Hisadome, Keigo

    2016-04-01

    On 11 March 2011 a 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami occurred in central-eastern Japan triggering, one day after, the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Despite the bulk of radionuclides (ca. 80%) were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, significant wet and dry deposits of those radionuclides occurred mainly in the Fukushima Prefecture and in a minor way in the Miyagi, Tochigi, Gunma and Ibaraki Prefectures. As a consequence and among other radionuclides, a total of 511,000 TBq of I-131, 13,500 TBq of Cs-134 and 13,600 TBq of Cs-137 were released into the atmosphere and the ocean, contaminating cultivated soils, rivers, settlements and forested areas. This accident caused severe environmental and economic damages. Several decontamination practices have done, including tree thinning and litter removal within the forests and tree plantations. In this study we analysed the effect of eight different management practices on the radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) discharge rates during 20 months (May'2013 - Dec'2014) in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation (stand age of 57 years), located in a hillslope near the Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan. This study area (37⁰ 20' 04" N, 140⁰ 53' 13.5" E) is located 16 km southwestern from the DNPP and within the evacuation area. The soils are Andosols. Ten runoff plots (5 x 2 meters) were installed and measurements started on May 2013. Two plots remained without any treatment as control plots and the other eight plots represented the following management practices: Mng1) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng2) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng3) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng4) Litter removal; Mng5) Thinning (logged area); Mng6) Thinning (under remnant trees); Mng7) Litter removal + thinning (logged area); Mng8) Litter removal + thinning (under remnant trees). Each plot had a gauging station and sediment samples

  16. Soil fauna and leaf species, but not species diversity, affect initial soil erosion in a subtropical forest plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Assmann, Thorsten; Schuldt, Andreas; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In subtropical parts of China, high rainfall intensities cause continuous soil losses and thereby provoke severe harms to ecosystems. In woodlands, it is not the tree canopy, but mostly an intact forest floor that provides protection from soil erosion. Although the protective role of leaf litter covers against soil losses is known for a long time, little research has been conducted on the processes involved. For instance, the role of different leaf species and leaf species diversity has been widely disregarded. Furthermore, the impact of soil meso- and macrofauna within the litter layer on soil losses remains unclear. To investigate how leaf litter species and diversity as well as soil meso- and macrofauna affect sediment discharge in a subtropical forest ecosystem, a field experiment was carried out in Xingangshan, Jiangxi Province, PR China (BEF China). A full-factorial random design with 96 micro-scale runoff plots and seven domestic leaf species in three diversity levels and a bare ground feature were established. Erosion was initiated with a rainfall simulator. This study confirms that leaf litter cover generally protects forest soils from water erosion (-82 % sediment discharge on leaf covered plots compared to bare plots) and this protection is gradually removed as the litter layer decomposes. Different leaf species showed variable impacts on sediment discharge and thus erosion control. This effect can be related to different leaf habitus, leaf decomposition rates and food preferences of litter decomposing meso- and macrofauna. In our experiment, runoff plots with leaf litter from Machilus thunbergii in monoculture showed the highest sediment discharge (68.0 g m-2), whereas plots with Cyclobalanopsis glauca in monoculture showed the smallest rates (7.9 g m-2). At the same time, neither leaf species diversity, nor functional diversity showed any significant influence, only a negative trend could be observed. Nevertheless, the protective effect of the leaf

  17. Simulated nitrogen deposition reduces CH4 uptake and increases N2O emission from a subtropical plantation forest soil in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongsheng; Cheng, Shulan; Fang, Huajun; Yu, Guirui; Xu, Minjie; Dang, Xusheng; Li, Linsen; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To date, few studies are conducted to quantify the effects of reduced ammonium (NH4+) and oxidized nitrate (NO3-) on soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission in the subtropical forests. In this study, NH4Cl and NaNO3 fertilizers were applied at three rates: 0, 40 and 120 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were determined twice a week using the static chamber technique and gas chromatography. Soil temperature and moisture were simultaneously measured. Soil dissolved N concentration in 0-20 cm depth was measured weekly to examine the regulation to soil CH4 and N2O fluxes. Our results showed that one year of N addition did not affect soil temperature, soil moisture, soil total dissolved N (TDN) and NH4+-N concentrations, but high levels of applied NH4Cl and NaNO3 fertilizers significantly increased soil NO3(-)-N concentration by 124% and 157%, respectively. Nitrogen addition tended to inhibit soil CH4 uptake, but significantly promoted soil N2O emission by 403% to 762%. Furthermore, NH4+-N fertilizer application had a stronger inhibition to soil CH4 uptake and a stronger promotion to soil N2O emission than NO3(-)-N application. Also, both soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were driven by soil temperature and moisture, but soil inorganic N availability was a key integrator of soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission. These results suggest that the subtropical plantation soil sensitively responses to atmospheric N deposition, and inorganic N rather than organic N is the regulator to soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission.

  18. Soil and water losses in eucalyptus plantation and natural forest and determination of the USLE factors at a pilot sub-basin in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pereira Christofaro Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring water erosion and the factors that control soil and water loss are essential for soil conservation planning. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil and water losses by water erosion under natural rainfall in eucalyptus plantations established in 2001 (EF2, and 2004 (EF1, native forest (NF and bare soil (BS, during the period of 2007 to 2012; and to determine the USLE factors: rain erosivity (R, erodibility (K of a Red Argisol and the cover-management factor (C for EF1, EF2 and NF at a pilot sub-basin, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. The R factor was estimated by the EI30 index, using rainfall data from a gauging station located at the sub-basin. The soil and water losses were monitored in erosion plots, providing consistent data for the estimation of the K and C factors. The sub-basin presented an average erosivity of 4,228.52 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. The average annual soil losses em EF1 and EF2 (0.81 e 0.12 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively were below of the limit of tolerance, 12.9 Mg ha-1 year-1. The percentage values of water loss relating to the total rainfall decreased annually, approaching the values observed at the NF. From the 5th year on after the implantation of the eucalyptus systems, soil losses values were similar to the ones from NF. The erodibility of the Red Argisol was of 0.0026 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1mm-1 and the C factor presented values of 0.121, 0.016 and 0.015 for EF1, EF2 and NF, respectively.

  19. Simulated nitrogen deposition reduces CH4 uptake and increases N2O emission from a subtropical plantation forest soil in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Wang

    Full Text Available To date, few studies are conducted to quantify the effects of reduced ammonium (NH4+ and oxidized nitrate (NO3- on soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission in the subtropical forests. In this study, NH4Cl and NaNO3 fertilizers were applied at three rates: 0, 40 and 120 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were determined twice a week using the static chamber technique and gas chromatography. Soil temperature and moisture were simultaneously measured. Soil dissolved N concentration in 0-20 cm depth was measured weekly to examine the regulation to soil CH4 and N2O fluxes. Our results showed that one year of N addition did not affect soil temperature, soil moisture, soil total dissolved N (TDN and NH4+-N concentrations, but high levels of applied NH4Cl and NaNO3 fertilizers significantly increased soil NO3(--N concentration by 124% and 157%, respectively. Nitrogen addition tended to inhibit soil CH4 uptake, but significantly promoted soil N2O emission by 403% to 762%. Furthermore, NH4+-N fertilizer application had a stronger inhibition to soil CH4 uptake and a stronger promotion to soil N2O emission than NO3(--N application. Also, both soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were driven by soil temperature and moisture, but soil inorganic N availability was a key integrator of soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission. These results suggest that the subtropical plantation soil sensitively responses to atmospheric N deposition, and inorganic N rather than organic N is the regulator to soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission.

  20. Quantifying Live Aboveground Biomass and Forest Disturbance of Mountainous Natural and Plantation Forests in Northern Guangdong, China, Based on Multi-Temporal Landsat, PALSAR and Field Plot Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Shen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit knowledge of aboveground biomass (AGB in large areas is important for accurate carbon accounting and quantifying the effect of forest disturbance on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We estimated AGB from 1990 to 2011 in northern Guangdong, China, based on a spatially explicit dataset derived from six years of national forest inventory (NFI plots, Landsat time series imagery (1986–2011 and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radars (PALSAR 25 m mosaic data (2007–2010. Four types of variables were derived for modeling and assessment. The random forest approach was used to seek the optimal variables for mapping and validation. The root mean square error (RMSE of plot-level validation was between 6.44 and 39.49 (t/ha, the normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE was between 7.49% and 19.01% and mean absolute error (MAE was between 5.06 and 23.84 t/ha. The highest coefficient of determination R2 of 0.8 and the lowest NRMSE of 7.49% were reported in 2006. A clear increasing trend of mean AGB from the lowest value of 13.58 t/ha to the highest value of 66.25 t/ha was witnessed between 1988 and 2000, while after 2000 there was a fluctuating ascending change, with a peak mean AGB of 67.13 t/ha in 2004. By integrating AGB change with forest disturbance, the trend in disturbance area closely corresponded with the trend in AGB decrease. To determine the driving forces of these changes, the correlation analysis was adopted and exploratory factor analysis (EFA method was used to find a factor rotation that maximizes this variance and represents the dominant factors of nine climate elements and nine human activities elements affecting the AGB dynamics. Overall, human activities contributed more to short-term AGB dynamics than climate data. Harvesting and human-induced fire in combination with rock desertification and global warming made a strong contribution to AGB changes. This study provides

  1. Carbon stock in Korean larch plantations along a chronosequence in the Lesser Khingan Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei MA; Yan-hong LIU; Yu-jun SUN; Jason Grabosky

    2014-01-01

    Carbon (C) dynamics are central to understanding ecosystem restoration effects within the context of Grain for Green Project (GGP). GGP stared in China since 2003 to improve the environment. Despite its importance, how total forest ecosystem C stock (FECS) develops fol-lowing land-use changes from cropland to plantation is poorly under-stood, in particular the relationship of C allocation to pools. We quanti-fied C pools in a chronosequence ranging from 0 to 48 years, using com-plete above-and below-ground harvests based on detailed field inventory. Stands were chosen along a succession sequence in managed plantations of Korean larch (Larix olgensis Henry.), a native planting species in the Lesser Khingan Mountains, Northeast of China. The FECS of Korean larch plantation (KLP) were dynamic across stand development, chang-ing from 88.2 Mg·ha-1 at cropland, to 183.9 Mg·ha-1 as an average of forest C from 7-through 48-year-old plantation. In a 48-year-old mature KLP, vegetation comprises 48.63%of FECS and accounts for 67.66%of annual net C increment (ANCI). Soil is responsible for 38.19% and 13.53% of those, and with the remainders of 13.18% and 18.81% in down woody materials. Based on comparisons of our estimate to those of others, we conclude that afforestation of Korean larch plantation is a valid approach to sequester carbon.

  2. Predicting long-term forest development following hemlock mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; Charles D. Canham; Paul K. Barten

    2000-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand.), an introduced pest specializing on eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), threatens to cause widespread hemlock mortality in New England forests. In this study, we used a stem-based model of forest dynamics (SORTIE) to predict forest development in a northeastern forest...

  3. Combined effect of pulse density and grid cell size on predicting and mapping aboveground carbon in fast‑growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Andrew Thomas Hudak; Carine Klauberg; Lee Alexandre Vierling; Carlos Gonzalez‑Benecke; Samuel de Padua Chaves Carvalho; Luiz Carlos Estraviz Rodriguez; Adrian Cardil

    2017-01-01

    LiDAR measurements can be used to predict and map AGC across variable-age Eucalyptus plantations with adequate levels of precision and accuracy using 5 pulses m− 2 and a grid cell size of 5 m. The promising results for AGC modeling in this study will allow for greater confidence in comparing AGC estimates with varying LiDAR sampling densities for Eucalyptus plantations...

  4. Networking Forests and Water areas:Urban Forest Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGZhenhua

    2004-01-01

    Building a forest city requires sufficient area of urban forests and an expedite water circulating system. Taking Shanghai as an example, it is proposed that China should develop its urban forestry through networking of forests and water areas due to high density of population, limited land resources and poor water circulating system. In order to develop a conception of urban forest with Chinese characteristics, this paper elaborates implications, foundation, evolution and development of the new conception through comparative studies of urban forest development inside and outside China.

  5. Effect of Tree Spacing on Tree Level Volume Growth, Morphology, and Wood Properties in a 25-Year-Old Pinus banksiana Plantation in the Boreal Forest of Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Hébert

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of planted trees per hectare influences individual volume growth, which in turn can affect wood properties. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of six different plantation spacings of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. 25 years following planting on tree growth, morphology, and wood properties. Stem analyses were performed to calculate annual and cumulative diameter, height, and volume growth. For morphological and wood property measurements several parameters were analyzed: diameter of the largest branch, live crown ratio, wood density, and the moduli of elasticity and rupture on small clear samples. The highest volume growth for individual trees was obtained in the 1111 trees/ha plantation, while the lowest was in the 4444 trees/ha plantation. Wood density and the moduli of elasticity and rupture did not change significantly between the six plantation spacings, but the largest branch diameter was significantly higher in the 1111 trees/ha (3.26 cm mean diameter compared with the 4444 trees/ha spacing (2.03 cm mean diameter. Based on this study, a wide range of spacing induced little negative effect on the measured wood properties, except for the size of knots. Increasing the initial spacing of jack pine plantations appears to be a good choice if producing large, fast-growing stems is the primary goal, but lumber mechanical and visual properties could be decreased due to the larger branch diameter.

  6. The relative contributions of forest growth and areal expansion to forest biomass carbon sinks in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests play a leading role in regional and global terrestrial carbon (C cycles. Changes in C sequestration within forests can be attributed to areal expansion (increase in forest area and forest growth (increase in biomass density. Detailed assessment of the relative contributions of areal expansion and forest growth to C sinks is crucial to reveal the mechanisms that control forest C sinks and is helpful for developing sustainable forest management policies in the face of climate change. Using the Forest Identity concept and forest inventory data, this study quantified the spatial and temporal changes in the relative contributions of forest areal expansion and increased biomass growth to China's forest C sinks from 1977 to 2008. Over the last 30 years, the areal expansion of forests was a larger contributor to C sinks than forest growth for all forests and planted forests in China (74.6 vs. 25.4 % for all forests, and 62.4 vs. 37.8 % for plantations. However, for natural forests, forest growth made a larger contribution than areal expansion (60.4 vs. 39.6 %. The relative contribution of forest growth of planted forests showed an increasing trend from an initial 25.3 to 61.0 % in the later period of 1998 to 2003, but for natural forests, the relative contributions were variable without clear trends owing to the drastic changes in forest area and biomass density over the last 30 years. Our findings suggest that afforestation can continue to increase the C sink of China's forests in the future subject to persistently-increasing forest growth after establishment of plantation.

  7. Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Christie, SI

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C) is stored by plantation forests either when ecosystems with a low C density (such as tropical grasslands) are afforested or when timber is converted to semi permanent products. If the afforestation rate is relatively constant...

  8. Pathways of stand development in ageing Pinus sylvestris forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Vincent; Mohren, G.M.J.; Geudens, Guy; Wulf, de R.; Lust, Noel

    2004-01-01

    Question: What are the main pathways of long-term stand development in forest ecosystems on oligotrophic and acidic sandy soils? Location: Nine forest reserves at different locations in The Netherlands: all ageing Pinus sylvestris forests that are no longer managed and where massive regeneration of

  9. Micro-environmental changes induced by shape and size of forest openings: effects on Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi seedlings performance in a Pinus contorta plantation of Patagonia, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, L.; Urretavizcaya, M.F.; Defosse, G.E.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: to analyze, within a Pinus contorta plantation, the effects of artificially created small rectangular and small medium circular canopy gaps on: i) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and soil temperature and moisture, and ii) survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi seedlings, species which formerly composed the natural forest of the area. Study area: A 2 ha stand of a Pinus contorta stand in Los Alerces National Park, Argentina (42°43’S, 71°43’W, 490 m.a.s.l.). Material and methods: The Pinus contorta stand was 25 yr old, 22 m height and 26 cm DBH, presenting 1000 trees ha-1 of density and 53 m2 ha-1 of basal area. In 2009, rectangular and circular gaps were created within the stand and then seedlings were planted. During two growing seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012), PAR, soil temperature and moisture were measured in gaps and understory (control), and seedling survival and growth in gaps. Main results: During both seasons, soil temperature did not differ among gaps and control, whereas PAR and soil moisture were lower in control than in gaps. Seedling survival was high in all gaps regardless of species and season. Seedlings showed higher diameter growth in rectangular than in circular gaps. Research highlights: Austrocedrus chilensis and N. dombeyi seedlings survival is high and their growth slightly affected, when planted in differently-sized canopy gaps within a Pinus contorta plantation in Patagonia. However, other gap sizes and stand densities should be tested before recommending which one shows better results for reconverting monocultures into former native forests. Abbreviations used: PAR (Photosynthetic Active Radiation); DBH (Diameter at Breast Height); INTA (Argentinean Institute of Agricultural Technology); IFONA (Argentinean Forest Institute). (Author)

  10. Development of Urban Forests in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAHYUNITien

    2005-01-01

    Developments in urban area, which result situation of urban environment progressively become only going forward economical but retreat ecologically. Though urban stability is very important ecologically,it is the same important as its stability value economical. Annoyed stability of urban ecosystem showed nature's reaction in the form of: the increasing of air temperature, degradation of ground water, floods,degradation of surface of land, sea water intrusion, coastal abrasion, contamination of water in the form of drinking water smell, containing heavy metal, contamination of air like the increasing of rate of CO, ozone (O3), carbon-dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and brimstone (S), dirt, barren atmosphere, monotonous,dirty and noisy. Some metropolis and developing cities in Indonesia are developing urban forests to anticipate the above-mentioned problems.

  11. APORTES DE UNA PLANTACIÓN FORESTAL MIXTA A LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LA AVIFAUNA EN EL CAÑÓN DEL RÍO CAUCA, COLOMBIA CONTRIBUTION OF A MIXED FOREST PLANTATION TO AVIFAUNA CONSERVATION AT RIO CAUCA CANYON, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Jaime Castaño Villa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se monitoreó la avifauna asociada al sotobosque de una plantación forestal mixta en el cañón del río Cauca en el departamento de Caldas durante 10 meses. Se capturaron 59 especies residentes, de las cuales el 10% presentan una alta sensibilidad a la perturbación del bosque (especialistas de este tipo de hábitat. Únicamente se presentaron diferencias entre el número mensual de capturas en aquellas especies con baja sensibilidad (generalistas. Además, se registraron otras 50 especies asociadas a la plantación, de las cuales dos son endémicas y el 26% migratorias boreales. Los resultados sugieren que esta plantación juega un papel clave en la conservación de la avifauna local, es hábitat tanto para especies asociadas a bosques naturales como para aquellas con menores requerimientos de hábitat. Este tipo de reforestación con especies nativas, podría ser tomado como un modelo de restauración de otras áreas degradadas de la región.The avifauna of a forest mixed plantation at Cauca river canyon in Caldas department; was monitored during 10 months. Fifty nine understory resident species were captured, 10% of them presented high sensibility to habitat perturbation (forest specialists. Only those species with low sensibility (generalists presented differences between monthly numbers of captures. Other 50 species associated to the plantation, including two endemics and 26% boreal migratory species were registered visually and/or by its vocalizations. The results suggest that this plantation plays a key role in the conservation of local avifauna, is habitat both for species associated with natural forests and for those with less habitat requirements. This type of reforestation with native species could be a restoration model for other degraded areas from the region.

  12. Ecosystem-based greenhouse budgets in oil palm plantations differ with plantation age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; June, Tania; Veldkamp, Edzo; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    palm plantation was dominated by CO2 fluxes, whereas in a productive plantation N2O contribution to the global warming could be significant due to high N fertilizer input. Our results also highlight the need of evaluating various stages of development of oil palm cultivation when assessing their GHG budgets at a regional scale in order to support quantitative-based mitigation strategies.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production addressing different land conversion scenarios in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Akhir, Nurul Izzati Mat; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Awang, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    The environmental impacts with regard to agro-based biofuel production have been associated with the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, field GHG emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production associated with land use changes for oil palm plantation development have been evaluated. Three different sites of different land use changes prior to oil palm plantation were chosen; converted land-use (large and small-scales) and logged-over forest. Field sampling for determination of soil N-mineralisation and soil organic carbon (SOC) was undertaken at the sites according to the age of palm, i.e. 21 years (mature oil palms). The field data were incorporated into the estimation of nitrous oxide (N2O) and the resulting CO2-eq emissions as well as for estimation of carbon stock changes. Irrespective of the land conversion scenarios, the nitrous oxide emissions were found in the range of 6.47-7.78 kg N2O-N/ha resulting in 498-590 kg CO2-eq/ha. On the other hand, the conversion of tropical forest into oil palm plantation has resulted in relatively higher GHG emissions (i.e. four times higher and carbon stock reduction by >50%) compared to converted land use (converted rubber plantation) for oil palm development. The conversion from previously rubber plantation into oil palm plantation would increase the carbon savings (20% in increase) thus sustaining the environmental benefits from the palm oil-based biofuel production.

  14. Comparative Studies on the Carbon Storage Between the Kandelia candel Natural Forests and Plantations in North Mangrove Forests of China%中国红树林北缘区不同起源秋茄林碳储量比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严锦钰; 何东进; 李晓景; 王韧; 蔡金标; 游巍斌; 苏少川; 张中瑞; 肖石红

    2013-01-01

    The carbon storage and carbon allocation patterns of natural and artificial Kandelia candel wetland ecosystem were investigated in north marginal region of mangrove.The results were as follows:(1)The ecosystem's carbon stock(tree layer+understory+litter floor+soil)was about 221.8 t/hm in the K.candel natural forests,while that of the plantations was 154.6 t/hm2.We primarily concluded that the carbon stock in the natural forests was higher than that in the plantations; (2)The carbon pool in the soil was the main resource of ecosystem's carbon storage of both K.candel natural forests and plantations,whose respective amounts were 87.0% and 93.5%.The carbon stock of tree layer was on the second place(natural forests:12.8%; plantations:6.5%)and the least contribution to the stock of carbon was attributed to the understory and litter floor,which was only 0.01% to 0.12%; (3)Compared with the soil carbon pools outside the forest,the superiority of wetland ecosystem of K.candel mangrove is obvious.%对红树林自然分布区域北缘区不同起源(天然林和人工林)秋茄林湿地生态系统的碳储量及分配格局进行对比分析.结果表明:(1)秋茄天然林生态系统碳储量(乔木层+林下植被+死地被物+土壤碳)约为221.8 t/hm2,人工林约为154.6 t/hm2,秋茄天然林生态系统在碳汇功能上优于人工林;(2)无论天然林还是人工林生态系统,土壤是主要碳库,分别占总碳储量87.0%和93.5%;乔木层碳储量次之(天然林12.8%;人工林6.5%),林下植被和死地被物对生态系统碳储量贡献微小,仅0.01%~0.12%;(3)与林外土壤碳库相比,红树林湿地碳库更具优势.

  15. Navigation of an Autonomous Tractor for a Row-Type Tree Plantation Using a Laser Range Finder—Development of a Point-to-Go Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawin Thanpattranon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is challenging to develop a control algorithm that uses only one sensor to guide an autonomous vehicle. The objective of this research was to develop a control algorithm with a single sensor for an autonomous agricultural vehicle that could identify landmarks in the row-type plantation environment and navigate a vehicle to a point-to-go target location through the plantation. To enable such a navigation system for the plantation system, a laser range finder (LRF was used as a single sensor to detect objects and navigate a full-size autonomous agricultural tractor. The LRF was used to control the tractor as it followed a path, and landmarks were detected “on-the-go” in real time. The landmarks were selected based on data for their distances calculated by comparison with the surrounding objects. Once the landmarks were selected, a target point was calculated from the landmarks, and the tractor was navigated toward the target. Navigation experiments were successfully conducted on the selected paths without colliding with the surrounding objects. A real time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS was used to compare the positioning between the autonomous control and manual control. The results of this study showed that this control system could navigate the autonomous tractor to follow the paths, and the vehicle position differed from the manually driven paths by 0.264, 0.370 and 0.542 m for the wide, tight, and U-turn paths, respectively, with directional accuracies of 3.139°, 4.394°, and 5.217°, respectively, which are satisfactory for the autonomous operation of tractors on rubber or palm plantations. Therefore, this laser-based landmark detection and navigation system can be adapted to an autonomous navigation system to reduce the vehicle`s sensor cost and improve the accuracy of the positioning.

  16. Forest parks and sustainable development of ecotourism in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 赵克尊; 金桂琴

    2000-01-01

    In the spirit of the trend toward opening and reforming China, the State Forestry Administration has taken advantage of the opportunity to improve forest parks and develop forest-based ecotourism. The State Forestry Administration has experienced great success in a short time. By 1997, the State Forestry Administration had built 874 forest parks, with a total area of 7.48′ 106 hm2. More than 50000000 tourists visited the parks each year. The forest parks have become the new focus of forest-based ecotourism in China. This success demonstrated that the use of forest resources and the development of tourism had moved into a new period. To assure the healthy growth of forest-based ecotourism in China, based on the theory of sustainable development, we have made several suggestions about how to improve forest parks and develop forest-based ecotourism. Our recommendations are grounded in the principles of resource protection, moderate exports of forest products, and recognition of the special character of individual park.

  17. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against Nmangium in eucalypt plantations increased the soil N concentration under the mixed-species stand (N>0.06%) compared to under the pure eucalypt stand (N1% in the mixed stand and C< 0.9 in the pure Eucalyptus stand).

  18. Variability of Growth Indicators and Generative Development of the Siberian and Korean Stone Pines at the Plantation in the «Green Zone» of Krasnoyarsk City

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    R. N. Matveeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and seed production of Siberian and Korean stone pines at the age of 24–41 years in the «Izvestkovaya» plantation, located in the area of educational and experimental forest enterprise of the Siberian State Technological University (so-called «Green Zone» of Krasnoyarsk City were analyzed. It has been found that Korean stone pine (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. is behind of Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour in growth rate, the formation of cones and microstrobiles. Inter-and intraspecific variation in the formation of tree crown, cones and seeds size were significant, which allowed selection of individual trees with better reproduction characteristics.

  19. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

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    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  20. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  1. Soil Seed Bank Characteristics Preliminary Comparison between Plantation and Natural Forest of Betula alnoides%西南桦人工林与天然林土壤种子库特征初步比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 刘海姣; 张劲峰; 耿云芬

    2013-01-01

    以西南桦人工林与天然林的土壤种子库为研究对象,采用室内萌发法对云南热区的西南桦人工林与天然林下0 ~10 cm深度的土壤种子库的种子储量及其垂直分布进行了研究.研究结果表明:①西南桦人工林有活力种子储量为2 027粒/m2,天然林有活力种子储量为3 043粒/m2;②西南桦人工林土壤种子库由21科38属的42种植物组成,其中乔木4种,占全部种类的0.69%;灌木16种,占7.70%;多年生草本10种,占14.90%;1 a生草本9种,占73.36%;藤本3种,占3.35%.西南桦天然林土壤种子库由24科43属的49种植物组成,其中乔木6种,占全部种类的10.56%;灌木15种,占18.31%;多年生草本14种,占4.38%;1 a生草本10种,占65.06%;藤本4种,占1.69%;③乔木、灌木的植物数量占总数的比例为天然林>人工林,而草本和藤本为天然林<人工林;④西南桦人工林与天然林土壤种子库有活力种子密度自上而下都呈现下降趋势,0~5 cm种子数量较5 ~ 10 cm多.%Taking soil seed bank of Betula alnoides plantation and Betula alnoides natural forest as the object, seeds storage and vertical distribution of soil seed bank under depth of 0 ~ 10cm were studied in Yunnan hot zone by using indoor germination method. The results showed that; (1)Vigor seed reserves of Betula alnoides plantation was 2027 seeds/ m2, and natural forest was 3043 seeds/ m2; (2) Soil seed bank of Betula alnoides plantation was consisted of 42 plant species belonging to 21 family and 38 genus, including 4 kinds of Arbor species, accounting for 0. 69% of all species; 16 kinds of shrubs, accounting for 7. 70% ; 10 kinds of perennial herbs, accounting for 14. 90% ; 9 kinds of annual herb, accounting for 73. 36% ; 3 kinds of Fujimoto, accounting for 3. 35% . Soil bank of Betula alnoides natural forest was consisted of 49 plant species belonging to 24 family and 43 genus, including 6 kinds of trees, accounting for

  2. Forests in the Light of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development assigns all the social and economic development methods and forms, whose fundament is firstly represented by the insurance of a balance between these socialeconomic systems and the elements of the natural capital. The most known definition of sustainable development is surely the one of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED in the “Our common future” report, also known as the Brundtland Report: “sustainable development is the development that aims at satisfying the present need without compromising future generations‟ possibility to satisfy their own needs”. Sustainable development also aims at and tries to establish a theoretical frame in order to make decisions in all situations that include a human/environment report, whether it is about the environment, the economic or the social environment. Though sustainable development has initially been regarded as a solution to the ecological crisis determined by the huge industrial exploitation of resources and the continuous soil degradation of the environment and it has sought to preserve the quality of the environment, nowadays the concept has been extended to the living quality in its intricacy, involving the economic and social issue. Nowadays, the concern of sustainable development also represents a concern for right and country equality, not only for generations. Within the process, several international conventions have been adopted, which establish precise country requirements and strict implementation terms regarding climate changing, biodiversity preservation, protection of the forest fund and of the wet areas, access to environment quality information and others, that outline an international judicial space for the implementation of the sustainable development concepts.

  3. Strengthening Urban Forest Development Improving Urban Ecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGZehui

    2004-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, urban development in China has entered a period of rapid progress. While making significant achievements, urban environmental problems such as air pollution, heatisland effects, water loss and soil erosion have become increasingly prominent. To speed up the process of urbanization in China, new challenges have been imposed on urban forest development, urban environment protection and ecological urban development. Aimed at ecological and environment problems existing in urban development in China, summarizing Chinese experiences and learning from other countries, scientifically planning urban forest to promote urban ecological development, improving urban forest ecosystem to assure urban ecological safety, carrying on forest culture to develop urban ecological civilization, have become the main tasks and direction for urban forest development in China.

  4. Developmental Trends of Black Spruce Fibre Attributes in Maturing Plantations

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    Peter F. Newton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the temporal developmental patterns of commercially relevant fibre attributes (tracheid length and diameters, wall thickness, specific surface area, wood density, microfibril angle, fibre coarseness, and modulus of elasticity and their interrelationships within maturing black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. plantations. A size-based stratified random sample procedure within 5 semimature plantations located in the Canadian Boreal Forest Region was used to select 50 trees from which radial cross-sectional xylem sequences at breast-height (1.3 m were cut and analyzed. Statistically, the graphical and linear correlation analyses indicated that the attributes exhibited significant (p≤0.05 relationships among themselves and with morphological tree characteristics. Relative variation of each annually measured attribute declined with increasing size class (basal area quintile. The transitional shifts in temporal correlation patterns occurring at the time of approximate crown closure where suggestive of intrinsic differences in juvenile and mature wood formation processes. The temporal cumulative development patterns of all 8 of the annually measured attributes varied systematically with tree size and exhibited the most rapid rates of change before the trees reached a cambial age of 20 years. At approximately 50 years after establishment, plantation mean attribute values were not dissimilar from those reported for more mature natural-origin stands.

  5. Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H E

    1974-11-08

    ' grand scheme of vegetational climax-created soon after Davis's model of landform development-can be evaluated in terms of modern knowledge. Disillusion with the climax model paralleled disillusion with Davis's model in the 1950's, but the climax model can be tested, because the record of vegetational history is accessible, datable, and decipherable. In the short term of a few decades, successional vegetation stages occur in variety of situations, as confirmed by observation or by techniques such as tree-ring analysis. The successional vegetation stages are reactions to nutrients, weather, competition, and consumption. Such succession implies long-term disequilibrium, or at least unidirectional development. The long-term controlling factor in Clements' model of vegetation development is climate. With climatic stability the succession will proceed to a climax. In the Appalachian Mountains, geomorphic, microclimatic, and edaphic conditions limit climax development, producing a polyclimax, which is generally sustained by the dominance of these factors. Death and regeneration of single forest trees is controlled mostly by windstorms. The distributional pattern may be locally transected by lightning fires, major windstorms, or washouts. However, the long-term stability of Appalachian forests is demonstrated by pollen stratigraphy. Although we can infer the long-term stability of Appalachian forests, the trends and mechanics of short-term vegetational succession are not fully understood, because lack of sizable areas of virgin forest limits investigations of natural conditions. In this respect, the eastern United States is already much like western Europe, where climatic and disturbance factors in vegetational history cannot be disentangled. In the Great Lakes region, a large area of virgin forest exists in the BWCA of northeastern Minnesota. Here short- and long-term studies show that for at least 9000 years the principal stabilizing factor has been the frequent occurrence of

  6. Development of general biomass allometric equations for Tectona grandis Linn.f. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. plantations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Ounban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some common, general biomass allometric equations were developed and tested for estimating the stem and aboveground biomass (AGB of Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations. In total, 84 datasets for T. grandis and 94 datasets for E. camaldulensis were gathered from published papers. The general allometric equations were then developed and the slopes and elevations were tested using ANCOVA. Spacing of 2 m × 4 m, 2 m × 8 m, 3 m × 3 m and 4 m × 4 m for T. grandis and 2 m × 3 m, 2 m × 4 m, 2 m × 8 m and 3 m × 3 m for E. camaldulensis were used as control factors. The results confirmed that diameter at breast height (D and total height (H were the best parameters for biomass estimation, of which the simple combination D2H produced the best estimation. The general allometric equations which gave the best fit (p  0.05. The range of D and H was 4.4–41.2 cm and 5.5–31.0 m, respectively, for T. grandis and 0.5–19.8 cm and 1.7–26.0 m, respectively, for E. camaldulensis.

  7. Dahomey Plantation Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plan describing timber, wildlife and recreational assessments and assoicated development costs of the Dahomey Plantion timberlands. Plan details existinig forest...

  8. Impact of savanna conversion to oil palm plantations on C stocks dynamics and soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Guillaume, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Ruegg, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale expansion of oil palm cultivation on forested land in South-East Asia during the last decades lead to high negative environmental impacts. Because rainforests store high amount of C, their conversion to oil palm plantations results in large net CO2 emissions. Oil palm cultivation in tropical ecosystems such as savanna that store less C than forests is seen as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of future oil palm development. While this option is more and more frequently mentioned, few data are available on the effective gain in C storage. Furthermore negative impact on soil organic carbon and soil fertility could offset gains of C storage in oil palm biomass. Here, we present results on aboveground and belowground C stocks and soil nutrient dynamics over a full rotation cycle of oil palm plantations established on tropical savanna grasslands. Three natural savanna grasslands as reference sites and 9 oil palm plantations ranging from two to twenty-seven years old were selected in the Llanos in Colombia. Oxisols were sampled down to 70 cm in each management zones of oil palm plantations (weeded circle, interrow, frond piles and harvesting path). Taking advantages of a shift from C4 to C3 vegetation, we quantified savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates and how they were affected by management practices (mineral fertilization, organic amendments, etc.). Results show that, in opposite to forest conversion, C storage increases when savannas are converted to oil palm plantations. Because soil C storage was very low in natural conditions, SOC changes had little effects on overall C storage. Substitution of savanna-derived SOC by oil palm-derived SOC was very fast in the topsoil and highest under frond pile and weeded circle where C and nutrients inputs are highest. However, stabilization of oil palm-derived SOC compensated loss of savanna-derived SOC rather than increased SOC stocks

  9. Mapping Deciduous Rubber Plantation Areas and Stand Ages with PALSAR and Landsat Images

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    Weili Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by integration of PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. The L-band PALSAR 50-m mosaic images were used to map forests (including both natural forests and rubber trees and non-forests. For those PALSAR-based forest pixels, we analyzed the multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We first studied phenological signatures of deciduous rubber plantations (defoliation and foliation and natural forests through analysis of surface reflectance, Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and generated a map of rubber plantations in 2009. We then analyzed phenological signatures of rubber plantations with different stand ages and generated a map, in 2009, of rubber plantation stand ages (≤5, 6–10, >10 years-old based on multi-temporal Landsat images. The resultant maps clearly illustrated how rubber plantations have expanded into the mountains in the study area over the years. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of integrating microwave (e.g., PALSAR and optical remote sensing in the characterization of rubber plantations and their expansion over time.

  10. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  11. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

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    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  12. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the Loess Plateau of China.

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    Taijun Li

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p < 0.001. The C carrying capacity of the plantations was measured at 166.4 Mg C ha-1 (1 Mg = 106 g in the semi-humid zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010. However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y. The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011, yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y. The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y, the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration.

  13. Environmental and Social Impacts of Oil Palm Plantations and their Implications for Biofuel Production in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystof Obidzinski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of oil palm with linkages to biofuel in Indonesia and analyzes the associated environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We selected three plantation study sites in West Papua (Manokwari, West Kalimantan (Kubu Raya, and Papua (Boven Digoel to assess the impacts. Research findings indicate that the development of oil palm in all three sites has caused deforestation, resulting in significant secondary external impacts such as water pollution, soil erosion, and air pollution. In terms of social impacts, many stakeholder groups, i.e., employees, out-growers, and investing households, report significant gains. However, we found these benefits were not evenly distributed. Other stakeholders, particularly traditional landowners, experienced restrictions on traditional land use rights and land losses. We observed increasing land scarcity, rising land prices, and conflicts over land in all sites. Three major trade-offs are associated with the development of oil palm plantations, including those related to biofuels: unevenly distributed economic benefits are generated at the cost of significant environmental losses; there are some winners but also many losers; and economic gains accrue at the expense of weak rule of law. To reduce the negative impacts and trade-offs of oil palm plantations and maximize their economic potential, government decision makers need to restrict the use of forested land for plantation development, enforce existing regulations on concession allocation and environmental management, improve monitoring of labor practices, recognize traditional land use rights, and make land transfer agreements involving customary land more transparent and legally binding.

  14. Accounting of forest resources in the framework of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zamula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, deforestation of territories and degradation of forest resources is a global problem as it leads to a climate change, soil degradation, the decline in natural reproduction of forest resources and to the disappearance of many valuable species of forest cultures. Due to the importance of the preservation of forest resources for environment it is necessary to revise the conceptual approach to the reflection of such resources both at the micro- and at the macroeconomic level. Preservation, rational use and reproduction of forest resources is one of the priorities of forestry development inUkraine. Accounting is a tool which allows to form the information about the condition and availability of forest resources. In this regard, we consider that the accounting information is an important tool for the preservation of forest assets and the reduction of anthropogenic impacts on these slowly recovering natural resources. The reflection of forest resources in accounting should be implemented on the basis of the rules defined in the P(S BU 30 called «Biological Assets» and IAS 41 called «Agriculture». In addition, we consider that while reflecting of forest resources in accounting it’s necessary to take into account the life cycle of the tree stand which consists of several stages where each one should be taken into account in the recognition of expenses on their reproduction. For the formation of analytical cuts of the costs of care for the forest resources and their protection is proposed to open the following 3 sub-accounts to the account 155 called «Expenses on the formation of forest resources»: the first is «Expenses on the landing of forest cultures», the second is «Expenses on care for forest resources» and the third one is «Expenses on the protection of forest resources». Sustainable forest management involves the reproduction of forest resources. One of the main criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of forest management

  15. 辽东山区天然次生林和落叶松人工林的土壤呼吸%Soil Respiration of Natural Secondary Forest and Larch Plantation in Montane Region of Eastern Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧东; 尤文忠; 邢兆凯; 魏文俊; 赵刚; 颜廷武

    2011-01-01

    CO2 effluxes rate was monitored using an infrared gas exchange analyzer (Licor-8100) from May to October. Simultaneously, soil temperature and moisture were also recorded. The results showed that the diurnal fluctuation of CO2 effluxes appeared a single peak. The relationship between soil respiration rate (y) and the variable of soil temperature (t) and soil moisture (w) at 10 cm soil depth could be described by the following exponential equation:y=0.3614e0.1219x(R2 =0.7020,P<0.05)and y=0.9303e0.0812x (R2=0.8164,P<0.05). The soil respiration released 433.08, 538.46 gC/(m2·a) in the secondary forest and plantation ecosystems, respctively. The annual average natural secondary forest soil C released nearly 20% lower than the larch plantation, it indicated that secondary forests played an important role in carbon sinks in montane region of eastern Liaoning province.%在2008-2009年生长季,利用Licor-8100对辽东山区天然次生林和落叶松人工林的土壤呼吸速率及其主要影响因子进行了测定.结果表明:辽东山区2种森林类型的土壤呼吸速率日变化均呈单峰型曲线;土壤呼吸速率与林地10 cm的土壤温度相关性最好,相关关系分别为y=0.3614e0.1219x(R2=0.702 0,P<0.05)和y=0.9303e0.0812x(R2=0.816 4,P<0.05);与林地土壤湿度的相关性不显著;2种森林类型林地土壤年释放碳量分别为433.08,538.46 gC/(m2·a),天然次生林土壤碳的年释放碳量比人工林低近20%.研究结果说明辽东山区天然次生林在森林的固碳增汇过程中具有更重要的作用.

  16. 江西金盆山林区米槠生长过程与幼林生长效应%Growth Process and Young Plantation Growth Effect of Castanopsis carlesii in Jinpenshan Forest Region of Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹展波; 林洪; 罗坤水; 岳军伟; 林小凡; 杨桦

    2014-01-01

    进行样地调查与树干解析,以研究米槠生长过程。采用米槠容器苗和裸根苗造林,比较造林保存率、胸径、树高、冠幅、变异系数等指标,以了解两种苗木的幼林生长效应,并比较天然林与人工林米槠的早期生长。研究表明,米槠在10~20 a,树高、胸径生长较快;14~30 a,材积生长较快;树龄33 a时,尚未达到数量成熟阶段。米槠容器苗造林的保存率、胸径、树高值均大于裸根苗,其中保存率比裸根苗高9.5%,胸径值大11.3%,树高值大4.6%。比较人工林和天然林的早期生长,人工林树高和胸径值均大于天然林。米槠容器苗造林,可以促进米槠生长,取得较好的造林效果。%Using the methods of sample-plot survey and stem analysis, in order to study the growing process of Castanopsis carlesii. Experiments were conducted on afforestation of C. carlesii by 2-year-old bare-rooted and container seedlings, the indexes of afforestation survival rate, diameter breast height, height, tree crown, coefficient of variation were compared, the effect of growth for two seedlings was studied, and the early growth of natural forests and plantations of C. carlesii was compared. The results showed that C. carlesii diameter breast height, tree height grow faster at 10 to 20 years, volume growth more quickly at 14 to 30 years, when 33-year-old forests have not yet reached the stage of quantitative maturity. The survival rate of afforestation, diameter breast height, tree height values with container seedlings C. carlesii were more than bare root seedlings. The survival rate, diameter breast height, tree height was 9.5%, 11.3%, 4.6%higher than that of the bare root seedlings. Compared to the early growth of plantations and natural forests, tree height and diameter breast height of plantation were greater than that of natural forests. Container seedlings afforestation can promate the growth of C. carlesii and

  17. Long-term simulations of forest management impacts on carbon storage from loblolly pine plantations in the Southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huei-Jin Wang; Philip J. Radtke; Stephen P. Prisley

    2012-01-01

    Accounting for forest components in carbon accounting systems may be insufficient when substantial amounts of sequestered carbon are harvested and converted to wood products in use and in landfill. The potential of forest offset – in-woods aboveground carbon storage, carbon stored in harvested wood, and energy offset by burning harvested wood – from loblolly pine...

  18. Rapid soil development after windthrow disturbance in pristine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.T. Bormann; H. Spaltenstein; M.H. McClellan; F.C. Ugolini; K. Cromack; S.M. Nay

    1995-01-01

    1. We examined how rapidly soils can change during secondary succession by observing soil development on 350-year chronosequences in three pristine forest ecosystems in south-east Alaska. 2. Soil surfaces, created by different windthrow events of known or estimated age, were examined within each of three forest stands (0.5-2.0 ha plots; i.e. a within-stand...

  19. Forest conservation and land development in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.H. Helmer

    2004-01-01

    In the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, rapid land-use changes over the past century have included recent landcover conversion to urban/built-up lands. Observations of this land development adjacent to reserves or replacing dense forest call into question how the changes relate to forests or reserved lands. Using existing maps, this study first summarizes island-wide...

  20. Providing habitat for native mammals through understory enhancement in forestry plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Javier A; Grez, Audrey A; Estades, Cristián F

    2013-10-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) expects forestry plantations to contribute to biodiversity conservation. A well-developed understory in forestry plantations might serve as a surrogate habitat for native species and mitigate the negative effect of plantations on species richness. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by removing the understory in Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) plantations in central Chile and assessing changes in species richness and abundance of medium-sized mammals. Frequency of occurrence of mammals, including kodkods (Leopardus guigna), culpeo foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus), lesser grisons (Conepatus chinga), and Southern pudu deer (Pudu puda), was low in forest stands with little to no understory relative to stands with well-developed undergrowth vegetation. After removing the understory, their frequency of occurrence decreased significantly, whereas in control stands, where understory was not removed, their frequency did not change. This result strongly supports the idea that facilitating the development of undergrowth vegetation may turn forestry stands into secondary habitats as opposed to their containing no habitat for native mammals. This forestry practice could contribute to conservation of biological diversity as it pertains to CBD targets.

  1. Impact of plantation on ecosystem development in disturbed coal mine overburden spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Mishra, T.K.; Singh, A.K.; Jain, A. [Tropical Forest Research Inst., Jabalpur (India)

    2004-07-15

    Eleven nitrogen fixing and one non-nitrogen fixing tree species were planted in coal mine overburden spoils of Bisrampur colliery at Surguja district, Chattisgarh, India in 1993. Their growth performance at one, two, four, six and eight years was recorded. It was observed that after eight years of planting, Acacia mangium performed very well in respect to all the growth parameters followed by A. holoserecia, Dalbergia sissoo, Albiziaprocera, Pithecellobium dulce, Acacia auriculiformis and Gmelina arborea. Acacia nilotica showed very poor performance. The number of natural colonisers increased with increasing age of the planted species. Nutrient status of the spoils also increased gradually with the increase in age of the plants. Organic carbon increased greatly and, as a result, activities of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi accelerated. This study indicated that the spoil environment, which is extremely harsh just after mining, could be improved gradually and the ecosystem restored by planting suitable species. Therefore, for early development of the ecosystem, afforestation with suitable leguminous species is recommended.

  2. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  3. A Survey on the Usage of Biomass Wastes from Palm Oil Mills on Sustainable Development of Oil Palm Plantations in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, K. Y.; Lau, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    As one of the world’s largest palm oil producers and exporters, Malaysia is committed to sustainable management of this industry to address the emerging environmental challenges. This descriptive study aims to evaluate the oil palm planters’ opinions regarding the usage of biomass wastes from palm oil mills and its impact on sustainable development of oil palm plantations in Sarawak. 253 planters across Sarawak were approached for their opinions about the usage of empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), mesocarp fibre (MF), and palm kernel shell (PKS). This study revealed that the planters had generally higher agreement on the beneficial application of EFB and POME in oil palm plantations. This could be seen from the higher means of agreement rating of 3.64 - 4.22 for EFB and POME, compared with the rating of 3.19 - 3.41 for MF and PKS in the 5-point Likert scale (with 5 being the strongest agreement). Besides, 94.7 percent of the planters’ companies were found to comply with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requirements where nearly 38 percent carried out the EIA practice twice a year. Therefore high means of agreement were correlated to the compliance of environmental regulations, recording a Likert rating of 3.89 to 4.31. Lastly, the usage of EFB and POME also gained higher Likert scale point of 3.76 to 4.17 against MF and PKS of 3.34 to 3.49 in the evaluation of the impact of sustainability in oil palm plantations. The planters agreed that the usage of EFB and POME has reduced the environmental impact and improved the sustainable development, and its application has been improved and increased by research and development. However the planters were uncertain of the impact of usage of biomass wastes with respect to the contribution to social responsibility and company image in terms of transparency in waste management.

  4. Regional Mapping of Plantation Extent Using Multisensor Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbick, N.; Ledoux, L.; Hagen, S.; Salas, W.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial forest plantations are expanding rapidly across the tropics and monitoring extent is critical for understanding environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In this study, new, multisensor imagery were evaluated and integrated to extract the strengths of each sensor for mapping plantation extent at regional scales. Three distinctly different landscapes with multiple plantation types were chosen to consider scalability and transferability. These were Tanintharyi, Myanmar, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, and southern Ghana. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2), and Sentinel-1A images were fused within a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) framework using random forest and high-resolution surveys. Multi-criteria evaluations showed both L-and C-band gamma nought γ° backscatter decibel (dB), Landsat reflectance ρλ, and texture indices were useful for distinguishing oil palm and rubber plantations from other land types. The classification approach identified 750,822 ha or 23% of the Taninathryi, Myanmar, and 216,086 ha or 25% of western West Kalimantan as plantation with very high cross validation accuracy. The mapping approach was scalable and transferred well across the different geographies and plantation types. As archives for Sentinel-1, Landsat-8, and PALSAR-2 continue to grow, mapping plantation extent and dynamics at moderate resolution over large regions should be feasible.

  5. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    C/ha) and orange (76 tC/ha) plantations have a much lower C content, and oil palm (45 tC/ha) has the lowest C potential, assuming that the yield is not used as biofuel. There is considerable C sequestration potential in plantations if they are established on land with modest C content such as degraded forest......), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 t...

  6. Biomass production in forest plantations used as raw material for industry and energy. Final report. Biomasseproduktion in forstlichen Plantagen fuer die Rohstoff- und Energiegewinnung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, M.R.; Muhs, H.J.

    1986-10-01

    European aspen (Populus tremula), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), and their hybrids (hybrid aspen) are short-rotation, fast growing forest tree species, that apparently hold potential for biomass and energy production. Because of inherent difficulties in vegetative propagation in aspen, it has not been possible to propagate selected aspen and hybrid aspen tress on a large scale. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop unconventional methods of vegetative propagation in aspen that can easily be adapted to nursery practices and are also cost-effective. Explants from buds, leaves, stems, and roots were cultured on a modified Woody Plant Medium for the purposes of microvegetative propagation. Protoplasts were also cultured for regenerative studies. Mainly the bud explants were employed for microvegetative propagation. A 2-step micropropagation method, which is commmercially feasible, has been developed for aspen. This method involves: (1) culture of bud explants on a medium for bud conditioning and microshoot proliferation, and (2) rooting of microshoots in peat-perlite mix. By employing this 2-step micropropagation method, several thousand plants have been regenerated from about 50 mature selected aspen and hybrid aspen trees ranging from 1 to 40 years of age. Following transfer to field conditions, tissue culture derived plants exhibited vigorous growth and attained a height of 1.5-2 meters in the first growing season. (orig.) With 23 refs., 1 tab., 20 figs.

  7. Development of Community Forest in South Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Syahrany Noor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the development of community forests in South Kalimantan and information about the properties and benefits of community forest timber, the hopes community forests timber can be developed into a source of raw materials of natural forest wood substitute that can support the development of the wood processing industry in South Kalimantan. The result showed that Community forest proved to be very useful both for the owner, the community and the environment as well as for the government especially in order to meet the timber supply for local. Until the year 2011 the community forest area that was developed by the government in South Kalimantan has reached 2,895 ha, and the most widely are the Tanah Laut district covering 935 ha. The wood species that developed is sengon, jati, mahoni, karet, petai, akasia, galam, kemiri. The properties of the wood need to be understood and known before the relevant timber used both as a building material or as raw material for the industry, because these properties are basically determining the quality of wood products that will be produced. Technically private community forest wood can be used for building materials, components boat/ship and industrial raw materials.

  8. Intra-and-Inter Species Biomass Prediction in a Plantation Forest: Testing the Utility of High Spatial Resolution Spaceborne Multispectral RapidEye Sensor and Advanced Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Dube

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of aboveground biomass using remote sensing is critical for better understanding the role of forests in carbon sequestration and for informed sustainable management. Although remote sensing techniques have been proven useful in assessing forest biomass in general, more is required to investigate their capabilities in predicting intra-and-inter species biomass which are mainly characterised by non-linear relationships. In this study, we tested two machine learning algorithms, Stochastic Gradient Boosting (SGB and Random Forest (RF regression trees to predict intra-and-inter species biomass using high resolution RapidEye reflectance bands as well as the derived vegetation indices in a commercial plantation. The results showed that the SGB algorithm yielded the best performance for intra-and-inter species biomass prediction; using all the predictor variables as well as based on the most important selected variables. For example using the most important variables the algorithm produced an R2 of 0.80 and RMSE of 16.93 t·ha−1 for E. grandis; R2 of 0.79, RMSE of 17.27 t·ha−1 for P. taeda and R2 of 0.61, RMSE of 43.39 t·ha−1 for the combined species data sets. Comparatively, RF yielded plausible results only for E. dunii (R2 of 0.79; RMSE of 7.18 t·ha−1. We demonstrated that although the two statistical methods were able to predict biomass accurately, RF produced weaker results as compared to SGB when applied to combined species dataset. The result underscores the relevance of stochastic models in predicting biomass drawn from different species and genera using the new generation high resolution RapidEye sensor with strategically positioned bands.

  9. Intra-and-Inter Species Biomass Prediction in a Plantation Forest: Testing the Utility of High Spatial Resolution Spaceborne Multispectral RapidEye Sensor and Advanced Machine Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi; Ismail, Riyad

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of aboveground biomass using remote sensing is critical for better understanding the role of forests in carbon sequestration and for informed sustainable management. Although remote sensing techniques have been proven useful in assessing forest biomass in general, more is required to investigate their capabilities in predicting intra-and-inter species biomass which are mainly characterised by non-linear relationships. In this study, we tested two machine learning algorithms, Stochastic Gradient Boosting (SGB) and Random Forest (RF) regression trees to predict intra-and-inter species biomass using high resolution RapidEye reflectance bands as well as the derived vegetation indices in a commercial plantation. The results showed that the SGB algorithm yielded the best performance for intra-and-inter species biomass prediction; using all the predictor variables as well as based on the most important selected variables. For example using the most important variables the algorithm produced an R2 of 0.80 and RMSE of 16.93 t·ha−1 for E. grandis; R2 of 0.79, RMSE of 17.27 t·ha−1 for P. taeda and R2 of 0.61, RMSE of 43.39 t·ha−1 for the combined species data sets. Comparatively, RF yielded plausible results only for E. dunii (R2 of 0.79; RMSE of 7.18 t·ha−1). We demonstrated that although the two statistical methods were able to predict biomass accurately, RF produced weaker results as compared to SGB when applied to combined species dataset. The result underscores the relevance of stochastic models in predicting biomass drawn from different species and genera using the new generation high resolution RapidEye sensor with strategically positioned bands. PMID:25140631

  10. Estimating forest conversion rates with annual forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2009-01-01

    The rate of land-use conversion from forest to nonforest or natural forest to forest plantation is of interest for forest certification purposes and also as part of the process of assessing forest sustainability. Conversion rates can be estimated from remeasured inventory plots in general, but the emphasis here is on annual inventory data. A new estimator is proposed...

  11. 福建柏不同混交模式林分水源涵养能力比较%Research on Forestland Water Conservation Function of Mixed Forests of Fokienia hodginsii Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李肇锋; 黄碧华; 郑郁善

    2015-01-01

    在福建省国有南靖林场对7种混交模式的福建柏混交林进行水源涵养能力的观测,分析比较不同混交模式地上部分与土壤持水量的差异。结果表明:福建柏混交林林分地上部分持水量与其生物量呈正相关关系,福建柏×火炬松混交林最大,为42.49 t/hm2;土壤层持水量均占林分总持水量的96%以上,福建柏×火炬松混交林最高;各林分不同层次的持水量排序为土壤层>林冠层>凋落物层>活地被物层,土壤层是森林水源涵养的主要场所;通过对福建柏混交林林分涵养水源的综合评价可知,采用福建柏×火炬松混交模式建立的林分水源涵养能力最大。%Based on the research on the mixed forest water conservation function differences among 7 models of Fokienia hodginsii,in Nanjing national forest farm in Fujian province,analyzed the difference of aboveground part and water-holding capacity of mixed models.The result showed that,Fokienia hodginsii mixed forest had a positive correlation between the water conservation of aboveground part and biomass.Among these models,having the high-est ability were the mixed forest of Fokienia hodginsii and Pinus taeda,with 42.49 t/hm2 .Soil layer conservation accounted for upwards of 96 percent of total stand water-holding content.Among of them,Fokienia hodginsii × Pinus taeda was highest.The order of the different levels was soil layer,canopy class,litter layer and living ground cover layer,and soil layer was the primary sites for water conservation.Through comprehensive assessment of water conservation capacity of mixed forests of Fokienia hodginsii plantation could make sure that the mixed model of Fok-ienia hodginsii ×Pinus taeda was the best for stand water conservation .

  12. Sustainable Development in Northern Africa: The Argan Forest Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dom Guillaume

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree is a slow growing tree exclusively endemic in the dry lowlands of Southwest Morocco. The argan forest constitutes a long time ignored specific biotope that has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1998. The argan forest is particularly fragile to climate change. Forecasts show annual precipitation levels and prolonged drought periods that could severely threaten the future of the argan forest. In some places, the argan forest is already damaged, resulting in the retreat of the argan tree and the subsequent desert encroachment. An acceleration of this trend would have devastating consequences. In response, some twenty years ago, an ambitious, unique in Northern-Africa, and government-supported program was initiated in Morocco to rescue the argan tree via the sustainable development of the argan forest. Because in the late 1980s, sustainable development in developing countries was often considered as a utopia, the argan forest case represents a sign of progress, as it is also an interesting and unique experience in Africa. This review analyses the process followed, the measures taken, the pitfalls encountered, and the results obtained during the last two decades. It also points out the measures that still need to be taken before declaring the argan forest rescue mission is accomplished.

  13. Public participation in commercial environments : Critical reflections on community engagement methods used in the Australian plantation forestry industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-01-01

    Social concerns surrounding commercial plantation forest management practices in Australia have resulted in calls for more participatory forms of forest management decision-making. Public participation (or community engagement, CE) processes provide opportunities for affected and interested communit

  14. Forest certification in Russia: development, current state and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukashevich Victor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of voluntary forest certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC system in Russia. The article is based on the review of diverse information sources, analysis of the reports of timber processing enterprises, personal observations during certification audits, discussions in workgroups, and information collected at training courses. We evaluated the present state of voluntary forest certification in Russia, analyzed non-compliances of the activity of Russian wood processing enterprises with the national standard FSC-STD-RUS-V6-1-2012 and indicated possible reasons for non-fulfillment of the requirements. We also presented problems in the development of forest certification in Russia and possible ways for its further development.

  15. Fertilization effects on biomass production, nutrient leaching and budgets in four stand development stages of short rotation forest poplar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Nielsen, Anders Tærø; Stupak, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dedicated energy poplar plantations have a high biomass production potential in temperate regions, which may be further increased by improved management practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fertilization on short rotation forest poplar established on former...

  16. A principal component approach for predicting the stem volume in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Veraldo Liesenberg; Samuel P. C. e Carvalho; Luiz C. E. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Improving management practices in industrial forest plantations may increase production efficiencies, thereby reducing pressures on native tropical forests for meeting global pulp needs. This study aims to predict stem volume (V) in plantations of fast-growing Eucalyptus hybrid clones located in southeast Brazil using field plot and airborne Light Detection...

  17. Management Effects on Soil Respiration in North Carolina Coastal Plain Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, M.; McNulty, S.; Noormets, A.; Treasure, E.

    2012-12-01

    Loblolly pine is the most widely planted tree for plantation management in the southern US. In the southern coastal plain, where much of the original longleaf pine and bottomland hardwood forests have been converted to loblolly pine plantations, inland areas are commonly characterized by deep organic soils that can store up to 80 kg C m-2. Intensive management activities on these sites disturb the forest floor and soil and their impact on soil respiration rates and long term soil storage capabilities is unclear. We measured soil respiration rates in three loblolly pine plantations being managed with a combination of ditching, bedding, clearcutting, thinning and fertilization. Sites and management regimes represented a wide range of real world conditions found in managed southern US forestry plantations. Soil efflux rates along with soil temperature and moisture were measured throughout the year at four to six plots on each site and best fit relationships were developed. Annual soil respiration rates where modeled using 30-minute soil temperature and moisture measurements recorded at a centralized meteorological station on each site. Soil efflux rates were highly correlated with soil temperature and moisture, but interaction between the two effects was uncommon. Soil temperature was the primary driver of soil respiration rates, but rates were suppressed under high soil moisture content. Modeled annual soil efflux rates were higher the first two years following clearcut harvest and thinning operations, but lower two years following fertilization. Rates were lower in the gaps, where entire tree rows were removed, compared to thinned areas, especially on the unfertilized site. Results indicate that soil respiration rates can be strongly impacted by forest management practices; however, the period of increased soil CO2 efflux due to site disturbance may last only a few years.

  18. Vulnerability of Plantation Carbon Stocks to Defoliation under Current and Future Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Pinkard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantation species globally are susceptible to a range of defoliating pests, but pest damage is rarely considered when estimating biomass C sequestered by these forests. We examined the impacts of defoliation on Eucalyptus globulus plantation C stocks under current and future climates using Mycospharella Leaf Disease (MLD as a case study, hypothesising that biomass C sequestered in plantations would decrease with a warming and drying climate, and that impacts of defoliation would be strongly site dependent. Six E. globulus plantation sites with varying productivity were selected for the study. Current (1961–2005 and future (2030 and 2070 severity and frequency of MLD were estimated for each site using the bioclimatic niche model CLIMEX, and used as inputs to the process-based forest productivity model CABALA. CABALA was used to develop annual estimates of total living and dead biomass for current, 2030 and 2070 climate scenarios. Averaged annual biomass outputs were used to initialise the carbon accounting model FullCAM for calculation of C sequestered in living and dead biomass over a growing cycle. E. globulus plantations were predicted to sequester between 4.8 and 13.4 Mg C·ha−1·year−1 over 10 years under current climatic conditions. While our estimates suggest that overall this is likely to increase slightly under future climates (up to a maximum of 17.2 Mg C·ha−1·year−1 in 2030, and a shift in minimum and maximum values to 7.6 and 17.6 respectively in 2070, we predict considerable between-site variation. Our results suggest that biomass C sequestration will not necessarily be enhanced by future climatic conditions in all locations. We predict that biomass C sequestration may be reduced considerably by defoliation meaning that any gains in C sequestration associated with changing climate may be substantially offset by defoliation. While defoliation has a generally small impact under current climatic conditions in these

  19. Modeling and mapping basal area of Pinus taeda L. plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos A; Klauberg, Carine; Hudak, Andrew T; Vierling, Lee A; Fennema, Scott J; Corte, Ana Paula D

    2017-08-14

    Basal area (BA) is a good predictor of timber stand volume and forest growth. This study developed predictive models using field and airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data for estimation of basal area in Pinus taeda plantation in south Brazil. In the field, BA was collected from conventional forest inventory plots. Multiple linear regression models for predicting BA from LiDAR-derived metrics were developed and evaluated for predictive power and parsimony. The best model to predict BA from a family of six models was selected based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and assessed by the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R²) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best model revealed an adj. R²=0.93 and RMSE=7.74%. Leave one out cross-validation of the best regression model was also computed, and revealed an adj. R² and RMSE of 0.92 and 8.31%, respectively. This study showed that LiDAR-derived metrics can be used to predict BA in Pinus taeda plantations in south Brazil with high precision. We conclude that there is good potential to monitor growth in this type of plantations using airborne LiDAR. We hope that the promising results for BA modeling presented herein will stimulate to operate this technology in Brazil.

  20. Short Communication. Restoring monoculture plantation using stand spatial structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. To improve the quality of monoculture plantations in China.Area of study. structure-based forest management was conducted in Rocky Mountain Area of Northern China.Material and Methods. Stand spatial structure indicators of mingling degree, uniform angle index, neighborhood comparison and opening degree were comparably investigated to understand the changes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations.Main results. The results indicated that structure-based forest management accounted for 0.403 and 0.448 of the significant variations in mingling degree and opening degree increments, and had no essential changes in uniform angle index and neighborhood comparison. Structure-based forest management is greatly beneficial to plantation quality, and it can be a source of improvement on stand structure.Research highlights. This improved information is essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on how best to restore degraded forests in China as well as the rest of the world.Key words: monoculture plantation; structure-based forest management; stand spatial structure; forest restoration

  1. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  2. 商洛地区不同林龄油松人工林土壤理化性质研究%Study on Soil Physicochemical Properties along Forest Age of Pinus tabulaeformis Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 刘华; 王得祥; 王宇超; 吴昊; 张丽楠; 黄青平

    2012-01-01

    为探讨林龄对油松人工林土壤理化性质的影响及二者间的关系,在陕西商洛地区设置典型样地,采用野外调查和室内测定分析相结合的方法,比较不同林龄油松人工林样地土壤理化性质的变化特征以及不同理化性质指标之间的相关性。结果表明:有机质、全氮含量及pH值在0-40cm土层深度下随林龄的增加逐渐降低,其他理化指标随林龄增加亦表现出一定的规律性;40-60cm土层下,全氮含量及pH值随林龄的增加也呈现降低趋势,而其它理化指标则未表现m规律性变化。相关性分析结果显示,有机质与全氮以及pH之间存在着显著的正相关关系,其中,全氮与pH之间相关性达到极显著水平,其他各理化指标之间则无明显的相关性。%In order to explore the impact of forest ages on the physicochemical characteristics of soil under pi nus tabulaeformis plantation and compare the variation characteristics of the soil physicochemical characteris- tics under pinus tabulaeformis plantation of different forest age, typical sample zones were set in Shangluo in this study. The combination method of field investigation and laboratory analysis was adopted. The results showed that organic matter, total nitrogen and pH value reduced with the increase of the forest age among the soil depth of 0--20 cm and 20 40 cm. The other physical and chemical parameters also changed, but did not show obvious increase or decrease. Total nitrogen and pH value reduced with the increase of the forest age among the tween organic nitrogen and p chemical propt soil depth of 40--60 cm. Correlation analysis showed that there was a positive correlation be- matter, total nitrogen and pH value, while an extremely significant correlation between total H value was observed. There was no significantly correlation between the other physical and ertles.

  3. 辽东林区典型经营条件下长白落叶松人工林结构特征%Characteristics of Larix olgensis Plantation Under the Typical Operating Conditions of the Liaodong forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌帅; 张丽杰; 黄鑫春; 张宇

    2014-01-01

    diameter classes (2-6 cm)tree and big diameter classes(18 -36 cm/34/30)tress were change of gradient of slope position.From the bottom to top,the number of diameter class of 2-6 cm tree was gradually decreased,while they were increased for the num-ber of diameter class 18-36 cm/34/30 tree.In the middle and bottom of slope,Larix olgensis with large-diameter (DBH≥26 cm)was dominant,accounting for 58.6%and 60.0%,respectively.In the top of slope,middle-diam-eter (24 cm≥DBH≥12 cm)trees were dominant,accounting for 66.7%.The diameter class of species renewal under forest mainly was composed of small size tree (DBH <6 cm),like,in the bottom,middle and top of slope, the number of middle size tree (DBH 2cm -6cm)accounted for 96.3%,93.8% and 85.6%,respectively. Therefore,using near natural forest management pattern and constructing stable structure forest with uneven-aged and mixed multi-storied plantation to achieve the optimization of ecological and economic benefits in the future process of forest management is strongly needed.It was early stage of regenerative community formation.

  4. La fauna edafica en bosques y plantaciones de coniferas de la estacion San Lorenzo-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Soil fauna in forest and pine plantations from San Lorenzo station-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamorro Bello Clara

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la estacion de San Lorenzo-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta-(2280 m. se seleccionaron suelos (Tropaquepts, bajo usos de bosque nativo y plantacion de pinos. La coleccion de las comunidades edafofaunisticas se realizo con base en la aplicacion de tecnicas de Barber y Berlesse, para su posterior determinacion hasta el nivel de familia. Se determino la biodiversidad medida en el Indice de Brillouin, las densidades poblacionales, su distribucion en el perfil del suelo, y los Indices de Riqueza y Constancia, para cada uno de los horizontes edaficos.Soils in San Lorenzo Station-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta-(2280m were selected in two different uses: forest and pine plantations. Fauna was coleected out from the soils by Pitfall and Berlesse methods to be determinated up to family levels. Biodiversity, populations, fauna distribution into soil profile, and richness and constancy indexes, were determinated in soil horizons. Biodiversity, richness and Constancy Indexes are affected when natural condition are disturbed, generally by man action. This perturbation speed up the natural population growth when another population controllers have disappea.

  5. Development of Forest Population Biology and Biogeocenology in the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The priority directions, concepts, approaches, methods and results of half a century investigations of forest genetics, ecology, geography and biogeocenology in the Ural school of population biology of woody plants are briefly discussed. The results of quantitative genetic-ecologic-geographical studies of the forests based on population approaches as well as main theoretic generalizations are presented, to assist possible interpretation and development of future investigations.

  6. Development of Forest Population Biology and Biogeocenology in the Urals

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Sannikov; N. S. Sannikova; I. V. Petrova; S. A. Shavnin

    2014-01-01

    The priority directions, concepts, approaches, methods and results of half a century investigations of forest genetics, ecology, geography and biogeocenology in the Ural school of population biology of woody plants are briefly discussed. The results of quantitative genetic-ecologic-geographical studies of the forests based on population approaches as well as main theoretic generalizations are presented, to assist possible interpretation and development of future investigations.

  7. Evaluating management tradeoffs between economic fiber production and other ecosystem services in a Chinese-fir dominated forest plantation in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Seely, Brad; Wang, Guangyu; Innes, John; Zheng, Dexiang; Chen, Pingliu; Wang, Tongli; Li, Qinglin

    2016-07-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is not only a valuable timber species, but also plays an important role in the provision of ecosystem services. Forest management decisions to increase the production of fiber for economic gain may have negative impacts on the long-term flow of ecosystem services from forest resources. Such tradeoffs should be taken into account to fulfill the requirements of sustainable forest management. Here we employed an established, ecosystem-based, stand-level model (FORECAST) in combination with a simplified harvest-scheduling model to evaluate the potential tradeoffs among indicators of provisional, regulating and supporting ecosystem services in a Chinese-fir-dominated landscape located in Fujian Province as a case study. Indicators included: merchantable volume harvested, biomass harvested, ecosystem carbon storage, CO2 fixation, O2 released, biomass nitrogen content, pollutant absorption, and soil fertility. A series of alternative management scenarios, representing different combinations of rotation length and harvest intensity, were simulated to facilitate the analysis. Results from the analysis were summarized in the form of a decision matrix designed to provide a method for forest managers to evaluate management alternatives and tradeoffs in the context of key indicators of ecosystem services. The scenario analysis suggests that there are considerable tradeoffs in terms of ecosystem services associated with stand and landscape-level management decisions. Longer rotations and increased retention tended to favor regulating and supporting services while the opposite was true for provisional services.

  8. WET AND DRY SEASON ECOSYSTEM LEVEL FLUXES OF ISOPRENE AND MONOTERPENES FROM A SOUTHEAST ASIAN SECONDARY FOREST AND RUBBER TREE PLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canopy scale fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were investigated in both wet and dry seasons above a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)/secondary tropical forest in the Yunnan province of southwestern China. Drought conditions were unusually high during the dry season experiment....

  9. Fauna del suelo en bosques y cafetales de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia Soil fauna in forest and coffee plantations from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camero R. Edgar

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta se establecieron dos estaciones de muestreo en las localidades de Minca a 700 m de altitud y María Teresa a 790 m, para realizar comparaciones de la fauna asociada a los suelos de plantaciones de café y de bosques naturales. Las colecciones se realizaron tanto en la hojarasca como en los horizontes  subsuperficiales O, Ay B de las dos coberturas vegetales mediante el empleo de trampas Pitfall y Berlesse y se utilizaron índices de diversidad, abundancia relativa y frecuencia para comparar su composici6n biológica, la cual se determine a nivel de familia. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas, tanto en la composición como en la abundancia y frecuencia de los grupos colectados en los dos tipos de ecosistemas, así Como variaciones altitudinales significativas al comparar los resultados obtenidos en los bosques nativos con trabajos hechos en zonas de mayor altitud en este sistema montañoso.

    Two research stations (Minca, 700 m altitude and Marfa Teresa, 790 m altitude were established in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in places to study the soil fauna associated with forest and coffee plantations. Soil fauna was collected using Pitfall and Berlesse traps. Samples were taken from litter as well as from horizons O, A and B. Individuals collected were identified to family level. Diversity, abundance and frequency indexes were used to compare fauna composition at both sites. Significant differences were found between the two research sites as well as with data from other high altitude forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.

  10. Forecasting forest development through modeling based on the legacy of forest structure over the past 43 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Baskent

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Sustainable management of forest ecosystems requires comprehensive coverage of data to reflect both the historical legacy and the future development of forests.  This study focuses on analyzing the spatio-temporal dynamics of forests over the past 43 years to help better forecast the future development of forest under various management strategies.Area of study: The area is situated in Karaisalı district of Adana city in the southeastern corner of Turkey.Material and methods: The historical pattern from 1969 to 2012 was assessed with digital forest cover type maps, produced with high resolution aerial photo interpretation using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The forest development over the next 120 years was forecasted using ecosystem-based multiple use forest management model (ETÇAP to understand the cause-effect relationships under various management strategies.Main results: The result showed that over the past 43 years while total forest areas decreased about 1194 ha (4%, the productive forest areas increased about 5397 ha (18% with a decrease of degraded forest (5824 ha, 20% and increase of maquis areas (2212 ha, 7%.The forecast of forest development under traditional management strategy resulted in an unsustainable forest due to broken initial age class structure, yet generated more total harvest (11% due to 88% relaxing of even timber flow constraint. While more volume could be harvested under traditional management conditions, the sustainability of future forest is significantly jeopardized.Research highlights: This result trongly implies that it is essential adopting modeling techniques to understand forest dynamics and forecast the future development comprehensively.Keywords: Forest management; simulation; optimization; forest dynamics; land use change.

  11. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder plantation productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing oil palm plantations which are to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims to identify potential criteria in influencing plantation productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. 

  12. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  13. Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    1995-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

  14. Effect of Continuous Plantation of Chinese Fir on Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGYING-XIANG; CHENJIN-LIN

    1995-01-01

    The changes in soil fertility under continuous plantation of Chinese fir were studied by comparing soil samples from different forest stands:the first and second plantations of Chinese fir,evergreen broad-leaved forests,and clear-cut and burnt Chinese fir land located at Xihou Village,Nanping of Fujian Province.The soils were humic red soil originated from weathered coarse granite of the Presinian system.Soil pH,CEC,base saturation ,exchangeable Ca2+,exchangeable Mg2+ and A1-P declined after continuous plantation of Chinese fir.The same trends were also found in the soils under broad-leaved stands and slash burnt lands.The explantation was that not merely the biological nature of the Chinese fir itself but the natural leaching of nutrients,soil erosion and nutrient losses due to clear cutting and slash burning of the preceduing plantation caused the soil deterioration .Only some of main soil nutrients decreased after continuous plantation of Chinese fir,depending on specific silvicultural system,which was different from the conclusions in some other reports which showed that all main nutrients,such as OM,total N,available P and available K decreased,Some neccessary step to make up for the lost base,to apply P fertilizer and to avoid buring on clear cut lands could be taken to prevent soil degradation and yield decline in the system of continuous plantation of Chinese fir.

  15. [Soil soluble organic matter, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities in forest plantations in degraded red soil region of Jiangxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-mei; Chen, Cheng-long; Xu, Zhi-hong; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Ouyang, Jing; Wang, Fang

    2010-09-01

    Taking the adjacent 18-year-old pure Pinus massoniana pure forest (I), P. massoniana, Liquidamber fomosana, and Schima superba mixed forest (II), S. superba pure forest (III), L. fomosana (IV) pure forest, and natural restoration fallow land (CK) in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province as test sites, a comparative study was made on their soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), and soil urease and asparaginase activities. In 0-10 cm soil layer, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN at test sites ranged in 354-1007 mg x kg(-1), 24-73 mg x kg(-1), 203-488 mg x kg(-1), and 24-65 mg x kg(-1), and the soil urease and asparaginase activities were 95-133 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 58-113 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. There were significant differences in the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the asparaginase activity among the test sites, but no significant difference was observed in the urease activity. The pool sizes of SOC and SON were in the order of IV > CK > III > I > II, those of MBC and MBN were in the order of CK > IV > III > I > II, and asparaginase activity followed the order of IV > CK > III > II > I. With the increase of soil depth, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the activities of soil asparaginase and urease decreased. In 0-20 cm soil layer, the SOC, SON, MBC, MBN, total C, and total N were highly correlated with each other, soil asparaginase activity was highly correlated with SOC, SON, TSN, total C, total N, MBC, and MBN, and soil urease activity was highly correlated with SON, TSN, total C, MBC and MBN.

  16. Are Local People Conservationists? Analysis of Transition Dynamics from Agroforests to Monoculture Plantations in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Levang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cash crops are developing in the once forested areas of Indonesia in parallel with market and economic improvements. Perennial crops such as coffee, cocoa, and rubber were first planted in estates by private or public companies. Local people then integrated these crops into their farming systems, often through the planting of agroforests, that is, intercropping the new cash crop with upland rice and food crops. The crop was generally mixed with fruit trees, timber, and other useful plants. A geographic specialization occurred, driven by biophysical constraints and market opportunities, with expansion of cocoa in Sulawesi, coffee in Lampung, and natural rubber in eastern Sumatra. However, during the past three decades, these agroforests have increasingly been converted into more productive monoculture plantations. A common trajectory can be observed in agricultural landscapes dominated by a perennial cash crop: from ladang to agroforests, and then to monoculture plantations. This process combines agricultural expansion at the expense of natural forests and specialization of the land cover at the expense of biodiversity and wildlife habitats. We determined the main drivers of agricultural expansion and intensification in three regions of Indonesia based on perception surveys and land use profitability analysis. When the national and international contexts clearly influence farmers' decisions, local people appear very responsive to economic opportunities. They do not hesitate to change their livelihood system if it can increase their income. Their cultural or sentimental attachment to the forest is not sufficient to prevent forest conversion.

  17. Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, Pentti [VTT Processes, Box 1601, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration cuttings. The production goal of forest chips is 5 million m{sup 3} solid (10TWh) in 2010. The use of forest chips is promoted by means of environmental taxes, financial aid for investments, and financial support for research, development and commercialization of technology. In 2002, altogether 365 heating and power plants larger than 0.4MW used forest chips. The total consumption was 1.7 million m{sup 3}, the use of small houses and farms included. The growth of use is presently about 350000 m{sup 3} per annum, but reaching the official goal will require an annual growth of 400000 m{sup 3} during this decade. The consumption of roundwood per capita, 15m{sup 3} per annum, is in Finland 20 times as high as the average consumption of the EU countries, respectively. Consequently, residual forest biomass is abundantly available. The capacity of heating and power plants to use forest chips is large enough to meet the goal. However, users require competitive chip prices, good quality control of fuel and reliable supply chains, and new efficient procurement systems are being developed. The paper deals with the drivers of this development: support measures of the Government; strong support to research, development and commercialization of forest chip production from the National Technology Agency Tekes; advanced infrastructure for the procurement of timber for the forest industries; positive attitude and active participation of the forest industries; the active role of leading forest machine and boiler manufacturers, and the possibility to cofire wood and peat fuels in large

  18. Development of Low-carbon Forest Tourism with Emphasis on Construction of Urban Forest Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly points out that the urban forest tourism has so many advantages and it will hopefully become the support industry of low-carbon forestry, and the development of urban forestparks in low-carbon economy is extraordinarily important, especially when faced with some serious traditional problems. A series of proposals about revolutionary measures are put forwards.

  19. Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network and Its Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGBing; CUIXianghui; YANGFengwei

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network, estabfished in late 1950's and directly constructed and administered by the Science and Technology Department of State Forestry Administration of China,is a large ecology research network focuses on long-term ecosystem fixed-observation. It embodies 15 sites that represent diverse ecosystems and research priorities, including 6 state-level sites. CFERN Office coordinates communications, network publications, and research-planning activities. CFERN uses the advanced ground and spatial observation technologies such as RS, GPS, GIS to study the structure, functional laws and feedback mechanism of Chinese forest ecosystem, as well as its effects on China's social and economic development. The main tasks carried out by CFERN are: (1) construction of the database on the structure and functions of Chinese forest ecosystem and its ecological environmental factors; (2) the database construction of forest resources, ecological environment, water resources and related social economy in both regional and national scales; (3) the establishment of an evaluation system of forest ecological effects in China's main drainage areas; (4) the estabfishment of a forest environment monitoring network and a dynamic prediction and alarm system.

  20. Community-based Forest Resources Management in Nigeria: Case study of Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Borokini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption of this approach in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, where the communities weretrained in establishment and management of forest plantations with readily available market for theirtimber; employment for some of the community youths as well as community development projects.This paper calls for the adoption of this system in other protected areas in Nigeria, while theGovernment should provide basic amenities for the communities as alternatives to those forest products.Keywords: Community-based forest management, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Protected areas, Nigeria.

  1. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody R. Stallings

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

  2. Crescimento em altura do pau-ferro (Astronium balansae em reflorestamento Height growth of pau-ferro (Astroniumn balansae in a plantation forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado, através da técnica de análise de tronco, o crescimento em altura do pau-ferro (Astronium balansae, em reflorestamento com doze anos de idade, no município de São Sepé - RS, permitindo quantificar e descrever o crescimento cumulativo e em forma de taxas anuais médias e correntes em função da idade. Os dados de uma árvore do estrato dominante e uma do estrato dominado foram modelados através do procedimento "Stepwise" de regressão, sendo obtidas equações de alta precisão e ajuste para descrever o crescimento, o incremento médio e corrente anual da espécie. No período de tempo coberto pelos dados, o culmínio do incremento corrente em altura ocorreu aos seis anos e do incremento médio entre o oitavo e nono ano. na árvore dominante, não devendo entretanto, esta constatação ser tomada como definitiva antes da medição do crescimento em árvores mais velhas, o que permitirá verificar ou não a continuidade da queda das taxas de incremento. Não foi possível determinar as idades de culmínio do incrementos na árvore dominada.The growth in height of Astronium balansae, in a twelve years old plantation stand, in the county of São Sepé-RS, was evaluated by a trunk analyses, allowing to quantify and describe lhe cumulative growth and the average annual and the current rates as a function of the tree age. The data from one dominant tree and from one dominated were modeled by a stepwise regression procedure. High precision equations were fitted to describe the height growth of the specie. During the time period observed, culminating of the current increment in height happened at six years and the respective average increment between the eighty and ninety years age, in the dominant tree. However. this observation should not be taken as final; only after determinatios in older trees are made, which will verify or not the decline in the growth rates. It was no possible to determine the ages at which the incremements

  3. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2004-11-04

    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  4. 燕山北部山地人工落叶松林与天然次生林物种多样性的比较%Biodiversity between larch plantation and secondary poplar- birch forest in north region of Yanshan mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪晓林; 贾彦龙; 卢金平; 李倩茹; 许中旗

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the biodiversity maintain function of Larch plantation, taking 13 - year, 30 - year Larch plantation and 13 - year,28 - year secondary poplar- birch forest as research object,the biodiversity between them and the effects of thinning on Larch plantation biodiversity were investigated. Results showed that biodiversities in Larch plantation had no significant differences with secondary poplar - birch forest except Simpson Index and Shannon - weiner Index of 30 -year Larch plantation. Thinning mainly reduced the diversity of tree layer in short time, but it had no significant effect on shrub and herb layer. Larch plantation in north region of Yanshan mountain could maintain high biodiversity.%为了解燕山北部山地华北落叶松人工林植被物种多样性维持功能的高低,选取13 a和30a生人工落叶松林,以13 a和28a生天然次生杨桦林作为对照,对两种林分的植被多样性进行调查和分析,并研究了间伐对人工落叶松林植被物种多样性的影响.结果表明,林龄相同或相近的两种林分类型相比,无论是乔木层、灌木层或是草本层,人工落叶松林丰富度、Simpson指数、Shannon- Weiner指数均表现出相当或略高于天然次生杨桦林(30a生人工落叶松林乔木层多样性指数除外);间伐对人工落叶松林植被物种多样性的短期影响主要体现在乔木层,对林下灌木层和草本层无明显影响.燕山北部山地人工落叶松林具有较高的植物多样性维持功能,没有导致物种多样性的降低.

  5. 格氏栲天然林与人工林凋落物数量、养分归还及凋落叶分解%Litter production, nutrient return and leaf-litter decomposition in natural and monoculture plantation forests of Castanopsis kawakamii in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉盛; 林鹏; 郭剑芬; 林瑞余; 陈光水; 何宗明; 谢锦升

    2003-01-01

    The amount and pattern of litterfall, its nutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) returns, and leaf-litter decomposition associated with its quality were studied in a natural forest of Castanopsis kawakamii (NF) and adjacent monoculture plantations of C. kawakamii (CK) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, CF) in Sanming, Fujian, China. Mean annual total litterfall over 3 years of observations (from 1999 to 2001) was 11.01 t*hm-2 in the NF, 9.54 t*hm-2 in the CK and 5.47 t*hm-2 in the CF respectively. Of the total annual litterfall in the three forests, leaf contribution constituted 59.70%, 71.98% and 58.29%, respectively. Litterfall in the NF and CK showed similar litterfall pattern with a distinct peak in April of each year. While for the CF, the litterfall peaks occurred in April (or May), August and November, respectively. Except for the highest annual Ca returns in the CF and Mg returns in the CK, the three forests could be arranged in this sequence with respect to annual nutrient returns: NF>CK>CF. The annual percent leaf litter mass loss was the highest for C. kawakamii in the NF (98.16%) and the lowest for Chinese fir (60.78%). Ratios of C/N and lignin/N had significantly negative influences on decay rate coefficients, while initial N and water soluble compounds exerted significantly positive influences. The results of this study demonstrate that the natural forest has a greater capability for maintaining site productivity than monoculture plantations due to higher amount and quality of litter coupled with greater nutrient returns and faster litter decomposition. Therefore, conservation of the natural forest is recommended as a practical measure in forest management to realize sustainable development of forestry in mountainous areas of southern China.%通过对中亚热带格氏栲天然林 ( natural forest of Castanopsis kawakamii, 约150年生)、格氏栲和杉木人工林 (monoculture plantations of C. kawakamii and Cunninghamia lanceolata,33年生) 凋落

  6. Yield model for unthinned Sitka spruce plantations in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omiyale, O.; Joyce, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past few decades the construction of yield models, has progressed from the graphical through mathematical and biomathematic approach. The development of a biomathematical growth model for Sitka spruce plantations is described. It is suggested that this technique can serve as a basis for general yield model construction of plantation species in Ireland. (Refs. 15).

  7. Nutrient dynamics of decomposing leaf litter in natural and monoculture plantation forests of Castanopsis kawakamii in subtropical China%格氏栲天然林与人工林凋落叶分解过程中养分动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉盛; 郭剑芬; 林鹏; 陈光水; 何宗明; 谢锦升

    2004-01-01

    通过对中亚热带格氏栲天然林 (natural forest of Castanopsis kawakamii, 约150a)、格氏栲和杉木人工林 (monoculture plantations of C. Kawakamii and Cunninghamia lanceolata,33年生) 凋落叶分解过程中养分动态的研究表明,各凋落叶分解过程中N初始浓度均发生不同程度的增加后下降;除格氏栲天然林中其它树种叶和杉木叶P浓度先增加后下降外,其它均随分解过程而下降;除杉木叶外,其它类型凋落叶的Ca和Mg浓度呈上升趋势;凋落叶K浓度均随分解过程不断下降.养分残留率与分解时间之间存在着指数函数关系xt=x0e-kt.凋落叶分解过程中各养分释放常数分别为:N(kN) 0.678~4.088;P (kP) 0.621~4.308;K(kK) 1.408~4.421;Ca (kCa) 0.799~3.756;Mg (kMg) 0.837 ~ 3.894.除杉木叶外,其它凋落叶分解过程中均呈kK>kP>kN>kMg>kCa的顺序变化.各林分凋落叶的年养分释放量分别为N 10.73~48.19kg/(hm2·a),P 0.61~3.70kg/(hm2·a),K 6.66~39.61kg/(hm2·a),Ca 17.90~20.91kg/(hm2·a),Mg 3.21~9.85kg/(hm2·a).与针叶树人工林相比,天然阔叶林凋落叶分解过程中较快的养分释放和较高的养分释放量有利于促进养分再循环,这对地力维持有重要作用.%Nutrient dynamics of decomposing leaf litter was studied in two 33-year-old plantations, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, CF) and Castanopsis kawakamii (CK), and compared with that of an adjacent natural forest of Castanopsis kawakamii (NF, ~150 year old) in Sanming, Fujian, China. During the decomposition, varying degree of initial increase followed by decrease of N concentrations was observed in leaf litter, while initial increase and then decrease of P concentration was only found in leaves of other tree species in the NF and Chinese fir needle. The concentrations of Ca and Mg increased in all leaves except for Chinese fir needle, whereas that of K decreased consistently. Using the model xt=x0e-kt, the decay constants of nutrients

  8. Model of characteristic parameter for forest plantation with data obtained by light small aerial remote sensing system%利用轻小型飞机遥感数据建立人工林特征参数模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 杨慧乔; 冯仲科; 邢哲; 何诚

    2013-01-01

    Airborne lidar and digital aerial photography, in a light small aerial remote sensing system, can obtain three-dimensional coordinates to the quantitative estimate of forest parameters, and in particular have unique advantages in terms of tree height and forest spatial structure estimation. Even though China mainly uses foreign aerial photography system, this study, based on Chinese self-developed high-precision small aerial remote sensing system, established a model between remote sensing data and the ground forestry stand value, and evaluated the accuracy of the model and the feasibility of the aviation system in forestry. The Chinese pine plantation in Shangcheng City, Henan Province was chosen for the study area, and a standard single tree was chosen in the 40 sample plots. The tree height and tree diameter at breast height (DBH) measured by traditional methods were treated as the reference values. A photographic image obtained by the aerial digital photography system was transformed to an orthophoto through mosaic, matching, and stitching processes. With the adjacent pixel-comparison method, the tree crown width was extracted from the orthophoto based on the object-oriented fuzzy algorithm. After noise removal, point cloud data obtained by airborne LIDAR (light detection and ranging) generated a digital elevation model (DEM) and digital surface model (DSM) through an interpolation algorithm. Thus the tree height model is obtained by subtraction. In this paper, based on the 30 sample trees, the linear regression model for tree height was built between LIDAR data and field survey data with model correlation coefficient R2 of 0.895. The relationship is remarkable. The linear regression model for DBH was built by the average tree crown width extracted by aerial images and field survey DBH data, and R is 0.876, also a remarkable result. Based on the other 10 sample trees, the accuracies of tree height model and DBH model were estimated. The height model’s overall

  9. History of Forest Enterprise Management Development in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Blazevska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The central theme of the paper is the development of forest enterprise management in Macedonia and the adaptation to changes throughout the history. The change has become a permanent phenomenon that has to be addressed and managed appropriately in order to ensure organizational survival. Because of the changes in technology, the market place, social values and work force created a dynamic and unpredictable environment especially for those organizations who are unable to respond to the changes and adapt. Methods and Methodology: For the purpose of the research, a content analysis was applied to forest enterprises that appeared in all documents starting from 1900 to 2012. In order to increase the validity of the research and avoid any gaps, the data was divided into categories according to the meaning of the words. Hence, words with similar meanings were placed into the same categories, in order to obtain a better review of the researched phenomena. Results and Conclusions: The results showed that throughout the history there were different types of forests enterprise managements in Macedonia. According to the analysed documents, during the period of the administration after the World War II (May 1945 the first federal forest company “FESUMA” was established with the help of ASNOM (Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People’s Liberation of Macedonia and the Department of Forestry and Mining. All modifications of forests funds and legislation thereafter have influenced and provoked a lot of changes in the forest enterprise management. At the same time it is interesting to emphasize that the results obtained from the research show that in order to survive and stay competitive on the market, forest enterprises have been developing and adapting to the changes in the environment.

  10. Study on Cultivation Nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations with Multi-generation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the previous study on cultivation nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations of first generation, the cultivation nutrition of C. lanceolata plantations with multi-generation was studied. The results show that there are significant differences in the growth, development and nutrient assimilation among C. lanceolata plantations with different generations and nutrition conditions. These differences are closely related to the land fertility decline of C. lanceolata plantations. This paper de...

  11. K-12 Professional Development at the Harvard Forest LTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program, the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts seeks to train the next generation of researchers, by involving K-12 grade students and their teachers in hands-on, field-based, ecological research in their own schoolyard and community. Students learn to collect data on important long-term ecological issues and processes. Student data are then shared on the Harvard Forest website. To prepare teachers for project protocols, teachers are given direct access to Harvard ecologists with professional development workshops and on-line resources. With the Harvard Forest Schoolyard LTER program, students can participate in three different research projects focusing on phenology, invasive insects, and vernal pools. Teachers attend the Summer Institute for Teachers to learn project content and methods. They return in fall to participate in one of three levels of data workshops to learn how to input, manage, and analyze project data. In the spring, teachers again meet with the Harvard ecologists about project protocols, and to share, through a series of teacher presentations, the ways these project themes are being integrated into class curricula. These professional development opportunities result in long term collaborative partnerships with local schools and the Harvard Forest LTER. In addition to the LTER Schoolyard Ecology Program, the Harvard Forest has supported a successful Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program for the last six years. Throughout the summer, teachers work on research projects alongside Harvard Forest and affiliated scientists, post-docs, graduate students, and REU's (Research Experience for Undergraduates). The RET program provides teachers with the opportunity to build scientific knowledge, develop an understanding of research methods, and translate their new knowledge and experiences into cutting edge classroom lessons. The past two summers I have worked with Dr. Andrew Richardson

  12. Trees, poverty and targets: Forests and the Millennium Development Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, James

    2007-04-15

    Where are the forests in the MDGs? When players in the forestry world get together they are good at setting goals. They are a good match for the political leaders that gave us the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since the 1980s there has been a proliferation of international dialogues dealing with forests and, a bit like the football World Cup, every four years or so they come up with a feast of goals. If forestry goals were all we needed to make progress, then sustainable and pro-poor forestry would have long since become a worldwide reality. Of course, implementation still lags well behind aspiration, but at least there is now a considerable body of international knowledge and agreement on how forests can contribute to development.

  13. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  14. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development,it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in termof polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province.These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.

  15. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development, it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in term of polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province. These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.  

  16. Bird community comparisons of four plantations and conservation concerns in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fasheng; Yang, Qiongfang; Lin, Yongbiao; Xu, Guoliang; Greenberg, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plantations of non-native, fast-growing trees are increasing in the tropics and subtropics, perhaps with negative consequences for the native avifauna. We studied bird diversity in 4 types of plantations in South China to determine which plantation types are especially detrimental, and compared our findings with studies in nearby natural forests to assess the magnitude of the negative impact. A total of 57 species was recorded. The mean capture rate of understory birds was 1.7 individuals 100-net-h(-1). Bird richness and capture rate were lower in plantations than in nearby natural forests. Babblers (Timaliidae), primarily forest-dependent species in South China, were particularly under-represented in plantations. Species richness, composition and bird density, particularly of understory birds, differed between plantation types. Plantations of Schima, which is native to South China, had the highest species richness according to point count data. Plantations of Acacia (non-native) supported the highest understory species richness and produced the highest capture rate of understory birds, probably because of their complex structure and high arthropod abundance. If bird diversity is to be considered, we strongly recommend that future re-afforestation projects in South China should, as far as possible, use mixed native tree species, and especially Schima, ahead of the other species.

  17. Survivors, not invaders, control forest development following simulated hurricane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Audrey Barker; Foster, David; Carlson, Joel; Magill, Alison

    2013-02-01

    Wind disturbance profoundly shapes temperate forests but few studies have evaluated patterns and mechanisms of long-term forest dynamics following major windthrows. In 1990, we initiated a large hurricane simulation experiment in a 0.8-ha manipulation (pulldown) and 0.6-ha control area of a maturing Quercus rubra--Acer rubrum forest in New England. We toppled 276 trees in the pulldown, using a winch and cable, in the northwesterly direction of natural treefall from major hurricanes. Eighty percent of canopy trees and two-thirds of all trees > or = 5 cm dbh (diameter at breast height) suffered direct and indirect damage. We used 20 years of measurements to evaluate the trajectory and mechanisms of forest response after intense disturbance. Based on the patch size and disturbance magnitude, we expected pioneer tree and understory species to drive succession. The first decade of analyses emphasized tree seedling establishment and sprouting by damaged trees as the dominant mechanisms of forest recovery in this extensive damaged area. However, despite 80% canopy damage and 8000-m2 patch size, surviving overstory and advance regeneration controlled longer-term forest development. Residual oaks make up 42% of stand basal area after 20 years. The new cohort of trees, dominated by black birch advance regeneration, contributes 30% of stand basal area. There were shifts in understory vegetation composition and cover, but few species were gained or lost after 20 years. Stand productivity rebounded quickly (litterfall recovered to pre-disturbance levels in six years), but we predict that basal area in the pulldown will lag behind the control (which gained 6 m2/ha over 20 years) for decades to come. This controlled experiment showed that although the scale and intensity of damage were great, abundant advance regeneration, understory vegetation, and damaged trees remained, allowing the forest to resist changes in ecosystem processes and invasion by new species.

  18. Exploring different forest definitions and their impact on developing REDD+ reference emission levels: A case study for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.E.; Ainembabazi, J.H.; Wijaya, A.; Herold, M.; Angelsen, A.; Verchot, L.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries participating in the mitigation mechanism of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), need to determine a national forest reference emission level

  19. Exploring different forest definitions and their impact on developing REDD+ reference emission levels: A case study for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.E.; Ainembabazi, J.H.; Wijaya, A.; Herold, M.; Angelsen, A.; Verchot, L.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries participating in the mitigation mechanism of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), need to determine a national forest reference emission level

  20. Short-rotation plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip E. Pope; Jeffery O. Dawson

    1989-01-01

    Short-rotation plantations offer several advantages over longer, more traditional rotations. They enhance the natural productivity of better sites and of tree species with rapid juvenile growth. Returns on investment are realized in a shorter period and the risk of loss is reduced compared with long term investments. Production of wood and fiber can be maximized by...

  1. The push for plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben; Casse, Thorkil; Nielsen, Thomas Theis

    2013-01-01

    We observe signs of social differentiation, where poor households end up serving as causal labour for the richer families on their acacia plantations. In addition, the poor can be rendered more vulnerable after becoming labourers, because they may not longer have an alternative source of income, ...

  2. An Assessment of the Contribution of an Analog Forest as a Sustainable Land-use Ecosystem for the Development of Rural Green Economy in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K.D.D. Liyanage

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Large scale clearing of natural forests for human settlements as well as in the form of tea, rubberand cinnamon plantations resulted forest fragmentation in most natural ecosystems in the wet zone of SriLanka which posed massive threats to both nature and the humans including the loss of biodiversity,environmental hazards and increasing poverty. This paper discusses about the potential to develop ruralgreen economy as a result of consolidating these agricultural lands into analog forests as a sustainableland use practice. Bangamukande Estate, a man-made analog forest in Galle District was selected for thisassessment. Participatory rural appraisal methods were used to obtain information on resource utilizationby the local community in nearby villages. Secondary data of the long term analog forestry establishmentprogramme were also used for analysis the livelihood changes of the people due to the impacts thissystem. Various interventions had been made to address the issues such as encouraging local farmers tocultivate timber, fruits, spices and medicinal plants, paying them for the environmental services theyrender and enhancing their income through green employment. The introduction of new sustainableagricultural activities such as bee keeping and planting fruits resulted in the production of value addedfarm products and organic fruits to be sold in the market. Through environmental based tourism activitiessuch as providing food and accommodation, eco-guidance, and assisting environmental research, thestakeholders are earning a better income supporting the development of a green economy in the country.

  3. [Selection of biomass estimation models for Chinese fir plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Duan, Ai-guo; Xiang, Cong-wei

    2010-12-01

    A total of 11 kinds of biomass models were adopted to estimate the biomass of single tree and its organs in young (7-year-old), middle-age (16-year-old), mature (28-year-old), and mixed-age Chinese fir plantations. There were totally 308 biomass models fitted. Among the 11 kinds of biomass models, power function models fitted best, followed by exponential models, and then polynomial models. Twenty-one optimal biomass models for individual organ and single tree were chosen, including 18 models for individual organ and 3 models for single tree. There were 7 optimal biomass models for the single tree in the mixed-age plantation, containing 6 for individual organ and 1 for single tree, and all in the form of power function. The optimal biomass models for the single tree in different age plantations had poor generality, but the ones for that in mixed-age plantation had a certain generality with high accuracy, which could be used for estimating the biomass of single tree in different age plantations. The optimal biomass models for single Chinese fir tree in Shaowu of Fujin Province were used to predict the single tree biomass in mature (28-year-old) Chinese fir plantation in Jiangxi Province, and it was found that the models based on a large sample of forest biomass had a relatively high accuracy, being able to be applied in large area, whereas the regional models with small sample were limited to small area.

  4. Habitat Suitability Index (HIS) of Surili (Presbytis comata Desmarest, 1822) in mixed forest of Kuningan District, West Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Prasetyo, Lilik; Supartono, Toto; Priyono Kartono, Agus; Hikmat, Agus; Ramdhoni, Syahru

    2017-01-01

    Java has been experiencing deforestation due to high population pressure. A lot of natural forests which play an important role as wildlife habitat are loss. The remaining natural forest distribute in mountainous areas in the form natural conservation area, meanwhile the others have been converted into settlement andinfrastructure, food crops, cash crops plantation, estate and private forest plantation. Javan langur (Presbytiscomata) is an endemic species of Java and used to utilize natural forest as their habitat. However, in a recent observation the species isfound inside plantation forest in Kuningan district, West Java. This is a unique finding, due to the fact that a plantation forest is not suitable habitat for Javan langur. The research is aimed to develop Habitat Suitability for this species based on physical, biological and human disturbance factors. Data on Javan langur presence and its habitat component were derived from field observation and secondary data/map. Result showed HSI could be developed based on 4 PC and showed that the study area mostly is occupied by low HIS Index or not suitable area for surili.

  5. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  6. EucaTool®, a cloud computing application for estimating the growth and production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rojo-Alboreca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present the software utilities and explain how to use EucaTool®, a free cloud computing application developed to estimate the growth and production of seedling and clonal blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain.Area of study: Galicia (NW Spain.Material and methods: EucaTool® implements a dynamic growth and production model that is valid for clonal and non-clonal blue gum plantations in the region. The model integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves, number of stems per hectare (mortality function and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass and carbon content.Main results: EucaTool® can be freely accessed from any device with an Internet connection, from http://app.eucatool.com. In addition, useful information about the application is published on a related website: http://www.eucatool.com.Research highlights: The application has been designed to enable forest stakeholders to estimate volume, biomass and carbon content of forest plantations from individual trees, diameter classes or stand data, as well as to estimate growth and future production (indicating the optimal rotation age for maximum income by measurement of only four stand variables: age, number of trees per hectare, dominant height and basal area.Keywords: forest management; biomass; seedling; clones; blue gum; forest tool.

  7. Developing an urban forest carbon market

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Armstrong; J. Siry; Michael Bowker

    2009-01-01

    Countries, states, localities, businesses, and individuals are taking action to mitigate greenhouse gas levels and production as a response to concerns over climate change. Europe currently has mandatory greenhouse gas emission legislation and a large developed emission trading market, as opposed to the U.S. where voluntary markets to reduce green house gas emissions...

  8. Forest development in Southeast Alaska: Issues concerning the Fish and Wildlife Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper provides an overview of forest development in southeast Alaska and examines the trends in FWS opportunities for affecting forest development decisions.

  9. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Macauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales. Meeting participants agreed that users of biomass information will look to the CMS effort not only to provide basic data for carbon or biomass measurements but also to provide data to help serve a broad range of goals, such as forest watershed management for water quality, habitat management for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and potential use for developing payments for ecosystem service projects. Participants also reminded the CMS group that potential users include not only public sector agencies and nongovernmental organizations but also the

  10. A forest map of Southern Africa with the aid of LANDSAT imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Zel, DW

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Even after 300 years of indigenous forest protection as well as 100 years of plantation forestry, no forestry map of South Africa was available. The development and availability of LANDSAT images in the early 1970s opened possibility to use...

  11. COMMODITY TABLES FOR ESTIMATION OF ARTIFICIAL ORIGIN OAK FORESTS IN THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernykh V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a system of regression equations to estimate the parameters of the normal probability distribution of the number of trunk diameters in stands of oak plantations of Lower Volga. Commodity tables for estimation of forest stands are developed

  12. Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    -functional plantations established at specific locations, or on a certain type of soil. The concept of multi-functional energy plantations accentuate the need of synchronising agricultural, environmental and energy policies. Structural barriers, such as farm size, type of production etc., are relevant both for conventional and multi-functional energy production. It is here estimated that the risk of such barriers is lowest in regions with intensively managed farmland which normally holds a higher share of large farms producing food crops. These regions also have the highest need for the environmental services discussed here. The occurrence of technical/physical barriers in form of possible future limitations in the need of energy crops varies between different regions in Sweden. In some counties in forest regions there exist a surplus of biomass in form of forest fuels, also when the need of biomass increase significantly in the future. (abstract truncated)

  13. National forests on the edge: development pressures on America's National Forest system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. White; Susan M. Stein; Ralph J. Alig

    2007-01-01

    Nationwide, the national forest system covers 192 million acres and contains 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands. These national forest system lands provide a variety of social, cultural, and economic benefits to society. An increasing number of housing units are now located along and near the boundaries of national forests, resulting from desires to reside...

  14. Final Progress Report on Model-Based Diagnosis of Soil Limitations to Forest Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxmoore, R.J.

    2004-08-30

    This project was undertaken in support of the forest industry to link modeling of nutrients and productivity with field research to identify methods for enhancing soil quality and forest productivity and for alleviating soil limitations to sustainable forest productivity. The project consisted of a series of related tasks, including (1) simulation of changes in biomass and soil carbon with nitrogen fertilization, (2) development of spreadsheet modeling tools for soil nutrient availability and tree nutrient requirements, (3) additional modeling studies, and (4) evaluation of factors involved in the establishment and productivity of southern pine plantations in seasonally wet soils. This report also describes the two Web sites that were developed from the research to assist forest managers with nutrient management of Douglas-fir and loblolly pine plantations.

  15. Unexpected Interactions between Agricultural and Forest Sectors through International Trade: Wood Pallets and Agricultural Exports in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Jadin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry sectors associated with the use of wood pallets for commodity exports over 1985–2013. Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. The annual land demand for tree plantations to produce these wood pallets increased by 669%, reaching 17,606 ha in 2013 and representing 28% of the increase in demand for cropland for agricultural exports over 1994–2013. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations. We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.

  16. Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration over an age sequence of Pinus patula plantations in Zimbabwean Eastern Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujuru, L.; Gotora, T.; Velthorst, E.J.; Nyamangara, J.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests play a major role in regulating the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations creating a need to investigate the ability of exotic plantations to sequester atmospheric CO2. This study examined pine plantations located in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe

  17. Mapping aboveground carbon stocks using LiDAR data in Eucalyptus spp. plantations in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Samuel de Padua Chaves e Carvalho; Andrew T. Hudak; e Luiz Carlos Estraviz. Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Fast growing plantation forests provide a low-cost means to sequester carbon for greenhouse gas abatement. The aim of this study was to evaluate airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) to predict aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks in Eucalyptus spp. plantations. Biometric parameters (tree height (Ht) and diameter at breast height (DBH)) were collected from...

  18. Estimativas volumétricas em povoamentos de eucalipto sob regime de alto fuste e talhadia no sudoeste da Bahia Volumetric estimates in eucalypt plantation under regime of high forest and coppice in the southwest of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno Brito de Azevedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Esse estudo teve como objetivo testar modelos volumétricos e avaliar a eficiência de três métodos para estimar o volume de madeira em plantios de Eucalyptus urophylla, manejados sob regime de alto fuste e talhadia no Município de Vitória da Conquista, BA. Foi realizada cubagem rigorosa de árvores para obtenção do volume individual, e com os dados foram ajustados sete modelos volumétricos. Os melhores modelos foram selecionados com base no critério de seleção do valor ponderado dos escores dos parâmetros estatísticos (VP. Os volumes obtidos por meio dos três métodos (fator de forma, quociente de forma e modelos ajustados foram comparados ao volume obtido na cubagem. O modelo de Schumacher e Hall logaritmizado e de Spurr foram os mais indicados para estimar o volume dos povoamentos nas duas condições de manejo. O volume obtido a partir dos dois melhores modelos ajustados resultou em estimativas mais próximas do volume real quando comparados aos volumes estimados pelo fator de forma e quociente de forma.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.309

    This study aimed to test volumetric models and check the the efficiency of three methods to estimate the wood volume in Eucalyptus urophylla plantation, managed under regime of high forest and coppice, on a property located in the county of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. It was carried out rigorous measurements scaled trees to obtain the volume to adjust seven volumetric models. The best models were selected using the score pondered value of the statistical parameters (VP. The volumes obtained by three methods (form factor, form quotient and adjusted models were compared to the volume obtained in the scaling. The models of Schumacher e Hall (log and Spurr were the more indicated to estimate the volume of stands in both management conditions. The volume obtained from the two best adjusted models resulted in estimates closer to the real volume when compared to the volumes estimated by

  19. Natural flood retention in mountain areas by forests and forest like short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim; Hartwich, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Natural water retention is an important element of flood risk management in flood generating headwater areas in the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. In this context forests are of particular interest because of the high infiltration capacities of the soils and to increase water retention reforestation of agricultural land would be worthwhile. However competing claims for land use in intensely cultivated regions in Central Europe impede reforestation plans so the potential for a significant increase of natural water retention in forests is strongly limited. Nevertheless the development of innovative forms of land use and crop types opens new perspectives for a combination of agricultural land use with the water retention potential of forests. Recently the increasing demand for renewable energy resources leads to the cultivation of fast growing poplar and willow hybrids on agricultural land in short rotation coppices (SRC). Harvested in cycles of three to six years the wood from the plantations can be used as wood chips for heat and electricity production in specialized power plants. With short rotation plantations a crop type is established on arable land which is similar to forests so that an improvement of water retention can be expected. To what extend SRC may contribute to flood attenuation in headwater areas is investigated for the Chemnitzbach watershed (48 km2) in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Free State of Saxony, Germany), a low mountain range which is an important source of flood runoff in the Elbe basin. The study is based on a rainfall-runoff model of flood events using the conceptual modelling system NASIM. First results reveal a significant reduction of the flood peaks after the implementation of short rotation coppices. However the effect strongly depends on two factors. The first factor is the availability of areas for the plantations. For a substantial impact on the watershed scale large areas are required and with decreasing percentages of SRC

  20. Development of secondary pine forests after pine wilt disease in western Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Michiro [Natural History Museum and Inst., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The development of secondary Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) forests after pine wilt disease was studied through phytosociological analysis, estimation of forest structure before disease and size-structure, tree ring and stem analyses. Following the end of the disease, the growth of previously suppressed small oak trees was accelerated. This is quite different from the development of forests following fire, which starts with the establishment of pine seedlings. Pine wilt disease shifted the dominance of secondary forests from Pinus densiflora to Quercus serrata oak forest. In pine forests, disturbance by fire is important for forest maintenance. In contrast, disturbance by pine wilt disease leads to an acceleration of succession from pine forest to oak forest. 50 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Development of a GIS-based decision-support system of forest resource management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fengri; ZHAO Yinghui

    2006-01-01

    Based on forest inventory data and a variety of spatial data layers, including topographic maps, forest type maps, forest themes, etc., a multilevel decision-support system (DSS) for forest resource management was developed for Shangzhi National Forestry Bureau, Heilongjiang Province, China. This paper induced the procedure of the DSS development and its main functions, including displaying, cartography, dual-comprehensive querying of spatial and attribute data, GPS positioning, statistical analysis, updating resource data, etc. The applications of the DSS in resources analysis and management proved effective both in forestry bureau and forest farm levels. Traditional approaches of forest resource management were accordingly updated and the digitization of forest management was realized in deed for state-owned forest industries. The system provides a basis for rational forest management towards sustainable forestry by means of stratified management.

  2. Unexpected ecological resilience in Bornean orangutans and implications for pulp and paper plantation management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available Ecological studies of orangutans have almost exclusively focused on populations living in primary or selectively logged rainforest. The response of orangutans to severe habitat degradation remains therefore poorly understood. Most experts assume that viable populations cannot survive outside undisturbed or slightly disturbed forests. This is a concern because nearly 75% of all orangutans live outside protected areas, where degradation of natural forests is likely to occur, or where these are replaced by planted forests. To improve our understanding of orangutan survival in highly altered forest habitats, we conducted population density surveys in two pulp and paper plantation concessions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. These plantations consist of areas planted with fast-growing exotics intermixed with stands of highly degraded forests and scrublands. Our rapid surveys indicate unexpectedly high orangutan densities in plantation landscapes dominated by Acacia spp., although it remains unclear whether such landscapes can maintain long-term viable populations. These findings indicate the need to better understand how plantation-dominated landscapes can potentially be incorporated into orangutan conservation planning. Although we emphasize that plantations have less value for overall biodiversity conservation than natural forests, they could potentially boost the chances of orangutan survival. Our findings are based on a relatively short study and various methodological issues need to be addressed, but they suggest that orangutans may be more ecologically flexible than previously thought.

  3. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market.

  4. Effect of plantations on plant species diversity in the Darabkola, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN POURBABAEI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Asgari F, Reif A, Abedi R. 2012. Effect of plantations on plant species diversity in the Darabkola, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 72-78. In this study, the effect of plantations on plant species diversity was investigated in Darabkola, Mazandaran province, north of Iran. To conduct the study, a natural mixed forest, a broad–leaved plantation (Alnus subcordata-Acer velutinum and a coniferous plantation (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis-Pinus brutia were selected. 35 sampling plots were taken in systematic random method in each area. Data analysis was carried out using Simpson, Hill's N2, Shannon-Wiener and Mc Arthur's N1 diversity indices, Smith and Wilson evenness index and species richness. Results revealed that there were 32 plant species in natural forest and 30 plant species were found in each plantation. Rosaceae and Lamiaceae were the main families in the studied areas. Diversity and evenness indices of all vegetation layers had the most values in the natural forest. Richness of woody plants had the highest value in the natural forest, while herbaceous richness was the highest in coniferous plantation. Mc Arthur's N1 had the highest value among diversity indices and followed by Hill's N2, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices, respectively. In addition, results showed that there were significant differences among diversity, evenness and richness indices in all vegetation layers in the three studied areas.

  5. 75 FR 8645 - Public Meetings on the Development of the Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Forest Service Public Meetings on the Development of the Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule... to developing a new Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule (planning rule) through a... roundtables. Summaries of each session will be produced and posted on the planning rule Web site as part of...

  6. Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Mohd Nazip

    2003-06-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information

  7. Development of the Concept and Implementation of National Forest Programs with Reference to Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Lovrić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: National forest programs have been promoted by the international forest policy sphere as a preferred form of policy process by which the sustainable forest management should be reached on national level. As such, it has received a lot of attention in the international legislation and has been important part of the forest policy dialogue. This paper examines the national forest programs from the side of its theoretical development, and how it has been transposed from the international sphere onto the national domains. Material and Methods: Paper examines international legislation refereeing to the national forest programs, and provides an overview of its development. Comparative analysis of national forest program processes in Europe has been made, along with presentation of different national approaches to it. Topic-related scientific literature has been analyzed, with special emphasis on its procedural elements. Results and Conclusion: International legislation shows great coherence regarding the development of the concept of national forest programs. The same coherence is present in the scientific community, but not among the forest policy practitioners, which is reflected by a great variety of developments of national forest programs across Europe. This variety is not as important as are the procedural aspects of the process, which promote mode of governance in line with the new general paradigm of forest planning. The article critically reviews the procedural and outcome elements of national forest programmes, which are then analysed in the context of Croatian perspectives for a formal process of a national forest program.

  8. Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

    2011-12-01

    Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P < 0.001), and followed by Sa plantation (69 Mg ha-1 and 32 Mg ha-1), Am plantation (25 Mg ha-1 and 27 Mg ha-1) and Ao plantation (21 Mg ha-1 and 26 Mg ha-1). The total carbon stock in biomass was 73 Mg C ha-1 in NR stand, 43 Mg C ha-1 in Sa plantation, 21

  9. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  10. Carbon and nutrient stocks of tea plantations differing in age, genotype and plant population density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, D.M.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Oenema, O.

    2008-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial evergreen shrub managed intensively for continuous growth of young shoots. Most tea plantations were established at the expense of native forest. Change in carbon (C) and nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) accumulation in forests over time has

  11. Forest cover, socioeconomics, and reported flood frequency in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Ghimire, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the determinants of the number of large floods reported since 1990. Using the same sample of countries as Bradshaw et al. (2007), and, like them, omitting socioeconomic characteristics from the analysis, we found that a reduction in natural forest cover is associated with an increase in the reported count of large floods. This result does not hold in any of three new analyses we perform. First, we expand the sample to include all the developing countries and all countries for which data were available but were omitted in their study. Second, and more importantly, since forest management is just one possible channel through which humans can influence reported flood frequency, we account for other important human-flood interactions. People are typically responsible for deforestation, but they are also responsible for other land use changes (e.g., urbanization), for floodplain and flood emergency management, and for reporting the floods. Thus, in our analysis we account for population, urban population growth, income, and corruption. Third, we exploit the panel nature of the data to control for unobserved country and time heterogeneity. We conclude that not only is the link between forest cover and reported flood frequency at the country level not robust, it also seems to be driven by sample selection and omitted variable bias. The human impact on the reported frequency of large floods at the country level is not through deforestation.

  12. PRIORITY INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN FOREST DEVELOPMENT AS AN INSTITUTION FOR INTENSIFICATION OF RUSSIA'S FORESTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochaeva T. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main tendencies of the development of forestry in the Russian Federation under the implementation of the Forest Code of 2006 are discovered, the goals of forming the institutional environment for forests use, conservation, protection and reproduction at the present stage are defined. The activities in the field of conservation, protection and reproduction of forests in the country in the period from 2007 to 2013 are characterized by a decrease in the volume of work and activities. A steady upward trend in the loss of forest resources from forest fires was outlined. The state policy of the Russian Federation in the area of use, conservation, protection and reproduction of forests is aimed at conservation and augmentation of forests, maximum satisfaction of the needs for high quality products and useful properties of forests. The achievements of stated objectives were provided by solving of a number of tasks, including the increase in efficiency of the forest sector management and intensification of the use and reproduction of forests, which have the priority meaning. The authors determined the institutional model of public-private partnership in the forest sector of the Russian economy recognizing the need to develop flexible institutions for interaction between government and business in the use, conservation, protection and reproduction of forests as an integral part of intensive economic model. The article proposes a conceptual scheme of efficiency assessment for investment projects in forest development and target functions for data subjects of investment projects: the federation, the region, the business and local community

  13. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

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    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  14. Arkansas, 2009 forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Rosson

    2011-01-01

    The summary includes estimates of forest land area (table 1), ownership (table 2), forest-type groups (table 3), volume (tables 4 and 5), biomass (tables 6 and 7), and pine plantation area (table 8) along with maps of Arkansas’ survey units (fig. 1), percent forest by county (fig. 2), and distribution of pine plantations (fig. 3). The estimates are presented by survey...

  15. ALOS-PALSAR multi-temporal observation for describing land use and forest cover changes in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtar, R.; Suzuki, R.; Ishii, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Nagai, S.; Fadaei, H.; Hirata, R.; Suhaili, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    The establishment of plantations in carbon rich peatland of Southeast Asia has shown an increase in the past decade. The need to support development in countries such as Malaysia has been reflected by having a higher rate of conversion of its forested areas to agricultural land use in particular oilpalm plantation. Use of optical data to monitor changes in peatland forests is difficult because of the high cloudiness in tropical region. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) based remote sensing can potentially be used to monitor changes in such forested landscapes. In this study, we have demonstrated the capability of multi-temporal Fine-Beam Dual (FBD) data of Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to detect forest cover changes in peatland to other landuse such as oilpalm plantation. Here, the backscattering properties of radar were evaluated to estimate changes in the forest cover. Temporal analysis of PALSAR FBD data shows that conversion of peatland forest to oilpalm can be detected by analyzing changes in the value of σoHH and σoHV. This is characterized by a high value of σoHH (-7.89 dB) and σoHV (-12.13 dB) for areas under peat forests. The value of σoHV decreased about 2-4 dB due to the conversion of peatland to a plantation area. There is also an increase in the value of σoHH/σoHV. Changes in σoHV is more prominent to identify the peatland conversion than in the σoHH. The results indicate the potential of PALSAR to estimate peatland forest conversion based on thresholding of σoHV or σoHH/σoHV for monitoring changes in peatland forest. This would improve our understanding of the temporal change and its effect on the peatland forest ecosystem.

  16. Carbon and water vapor balance in a subtropical pine plantation

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    Posse G

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation has been proposed as an effective tool for protecting primary and/or secondary forests and for mitigating atmospheric CO2. However, the dynamics of primary productivity differs between plantations and natural forests. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for carbon storage of a commercial pine plantation by determining its carbon balance. Measurements started when trees were aged 6 and ended when they were older than 8 years. We measured CO2 and water vapor concentrations using the Eddy covariance method. Gross primary productivity in 2010 and 2011 was 4290 ± 473 g C m-2 and 4015 ± 485 g C m-2, respectively. Ecosystem respiration ranged between 7 and 20 g C m-2 d-1, reaching peaks in all Februaries. Of the 30 months monitored, the plantation acted as carbon source for 21 months and as carbon sink for 6 months, while values close to neutrality were obtained during 3 months. The positive balance representing CO2 loss by the system was most likely due to the cut branches left on the ground following pruning activities. The plantation was subjected to pruning in January and September 2008 and to sanitary pruning in October 2010. In all cases, cut branches were not removed but remained on the ground. Residue management seems to have a very important impact on carbon balance.

  17. Domestic Forests: A New Paradigm for Integrating Local Communities' Forestry into Tropical Forest Science

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    Francois Verdeaux

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of confrontation between forest agencies and forest people, "indigenous" or "local" practices are increasingly considered as a viable alternative of forest management. This paper is a synthesis derived from various long-term research programs carried out by the authors in Southeast Asia and Africa on forests managed by farmers. These researches looked at local practices and underlying science, including their social, political, and symbolic dimensions. They also addressed evolutionary trends and driving forces, as well as potential and limits for forest conservation and development, mitigation of deforestation, biodiversity conservation, and poverty alleviation in a context of global environmental, political, and social change. We discuss how forest management by local communities, contrary to the unified models of professional forest management, exhibits a high historical and geographical diversity. The analysis we draw from the various examples we studied reveals several invariants, which allows proposing the unifying paradigm of "domestic forest." The first universal feature concerns the local managers themselves, who are, in their vast majority, farmers. Management practices range from local interventions in the forest ecosystem, to more intensive types of forest culture, and ultimately to permanent forest plantation. But in all cases, forest management is closely integrated with agriculture. The second universal feature concerns the conceptual continuity of planted forests with the natural forest, in matters of vegetation's structure and composition as well as economic traits and ecosystem services. The resulting forest is uneven-aged, composed of several strata, harboring a large diversity of species, and producing a wide range of products, with timber seldom being the dominant one. The term "domestic forest" aims at highlighting the close relationship the domestication process establishes between a specific human

  18. Development of a downed woody debris forecasting tool using strategic-scale multiresource forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Christopher W. Woodall

    2017-01-01

    The increasing interest in forest biomass for energy or carbon cycle purposes has raised the need for forest resource managers to refine their understanding of downed woody debris (DWD) dynamics. We developed a DWD forecasting tool using field measurements (mean size and stage of stage of decay) for three common forest types across the eastern United States using field...

  19. Development of internal forest soil reference samples and testing of digestion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Hislop; J.W. Hornbeck; S.W. Bailey; R.A. Hallett

    1998-01-01

    Our research requires determinations of total elemental concentrations of forest soils. The lack of certified forest soil reference materials led us to develop internal reference samples. Samples were collected from three soil horizons (Oa, B, and C) at three locations having forested, acidic soils similar to those we commonly analyze. A shatterbox was used to...

  20. 75 FR 6625 - Dixie National Forest, UT, Kitty Hawk Administrative Site Master Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Dixie National Forest, UT, Kitty Hawk Administrative Site Master Development Plan AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY:...

  1. Global Planted Forest Development: Opportunities,Challenges and Policy Choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, there has seen a dramatic expansion of global planted forest area and their great impact on human life. It is reported in Forest Resource Assessment 2010 that the current area of global planted forests is about 264 million ha, representing only 7% of the total forest area but able to meet the two thirds of the global demand for logs. Planted forests can not only provide timber, fiber, fuel and non-wood forest products, but also contribute to carbon sequestration, restoration of degraded l...

  2. Sustainable Management of Planted Forests in China: Comprehensive Evaluation, Development Recommendation and Action Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world in terms of planted forests area. Planted forests play an important role in soil and water conservation, food source, timber supply and energy security, but there are still many problems waiting for immediate resolution. Based on the current development status of planted forest in China, the paper made an comprehensive analysis for the positive impact and existing problems with regard to planted forests, and then came up with policy recommendations for prom...

  3. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and

  4. 云南河口植胶区橡胶林现状分析和发展建议%Current Situation and Development Proposal of Natural Rubber Plantations in Hekou of Yun-nan Provice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树明; 张勇; 郭艳

    2015-01-01

    通过对2013年云南河口植胶区4个农场橡胶幼林普查资料和2000年以后多次低温寒害的分析表明:橡胶林更新时间和面积与寒害出现时间及危害程度有关;2000年后新植和更新种植的幼林普遍大量种植云研77-4新品种,过于单一的品种结构为植胶业留下新的隐患。针对橡胶林更新现状,提出要提高对胶园更新的正确认识,合理规划,多品种配置植胶,提高橡胶树群体抗御自然灾害的能力,及建设新一代高产稳产胶园的建议;并对在寒害频繁的河口地区如何巩固和发展天然橡胶产业进行了探讨,认为要转变理念,重新科学定位和规划植胶区域,探索经济、社会、生态效益更好的种植和经营模式,创建与其它产业经济互利共存的环境友好型生态胶园。%Cold injury has occurred in Hekou rubber plantations several times since 2000, there is correlation between rubber renew time and planting area and cold injury based on the data from general survey in four young rubber plantations in 2013. Clone Yunyan 77-4 with high cold resistance has become the dominant cultivar to renew plantations since 2000, but this single source makes a new threat to the development of natual rubber. The renewal situation makes growers must consider the ecosys-tem, plantation design and multi-clone disposition strategies to ensure the ability of rubber population against natural hazard. Measures to consolidate and develop rubber industry in cold waves frequently attacked areas are discussed. Plant pattern and management pattern with good economic, social and ecological benefits are needed to creat an environment friendly planta-tion with other industries for mutual benefit.

  5. Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redo, Daniel J; Grau, H Ricardo; Aide, T Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L

    2012-06-05

    Forest transitions (FT) have been observed in many developed countries and more recently in the developing world. However, our knowledge of FT from tropical regions is mostly derived from case studies from within a particular country, making it difficult to generalize findings across larger regions. Here we overcome these difficulties by conducting a recent (2001-2010) satellite-based analysis of trends in forest cover across Central America, stratified by biomes, which we related to socioeconomic variables associated with human development. Results show a net decrease of woody vegetation resulting from 12,201 km(2) of deforestation of moist forests and 6,825 km(2) of regrowth of conifer and dry forests. The Human Development Index was the socioeconomic variable best associated with forest cover change. The least-developed countries, Nicaragua and Guatemala, experienced both rapid deforestation of moist forests and significant recovery of conifer and dry forests. In contrast, the most developed countries, Panama and Costa Rica, had net woody vegetation gain and a more stable forest cover configuration. These results imply a good agreement with FT predictions of forest change in relation to socioeconomic development, but strong asymmetry in rates and directions of change largely dependent upon the biome where change is occurring. The FT model should be refined by incorporating ecological and socioeconomic heterogeneity, particularly in multicountry and regional studies. These asymmetric patterns of forest change should be evaluated when developing strategies for conserving biodiversity and environmental services.

  6. CAÍDA DE HOJARASCA Y DINÁMICA DE NUTRIENTESEN PLANTACIONES DE Acacia mangium (MIMOSACEAEDE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA. Litterfall and Nutrient Dynamics in Acacia mangium (MimosaceaeForest Plantations of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEINER CASTELLANOS BARLIZA

    Full Text Available La producción de hojarasca, el retorno y la reabsorción de nutrientes, y la eficiencia en su uso, fueron estudiados durante un año en plantaciones de Acacia mangium estable-cidas en suelos degradados por minería aurífera en la región del Bajo Cauca colom-biano. La producción anual de hojarasca fina fue de 10,4 Mg ha-1 y estuvo dominada por la fracción foliar (54%, seguida del material reproductivo (24%, y en menor pro-porción por otros restos (6% y hojas de otras especies (1,5%. Los mayores retornos de materia orgánica y nutrientes se presentaron en los sitios clasificados como de calidad alta, en tanto que la práctica de subsolado del suelo, previo establecimiento de las plantaciones, no mostró efectos significativos sobre estos. La hojarasca foliar mostró una concentración alta de N y consecuentemente, dados los altos valores de producción de esta fracción, un retorno potencial alto de N. El P, con baja concentración foliar y un bajo retorno potencial, además de los altos valores de los índices de eficiencia en su uso y de reabsorción foliar, fue el nutriente más limitante. Los altos valores de producción de hojarasca fina y de retorno potencial de nutrientes determinados en este es-tudio, muestran que la especie Acacia mangium tiene un gran potencial para la recupera-ción de áreas degradadas, a partir del restablecimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos.Fine litter production, nutrient return, nutrient resorption, and nutrient use efficiency were studied during one year in Acacia mangium forest plantations in mining gold degraded soils at the Bajo Cauca region of Colombia. Annual fine litter production was estimated at 10.4 Mg ha-1 and it was dominated by the leaf fraction (54%, followed by the reproduc-tive material (24% and to a lesser proportion by other debris (6% and other species leaves (1.5%. The highest organic matter and nutrients returns were found on sites classified as high quality. Soil plowing realized

  7. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of