WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest plantation development

  1. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik Sudarmalik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.Keywords: industrial plantation forest, property right, principal agent, the state position, authority

  2. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.

  3. Plantation forests, climate change and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Pawson; A. Brin; E.G. Brockerhoff; D. Lamb; T.W. Payn; A. Paquette; J.A. Parrotta

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 4 % of the world’s forests are plantations, established to provide a variety of ecosystem services, principally timber and other wood products. In addition to such services, plantation forests provide direct and indirect benefits to biodiversity via the provision of forest habitat for a wide range of species, and by reducing negative impacts on natural forests...

  4. Adapting Chinese Forest Operations to Socio-Economic Developments: What is the Potential of Plantations for Strengthening Domestic Wood Supply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hoffmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, China’s forestry sector went through a transition phase characterized by a management and institutional reform process, with a constant rethinking of the ecological and societal role of forests within a unique political system. Nevertheless, despite impressive achievements in forest restoration and conservation efforts, the enhancement of ecosystem services and forest area expansion through plantation development, China was not able to improve its domestic timber supply capacities according to its demands. Consequently, the continually growing wood processing industry is facing a severe demand-and-supply gap, causing high dependencies on timber imports. Outdated forest operations practices, dominated by manual labour, are not able to meet supply demands or to implement new silvicultural strategies for enhancing forest quality and productivity and are a widely unnoted disruption of a sustainable development. Therefore, this review presents the status quo of China’s forest operations sector, how it is shaped by forest policy reforms and recent socio-economic developments. In addition, suggestions are developed how the sector can progress through policy adaptations in order to develop sustainable timber supply capacities based on a domestic plantation sector.

  5. Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; John A. Parrotta; Christopher Quine; Jeffrey Sayer

    2008-01-01

    Losses of natural and semi-natural forests, mostly to agriculture, are a significant concern for biodiversity. Against this trend, the area of intensively managed plantation forests increases, and there is much debate about the implications for biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive review of the function of plantation forests as habitat compared with other land...

  6. Development of Smart Precision Forest in Conifer Plantation in Japan Using Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M.; Deng, S.; Takenaka, Y.; Cheung, K.; Oono, K.; Horisawa, M.; Hyyppä, J.; Yu, X.; Liang, X.; Wang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the authors are planning to launch a consortium effort toward Japan's first smart precision forestry project using laser data and to develop this technology throughout the country. Smart precision forestry information gathered using the Nagano model (laser scanning from aircraft, drone, and backpack) is being developed to improve the sophistication of forest information, reduce labor-intensive work, maintain sustainable timber productivity, and facilitate supply chain management by laser sensing information in collaboration with industry, academia, and government. In this paper, we outline the research project and the technical development situation of unmanned aerial vehicle laser scanning.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SMART PRECISION FOREST IN CONIFER PLANTATION IN JAPAN USING LASER SCANNING DATA

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    M. Katoh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the authors are planning to launch a consortium effort toward Japan’s first smart precision forestry project using laser data and to develop this technology throughout the country. Smart precision forestry information gathered using the Nagano model (laser scanning from aircraft, drone, and backpack is being developed to improve the sophistication of forest information, reduce labor-intensive work, maintain sustainable timber productivity, and facilitate supply chain management by laser sensing information in collaboration with industry, academia, and government. In this paper, we outline the research project and the technical development situation of unmanned aerial vehicle laser scanning.

  8. Private Capital, Public Goods: Forest Plantations' Investment in Local Infrastructure and Social Services in Rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degnet, M.B.; Werf, van der E.; Ingram, V.J.; Wesseler, Justus

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of private forest plantations worldwide, their impacts on local development are under scrutiny by NGOs and researchers alike. This study investigates the impacts of private forest plantations on local infrastructure and social services in rural Tanzania. We take a

  9. From Spirit Forest to Rubber Plantation: The Accelerating Disaster of "Development" in Cambodia

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    Neal Keating

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rise of Cambodia’s GDP and other development indicators, continuing extreme poverty combined with very rapid conversion of traditional subsistence lands, forests, and waters into economic land concessions (ELCs to national and transnational companies is leading to intensified land insecurity issues and other human rights problems that may destabilize the country.  An elite sector of Cambodian society comprised of the heads of state, business, and the military is implicated as the central cause of ongoing poverty and land loss.   This paper outlines the problematic nature of the ELC processes that began in the post-conflict era and continue today, and adapts Roy Rappaport’s concepts of cognized/operational environments within a political and historical framework for analyzing the strategies of these elites, and compares their cognized environments with those of indigenous Kuoy peoples who are among those whose lands are threatened by ELCs, and suggests that the high-modern discourses of development adhered to by the elites is based on ultimate sacred postulates just as much as are the explicitly religious discourses of traditional Kuoy peoples.

  10. Development narratives, notions of forest crisis, and boom of oil palm plantations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Ari; Maryudi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia experienced massive deforestation in the last decades where rapid oil palm expansion has been considered as one of the main drivers. This article shows that the process of deforestation and the rapid oil palm expansion cannot be viewed in isolation from broader development contexts.

  11. Tropical and Highland Temperate Forest Plantations in Mexico: Pathways for Climate Change Mitigation and Ecosystem Services Delivery

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    Vidal Guerra-De la Cruz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are a possible way of increasing forest productivity in temperate and tropical forests, and therefore also increasing above- and belowground carbon pools. In the context of climate change, monospecific plantations might become an alternative to mitigate global warming; however, their contribution to the structural complexity, complementarity, and biodiversity of forests has not been addressed. Mixed forest plantations can ensure that objectives of climate change mitigation are met through carbon sequestration, while also delivering anticipated ecosystem services (e.g., nutrient cycling, erosion control, and wildlife habitat. However, mixed forest plantations pose considerable operational challenges and research opportunities. For example, it is essential to know how many species or functional traits are necessary to deliver a set of benefits, or what mixture of species and densities are key to maintaining productive plantations and delivering multiple ecosystem services. At the same time, the establishment of forest plantations in Mexico should not be motivated solely by timber production. Forest plantations should also increase carbon sequestration, maintain biodiversity, and provide other ecosystem services. This article analyzes some matters that affect the development of planted forests in the Mexican national context, and presents alternatives for forest resources management through the recommendation of mixed forest plantations as a means of contributing to climate change mitigation and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  12. Restoring southern Ontario forests by managing succession in conifer plantations

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    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Thinning and underplanting of conifer plantations to promote natural succession in southern Ontario's forests for restoration purposes was examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Eleven years after application of five thinning treatments, seedling diameter, height, and stem volume of planted white ash (Fraxinus...

  13. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  14. Where will the wood come from? Plantation forests and the role of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Trevor M; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2002-07-01

    Wood is almost as important to humanity as food, and the natural forests from which most of it is harvested from are of enormous environmental value. However, these slow-growing forests are unable to meet current demand, resulting in the loss and degradation of forest. Plantation forests have the potential to supply the bulk of humanity's wood needs on a long-term basis, and so reduce to acceptable limits the harvest pressures on natural forests. However, if they are to be successful, plantation forests must have a far higher yield of timber than their natural counterparts, on much shorter rotation times. To achieve this in reasonable time, biotechnology must be applied to the tree-improvement process, for which large increases in public and private capital investment are needed. However, additional obstacles exist in the form of opposition to plantations, some forest ecocertification schemes, and concerns about aspects of forest biotechnology, especially genetic engineering. It is the intention of this article to explain, in detail, why plantation forests are needed to sustainably meet the world's demand for wood, why they are not being developed fast enough, and why the application of biotechnology to tree improvement is essential to speeding up this process.

  15. Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is

  16. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danson, F.M.; Curran, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation

  17. Conversion of natural forest to managed forest plantations decreases tree resistance to prolonged droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; John S. King; Eric Ward; A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Andrew Radecki; Dave M. Bell; Guofang Miao; Michael Gavazzi; Daniel M. Johnson; Steve G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Asko. Noormets

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the southern US, past forest management practices have replaced large areas of native forests with loblolly pine plantations and have resulted in changes in forest response to extreme weather conditions. However, uncertainty remains about the response of planted versus natural species to drought across the geographical range of these forests. Taking...

  18. Earthworm abundance and species composition in abandoned tropical croplands: comparisons of tree plantations and secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; X. Zou; S. Borges

    1996-01-01

    We compared patterns of earthworms abundance and species composition in tree plantation and secondary forest of Puerto Rico. Tree plantations included pine (Pinus caribea Morelet) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) established in the 1930's; 1960's; and 1970's; secondary forests were naturally regenerated in areas adjacent to these plantations. We...

  19. Divergent stakeholder views of corporate social responsibility in the Australian forest plantation sector.

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    Gordon, Melissa; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-12-30

    Although the Australian forest plantation industry acknowledges that there is a role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in forest management, there is confusion as to what this constitutes in practice. This paper describes the conflicts between internal and external stakeholder views on CSR in plantation forestry. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants across three plantation management regions in Australia: Tasmania, the Green Triangle and south-west Western Australia. We interviewed a range of stakeholders including forest company employees, local councils, Indigenous representatives, and environmental non-government organisations. CSR-related initiatives that stakeholders believed were important for plantation management included the need for community engagement, accountability towards stakeholders, and contribution to community development and well-being. Although there was wide support for these initiatives, some stakeholders were not satisfied that forest companies were actively implementing them. Due to the perception that forest companies are not committed to CSR initiatives such as community engagement, some stakeholder expectations are not being satisfied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mature oil palm plantations are thirstier than tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, G.; Meijide, A.; Huth, N.; Knohl, A.; Kosugi, Y.; Burlando, P.; Ghazoul, J.; Fatichi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Oil Palm (OP) is the highest yielding cash-crop in the world but, being the driver of significant tropical forest losses, it is also considered the "world's most hated crop". Despite substantial research on the impact of OP on ecosystem degradation, biodiversity losses, and carbon emissions, little is known on the ecohydrological impacts of forest conversion to OP. Here we employ numerical simulations constrained by field observations to quantify changes in ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET), infiltration/runoff, gross primary productivity (GPP) and surface temperature (Ts) due to OP establishment. Compared to pristine forests, young OP plantations decrease ET, causing an increase in Ts, but the changes become less pronounced as plantations grow. Mature plantations have a very high GPP to sustain the oil palm yield and, given relatively similar water use efficiency, they transpire more water that the forests they have replaced. Hence, the high fruit productivity of OP comes at the expense of water consumption. Our mechanistic modeling results corroborate anecdotal evidence of water scarcity issues in OP-dominated landscapes.

  1. Land use changes and plantation crop development in selected provinces in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, S. D.

    2018-05-01

    Most institutions stated that biofuel will not qualify the standard of GHG emission reduction if it was produced in the plantation associated with the forest conversion. Therefore, knowing previous land use before the development of plantation is very important. In Indonesia, plantation development occurs mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. A number of studies had been published showing historical LUCC before plantation development. Objective of this study was to review various studies on LUCC carried out in four selected provinces, namely West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, and Riau. The analysis and comparison was based on the different source of historical data including online spatial data sources and various studies published in various journals. Each data source of LUCC shows significant variation on the amount of plantation developed directly from forest and other land use types. But, our review showed that the plantation areas associated with the forest cover changes far less than those claimed by several international journals. But, the debate concerning which plantation developments indirectly contributed to LUCC and which are directly will probably continue until the information on the land ownership and history of plantation development is available publicly.

  2. Response of Bird Community to Various Plantation Forests in Gunung Walat, West Java, Indonesia

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    Aronika Kaban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Different plantation forests possibly harbor different bird communities. This study was aimed to reveal responses of bird community to the different plantation (Schima wallichii, Agathis loranthifolia, Pinus merkusii, and mixed plantation, identify species shared in all plantation, and species confined to a particular plantation. The study site was plantation forests, using the point count method for 64 effective hours. There were 40 bird species (maximum prediction 52 in all forest plantations and each type had 26–31 species. Number of individuals, species density, and diversity index in Schima plantation were higher, followed by Agathis, Pinus, and mixed plantations. Mixed plantation could have harbored more species based on the prediction by Chao. Although there were some differences in tree species, tree sizes, and tree heights, the response of bird composition in all plantations was not differed (93–81% similarity probably because of the short distances among the forests, the abundance of food insects, and the same late-successional stages. There were 15 (37.5% widely distributed species in all forest types. Eight species were confined only to a specific forest type. Four species were considered true confined species, namely Javan sunbird (Schima forest, Grey-cheeked bulbul (in Pinus, Crescent-chested babbler (Agathis, and Mountain white-eye (Agathis.

  3. Myanmar strategy for forest resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wint, Sein Maung

    1993-10-01

    Myanmar strategy for forest resource development is presented under sub-headings of (1) Myanmar experience; (2) control against over-exploitation; (3) impact of population pressure; (4) forest plantation system on commercial plantation, industrial plantation, firewood plantation and watershed plantation; (5) people`s participation; (6) shifting cultivation. The forest resources of Myanmar have been changed for the past 136 years (1856-1992) successfully on sustained yield basis. Through proclamation of Forest Law (1992), active forestry and forest products research, upgrading of forestry educational institutions, modernization of forest inventory system and encouragement of downstream processing wood-based industries for value-added products, it was expected by the author that the forestry sector would be able to contribute more for the well-being of the people of Myanmar

  4. Myanmar strategy for forest resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein Maung Wint

    1993-01-01

    Myanmar strategy for forest resource development is presented under sub-headings of (1) Myanmar experience; (2) control against over-exploitation; (3) impact of population pressure; (4) forest plantation system on commercial plantation, industrial plantation, firewood plantation and watershed plantation; (5) people's participation; (6) shifting cultivation. The forest resources of Myanmar have been changed for the past 136 years (1856-1992) successfully on sustained yield basis. Through proclamation of Forest Law (1992), active forestry and forest products research, upgrading of forestry educational institutions, modernization of forest inventory system and encouragement of downstream processing wood-based industries for value-added products, it was expected by the author that the forestry sector would be able to contribute more for the well-being of the people of Myanmar

  5. An Overview of Integrated Management of Leaf-Cutting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Brazilian Forest Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian forest producers have developed integrated management programs to increase the effectiveness of the control of leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex. These measures reduced the costs and quantity of insecticides used in the plantations. Such integrated management programs are based on monitoring the ant nests, as well as the need and timing of the control methods. Chemical control employing baits is the most commonly used method, however, biological, mechanical and cultural control methods, besides plant resistance, can reduce the quantity of chemicals applied in the plantations.

  6. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

    2002-01-01

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that although stand density may have a significant impact on

  7. A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D; Corre, Marife D; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Klasen, Stephan; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tarigan, Suria; Tölle, Merja H; Tscharntke, Teja; Wiegand, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of plantation forests in the United States since the 1930s: an annual and gridded data set for regional Earth system modeling

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    Chen, Guangsheng; Pan, Shufen; Hayes, Daniel J.; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-01

    Plantation forest area in the conterminous United States (CONUS) ranked second among the world's nations in the land area apportioned to forest plantation. As compared to the naturally regenerated forests, plantation forests demonstrate significant differences in biophysical characteristics, and biogeochemical and hydrological cycles as a result of more intensive management practices. Inventory data have been reported for multiple time periods on plot, state, and regional scales across the CONUS, but the requisite annual and spatially explicit plantation data set over a long-term period for analysis of the role of plantation management on regional or national scales is lacking. Through synthesis of multiple inventory data sources, this study developed methods to spatialize the time series plantation forest and tree species distribution data for the CONUS over the 1928-2012 time period. According to this new data set, plantation forest area increased from near zero in the 1930s to 268.27 thousand km2 in 2012, accounting for 8.65 % of the total forestland area in the CONUS. Regionally, the South contained the highest proportion of plantation forests, accounting for about 19.34 % of total forestland area in 2012. This time series and gridded data set developed here can be readily applied in regional Earth system modeling frameworks for assessing the impacts of plantation management practices on forest productivity, carbon and nitrogen stocks, and greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and water fluxes on regional or national scales. The gridded plantation distribution and tree species maps, and the interpolated state-level annual tree planting area and plantation area during 1928-2012, are available from PANGAEA.873558" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873558.

  9. Nutrient losses in forest plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykvist, N.; Grip, A.; Malmer, A.

    1994-01-01

    Inorganic nutrients are lost from terrestrial ecosystems through the harvesting of plant products, leaching, soil erosion and volatilization of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In this study, carried out in a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Sabah, Malaysia, losses of inorganic nutrients through log removal and runoff/leaching to stream water were compared in clear-fellings, harvested and prepared for planting in two different ways: (i) tractor logging/burning; (ii) and manual logging/no burning. The major findings of the study were that nutrient losses in stream water were reduced by 50% and growth of the planted forest was twice as fast on the catchment where soil disturbance was minimized and burning not used. Weeds were more abundant after burning, and the extra weeding needed increased costs for plantation establishment. Ways of decreasing the loss of inorganic nutrients when clear-felling tropical rain forests are discussed. 32 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Shades of green and REDD: Local and global contestations over the value of forest versus plantation development on the Indonesian forest frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In a time of increasing land enclosures sparked by large-scale environmental initiatives and agricultural expansion, this paper examines local and global contestations over the value of forest on an Indonesian forest frontier. Engaging with recent debates on carbon forestry, the paper problematis...... for the future successes of REDD+. The Kalimantan case highlights some of the dilemmas of carbon mitigation initiatives experienced in frontier regions throughout Southeast Asia, places that have become prime battlefronts of large-scale climate change initiatives and agrarian expansion....

  11. [Soil quality assessment of forest stand in different plantation esosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qingkui; Hu, Yalin; Yan, Shaokui

    2004-12-01

    After a clear-cutting of the first generation Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in 1982, three plantation ecosystems, pure Michelia macclurei stand (PMS), pure Chinese-fir stand (PCS) and their mixed stand, were established in spring 1983, and their effects on soil characteristics were evaluated by measuring some soil physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters. After 20 years' plantation, all test indices showed differences among different forest management models. Both PMS and MCM had a favorable effect on soil fertility maintenance. Soil quality assessment showed that some soil functions, e.g., water availability, nutrient availability, root suitability and soil quality index were all in a moderate level under the mixed and pure PMS stands, whereas in a relatively lower level under successive PCS stand. The results also showed that there existed close correlations between soil total organic C (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), microbial biomass-C (Cmic) and other soil physical, chemical and biological indices. Therefore, TOC, CEC and Cmic could be used as the indicators in assessing soil quality in this study area. In addition, there were also positive correlations between soil microbial biomass-C and TOC, soil microbial biomass-N and total N, and soil microbial biomass-P and total P in the present study.

  12. Plant and bird diversity in natural forests and in native and exotic plantations in NW Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Vânia M.; Pereira, Henrique M.; Guilherme, João; Vicente, Luís

    2010-03-01

    Forest ecosystems have been subjected to continuous dynamics between deforestation and forestation. Assessing the effects of these processes on biodiversity could be essential for conservation planning. We analyzed patterns of species richness, diversity and evenness of plants and birds in patches of natural forest of Quercus spp. and in stands of native Pinus pinaster and exotic Eucalyptus globulus in NW Portugal. We analyzed data of forest and non-forest species separately, at the intra-patch, patch and inter-patch scales. Forest plant richness, diversity and evenness were higher in oak forest than in pine and eucalypt plantations. In total, 52 species of forest plants were observed in oak forest, 33 in pine plantation and 28 in eucalypt plantation. Some forest species, such as Euphorbia dulcis, Omphalodes nitida and Eryngium juresianum, were exclusively or mostly observed in oak forest. Forest bird richness and diversity were higher in both oak and pine forests than in eucalypt forest; evenness did not differ among forests. In total, 16 species of forest birds were observed in oak forest, 18 in pine forest and 11 in eucalypt forest. Species such as Certhia brachydactyla, Sitta europaea and Dendrocopos major were common in oak and/or pine patches but were absent from eucalypt stands. Species-area relationships of forest plants and forest birds in oak patches had consistently a higher slope, at both the intra and inter-patch scales, than species-area relationships of forest species in plantations and non-forest species in oak forest. These findings demonstrate the importance of oak forest for the conservation of forest species diversity, pointing the need to conserve large areas of oak forest due to the apparent vulnerability of forest species to area loss. Additionally, diversity patterns in pine forest were intermediate between oak forest and eucalypt forest, suggesting that forest species patterns may be affected by forest naturalness.

  13. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel; Mereu, Simone; Messier, Christian; Muys, Bart; Nolet, Philippe; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John; Perring, Mike; Ponette, Quentin; Potvin, Catherine; Reich, Peter; Smith, Andy; Weih, Martin; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of mixed species plantations. The network currently consists of 18 experiments, distributed over 36 sites and five ecoregions. With plantations 1-15 years old, TreeDivNet can already provide relevant data for forest policy and management. In this paper, we highlight some early results on the carbon sequestration and pest resistance potential of more diverse plantations. Finally, suggestions are made for new, innovative experiments in understudied regions to complement the existing network.

  14. Forest fuel characterization using direct sampling in forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva Reyna Esmeralda Díaz García; Marco Aurelio González Tagle; Javier Jiménez Pérez; Eduardo JavierTreviño Garza; Diana Yemilet Ávila Flores

    2013-01-01

    One of the essential elements for a fire to occur is the flammable material. This is defined as the total biomass that has the ability to ignite and burn when exposed to a heat source. Fuel characterization in Mexican forest ecosystems is very scarce. However, this information is very important for estimating flammability and forest fire risk, fire behavior,...

  15. Mountain cloud forest and grown-shade coffee plantations: A comparison of tree biodiversity in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo González-Zamora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this work is to compare tree diversity and richness among one grown-shade coffee plantation (CAE and two sites of montane cloud forests, one preserved (MCF1 and other perturbed (MCF2. We also develop an analysis of the importance of coffee plantations as a refuge of tree species, holding a potential role for conservation.Area of study: Our study area is the coffee region of Coatepec-Xico, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico.Material and methods: We compiled a list of all tree species in each site to determine tree diversity and floristic similarity (dissimilarity. We used different similarity indices and a cluster analysis to show relations among sites.Main results: 2721 individuals from 154 species were registered in the montane cloud forests as a whole. In the grown-shade coffee plantation we registered 2947 individuals from 64 species. The most similar sites were the perturbed montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation and the least similar were the preserved montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation. The high biodiversity found in all sites and the differences in tree composition between the two montane cloud forests supports evidence of the ecosystems richness in the region.Research highlight: Diversity differences among sites determine that the grown-shade coffee plantation is not substitute for montane cloud forest. CAE’s are developed under similar environmental conditions than the MCF; therefore, coexistence and recombination (replacement of species make them particularly complementary. CAE’s in Veracruz have a potential role as refuge for biodiversity.

  16. Mountain cloud forest and grown-shade coffee plantations: A comparison of tree biodiversity in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Zamora, A.; Esperón-Rodríguez, M.; Barradas, V.L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: The objective of this work is to compare tree diversity and richness among one grown-shade coffee plantation (CAE) and two sites of montane cloud forests, one preserved (MCF1) and other perturbed (MCF2). We also develop an analysis of the importance of coffee plantations as a refuge of tree species, holding a potential role for conservation. Area of study: Our study area is the coffee region of Coatepec-Xico, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and methods: We compiled a list of all tree species in each site to determine tree diversity and floristic similarity (dissimilarity). We used different similarity indices and a cluster analysis to show relations among sites. Main results: 2721 individuals from 154 species were registered in the montane cloud forests as a whole. In the grown-shade coffee plantation we registered 2947 individuals from 64 species. The most similar sites were the perturbed montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation and the least similar were the preserved montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation. The high biodiversity found in all sites and the differences in tree composition between the two montane cloud forests supports evidence of the ecosystems richness in the region. Research highlight: Diversity differences among sites determine that the grown-shade coffee plantation is not substitute for montane cloud forest. CAE’s are developed under similar environmental conditions than the MCF; therefore, coexistence and recombination (replacement) of species make them particularly complementary. CAE’s in Veracruz have a potential role as refuge for biodiversity. (Author)

  17. Evaluating Public Plantation and Community Planted Forests under the CDM and REDD+ Mechanism for Carbon Stock in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Public plantations (PPs and Community planted forests (CPFs are inimitable types of participatory forest management practices in Nepal, but their eligibility issues under the framework of clean development mechanism (CDM and reducing emission from the deforestation and forest degradation mechanism (REDD+ are not evaluated. So, to explore the management system of PP and CPF, we compared forest carbon stocks in plantations and evaluated these plantations under these mechanisms as objectives of this research. The relevant documents were revised and altogether 55 samples were collected from Shreepur, Banauta and Bisbity PPs and Sita, Ramnagar and Jogikuti CPFs, in Mahottary district, Nepal. The equation of Chave et al was used to calculate the biomass, which was further converted into carbon. Meanwhile, management practices were evaluated under the framework of CDM and REDD+. The PPs are public land managed, especially by disadvantaged communities, while CPFs are the patches of national forest managed by users. The variation in carbon stock was found to be highest (148.89 ton ha-1 in Sita CPF and lowest (30.34 ton ha-1 in Bisbitty PP. In fact, it is difficult to certify plantations under CDM, due to its complexity, but they can easily be candidate to the REDD+ mechanism, if they are bundled with large forest blocks.

  18. Sustainable Management of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Plantation Forests in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban forestry is increasingly used as a tool for climate change mitigation and for providing environmental services to inhabitants of urban areas. However, tree species used in urban forestry are usually different from the ones used in commercial forestry. As a consequence, available data on growth and yield under alternative management scenarios are usually scarce. As forest models can be used to explore potential forest futures, they are of special interest as decision-support tools in urban forestry. In this research, we used the FORECAST ecosystem-level forest model to define the management prescriptions for Metasequoia glyptostroboides plantations in Shanghai that reach the highest net primary productivity (NPP. In a first step, a battery of different stand densities (from 500 to 4000 stems ha−1 was used to identify those with the highest NPP at stand level. Then, different thinning regimes (with intensities ranging from 15% to 40% of trees removed and applied at stand age 5 to 20 years were simulated on those initial densities with the highest NPP (3000 and 4000 stems ha−1. Planting 4000 stems ha−1 and not applying thinning achieved the highest annual NPP (14.39 ± 3.92 Mg ha−1 yr−1 during the first rotation, but it was not significantly different from the NPP achieved with the same initial density but thinning 40% of trees at year 10. NPP was estimated to decrease with consecutive rotations, and for the second rotation thinning was needed to significantly increase NPP (10.11 ± 2.59 Mg ha−1 yr−1 with 4000 stems ha−1 and 25% thinning at year 10 above non-thinning management. For the third rotation, the highest NPP was reached with initial density 3000 stems ha−1 and 25% thinning at year 10. Nitrogen flows were also estimated to decrease with consecutive rotations. These results indicate the potential of managing M. glyptostroboides urban plantations to reach their maximum productivity potential, but also that additional

  19. Creation and implementation of a certification system for insurability and fire risk classification for forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronica Loewe M.; Victor Vargas; Juan Miguel Ruiz; Andrea Alvarez C.; Felipe Lobo Q.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the Chilean insurance market sells forest fire insurance policies and agricultural weather risk policies. However, access to forest fire insurance is difficult for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with a significant proportion (close to 50%) of forest plantations being without coverage. Indeed, the insurance market that sells forest fire insurance...

  20. Comparison of butterfly diversity in forested area and oil palm plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANTO SANTOSA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Santosa Y, Purnamasari I, Wahyuni I. 2017. Comparison of butterfly diversity in forested area and oil palm plantation. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 7: 104-109. Land use change from the forested area into oil palm monoculture plantations was suspected to have reduced the number of biodiversities, including butterfly. In addressing such issues, this research was conducted from March to April 2016 in PT. Mitra Unggul Pusaka oil palm plantation of Riau Province and the forest area around the plantation. Data were collected from secondary forest and High Conservation Value representing forest areas, and oil palm plantations representing non-forest areas (young-growth oil palm and old-growth oil palm simultaneously using 3 repetitions with time search method for 3 hours (8-10 pm. The results showed that there were 30 species (117 individuals found belonging to five families, i.e.: Papilionidae (3 species, Nymphalidae (17 species, Pieridae (5 species, Lycaenidae (4 species, and Hesperidae (1 species. Species richness was greater in a forested area (Dmg=7.35 than in non-forested areas (Dmg=3.16. Based on the Similarity Index, 50% of the species in forested area were also found in non-forested areas. Therefore, it could be concluded that butterfly diversity in forested areas was higher than non-forested areas (oil palms.

  1. Losses of soil organic carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: Assessment of erosion and decomposition by new δ13C approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Muhammad, Damris; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi province on Sumatra Island. We developed and applied a new δ13C based approach to assess and separate two processes: 1) erosion and 2) decomposition. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced: up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). The C content in the subsoil was similar in the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ13C values in the subsoil of the plantations corresponds to the losses of the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ13C profiles in the undisturbed soils under forest with the disturbed soils under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35±8 cm) and rubber (33±10 cm) plantations. The 13C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. SOC availability, measured by microbial respiration rate and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy, was lower under oil palm plantations. Despite similar trends in C losses and erosion in intensive plantations, our results indicate that microorganisms in oil palm plantations mineralized mainly the old C stabilized prior to conversion, whereas microorganisms under rubber plantations mineralized the fresh C from the litter, leaving the old C pool mainly untouched. Based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC under oil palm plantations, which therefore are a less sustainable land

  2. Tropical forest plantation biomass estimation using RADARSAT-SAR and TM data of south china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenli; Niu, Zheng; Gu, Xiaoping; Guo, Zhixing; Cong, Pifu

    2005-10-01

    Forest biomass is one of the most important parameters for global carbon stock model yet can only be estimated with great uncertainties. Remote sensing, especially SAR data can offers the possibility of providing relatively accurate forest biomass estimations at a lower cost than inventory in study tropical forest. The goal of this research was to compare the sensitivity of forest biomass to Landsat TM and RADARSAT-SAR data and to assess the efficiency of NDVI, EVI and other vegetation indices in study forest biomass based on the field survey date and GIS in south china. Based on vegetation indices and factor analysis, multiple regression and neural networks were developed for biomass estimation for each species of the plantation. For each species, the better relationships between the biomass predicted and that measured from field survey was obtained with a neural network developed for the species. The relationship between predicted and measured biomass derived from vegetation indices differed between species. This study concludes that single band and many vegetation indices are weakly correlated with selected forest biomass. RADARSAT-SAR Backscatter coefficient has a relatively good logarithmic correlation with forest biomass, but neither TM spectral bands nor vegetation indices alone are sufficient to establish an efficient model for biomass estimation due to the saturation of bands and vegetation indices, multiple regression models that consist of spectral and environment variables improve biomass estimation performance. Comparing with TM, a relatively well estimation result can be achieved by RADARSAT-SAR, but all had limitations in tropical forest biomass estimation. The estimation results obtained are not accurate enough for forest management purposes at the forest stand level. However, the approximate volume estimates derived by the method can be useful in areas where no other forest information is available. Therefore, this paper provides a better

  3. Carbon stock of oil palm plantations and tropical forests in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kho, Lip Khoon; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2015-01-01

    cultivation (fallow forests) and 3) oil palm plantations. The forest ecosystems are classified by successional stage and edaphic conditions and represent samples along a forest succession continuum spanning pioneer species in shifting cultivation fallows to climax vegetation in old-growth forests. Total......In Malaysia, the main land change process is the establishment of oil palm plantations on logged-over forests and areas used for shifting cultivation, which is the traditional farming system. While standing carbon stocks of old-growth forest have been the focus of many studies, this is less...... the case for Malaysian fallow systems and oil palm plantations. Here, we collate and analyse Malaysian datasets on total carbon stocks for both above- and below-ground biomass. We review the current knowledge on standing carbon stocks of 1) different forest ecosystems, 2) areas subject to shifting...

  4. Plantation-Seeding Forest Plantations – the New Method for Regeneration of Coniferous Forests at Large Clearings on Burned Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tarakanov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new method of restoration of coniferous stands on large felling areas on burnt lands that lack seed trees is discussed. It involves limited planting of big grafted seedlings of quality wood, that have a high level of seed production, with the purpose of the subsequent natural sowing on these territories. Results of two-year-old research on approbation of the method on cuttings on large felling areas on burnt lands in conditions of the mid-Ob' river pine forests are stated. A good viability of «seed cultures» is noted. There is damage of the grafting pines by elk. Therefore there is a problem of protecting plantations against elk. For preservation of a high level of genetic variability of pine stands it is desirable to use in «seed cultures» the best trees from local plantings.

  5. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  6. Soil Carbon Stocks Decrease following Conversion of Secondary Forests to Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha−1 in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha−1 to an increase of 8 Mg C ha−1. In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

  7. Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, D.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  8. Soil respiration patterns and rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations: dependence on elevation, temperature, precipitation, and litterfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Hung, Chih-Yu; Lin, I-Rhy; Kume, Tomonori; Menyailo, Oleg V; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2017-11-15

    Soil respiration contributes to a large quantity of carbon emissions in the forest ecosystem. In this study, the soil respiration rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations (two lowland and one mid-elevation) were investigated. We aimed to determine how soil respiration varies between lowland and mid-elevation forest plantations and identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration. The results showed that the temporal patterns of soil respiration rates were mainly influenced by soil temperature and soil water content, and a combined soil temperature and soil water content model explained 54-80% of the variation. However, these two factors affected soil respiration differently. Soil temperature positively contributed to soil respiration, but a bidirectional relationship between soil respiration and soil water content was revealed. Higher soil moisture content resulted in higher soil respiration rates at the lowland plantations but led to adverse effects at the mid-elevation plantation. The annual soil respiration rates were estimated as 14.3-20.0 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at the lowland plantations and 7.0-12.2 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at the mid-elevation plantation. When assembled with the findings of previous studies, the annual soil respiration rates increased with the mean annual temperature and litterfall but decreased with elevation and the mean annual precipitation. A conceptual model of the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of the soil respiration rate was developed. Three determinant factors were proposed: (i) elevation, (ii) stand characteristics, and (iii) soil temperature and soil moisture. The results indicated that changes in temperature and precipitation significantly affect soil respiration. Because of the high variability of soil respiration, more studies and data syntheses are required to accurately predict soil respiration in Taiwanese forests.

  9. Neotropical Migratory Bird Communities in a Developing Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson; Richard N. Conner; J. Howard Williamson

    1993-01-01

    Birds were censused annually from 4 250-x80-in transects in a young pine plantation from age to 2 to 17 to assess changes in the bird community.Bird abundance was low and the bird communitry was the least diverse when the pine plantation was sparsely vegetated at age 2. As the plantation developed rapidly into the shrub stage, the bird communitry became more abundant...

  10. Effects of Successive Harvests on Soil Nutrient Stocks in Established Tropical Plantation Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L.; McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale plantation forests in tropical regions alter biogeochemical processes, raising concerns about the long-term sustainability of this land use. Current commercial practices result in nutrient export with removed biomass that may not be balanced by fertilizer application. Consequent changes in a landscape's nutrient distributions can affect the growth of future plantations or other vegetation. Prior studies have reported changes in soil chemical and physical properties when plantation forests replace pastures or native vegetation, but few have examined the impacts of multiple harvest cycles following plantation establishment. This study analyzed macronutrient and carbon content of soil samples from the world's most productive plantation forests, in southeastern Brazil, to understand the long-term effects of plantation forests on soil nutrient stocks and soil fertility. Soil was collected from Eucalyptus plantation sites and adjacent vegetation in 2004 and again in 2016, after at least one full cycle of harvesting and replanting. We found that within surface soil (0-10 cm) Mg and N did not change significantly and C, P, K and Ca concentrations generally increased, but to varying extents within individual management units. This trend of increasing nutrient concentrations suggests that additional harvests do not result in cumulative nutrient depletion. However, large changes in Ca and K concentrations in individual plantation units indicate that added fertilizer does not consistently accumulate in the surface soil. Analysis of deeper soil layers and comparison to unfertilized vegetation will help to determine the fate of fertilizers and native soil nutrients in repeatedly harvested plantations. These results address the necessity of long-term investigation of nutrient changes to better understand and determine the impacts of different types of land use in the tropics.

  11. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  12. [A comparative study on soil fauna in native secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation forests in subtropics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaokui; Wang, Silong; Hu, Yalin; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Xiuyong

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the response of soil animal communities to the replacement of native secondary forest by Chinese fir plantation forest and successive rotation of Chinese fir in subtropics. Three adjacent forest stands, i.e., native secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest stand (control) and Chinese fir plantation stands of first (20 yr) and second (20 yr) rotations were selected for the comparison of soil fauna. All animals were extracted from the floor litter and 0-15 cm soil layer of the stands in Summer, 2003 by using Tullgren method, wet funnel method and hand-sorting method. Compared to two Chinese fir plantation forests, the native secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest had a higher abundance and a higher taxonomic diversity of animals in soil and litter, but there were no significant differences in the biomass and productivity of soil fauna between all study stands. The abundance or diversity did not differ significantly between the first rotation and second rotation stands, too. The results supported that vegetation cover might be one of the main forces driving the development of soil animal communities, and the effect of successive rotation of Chinese fir on the development of soil fauna was a slow-running process.

  13. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhang Liao

    Full Text Available Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C. We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests. Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age ( or = 25 years, stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen, tree species origin (native vs. exotic of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt, and study regions (tropic vs. temperate. The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

  14. Influence of Plantation Establishment on Discharge Characteristics in a Small Catchment of Tropical Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisah Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the impact of forest clearance on discharge from newly established Hopea odorata plantations catchment (14.4 ha. The stands were two years old when this study commenced in year 2006 and the data collection was carried out for two years. The forested catchment (C3 was clear-cut during the preparation of the forest plantation and catchment C1 was left undisturbed. Discharge and rainfall were measured continuously for two years. The discharge measured from years 1997 to 2003 was used also to determine the water yield before and after forest clear-cut. This study showed that the plantation catchment is more responsive to storm with higher total water yield than in the forested catchment. The effect of forest clear cutting to discharge was clearly shown by the increment in the amount following the clear-cut activities and time taken for the recovery of the discharge back to its original state was almost three years. The peak discharge in C3 also was affected in which the biggest change was obtained during the forest clear-cutting period compared with during calibration and after clearing periods. This study is useful as basis for improving the existing guidelines on forest plantation establishment.

  15. Comparing soil organic carbon dynamics in plantation and secondary forest in wet tropics in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI YIQING; MING XU; ZOU XIAOMING; PEIJUN SHI§; YAOQI ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    We compared the soil carbon dynamics between a pine plantation and a secondary forest, both of which originated from the same farmland abandoned in 1976 with the same cropping history and soil conditions, in the wet tropics in Puerto Rico from July 1996 to June 1997. We found that the secondary forest accumulated the heavy-fraction organic carbon (HF-OC) measured by...

  16. Divergent stakeholder views of corporate social responsibility in the Australian forest plantation sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Melissa; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-01-01

    Although the Australian forest plantation industry acknowledges that there is a role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in forest management, there is confusion as to what this constitutes in practice. This paper describes the conflicts between internal and external stakeholder views on CSR

  17. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T; Tomlinson, Kyle W

    2016-02-23

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  18. Forest structure of oak plantations after silvicultural treatment to enhance habitat for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Phillip, Cherrie-Lee P.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Wilson, R. Randy; Schweitzer, Callie Jo; Clatterbuck, Wayne K.; Oswalt, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, thousands of hectares of oak-dominated bottomland hardwood plantations have been planted on agricultural fields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Many of these plantations now have closed canopies and sparse understories. Silvicultural treatments could create a more heterogeneous forest structure, with canopy gaps and increased understory vegetation for wildlife. Lack of volume sufficient for commercial harvest in hardwood plantations has impeded treatments, but demand for woody biomass for energy production may provide a viable means to introduce disturbance beneficial for wildlife. We assessed forest structure in response to prescribed pre-commercial perturbations in hardwood plantations resulting from silvicultural treatments: 1) row thinning by felling every fourth planted row; 2) multiple patch cuts with canopy gaps of gaps appear likely to be filled by regenerating saplings.

  19. Carbon Storage and Allocation Pattern in Plant Biomass among Different Forest Plantation Stands in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqi Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how carbon storage and allocation patterns vary among plantation types, we estimated carbon allocation between above- and below-ground compartments in four subtropical plantations and a naturally recovered shrubland (as a control. Results indicated that the carbon storage and allocation pattern varied greatly among forest types and was highly dependent on specific traits of trees and understory vegetation. The fast-growing species, such as Eucalyptus urophylla, accumulated more carbon in plant biomass. The biomass carbon was about 1.9- and 2.2-times greater than the 10-species mixed plantation and Castanopsis hystrix plantations, respectively. Meanwhile, the plantations sequestered 1.5- to 3-times more carbon in biomass than naturally recovered shrubland. The carbon allocation pattern between above- and below-ground compartments also varied with plantation type and stand age. The ratio of tree root carbon to tree aboveground carbon decreased with stand age for Eucalyptus urophylla and the 10-species mixed plantation. In contrast, the ratio increased for Acacia crassicarpa. Our data suggested that planting the fast-growing species in the degraded land of subtropical China was an effective choice in terms of carbon sequestration. The information about carbon allocation patterns was also valuable for decision making in sustainable forest management and climate change mitigation.

  20. Carbon Storage and Allocation Pattern in Plant Biomass among Different Forest Plantation Stands in Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuanqi; Liu, Zhanfeng; Rao, Xingquan; Wang, Xiaoling; Liang, Chenfei; Lin, Yongbiao; Zhou, Lixia; Cai, Xi-an; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand how carbon storage and allocation patterns vary among plantation types, we estimated carbon allocation between above- and below-ground compartments in four subtropical plantations and a naturally recovered shrubland (as a control). Results indicated that the carbon storage and allocation pattern varied greatly among forest types and was highly dependent on specific traits of trees and understory vegetation. The fast-growing species, such as Eucalyptus urophylla, accumul...

  1. Mapping Rubber Plantations and Natural Forests in Xishuangbanna (Southwest China Using Multi-Spectral Phenological Metrics from MODIS Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian van der Linden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed and evaluated a new approach for mapping rubber plantations and natural forests in one of Southeast Asia’s biodiversity hot spots, Xishuangbanna in China. We used a one-year annual time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and short-wave infrared (SWIR reflectance data to develop phenological metrics. These phenological metrics were used to classify rubber plantations and forests with the Random Forest classification algorithm. We evaluated which key phenological characteristics were important to discriminate rubber plantations and natural forests by estimating the influence of each metric on the classification accuracy. As a benchmark, we compared the best classification with a classification based on the full, fitted time series data. Overall classification accuracies derived from EVI and SWIR time series alone were 64.4% and 67.9%, respectively. Combining the phenological metrics from EVI and SWIR time series improved the accuracy to 73.5%. Using the full, smoothed time series data instead of metrics derived from the time series improved the overall accuracy only slightly (1.3%, indicating that the phenological metrics were sufficient to explain the seasonal changes captured by the MODIS time series. The results demonstrate a promising utility of phenological metrics for mapping and monitoring rubber expansion with MODIS.

  2. Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

    2013-09-01

    Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. © 2013 ILSI Research Foundation. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of exotic plantation forests on soil edaphon and organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Yao; Long, Zhijian; Hu, Shanglian; Zhang, Yuanbin; Jiang, Hao

    2018-06-01

    There is uncertainty and limited knowledge regarding soil microbial properties and organic matter fractions of natural secondary forest accompanying chemical environmental changes of replacement by pure alien plantation forests in a hilly area of southwest of Sichuan province China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of natural secondary forest (NSF) to pure Cryptomeria fortunei forest (CFF) and Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (CLF) on soil organic fractions and microbial communities. The results showed that the soil total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), total bacteria and fungi, microbial carbon pool, organic recalcitrant carbon (C) and (N) fractions, soil microbial quotient and labile and recalcitrant C use efficiencies in each pure plantation were significantly decreased, but their microbial N pool, labile C and N pools, soil carbon dioxide efflux, soil respiratory quotient and recalcitrant N use efficiency were increased. An RDA analysis revealed that soil total PLFAs, total bacteria and fungi and total Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were significantly associated with exchangeable Al 3+ , exchangeable acid, Al 3+ , available P and Mg 2+ and pH, which resulted into microbial functional changes of soil labile and recalcitrant substrate use efficiencies. Modified microbial C- and N-use efficiency due to forest conversion ultimately meets those of rapidly growing trees in plantation forests. Enlarged soil labile fractions and soil respiratory quotients in plantation forests would be a potential positive effect for C source in the future forest management. Altogether, pure plantation practices could provoke regulatory networks and functions of soil microbes and enzyme activities, consequently leading to differentiated utilization of soil organic matter fractions accompanying the change in environmental factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of a mixed forest plantation to avifauna conservation at Rio Cauca canyon, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano Villa, Gabriel Jaime; Morales Betancourt, Juan Alejandro; Bedoya Alvarez, Mary Luz

    2008-01-01

    The avifauna of a forest mixed plantation at Cauca river canyon in Caldas department; was monitored during 10 months. Fifty nine understory resident species were captured,10% of them presented high sensibility to habitat perturbation (forest specialists). Only those species with low sensibility (generalists) presented differences between monthly numbers of captures. Other 50 species associated to the plantation, including two endemic and 26% boreal migratory species were registered visually and/or by its vocalizations. The results suggest that this plantation plays a key role in the conservation of local avifauna, is habitat both for species associated with natural forests and for those with less habitat requirements. This type of reforestation with native species could be a restoration model for other degraded areas from the region.

  5. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Woody species diversity in forest plantations in a mountainous region of Beijing, China: effects of sampling scale and species selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Zhang

    Full Text Available The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr., planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer, while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation.

  7. Eucalypt plantations reduce the diversity of macroinvertebrates in small forested streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero–Rivera, A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use patterns of a river basin have a significant effect on the structure and function of river ecosystems. Changes in the composition of riparian plant communities modify the quantity, quality and seasonality of leaf–litter inputs, determining changes in macroinvertebrate colonization and activity. The main goal of this study was to test the effect of land–use modifications, and particularly the impact of eucalypt plantations, on the macroinvertebrate communities of sixteen headwater streams. Macroinvertebrates were counted and identified to family level. Land uses were classified in five categories using aerial photography: native forest, eucalypt plantations, agricultural land, shrubland, and urban areas. We found that macroinvertebrate diversity increased with basin size and with the proportion of basin covered by native forest. This variable correlated negatively with the land occupied by eucalypt plantations. Macroinvertebrate richness diminished with the increase of land surface covered by eucalypt plantations, and a similar tendency was observed with diversity. Furthermore, streams whose drainage basin was mainly covered by Eucalyptus were more likely to dry up in summer. This observation adds to evidence from previous studies that concluded that fast–growing tree plantations affect hydric resources, an important ecosystem service in the context of global warming. To minimize the impact of industrial sylviculture, we suggest that maintaining and/or restoring riparian forests could mitigate the effects of intensive eucalypt monocultures.

  8. Short Rotations in Forest Plantations Accelerate Virulence Evolution in Root-Rot Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Soularue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As disease outbreaks in forest plantations are causing concern worldwide, a clear understanding of the influence of silvicultural practices on the development of epidemics is still lacking. Importantly, silvicultural practices are likely to simultaneously affect epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogen populations. We propose a genetically explicit and individual-based model of virulence evolution in a root-rot pathogenic fungus spreading across forest landscapes, taking the Armillaria ostoyae–Pinus pinaster pathosystem as reference. We used the model to study the effects of rotation length on the evolution of virulence and the propagation of the fungus within a forest landscape composed of even-aged stands regularly altered by clear-cutting and thinning operations. The life cycle of the fungus modeled combines asexual and sexual reproduction modes, and also includes parasitic and saprotrophic phases. Moreover, the tree susceptibility to the pathogen is primarily determined by the age of the stand. Our simulations indicated that the shortest rotation length accelerated both the evolution of virulence and the development of the epidemics, whatever the genetic variability in the initial fungal population and the asexuality rate of the fungal species

  9. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    be differences in recruitment. The present study addresses post-dispersal seed predation, mainly of woody plants, as the factor limiting the recolonization of young oak plantations in southern Sweden. Our objectives were to investigate differences in dispersal and post-dispersal seed predation between first......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...... plantations on ex-arable land. There was a high seed predation of Crataegus monogyna, Sorbus aucuparia and Viburnum opulus on ex-arable land, while that of Frangula alnus and Sambucus racemosa was not associated with site placement and land-use history. Seed predation is probably a more important factor...

  10. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE

  11. Soil respiration patterns and rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations: dependence on elevation, temperature, precipitation, and litterfall

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Hung, Chih-Yu; Lin, I-Rhy; Kume, Tomonori; Menyailo, Oleg V.; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Background Soil respiration contributes to a large quantity of carbon emissions in the forest ecosystem. In this study, the soil respiration rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations (two lowland and one mid-elevation) were investigated. We aimed to determine how soil respiration varies between lowland and mid-elevation forest plantations and identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration. Results The results showed that the temporal patterns of so...

  12. [Effect of pine plantations on soil arthropods in a high Andean forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gamboa, Alba Lucía; Ramos, Carolina; García, Mary Ruth

    2010-09-01

    One of the most common problems in the Colombian mountains has been the replacement of native vegetation by pine plantations. Soil arthropods are a fundamental component of forest ecosystem, since they participate in the organic matter fragmentation, previous to decomposition. This role is more valuable in high altitude environments, where low temperatures limit the dynamics of biological processes, where the effects of pine plantations on soil arthropods are still not well-known. In a remnant of high-andean forest (Neusa - Colombia) and a pine plantation of about 50 years-old, it was evaluated the composition, richness and abundance of arthropods at surface (S), organic horizon (O) and mineral horizon (A) of soil, to establish the differences associated to the soil use transformation. It was used "Pitfall" sampling to register the movement of the epigeous fauna, and extraction by funnel Berlese for determining the fauna density from O and A horizons. The Shannon and Simpson indexes estimated the diversity at different places and horizons, and the trophic structure of the community was evaluated. Overall, there were collected 38 306 individuals from forest and 17 386 individuals from pine plantation, mainly distributed in Collembola (42.4%), Acari (27%), Diptera (17.6%) and Coleoptera (4.6%). The most important differences were given in the surface, where the mobilization in forest (86 individuals/day) almost triplicates the one in pine plantation (33 individuals/day). The differences in composition were given in Collembola, Araneae, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Hymenoptera. The dynamics of richness and abundance along the year had significant high values in the native forest than in the pine plantation. The general trophic structure was dominated by saprophagous (75%), followed by predators (14%) and phytophagous (9%), but in two layers of the pine plantation soil (S and O) this structural pattern was not given. Based on the results, it was concluded that pine

  13. Biofuel plantations on forested lands: double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Finn; Beukema, Hendrien; Burgess, Neil D; Parish, Faizal; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Phalan, Ben; Reijnders, Lucas; Struebig, Matthew; Fitzherbert, Emily B

    2009-04-01

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the impact of the spread of oil-palm plantations on greenhouse gas emission and biodiversity. We assessed changes in carbon stocks with changing land use and compared this with the amount of fossil-fuel carbon emission avoided through its replacement by biofuel carbon. We estimated it would take between 75 and 93 years for the carbon emissions saved through use of biofuel to compensate for the carbon lost through forest conversion, depending on how the forest was cleared. If the original habitat was peatland, carbon balance would take more than 600 years. Conversely, planting oil palms on degraded grassland would lead to a net removal of carbon within 10 years. These estimates have associated uncertainty, but their magnitude and relative proportions seem credible. We carried out a meta-analysis of published faunal studies that compared forest with oil palm. We found that plantations supported species-poor communities containing few forest species. Because no published data on flora were available, we present results from our sampling of plants in oil palm and forest plots in Indonesia. Although the species richness of pteridophytes was higher in plantations, they held few forest species. Trees, lianas, epiphytic orchids, and indigenous palms were wholly absent from oil-palm plantations. The majority of individual plants and animals in oil-palm plantations belonged to a small number of generalist species of low conservation concern. As countries strive to meet obligations to reduce carbon emissions under one international agreement (Kyoto Protocol), they may not only fail to meet their obligations under another (Convention on Biological Diversity) but may actually hasten

  14. Aerial survey of red pine plantations for sirococcus shoot blight. Forest research report No. 46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A total of 849 red pine plantation diagrams were collected from the forest community and sketched onto 1:50,000 scale topographic maps. An aerial assessment was conducted beginning in the western counties in October 1990 and continuing eastward through to February 1991. Visual assessments were made for occurrence and severity of symptoms according to the average percentage of shoots affected per infected tree. General assessments on the height of plantations were also made, and each plantation was labelled as young (less than or equal to 3 m in height), pole (between 4 m and 6 m in height), or immature-mature (greater than 6 m in height). This research provides the results of the survey.

  15. Diversity patterns of ground beetles and understory vegetation in mature, secondary, and plantation forest regions of temperate northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Wang, Shunzhong; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Plantation and secondary forests form increasingly important components of the global forest cover, but our current knowledge about their potential contribution to biodiversity conservation is limited. We surveyed understory plant and carabid species assemblages at three distinct regions in temperate northeastern China, dominated by mature forest (Changbaishan Nature Reserve, sampled in 2011 and 2012), secondary forest (Dongling Mountain, sampled in 2011 and 2012), and forest plantation habitats (Bashang Plateau, sampled in 2006 and 2007), respectively. The α-diversity of both taxonomic groups was highest in plantation forests of the Bashang Plateau. Beetle α-diversity was lowest, but plant and beetle species turnover peaked in the secondary forests of Dongling Mountain, while habitats in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve showed the lowest turnover rates for both taxa. Changbaishan Nature Reserve harbored the highest proportion of forest specialists. Our results suggest that in temperate regions of northern China, the protected larch plantation forest established over extensive areas might play a considerable role in maintaining a high biodiversity in relation to understory herbaceous plant species and carabid assemblages, which can be seen as indicators of forest disturbance. The high proportion of phytophagous carabids and the rarity of forest specialists reflect the relatively homogenous, immature status of the forest ecosystems on the Bashang Plateau. China's last remaining large old-growth forests like the ones on Changbaishan represent stable, mature ecosystems which require particular conservation attention.

  16. DAMPAK PEMBANGUNAN HUTAN TANAMAN INDUSTRI Acacia crassicarpa DI LAHAN GAMBUT TERHADAP TINGKAT KEMATANGAN DAN LAJU PENURUNAN PERMUKAAN TANAH (The Impact of Development of Industrial Plantation Forest Acacia crassicarpa in Peatland Towards the Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Lisnawati

    2015-07-01

    with a decrease in the depth of water table which then result in a change of the original ecosystem. Long-term land reclamation activities for HTI Acacia crassicarpa is supposed to give a negative impact on changes in the peat soil characteristics such as level of maturity and the rate of decrease in surface peat soil (subsidence. Studies on the impact of HTI development in peat areas particularly on the level of maturity and rate of subsidence need to be done in order to provide information regarding the carrying capacity of the land exsisting condition. This study aims at evaluating the maturity level of the peat either vertically (based on the depth of peat or horizontally (based on the distance from the lips of the canal and determining the rate of subsidence as a result of reclamation of peatlands into plantations A. crassicarpa. The study was conducted in PT. AA, Rasau Kuning District, Siak, Riau. Research plots were placed in a 100 m long transects that were perpendicular to the tertiary canal. There are 12 plots and, transects consist of 3 observation points, so the total observation point is 36 points. Parameters measured were the dynamics of groundwater depth, the value of peat fiber content and the rate of subsidence. The results show that the impact of changes in the water table depth of peat soil in the study area only affects the level of maturity of peat at depths less than 2 m, whereas the tertiary canals distance of 125 m did not significantly affect the level of maturity of peat. At a depth of less than 2 m of peat maturity level is higher than the layer below it. A. crassicarpa plantation development in the study area leads to subsidence rate by an average of 5.5 cm / year.

  17. Avian species richness in relation to intensive forest management practices in early seral tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jay E; Kroll, Andrew J; Giovanini, Jack; Duke, Steven D; Ellis, Tana M; Betts, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    Managers of landscapes dedicated to forest commodity production require information about how practices influence biological diversity. Individual species and communities may be threatened if management practices truncate or simplify forest age classes that are essential for reproduction and survival. For instance, the degradation and loss of complex diverse forest in young age classes have been associated with declines in forest-associated Neotropical migrant bird populations in the Pacific Northwest, USA. These declines may be exacerbated by intensive forest management practices that reduce hardwood and broadleaf shrub cover in order to promote growth of economically valuable tree species in plantations. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to evaluate relationships between avian species richness and vegetation variables that reflect stand management intensity (primarily via herbicide application) on 212 tree plantations in the Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Specifically, we estimated the influence of broadleaf hardwood vegetation cover, which is reduced through herbicide applications, on bird species richness and individual species occupancy. Our model accounted for imperfect detection. We used average predictive comparisons to quantify the degree of association between vegetation variables and species richness. Both conifer and hardwood cover were positively associated with total species richness, suggesting that these components of forest stand composition may be important predictors of alpha diversity. Estimates of species richness were 35-80% lower when imperfect detection was ignored (depending on covariate values), a result that has critical implications for previous efforts that have examined relationships between forest composition and species richness. Our results revealed that individual and community responses were positively associated with both conifer and hardwood cover. In our system, patterns of bird community assembly appear to be associated with

  18. Predicting stem total and assortment volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation using airborne laser scanning data and random forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew Thomas Hudak; Lee Alexander Vierling; Wan Shafrina Wan Mohd Jaafar; Midhun Mohan; Mariano Garcia; Antonio Ferraz; Adrian Cardil; Sassan Saatchi

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised...

  19. Assessing the likely impacts of climate change on pests, diseases and weeds of Australia's temperate plantation forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriticos, Darren; Leriche, Agathe; Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Wharton, Trudi N.; Potter, Karina J.B.; Watt, Mike S.; Battaglia, Michael; Richardson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Australia's plantation forests presently cover some 163 milllion hectares, accounting for 105 billion tonnes of carbon. Plantation forests also account for approximately two thirds of the A$18 billion value of turnover in Australia's forest product industries (Bureau of Resource Sciences 2006). Plantation forests also play a small but significant role in mitigating the effects of climate change through sequestration of carbon into durable timber products. However, climate change is likely to pose several direct and indirect challenges to this important industry. One of the indirect challenges is likely to come through changes in the distribution, relative abundance and population dynamics of both native and exotic insects, diseases and weeds (collectively pests) (Sutherst etal. 2007). A series of case studies involving key pests of Eucalypt and Pine plantations are used to explore the likely impacts of climate change on plantation productivity. Global climate model (GCM) scenarios from Ozclim are used with CLIMEX to project changes in the potential distribution and relative abundance of these pests. The GCM results are also used to generate synthetic weather sequences for future climate scenarios. These weather sequences are used in DYMEX models of pest population dynamics to explore non-linear responses of the pest populations. In turn, the DYMEX results are fed into a process-based plant growth model (CABALA), for the three major plantation species in order to assess the likely effects of changing pest populations associated with climate, change on plantation productivity

  20. Soil changes induced by rubber and tea plantation establishment: comparison with tropical rain forest soil in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Ma, Youxin; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-11-01

    Over the past thirty years, Xishuangbanna in Southwestern China has seen dramatic changes in land use where large areas of tropical forest and fallow land have been converted to rubber and tea plantations. In this study we evaluated the effects of land use and slope on soil properties in seven common disturbed and undisturbed land-types. Results indicated that all soils were acidic, with pH values significantly higher in the 3- and 28-year-old rubber plantations. The tropical forests had the lowest bulk densities, especially significantly lower from the top 10 cm of soil, and highest soil organic matter concentrations. Soil moisture content at topsoil was highest in the mature rubber plantation. Soils in the tropical forests and abandoned cultivated land had inorganic N (IN) concentrations approximately equal in NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N. However, soil IN pools were dominated by NH(4) (+)-N in the rubber and tea plantations. This trend suggests that conversion of tropical forest to rubber and tea plantations increases NH(4) (+)-N concentration and decreases NO(3) (-)-N concentration, with the most pronounced effect in plantations that are more frequently fertilized. Soil moisture content, IN, NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentrations within all sites were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Significant differences in the soil moisture content, and IN, NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentration was detected for both land uses and sampling season effects, as well as interactions. Higher concentrations of NH(4) (+)-N were measured at the upper slopes of all sites, but NO(3) (-)-N concentrations were highest at the lower slope in the rubber plantations and lowest at the lower slopes at all other. Thus, the conversion of tropical forests to rubber and tea plantations can have a profound effect on soil NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentrations. Options for improved soil management in plantations are discussed.

  1. Soil fauna in forest and coffee plantations from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camero R, Edgar

    2002-01-01

    Two research stations (M inca, 700 m altitude and Maria Ter esa, 790 m altitude) were established in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta in places to study the soil fauna associated with forest and coffee plantations. Soil fauna was collected using pitfall and Bailer's traps. Samples were taken from litter as well as from horizons 0, A and B. individuals collected were identified to family level. Diversity, abundance and frequency indexes were used to compare fauna composition at both sites. Significant differences were found between the two research sites as well as with data from other high altitude forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta

  2. Evaluation of the diversity of Scolitids (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in the forest plantations of the central zone of the Ecuadorian littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malena Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Scolytinae subfamily have a worldwide distribution, and are found mainly in the Neo-tropic regions. They usually dominate the communities of wood borer insects. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity among Scolytinae species associated with balsa, teak, rubber and gamhar plantations located in the humid tropical zone of the Ecuadorian littoral. In each plantation seven flight interception traps containing an ethanol / gel mixture were installed, with a collection frequency of 15 days for three months in the dry period. A total of 1437 specimens were collected, represented by Xyleborini, Cryphalini, Corthylini and Ipini tribes. In the four plantations, 18 species of Scolitids were collected, of which 16 were recorded in the balsa plantation, while in the other plantations 10 to 12 species were found. The most abundant Scolitids were Hypothenemus spp., Corthylus spp., Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborinus bicornatulus and Premnobium cavipennis. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was higher in the balsa culture (H’= 2.37 and lower in Teak (H’= 1.57. The Jaccard similarity index was higher among the teak and rubber plantations (Cj = 0.9090 while the balsa plantation obtained less similarity with respect to the other three plantations. The greatest diversity of Scolitids was recorded in the balsa plantation, which is a native species, unlike the other forest species, which are exotic, indicating that the diversity would be influenced by the host tree and the location where they are found.

  3. Using rainwater harvesting techniques for firefighting in forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Garcia-Chevesich; R. Valdes-Pineda; D. Neary; R. Pizarro

    2015-01-01

    Fire is a natural component of forest ecosystems in parts of North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Africa and the Mediterranean region. These fires are usually uncontrolled wildfires in areas of ignitable vegetation but can also be prescribed fires set for vegetation management purposes. Wildfires are commonly characterised based on cause of ignition,...

  4. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie

    2015-01-01

    Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass...... and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and determined...... be that these stands were still young, and canopy closure had not always taken place, i.e. a situation where above- or below-ground competition did not yet exist. Another reason could be that the rooting traits of the tree species did not differ sufficiently to support niche differentiation. Our results suggested...

  5. [Simulation study on the effects of climate change on aboveground biomass of plantation in southern China: Taking Moshao forest farm in Huitong Ecological Station as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Er Fu; Zhou, Heng; Wu, Zhuo; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Xi, Wei Min; Zhu, Jian Jia

    2016-10-01

    Global climate warming has significant effect on territorial ecosystem, especially on forest ecosystem. The increase in temperature and radiative forcing will significantly alter the structure and function of forest ecosystem. The southern plantation is an important part of forests in China, its response to climate change is getting more and more intense. In order to explore the responses of southern plantation to climate change under future climate scenarios and to reduce the losses that might be caused by climate change, we used climatic estimated data under three new emission scenarios, representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios (RCP2.6 scenario, RCP4.5 scenario, and RCP8.5 scenario). We used the spatially dynamic forest landscape model LANDIS-2, coupled with a forest ecosystem process model PnET-2, to simulate the impact of climate change on aboveground net primary production (ANPP), species' establishment probability (SEP) and aboveground biomass of Moshao forest farm in Huitong Ecological Station, which located in Hunan Province during the period of 2014-2094. The results showed that there were obvious differences in SEP and ANPP among different forest types under changing climate. The degrees of response of SEP to climate change for different forest types were shown as: under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, artificial coniferous forest>natural broadleaved forest>artificial broadleaved forest. Under RCP8.5, natural broadleaved forest>artificial broadleaved forest>artificial coniferous forest. The degrees of response of ANPP to climate change for different forest types were shown as: under RCP2.6, artificial broadleaved forest> natural broadleaved forest>artificial coniferous forest. Under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, natural broadleaved forest>artificial broadleaved forest>artificial coniferous forest. The aboveground biomass of the artificial coniferous forest would decline at about 2050, but the natural broadleaved forest and artificial broadleaved forest showed a

  6. Evaluation of Annual Allowable Cut (AAC Determination of Teak Forest Plantations in Perum Perhutani, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohman Rohman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of teak forest plantations in Java that are managed by Perum Perhutani (PP continues to happen, and this is caused by some risk factors such as illegal logging, grazing, forest fire, and encroachment. However, these risk factors have not been considered by PP notably in annual allowable cut (AAC determination of yield regulation. Therefore, the AAC value could be overestimated. The research was aimed at evaluating the method of AAC determination and proposing an alternative method that considers the risk factors. This research was conducted with a series of data analysis approach from the data on five planning periods. The research result showed that forest damage occurs in varied situations. On average, the rate of deforestation accounted for 0.8% per annum.The calculation of AAC by considering the rate of damage risk in normal condition approximately made up 70.8%. Thus, compared to another method without considering damage risk rate, overestimation constituted 29.2%. In brief, this had an impact on the decline of timber stock.Keywords: teak forest plantation, Perum Perhutani, casualty per cent, AAC

  7. The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

  8. Diversity patterns of ground beetles and understory vegetation in mature, secondary, and plantation forest regions of temperate northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Wang, Shunzhong; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Plantation and secondary forests form increasingly important components of the global forest cover, but our current knowledge about their potential contribution to biodiversity conservation is limited. We surveyed understory plant and carabid species assemblages at three distinct regions in

  9. Seed dispersal turns an experimental plantation on degraded land into a novel forest in urban northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Abelleira; Elvia J. Meléndez Ackerman; Diana García Montiel; John A. Parrotta

    2015-01-01

    Planting tree species with desirable traits may catalyze forest regeneration in increasingly common degraded lands by restoring soil properties and attracting seed dispersers. We sampled forest regeneration in an experimental plantation of Albizia lebbek, an introduced N-fixing species, on a degraded pasture in northern Puerto Rico, 27 years after its establishment. We...

  10. Performance of the Forest Vegetation Simulator in managed white spruce plantations influenced by eastern spruce budworm in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Anthony W. D' Amato; Michael A. Albers; Christopher W. Woodall; Klaus J. Puettmann; Michael R. Saunders; Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural strategies such as thinning may minimize productivity losses from a variety of forest disturbances, including forest insects. This study analyzed the 10-year postthinning response of stands and individual trees in thinned white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) plantations in northern Minnesota, USA, with light to moderate defoliation...

  11. Impact intensity of rodents on the forest regeneration in artificial plantations in the Smrk - Kněhyně area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 33-35 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : artificial forest plantations * forest regeneration * herbivorous rodent species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Tigers need cover: multi-scale occupancy study of the big cat in Sumatran forest and plantation landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarto Sunarto

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 is generally known as a forest-dependent animal. With large-scale conversion of forests into plantations, however, it is crucial for restoration efforts to understand to what extent tigers use modified habitats. We investigated tiger-habitat relationships at 2 spatial scales: occupancy across the landscape and habitat use within the home range. Across major landcover types in central Sumatra, we conducted systematic detection, non-detection sign surveys in 47, 17×17 km grid cells. Within each cell, we surveyed 40, 1-km transects and recorded tiger detections and habitat variables in 100 m segments totaling 1,857 km surveyed. We found that tigers strongly preferred forest and used plantations of acacia and oilpalm, far less than their availability. Tiger probability of occupancy covaried positively and strongly with altitude, positively with forest area, and negatively with distance-to-forest centroids. At the fine scale, probability of habitat use by tigers across landcover types covaried positively and strongly with understory cover and altitude, and negatively and strongly with human settlement. Within forest areas, tigers strongly preferred sites that are farther from water bodies, higher in altitude, farther from edge, and closer to centroid of large forest block; and strongly preferred sites with thicker understory cover, lower level of disturbance, higher altitude, and steeper slope. These results indicate that to thrive, tigers depend on the existence of large contiguous forest blocks, and that with adjustments in plantation management, tigers could use mosaics of plantations (as additional roaming zones, riparian forests (as corridors and smaller forest patches (as stepping stones, potentially maintaining a metapopulation structure in fragmented landscapes. This study highlights the importance of a multi-spatial scale analysis and provides crucial

  13. Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

    2010-11-01

    The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  14. Home-range size and habitat use of European Nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus nesting in a complex plantation-forest landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sharps, Katrina; Henderson, Ian; Conway, Greg; Armour-Chelu, Neal; Dolman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the consequences of commercial plantation management for birds of conservation concern are poorly understood. The European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus is a species of conservation concern across Europe due to population depletion through habitat loss. Pine plantation-forest is now a key Nightjar nesting habitat, particularly in northwestern Europe, and increased understanding of foraging habitat selection is required. We radiotracked 31 Nightjars in an extensive (185-km2) comple...

  15. The Effects of Climate Change on the Development of Tree Plantations for Biodiesel Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Dai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from woody oil plants is a promising form of renewable energy but a combination of tree plantations’ long cultivation time and rapid climate change may put large-scale production at risk. If plantations are located in future-unsuitable places, plantations may fail or yield may be poor, then significant financial, labor, and land resources invested in planting programs will be wasted. Incorporating climate change information into the planning and management of forest-based biodiesel production therefore can increase its chances of success. However, species distribution models, the main tool used to predict the influence of future climate–species distribution modeling, often contain considerable uncertainties. In this study we evaluated how these uncertainties could affect the assessment of climate suitability of the long-term development plans for forest-based biodiesel in China by using Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn as an example. The results showed that only between 59% and 75% of the planned growing areas were projected suitable habitats for the species, depending on the set-up of simulation. Our results showed the necessity for explicitly addressing the uncertainty of species distribution modeling when using it to inform forest-based bioenergy planning. We also recommend the growing area specified in China’s national development plan be modified to lower the risk associated with climate change.

  16. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  17. Fiscal and Monetary Policy for The Development of Indonesian Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyadi Suharyadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global monetary crisis in 2007-2008 and the focus of development on climate changesmake it important to promote a healthy economic growth based on the local resources, Theeconomic crisis, which has slowed down the economic growth and has caused job losseswhich result in increasing unemployment and poverty, should alter the focus of Indonesianeconomic development in the future to be based on renewable and sustainable local resources.Indonesia is an agricultural and maritime country so these two aspects should be thecore of the growth. In agricultural culture, plantation sector is the source of sustainable economicgrowth because of its geographical, demographic, and cultural potentials. The problemsin plantation sector are the low growth of areas and productivity as well as its limitedend-products. The research findings indicated that in order to increase areas, there should bea guarantee on investment, interest rate, and little retribution or good governance. To increaseproductivity, we need a guarantee on fertilizer price, interest rate, and wages, as wellas pricing factors to avoid market distortion. This is very important relating to the economicstimulus policy which is essential to revitalize from the economic doom in the future.Keywords: plantation sector, area, productivity, investment, interest rate, and wages

  18. Recent advances towards an integrated assessment of wildfire effects in forest plantations in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Jan Jacob; Abrantes, Nelson; Nunes, João Pedro; Caetano, Ana; Campos, Isabel; Faria, Silvia; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Hoogerwerf, Annelou; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; Methorst, Michael; Oliveira, Bruna; Prats, Sergio; Puga, João; Ré, Ana; Silva, Flávio; Serpa, Dalila; Varela, Marifé; Verheijen, Frank; Vieira, Diana

    2017-04-01

    ., Keizer J.J., 2017 (in press). Long-term impacts of post-fire mulching on ground-dwelling arthropod communities in a eucalypt plantation. Land Degradation and Development; DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2583. Ré A., Saraiva M., Puga J., Campos I., Pereira J.L., Keizer J-. ,Gonçalves F., Abrantes N. (2017). Assessing off-site impacts of wildfires on aquatic organisms using in-situ assays. EGU2017, session SSS2.22/HS9.12/NH9.24. van Eck C. M., Nunes J. P., Vieira D. C. S., Keesstra S., Keizer J. J.. 2016. Physically-based modelling of the post-fire runoff response of a forest catchment in central Portugal: using field vs. RS-based estimates of vegetation recovery. Land Degradation and Development 27, 1535-1544. Vieira D.C.S., Prats S.A., Nunes J.P., Shakesby R.A., Coelho C.O.A., Keizer J.J, 2014. Modelling runoff and erosion, and their mitigation, in burned Portuguese forest using the revised Morgan-Morgan-Finney model. Forest Ecology and Management 314, 150-165.

  19. Selected yield tables for plantations and natural stands in Inland Northwest Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert R. Stage; David L. Renner; Roger C. Chapman

    1988-01-01

    Yields arrayed by site index and age have been tabulated for plantations of 500 trees per acre, with five thinning regimes, for Douglas-fir, grand fir, and western larch. Yields were also tabulated for naturally regenerated stands of the grand fir-cedar-hemlock ecosystem of the Inland Empire. All yields were estimated with the Prognosis Model for Stand Development,...

  20. Contribution of Plantation Forest on Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea Pollinators Conservation in Mount Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Widhiono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild bee pollinators (Hymenoptera : Apiade diversity and abundance were studied in three types of plantation forest on Mt. Slamet (Central Java Province, Indonesia. The aims of the research was to know the diversity and abundance of wild bee pollinators and to determine the possibility of plantation forest contribution on wild bees conservation. Sampling has been done at three stands: a pine forest (PF, with Pinus merkusii, an Agathis forest (AF, with Agathis damara and a community forest (CF, with Albizia falctaria. Each habitat was divided into 5 line transect (100 x 5 m and sweep nets were used to collect the wild bee samples. Sampling was done eah month from April to August 2015. The diversity of wild bees was high (12 species in 9 genera; members of the Apidae (7 species were dominant. The most abundant species across the forests were Apis cerana (343 individuals; 25.5% of total, Trigona laeviceps (195 individuals; 14.5%, and Megachille relativa (165 individuals; 12.3%. Measurements of species diversity (H’, species evenness (E, habitat similarity (Ss and species richness indicated that the wild bee species diversity in the region was relatively high (H’ = 1.275 to (H’ = 1.730;(E= 0.870 to (E = 0.93. The result showed that the diversity of wild bees in three different plantation forest habitats on Mt. Slamet were similar and can be concluded that plantation forest types were important for pollinator conservation, and an appropriate future preservation strategy should include of the areas of all plantation forest types.

  1. Contrasting responses to drought of forest floor CO2 efflux in a loblolly pine plantation and a nearby Oak-Hickory forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Palmroth; Chris A. Maier; Heather R. McCarthy; A. C. Oishi; H. S. Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Gabrial G. Katul; Ram Oren

    2005-01-01

    Forest floor C02 efflux (Fff) depends on vegetation type, climate, and soil physical properties. We assessed the effects of biological factors on Fff by comparing a maturing pine plantation (PP) and a nearby mature Oak-Hickory-type hardwood forest (HW). Fff was measured...

  2. [Biogeochemical cycles in natural forest and conifer plantations in the high mountains of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan Diego; González, María Isabel; Gallardo, Juan Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are two important processes in forest ecosystems, since they provide the main organic matter input to soil and regulate nutrient cycling. With the aim to study these processes, litterfall, standing litter and nutrient return were studied for three years in an oak forest (Quercus humboldtii), pine (Pinus patula) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantations, located in highlands of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Evaluation methods included: fine litter collection at fortnightly intervals using litter traps; the litter layer samples at the end of each sampling year and chemical analyses of both litterfall and standing litter. Fine litter fall observed was similar in oak forest (7.5 Mg ha/y) and in pine (7.8 Mg ha/y), but very low in cypress (3.5 Mg ha/y). Litter standing was 1.76, 1.73 and 1.3 Mg ha/y in oak, pine and cypress, respectively. The mean residence time of the standing litter was of 3.3 years for cypress, 2.1 years for pine and 1.8 years for oak forests. In contrast, the total amount of retained elements (N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the standing litter was higher in pine (115 kg/ha), followed by oak (78 kg/ha) and cypress (24 kg/ha). Oak forests showed the lowest mean residence time of nutrients and the highest nutrients return to the soil as a consequence of a faster decomposition. Thus, a higher nutrient supply to soils from oaks than from tree plantations, seems to be an ecological advantage for recovering and maintaining the main ecosystem functioning features, which needs to be taken into account in restoration programs in this highly degraded Andean mountains.

  3. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  4. Monitoring endophyte populations in pine plantations and native oak forests in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Martin-Garcia, J.; Rodriguez-Ceinos, S.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The replacement of native forest with plantations of other species may have important impacts on ecosystems. Some of these impacts have been widely studied, but very little is known about the effects on fungal communities and specifically endo phytic fungi. In this study, endophyte assemblages in pine plantations (Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra and P. pinaster) and native oak forests (Quercus pyrenaica) in the north of the province of Palencia (Spain) were analyzed. For this purpose, samples of needles/leaves and twigs were collected from three trees in each of three plots sampled per host species. The samples were later processed in the laboratory to identify all of the endo phytic species present. In addition, an exhaustive survey was carried out of the twelve sites to collect data on the environmental, crown condition, dendrometric and soil variables that may affect the distribution of the fungi. The endophyte assemblages isolated from P. sylvestris and P. nigra were closely related to each other, but were different from those isolated from P. pinaster. The endophytes isolated from Q. pyrenaica were less closely related to those from the other hosts, and therefore preservation of oak stands is important to prevent the loss of fungal diversity. Finally, the distribution of the endophyte communities was related to some of the environmental variables considered. (Author) 42 refs.

  5. Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwini, Krishna M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence and activity of endemic pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) were examined in organically managed mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest reserve in southwest India between November 1996 and September 1998. Abundance and biomass of millipedes were highest in both habitats during monsoon season. Soil moisture, conductivity, organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher in plantation than in forest. Millipede abundance and biomass were about 12 and 7 times higher in plantation than in forest, respectively ( P 0.05). Millipede abundance and biomass were positively correlated with rainfall ( P = 0.01). Besides rainfall, millipedes in plantation were positively correlated with soil moisture as well as temperature ( P = 0.001). Among the associated fauna with pill millipedes, earthworms rank first followed by soil bugs in both habitats. Since pill millipedes are sensitive to narrow ecological changes, the organic farming strategies followed in mixed plantation and commonly practiced in South India seem not deleterious for the endangered pill millipedes Arthrosphaera and reduce the risk of local extinctions.

  6. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  7. Impact of Interception on Infiltration and Soil Moisture in Dipterocarp Forest and Oil Palm Plantations in Tasik Chini, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, F.M.; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman

    2015-01-01

    In local water balance, the dipterocarp forest and oil palm plantation are two locations which demonstrated different processes in terms of interception, soil moisture and infiltration. To evaluate the process, this study was carried out at Tasik Chini watershed, Pahang, Malaysia for over ten months commencing April 2011 until January 2012. The main idea of this study is to study the characteristics of interception at two variants canopy and effect of interception on the infiltration process. The methodology used involves primary data including stremflow, through fall and soil moisture. 104 samples for stem flow and four samples for palm oil trees, 9 sets of through fall and 7 soil moisture stations were measured at dipterocarp forest and oil palm plantation, respectively the regression analysis was used to analyses the relationship between rate of infiltration and interception with soil moisture and rainfall. The result indicate that total interceptions were registered at 29.7 percent in Plot A, 29.1 percent in Plot B and 41.2 in oil palm plantation. The average for stem flow in the forest area is 8.65 mm per tree compared to 12.7 mm for every oil palm tree. Meanwhile, the average for through fall in oil palm plantation was higher compared to the forest area. This is about 0.49 mm and 0.42 mm respectively. The results of the interception at the Dipterocarp forest and palm areas were affected by physiographic characteristic such as the diameter size and branches of tree. The correlation coefficient between through fall and soil moisture in the oil palm plantation is r"2=0.49, in comparison to through fall and soil moisture in forest area is r"2=0.42. Positive correlation means that the amount of through fall increase than soil moisture will increase also. (author)

  8. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-02-01

    Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and determined species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this could be that these stands were still young, and canopy closure had not always taken place, i.e. a situation where above- or below-ground competition did not yet exist. Another reason could be that the rooting traits of the tree species did not differ sufficiently to support niche differentiation. Our results suggested that functional group identity (i.e. conifers vs. broadleaved species) can be more important for below-ground biomass and production than the species richness itself, as conifers seemed to be more competitive in colonising the soil volume, compared to broadleaved species.

  9. Bird Pollinator Visitation is Equivalent in Island and Plantation Planting Designs in Tropical Forest Restoration Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginger M. Thurston

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Active restoration is one strategy to reverse tropical forest loss. Given the dynamic nature of climates, human populations, and other ecosystem components, the past practice of using historical reference sites as restoration targets is unlikely to result in self-sustaining ecosystems. Restoring sustainable ecological processes like pollination is a more feasible goal. We investigated how flower cover, planting design, and landscape forest cover influenced bird pollinator visits to Inga edulis trees in young restoration sites in Costa Rica. I. edulis trees were located in island plantings, where seedlings had been planted in patches, or in plantation plantings, where seedlings were planted to cover the restoration area. Sites were located in landscapes with scant (10–21% or moderate (35–76% forest cover. Trees with greater flower cover received more visits from pollinating birds; neither planting design nor landscape forest cover influenced the number of pollinator visits. Resident hummingbirds and a migratory bird species were the most frequent bird pollinators. Pollination in the early years following planting may not be as affected by details of restoration design as other ecological processes like seed dispersal. Future work to assess the quality of various pollinator species will be important in assessing this idea.

  10. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  11. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  12. Water and Energy Balances of Loblolly Pine Plantation Forests during a Full Stand Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G.; Mitra, B.; Domec, J. C.; Gavazi, M.; Yang, Y.; Tian, S.; Zietlow, D.; McNulty, S.; King, J.; Noormets, A.

    2017-12-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in the southern U.S. are well recognized for their ecosystem services in supplying clean and stable water and mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and solar energy partitioning. Since 2004, we have monitored energy, water, and carbon fluxes in a chronosequence of three drained loblolly pine plantations using integrated methods that include eddy covariance, sap flux, watershed hydrometeorology, remote sensing, and process-based simulation modeling. Study sites were located on the eastern North Carolina coastal plain, representing highly productive ecosystems with high groundwater table, and designated in the Ameriflux network as NC1 (0-10 year old), NC2 (12-25 year old) and NC3 (0-3 years old). The 13-year study spanned a wide range of annual precipitation (900-1600 mm/yr) including two exceptionally dry years during 2007-2008. We found that the mature stand (NC2) had higher net radiation (Rn) flux due to its lower albedo (α =0.11-12), compared with the young stands (NC1, NC3) (α=0.15-0.18). Annually about 75%-80% of net radiation was converted to latent heat in the pine plantations. In general, the mature stand had higher latent heat flux (LE) (i.e. evapotranspiration (ET)) rates than the young stands, but ET rates were similar during wet years when the groundwater table was at or near the soil surface. During a historic drought period (i.e., 2007-2008), total stand annual ET exceeded precipitation, but decreased about 30% at NC2 when compared to a normal year (e.g., 2006). Field measurements and remote sensing-based modeling suggested that annual ET rates increased linearly from planting age (about 800 mm) to age 15 (about 1050 mm) and then stabilized as stand leaf area index leveled-off. Over a full stand rotation, approximately 70% (young stand) to 90% (mature stand) of precipitation was returned to the atmosphere through ET. We conclude that both climatic variability and canopy structure controlled the

  13. Do canopy disturbances drive forest plantations into more natural conditions? — A case study from Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Juliane; Kautz, Markus; Fontalvo Herazo, Martha Liliana; Triet, Tran; Walther, Denny; Saint-Paul, Ulrich; Diele, Karen; Berger, Uta

    2013-11-01

    different cultivation types (i.e. plantation and natural forest). The simulation shows that even small disturbances can already partly buffer the risk of cohort senescence of monospecific even-aged plantations. However, after the decline of the plantation, the disturbance regime does not play an important role for further stand development. After the break-up of the initial strongly regular structure of the simulated plantation, a vertical pattern, i.e. height distribution of the trees, similar to the one of the natural forest, emerged quickly. However, the convergence for the horizontal structure i.e. the distance of trees to their nearest neighbor, took twice as long as for the vertical structure. Our results highlight the importance of small disturbances such as lightning strikes to mitigate vulnerability against synchronous windfall in homogenous forest structures. Hence, creating small openings artificially may be an appropriate management measure in areas where the frequency of natural small-scale disturbances is low.

  14. Carbon stored in forest plantations of Pinus caribaea, Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus deglupta in Cachí Hydroelectric Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylin Rojas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are considered the main carbon sinks thought to reduce the impact of climate change. Regarding many species, however, there is a lack of information in order to establish metrics on accumulation of biomass and carbon, principally due to the level of difficulty and the cost of quantification through direct measurement and destructive sampling. In this research, it was evaluated carbon stocks of forest plantations near the dam of hydroelectric project Cachí, which belongs to Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad. 25 unit samples were evaluated along some plantations that contain three different species. 30 Pinus caribacea trees, 14 Cupressus lusitanica and 15 Eucalyptus deglupta were extracted. The biomass was quantified by means of the destructive method. First of all, every component of the tree was weighed separately; then, sampling was obtained in order to determine the dry matter and the carbon fraction. 110 biomass samples from the three species were analyzed in laboratory, including all the components (leaves, branches, shaft, and root. The carbon fraction varied between 47,5 and 48,0 for Pinus caribacea; between 32,6 and 52,7 for Cupressus lusitanica, and beween 36,4 and 50,3% for Eucalyptus deglupta. The stored carbon was 230, 123, and 69 Mg ha-1 in plantations of P. caribaea, C. lusitanica and E. deglupta, respectively. Approximately, 75% of the stored carbon was detected in the shaft.

  15. Soil nitrogen oxide fluxes from lowland forests converted to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; Kurniawan, Syahrul; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2017-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations cover large areas of former rainforest in Sumatra, Indonesia, supplying the global demand for these crops. Although forest conversion is known to influence soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes, measurements from oil palm and rubber plantations are scarce (for N2O) or nonexistent (for NO). Our study aimed to (1) quantify changes in soil-atmosphere fluxes of N oxides with forest conversion to rubber and oil palm plantations and (2) determine their controlling factors. In Jambi, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes that mainly differed in texture but were both on heavily weathered soils: loam and clay Acrisol soils. Within each landscape, we investigated lowland forests, rubber trees interspersed in secondary forest (termed as jungle rubber), both as reference land uses and smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations as converted land uses. In the loam Acrisol landscape, we conducted a follow-on study in a large-scale oil palm plantation (called PTPN VI) for comparison of soil N2O fluxes with smallholder oil palm plantations. Land-use conversion to smallholder plantations had no effect on soil N-oxide fluxes (P = 0. 58 to 0.76) due to the generally low soil N availability in the reference land uses that further decreased with land-use conversion. Soil N2O fluxes from the large-scale oil palm plantation did not differ with those from smallholder plantations (P = 0. 15). Over 1-year measurements, the temporal patterns of soil N-oxide fluxes were influenced by soil mineral N and water contents. Across landscapes, annual soil N2O emissions were controlled by gross nitrification and sand content, which also suggest the influence of soil N and water availability. Soil N2O fluxes (µg N m-2 h-1) were 7 ± 2 to 14 ± 7 (reference land uses), 6 ± 3 to 9 ± 2 (rubber), 12 ± 3 to 12 ± 6 (smallholder oil palm) and 42 ± 24 (large-scale oil palm). Soil NO fluxes (µg N m-2 h-1) were -0.6

  16. Comparison of infrared canopy temperature in a rubber plantation and tropical rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Hai; Deng, Yun; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Lin, You-Xing; Zhou, Li-Guo; Fei, Xue-Hai; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhou, Wen-Jun; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2017-10-01

    Canopy temperature is a result of the canopy energy balance and is driven by climate conditions, plant architecture, and plant-controlled transpiration. Here, we evaluated canopy temperature in a rubber plantation (RP) and tropical rainforest (TR) in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. An infrared temperature sensor was installed at each site to measure canopy temperature. In the dry season, the maximum differences (Tc - Ta) between canopy temperature (Tc) and air temperature (Ta) in the RP and TR were 2.6 and 0.1 K, respectively. In the rainy season, the maximum (Tc - Ta) values in the RP and TR were 1.0 and -1.1 K, respectively. There were consistent differences between the two forests, with the RP having higher (Tc - Ta) than the TR throughout the entire year. Infrared measurements of Tc can be used to calculate canopy stomatal conductance in both forests. The difference in (Tc - Ta) at three gc levels with increasing direct radiation in the RP was larger than in the TR, indicating that change in (Tc - Ta) in the RP was relatively sensitive to the degree of stomatal closure.

  17. Characteristics of soil seed bank in plantation forest in the rocky mountain region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeng-hui; YANG Yang; LENG Ping-sheng; DOU De-quan; ZHANG Bo; HOU Bing-fei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated characteristics (scales and composition) of soil seed banks at eight study sites in the rocky mountain region of Beijing by seed identification and germination monitoring.We also surveyed the vegetation communities at the eight study sites to explore the role of soil seed banks in vegetation restoration.The storage capacity of soil seed banks at the eight sites ranked from 766.26 to 2461.92 seedsm-2.A total of 23 plant species were found in soil seed banks,of which 63-80%of seeds were herbs in various soil layers and 60% of seeds were located in the soil layer at 0-5 cm depth.Biodiversity indices indicated clear differences in species diversity of soil seed banks among different plant communities.The species composition of aboveground vegetation showed low similarity with that based on soil seed banks.In the aboveground plant community,the afforestation tree species showed high importance values.The plant species originating from soil seed banks represented natural regeneration,which also showed relatively high importance values.This study suggests that in the rocky mountain region of Beijing the soil seed banks played a key role in the transformation from pure plantation forest to near-natural forest,promoting natural ecological processes,and the role of the seed banks in vegetation restoration was important to the improvement of ecological restoration methods.

  18. INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL GROUP COMPOSITION, PLANTATION SPACING AND ARRANGEMENT IN THE RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FOREST ON RESERVOIR SHORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Augusto Vieira Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the effect of spacing, arrangement and ecological group composition of planted seedlings on the restoration process of artificial reservoir shores in southeastern Brazil. The assessments were performed 12 years after the settlement of the experiment in which five mixed stand models were tested. First, a general evaluation of the stand was performed when we surveyed the overstory and understory, seed bank and soil for chemical analysis.Then, the restoration indicators survival of planted trees, basal area and density of the tree community, litter accumulated on the soil and canopy closure index were utilized to compare the plantation models and to assess the influence the experimental factors on these parameters. In the general analysis, we found that the studied stand presents low diversity, poor regeneration, and seed bank dominated mostly by one planted exotic tree species and weeds, which may jeopardize the self- maintenance of the stand in the future. The factor that most influenced the models was the ecological group composition with the best performance found for models in which both pioneer and non-pioneer groups were used. Probably, the plantation arrangement and spacing did not have greater influence due to both plant mortality and natural regeneration that has developed to this age. Hence, it is not recommended the use of only pioneer species in the implantation of riparian forest and the proportion of 50% pioneers and 50% non-pioneers using as much species as possible is indicated for areas that might present constraints for the natural regeneration.

  19. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, V.; Barbier, C.; Riedacker, A.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO 2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO 2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  20. Identification of a system of ecologically homogeneous areas and of priority intervention levels for forest plantation planning in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzurro GM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation activities in Sicily have been widespreaded in the last century. The results of forestation activities indicate the need to adopt a operational tools to promote the extension of forest surface at regional and sub-regional levels. In this view, with the aim to produce useful tools for forest plantation planning, the entire regional area was analysed and ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified to join and target arboriculture and/or forestation plantation activities, to choose tree and shrub species for different environments and to identify priority areas of intervention. The map of Rivas-Martinez bioclimate and the map of litological types were used as basic information layers to map pedo-climatic homogeneous areas. In order to mitigate disruptive hydrogeological effects and to reduce desertification risk and forest fragmentation, the Corine Land Cover map (CLC2000, the hydrogeological bond map and the desertification risk map were used to identify areas characterized by urgent need of forest activities at high priority level. A total of 23 ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified in Sicily, while more than a quarter of the regional surface has been characterized as highest priority intervention level. At sub-regional level, the target of the analysis was carried out at administrative province and at hydrographic basin level.

  1. Net soil respiration and greenhouse gas balance along a sequence of forest disturbance to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusyu Aini, Fitri; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Smith, Jo; Verchot, Louis; Martius, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in demand for land to establish oil palm and rubber plantations has led to the conversion of forests, with potential impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and on climate change. This study evaluates the net greenhouse gas balance following forest change to other land uses, i.e. one year rubber plantation, twenty-year rubber plantation and eight year oil palm plantation on Sumatran mineral soils. None of the plantations had ever been fertilized previously. During this study they were fertilized to provide nitrogen at the recommended rate used by farmers (33.3 kg N ha-1 y-1). The ecosystem stores carbon in litterfall, standing litter biomass (undergrowth vegetation, leaves, twigs, litter on the soil surface), soil organic matter, root biomass, and standing tree biomass. It releases carbon to the atmosphere through soil respiration fluxes, negative values indicating that carbon is stored by the land use change and positive values indicating emissions to the atmosphere. Net soil respiration was assessed using a mass balance approach: standing litter and tree biomass were measured once; the rate of carbon accumulation from standing litter and tree biomass was calculated by dividing the stock by the age of plantation or the time since logging started in the disturbed forest. The carbon accumulation in standing litter, tree biomass in the forest and soil organic matter for all land-uses was estimated from available in the literature. Root biomass for each land-use system was calculated using the root:shoot ratio. The net soil respiration of carbon dioxide from the forest, disturbed forest, one year rubber plantation, twenty-year rubber plantation and oil palm plantation were calculated to be -6 (± 5), 12 (± 6), 11 (± 15), 10 (± 5), 39 (± 7) Mg ha-1 y-1, respectively. Soil nitrous oxide, methane and litterfall were measured for 14 months and respiration fluxes were measured for 5 months across land uses and different seasons. The measured emissions of

  2. Predicting Stem Total and Assortment Volumes in an Industrial Pinus taeda L. Forest Plantation Using Airborne Laser Scanning Data and Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised machine learning algorithm, to estimate stem total and assortment (commercial and pulpwood volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation in southern Brazil. Random Forest was populated using field and lidar-derived forest metrics from 50 sample plots with trees ranging from three to nine years old. We found that a model defined as a function of only two metrics (height of the top of the canopy and the skewness of the vertical distribution of lidar points has a very strong and unbiased predictive power. We found that predictions of total, commercial, and pulp volume, respectively, showed an adjusted R2 equal to 0.98, 0.98 and 0.96, with unbiased predictions of −0.17%, −0.12% and −0.23%, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values of 7.83%, 7.71% and 8.63%. Our methodology makes use of commercially available airborne lidar and widely used mathematical tools to provide solutions for increasing the industry efficiency in monitoring and managing wood volume.

  3. Pine Plantations and Invasion Alter Fuel Structure and Potential Fire Behavior in a Patagonian Forest-Steppe Ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Paritsis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Planted and invading non-native plant species can alter fire regimes through changes in fuel loads and in the structure and continuity of fuels, potentially modifying the flammability of native plant communities. Such changes are not easily predicted and deserve system-specific studies. In several regions of the southern hemisphere, exotic pines have been extensively planted in native treeless areas for forestry purposes and have subsequently invaded the native environments. However, studies evaluating alterations in flammability caused by pines in Patagonia are scarce. In the forest-steppe ecotone of northwestern Patagonia, we evaluated fine fuels structure and simulated fire behavior in the native shrubby steppe, pine plantations, pine invasions, and mechanically removed invasions to establish the relative ecological vulnerability of these forestry and invasion scenarios to fire. We found that pine plantations and their subsequent invasion in the Patagonian shrubby steppe produced sharp changes in fine fuel amount and its vertical and horizontal continuity. These changes in fuel properties have the potential to affect fire behavior, increasing fire intensity by almost 30 times. Pruning of basal branches in plantations may substantially reduce fire hazard by lowering the probability of fire crowning, and mechanical removal of invasion seems effective in restoring original fuel structure in the native community. The current expansion of pine plantations and subsequent invasions acting synergistically with climate warming and increased human ignitions warrant a highly vulnerable landscape in the near future for northwestern Patagonia if no management actions are undertaken.

  4. Litterfall and nutrient dynamics in Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae) forest plantations of Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos Barliza, Jeiner; Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego

    2010-01-01

    Fine litter production, nutrient return, nutrient resorption, and nutrient use efficiency were studied during one year in Acacia mangium forest plantations in mining gold degraded soils at the Bajo Cauca region of Colombia. annual fine litter production was estimated at 10.4 mg ha -1 and it was dominated by the leaf fraction (54%), followed by the reproductive material (24%) and to a lesser proportion by other debris (6%) and other species leaves (1.5%). the highest organic matter and nutrients returns were found on sites classified as high quality. Soil plowing realized previous Acacia mangium planting, did not show any significant effect on organic matter and nutrients returns. A. mangium leaf litter had a high N concentration and consequently, given the high leaf litter production values, it was found a high N return. By the opposite, leaf litter P content and P returns via litter fall were very low. The high values found for p retranslocation and P use efficiency indexes showed that P was the most limiting nutrient for the species. the high values of fine litter production and nutrient return via leaf litter indicate that A. mangium has a great capacity for degraded areas reclamation, as of the restoration of the biogeochemical cycles.

  5. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2014-01-01

    disturbances. The Vietnamese Government has formulated policies aimed at achieving dual objectives of socio-economic development and environmental protection through the expansion of plantation forests. Negative social impacts and worrying environmental trends have been noted by a number of scholars. However...

  6. Land-based Investments for Rural Development? A Grounded Analysis of the Local Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Schoneveld

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing biofuel sector in Africa has, in recent years, been received with divided interest. As part of a contemporary wave of agricultural modernization efforts, it could make invaluable contributions to rural poverty. Conversely, it could also engender socioeconomically and environmentally detrimental land use changes as valuable land resources are converted to plantation agriculture. This research analyzes the impacts and impact pathways of biofuel feedstock development in Ghana. It finds that companies are accessing large contiguous areas of customary land through opaque negotiations with traditional authorities, often outside the purview of government and customary land users. Despite lack of participation, most customary land users were highly supportive of plantation development, with high expectations of 'development' and 'modernization.' With little opposition and resistance, large areas of agricultural and forested land are at threat of being converted to plantation monoculture. A case study analysis shows that this can significantly exacerbate rural poverty as communities lose access to vital livelihood resources. Vulnerable groups, such as women and migrants, are found to be most profoundly affected because of their relative inability in recovering lost livelihood resources. Findings suggest that greater circumspection by government is warranted on these types of large-scale land deals.

  7. Quantum Yields in Mixed-Conifer Forests and Ponderosa Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Marshall, J. D.; Zhang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Most process-based physiological models require canopy quantum yield of photosynthesis as a starting point to simulate carbon sequestration and subsequently gross primary production (GPP). The quantum yield is a measure of photosynthetic efficiency expressed in moles of CO2 assimilated per mole of photons absorbed; the process is influenced by environmental factors. In the summer 2008, we measured quantum yields on both sun and shade leaves for four conifer species at five sites within Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in northern Idaho and one conifer species at three sites in northern California. The MCEW forest is typical of mixed conifer stands dominated by grand fir (Abies grandis (Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl.). In northern California, the three sites with contrasting site qualities are ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson var. ponderosa) plantations that were experimentally treated with vegetation control, fertilization, and a combination of both. We found that quantum yields in MCEW ranged from ~0.045 to ~0.075 mol CO2 per mol incident photon. However, there were no significant differences between canopy positions, or among sites or tree species. In northern California, the mean value of quantum yield of three sites was 0.051 mol CO2/mol incident photon. No significant difference in quantum yield was found between canopy positions, or among treatments or sites. The results suggest that these conifer species maintain relatively consistent quantum yield in both MCEW and northern California. This consistency simplifies the use of a process-based model to accurately predict forest productivity in these areas.

  8. Forest thinning and soil respiration in a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianwu; Qi, Ye; Xu, Ming; Misson, Laurent; Goldstein, Allen H

    2005-01-01

    Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and chemical properties. Forest thinning changes soil temperature, soil water content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration monthly and soil temperature and volumetric soil water continuously in a young ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws.) plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California from June 1998 to May 2000 (before a thinning that removed 30% of the biomass), and from May to December 2001 (after thinning). Thinning increased the spatial homogeneity of soil temperature and respiration. We conducted a multivariate analysis with two independent variables of soil temperature and water and a categorical variable representing the thinning event to simulate soil respiration and assess the effect of thinning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water, but decreased total soil respiration by 13% at a given temperature and water content. This decrease in soil respiration was likely associated with the decrease in root density after thinning. With a model driven by continuous soil temperature and water time series, we estimated that total soil respiration was 948, 949 and 831 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the years 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively. Although thinning reduced soil respiration at a given temperature and water content, because of natural climate variability and the thinning effect on soil temperature and water, actual cumulative soil respiration showed no clear trend following thinning. We conclude that the effect of forest thinning on soil respiration is the combined result of a decrease in root respiration, an increase in soil organic matter, and changes in soil temperature and water due to both thinning and interannual climate variability.

  9. Home Range and Habitat Use of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae within a Plantation Forest: A Satellite Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tracked two adult and three juvenile New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae in Kaingaroa Forest pine plantation from 2002 to 2008 using Argos satellite technology. The home ranges for both adults and juveniles varied, ranging between 44 and 587 km2. The falcons occasionally utilised areas outside the forest and used stands of all ages within the forest, generally in proportion to their availability. For the most part, the juveniles remained within ca. 8 km of their nests and dispersed at 58, 69, and 68 days after fledging. Falcon movement information was obtained from an average of four location points per tracking day per falcon at a putative accuracy of 350 m. The transmitters, including their solar charge capability, performed well in the forest environment. The use of all stand ages highlights the importance of forestry practises that maintain a mosaic of different aged pine stands.

  10. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses.

  11. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D.; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion—the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses. PMID:26217000

  12. Determining the impacts of experimental forest plantation on groundwater recharge in the Nebraska Sand Hills (USA) using chloride and sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Z. A.; Gates, J. B.

    2015-02-01

    Although impacts of land-use changes on groundwater recharge have been widely demonstrated across diverse environmental settings, most previous research has focused on the role of agriculture. This study investigates recharge impacts of tree plantations in a century-old experimental forest surrounded by mixed-grass prairie in the Northern High Plains (Nebraska National Forest), USA. Recharge was estimated using solute mass balance methods from unsaturated zone cores beneath 10 experimental plots with different vegetation and planting densities. Pine and cedar plantation plots had uniformly lower moisture contents and higher solute concentrations than grasslands. Cumulative solute concentrations were greatest beneath the plots with the highest planting densities (chloride concentrations 225-240 % and sulfate concentrations 175-230 % of the grassland plot). Estimated recharge rates beneath the dense plantations (4-10 mm yr-1) represent reductions of 86-94 % relative to the surrounding native grassland. Relationships between sulfate, chloride, and moisture content in the area's relatively homogenous sandy soils confirm that the unsaturated zone solute signals reflect partitioning between drainage and evapotranspiration in this setting. This study is among the first to explore afforestation impacts on recharge beneath sandy soils and sulfate as a tracer of deep drainage.

  13. Coniferous tree plantations in forest conditions-economic analysis of dedicated and semi-dedicated pathways to increase wood production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotoarison, Hanitra; Richter, Claudine; Cailly, Priscilla; Deleuze, Christine; Berthelot, Alain

    2015-01-01

    To meet growing demand for wood, particularly softwoods, the authors study a number of new silvicultural pathways for planting 3 species: Douglas fir, spruce and maritime pine. The goal of these pathways is to achieve specialised production of either industrial and workable timber, or a mixture of industrial and workable timber with medium-diameter workable timber. Pathways of this type have already been standardised for hardwoods, generally on fertile farmland. In a less fertile forest context, softwoods have a significant potential for woody production but specialized pathways and their profitability have yet to be studied. This article describes the innovative work being done to construct and simulate profitable production, new potential pathways, where plantation density, rotation time, the level of fertility are made to vary using the data from the FCBA test network in conjunction with the FCBA growth models (Oasis for spruce and Douglas fir, Sylveco for maritime pine). Economic data is derived from auction sales statistics and the ONF management and forestry work costs for the period 2012-2015. The Economics module developed by FCBA and ONF on the Capsis platform in the framework of the ICI project (Futurol) was used for the economic simulations. The analyses show that compared to conventional pathways, these pathways generally increase productivity but are nonetheless less profitable than current economic assumptions, although results vary according to species, fertility and the particular pathway. The sensitivity study shows that variations in the price of wood could alter the performance ratings as between conventional and specialised pathways. (authors)

  14. Spatial patterns of soil pH and the factors that influence them in plantation forests of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Songbai; Liu, Yongwen; Piao, Shilong

    2017-04-01

    Climate and anthropogenic activities such as afforestation and nitrogen deposition all impact soil pH. Understanding the spatial pattern of soil pH and the factors that influence it can provide basic information for generating appropriate strategies for soil resource management and protection, especially in light of increasing anthropogenic influences and climate change. In this study, we investigated the spatial and vertical pattern of soil pH and evaluated the influence of climate and nitrogen deposition using 1647 soil profiles 1 meter in depth from 549 plots in plantation forests of northern China. We found that soil pH decreased from the southwest to the northeast in the study region and had a similar spatial pattern before and after afforestation. Furthermore, our results show that climate and nitrogen deposition fundamentally influence the pattern of soil pH. Specifically, increasing precipitation significantly decreased soil pH (with a mean rate of 0.3 for every 100 mm rainfall, ppH (0.13 for every degree centigrade, ppH (ppH directly and indirectly through climate-plant-soil interactions. As the risks from both climate change and nitrogen deposition increase, there is an urgent need to further understanding of soil pH dynamics and to develop informed policies to protect soil resources.

  15. [Dynamics of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen during foliar litter decomposition under artificial forest gap in Pinus massoniana plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming Jin; Chen, Liang Hua; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan Qin; Liu, Hua; Li, Xun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays large areas of plantations have caused serious ecological problems such as soil degradation and biodiversity decline. Artificial tending thinning and construction of mixed forest are frequently used ways when we manage plantations. To understand the effect of this operation mode on nutrient cycle of plantation ecosystem, we detected the dynamics of microbial bio-mass carbon and nitrogen during foliar litter decomposition of Pinus massoniana and Toona ciliate in seven types of gap in different sizes (G 1 : 100 m 2 , G 2 : 225 m 2 , G 3 : 400 m 2 , G 4 : 625 m 2 , G 5 : 900 m 2 , G 6 : 1225 m 2 , G 7 : 1600 m 2 ) of 42-year-old P. massoniana plantations in a hilly area of the upper Yang-tze River. The results showed that small and medium-sized forest gaps(G 1 -G 5 ) were more advantageous for the increment of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the process of foliar litter decomposition. Along with the foliar litter decomposition during the experiment (360 d), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) in P. massoniana foliar litter and MBN in T. ciliata foliar litter first increased and then decreased, and respectively reached the maxima 9.87, 0.22 and 0.80 g·kg -1 on the 180 th d. But the peak (44.40 g·kg -1 ) of MBC in T. ciliata foliar litter appeared on the 90 th d. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in T. ciliate was significantly higher than that of P. massoniana during foliar litter decomposition. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in foliar litter was not only significantly associated with average daily temperature and the water content of foliar litter, but also closely related to the change of the quality of litter. Therefore, in the thinning, forest gap size could be controlled in the range of from 100 to 900 m 2 to facilitate the increase of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the process of foliar litter decomposition, accelerate the decomposition of foliar litter and improve soil fertility of plantations.

  16. Mapping Spatial Distribution of Larch Plantations from Multi-Seasonal Landsat-8 OLI Imagery and Multi-Scale Textures Using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about spatial distribution of plantation forests is critical for forest management, monitoring programs and functional assessment. This study demonstrates the potential of multi-seasonal (spring, summer, autumn and winter Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager imageries with random forests (RF modeling to map larch plantations (LP in a typical plantation forest landscape in North China. The spectral bands and two types of textures were applied for creating 675 input variables of RF. An accuracy of 92.7% for LP, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.834, was attained using the RF model. A RF-based importance assessment reveals that the spectral bands and bivariate textural features calculated by pseudo-cross variogram (PC strongly promoted forest class-separability, whereas the univariate textural features influenced weakly. A feature selection strategy eliminated 93% of variables, and then a subset of the 47 most essential variables was generated. In this subset, PC texture derived from summer and winter appeared the most frequently, suggesting that this variability in growing peak season and non-growing season can effectively enhance forest class-separability. A RF classifier applied to the subset led to 91.9% accuracy for LP, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.829. This study provides an insight into approaches for discriminating plantation forests with phenological behaviors.

  17. Quantifying carbon sequestration in forest plantations by modeling the dynamics of above and below ground carbon pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive pine plantation management may provide opportunities to increase carbon sequestration in the Southeastern United States. Developing management options that increase fiber production and soil carbon sequestration require an understanding of the biological and edaphic processes that control soil carbon turnover. Belowground carbon resides primarily in three...

  18. Avian diversity and feeding guilds in a secondary forest, an oil palm plantation and a paddy field in riparian areas of the kerian river basin, perak, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nur Munira; Latip, Nurul Salmi Abdul; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Khairuddin, Nurul Liyana

    2011-12-01

    The diversity and the feeding guilds of birds in three different habitats (secondary forest, oil palm plantation and paddy field) were investigated in riparian areas of the Kerian River Basin (KRB), Perak, Malaysia. Point-count observation and mist-netting methods were used to determine bird diversity and abundance. A total of 132 species of birds from 46 families were recorded in the 3 habitats. Species diversity, measured by Shannon's diversity index, was 3.561, 3.183 and 1.042 in the secondary forest, the paddy field and the oil palm plantation, respectively. The vegetation diversity and the habitat structure were important determinants of the number of bird species occurring in an area. The relative abundance of the insectivore, insectivore-frugivore and frugivore guilds was greater in the forest than in the monoculture plantation. In contrast, the relative abundance of the carnivore, granivore and omnivore guilds was higher in the plantation. The results of the study show that the conversion of forest to either oil palm plantation or paddy fields produced a decline in bird diversity and changes in the distribution of bird feeding guilds.

  19. [Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Flórez, Claudia Patricia; León-Peláez, Juan Diego; Osorio-Vega, Nelson Walter; Restrepo-Llano, Manuel Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia. Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m2 plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were monitored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha) and N (2.4kg/ha), and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha). A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%), and the least was that of N (40%). P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek's index (IEV = 3176) and foliar nutrient resorption (35%). Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many

  20. Changes in Biomass Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks following the Conversion from a Secondary Coniferous Forest to a Pine Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaifeng Li

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C and soil organic carbon (SOC stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0-1 m. The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-year-old stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1 with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0-0.1 m contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded.

  1. Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, M.A. (Environmental Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Meganck, R.A. (United Nations Environment Programme for the Wider Caribbean, Kingston (Jamaica))

    Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO[sub 2] in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: Carbon sequestration, sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives and is centered around: Preservation of primary forest, intensified use of nontimber resources, agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry. 89 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Biomass availability in forests, poplar plantations and hedges for various timber uses. National assessment based on the national forest inventory data and wood consumption statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, Christian; Vallet, Patrick; Chevalier, Helene; COLIN, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an assessment of the quantities of potentially exploitable timber in French forests, poplar plantations and hedges for the period 2007 to 2020. The first step consisted in computing the gross available quantities of timber, prior to deduction of the various current consumptions. This was done applying the reference silvicultural scenarios to all the plots in the French national forest inventory, on the basis of their features (species, structure, fertility, age, observed per hectare volume). Current consumption was then subtracted from these quantities. It was estimated using the annual sectoral 'forest exploitation' survey in industry and an estimation of fuelwood consumption by households. The outcome is an excess availability of more than 28 million cubic metres of timber per year for bio-energy or pulp uses, and nearly 15 million cubic metres of workable timber, essentially hardwoods. (authors)

  3. Radiocesium concentrations in soil and leaf after decontamination practices in a forest plantation highly polluted by the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Chayama, Shinya; Hisadome, Keigo

    2018-08-01

    Owing to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident a vast amount of radiocesium was released polluting the land. Afterwards, a variety of decontamination practices has been done, reducing the ambient dose rates. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of eight forest decontamination practices by means of monitoring the radiocesium ( 137 Cs) concentration in soil and leaf samples, and the daily discharge rates in ten plots during 27 months (May 2013-July 2015). A forest plantation located 16 km southwest to the FDNPP and within the exclusion area was selected. Radiocesium concentrations were analysed using a germanium gamma ray detector. The differences in radiocesium activities between the different plots were statistically significant (p soil and leaf fraction were 96.6% and 3.4%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biofuel Plantations on Forested Lands : Double Jeopardy for Biodiversity and Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielsen, Finn; Beukema, Hendrien; Burgess, Neil D.; Parish, Faizal; Bruehl, Carsten A.; Donald, Paul F.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Phalan, Ben; Reijnders, Lucas; Struebig, Matthew; Fitzherbert, Emily B.

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the

  5. Biofuel plantations on forested lands: Double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielsen, F.; Beukema, H.; Burgess, N.D.; Parish, F.; Brühl, C.A.; Donald, P.F.; Murdiyarso, D.; Phalan, B.; Reijnders, L.; Struebig, M.; Fitzherbert, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the

  6. Developing a dynamic growth model for teak plantations in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindhya Prasad Tewari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Tectona grandis (teak is one of the most important tropical timber speciesoccurring naturally in India. Appropriate growth models, based on advanced modeling techniques,are not available but are necessary for the successful management of teak stands in the country.Long-term forest planning requires mathematical models, and the principles of Dynamical SystemTheory provide a solid foundation for these. Methods The state-space approach makes it possible to accommodate disturbances and avarying environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a dynamic growthmodel based on the limited data, consisting of three annual measurements, collected from 22 teak sample plots in Karnataka, Southern India. Results A biologically consistent whole-stand growth model has been presented which uses thestate-space approach for modelling rates of change of three state-variables viz., dominant height,stems per hectare and stand basal area. Moreover, the model includes a stand volume equationas an output function to estimate this variable at any point in time. Transition functions werefitted separately and simultaneously. Moreover, a continuous autoregressive error structure isalso included in the modelling process. For fitting volume equation, generalized method of moments was used to get efficient parameter estimates under heteroscedastic conditions. Conclusions A simple model containing few free parameters performed well and is particularlywell suited to situations where available data is scarce.

  7. Integration of Remote Sensing Products with Ground-Based Measurements to Understand the Dynamics of Nepal's Forests and Plantation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study assembles information from three sources - remote sensing, terrestrial photography and ground-based inventory data, to understand the dynamics of Nepal's tropical and sub-tropical forests and plantation sites for the period 1990-2015. Our study focuses on following three specific district areas, which have conserved forests through social and agroforestry management practices: 1. Dolakha district: This site has been selected to study the impact of community-based forest management on land cover change using repeat photography and satellite imagery, in combination with interviews with community members. The study time period is during the period 1990-2010. We determined that satellite data with ground photographs can provide transparency for long term monitoring. The initial results also suggests that community-based forest management program in the mid-hills of Nepal was successful. 2. Chitwan district: Here we use high resolution remote sensing data and optimized community field inventories to evaluate potential application and operational feasibility of community level REDD+ measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The study uses temporal dynamics of land cover transitions, tree canopy size classes and biomass over a Kayar khola watershed REDD+ study area with community forest to evaluate satellite Image segmentation for land cover, linear regression model for above ground biomass (AGB), and estimation and monitoring field data for tree crowns and AGB. We study three specific years 2002, 2009, 2012. Using integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level. 3. Nuwakot district: This district was selected to study the impact of establishment of tree plantation on total barren/fallow. Over the last 40 year, this area has went through a drastic changes, from barren land to forest area with tree species consisting of Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Michelia champaca, etc. In 1994, this district area was registered

  8. Understory Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Naturally Regenerated Deciduous Forests and Spruce Plantations on Similar Clear-Cuts: Implications for Forest Regeneration Strategy Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiQiang Fang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active effect of natural regeneration on understory vegetation and diversity on clear-cut forestlands, in contrast to conifer reforestation, is still controversial. Here we investigated differences in understory vegetation by comparing naturally regenerated deciduous forests (NR and reforested spruce plantations (SP aged 20–40 years on 12 similar clear-cuts of subalpine old-growth spruce-fir forests from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We found that 283 of the 334 vascular plant species recorded were present in NR plots, while only 264 species occurred in SP plots. This was consistent with richer species, higher cover, and stem (or shoot density of tree seedlings, shrubs, and ferns in the NR plots than in the SP plots. Moreover, understory plant diversity was limited under dense canopy cover, which occurred more frequently in the SP plots. Our findings implied that natural deciduous tree regeneration could better preserve understory vegetation and biodiversity than spruce reforestation after clear-cutting. This result further informed practices to reduce tree canopy cover for spruce plantations or to integrate natural regeneration and reforestation for clear-cuts in order to promote understory vegetation and species diversity conservation.

  9. Photosynthesis of seedlings of Otoba novogranatensis (Myristicaceae and Ruagea glabra (Meliaceae in abandoned pasture, secondary forest and plantation habitats in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Loik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Enrichment planting in naturally recovering secondary forests or in tree plantations is increasingly being used as strategy to restore later-successional, large-seeded tropical forest trees. We seeded two tree species (Otoba novogranatensis and Ruagea glabra in three agricultural sites in Southern Costa Rica: abandoned pastures, eight to ten year old secondary forests and three year old tree plantations (containing two N-fixing of four total tree species. We measured micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, plant water potential, leaf area, foliar C and N, and photosynthesis to better understand mechanistic responses of seedlings to conditions in the different successional habitats. Micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, and plant water potential were generally similar across habitats. Certain aspects of leaves (such as Specific Leaf Area and foliar N content, and photosynthesis (e.g. quantum yield and electron transport rate were highest in the plantations, intermediate in the secondary forests, and lowest in abandoned pastures. Enhanced rates of photosynthetic biochemistry (such as Vcmax and Jmax and Photosystem II efficiency (e.g. thermal energy dissipation occurred in leaves from the plantations compared to the abandoned pastures, which may be related to higher leaf %N content. Results suggest that foliar N may be of greater importance than soil water content and micrometeorological factors in driving differences in photosynthetic processes across planting habitats. Planting seeds of these two species in plantations containing three year old trees (including two N-fixing species enhances certain aspects of their photosynthesis and growth, compared to seedlings in abandoned pastures with non-native grasses, and thus can help increase forest recovery on abandoned agricultural lands.

  10. Does tree species richness attenuate the effect of experimental irrigation and drought on decomposition rate in young plantation forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masudur Rahman, Md; Verheyen, Kris; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Jactel, Hervé; Carnol, Monique

    2017-04-01

    Expected changes in precipitation in Europe due to climate change are likely to affect soil organic matter (OM) transformation. In forests, increasing tree species diversity might modulate the effect of changed precipitation. We evaluated the effect of tree species richness on the decomposition and stabilization rate in combination with reduced precipitation (FORBIO, Belgium) and irrigation treatment (ORPHEE, southern France) in young (6-8 yr.) experimental plantations. The species richness were one to four in FORBIO and one to five in ORPHEE. Twenty four rainout shelters of 3 m × 3 m were built around oak and beech trees in FORBIO plantation to impose a reduced precipitation treatment, whereas four of the eight blocks (175 m×100 m) in ORPHEE plantation was subjected to irrigation treatment. These treatments resulted in about 4% less soil moisture in FORBIO and about 7% higher soil moisture in ORPHEE compared to control. Commercially available green and rooibos tea bags were buried in the soil at 5-7 cm depth to measure two decomposition indices, known as 'tea bag index' (TBI). These TBI are (i) decomposition rate (k) and (ii) stabilization rate (S). The results showed no species richness effect on TBI indices in both reduced precipitation and irrigation treatment. In FORBIO, reduced precipitation resulted in decreased k and increased S compared to control around the beech trees only. In ORPHEE, both k and S were higher in the irrigation treatment compared to control. Overall, TBI indices were higher in FORBIO than ORPHEE and this might be explained by the sandy soils and poor nutrient content at the ORPHEE site. These results suggest that OM decomposition rate may be slower in drier condition and OM stabilization rate may be slower or faster in drier condition, depending on the site quality. The absence of tree species effects on OM transformation indicates that tree species richness would not be able to modulate the effects of changed precipitation patterns in

  11. Seasonal Pattern of Decomposition and N, P, and C Dynamics in Leaf litter in a Mongolian Oak Forest and a Korean Pine Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeeun Sohng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Distinct seasons and diverse tree species characterize temperate deciduous forests in NE Asia, but large areas of deciduous forests have been converted to conifer plantations. This study was conducted to understand the effects of seasons and tree species on leaf litter decomposition in a temperate forest. Using the litterbag method, the decomposition rate and nitrogen, phosphorous, and carbon dynamics of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica, Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis, and their mixed leaf litter were compared for 24 months in a Mongolian oak stand, an adjacent Korean pine plantation, and a Mongolian oak—Korean pine mixed stand. The decomposition rates of all the leaf litter types followed a pattern of distinct seasonal changes: most leaf litter decomposition occurred during the summer. Tree species was less influential on the leaf litter decomposition. The decomposition rates among different leaf litter types within the same stand were not significantly different, indicating no mixed litter effect. The immobilization of leaf litter N and P lasted for 14 months. Mongolian oak leaf litter and Korean pine leaf litter showed different N and P contents and dynamics during the decomposition, and soil P2O5 was highest in the Korean pine plantation, suggesting effects of plantation on soil nutrient budget.

  12. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Allen

    Full Text Available Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber" as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC and base saturation (P≤0.05-0.09 had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05 compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09. This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05 and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05. Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass.

  13. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes – loam and clay Acrisol soils – each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, “jungle rubber”) as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4 + immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05–0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4 + transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4 + transformation rates (P≤0.05–0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51–0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 – -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass. PMID:26222690

  14. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  15. Forested habitat preferences by Chilean citizens: Implications for biodiversity conservation in Pinus radiata plantations Preferencia por hábitats forestales por ciudadanos chilenos: Implicancias para la conservación de biodiversidad en plantaciones de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLE PÜSCHEL-HOENEISEN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for conservation outside protected areas has prompted the modification of productive practices to allow the maintenance of wild biota in productive landscapes such as those associated to timber production. Forest plantations could cooperate in conserving biodiversity outside protected areas if they have a developed understory. However, the success of the production changes depends on the social support they receive. Therefore, we evaluate Chilean citizens' preference for five habitats of different types of forest management. In addition, we assessed perceptions regarding the relationship between pine plantations and native wildlife through surveys administered in Chillán, Santiago and six rural localities in the VII and VIII region. Despite there is not a unanimous opinion regarding pine plantations as a threat to biodiversity, people prefer pine plantations that serve as habitat for endangered fauna. In fact, they agree on paying more for forest products to contribute to conservation in forest plantations, and actually prefer plantations with a developed understory better than those without it. This would suggest that measures aimed at conservation in forest plantations could be supported by the Chilean society.La necesidad de la conservación fuera de áreas protegidas ha llevado a la modificación de las prácticas productivas para permitir el mantenimiento de la biota silvestre en paisajes productivos tales como los asociados a la producción de madera. Las plantaciones forestales podrían cooperar en la conservación de la biodiversidad fuera de áreas protegidas si tienen un sotobosque desarrollado. Sin embargo, el éxito de los cambios en la producción depende del apoyo social que estos reciben. Así, evaluamos la preferencia por cinco paisajes con diferentes tipos de manejo forestal. Además, se evaluó la percepción acerca de la relación entre las plantaciones de pino y la fauna nativa a través de encuestas realizadas en

  16. How does conversion from peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation affect emissions of nitrous oxide from the soil? A case study in Jambi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Jodie; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Comeau, Louis-Pierre; Jo, Smith; Lou, Verchot

    2017-04-01

    Half of the peatlands across Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra are 'managed'. Conversion of peat swamp forest to workable oil palm plantation requires a drastic, potentially irreversible, change to the landscape, to which fertilizers are then routinely applied. A combination of these factors is now widely thought to increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, although there is high uncertainty due to gaps in the knowledge, both regionally and nationally. Despite the widespread use of fertilizers in plantations on peats, studies observing their effects remain very limited. Therefore, there is a need for in situ studies to evaluate how environmental parameters (edaphic properties, climate, soil moisture and N availability indicators) influence soil emissions. This 18 month study was located in plots local to each other, representing the start, intermediate and end of the land conversion process; namely mixed peat swamp forest, drained and logged forest and industrial oil palm plantation. Spatial variability was taken into account by differentiating the hollows and hummocks in the mixed peat swamp forest, and the fertilized zone and the zone without fertilizer addition in the oil palm plantation. Gas samples were collected each month from static chambers at the same time as key environmental parameters were measured. Intensive sampling was performed during a 35 day period following two fertilizer applications, in which urea was applied to palms at rates of 0.5 and 1 kg urea palm-1. Soil N2O emissions (kg N ha-1 y-1 ± SE) were low overall, but they were greater in the oil palm plantation (0.8 ± 0.1) than in the mixed peat swamp forest (0.3 ± 0.0) and the drained/logged forest (0.2 ± 0.0). In the mixed peat swamp forest, monthly average fluxes of N2O (g N ha-1 d-1 ± SE) were similar in the hollows (0.6 ± 0.2) and the hummocks (0.3 ± 0.1), whereas in the oil palm plantation they were consistently higher in the zone without fertilizer (2.5 ± 0.4) than in

  17. An ant-plant by-product mutualism is robust to selective logging of rain forest and conversion to oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayle, Tom M; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance and the spread of non-native species disrupt natural communities, but also create novel interactions between species. By-product mutualisms, in which benefits accrue as side effects of partner behaviour or morphology, are often non-specific and hence may persist in novel ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis for a two-way by-product mutualism between epiphytic ferns and their ant inhabitants in the Bornean rain forest, in which ants gain housing in root-masses while ferns gain protection from herbivores. Specifically, we assessed how the specificity (overlap between fern and ground-dwelling ants) and the benefits of this interaction are altered by selective logging and conversion to an oil palm plantation habitat. We found that despite the high turnover of ant species, ant protection against herbivores persisted in modified habitats. However, in ferns growing in the oil palm plantation, ant occupancy, abundance and species richness declined, potentially due to the harsher microclimate. The specificity of the fern-ant interactions was also lower in the oil palm plantation habitat than in the forest habitats. We found no correlations between colony size and fern size in modified habitats, and hence no evidence for partner fidelity feedbacks, in which ants are incentivised to protect fern hosts. Per species, non-native ant species in the oil palm plantation habitat (18 % of occurrences) were as important as native ones in terms of fern protection and contributed to an increase in ant abundance and species richness with fern size. We conclude that this by-product mutualism persists in logged forest and oil palm plantation habitats, with no detectable shift in partner benefits. Such persistence of generalist interactions in novel ecosystems may be important for driving ecosystem functioning.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, E.; Oral, H. V.; Akburak, S.; Makineci, E.; Yilmaz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils. Area of study: Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41° 09’-41° 12’ N latitude and 28° 54’-29° 00’ E longitude in Turkey. Material and methods: Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Research highlights: Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots. (Author)

  19. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ozdemir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study : To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils.Area of study : Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L. at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41°09' -41°12' N latitude and 28°54' - 29°00' E longitude in Turkey.Material and Methods : Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Research highlights : Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots.Keywords: carbon sequestration; C/N ratio; decomposition; exotic; tree provenance.

  20. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steve [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); McDonald, Timothy [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Fasina, Oladiran [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gallagher, Tom [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Smidt, Mathew [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Mitchell, Dana [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Klepac, John [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Jason [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Sprinkle, Wes [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Carter, Emily [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Grace, Johnny [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Rummer, Robert [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Corley, Frank [Corley Land Services, Chapman, AL (United States); Somerville, Grant [Tigercat, Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a high-tonnage harvesting system designed specifically to operate efficiently in the expected stand types of a bioenergy scenario was built, deployed, and evaluated in a production setting. Stands on which the system was evaluated exhibited the heavy stocking levels (> 600 stems per acre) and tree size distributions with significant volume in small stems (down to 2” DBH) that were expected in the modified energy plantation silvicultural approach. The harvest system also was designed to be functional in the traditional plantation stands dominating the commercial forestry landscape in the region. The Tigercat 845D feller buncher, which was a prototype machine designed for the high tonnage harvest system, used a boom-mounted prototype DT1802 shear felling head and incorporated a number of options intended to maximize its small-stem productivity, including: a high-speed shear severing system that was cheaper to operate than a saw; a large-pocket felling head that allowed larger accumulations of small stems to be built before expending the time to drop them for the skidder; efficient, low ground pressure, tracked carrier system to decrease the amount of maneuvering, saving time and minimizing soil disturbance; and various energy-saving devices to lower fuel costs and minimize air quality impacts. Overall, the feller buncher represented a quantum advance in small-stem harvesting technology. Extensive testing showed the machine’s production rate to be relatively insensitive to piece size, much less so than comparable traditional equipment. In plantation stands, the feller buncher was able to produce approximately 100 green tons of biomass per productive machine hour (PMH), and in natural stands, it produced nearly 120 green tons per PMH. The ability of the high tonnage feller buncher to maintain high productivity in stands with smaller diameter stems is something that has not been achieved in previous feller buncher designs. The Tigercat 845D feller

  1. Managing succession in conifer plantations: converting young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations to native forest types by thinning and underplantiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen; Steven G. Newmaster

    2001-01-01

    The effects of thinning on growth and survival of white pine (Pinus strobus L.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and understory plant diversity were examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Five years after thinning, seedling diameter,...

  2. 77 FR 53839 - Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; East McCloud Plantations Thinning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... actions include road maintenance and reconstruction of National Forest System, new road construction and... maintenance and 36 miles of reconstruction on National Forest System (NFS) roads. Existing unauthorized routes... be rehabilitated when no longer needed for this project. Maintenance Level 1 (intermittent use) roads...

  3. Conflict between conservation and development: cash forest encroachment in Asian elephant distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wen, Hui; Harich, Franziska K; He, Changhuan; Wang, Lanxin; Guo, Xianming; Zhao, Jianwei; Luo, Aidong; Yang, Hongpei; Sun, Xiao; Yu, Yang; Zheng, Shaobo; Guo, Jing; Li, Li; Zhang, Li

    2017-08-03

    Over the last 4 decades, China has undergone major economic development, resulting in considerable impacts on its wildlife populations and habitats. It is essential to quantify the conflict between development and conservation to assist with policy-making because forestry policies and market trends affected indirectly the distribution of Asian elephants. Here, we mapped the historical distribution of elephants versus human land use. Elephant distributions appear to occur in unbroken natural forests only. However, over the 40-year period, the distribution ranges have become smaller and fragmented, with natural forest area also declining by 16%. The monoculture of cash trees is encroaching on natural forests. Over the past 10 years, rubber plantations have become concentrated in the south, with extensive natural forests and scattered rubber farms being converted to tea plantations, due to changes in governmental policies and product prices. Through mapping the spatial changes in the distribution of rubber and tea plantations, our study is expected to help local managers to incorporate the needs of endangered elephants through creating space when planning plantations, especially in Xishuangbanna and the south part of Pu'er. In conclusion, restoring elephant habitat and establishing ecological corridors are critical for the survival of elephants in this region.

  4. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    (Phytoseiidae in Brazilian natural environments, adjacent to coffee agroecosystems (Coffea spp., or about the influence exerted by neighbor vegetation as a reservoir of predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of these organisms in coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments. Samples of the species Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart., Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae and Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae were collected in eight forest fragments, from 5 to 51ha, adjacent to coffee plantations, in June (end of the rainy season and October (end of the dry season in the years of 2004 and 2005, in the Southern region of State of Minas Gerais. Leaf mites were extracted using the wash method, mounted in microscopy slides with Hoyer's medium for identification. A total of 2.348 phytoseiids was collected, being 2.090 in the forest fragments and 258 in adjacent coffee plantations, belonging to 38 species. According to fauna analysis, Iphiseiodes zuluaguai Denmark & Muma, the year of 1972 presented the best indexes in the coffee agroecosystem, being very frequent and constant in those periods. In the forest fragments, Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 and Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 were dominant, very abundant, very frequent and constant in those periods. One may conclude that the native vegetation shelters predator mite, natural enemies of mite-pests that still occur in coffee culture, making possible ecological management program development involving areas of natural vegetation and adjacent coffee agroecosystems.

  5. Simulating the impacts of land use in northwest Europe on Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE): the role of arable ecosystems, grasslands and forest plantations in climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mohamed; Saunders, Matthew; Hastings, Astley; Williams, Mike; Smith, Pete; Osborne, Bruce; Lanigan, Gary; Jones, Mike B

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we compared measured and simulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) values from three wide spread ecosystems in the southeast of Ireland (forest, arable and grassland), and investigated the suitability of the DNDC (the DeNitrification-DeComposition) model to estimate present and future NEE. Although, the field-DNDC version overestimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C, forest-DNDC under-estimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C. The results suggest that the field/forest DNDC models can successfully estimate changes in seasonal and annual NEE from these ecosystems. Differences in NEE were found to be primarily land cover specific. The annual NEE was similar for the grassland and arable sites, but due to the contribution of exported carbon, the soil carbon increased at the grassland site and decreased at the arable site. The NEE of the forest site was an order of magnitude larger than that of the grassland or arable ecosystems, with large amounts of carbon stored in woody biomass and the soil. The average annual NEE, GPP and Reco values over the measurement period were -904, 2379 and 1475 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), -189, 906 and 715 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and -212, 1653 and 1444 g C m(-2) (grasslands), respectively. The average RMSE values were 3.8 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), 0.12 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and 0.21 g C m(-2) (grasslands). When these models were run with climate change scenarios to 2060, predictions show that all three ecosystems will continue to operate as carbon sinks. Further, climate change may decrease the carbon sink strength in the forest plantations by up to 50%. This study supports the use of the DNDC model as a valid tool to predict the consequences of climate change on NEE from different ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... plantations, it is clear that separation of the trees from their natural enemies has resulted in exceptional performance.

  7. Some ecological guidelines for large-scale biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.; Cook, J.H.; Beyea, J. [National Audubon Society, Tavernier, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The National Audubon Society sees biomass as an appropriate and necessary source of energy to help replace fossil fuels in the near future, but is concerned that large-scale biomass plantations could displace significant natural vegetation and wildlife habitat, and reduce national and global biodiversity. We support the development of an industry large enough to provide significant portions of our energy budget, but we see a critical need to ensure that plantations are designed and sited in ways that minimize ecological disruption, or even provide environmental benefits. We have been studying the habitat value of intensively managed short-rotation tree plantations. Our results show that these plantations support large populations of some birds, but not all of the species using the surrounding landscape, and indicate that their value as habitat can be increased greatly by including small areas of mature trees within them. We believe short-rotation plantations can benefit regional biodiversity if they can be deployed as buffers for natural forests, or as corridors connecting forest tracts. To realize these benefits, and to avoid habitat degradation, regional biomass plantation complexes (e.g., the plantations supplying all the fuel for a powerplant) need to be planned, sited, and developed as large-scale units in the context of the regional landscape mosaic.

  8. Worker’s Competency and Perception toward Safety and Health on Forest Harvesting Operation in Indonesian Long Rotation Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of prevention measures such as government regulations and recommendations through technical and managerial researches, unsafe working practices are still a common practice in Indonesia's forestry work, especially in tree harvesting operation.  In order to determine competency level of both field supervisor and workers as a baseline in developing participatory occupational safety and health (OSH protection program, a previously developed competency assessing instrument has been modified.  Further, the redesigned instrument was used to verify competency level of field supervisor and forestry workers (chainsawman, hauling workers, and truck drivers from 6 different forest sites with similar working method.  Results showed that both group of respondents had overestimated their competency level in practical aspect, indicated by the gap existence between OSH self-perception value and the standard-based assessment value.  The gap significantly occurred in knowledge, skill, and attitude elements; however working attitudes rest in the worst level.  This finding then indicated that improving working attitude should be taken as the goal priority in the OSH protection programs in Indonesia.  In short, when the discussion is pointed to practical activities, OSH protection program should adapt such strategies which put serious consideration on control mechanism.Keywords: tree harvesting, workers, safety and health, competency, attitude

  9. Functional structure of ant and termite assemblages in old growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Sarah H.; Fayle, Tom M.; Eggleton, Paul; Turner, Edgar C.; Davies, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Forested tropical landscapes around the world are being extensively logged and converted to agriculture, with serious consequences for biodiversity and potentially ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate associations between habitat disturbance and functional diversity of ants and termites – two numerically dominant and functionally important taxa in tropical rain forests that perform key roles in predation, decomposition, nutrient cycling and seed dispersal. We compared ant and termite oc...

  10. [Seasonal variation of soil respiration and its components in tropical rain forest and rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Sha, Li-Qing; Wang, Jun; Hu, Wen-Yan; Wu, Bing-Xia

    2009-10-01

    By using trenching method and infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the seasonal variation of soil respiration (SR), including root respiration (RR) and heterotrophic respiration (HR), in tropical seasonal rain forest (RF) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation (RP) in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan, China. The results showed that the SR and HR rates were significantly higher in RF than in RP (P dry-hot season > foggy season, but the RR rate was rainy season > foggy season > dry-hot season in RF, and foggy season > rainy season > dry-hot season in RP. The contribution of RR to SR in RF (29%) was much lower than that in RP (42%, P < 0.01), while the contribution of HR to SR was 71% in RF and 58% in RP. When the soil temperature at 5 cm depth varied from 12 degrees C to 32 degrees C, the Q10 values for SR, HR, and RR rates were higher in RF than in RP. HR had the highest Q10 value, while RR had the lowest one.

  11. Below- and above-ground effects of deadwood and termites in plantation forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard Shefferson; Scott Horn; Melanie K. Taylor; Bryana Bush; Cavell Brownie; Sebastian Seibold; Michael S. Strickland

    2017-01-01

    Deadwood is an important legacy structure in managed forests, providing continuity in shelter and resource availability for many organisms and acting as a vehicle by which nutrients can be passed from one stand to the next following a harvest. Despite existing at the interface between below- and above-ground systems, however, much remains unknown about the role woody...

  12. A review of forest and tree plantation biomass equations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitha, Kamalakumari; Verchot, Louis V.; Joseph, Shijo; Herold, Martin; Manuri, Solichin; Avitabile, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Key message: We compiled 2,458 biomass equations from 168 destructive sampling studies in Indonesia. Unpublished academic theses contributed the largest share of the biomass equations. The availability of the biomass equations was skewed to certain regions, forest types, and species. Further

  13. Utilization of forest slash to sequester carbon in loblolly pine plantations in the lower coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Sanchez; E.A. Carter; W. Edwards

    2002-01-01

    Soil-organic matter (SOM) is a complex array of components including soil fauna and flora at different stages of decomposition (Berg et al., 1982). Its concentration in soils can vary from 0.5% in mineral soils to almost 100% in peat soils (Brady, 1974). Organic matter (OM) in the surface mineral soil is considered a major determinant of forest ecosystem productivity...

  14. Development and Evaluation of Models for the Relationship between Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height for Chinese-Fir Plantations in Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-qiong; Deng, Xiang-wen; Huang, Zhi-hong; Xiang, Wen-hua; Yan, Wen-de; Lei, Pi-feng; Zhou, Xiao-lu; Peng, Chang-hui

    2015-01-01

    Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) and height are the most important variables used in forest inventory and management as well as forest carbon-stock estimation. In order to identify the key stand variables that influence the tree height-dbh relationship and to develop and validate a suit of models for predicting tree height, data from 5961 tree samples aged from 6 years to 53 years and collected from 80 Chinese-fir plantation plots were used to fit 39 models, including 33 nonlinear models and 6 linear models, were developed and evaluated into two groups. The results showed that composite models performed better in height estimate than one-independent-variable models. Nonlinear composite Model 34 and linear composite Model 6 were recommended for predicting tree height in Chinese fir plantations with a dbh range between 4 cm and 40 cm when the dbh data for each tree and the quadratic mean dbh of the stand (Dq) and mean height of the stand (Hm) were available. Moreover, Hm could be estimated by using the formula Hm = 11.707 × l n(Dq)-18.032. Clearly, Dq was the primary stand variable that influenced the height-dbh relationship. The parameters of the models varied according to stand age and site. The inappropriate application of provincial or regional height-dbh models for predicting small tree height at local scale may result in larger uncertainties. The method and the recommended models developed in this study were statistically reliable for applications in growth and yield estimation for even-aged Chinese-fir plantation in Huitong and Changsha. The models could be extended to other regions and to other tree species only after verification in subtropical China.

  15. ESCORRENTÍA SUPERFICIAL EN BOSQUES MONTANOS NATURALES Y PLANTADOS DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA SURFACE RUNOFF IN NATURAL MONTANE FORESTS AND FOREST PLANTATIONS IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Andrés Ruiz Suescún

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. y plantados de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fueron medidos los flujos de escorrentía superficial (ES por un periodo de tiempo de 16 meses. Se implementaron parcelas cerradas de escorrentía superficial de 10 m de largo x 2 m de ancho, tanques colectores y sistemas de registro volumétrico. Los flujos fueron de 23,19 mm año-1 (1,07 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de roble; 35,13 mm año-1 (1,61 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de pino pátula y 230,64 mm año-1 (11,05 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de ciprés. Mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP se identificaron las relaciones existentes entre las variables hidrológicas y los flujos de ES, y por medio de análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos para los flujos de ES por cobertura en función de la precipitación, la precipitación en el bosque y la intensidad de lluvia promedio, variables que mostraron alta relación con la ES según el ACP.In natural montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., in pine (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, surface runoff flows (SRF were measured over 16 months. Runoff was measured using 10 m long x 2 m wide runoff bounded plots, collector tanks and a volumetric counter system. SRF were 23,19 mm year -1 (1,07 % of rainfall for oak forest; 35,13 mm year -1 (1,61 % of rainfall for pine and 230,64 mm year-1 (11,05 % of rainfall for cypress plantations. Relationships between hydrological variables and SRF were identified by a principal components analysis (PCA. For each one of the stands, multiple regression analysis was used to fit models of SRF on rainfall, throughfall and mean intensity of rainfall, variables that, according to the PCA

  16. Glyphosate Use in Forest Plantations Uso de Glifosato en Plantaciones Forestales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Kogan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Under Chilean conditions the lack of weed control at forest tree establishment results in an average of at least 60% less biomass accumulation during the first year of growth of radiate pine or eucaliptus, and glyphosate offers a series of advantages in forestry weed management because its activity in both herbaceous weed groups, monocots and dicots, as well as annuals, biennials and perennials. Also, its efficacy in woody undesirable vegetation makes glyphosate a very important herbicide that can be applied to control herbaceous and woody weeds as pre-planting and during the second or third years of trees growth as strip applications. The aim of this review is to discuss the main uses of glyphosate in reforestation worldwide, during the first 2 yr after tree establishment, as broadcast application over the top of the forest trees and the most important factors that could affect glyphosate efficacy as a forest herbicide, like weed growth stage, application technique, volume and water quality, rainfastness, dew effect and the use of extra adjuvant with formulated glyphosate.Bajo las condiciones chilenas la falta de control de malezas al establecimiento de los árboles resulta en un promedio de al menos 60% menos acumulación de biomasa durante el primer año de crecimiento de pino radiata o eucalipto, y glifosato ofrece una serie de ventajas en el manejo de malezas forestales debido a su actividad en ambos grupos de malezas herbáceas, monocotiledóneas y dicotiledóneas, así como anuales, bianuales y perennes. Además, su eficacia en la vegetación leñosa indeseable hace al glifosato un herbicida muy importante que puede ser aplicado para controlar malezas herbáceas y leñosas en pre-plantación y durante el segundo o tercer año de crecimiento de los árboles como aplicaciones en franja. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir los principales usos de glifosato en reforestación a lo largo del mundo, durante los primeros 2 años despu

  17. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaveau, David L A; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Wich, Serge; Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel; Kanninen, Markku

    2009-01-01

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km 2 that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km 2 protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km 2 of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km 2 ) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km 2 ), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km 2 of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an upland PA may not significantly reduce

  18. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Wich, Serge; Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel; Kanninen, Markku; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2009-09-01

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km2 that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km2 protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km2 of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km2) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km2), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km2 of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an upland PA may not significantly reduce

  19. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaveau, David L A; Leader-Williams, Nigel [Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom); Wich, Serge [Great Apes Trust of Iowa, 4200 SE 44th Avenue, Des Moines, IA 50320 (United States); Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202 (United States); Kanninen, Markku, E-mail: dgaveau@yahoo.co.u, E-mail: swich@greatapetrust.or, E-mail: justep22@myfastmail.co, E-mail: d.juhn@conservation.or, E-mail: m.kanninen@cgiar.or, E-mail: n.leader-williams@kent.ac.u [Center for International Forestry Research, Jalan CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sidang Barang, Bogor, West Java (Indonesia)

    2009-09-15

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km{sup 2} that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km{sup 2} protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km{sup 2} of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km{sup 2}) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km{sup 2}), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km{sup 2} of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an

  20. Characteristics of Decomposition Powers of L-Band Multi-Polarimetric SAR in Assessing Tree Growth of Industrial Plantation Forests in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A decomposition scheme was applied to ALOS/PALSAR data obtained from a fast-growing tree plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia to extract tree stem information and then estimate the forest stand volume. The scattering power decomposition of the polarimetric SAR data was performed both with and without a rotation matrix and compared to the following field-measured forest biometric parameters: tree diameter, tree height and stand volume. The analytical results involving the rotation matrix correlated better than those without the rotation matrix even for natural scattering surfaces within the forests. Our primary finding was that all of the decomposition powers from the rotated matrix correlated significantly to the forest biometric parameters when divided by the total power. The surface scattering ratio of the total power markedly decreased with the forest growth, whereas the canopy and double-bounce scattering ratios increased. The observations of the decomposition powers were consistent with the tree growth characteristics. Consequently, we found a significant logarithmic relationship between the decomposition powers and the forest biometric parameters that can potentially be used to estimate the forest stand volume.

  1. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  2. Towards an integrated assessment of the impacts of forest residue mulching following wildfire in eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Jan Jacob; Abrantes, Nelson; Bastos, Ana; Brandsma, Micha; Campos, Isabel; Faria, Silvia; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; João Oliveira, Maria; Pimpão, Gabriel; Prats, Sergio; Puga, João; Ribeiro, Cristina; Rocha, João; Santos, Liliana; Serpa, Dalila; Silva, Flávio; Silva, Tiago; Valente, Sandra; Vieira, Diana

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 project RECARE (www.recare-project.eu) and, in particular, its WP6, the University of Aveiro partner has recently started testing two measures against the soil threat of post-fire erosion by water in an area in north-central Portugal, close to Coimbra that burnt during the summer of 2015. These measures - mulching with forest slash residues and contour ploughing - had been selected by the local and external stakeholders involved in the project, through two subsequent stakeholder workshops. While contour ploughing has still not taken place, the mulching was already carried out, using residues from eucalypt plantations as the burnt areas was dominated by eucalypt plantations, and applying them in a homogeneous fashion at two contrasting application rates, i.e. a "standard" rate of approximately 10 Mg ha-1 and a "reduced" rate of about 3 Mg ha-1. The standard rate was selected for having proved effective in reducing post-fire runoff and erosion in previous field studies in the region (Prats et al., 2012, 2014, 2015a), while the reduced rate had been found to be nearly as effective as the standard rate in a recent study in the hydraulic laboratory of the University of Coimbra (Prats et al., 2015b). Unlike the referred prior studies, however, the present study will also assess the impacts of mulching on two other soil threats - i.e. decline in soil organic matter and in soil biodiversity - and, ultimately, will compare the two measures in terms of their consequences for soil-based ecosystem services, using the framework being developed by RECARE (Schwilch et al. in Stolte et al., 2016). The proposed presentation will show the first results on the effects of the two mulch application rates on post-fire runoff as well as the associated losses of sediments, organic matter/C and nutrients (N, P), and on selected indicators of soil biological activity and diversity. Prats et al., 2015a (in press). LD&D (doi: 10.1002/ldr.2422) Prats et al., 2015

  3. Combined effect of pulse density and grid cell size on predicting and mapping aboveground carbon in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Alberto; Hudak, Andrew Thomas; Klauberg, Carine; Vierling, Lee Alexandre; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos; de Padua Chaves Carvalho, Samuel; Rodriguez, Luiz Carlos Estraviz; Cardil, Adrián

    2017-12-01

    LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying a variety of forest attributes, including aboveground carbon (AGC). Pulse density influences the acquisition cost of LiDAR, and grid cell size influences AGC prediction using plot-based methods; however, little work has evaluated the effects of LiDAR pulse density and cell size for predicting and mapping AGC in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LiDAR pulse density and grid cell size on AGC prediction accuracy at plot and stand-levels using airborne LiDAR and field data. We used the Random Forest (RF) machine learning algorithm to model AGC using LiDAR-derived metrics from LiDAR collections of 5 and 10 pulses m -2 (RF5 and RF10) and grid cell sizes of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. The results show that LiDAR pulse density of 5 pulses m -2 provides metrics with similar prediction accuracy for AGC as when using a dataset with 10 pulses m -2 in these fast-growing plantations. Relative root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the RF5 and RF10 were 6.14 and 6.01%, respectively. Equivalence tests showed that the predicted AGC from the training and validation models were equivalent to the observed AGC measurements. The grid cell sizes for mapping ranging from 5 to 20 also did not significantly affect the prediction accuracy of AGC at stand level in this system. LiDAR measurements can be used to predict and map AGC across variable-age Eucalyptus plantations with adequate levels of precision and accuracy using 5 pulses m -2 and a grid cell size of 5 m. The promising results for AGC modeling in this study will allow for greater confidence in comparing AGC estimates with varying LiDAR sampling densities for Eucalyptus plantations and assist in decision making towards more cost effective and efficient forest inventory.

  4. Monitoring rubber plantation expansion using Landsat data time series and a Shapelet-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Su; Rogan, John; Sangermano, Florencia

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of tree plantations in tropical forests for commercial rubber cultivation threatens biodiversity which may affect ecosystem services, and hinders ecosystem productivity, causing net carbon emission. Numerous studies refer to the challenge of reliably distinguishing rubber plantations from natural forest, using satellite data, due to their similar spectral signatures, even when phenology is incorporated into an analysis. This study presents a novel approach for monitoring the establishment and expansion of rubber plantations in Seima Protection Forest (SPF), Cambodia (1995-2015), by detecting and analyzing the 'shapelet' structure in a Landsat-NDVI time series. This paper introduces a new classification procedure consisting of two steps: (1) an exhaustive-searching algorithm to detect shapelets that represent a period for relatively low NDVI values within an image time series; and (2) a t-test used to determine if NDVI values of detected shapelets are significantly different than their non-shapelet trend, thereby indicating the presence of rubber plantations. Using this approach, historical rubber plantation events were mapped over the twenty-year timespan. The shapelet algorithm produced two types of information: (1) year of rubber plantation establishment; and (2) pre-conversion land-cover type (i.e., agriculture, or natural forest). The overall accuracy of the rubber plantation map for the year of 2015 was 89%. The multi-temporal map products reveal that more than half of the rubber planting activity (57%) took place in 2010 and 2011, following the granting of numerous rubber concessions two years prior. Seventy-three percent of the rubber plantations were converted from natural forest and twenty-three percent were established on non-forest land-cover. The shapelet approach developed here can be used reliably to improve our understanding of the expansion of rubber production beyond Seima Protection Forest of Cambodia, and likely elsewhere in the

  5. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  6. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L A; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-08

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo's old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  7. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Shady Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between...

  9. Realising the benefit of research in eucalypt plantation management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of these technologies have all contributed to measured gains. The continued development and application of appropriate forest technology will be critical to a sustainable future for the industry in South Africa. Issues pertaining to this are discussed. Keywords: eucalypt plantations; technology transfer; yield improvement

  10. Soil methane and CO2 fluxes in rainforest and rubber plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Rong; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Goldberg, Stefanie; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-04-01

    rubber plantations. Conversion the forest into rubber plantation decreased soil respiration in young plantation and it recovered during rubber development. However, the CH4consumption by tropical upland forest soil decreased in converted rubber plantations of all ages, with more decrement in old plantation. Change forest into rubber plantations weakened the soil function as CH4 sink.

  11. [Edge effects of forest gap in Pinus massoniana plantations on the decomposition of leaf litter recalcitrant components of Cinnamomum camphora and Toona ciliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dan Ju; Li, Xun; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Ming Jin; Yang, Wan Qin; Zhang, Jian

    2016-04-22

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the dynamics of recalcitrant components during foliar litter decomposition under edge effects of forest gap in Pinus massoniana plantations in the low hilly land, Sichuan basin. A field litterbag experiment was conducted in seven forest gaps with different sizes (100, 225, 400, 625, 900, 1225, 1600 m 2 ) which were generated by thinning P. massoniana plantations. The degradation rate of four recalcitrant components, i.e., condensed tannins, total phenol, lignin and cellulose in foliar litter of two native species (Cinnamomum camphora and Toona ciliata) at the gap edge and under the closed canopy were measured. The results showed that the degradation rate of recalcitrant components in T. ciliata litter except for cellulose at the gap edge were significantly higher than that under the closed canopy. For C. camphora litter, only the degradation of lignin at the gap edge was higher than that under the closed canopy. After one-year decomposition, four recalcitrant components in two types of foliar litter exhibited an increment of degradation rate, and the degradation rate of condensed tannin was the fastest, followed by total phenol and cellulose, but the lignin degradation rate was the slowest. With the increase of gap size, except for cellulose, the degradation rate ofthe other three recalcitrant components of the T. ciliata at the edge of medium sized gaps (400 and 625 m 2 ) were significantly higher than at the edge of other gaps. However, lignin in the C. camphora litter at the 625 m 2 gap edge showed the greatest degradation rate. Both temperature and litter initial content were significantly correlated with litter recalcitrant component degradation. Our results suggested that medium sized gaps (400-625 m 2 ) had a more significant edge effect on the degradation of litter recalcitrant components in the two native species in P. massoniana plantations, however, the effect also depended on species.

  12. Assessing the efficiency of aluminium phosphide and arsenic trioxide in controlling the Indian crested porcupine (hystrix indica) in an irrigated forest plantation or Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica, is widely distributed in the irrigated forests of Punjab, Pakistan and causes serious damage to trees, nursery stocking, field crops and vegetables. Field trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of aluminium phosphide (Phostoxin, 3g tablets) and arsenic trioxide bait (at 2.5g per apple) against the porcupine in a forest plantation. For fumigation with phostoxin, tablets were used at the rate of four, five, six and seven tablets per den. Observations showed that four tablets were ineffective, five and six tablets provided partial control, while seven tablets provided complete control of porcupines. Baiting with arsenic trioxide also resulted in 89 % reduction of the porcupine population occupying the treated dens. (author)

  13. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    -wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also...... been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao......), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 t...

  14. Effects of nurse trees, spacing, and tree species on biomass production in mixed forest plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Meilby, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Growing concern about increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and resulting global climate change, has spurred a growing demand for renewable energy. In this study, we hypothesized that a nurse tree crop may provide additional early yields of biomass for fuel, while...... was in most cases reduced due to competition. However, provided timely thinning of nurse trees, the qualitative development of the trees will allow for long-term timber production....

  15. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Paul Hennon; Richard O' Hanlon; David D' Amore

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in...

  16. An Assessment of the Contribution of an Analog Forest as a Sustainable Land-use Ecosystem for the Development of Rural Green Economy in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    W.K.D.D. Liyanage; N.S. Gamage; G.D.C Pushpa Kumara; L Xulong

    2013-01-01

    Large scale clearing of natural forests for human settlements as well as in the form of tea, rubberand cinnamon plantations resulted forest fragmentation in most natural ecosystems in the wet zone of SriLanka which posed massive threats to both nature and the humans including the loss of biodiversity,environmental hazards and increasing poverty. This paper discusses about the potential to develop ruralgreen economy as a result of consolidating these agricultural lands into analog forests as a...

  17. Is sustainable development attainable? Challenges facing forestry and the forest products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrist, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture

  18. Emergy and Eco-exergy Evaluation of Four Forest Restoration Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four different forest restoration modes (Acacia mangium plantation, mixed-native species plantation, conifer plantation and Eucalyptus plantation) were evaluated using Energy System Theory and the emergy synthesis method. In addition, the eco-exergies of the four forest restorati...

  19. Analisis Keuntungan Pengusahaan Hutan Pinus (Pinus Merkusii Jung Et De Vriese Di KPH Pekalongan Barat (The Pine (Pinus merkusii Jung et de Vriese Forest Plantation Rentability Analysis In KPH West Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Andayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economical value of the pine wood and resin in the last ten years has contributed significant revenue to the KPH West Pekalongan. This research is aimed to discover the optimum rotation of the development of forest pine to gain the maximum yield for the producer. The method used in this study is the analysis of the Land Expectation Value (LEV by estimating the physical production function which developes the wood and resin at every plant rotation. The results of the analysis is that in the rotation of 20 years, the pine forest could produce maximum net yield/ net (profitability /rentability from the sales of wood and resin, by using the real interest rate of 9,75% annually as follow : (a In the third bonita is Rp. 1.546.945, 36/hectar/rotation and (b in the fourth bonita is Rp. 2.032.392,56/hectar/rotation. By shortening the rotation from 35 years to 20 years, it results in the increasing yield of the forest pine plantation in KPH West Pakalongan of 6,1 % to 8,6% more than the real yield gained by the producer at present.Key words: Rentability, rotation, bonita, resin, LEV

  20. The Roll of Canopy on Interception and Redistribution of Anthropogenic Radionuclides Derived from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Coniferous Forest Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.; Onda, Y.; Kawaguchi, S.; Gomi, T.

    2011-12-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.1 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on Marchi 11, 2011. A large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest area are trapped by canopies, throughfall and stemflow are the most important pathways for the input of radionuclides into the soil of forest floor. In this study, to investigate the roll of forest canopy on interception and redistribution of the deposited radionuclides, a series of field monitoring experiment of throughfall and stemflow were conducted in coniferous forest plantations in Tochigi prefecture, 170 km southwest from the NPP. A set of 20 throughfall collectors with latticelike distribution and 5 stemflow collectors were located in the 10m × 10m interception plot, and the activities of caesium (137Cs, 134Cs) and radioiodine (131I) in throughfall and stemflow were quantified by using a high purity n-type germanium coaxial gamma ray detectors. Rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow samples were collected from 10 rainfall events, which includes first rainfall event after the NPP accident. The cumulative fallout of radionuclides in the study site was 3400 Bq m-2 for 137Cs, 3300 Bq m-2 for 134Cs, and 26000 Bq m-2 for 131I, respectively. The 137Cs in rainfall decreased exponentially with time since the NPP accident. For the rainfall event of 28 March, which is first rainfall event after the NPP accident, both the amount and concentration of caesium clearly increased with throughfall, whereas the concentration of radioiodine decreased with throughfall. For the subsequent rainfall events, the concentration of caesium decreased with throughfall, whereas radioiodine was not detected as a result of decay due to short half-life. At the end of May, approximately 30% and 60% of total caesium deposited after the NPP accident remained on the

  1. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  2. Understory vegetation in fast-growing tree plantations on savanna soils in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Loumeto, J.J.; Huttel, Charles

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that tree plantations may catalyze the regeneration of natural forest biodiversity was tested through studies of floristic diversity and structure in fast-growing tree plantations in the Congo. Study sites included experimental and industrial plantations on poor sandy coastal soils near Pointe-Noire, and experimental plantations on clay soils near Loudima. The effects of plantations species, plantation age (in 6- to 20-year-old eucalypt stands), disturbance due to herbicide use...

  3. Whole-tree and forest floor removal from a loblolly pine plantation have no effect on forest floor CO2 efflux 10 years after harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Felipe G. Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    Intensive management of southern pine plantations has yielded multifold increases in productivity over the last half century. The process of harvesting merchantable material and preparing a site for planting can lead to a considerable loss of organic matter. Intensively managed stands may experience more frequent disturbance as rotations decrease in length, exposing...

  4. The role of plantation sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that in the long term biofuel should play a significant role in global climate policy. Recent technological developments, as well as sustainable development criteria, would favour growing biofuel in community- scale plantations in developing countries. It is also pointed out that the lead times involved in growing biofuels are so great that the inclusion of biofuel plantation sinks in the CDM for the first commitment period would be desirable. It is suggested that to meet opposition to the inclusion of plantation sinks in the first commitment period plantation, sinks should be linked to biofuels technology development and production, and a biofuels obligation for plantation sink projects in the CDM should be established. (Author)

  5. Branch Development of Five-Year-Old Betula alnoides Plantations in Response to Planting Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Sheng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch development in the lower part of stem is critical to both early stem growth and wood quality of the most valuable section of tree, and its regulation through planting density has always been greatly concerned. Here the effect of planting density on branch development was examined in a five-year-old plantation of Betula alnoides with six planting densities (625, 833, 1111, 1250, 1667, and 2500 stems per hectare (sph in Guangdong Province, South China. Branch quantity (number, proportion, and density, morphology (diameter, length, and angle, position (height and orientation, and branch status (dead or alive were investigated for 54 dominant or co-dominant trees under six treatments of planting density after the growth of each tree was measured. Factors influencing branch development were also explored by mixed modelling. The results showed that the mean tree heights of 1250 and 1667 sph treatments were higher than those of other planting density treatments. The quantity of live branches decreased with increasing planting density. However, planting density had no significant effect on the number of all branches, and there existed no remarkable difference in branch number and proportion among four orientations. As for branch morphology, only the largest branch diameter had a significantly negative correlation with planting density. In addition, high planting density significantly increased the height of the largest branch within the crown. Mixed effects models indicated that branch diameter, length, and angle were closely correlated with each other, and they were all in positively significant correlation to the branch height at the stem section below six meters. It was concluded that properly increasing planting density will promote natural pruning, improve early branch control, and be beneficial for wood production from the most valuable section of the stem.

  6. Effects of plantation and juvenile spacing on tree and stand development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Harry G. Smith; Donald L. Reukema

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize current knowledge of effects of initial spacing and respacing of plantations and natural stands on early growth until the time of first commercial entry—for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco), concentrating on conclusions that can be drawn from the literature and the authors...

  7. Agaricales em áreas de Floresta Ombrófila Densa e plantações de Pinus no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil Agaricales in Atlantic rain forest and Pinus plantations in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karstedt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas florestais de Santa Catarina são poucos estudados em relação à diversidade de Agaricales. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar e comparar a diversidade de Agaricales em dois sistemas florestais, no município de Joinville, SC. Parcelas de 20×20 m foram estabelecidas: três em Floresta Ombrófila Densa e três em plantações de Pinus. Basidiomas de fungos agaricóides foram coletados em janeiro, março, maio, julho, setembro e novembro/2004. Foram identificadas 40 espécies, 31 na Floresta e 10 nas plantações. A família mais representada foi Tricholomataceae, com 48% das espécies registradas na Floresta. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Camarophyllus buccinulus (41% na Floresta e Lactarius cf. fragilis (53% nas plantações. As mesmas espécies foram também as mais freqüentes, com 44% e 78% de freqüência de ocorrência, respectivamente. Considerando a riqueza de espécies e o índice de diversidade de Shannon, o estudo sugere que há maior diversidade de Agaricales na Floresta do que nas plantações de Pinus.Forest systems in Santa Catarina state are virtually unknown regarding Agaricales diversity. Our goal was to determine and compare the Agaricales diversity of two forest systems in Joinville municipality, SC. Plots of 20×20 m were established: three in the Atlantic rain forest and three in Pinus plantations. Basidiomata of Agaricales were collected in January, March, May, July, September and November/2004. Forty species were identified, 31 in the forest and 10 in the plantations. Tricholomataceae was the most important family, with 48% of the species found in the forest. The species with the highest relative abundance were Camarophyllus buccinulus (41% and Lactarius cf. fragilis (53% in the forest and in the plantations, respectively. These were also the most frequent species recovered in the forest and in the plantations, with frequency values of 44% and 78%, respectively. Considering species

  8. Understory succession in post-agricultural oak plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunet, Jörg; Valtinat, Karin; Mayr, Marian Lajos

    2011-01-01

    The herbaceous understory forms the richest stratum in temperate broadleaved forests in terms of plant diversity. Understanding the process of understory succession is thus of critical importance for the development of management guidelines for biodiversity restoration in post-agricultural planta......The herbaceous understory forms the richest stratum in temperate broadleaved forests in terms of plant diversity. Understanding the process of understory succession is thus of critical importance for the development of management guidelines for biodiversity restoration in post...... forested stands, which maintained differences in species composition. The development of a shrub layer seemed to imply a competitive advantage for forest specialists compared to generalist species. For successful recovery of a rich understory, we suggest that post-arable plantations should be established......, and woody species. The group of forest specialists may approach the richness of continuously forested sites after 60-80 years in non-fragmented plantations, but many forest species were sensitive to habitat fragmentation. Open-land species richness decreased during succession, while the richness of woody...

  9. Nontimber Forest Product Yield and Income from Thaumatococcus daniellii under a Mixed Tree Plantation System in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Boadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thaumatococcus daniellii is a wild sourced tropical understorey herb that is harvested for its foliage and fruits from which thaumatin—a proteinous sweetener—is extracted. With increased demand for natural sweeteners, uncontrolled harvesting of T. daniellii from the wild is suggested to be neither sustainable nor match industrial demands. This study determined the implication of controlled foliage harvesting of T. daniellii under a mixed indigenous tree plantation stand. T. daniellii plants within plots of dimension 3 m × 4 m were thinned to uniform foliage population of about 12 leaves/m2 and subsequently harvested at 16 weeks interval for 64 weeks at four different foliage harvesting intensities: (i no harvesting (control, (ii 25% harvest, (iii 50% harvest, and (iv 75% harvest. Data on agronomic characters and total income from the sale of fruit and harvested foliage were collected and analysed. We found that foliage harvest intensity affected (P 6 (25% ≥ 1 (50% and 0 (75%. Foliage harvest intensity also significantly (P=0.036 influenced fruit number and ranged from 11458/ha for the control to 4583/ha for the 75% harvest. Total income from fruit and foliage sales was greatest for the 50% harvest (US $ 17,191.32, followed by 75% harvest (US $ 12, 310.24 and lowest for the no harvest treatment (US $ 107.44. Thus, proper management of T. daniellii through controlled harvesting of the foliage under mixed tree plantation system could promote sustainable yield and income to farmers.

  10. BIODIVERSIDAD VEGETAL ASOCIADA A PLANTACIONES FORESTALES DE Pinus caribaea MORELET Y Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL ESTABLECIDAS EN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA PLANT BIODIVERSITY ASSOCIATED TO FOREST PLANTATIONS WITH Pinus caribaea MORELET AND Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL. ESTABLISHED IN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández Méndez

    2012-06-01

    , within plantations by species, age and silvicultural treatment, also in the natural forest and savannah. Individuals were classified by size and habit. 49 families and 102 botanical species were identified. The highest and lowest diversity occurred in the natural forest and savannah with 53 and 18 species, respectively between plantations, there was greater diversity with P. caribaea with 46 species that in E. pellita with 38 species. The mixing ratio shows a heterogeneous vegetation in all uses. The richness indices of Margalef and Menhinick, show more species diversity in forest, plantations followed older and finally the savannah. Shannon and Simpson indices show all sites with heterogeneous vegetation. The treatments had statistically significant differences in number of individuals, species and size classes except forbs. Regarding abundance were three major groups: mature forest plantations, intermediate plantations, and young plantations with savannah. High diversity was observed between the threatments that shared less than 50% of species and abundances, according to indixes of Jaccard and Sorensen. Among plantations had the highert number of shared species.Concludes that in plantation grows understory plant biodiversity and don't prevent the establishment of native species.

  11. The abundance and diversity of legume-nodulating rhizobia in 28-year-old plantations of tropical, subtropical, and exotic tree species: a case study from the Forest Reserve of Bandia, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene, Godar; Thiao, Mansour; Samba-Mbaye, Ramatoulaye; Khasa, Damase; Kane, Aboubacry; Mbaye, Mame Samba; Beaulieu, Marie-Ève; Manga, Anicet; Sylla, Samba Ndao

    2013-01-01

    Several fast-growing and multipurpose tree species have been widely used in West Africa to both reverse the tendency of land degradation and restore soil productivity. Although beneficial effects have been reported on soil stabilization, there still remains a lack of information about their impact on soil microorganisms. Our investigation has been carried out in exotic and native tree plantations of 28 years and aimed to survey and compare the abundance and genetic diversity of natural legume-nodulating rhizobia (LNR). The study of LNR is supported by the phylogenetic analysis which clustered the isolates into three genera: Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium. The results showed close positive correlations between the sizes of LNR populations estimated both in the dry and rainy seasons and the presence of legume tree hosts. There were significant increases in Rhizobium spp. population densities in response to planting with Acacia spp., and high genetic diversities and richness of genotypes were fittest in these tree plantations. This suggests that enrichment of soil Rhizobium spp. populations is host specific. The results indicated also that species of genera Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium were lacking in plantations of non-host species. By contrast, there was a widespread distribution of Bradyrhizobium spp. strains across the tree plantations, with no evident specialization in regard to plantation type. Finally, the study provides information about the LNR communities associated with a range of old tree plantations and some aspects of their relationships to soil factors, which may facilitate the management of man-made forest systems that target ecosystem rehabilitation and preservation of soil biota.

  12. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-12-01

    Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their rotation period. It is of interest to know whether these plantations could be viable for future carbon sequestration through the accumulations of stand carbon stocks. Twelve even-aged Japanese cedar stands along a stand age gradient from 37 to 93 years were selected in Xitou of central Taiwan. The study aims were to investigate the basic stand characteristics and biomass carbon stock in current Japanese cedar stands, and determine the relationships among stand characteristics, tree biomass carbon, and stand age. Our results indicate that existing Japanese cedar plantations are still developing and their live tree biomass carbon continues to accumulate. At stands with a stand age of 90 years, tree density, canopy height, mean diameter at breast height, basal area, and live tree biomass carbon stocks reach to nearly 430 tree ha -1 , 27 m, 48 cm, 82 m 2 ha -1 and 300 Mg C ha -1 , respectively. Therefore, with no harvesting, current Japanese cedar plantations provide a carbon sink by storing carbon in tree biomass.

  13. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-08

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  14. Plantation Forestry in Sub Saharan Africa: Silvicultural, Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the potentials of meeting the wood demand and achieving SFM in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through the establishment of forest plantations. The paper reviews forest plantation ownership and distribution patterns in SSA and the factors –silvicultural, ecological, and economic that affect supply and ...

  15. Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia | Dell | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Due to the high humidity and temperatures throughout the year, fungal leaf diseases such as Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum have had a huge impact on the eucalypt plantation industry in South-east Asia. Often poor ...

  16. Role and Variation of the Amount and Composition of Glomalin in Soil Properties in Farmland and Adjacent Plantations with Reference to a Primary Forest in North-Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wang

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein known as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP is abundantly produced on the hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in soil and roots. Few studies have focused on its amount, composition and associations with soil properties and possible land-use influences, although the data hints at soil rehabilitation. By choosing a primary forest soil as a non-degraded reference, it is possible to explore whether afforestation can improve degraded farmland soil by altering GRSP. In this paper, close correlations were found between various soil properties (soil organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and bulk density and the GRSP amount, between various soil properties and GRSP composition (main functional groups, fluorescent substances, and elements. Afforestation on farmland decreased the EC and bulk density (p < 0.05. The primary forest had a 2.35-2.56-fold higher GRSP amount than those in the plantation forest and farmland, and GRSP composition (tryptophan-like and fulvic acid-like fluorescence; functional groups of C-H, C-O, and O-H; elements of Al, O, Si, C, Ca, and N in primary forest differed from those in plantation forest and farmland (p < 0.05. However, no evident differences in GRSP amount and composition were observed between the farmland and the plantation forest. Our finding highlights that 30 years poplar afforestation on degraded farmland is not enough to change GRSP-related properties. A longer period of afforestation with close-to-nature managements may favor the AMF-related underground recovery processes.

  17. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sloan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management.

  18. Water quality, biodiversity, and codes of practice in relation to harvesting forest plantations in streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Philip J. Smethurst; Brenda Baillie; Kevin C. Petrone

    2011-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are special landscape units that include riparian areas and adjacent lands that mitigate the movement of sediment, nutrients and other chemicals from upland forest and agricultural management areas into streams. The size, shape, and management of SMZs are governed by various combinations of economic, ecological, and regulatory factors...

  19. Soil properties in 35 y old pine and hardwood plantations after conversion from mixed pine-hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Michael G. Messina

    2009-01-01

    Past management practices have changed much of the native mixed pine-hardwood forests on upland alluvial terraces of the western Gulf Coastal Plain to either pine monocultures or hardwood (angiosperm) stands. Changes in dominant tree species can alter soil chemical, biological, and physical properties and processes, thereby changing soil attributes, and ultimately,...

  20. Urban forests for sustainable urban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Denny M.; Hartono, Djoko M.; Suganda, Emirhadi; Haeruman, S. Herman J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the development of the urban forest in East Jakarta. By 2030 Jakarta area has a target of 30% green area covering 19,845 hectares, including urban forest covering an area of 4,631 hectares. In 2015, the city forest is only 646 hectares, while the city requires 3,985 hectares of new land Urban forest growth from year to year showed a marked decrease with increasing land area awoke to commercial functions, environmental conditions encourage the development of the city to become unsustainable. This research aims to support sustainable urban development and ecological balance through the revitalization of green areas and urban development. Analytical methods for urban forest area is calculated based on the amount of CO2 that comes from people, vehicles, and industrial. Urban spatial analysis based on satellite image data, using a GIS program is an analysis tool to determine the distribution and growth patterns of green areas. This paper uses a dynamic system model to simulate the conditions of the region against intervention to be performed on potential areas for development of urban forests. The result is a model urban forest area is integrated with a social and economic function to encourage the development of sustainable cities.

  1. UNDERSTOREY OF PINE-PLANTATIONS ON DEGRADED SITES IN THE REGION OF DECIDUOUS FORESTS OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Franz H. Andrae

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the central part of Rio Grande do Sul State understoreys of 12 stands of Pinus sp. and one of Araucaria angustifolia O.Ktze were studied, all growing on soils, degraded by agriculture. One pine stand, 10 years old, originated from a natural renovation, the others had been planted 25 to 30 years ago, Araucaria was seeded directly. A total of 575 plots were sampled, 25 m² each, distributed systematically within the stands. Measurements included pines overstorey, and all understorey woody species, separeted into layers of more than 1,3 m high and 1,3 to 0,3 m; the layer lower than 0,3 m included only natural renovation of pines. Understoreys were composed by 121 species, ocurring common and high value timber species, ornamental trees, native and exotic fruit tree species. A higher number of species was present with a very few individuals only. The presence of non woody species like grasses, herbs, ferns and lians also was quantified. The number of tree species and the presence of non woody species did not correlat with density of overstorey pines. Abundance and frequency of species showed no significant diferences, when samples were grouped according to their location in the center or close to stands edge. Distribution pattern of understorey trees within stands was quantified, using Cox’ index, species diversity was compared by means of Shannon-index. Similarity of stands was compared by Sörensen-Index. It was concluded, that exotic species planted on poor agricultural soil may not only be of farmers interest because of their high potential for wood production. These plantations also may be considered from conservationist point of view, since they show an unexpected high diversity, so contributing in a longer run to landscape improvement, possibly due to the small extension of stands.

  2. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

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    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  3. Effect of tree thinning and litter removal on the radiocesium (Cs-134, 137) discharge rates in the Kawauchi forest plantation (Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Hisadome, Keigo

    2016-04-01

    On 11 March 2011 a 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami occurred in central-eastern Japan triggering, one day after, the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Despite the bulk of radionuclides (ca. 80%) were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, significant wet and dry deposits of those radionuclides occurred mainly in the Fukushima Prefecture and in a minor way in the Miyagi, Tochigi, Gunma and Ibaraki Prefectures. As a consequence and among other radionuclides, a total of 511,000 TBq of I-131, 13,500 TBq of Cs-134 and 13,600 TBq of Cs-137 were released into the atmosphere and the ocean, contaminating cultivated soils, rivers, settlements and forested areas. This accident caused severe environmental and economic damages. Several decontamination practices have done, including tree thinning and litter removal within the forests and tree plantations. In this study we analysed the effect of eight different management practices on the radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) discharge rates during 20 months (May'2013 - Dec'2014) in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation (stand age of 57 years), located in a hillslope near the Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan. This study area (37⁰ 20' 04" N, 140⁰ 53' 13.5" E) is located 16 km southwestern from the DNPP and within the evacuation area. The soils are Andosols. Ten runoff plots (5 x 2 meters) were installed and measurements started on May 2013. Two plots remained without any treatment as control plots and the other eight plots represented the following management practices: Mng1) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng2) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng3) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng4) Litter removal; Mng5) Thinning (logged area); Mng6) Thinning (under remnant trees); Mng7) Litter removal + thinning (logged area); Mng8) Litter removal + thinning (under remnant trees). Each plot had a gauging station and sediment samples

  4. Soil fauna and leaf species, but not species diversity, affect initial soil erosion in a subtropical forest plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Assmann, Thorsten; Schuldt, Andreas; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In subtropical parts of China, high rainfall intensities cause continuous soil losses and thereby provoke severe harms to ecosystems. In woodlands, it is not the tree canopy, but mostly an intact forest floor that provides protection from soil erosion. Although the protective role of leaf litter covers against soil losses is known for a long time, little research has been conducted on the processes involved. For instance, the role of different leaf species and leaf species diversity has been widely disregarded. Furthermore, the impact of soil meso- and macrofauna within the litter layer on soil losses remains unclear. To investigate how leaf litter species and diversity as well as soil meso- and macrofauna affect sediment discharge in a subtropical forest ecosystem, a field experiment was carried out in Xingangshan, Jiangxi Province, PR China (BEF China). A full-factorial random design with 96 micro-scale runoff plots and seven domestic leaf species in three diversity levels and a bare ground feature were established. Erosion was initiated with a rainfall simulator. This study confirms that leaf litter cover generally protects forest soils from water erosion (-82 % sediment discharge on leaf covered plots compared to bare plots) and this protection is gradually removed as the litter layer decomposes. Different leaf species showed variable impacts on sediment discharge and thus erosion control. This effect can be related to different leaf habitus, leaf decomposition rates and food preferences of litter decomposing meso- and macrofauna. In our experiment, runoff plots with leaf litter from Machilus thunbergii in monoculture showed the highest sediment discharge (68.0 g m-2), whereas plots with Cyclobalanopsis glauca in monoculture showed the smallest rates (7.9 g m-2). At the same time, neither leaf species diversity, nor functional diversity showed any significant influence, only a negative trend could be observed. Nevertheless, the protective effect of the leaf

  5. Soil and water losses in eucalyptus plantation and natural forest and determination of the USLE factors at a pilot sub-basin in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pereira Christofaro Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring water erosion and the factors that control soil and water loss are essential for soil conservation planning. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil and water losses by water erosion under natural rainfall in eucalyptus plantations established in 2001 (EF2, and 2004 (EF1, native forest (NF and bare soil (BS, during the period of 2007 to 2012; and to determine the USLE factors: rain erosivity (R, erodibility (K of a Red Argisol and the cover-management factor (C for EF1, EF2 and NF at a pilot sub-basin, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. The R factor was estimated by the EI30 index, using rainfall data from a gauging station located at the sub-basin. The soil and water losses were monitored in erosion plots, providing consistent data for the estimation of the K and C factors. The sub-basin presented an average erosivity of 4,228.52 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. The average annual soil losses em EF1 and EF2 (0.81 e 0.12 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively were below of the limit of tolerance, 12.9 Mg ha-1 year-1. The percentage values of water loss relating to the total rainfall decreased annually, approaching the values observed at the NF. From the 5th year on after the implantation of the eucalyptus systems, soil losses values were similar to the ones from NF. The erodibility of the Red Argisol was of 0.0026 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1mm-1 and the C factor presented values of 0.121, 0.016 and 0.015 for EF1, EF2 and NF, respectively.

  6. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varada S. Shevade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss of 1.35 Mha of natural forest area within Peninsular Malaysia over the entire study period, with 0.83 Mha lost within the tiger habitat. Nearly half (48% of the natural forest loss area represents conversion to tree plantations. The annual area of new plantation establishment from natural forest conversion increased from 20 thousand ha year−1 during 1988–2000 to 34 thousand ha year−1 during 2001–2012. Large-scale industrial plantations, primarily those of oil palm, as well as recently cleared land, constitute 80% of forest converted to plantations since 1988. We conclude that industrial plantation expansion has been a persistent threat to natural forests within the Malayan tiger habitat. Expanding oil palm plantations dominate forest conversions while those for rubber are an emerging threat.

  7. Costs and returns of producing hops in established tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Ha; Shadi Atallah; Tamara Benjamin; Lori Hoagland; Lenny Farlee; Keith. Woeste

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first of two publications that analyzes economic opportunities in forest farming for Indiana forest plantation owners. This study explores growing hops along the fence lines of newly established forest stands, while the second study investigates producing American ginseng in older (20- to 30-year-old) forests. The economic analysis presented in this...

  8. National forest cover monitoring in mainland South and Southeast Asia: method development and capacity building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.; Talero, Y.; Turubanova, S.; Pickering, J.; Pickens, A. H.; Quyen, N. H.; Spirovska Kono, M.

    2017-12-01

    Timely forest monitoring data produced following good practice guidance are required for national reporting on greenhouse gas emissions, national forest resource assessments, and monitoring for REDD+ projects. Remote sensing provides a cost-efficient supplement to national forest inventories, and is often the single viable source of data on forest extent for countries still in the process of establishing field-based inventories. Operational forest monitoring using remotely sensed data requires technical capacity to store, process, and analyze high volumes of satellite imagery. The University of Maryland Global Land Analysis and Discovery (UMD GLAD) lab possesses such technical capacity and is seeking to transfer it to national agencies responsible for forest reporting, national academic institutions, and NGOs. Our projects in South and Southeast Asia include regional forest monitoring in the lower Mekong region in support of the Regional Land Cover Monitoring System (funded by the NASA SERVIR program) and building capacity for forest monitoring in Nepal, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand (funded by the SilvaCarbon program). Our forest monitoring approach is a regional scale adaptation of methods developed for the global analysis (Hansen et al. 2013). The methodology to track large-scale clearing of natural forests (e.g. in Brazil and Indonesia) is well established; however, the methods for small-scale disturbance mapping and tree cover rotation assessment are still in development. In Bangladesh our mapping of tree cover change between 2000-2014 revealed that 54% of the tree canopy cover was outside forests, and the majority of canopy changes were smaller than 0.1 ha. Landsat's 30-m resolution was therefore insufficient to monitor changes in tree cover. By using a probability sample of high resolution (circa 1 m) imagery we were able to quantify change in tree canopy cover outside forests (including village woodlots, tree plantations and agroforestry

  9. Twenty-nine years of development in planted cherrybark oak-sweetgum mixtures: implications for future mixed-species hardwood plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Andrew W. Ezell; John D. Hodges; Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2012-01-01

    Results from a long-term planted mixture of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) showed sweetgum taller in height and larger in diameter than cherrybark oak early in plantation development. By age 17, cherrybark oak was similar in height and diameter with sweetgum and by age 21 was taller...

  10. A Regional Study of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Plantation Development During the First 15 Years After Early Complete Woody and/or Herbaceous Plant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Bruce R. Zutter; Shepard M. Zedaker; M. Boyd Edwards; Ray A. Newbold

    2002-01-01

    Conifer plantations in North America and elsewhere in the world are increasingly cultured using early control of herbaceous and woody plants. Development of sustainable cultural practices are hindered by the absence of long-term data on productivity gains relative to competition levels, crop- competition dynamics, and ecological changes. There are lmany reports of...

  11. Ecological transition from natural forest to tea plantations: effect on the dynamics of malaria vectors in the highlands of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, M C; Ngundu, W I

    2010-10-01

    From October 2002 to September 2003, an entomological survey was carried out in a rural forested fringed village in the highlands of Mount Cameroon region to determine the temporal dynamics of the anopheline population and the intensity of malaria transmission. A total of 2387 Anopheles spp. were collected, with A. funestus predominating (59.9%), followed by A. hancocki (24.4%) and A. gambiae s.l. (15.7%). Considerable differences were observed in the nocturnal biting cycles of parous mosquitoes, with peak activity in the latter part of the night. PCR revealed that all specimens of the A. funestus group were A. funestus s.s. and all specimens from the A. gambiae complex were A. gambiae s.s. of the S molecular form. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of 17.3% and 8.5% were recorded for A. funestus and A. hancocki, respectively, with an anthropophilic rate of 96.3%. A strong positive correlation (r=0.996) was found between the human-biting rate and the entomological inoculation rate (EIR). Malaria transmission was very high and perennial, with an estimated annual EIR of 460.1 infective bites per person per year. These results confirm that in high agricultural activity areas, A. funestus can be by far the major malaria vector responsible for malaria transmission. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Shorter Harvest Cycles Counteract Increasing Annual Productivity in Industrial Plantation Forests: Trends from Three Decades of Remote Sensing in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation forestry can produce woody biomass many times faster than native vegetation, particularly in the tropical regions where plantations have expanded rapidly in the past three decades. However, activists and practitioners have raised concerns over the sustainability of intensive plantations, suggesting that changes to soil properties may inhibit vegetation growth after multiple harvest cycles. We use a 32-year time series of remotely sensed vegetation indices derived from Landsat data, coupled with recent geospatial and wood volume data from plantation companies, to identify trends in management and vegetation productivity in thousands of individual eucalyptus plantation stands. We find that peak vegetation index values at canopy closure, which are correlated with annual wood volume increment, increase over successive harvest cycles, while the length of each cycle decreases. These opposing trends suggest that the number of harvests required to produce a given wood volume peaks around the second harvest cycle and then declines, likely due to refinement of management practices. Across the region, vegetation index data do not support the hypothesized decrease in productivity over multiple harvest cycles. Additional field data and ongoing soil analyses will complement the remote sensing approach to quantifying plantations' long-term effects on the land they occupy.

  13. Biological invasion of Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta: case study of a forest plantation in Northwestern Patagonia; Invasion biologica de Pinus ponderosa y Pinus contorta: estudio de caso de una plantacion en la Patagonia noroccidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezzotti, A.; Sbrancia, R.; Mortoro, A.; Monte, C.

    2009-07-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, Pinus species from plantations can bring about processes of biological invasion that cause significant and permanent changes on the structure and functioning of surrounding natural ecosystems. The invasive character of Pinus ponderosa (P) and Pinus contorta (C) was examined for a 20-year old plantation located in the Alicura Forest Station (40 degree centigrade 40' S and 71 degree centigrade 00' W), through the analysis of abundance, age and spatial structures, and dispersal of natural regeneration. Seedlings and saplings were located largely within the plantation boundaries, and exhibited a density of 6.9 ind / ha (41 % for P and 59 % for C), a clustered spatial pattern with clumps dispersed not randomly, and a mean dispersal rate of 9.5 m / yr for P. ponderosa and 5.4 m / yr for P. contorta. Both species were invading the adjacent area, according to technical criteria based on ecological responses. However, regeneration niche is strongly hindering tree establishment and dispersal, probably due to high plant cover, presence of vertic soils, and absence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. These results can contribute to predict the capability of P. contorta and P. ponderosa to become invasive, in order to maximize the positive balance of forestry based on these species in northwestern Patagonia. (Author) 50 refs.

  14. Separating rhizosphere respiration from total soil respiration in two larch plantations in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lifen; Shi, Fuchen; Li, Bo; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Jiquan; Chen, Jiakuan

    2005-09-01

    The potential capacity of soil to sequester carbon in response to global warming is strongly regulated by the ratio of rhizosphere respiration to respiration by soil microbial decomposers, because of their different temperature sensitivities. To quantify relative contributions of rhizosphere respiration to total soil respiration as influenced by forest stand development, we conducted a trenching study in two larch (Larix gmelini (Rupr.) Rupr.) plantations, aged 17 and 31 years, in northeastern China. Four plots in each plantation were randomly selected and trenched in early May 2001. Soil surface CO2 effluxes both inside and outside the plots were measured from May 2001 to August 2002. Soil respiration (i.e., the CO2 effluxes outside the trenched plots) varied similarly in the two plantations from 0.8 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in winter to 6.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in summer. Rhizosphere respiration (i.e., CO2 efflux outside the trenched plots minus that inside the plots) varied from 0.2 to 2.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the old forest and from 0.3 to 4.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the young forest over the seasons. Rhizosphere respiration, on average, accounted for 25% of soil respiration in the old forest and 65% in the young forest. Rhizosphere and soil respiration were significantly correlated with soil temperature but not with soil water content. We conclude that the role forests play in regulating climate change may depend on their age.

  15. Forests on the edge: housing development on America’s private forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Ralph J. Alig; Mark D. Nelson; David M. Theobald; Mike Eley; Mike Dechter; Mary. Carr

    2005-01-01

    The private working land base of America’s forests is being converted to developed uses, with implications for the condition and management of affected private forests and the watersheds in which they occur. The Forests on the Edge project seeks to improve understanding of the processes and thresholds associated with increases in housing density in private forests and...

  16. SERANGAN BENALU PADA BEBERAPA KELAS UMUR TANAMAN JATI DI WILAYAH HUTAN BKPH BEGAL, KPH NGAWI, JAWA TIMUR (An Attact of Parasitic Plant on Several Ages of Teak Plantation In Begal Forest Sub-District, Ngawi Forest District, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soewarno Hasanbahri

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the relationship of teak plantation age class with the frequency and severity of teak trees due to an attack of parasitic plant (mistletoe, and parasitic plant distribution patterns horizontally. The sampling method in this study was the Multistage Sampling, i.e. at each age group classe (KU represented one compartment and each compartment made an individual sampling tree as much as 10 % for KU V and up (old age classes, 5 % for KU III – IV (middle age classes and 1 % for KU I - II (young age classes to the total trees populations. Age class relationship with the frequency and degree of tree damage due to an attack of parasitic plant were analyzed by correlation test formula and for the parasitic plant distribution were analysed by the Poisson distribution formula and the Binomial Test Statistically Reversed. The conclusions of this study that were found two species of parasitic plants of Dendrophthoe pentandra and Scurula parasitiaca of the Loranthaceae family members, sub-family Viscoidae. The frequency of teak trees that were attacted by parasitic plants ranged from 12.88 % for KU II and  followed by 15.55 % for KU I, 15.72 % for KU V, 18.06 % for KU IV and VI, up  to 19.73 % for KU III. The correlation between an attack of parasitic plants and the teak forest age classes have proven that significant relationship to the level of the proximal health. In another part, proved that age class does not have a significant relationship to the distal extent of damage. Nevertheless , the teak tree damage suffered an attack of parasitic plants were more prevalent on trees in the younger age classes. It was shown by a comparison of proximal and distal branches in each age class, namely: -23.81 cm for KU I, -1.56 cm for KU II, 14.66 cm for KU III, 24.13 cm for KU IV, 22.40 cm for KU V and 54.94 cm for KU VI. With the loss of future growth faced by teak trees in the young age classes become very vulnerable in the presence of

  17. Development of a QGIS Plugin to Obtain Parameters and Elements of Plantation Trees and Vineyards with Aerial Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Duarte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV imagery allows for a new way of obtaining geographic information. In this work, a Geographical Information System (GIS open source application was developed in QGIS software that estimates several parameters and metrics on tree crown through image analysis techniques (image segmentation and image classification and fractal analysis. The metrics that have been estimated were: area, perimeter, number of trees, distance between trees, and a missing tree check. This methodology was tested on three different plantations: olive, eucalyptus, and vineyard. The application developed is free, open source and takes advantage of QGIS integration with external software. Several tools available from Orfeo Toolbox and Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS GIS were employed to generate a classified raster image which allows calculating the metrics referred before. The application was developed in the Python 2.7 language. Also, some functions, modules, and classes from the QGIS Application Programming Interface (API and PyQt4 API were used. This new plugin is a valuable tool, which allowed for automatizing several parameters and metrics on tree crown using GIS analysis tools, while considering data acquired by UAV.

  18. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-01-01

    Background Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their r...

  19. Forest Management as an Element of Environment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Roman; Gołojuch, Piotr; Wajchman-Świtalska, Sandra; Miotke, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    The implementation of goals of modern forestry requires a simultaneous consideration of sustainable development of forests, protection, needs of the environment development, as well as maintaining a balance between functions of forests. In the current multifunctional forest model, rational forest management assumes all of its tasks as equally important. Moreover, its effects are important factors in the nature and environment protection. The paper presents legal conditions related to the definitions of forest management concepts and sustainable forest management. Authors present a historical outline of human's impact on the forest and its consequences for the environment. The selected aspects of forest management (eg. forest utilization, afforestation, tourism and recreation) and their role in the forest environment have been discussed.

  20. Securing African forests for future drier climates: applying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argue that ecophysiological data will be crucial to future-proof tree improvement strategies in African commodity production landscapes, especially given future drier climates. Keywords: developing nations, drought tolerance, forest resilience, forest sustainability, plantation forestry, tree hydric strategy, wood anatomical ...

  1. The role and significance of Salix plantations for energy in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsse, L.S.; Ledin, S.; Johansson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    Fifteen years of research and development of energy forestry with Salix species has lead to a firm basis of knowledge concerning the basic biology, stand ecology and production systems of fast growing willows in Sweden. The biology research program continues to emphasize studies of plant biology and diseases as well as areas such as clone/site interactions, mixed clonal plantations and breeding. The technological research and development concentrates on functional and effective machinery for planting, harvesting, etc. Recently Salix plantations for energy production in Sweden have been commercialized. Plantations start with 18,000 cuttings of willow clones per hectare. During the first summer weed control is the most important treatment. Fertilizers are applied to keep a high production level. Crops are harvested during winter at 3--5 year intervals. The average annual production is about 10--12 tonnes DM per hectare. The life of Salix plantations is estimated as 25--30 years. An estimated potential of 300,000 hectares of Salix plantations would result 5% of the energy needs in Sweden. Wood fuel from the conventional forest equals 60 TWh today, with a potential of being doubled within 10--20 years. The economic outcome for the farmer of growing Salix mainly depends on the price of chips and the level of production. A fundamental requirement for establishing plantations is that there is a wood fuel market within a reasonable distance (about 50 km). In a calculation stretching over a period of 24 years with a production level of 12 tonnes DM per hectare and year, and at an interest rate of 6%, the net return is about 1,000--1,500 SEK/ha/yr (about 7 SEK/US$) if simultaneous chipping is used. With separate harvest and chipping and enterprise in this calculation breaks even. Interest in the utilization of sludge, ash, waste water and leakage water as nutrients for energy forests is increasing from local and regional authorities.

  2. Micro-environmental changes induced by shape and size of forest openings: effects on Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi seedlings performance in a Pinus contorta plantation of Patagonia, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, L.; Urretavizcaya, M.F.; Defosse, G.E.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: to analyze, within a Pinus contorta plantation, the effects of artificially created small rectangular and small medium circular canopy gaps on: i) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and soil temperature and moisture, and ii) survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi seedlings, species which formerly composed the natural forest of the area. Study area: A 2 ha stand of a Pinus contorta stand in Los Alerces National Park, Argentina (42°43’S, 71°43’W, 490 m.a.s.l.). Material and methods: The Pinus contorta stand was 25 yr old, 22 m height and 26 cm DBH, presenting 1000 trees ha-1 of density and 53 m2 ha-1 of basal area. In 2009, rectangular and circular gaps were created within the stand and then seedlings were planted. During two growing seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012), PAR, soil temperature and moisture were measured in gaps and understory (control), and seedling survival and growth in gaps. Main results: During both seasons, soil temperature did not differ among gaps and control, whereas PAR and soil moisture were lower in control than in gaps. Seedling survival was high in all gaps regardless of species and season. Seedlings showed higher diameter growth in rectangular than in circular gaps. Research highlights: Austrocedrus chilensis and N. dombeyi seedlings survival is high and their growth slightly affected, when planted in differently-sized canopy gaps within a Pinus contorta plantation in Patagonia. However, other gap sizes and stand densities should be tested before recommending which one shows better results for reconverting monocultures into former native forests. Abbreviations used: PAR (Photosynthetic Active Radiation); DBH (Diameter at Breast Height); INTA (Argentinean Institute of Agricultural Technology); IFONA (Argentinean Forest Institute). (Author)

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production addressing different land conversion scenarios in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Akhir, Nurul Izzati Mat; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Awang, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    The environmental impacts with regard to agro-based biofuel production have been associated with the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, field GHG emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production associated with land use changes for oil palm plantation development have been evaluated. Three different sites of different land use changes prior to oil palm plantation were chosen; converted land-use (large and small-scales) and logged-over forest. Field sampling for determination of soil N-mineralisation and soil organic carbon (SOC) was undertaken at the sites according to the age of palm, i.e. 21 years (mature oil palms). The field data were incorporated into the estimation of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and the resulting CO 2 -eq emissions as well as for estimation of carbon stock changes. Irrespective of the land conversion scenarios, the nitrous oxide emissions were found in the range of 6.47-7.78 kg N 2 O-N/ha resulting in 498-590 kg CO 2 -eq/ha. On the other hand, the conversion of tropical forest into oil palm plantation has resulted in relatively higher GHG emissions (i.e. four times higher and carbon stock reduction by >50%) compared to converted land use (converted rubber plantation) for oil palm development. The conversion from previously rubber plantation into oil palm plantation would increase the carbon savings (20% in increase) thus sustaining the environmental benefits from the palm oil-based biofuel production.

  4. Assessing the impact of plantation forestry on plant biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ch. Braun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of plantation forestry on biodiversity are controversially discussed in literature. While some authors stress positive effects, others tend to attribute a largely negative influence to plantations. One important factor steering the influence on biodiversity are management practices. A second important factor is the environmental matrix. Chile offers the option to analyse both factors jointly. The coastal range of central Chile has experienced rapid and widespread replacement of native Nothofagus spp. forests in favour of Pinus radiata plantations. Here, native forests remain limited to small patches surrounded by an environmental matrix of plantations. Management is rather intensive and not designed to maintain biodiversity. While in the coastal range of central Chile the transformation from native forests to non-native tree plantations has almost come to an end, spatial extension of P. contorta and P. ponderosa plantations has just recently begun in Chilean Patagonia. While the management is similar to central Chile, plantations rather exist as small patches surrounded by an environmental matrix of native plant formations (e.g. Nothofagus spp. forests and Nothofagus spp. scrublands. In the framework of this work, effects of the two diametric land usages on biodiversity are assessed and compared. Biodiversity is assessed at the α-, β- and γ-scale. At the α-scale, biodiversity impacts are inferred statistically, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s PostHoc test. Biodiversity of plants at both sites is significantly reduced in plantations when compared to native forests or scrublands. Plantation forestry lowers α-biodiversity and does not provide additional habitats for specialists. At the β-scale, weak edge effects due to the presence of native forests are observed. In total, plantation forestry tends to promote plant invasions and impairs the survival of endemics. At the γ-scale, plant species communities where predominantly native

  5. A sensitivity analysis of "Forests on the Edge: Housing Development on America's Private Forests."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. White; Ralph J. Alig; Lisa G. Mahal; David M. Theobald

    2009-01-01

    The original Forests on the Edge report (FOTE 1) indicated that 44.2 million acres of private forest land was projected to experience substantial increases in residential development in the coming decades. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the FOTE 1 results to four factors: (1) use of updated private land and forest cover spatial data and a revised model...

  6. Development of a national forest inventory for carbon accounting purposes in New Zealand's planted Kyoto forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Moore; Ian Payton; Larry Burrows; Chris Goulding; Peter Beets; Paul Lane; Peter Stephens

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a monitoring system to estimate carbon sequestration in New Zealand's planted Kyoto forests, those forests that have been planted since January 1, 1990, on land that previously did not contain forest. The system must meet the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change good practice guidance and must be seen to be unbiased,...

  7. Drawbacks of mangrove rehabilitation schemes: Lessons learned from the large-scale mangrove plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuevo, Abner; Asaeda, Takashi; Sanjaya, Kelum; Kanesaka, Yoshikazu; Fortes, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Mangrove rehabilitation programs received much attention in the past decades as a response to widespread global degradation. While the documented successes and failures of mangrove rehabilitation accomplishments were varied, the objective and scheme is common, mainly focused on planting and creating monospecific plantations. This study assessed the structural development and complexity of the large-scale plantations in the central part of Philippines and compared it with the adjacent natural stand as reference. Our study showed that planted forest in both sites had lower structural complexity than the reference natural forest. Between sites, secondary succession in the monospecific plantation in Banacon Island was inhibited as reflected by low regeneration potential, whereas recruitment and colonization of non-planted species was promoted in Olango Island. Even 60 years after the forest was created in Banacon Island, it still lacked the understory of young cohorts which together comprise the regeneration potential that can supposedly add to the structural complexity. Although a potential seed source from adjacent natural forest is available, recruitment and colonization of non-planted species did not progress. MDS analysis of tree density data showed clustering of planted forest from the natural stand. The average SIMPER dissimilarity was 79.9% and the species with highest contributions were R. stylosa (74.6%), S. alba (11.1%) and A. marina (10.6%). Within the natural forest, the same species had the highest dissimilarity contribution, whereas in the planted forest, only R. stylosa contributed the highest dissimilarity. The same trend was also revealed in the MDS ordination analysis of diameter at breast height (DBH). A one-way ANOSIM permutation test of the density and DBH showed a significant difference between the planted and natural forests. Thus, as part of silviculture management intervention, the current practices of mangrove reforestation needs to be

  8. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  9. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  10. Automated Plantation Mapping in Indonesia Using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpatne, A.; Jia, X.; Khandelwal, A.; Kumar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation mapping is critical for understanding and addressing deforestation, a key driver of climate change and ecosystem degradation. Unfortunately, most plantation maps are limited to small areas for specific years because they rely on visual inspection of imagery. In this work, we propose a data-driven approach which automatically generates yearly plantation maps for large regions using MODIS multi-spectral data. While traditional machine learning algorithms face manifold challenges in this task, e.g. imperfect training labels, spatio-temporal data heterogeneity, noisy and high-dimensional data, lack of evaluation data, etc., we introduce a novel deep learning-based framework that combines existing imperfect plantation products as training labels and models the spatio-temporal relationships of land covers. We also explores the post-processing steps based on Hidden Markov Model that further improve the detection accuracy. Then we conduct extensive evaluation of the generated plantation maps. Specifically, by randomly sampling and comparing with high-resolution Digital Globe imagery, we demonstrate that the generated plantation maps achieve both high precision and high recall. When compared with existing plantation mapping products, our detection can avoid both false positives and false negatives. Finally, we utilize the generated plantation maps in analyzing the relationship between forest fires and growth of plantations, which assists in better understanding the cause of deforestation in Indonesia.

  11. Carbon budget and its response to environmental factors in young and mature poplar plantations along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinxing Zhou; Yuan Wei; Jun Yang; Xiaohui Yang; Zeping Jiang; Jiquan Chen; Asko Noormets; Xiaosong Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Although poplar forest is the dominant plantation type in China, there is uncertainty about the carbon budget of these forests across the country. The observations, performed in 2006, of two eddy covariance flux towers on a young poplar plantation (Yueyang, Hunan province) and a mature poplar plantation (Huaining, Anhui province) provide an opportunity to understand...

  12. Using a Density-Management Diagram to Develop Thinning Schedules for Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Dean; V. Clark Baldwin

    1993-01-01

    A method for developing thinning schedules using a density-management diagram is presented. A density-management diagram is a form of stocking chart based on patterns of natural stand development. The diagram allows rotation diameter and the upper and lower limits of growing stock to be easily transformed into before and after thinning densities. Site height lines on...

  13. Forests and global warming mitigation in Brazil: opportunities in the Brazilian forest sector for responses to global warming under the 'clean development mechanism''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol created global warming response opportunities through the clean development mechanism that allow countries like Brazil to receive investments from companies and governments wishing to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases. Brazil has a special place in strategies for combating global warming because its vast areas of tropical forest represent a potentially large source of emissions if deforested. A number of issues need to be settled to properly assign credit for carbon in the types of options presented by the Brazilian forest sector. These include definition of the units of carbon (permanent sequestration versus carbon-ton-years, the latter being most appropriate for forest options), the means of crediting forest reserve establishment, adoption of discounting or other time-preference weighting for carbon, definition of the accounting method (avoided emissions versus stock maintenance), and mechanism to allow program contributions to be counted, rather than restricting consideration to free-standing projects. Silvicultural plantations offer opportunities for carbon benefits, but have high social impacts in the Brazilian context. Plantations also inherently compete with deforestation reduction options for funds. Forest management has been proposed as a global warming response option, but the assignment of any value to time makes this unattractive in terms of carbon benefits. However, reduced-impact logging can substantially reduce emissions over those from traditional logging practices. Slowing deforestation is the major opportunity offered by Brazil. Slowing deforestation will require understanding its causes and creating functional models capable of generating land-use change scenarios with and without different policy changes and other activities. Brazil already has a number of programs designed to slow deforestation, but the continued rapid loss of forest highlights the vast gulf that exists between the magnitude of the problem and the

  14. Energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, J M

    1981-12-01

    Firewood is the chief of source of energy in Arunachal Pradesh. The entire quantity of fuelwood is collected from the adjoining forests by the villagers as a matter of traditional right. The use of gobar gas plant is uneconomical because of the lower temperatures prevailing in major portions of the year. The anticipated requirement of fuelwood for 1990 and 2000 is of the order of 5.88 and 8.23 million m/sup 3/, respectively. Through the present fuelwood requirements have not attained critical dimensions, the hacking of forests in and around the habitations is creating serious environmental problems. Programs have been initiated for raising energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh. An outline of the programs underway and projects proposed are presented. The main problem in implementation are inadequacy of funds. The removal of this constraint will help in solving the anticipated energy crisis in this area at the same time affording sufficient environmental protection.

  15. Impact of savanna conversion to oil palm plantations on C stocks dynamics and soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Guillaume, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Ruegg, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale expansion of oil palm cultivation on forested land in South-East Asia during the last decades lead to high negative environmental impacts. Because rainforests store high amount of C, their conversion to oil palm plantations results in large net CO2 emissions. Oil palm cultivation in tropical ecosystems such as savanna that store less C than forests is seen as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of future oil palm development. While this option is more and more frequently mentioned, few data are available on the effective gain in C storage. Furthermore negative impact on soil organic carbon and soil fertility could offset gains of C storage in oil palm biomass. Here, we present results on aboveground and belowground C stocks and soil nutrient dynamics over a full rotation cycle of oil palm plantations established on tropical savanna grasslands. Three natural savanna grasslands as reference sites and 9 oil palm plantations ranging from two to twenty-seven years old were selected in the Llanos in Colombia. Oxisols were sampled down to 70 cm in each management zones of oil palm plantations (weeded circle, interrow, frond piles and harvesting path). Taking advantages of a shift from C4 to C3 vegetation, we quantified savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates and how they were affected by management practices (mineral fertilization, organic amendments, etc.). Results show that, in opposite to forest conversion, C storage increases when savannas are converted to oil palm plantations. Because soil C storage was very low in natural conditions, SOC changes had little effects on overall C storage. Substitution of savanna-derived SOC by oil palm-derived SOC was very fast in the topsoil and highest under frond pile and weeded circle where C and nutrients inputs are highest. However, stabilization of oil palm-derived SOC compensated loss of savanna-derived SOC rather than increased SOC stocks

  16. Mapping Deciduous Rubber Plantation Areas and Stand Ages with PALSAR and Landsat Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by integration of PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. The L-band PALSAR 50-m mosaic images were used to map forests (including both natural forests and rubber trees and non-forests. For those PALSAR-based forest pixels, we analyzed the multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We first studied phenological signatures of deciduous rubber plantations (defoliation and foliation and natural forests through analysis of surface reflectance, Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and generated a map of rubber plantations in 2009. We then analyzed phenological signatures of rubber plantations with different stand ages and generated a map, in 2009, of rubber plantation stand ages (≤5, 6–10, >10 years-old based on multi-temporal Landsat images. The resultant maps clearly illustrated how rubber plantations have expanded into the mountains in the study area over the years. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of integrating microwave (e.g., PALSAR and optical remote sensing in the characterization of rubber plantations and their expansion over time.

  17. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  18. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur P. A. Pereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0–20 cm and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E and A. mangium (A plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N and an E. grandis, and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A. The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient (qCO2 showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our

  19. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  20. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Arthur P. A.; Zagatto, Maurício R. G.; Brandani, Carolina B.; Mescolotti, Denise de Lourdes; Cotta, Simone R.; Gonçalves, José L. M.; Cardoso, Elke J. B. N.

    2018-01-01

    Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0–20 cm) and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E) and A. mangium (A) plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N) and an E. grandis, and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A). The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A) increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient (qCO2) showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF) and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our results are

  1. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Arthur P A; Zagatto, Maurício R G; Brandani, Carolina B; Mescolotti, Denise de Lourdes; Cotta, Simone R; Gonçalves, José L M; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2018-01-01

    Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0-20 cm) and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E) and A. mangium (A) plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N) and an E. grandis , and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A). The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A) increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient ( q CO 2 ) showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF) and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our results

  2. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  3. Plantation Development in the Turkana Basin: The Making of a New Desert?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. J. Stevenson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 20th century, “desert reclamation” has been synonymous with large-scale waterworks and irrigation. These techniques have made it possible to produce abundant crops in arid or semi-arid environments. The costs have often been externalized, with increased environmental productivity in the new croplands counterbalanced by increased aridity elsewhere. In this paper I consider whose interests are served by such projects, and what kinds of social constructions of the natural and human environment make them possible. I focus on the Turkana basin, a watershed spanning the Ethiopian and Kenyan borders, where large dams and irrigation projects are currently being established with the goal of producing cash crops and hydro-electricity. In the narratives of the projects’ proponents, the schemes are represented as part of a tradition of development stretching back to the American West. In the discourse of critics, the Aral Sea of Central Asia is frequently invoked. Considering Turkana in relation to these cases sheds light on the political and ecological gambits involved in desert reclamation, and helps us to understand the costs and benefits of such projects.

  4. Environmental and Social Impacts of Oil Palm Plantations and their Implications for Biofuel Production in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystof Obidzinski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of oil palm with linkages to biofuel in Indonesia and analyzes the associated environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We selected three plantation study sites in West Papua (Manokwari, West Kalimantan (Kubu Raya, and Papua (Boven Digoel to assess the impacts. Research findings indicate that the development of oil palm in all three sites has caused deforestation, resulting in significant secondary external impacts such as water pollution, soil erosion, and air pollution. In terms of social impacts, many stakeholder groups, i.e., employees, out-growers, and investing households, report significant gains. However, we found these benefits were not evenly distributed. Other stakeholders, particularly traditional landowners, experienced restrictions on traditional land use rights and land losses. We observed increasing land scarcity, rising land prices, and conflicts over land in all sites. Three major trade-offs are associated with the development of oil palm plantations, including those related to biofuels: unevenly distributed economic benefits are generated at the cost of significant environmental losses; there are some winners but also many losers; and economic gains accrue at the expense of weak rule of law. To reduce the negative impacts and trade-offs of oil palm plantations and maximize their economic potential, government decision makers need to restrict the use of forested land for plantation development, enforce existing regulations on concession allocation and environmental management, improve monitoring of labor practices, recognize traditional land use rights, and make land transfer agreements involving customary land more transparent and legally binding.

  5. Differences in nitrogen cycling and soil mineralisation between a eucalypt plantation and a mixed eucalypt and #Acacia mangium# plantation on a sandy tropical soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tchichelle, Sogni Viviane; Epron, Daniel; Mialoundama, Fidèle; Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Harmand, Jean-Michel; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Mareschal, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable wood production requires appropriate management of commercial forest plantations. Establishment of industrial eucalypt plantations on poor sandy soils leads to a high loss of nutrients including nitrogen (N) after wood harvesting. An ecological intensification of eucalypt plantations was tested with the replacement of half of the Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis by Acacia mangium in the eucalypt monoculture to sustain soil fertility through enhancement of the N biological cycle. ...

  6. Impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the avian breeding community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nesting bird species in natural forests and Eucalyptus plantations on the Amani Plateau, East Usambara, were studied during the breeding season of September 2003 to March 2004. Some forest birds — like barbets, batis, broadbills, doves, flycatchers, greenbuls, hornbills, and tinkerbirds — utilised similar nest sites ...

  7. Solid-wood production from temperate eucalypt plantations: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1988, there has been a major focus in Tasmania on research for the management of temperate eucalypt plantations for solid wood. This coincided with the formal transfer of large areas of native forest that had previously been part of the production forest estate into reserves, a decision that triggered the establishment ...

  8. A Survey on the Usage of Biomass Wastes from Palm Oil Mills on Sustainable Development of Oil Palm Plantations in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, K. Y.; Lau, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    As one of the world’s largest palm oil producers and exporters, Malaysia is committed to sustainable management of this industry to address the emerging environmental challenges. This descriptive study aims to evaluate the oil palm planters’ opinions regarding the usage of biomass wastes from palm oil mills and its impact on sustainable development of oil palm plantations in Sarawak. 253 planters across Sarawak were approached for their opinions about the usage of empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), mesocarp fibre (MF), and palm kernel shell (PKS). This study revealed that the planters had generally higher agreement on the beneficial application of EFB and POME in oil palm plantations. This could be seen from the higher means of agreement rating of 3.64 - 4.22 for EFB and POME, compared with the rating of 3.19 - 3.41 for MF and PKS in the 5-point Likert scale (with 5 being the strongest agreement). Besides, 94.7 percent of the planters’ companies were found to comply with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requirements where nearly 38 percent carried out the EIA practice twice a year. Therefore high means of agreement were correlated to the compliance of environmental regulations, recording a Likert rating of 3.89 to 4.31. Lastly, the usage of EFB and POME also gained higher Likert scale point of 3.76 to 4.17 against MF and PKS of 3.34 to 3.49 in the evaluation of the impact of sustainability in oil palm plantations. The planters agreed that the usage of EFB and POME has reduced the environmental impact and improved the sustainable development, and its application has been improved and increased by research and development. However the planters were uncertain of the impact of usage of biomass wastes with respect to the contribution to social responsibility and company image in terms of transparency in waste management.

  9. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taijun Li

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p < 0.001. The C carrying capacity of the plantations was measured at 166.4 Mg C ha-1 (1 Mg = 106 g in the semi-humid zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010. However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y. The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011, yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y. The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y, the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration.

  10. Regional Mapping of Plantation Extent Using Multisensor Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbick, N.; Ledoux, L.; Hagen, S.; Salas, W.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial forest plantations are expanding rapidly across the tropics and monitoring extent is critical for understanding environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In this study, new, multisensor imagery were evaluated and integrated to extract the strengths of each sensor for mapping plantation extent at regional scales. Three distinctly different landscapes with multiple plantation types were chosen to consider scalability and transferability. These were Tanintharyi, Myanmar, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, and southern Ghana. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2), and Sentinel-1A images were fused within a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) framework using random forest and high-resolution surveys. Multi-criteria evaluations showed both L-and C-band gamma nought γ° backscatter decibel (dB), Landsat reflectance ρλ, and texture indices were useful for distinguishing oil palm and rubber plantations from other land types. The classification approach identified 750,822 ha or 23% of the Taninathryi, Myanmar, and 216,086 ha or 25% of western West Kalimantan as plantation with very high cross validation accuracy. The mapping approach was scalable and transferred well across the different geographies and plantation types. As archives for Sentinel-1, Landsat-8, and PALSAR-2 continue to grow, mapping plantation extent and dynamics at moderate resolution over large regions should be feasible.

  11. Louisiana’s Palustris Experimental Forest: 75 years of research that transformed the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; James D. Haywood; Henry A. Pearson

    2011-01-01

    The Palustris Experimental Forest, located on Kisatchie National Forest, has been in existence for 75 years. Research at Palustris has focused on southern pine reforestation technology, including seed production, bareroot nursery production, direct seeding, and planting container seedlings. After establishing pine plantations, researchers developed stand management...

  12. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against Nplantations increased the soil N concentration under the mixed-species stand (N>0.06%) compared to under the pure eucalypt stand (N1% in the mixed stand and CEucalyptus stand).

  13. Long-term simulations of forest management impacts on carbon storage from loblolly pine plantations in the Southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huei-Jin Wang; Philip J. Radtke; Stephen P. Prisley

    2012-01-01

    Accounting for forest components in carbon accounting systems may be insufficient when substantial amounts of sequestered carbon are harvested and converted to wood products in use and in landfill. The potential of forest offset – in-woods aboveground carbon storage, carbon stored in harvested wood, and energy offset by burning harvested wood – from loblolly pine...

  14. Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H E

    1974-11-08

    ' grand scheme of vegetational climax-created soon after Davis's model of landform development-can be evaluated in terms of modern knowledge. Disillusion with the climax model paralleled disillusion with Davis's model in the 1950's, but the climax model can be tested, because the record of vegetational history is accessible, datable, and decipherable. In the short term of a few decades, successional vegetation stages occur in variety of situations, as confirmed by observation or by techniques such as tree-ring analysis. The successional vegetation stages are reactions to nutrients, weather, competition, and consumption. Such succession implies long-term disequilibrium, or at least unidirectional development. The long-term controlling factor in Clements' model of vegetation development is climate. With climatic stability the succession will proceed to a climax. In the Appalachian Mountains, geomorphic, microclimatic, and edaphic conditions limit climax development, producing a polyclimax, which is generally sustained by the dominance of these factors. Death and regeneration of single forest trees is controlled mostly by windstorms. The distributional pattern may be locally transected by lightning fires, major windstorms, or washouts. However, the long-term stability of Appalachian forests is demonstrated by pollen stratigraphy. Although we can infer the long-term stability of Appalachian forests, the trends and mechanics of short-term vegetational succession are not fully understood, because lack of sizable areas of virgin forest limits investigations of natural conditions. In this respect, the eastern United States is already much like western Europe, where climatic and disturbance factors in vegetational history cannot be disentangled. In the Great Lakes region, a large area of virgin forest exists in the BWCA of northeastern Minnesota. Here short- and long-term studies show that for at least 9000 years the principal stabilizing factor has been the frequent occurrence of

  15. Biomass production in forest plantations used as raw material for industry and energy. Final report. Biomasseproduktion in forstlichen Plantagen fuer die Rohstoff- und Energiegewinnung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, M.R.; Muhs, H.J.

    1986-10-01

    European aspen (Populus tremula), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), and their hybrids (hybrid aspen) are short-rotation, fast growing forest tree species, that apparently hold potential for biomass and energy production. Because of inherent difficulties in vegetative propagation in aspen, it has not been possible to propagate selected aspen and hybrid aspen tress on a large scale. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop unconventional methods of vegetative propagation in aspen that can easily be adapted to nursery practices and are also cost-effective. Explants from buds, leaves, stems, and roots were cultured on a modified Woody Plant Medium for the purposes of microvegetative propagation. Protoplasts were also cultured for regenerative studies. Mainly the bud explants were employed for microvegetative propagation. A 2-step micropropagation method, which is commmercially feasible, has been developed for aspen. This method involves: (1) culture of bud explants on a medium for bud conditioning and microshoot proliferation, and (2) rooting of microshoots in peat-perlite mix. By employing this 2-step micropropagation method, several thousand plants have been regenerated from about 50 mature selected aspen and hybrid aspen trees ranging from 1 to 40 years of age. Following transfer to field conditions, tissue culture derived plants exhibited vigorous growth and attained a height of 1.5-2 meters in the first growing season. (orig.) With 23 refs., 1 tab., 20 figs.

  16. A closer look at forests on the edge: future development on private forests in three states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric White; Rhonda. Mazza

    2008-01-01

    Privately owned forests provide many public benefits, including clean water and air, wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities. By 2030, 44.2 million acres of rural private forest land across the conterminous United States are projected to experience substantial increases in residential development. As housing density increases, the public benefits provided by...

  17. Overview of approaches to sustain forest productivity during forest road development and timber harvesting activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Blinn; Rick Dahlamn; James A. Mattson; Michael A. Thompson

    1999-01-01

    Various approaches are available to minimize impacts on forest productivity during forest road building and timber harvesting activities. These approaches include a variety of practices and technologies. They include practices such as reducing road and trail development, using designated trails, and leaving slash at the stump on nutrient deficient sites. Technology...

  18. Width of riparian buffer and structure of adjacent plantations influence occupancy of conservation priority birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; T. Bently Wigley; M. Anthony Melchiors; Ronald E. Thill; Philip A. Tappe; Darren A. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity on forest landscapes dominated by plantations has become an increasingly important topic, and opportunities to maintain or enhance biodiversity within these forests need to be recognized and applied. Riparian buffers of mature forest retained along streams in managed forest landscapes offer an opportunity to enhance biodiversity across...

  19. Intra-and-Inter Species Biomass Prediction in a Plantation Forest: Testing the Utility of High Spatial Resolution Spaceborne Multispectral RapidEye Sensor and Advanced Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Dube

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of aboveground biomass using remote sensing is critical for better understanding the role of forests in carbon sequestration and for informed sustainable management. Although remote sensing techniques have been proven useful in assessing forest biomass in general, more is required to investigate their capabilities in predicting intra-and-inter species biomass which are mainly characterised by non-linear relationships. In this study, we tested two machine learning algorithms, Stochastic Gradient Boosting (SGB and Random Forest (RF regression trees to predict intra-and-inter species biomass using high resolution RapidEye reflectance bands as well as the derived vegetation indices in a commercial plantation. The results showed that the SGB algorithm yielded the best performance for intra-and-inter species biomass prediction; using all the predictor variables as well as based on the most important selected variables. For example using the most important variables the algorithm produced an R2 of 0.80 and RMSE of 16.93 t·ha−1 for E. grandis; R2 of 0.79, RMSE of 17.27 t·ha−1 for P. taeda and R2 of 0.61, RMSE of 43.39 t·ha−1 for the combined species data sets. Comparatively, RF yielded plausible results only for E. dunii (R2 of 0.79; RMSE of 7.18 t·ha−1. We demonstrated that although the two statistical methods were able to predict biomass accurately, RF produced weaker results as compared to SGB when applied to combined species dataset. The result underscores the relevance of stochastic models in predicting biomass drawn from different species and genera using the new generation high resolution RapidEye sensor with strategically positioned bands.

  20. Proceedings of the 3. KEFRI Scientific Conference. Forestry Research in Environmental Conservation, Improved Livelihoods and Economic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchiri, M.N; Kamondo, B; Ochieng, D.; Tuwei, P.; Wanjiku, J.

    2007-01-01

    The papers presented in this conference covered a wide range of topics on forestry research. The theme of the conference was 'Forest research for enhancement of environmental conservation, livelihood and economic development'. The objective was to share recent research findings and technologies among forest scientists, extension staff, forest managers and investors. The papers presented in this conference covered the areas of : farm forestry, natural forests, dry land forestry, plantation forests, socio-economic and policy and forest extension and education

  1. A principal component approach for predicting the stem volume in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Veraldo Liesenberg; Samuel P. C. e Carvalho; Luiz C. E. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Improving management practices in industrial forest plantations may increase production efficiencies, thereby reducing pressures on native tropical forests for meeting global pulp needs. This study aims to predict stem volume (V) in plantations of fast-growing Eucalyptus hybrid clones located in southeast Brazil using field plot and airborne Light Detection...

  2. Accounting of forest resources in the framework of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zamula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, deforestation of territories and degradation of forest resources is a global problem as it leads to a climate change, soil degradation, the decline in natural reproduction of forest resources and to the disappearance of many valuable species of forest cultures. Due to the importance of the preservation of forest resources for environment it is necessary to revise the conceptual approach to the reflection of such resources both at the micro- and at the macroeconomic level. Preservation, rational use and reproduction of forest resources is one of the priorities of forestry development inUkraine. Accounting is a tool which allows to form the information about the condition and availability of forest resources. In this regard, we consider that the accounting information is an important tool for the preservation of forest assets and the reduction of anthropogenic impacts on these slowly recovering natural resources. The reflection of forest resources in accounting should be implemented on the basis of the rules defined in the P(S BU 30 called «Biological Assets» and IAS 41 called «Agriculture». In addition, we consider that while reflecting of forest resources in accounting it’s necessary to take into account the life cycle of the tree stand which consists of several stages where each one should be taken into account in the recognition of expenses on their reproduction. For the formation of analytical cuts of the costs of care for the forest resources and their protection is proposed to open the following 3 sub-accounts to the account 155 called «Expenses on the formation of forest resources»: the first is «Expenses on the landing of forest cultures», the second is «Expenses on care for forest resources» and the third one is «Expenses on the protection of forest resources». Sustainable forest management involves the reproduction of forest resources. One of the main criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of forest management

  3. Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    1995-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

  4. Poplar plantation has the potential to alter the water balance in semiarid inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard Wilske; Long Wei; Shiping Chen; Tonggang Zha; Chenfeng Liu; Wenting Xu; Asko Noormets; Jianhui Haung; Yafen Wei; Jun Chen; Zhiqiang Zhang; Jian Ni; Ge Sun; Kirk Guo; Steve McNulty; Ranjeet John; Xiangguo Han; Guanghui Lin; Jiquan Chen

    2009-01-01

    Poplar plantation is the most dominant broadleaf forest type in northern China. Since the mid-1990s plantation was intensified to combat desertification along China’s northwestern border, i.e., within Inner Mongolia (IM). This evoked much concern regarding the ecological and environmental effects on areas that naturally grow grass or shrub vegetation. To highlight...

  5. Management of Eucalyptus plantations influence small mammals’ density: evidences from Southern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, D; Carrilho, M; Mexia, T; Kobel, M; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Rosalino, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Forestry plantations, and particularly those of exotic Eucalyptus, are important man-made systems in Europe, and especially in Portugal, where these represent now the largest fraction of forested areas. Eucalyptus plantations may have impacts on vertebrate communities in Europe; however, these have

  6. Perspectives on site productivity of loblolly pine plantations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Vance; Felipe G. Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    Pine plantations in the U.S. South include some of the most intensively managed and productive forests in the world. Studies have been established in recent decades to answer questions about whether the productivity of these plantations is sustainable. While intensive management practices greatly enhance tree growth, their effects on factors controlling growth...

  7. Intercrops under coconut plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The successes of growing intercrops under coconut plantations are controlled by environmental factors which are influenced by the coconut growth and characters, interception of solar radiation, as well as the coconut space and system of planting. Assuming that soil fertility be able to be manipulated by certain treatments, then climatic factors become priority to be considered for selection of intercrops. Coconut palms grow well on areas of 500 m asl., 27-32 deg. C temperature, and 1,500-3,000 mm in annual rainfall with even distribution throughout the year. Each kind (tall, dwarf, hybrid) of coconut performs specific growth characters, mainly on its root system and canopy coverage, as well as general conditions due to its growth phase (young, productive, senile). Above such conditions greatly influence the kind of crops suitable for development under coconut trees. However space and system of coconut planting give various conditions of interception solar radiation to ground surface, which means by manipulating both space and system, environmental requirement is able to be achieved accordingly [in

  8. Effects of understory vegetation and litter on plant nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, N:P ratio and their relationships with growth rate of indigenous seedlings in subtropical plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N], phosphorus ([P], and N:P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation. We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N:P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N:P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N:P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N:P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth.

  9. WET AND DRY SEASON ECOSYSTEM LEVEL FLUXES OF ISOPRENE AND MONOTERPENES FROM A SOUTHEAST ASIAN SECONDARY FOREST AND RUBBER TREE PLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canopy scale fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were investigated in both wet and dry seasons above a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)/secondary tropical forest in the Yunnan province of southwestern China. Drought conditions were unusually high during the dry season experiment....

  10. Estimating forest conversion rates with annual forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2009-01-01

    The rate of land-use conversion from forest to nonforest or natural forest to forest plantation is of interest for forest certification purposes and also as part of the process of assessing forest sustainability. Conversion rates can be estimated from remeasured inventory plots in general, but the emphasis here is on annual inventory data. A new estimator is proposed...

  11. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF THE ARBOREAL AND NATURAL REGENERATION STRATA IN A BLACK-WATTLE (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. PLANTATION IN THE REGION OF SEMIDECIDUIS SEASONAL FORESTS OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Mochiutti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the structure and floristic composition of the regeneration of native forest species under black-wattle plantation, established 16 years ago in a riparian area, and it verifies the possibility of the black-wattle be considered an invasive species of this environment. The tree stratum (circumference at breast height (CBH ≥15 cm was evaluated in 12 plots of 100 m2, established in four blocks. The natural regeneration stratum (0.3 m height to <15 cm CBH was evaluated in two subplots of 9 m2, established in opposite vertexes of each plot. The tree stratum was composed by 26 species of 14 families and the natural regeneration stratum by 49 species of 23 families. The Shannon diversity index for species, considering all plots, was 2.60 and 3.06 to the tree and natural regeneration strata, respectively. The native species, Casearia sylvestris, Myrsine lorentziana and Zanthoxylum petiolare presented the larger importance value in the tree stratum and Faramea marginata, Myrsine lorentziana and Myrcia glabra the biggest density in the natural regeneration stratum. The ecological characteristics of the species found in several height strata indicated that the forest succession process is in evolution. The black-wattle did not regenerate in this area and the planted trees of this species are in the senescence phase. Only 100 tree/ha of black-wattle were found, which represents 4.5% of the original population. Thus, black-wattle is not an invasive species for this environment.

  12. Development of Community Forest in South Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Syahrany Noor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the development of community forests in South Kalimantan and information about the properties and benefits of community forest timber, the hopes community forests timber can be developed into a source of raw materials of natural forest wood substitute that can support the development of the wood processing industry in South Kalimantan. The result showed that Community forest proved to be very useful both for the owner, the community and the environment as well as for the government especially in order to meet the timber supply for local. Until the year 2011 the community forest area that was developed by the government in South Kalimantan has reached 2,895 ha, and the most widely are the Tanah Laut district covering 935 ha. The wood species that developed is sengon, jati, mahoni, karet, petai, akasia, galam, kemiri. The properties of the wood need to be understood and known before the relevant timber used both as a building material or as raw material for the industry, because these properties are basically determining the quality of wood products that will be produced. Technically private community forest wood can be used for building materials, components boat/ship and industrial raw materials.

  13. From research plots to prototype biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A.; Vanstone, B.J.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biomass energy plantations is now expanding from the research plot phase into the next level of development at larger scale plantings. This is necessary to provide: more accurate information on biomass yields, realistic production cost figures, venues to test harvesting equipment, demonstration sites for potential producers, and a supply of feedstock for prototype conversion facilities. The paper will discuss some of these objectives and some of the challenges encountered in the scale-up process associated with a willow prototype plantation project currently under development in Eastern Canada.

  14. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  15. Quantifying and mapping spatial variability in simulated forest plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin R. Corral; Harold E. Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    We used computer simulations to test the efficacy of multivariate statistical methods to detect, quantify, and map spatial variability of forest stands. Simulated stands were developed of regularly-spaced plantations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We assumed no affects of competition or mortality, but random variability was added to individual tree characteristics...

  16. [Soil soluble organic matter, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities in forest plantations in degraded red soil region of Jiangxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-mei; Chen, Cheng-long; Xu, Zhi-hong; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Ouyang, Jing; Wang, Fang

    2010-09-01

    Taking the adjacent 18-year-old pure Pinus massoniana pure forest (I), P. massoniana, Liquidamber fomosana, and Schima superba mixed forest (II), S. superba pure forest (III), L. fomosana (IV) pure forest, and natural restoration fallow land (CK) in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province as test sites, a comparative study was made on their soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), and soil urease and asparaginase activities. In 0-10 cm soil layer, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN at test sites ranged in 354-1007 mg x kg(-1), 24-73 mg x kg(-1), 203-488 mg x kg(-1), and 24-65 mg x kg(-1), and the soil urease and asparaginase activities were 95-133 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 58-113 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. There were significant differences in the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the asparaginase activity among the test sites, but no significant difference was observed in the urease activity. The pool sizes of SOC and SON were in the order of IV > CK > III > I > II, those of MBC and MBN were in the order of CK > IV > III > I > II, and asparaginase activity followed the order of IV > CK > III > II > I. With the increase of soil depth, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the activities of soil asparaginase and urease decreased. In 0-20 cm soil layer, the SOC, SON, MBC, MBN, total C, and total N were highly correlated with each other, soil asparaginase activity was highly correlated with SOC, SON, TSN, total C, total N, MBC, and MBN, and soil urease activity was highly correlated with SON, TSN, total C, MBC and MBN.

  17. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam.

    OpenAIRE

    Diele, Karen.; Tran Ngoc, D M.; Geist, S J.; Meyer, F.; Pham, Q H.; Saint-Paul, Ulrich.; Triet, Tran.; Berger, Uta.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18–20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand...

  18. Economic efficiency in forest service program development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Hrubes

    1984-01-01

    This report analyzes the procedures used in three regions of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, for selecting the projects that constitute their annual program budget. Personnel at the Southwest (R-3), Pacific Southwest (R-5), and Southern (R-8) Regions were interviewed during September and October 1982. Of special concern was the extent to which...

  19. Forest Ecosystem services and development pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear

    2006-01-01

    Ecosystem services from forests on private lands are often under-produced because landowners bear the cost of restoring, preserving, and managing their lands to produce ecological services that benefit all members of the community or larger society. Over the last two decades, a variety of federal and state programs have applied a combination of regulations, extension,...

  20. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  1. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    OpenAIRE

    Brilliant Asmit; Deddy P. Koesrindartoto

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify ...

  2. Evaluating forest land development effects on private forestry in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that forest land development can reduce the productivity of remaining forest land because private forest owners reduce their investments in forest management. We developed empirical models describing forest stocking, thinning, harvest, and postharvest tree planting in eastern Oregon, as functions of stand and site characteristics, ownership, and...

  3. Sustainable Development in Northern Africa: The Argan Forest Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dom Guillaume

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree is a slow growing tree exclusively endemic in the dry lowlands of Southwest Morocco. The argan forest constitutes a long time ignored specific biotope that has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1998. The argan forest is particularly fragile to climate change. Forecasts show annual precipitation levels and prolonged drought periods that could severely threaten the future of the argan forest. In some places, the argan forest is already damaged, resulting in the retreat of the argan tree and the subsequent desert encroachment. An acceleration of this trend would have devastating consequences. In response, some twenty years ago, an ambitious, unique in Northern-Africa, and government-supported program was initiated in Morocco to rescue the argan tree via the sustainable development of the argan forest. Because in the late 1980s, sustainable development in developing countries was often considered as a utopia, the argan forest case represents a sign of progress, as it is also an interesting and unique experience in Africa. This review analyses the process followed, the measures taken, the pitfalls encountered, and the results obtained during the last two decades. It also points out the measures that still need to be taken before declaring the argan forest rescue mission is accomplished.

  4. The push for plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben; Casse, Thorkil; Nielsen, Thomas Theis

    2013-01-01

    We observe signs of social differentiation, where poor households end up serving as causal labour for the richer families on their acacia plantations. In addition, the poor can be rendered more vulnerable after becoming labourers, because they may not longer have an alternative source of income, ...

  5. Crescimento em altura do pau-ferro (Astronium balansae em reflorestamento Height growth of pau-ferro (Astroniumn balansae in a plantation forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado, através da técnica de análise de tronco, o crescimento em altura do pau-ferro (Astronium balansae, em reflorestamento com doze anos de idade, no município de São Sepé - RS, permitindo quantificar e descrever o crescimento cumulativo e em forma de taxas anuais médias e correntes em função da idade. Os dados de uma árvore do estrato dominante e uma do estrato dominado foram modelados através do procedimento "Stepwise" de regressão, sendo obtidas equações de alta precisão e ajuste para descrever o crescimento, o incremento médio e corrente anual da espécie. No período de tempo coberto pelos dados, o culmínio do incremento corrente em altura ocorreu aos seis anos e do incremento médio entre o oitavo e nono ano. na árvore dominante, não devendo entretanto, esta constatação ser tomada como definitiva antes da medição do crescimento em árvores mais velhas, o que permitirá verificar ou não a continuidade da queda das taxas de incremento. Não foi possível determinar as idades de culmínio do incrementos na árvore dominada.The growth in height of Astronium balansae, in a twelve years old plantation stand, in the county of São Sepé-RS, was evaluated by a trunk analyses, allowing to quantify and describe lhe cumulative growth and the average annual and the current rates as a function of the tree age. The data from one dominant tree and from one dominated were modeled by a stepwise regression procedure. High precision equations were fitted to describe the height growth of the specie. During the time period observed, culminating of the current increment in height happened at six years and the respective average increment between the eighty and ninety years age, in the dominant tree. However. this observation should not be taken as final; only after determinatios in older trees are made, which will verify or not the decline in the growth rates. It was no possible to determine the ages at which the incremements

  6. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2004-11-04

    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  7. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diele, K.; Tran Ngoc, D. M.; Geist, S. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Pham, Q. H.; Saint-Paul, U.; Tran, T.; Berger, U.

    2013-11-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18-20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand served as control and was compared with typhoon gaps where downed stems had been removed or left on-site. The gaps were 14 and 20 months old when studied in the dry and rainy season 2008, respectively. Time-based sampling of ground-dwelling crabs with hand or shovel was conducted by 4 persons inside 100 m2 plots for 30 min (7 replicate plots per area, treatment and month). Abiotic (sediment pH, salinity, temperature, grain size, water content, carbon and nitrogen content), and biotic measures (e.g. canopy coverage, woody debris, number of trees, leaf litter) were also taken. Despite complete canopy loss, total crab abundance has not changed significantly (in contrast to biomass) and all 12 species found in the forest were also found in the gaps, demonstrating their robustness. Another 9 gap-exclusive species were recorded and average species number and Shannon diversity were thus higher in the gaps. Perisesarma eumolpe was the most abundant species, both in the forest and in the gaps, and a shift from sesarmids (typical forest species) to ocypodids (generally more prominent in open areas) has not occurred. The persistence of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs prior to the re-establishment of a mangrove canopy is likely to depend on the availability of woody debris on the ground of the gaps, fuelling a mangrove detritus based food web, rather than one based on microphytobenthos and deposit-feeding ocypodids. The presence of burrowing crabs in the gaps suggests that important

  8. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-16

    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  9. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  10. Biomass harvesting in Eucalyptus plantations in Western Australia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia is at an early stage of exploring the use of forest biomass to generate energy. This study evaluated the biomass yield and the productivity rates of equipment for harvesting biomass in a poor-quality eucalypt plantation. The operation consisted of a tracked feller-buncher, grapple skidder and mobile chipper.

  11. Nutritional sustainability of Eucalyptus plantations : a case study at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional sustainability of a short-rotation Eucalyptus grandis plantation system was evaluated in a trial located at Karkloof, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, by determining nutrient pools and fluxes. Nutrient pools in the forest floor and biomass (above- and below-ground) were assessed by destructive sampling. The size ...

  12. Forest managment options for sequestering carbon in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masera, O.R.; Bellon, M.R.; Segura, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies and examines economic response options to avoid carbon emissions and increase carbon sequestration in Mexican forests. A ''Policy'' scenario covering the years 2000, 2010 and 2030 and a ''Technical Potential'' scenario (year 2030) are developed to examine the potential carbon sequestration and costs of each response option. Benefit-cost analyses for three case studies, including management of a pulpwood plantation, a native temperate forest and a native tropical evergreen forest are presented and discussed. The study suggests that a large potential for reducing carbon emissions and increasing carbon sequestration exists in Mexican forests. However, the achievement of this potential will require important reforms to the current institutional setting of the forest sector. The management of native temperate and tropical forests offers the most promising alternatives for carbon sequestration. The cost effectiveness of commercial plantations critically depends on very high site productivity. Restoration of degraded forest lands; particularly through the establishment of energy plantations, also shows a large carbon sequestration potential. (Author)

  13. Development of Forest Population Biology and Biogeocenology in the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The priority directions, concepts, approaches, methods and results of half a century investigations of forest genetics, ecology, geography and biogeocenology in the Ural school of population biology of woody plants are briefly discussed. The results of quantitative genetic-ecologic-geographical studies of the forests based on population approaches as well as main theoretic generalizations are presented, to assist possible interpretation and development of future investigations.

  14. Forecasting forest development through modeling based on the legacy of forest structure over the past 43 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Baskent

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Sustainable management of forest ecosystems requires comprehensive coverage of data to reflect both the historical legacy and the future development of forests.  This study focuses on analyzing the spatio-temporal dynamics of forests over the past 43 years to help better forecast the future development of forest under various management strategies.Area of study: The area is situated in Karaisalı district of Adana city in the southeastern corner of Turkey.Material and methods: The historical pattern from 1969 to 2012 was assessed with digital forest cover type maps, produced with high resolution aerial photo interpretation using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The forest development over the next 120 years was forecasted using ecosystem-based multiple use forest management model (ETÇAP to understand the cause-effect relationships under various management strategies.Main results: The result showed that over the past 43 years while total forest areas decreased about 1194 ha (4%, the productive forest areas increased about 5397 ha (18% with a decrease of degraded forest (5824 ha, 20% and increase of maquis areas (2212 ha, 7%.The forecast of forest development under traditional management strategy resulted in an unsustainable forest due to broken initial age class structure, yet generated more total harvest (11% due to 88% relaxing of even timber flow constraint. While more volume could be harvested under traditional management conditions, the sustainability of future forest is significantly jeopardized.Research highlights: This result trongly implies that it is essential adopting modeling techniques to understand forest dynamics and forecast the future development comprehensively.Keywords: Forest management; simulation; optimization; forest dynamics; land use change.

  15. 3-PG simulations of young ponderosa pine plantations under varied management intensity: why do they grow so differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang Wei; Marshall John; Jianwei Zhang; Hang Zhou; Robert Powers

    2014-01-01

    Models can be powerful tools for estimating forest productivity and guiding forest management, but their credibility and complexity are often an issue for forest managers. We parameterized a process-based forest growth model, 3-PG (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth), to simulate growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) plantations in...

  16. Estonian energy forest project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, A.; Kirt, E.; Kull, K.; Lasn, R.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, J.; Ross, V.; Sulev, M.

    1994-04-01

    In February 1993 an agreement of Swedish-Estonian scientific co-operation on energy forest was signed. In may five energy forest plantations (altogether 2 ha) were established in Estonia with Swedish selected clones of Salix viminalis and Salix dasyclados. The research within this project is carried out within three main directions. The studies of basic ecophysiological processes and radiation regime of willow canopy will be carried out in Toravere. The production ecology studies, comparison of the productivity of multiple clones on different soil types is based on the plantations as vegetation filter for wastewater purification is studied on the basis of plantations in Vaeike-Maarja and Valga (author)

  17. Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    -functional plantations established at specific locations, or on a certain type of soil. The concept of multi-functional energy plantations accentuate the need of synchronising agricultural, environmental and energy policies. Structural barriers, such as farm size, type of production etc., are relevant both for conventional and multi-functional energy production. It is here estimated that the risk of such barriers is lowest in regions with intensively managed farmland which normally holds a higher share of large farms producing food crops. These regions also have the highest need for the environmental services discussed here. The occurrence of technical/physical barriers in form of possible future limitations in the need of energy crops varies between different regions in Sweden. In some counties in forest regions there exist a surplus of biomass in form of forest fuels, also when the need of biomass increase significantly in the future. (abstract truncated)

  18. High carbon stocks in roadside plantations under participatory management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantations are important REDD+strategies for increasing carbon sequestration while enhancing local livelihoods. Reforestation along roads and highways under participatory forest management in southwestern Bangladesh could contribute to REDD+. This study assessed the diversity and structure of roadside plantations in order to develop a basal area based generalized allometric model for estimating above- and below-ground tree biomass carbon in Southwestern Bangladesh. All woody plants with d.b.h. ⩾2cm were identified and their diameters measured in 108 systematically selected zigzag plots of equal size (2×10m. A total of 36 species in 17 families were recorded. Leguminosae accounted for 28% of species and 94% of the total estimated biomass carbon. We estimated a mean stem density of 4528ha−1, basal area of 52.6m2ha−1 and biomass carbon of 192.80 Mg ha−1. Samanea saman, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, and Leucaena leucocephala accounted for most density, basal area, and carbon. We developed and validated three allometric models with equal strength (R2 0.94–0.98 using generalized linear regression. Roadside plantations in Bangladesh can now surely participate in the UNFCCC’s carbon mitigation and adaptation mechanism, but challenges to their long-term sustainability must be addressed.

  19. Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, Pentti

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration cuttings. The production goal of forest chips is 5 million m 3 solid (10TWh) in 2010. The use of forest chips is promoted by means of environmental taxes, financial aid for investments, and financial support for research, development and commercialization of technology. In 2002, altogether 365 heating and power plants larger than 0.4MW used forest chips. The total consumption was 1.7 million m 3 , the use of small houses and farms included. The growth of use is presently about 350000 m 3 per annum, but reaching the official goal will require an annual growth of 400000 m 3 during this decade. The consumption of roundwood per capita, 15m 3 per annum, is in Finland 20 times as high as the average consumption of the EU countries, respectively. Consequently, residual forest biomass is abundantly available. The capacity of heating and power plants to use forest chips is large enough to meet the goal. However, users require competitive chip prices, good quality control of fuel and reliable supply chains, and new efficient procurement systems are being developed. The paper deals with the drivers of this development: support measures of the Government; strong support to research, development and commercialization of forest chip production from the National Technology Agency Tekes; advanced infrastructure for the procurement of timber for the forest industries; positive attitude and active participation of the forest industries; the active role of leading forest machine and boiler manufacturers, and the possibility to cofire wood and peat fuels in large fluidized bed boilers so as to

  20. EucaTool®, a cloud computing application for estimating the growth and production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rojo-Alboreca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present the software utilities and explain how to use EucaTool®, a free cloud computing application developed to estimate the growth and production of seedling and clonal blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain.Area of study: Galicia (NW Spain.Material and methods: EucaTool® implements a dynamic growth and production model that is valid for clonal and non-clonal blue gum plantations in the region. The model integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves, number of stems per hectare (mortality function and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass and carbon content.Main results: EucaTool® can be freely accessed from any device with an Internet connection, from http://app.eucatool.com. In addition, useful information about the application is published on a related website: http://www.eucatool.com.Research highlights: The application has been designed to enable forest stakeholders to estimate volume, biomass and carbon content of forest plantations from individual trees, diameter classes or stand data, as well as to estimate growth and future production (indicating the optimal rotation age for maximum income by measurement of only four stand variables: age, number of trees per hectare, dominant height and basal area.Keywords: forest management; biomass; seedling; clones; blue gum; forest tool.

  1. Forecasting forest development through modeling based on the legacy of forest structure over the past 43 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskent, E. Z.; Celik, D. A.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: Sustainable management of forest ecosystems requires comprehensive coverage of data to reflect both the historical legacy and the future development of forests. This study focuses on analyzing the spatio-temporal dynamics of forests over the past 43 years to help better forecast the future development of forest under various management strategies. Area of study: The area is situated in Karaisalt district of Adana city in the southeastern corner of Turkey. Material and methods: The historical pattern from 1969 to 2012 was assessed with digital forest cover type maps, produced with high resolution aerial photo interpretation using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The forest development over the next 120 years was forecasted using ecosystem-based multiple use forest management model (ETCAP) to understand the cause-effect relationships under various management strategies. Main results: The result showed that over the past 43 years while total forest areas decreased about 1,194 ha (4%), the productive forest areas increased about 5,397 ha (18%) with a decrease of degraded forest (5,824 ha, 20%) and increase of maquis areas (2,212 ha, 7%).The forecast of forest development under traditional management strategy resulted in an unsustainable forest due to broken initial age class structure, yet generated more total harvest (11%) due to 88% relaxing of even timber flow constraint. While more volume could be harvested under traditional management conditions, the sustainability of future forest is significantly jeopardized. Research highlights: This result trongly implies that it is essential adopting modeling techniques to understand forest dynamics and forecast the future development comprehensively. (Author)

  2. History of Forest Enterprise Management Development in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Blazevska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The central theme of the paper is the development of forest enterprise management in Macedonia and the adaptation to changes throughout the history. The change has become a permanent phenomenon that has to be addressed and managed appropriately in order to ensure organizational survival. Because of the changes in technology, the market place, social values and work force created a dynamic and unpredictable environment especially for those organizations who are unable to respond to the changes and adapt. Methods and Methodology: For the purpose of the research, a content analysis was applied to forest enterprises that appeared in all documents starting from 1900 to 2012. In order to increase the validity of the research and avoid any gaps, the data was divided into categories according to the meaning of the words. Hence, words with similar meanings were placed into the same categories, in order to obtain a better review of the researched phenomena. Results and Conclusions: The results showed that throughout the history there were different types of forests enterprise managements in Macedonia. According to the analysed documents, during the period of the administration after the World War II (May 1945 the first federal forest company “FESUMA” was established with the help of ASNOM (Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People’s Liberation of Macedonia and the Department of Forestry and Mining. All modifications of forests funds and legislation thereafter have influenced and provoked a lot of changes in the forest enterprise management. At the same time it is interesting to emphasize that the results obtained from the research show that in order to survive and stay competitive on the market, forest enterprises have been developing and adapting to the changes in the environment.

  3. K-12 Professional Development at the Harvard Forest LTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program, the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts seeks to train the next generation of researchers, by involving K-12 grade students and their teachers in hands-on, field-based, ecological research in their own schoolyard and community. Students learn to collect data on important long-term ecological issues and processes. Student data are then shared on the Harvard Forest website. To prepare teachers for project protocols, teachers are given direct access to Harvard ecologists with professional development workshops and on-line resources. With the Harvard Forest Schoolyard LTER program, students can participate in three different research projects focusing on phenology, invasive insects, and vernal pools. Teachers attend the Summer Institute for Teachers to learn project content and methods. They return in fall to participate in one of three levels of data workshops to learn how to input, manage, and analyze project data. In the spring, teachers again meet with the Harvard ecologists about project protocols, and to share, through a series of teacher presentations, the ways these project themes are being integrated into class curricula. These professional development opportunities result in long term collaborative partnerships with local schools and the Harvard Forest LTER. In addition to the LTER Schoolyard Ecology Program, the Harvard Forest has supported a successful Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program for the last six years. Throughout the summer, teachers work on research projects alongside Harvard Forest and affiliated scientists, post-docs, graduate students, and REU's (Research Experience for Undergraduates). The RET program provides teachers with the opportunity to build scientific knowledge, develop an understanding of research methods, and translate their new knowledge and experiences into cutting edge classroom lessons. The past two summers I have worked with Dr. Andrew Richardson

  4. Trees, poverty and targets: Forests and the Millennium Development Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, James

    2007-04-15

    Where are the forests in the MDGs? When players in the forestry world get together they are good at setting goals. They are a good match for the political leaders that gave us the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since the 1980s there has been a proliferation of international dialogues dealing with forests and, a bit like the football World Cup, every four years or so they come up with a feast of goals. If forestry goals were all we needed to make progress, then sustainable and pro-poor forestry would have long since become a worldwide reality. Of course, implementation still lags well behind aspiration, but at least there is now a considerable body of international knowledge and agreement on how forests can contribute to development.

  5. Forests and competing land uses in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

    1989-03-01

    Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

  6. Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration over an age sequence of Pinus patula plantations in Zimbabwean Eastern Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujuru, L.; Gotora, T.; Velthorst, E.J.; Nyamangara, J.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests play a major role in regulating the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations creating a need to investigate the ability of exotic plantations to sequester atmospheric CO2. This study examined pine plantations located in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe

  7. Mapping aboveground carbon stocks using LiDAR data in Eucalyptus spp. plantations in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Samuel de Padua Chaves e Carvalho; Andrew T. Hudak; e Luiz Carlos Estraviz. Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Fast growing plantation forests provide a low-cost means to sequester carbon for greenhouse gas abatement. The aim of this study was to evaluate airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) to predict aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks in Eucalyptus spp. plantations. Biometric parameters (tree height (Ht) and diameter at breast height (DBH)) were collected from...

  8. Impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on abundance and species richness of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Elek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on the abundance and species richness of carabids were studied in the Bükk National Park in Hungary, central Europe. Pitfall catches from recently established (5 yr old, young (15 yr after planting, middle-aged (30 yr after planting, old Norway spruce Picea abies plantation (50 yr after planting, and a native submontane beech forest (Fagetum sylvaticae as a control stand were compared.

    Our results showed that deciduous forest species decreased significantly in abundance in the plantations, and appeared in high abundance only in the native beech forest. Furthermore, open habitat species increased remarkably in abundance in the recently established plantation. Carabids were significantly more abundant and species rich in the native forest than in the plantations, while differences were not significant among the plantations. Multiple regression between the abundance and species richness of carabids and twelve environmental measurements showed that pH of the soil, herb cover and density of the carabids’ prey had a significant effect in determining abundance and species richness.

    Our results showed that plantation of non-native Norway spruce species had a detrimental effect on the composition of carabid communities and no regeneration could be observed during the growth of plantations even 50 yr after the establishment. This emphasises the importance of an active nature management practice to facilitate the recolonization of the native species.

  9. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  10. An Assessment of the Contribution of an Analog Forest as a Sustainable Land-use Ecosystem for the Development of Rural Green Economy in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K.D.D. Liyanage

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Large scale clearing of natural forests for human settlements as well as in the form of tea, rubberand cinnamon plantations resulted forest fragmentation in most natural ecosystems in the wet zone of SriLanka which posed massive threats to both nature and the humans including the loss of biodiversity,environmental hazards and increasing poverty. This paper discusses about the potential to develop ruralgreen economy as a result of consolidating these agricultural lands into analog forests as a sustainableland use practice. Bangamukande Estate, a man-made analog forest in Galle District was selected for thisassessment. Participatory rural appraisal methods were used to obtain information on resource utilizationby the local community in nearby villages. Secondary data of the long term analog forestry establishmentprogramme were also used for analysis the livelihood changes of the people due to the impacts thissystem. Various interventions had been made to address the issues such as encouraging local farmers tocultivate timber, fruits, spices and medicinal plants, paying them for the environmental services theyrender and enhancing their income through green employment. The introduction of new sustainableagricultural activities such as bee keeping and planting fruits resulted in the production of value addedfarm products and organic fruits to be sold in the market. Through environmental based tourism activitiessuch as providing food and accommodation, eco-guidance, and assisting environmental research, thestakeholders are earning a better income supporting the development of a green economy in the country.

  11. Exploring different forest definitions and their impact on developing REDD+ reference emission levels: A case study for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.E.; Ainembabazi, J.H.; Wijaya, A.; Herold, M.; Angelsen, A.; Verchot, L.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries participating in the mitigation mechanism of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), need to determine a national forest reference emission level

  12. Role of forest biomass energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Forest biomass holds a significant position for energy production in developing countries. Its importance is elucidated through various activities performed by the rural industries. The socio-economic and environmental aspects in utilizing this type of energy are also discussed. (Author)

  13. New developments in operator protection for forest machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; S. Taylor; M. Veal

    2003-01-01

    Mechanization of forest operations ha greatly improved saftey of woods work. However, increasing use of machines has introduced new hazards that must be addressed. Two of these hazards are rollover of swing-type forestry machines (currently excluded from standard protection) and the hazard of thrown objects from cutting devices. Ongoing research projects are developing...

  14. Effects of natural gas development on forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; W. Mark Ford; Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an energy company leased the privately owned minerals that underlie the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. The Fernow, established in 1934, is dedicated to long-term research. In 2008, a natural gas well was drilled on the Fernow and a pipeline and supporting infrastructure constructed. We describe the impacts of natural gas development on the...

  15. Quantitative assessment of people-oriented forestry in Bangladesh: a case study in the Tangail forest division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Nur; Koike, Masao; Haque, Farhana; Miah, Md Danesh

    2008-07-01

    Forests represent more than just a livelihood to many people in developing countries. In Bangladesh, for example, overwhelming poverty and socio-economic pressures have resulted in an unstable situation where intensive pressure on forest resources is having increasingly negative consequences for the population. Some studies have evaluated the benefits of people-oriented forestry activities from an investment, as well as a participant, point of view. In the study area located in the Tangail Forest Division, a total of 11,854 ha of woodlot, 2704 ha of agroforestry and 945 km of strip plantations have been raised in a benefit-sharing program that is inclusive of land encroachers and other economically disadvantaged people. Since 2000-2001, a total of 3716 ha of woodlot, 890 ha of agroforestry and 163 km of strip plantations have been harvested to the benefit of 6326 individuals. Investment analysis indicates that woodlot plantation is not financially viable but agroforestry is the most profitable. These results were somewhat unexpected since initial analysis suggested that the woodlot plantation profit would be greater than, or at least equal to, that of the agroforestry plantation if the number of planted seedlings per unit area was taken into account. The per unit area net present value (NPV) was highest in the agroforestry plantation ($1662) and negative in the woodlot plantation (-$397). The benefit cost ratio (BCR) was also highest in the agroforestry plantation (1.64) and lowest in the woodlot plantation (0.86). This study also showed that some individuals who were formally classified as encroachers have now become vital stakeholders. On average, participants received $800, $1866 and $1327 over the course of 13 years from strip, agroforestry and woodlot plantations, respectively. Average annual return per participant was $62, $144 and $102, respectively, which was in addition to each individual's yearly income. This added income is a significant contribution to

  16. A forest map of Southern Africa with the aid of LANDSAT imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Zel, DW

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Even after 300 years of indigenous forest protection as well as 100 years of plantation forestry, no forestry map of South Africa was available. The development and availability of LANDSAT images in the early 1970s opened possibility to use...

  17. Development of equations for predicting Puerto Rican subtropical dry forest biomass and volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Matthew Delaney; Bernard R. Parresol; Larry Royer

    2006-01-01

    Carbon accounting, forest health monitoring and sustainable management of the subtropical dry forests of Puerto Rico and other Caribbean Islands require an accurate assessment of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) and stem volume. One means of improving assessment accuracy is the development of predictive equations derived from locally collected data. Forest inventory...

  18. Southern Foresters' Perceptions of Climate Change: Implications for Educational Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boby, Leslie; Hubbard, William; Megalos, Mark; Morris, Hilary L. C.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of foresters' perceptions of climate change is important for developing effective educational programs on adaptive forest management. We surveyed 1,398 foresters in the southern United States regarding their perceptions of climate change, observations and concerns about climatic and forest conditions, and knowledge of and interest…

  19. Biometric-based estimation of net ecosystem production in a mature Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation beneath a flux tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Yuichiro; Lee, Na-Yeon M; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Shizu, Yoko; Saitoh, Taku M; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Quantification of carbon budgets and cycling in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations is essential for understanding forest functions in Japan because these plantations occupy about 20% of the total forested area. We conducted a biometric estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP) in a mature Japanese cedar plantation beneath a flux tower over a 4-year period. Net primary production (NPP) was 7.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and consisted mainly of tree biomass increment and aboveground litter production. Respiration was calculated as 6.8 (soil) and 3.3 (root) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Thus, NEP in the plantation was 4.3 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). In agreement with the tower-based flux findings, this result suggests that the Japanese cedar plantation was a strong carbon sink. The biometric-based NEP was higher among most other types of Japanese forests studied. Carbon sequestration in the mature plantation was characterized by a larger increment in tree biomass and lower mortality than in natural forests. Land-use change from natural forest to Japanese cedar plantation might, therefore, stimulate carbon sequestration and change the carbon allocation of NPP from an increment in coarse woody debris to an increase in tree biomass.

  20. New Allometric Equations to Support Sustainable Plantation Management of Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Krainovic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke is an endangered Amazonian tree species which produces one of the most valuable essential oils in the world. The species is used in silvicultural systems which are seen as a means to reducing the pressure of exploitation of natural rosewood populations. There are no specific equations for rosewood plantations, and therefore generalized equations are inappropriate for the species in commercial systems. This study presents allometric equations from 144 trees sampled in different rosewood plantations of Central Amazonia. The equations generated were compared with an equation used in forest management to estimate wood volume and another one recommended by law for rosewood biomass. The equation suggested by current legislation underestimates the actual values by more than 70% making the viable use of this equation impossible in commercial plantations. The equations generated to estimate the volume and biomass serve as an alternative to the need to develop specific equations for each area and age of the plant. The generic equation for the species is consistent for fresh mass management, with a generalized R2 of 0.80 and an underestimation of 0.33%. The equation for crown fresh mass estimation presented a generalized R2 of 0.32 and an underestimation of 0.24%. The underestimation of the mass production by rosewood plantations represents a serious impediment to this forest activity. The allometric equations developed are highly applicable under different conditions and management options and should be suggested by the legal provisions regulating rosewood-related activity in Central Amazonia.

  1. Diversity of leaf litter ant communities in Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary and nearby rubber plantations, Songkhla, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias O. Bickel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of Southern Thailand's former natural rainforest have been replaced by rubber plantations. Despite the fact that rubber plantations dominate the landscape, little is known about its capacity to sustain forest dwelling species. We used leaf litter ants as a bioindicator from two natural forests, a rubber plantation forest and a completely cleared ruderal area in Southern Thailand, Songkla Province. There was a substantial decline in ant diversity from the undisturbed forest towards the ruderal area along a gradient of environmental disturbance. Additionally, there was a turnover in species composition between the different habitats and an increase in arboreal species "enhancing" the sparse ground foraging ant community in the plantation habitat. Also, alien tramp species replaced native species in the plantation and ruderal habitats. This study shows that despite their forest like appearance rubber plantations are a poor habitat for native leaf litter-inhabiting ants and unsuitable to sustain biodiversity in general. The changes in community structure in the secondary forest showed the importance of primary forest habitat to maintain regional biodiversity.

  2. Forests, environment, sustainable development and peace process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco Munoz, Jose Miguel

    1998-01-01

    The paper tries about the perspectives of the peace and the environment in the negotiation calendar with the armed groups and their thought about if the sustainable development is a common objective between the government and these groups

  3. Co-benefits of biodiversity and carbon from regenerating secondary forests after shifting cultivation in the upland Philippines: implications for forest landscape restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J.; Firn, J.; Gregorio, N.

    2017-12-01

    Shifting cultivation is a widespread practice in tropical forest agriculture frontiers that policy makers often regard as the major driver of forest loss and degradation. Secondary forests regrowing after shifting cultivation are generally not viewed as suitable option for biodiversity conservation and carbon retention. Drawing upon our research in the Philippines and other relevant case studies, we compared the biodiversity and carbon sequestration benefits in recovering secondary forests after shifting cultivation to other land uses that commonly follow shifting cultivation. Regenerating secondary forests had higher biodiversity than fast growing timber plantations and other restoration options available in the area. Some old plantations, however, provided carbon benefits comparable the old growth forest, although their biodiversity was less than that of the regenerating forests. Our study demonstrates that secondary forests regrowing after shifting cultivation have a high potential for biodiversity and carbon sequestration co-benefits, representing an effective strategy for forest management and restoration in countries where they are common and where the forest is an integral part of rural people's livelihoods. We discuss the issues and potential mechanisms through which such dynamic land use can be incorporated into development projects that are currently financing the sustainable management, conservation, and restoration of tropical forests.

  4. Unexpected Interactions between Agricultural and Forest Sectors through International Trade: Wood Pallets and Agricultural Exports in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Jadin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry sectors associated with the use of wood pallets for commodity exports over 1985–2013. Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. The annual land demand for tree plantations to produce these wood pallets increased by 669%, reaching 17,606 ha in 2013 and representing 28% of the increase in demand for cropland for agricultural exports over 1994–2013. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations. We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.

  5. Final Progress Report on Model-Based Diagnosis of Soil Limitations to Forest Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxmoore, R.J.

    2004-08-30

    This project was undertaken in support of the forest industry to link modeling of nutrients and productivity with field research to identify methods for enhancing soil quality and forest productivity and for alleviating soil limitations to sustainable forest productivity. The project consisted of a series of related tasks, including (1) simulation of changes in biomass and soil carbon with nitrogen fertilization, (2) development of spreadsheet modeling tools for soil nutrient availability and tree nutrient requirements, (3) additional modeling studies, and (4) evaluation of factors involved in the establishment and productivity of southern pine plantations in seasonally wet soils. This report also describes the two Web sites that were developed from the research to assist forest managers with nutrient management of Douglas-fir and loblolly pine plantations.

  6. Plantation Houses of North Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Plantation conjures an image that identifies the North Florida / South Georgia region of the U. S. Leon County attracted many cotton planters from Georgia, Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina in the 1820’s to the 1850’s. Up to the beginning of the Civil War, Leon County was the 5th largest producer of cotton counting all counties from Florida and Georgia. The Civil War brought the plantation culture to a standstill. The plantations transformed the environment based on their need for open fields in which to cultivate different crops, or raise a variety of animals with the help of slaves. From the 1900’s many plantations abandoned their land to nature producing a deep change in the local landscape. Today plantations are not used as much for planting crops but more for hunting or as tree farms. The hunting plantations do not grow crops but provide good conditions for the hunting of animals and birds. Other plantations were torn apart, sold and now are part of the Tallahassee urban fabric. In other words, they disappeared. The transformation of the plantations has been slow and steady, and has become the image of the area, even the region. The paper shows five plantations that represent five different evolutions of these traditional landscapes. The landscapes have evolved to accommodate the very local but fluid definition of place. It is this transformation, this evolving identity which helped preserve some of the traditional landscapes and the traditional architecture on them. The most prominent feature of the plantation is the “Big House” or plantation house. The house embodies all aspects of the plantation life style. The construction materials and methods reflected the times, the technologies and the available resources. The research has been done mainly in the archives of the Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation. The results, still pending, explain the land typology as it evolved from the golden decades

  7. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  8. Quantification and economic valuation of the capture of CO2 for plantations of the Eucalyptus, genus, settled down by the PRECA in the carboniferous basins of Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Cundiboyacense Highland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz F, Sandra Ximena; Molano M, Miguel Angel

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the first measure is to quantify the tons of CO 2 captured by the increment in the biomass of forest plantations of the Eucalyptus genus, settled down by the PRECA of Ecocarbon in the carboniferous basins of the Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Cundiboyacense highland and in second measure to determine the economic value that the sale of this environmental service can represent for a developing country as Colombia. The results obtained for each one of the plantations settled down in each carboniferous basin are determined and statistical models that will allow to calculate the capture of CO 2 carried out by plantations of three different species of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis, E. grandis and E. globulus)

  9. PLANTATION MANAGEMENT AND BAMBOO RESOURCE ECONOMICS IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Antonio Troya Mera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboos constitute a very important and versatile resource worldwide. A lot of Asian, African and South American people rely on bamboo products for their housing and farming tools. Meanwhile, the shoots of these plants are regarded as vegetables in East and South-East Asian nations. China has the greatest bamboo forest area (extension and the largest number of bamboo species (more than 590 species, many of them with significant economic importance, being Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis, the most important bamboo species in China, due to its usage not only as timber but also for food. China has paid unprecedented attention in recent decades to bamboo forest management. The vast economic profits derived from silviculture have contributed much to rural development and poverty alleviation. Bamboo industry has become the pillar of economy in mountainous areas. Besides being a tool for poverty alleviation in rural areas, bamboo plantations are also a significant carbon sink and a key option to mitigate land degradation. This paper highlights such aspects as bamboo silviculture (fertilization, pruning, thinning, irrigation, shoot and timber harvesting its domestic and international applications (timber, plywood, food, paper, fuel, housing, etc. in daily life, and  its current role in Chinese industry and economy, without particular reference to any of its species.

  10. Developing an urban forest carbon market

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Armstrong; J. Siry; Michael Bowker

    2009-01-01

    Countries, states, localities, businesses, and individuals are taking action to mitigate greenhouse gas levels and production as a response to concerns over climate change. Europe currently has mandatory greenhouse gas emission legislation and a large developed emission trading market, as opposed to the U.S. where voluntary markets to reduce green house gas emissions...

  11. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Macauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales. Meeting participants agreed that users of biomass information will look to the CMS effort not only to provide basic data for carbon or biomass measurements but also to provide data to help serve a broad range of goals, such as forest watershed management for water quality, habitat management for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and potential use for developing payments for ecosystem service projects. Participants also reminded the CMS group that potential users include not only public sector agencies and nongovernmental organizations but also the

  12. Effects of differnt juvenile mixed plantations on growth and photosynthetic physiology of pinus yunnanensis franch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Ou, G. L.; Chen, D. D.; Liu, G. Y.; Li, Q. Q.; Zhang, S. H.; Han, M. Y.; Chen, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    The growth characteristics, photosynthetic gas exchange features, physiological and biochemical resistance, and soil nutrition contents of different juvenile mixed plantations were analyzed. Moreover, the synergic effect mechanism of the different species was elucidated to improve the stand quality of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. plantations and guide the screening of P. yunnanensis mixed plantations. The mixed plantations were P. yunnanensis-Alnus nepalensis-Quercus acutissima, P. yunnanensis-A. nepalensis-Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides, and P. yunnanensis-Q. acutissima-C. glaucoides. Individual juvenile plantations of pure P. yunnanensis, A. nepalensis, Q. acutissima, and C. glaucoides were used as control groups. Results showed that pure P. yunnanensis juvenile plantation consumed more soil organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total potassium (TK) than the other plantations. This plantation also showed poorer growth characteristics, poorer photosynthetic capability, lower water utilization efficiency (WUE), and biochemical resistance in infertile soil, as shown by the nutrition and water competition. Increasing soil organic matters, TN, TP, and TK of the different mixed plantations evidently enhanced height, ground diameter growth rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), WUE, carboxylation efficiency (CE), soluble sugar (SS) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Moreover, different mixed forests slightly influenced the characteristics of photosynthetic gas exchange and physiological and biochemical resistance of A. nepalensis. All stand types facilitated growth of tree height and basal diameter of Q. acutissima sapling. Although Q. acutissima inhibited physiological and biochemical resistance of leaves to a certain extent, they increased WUE significantly. Different stand types slightly influenced growth features, Pn, Tr, and WUE of C. glaucoides sapling. Moreover, they inhibited the osmotic adjustment system

  13. Eucalyptus plantations and the steel industry in Amazonia - A contribution from the 3-PG model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, Maurel; Piketty, Marie Gabrielle; Morello, Thiago Fonseca; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Mesquita Neto, Franscisco

    2011-01-01

    The Carajas steel industry sector in the Brazilian Amazon has aroused protest on environmental grounds because of its heavy reliance on charcoal. The charcoal is mainly produced from natural forest biomass, with direct and indirect impacts on deforestation and forest ecosystem degradation. Establishing eucalyptus plantations for fuel on degraded pastures could be a workable alternative. Few such plantations exist as yet, and because there are no validated assessments of their production potential, a study was conducted to provide consolidated estimations of the growth and productivity of the Carajas eucalyptus plantations. The estimations were obtained with the 3-PG model (Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth). The model parameters are based on growth data for the eucalyptus plantations established by a company in Breu Branco municipality in Brazil's Para State. Calibrating the model with local data proved to be far more effective than using the parameters set for eucalyptus plantations in other areas in Brazil, South Africa or Australia. The simulations made show that the current annual average growth rate, over a six-year period, of about 20 m"3 per hectare could increase to 30 m"3 with appropriate fertilisation and effective underbrush control. They also suggest that production could be higher without water deficit. Plantation zones shall be selected as a priority in areas where the dry season is the least severe around Carajas. These 3-PG model settings have made it a more effective management tool for industrial plantations in Amazonian conditions. (authors)

  14. Energy valorization of the species used in short-rotation plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya Roque, Roger; Tenorio Monge, Carolina; Salazar Zeledon, Estephania

    2016-01-01

    The energy potential of some non-traditional plantations for production of energy is exposed. Forest and forage species are utilized in Costa Rica for energy plantations. The characteristics of these species have been short rotation (1-3 years) and a production between 20 and 25 tonnes of dry matter per hectare. Agro-energy plantations are described. Gmelina arborea y Pennisetum purpureum species have been viable options for biomass production. However, the high cost of seedlings and land to cultivate have been one of the problems of this energy source [es

  15. Drivers behind the development of forest energy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerheden, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The use of forest fuels has more than doubled in Sweden over the last 25-30 years. Almost a fifth of the utilized energy is now based on forest biomass. Concurrently, real prices of bioenergy have decreased to less than a third of what they were 25 years ago. Some principal driving forces behind this development are identified and discussed in this paper. The origin of this development was equally the result of a foreseen shortage of fibre and a reaction to this vulnerable position, made obvious through the 'oil crises'. Although Sweden has a long tradition of large-scale use of forest energy, 35 years ago she was almost totally dependent on imported oil. Forest mechanisation provided rational solutions to handling small diameter wood and stumps in conventional industrial processes, but also enabled the economical use of such wood for energy. During 3 decades of development, drivers and obstacles have shifted. What started to reduce dependence on fossil fuels was later driven by increased general environmental awareness. An emerging 'green' lobby blocked the development of nuclear power and expanded harnessing of hydropower which were alternative means of self-sufficiency. In the last 10-15 years, focus has changed again. Global concern for climatic change due to emissions of greenhouse gases is a powerful driver, endorsing increased use of CO 2 -neutral energy sources. Sustainability, resource cycling and the welfare of future generations are seen as goals for continued development. Ideals and policies do not, however, automatically induce change in regular operations. A set of drivers is identified, that has played the decisive role in practice. These include the direct technical-operational drivers, as well as indirect drivers through market development, taxation and other legislation

  16. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  17. Natural flood retention in mountain areas by forests and forest like short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim; Hartwich, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Natural water retention is an important element of flood risk management in flood generating headwater areas in the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. In this context forests are of particular interest because of the high infiltration capacities of the soils and to increase water retention reforestation of agricultural land would be worthwhile. However competing claims for land use in intensely cultivated regions in Central Europe impede reforestation plans so the potential for a significant increase of natural water retention in forests is strongly limited. Nevertheless the development of innovative forms of land use and crop types opens new perspectives for a combination of agricultural land use with the water retention potential of forests. Recently the increasing demand for renewable energy resources leads to the cultivation of fast growing poplar and willow hybrids on agricultural land in short rotation coppices (SRC). Harvested in cycles of three to six years the wood from the plantations can be used as wood chips for heat and electricity production in specialized power plants. With short rotation plantations a crop type is established on arable land which is similar to forests so that an improvement of water retention can be expected. To what extend SRC may contribute to flood attenuation in headwater areas is investigated for the Chemnitzbach watershed (48 km2) in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Free State of Saxony, Germany), a low mountain range which is an important source of flood runoff in the Elbe basin. The study is based on a rainfall-runoff model of flood events using the conceptual modelling system NASIM. First results reveal a significant reduction of the flood peaks after the implementation of short rotation coppices. However the effect strongly depends on two factors. The first factor is the availability of areas for the plantations. For a substantial impact on the watershed scale large areas are required and with decreasing percentages of SRC

  18. Invasive forest pathogens: Summary of issues, critical needs, and future goals for Forest Service Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Jennifer Juzwik; Michael E. Ostry; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Robert C. Venette; Bryce A. Richardson; John E. Lundquist; D. Jean Lodge; Jessie A. Glaeser; Susan J. Frankel; William J. Otrosina; Pauline Spaine; Brian W. Geils

    2010-01-01

    Invasive pathogens have caused immeasurable ecological and economic damage to forest ecosystems. Damage will undoubtedly increase over time due to increased introductions and evolution of invasive pathogens in concert with complex environmental disturbances, such as climate change. Forest Service Research and Development must fulfill critical roles and responsibilities...

  19. Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.F. Franklin; T.A. Spies; R.V. Pelt; A.B. Carey; D.A. Thornburgh; D.R. Berg; D.B. Lindenmayer; M.E. Harmon; W.S. Keeton; D.C. Shaw; K. Bible; J. Chen

    2002-01-01

    Forest managers need a comprehensive scientific understanding of natural stand development processes when designing silvicultural systems that integrate ecological and economic objectives, including a better appreciation of the nature of disturbance regimes and the biological legacies, such as live trees, snags, and logs, that they leave behind. Most conceptual forest...

  20. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Varada S. Shevade; Peter V. Potapov; Nancy L. Harris; Tatiana V. Loboda

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss ...

  1. Forest management practices and silviculture. Chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala; Elon S. Verry

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of forest management and silviculture practices, and lessons learned, on the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The forests there are a mosaic of natural regeneration and conifer plantations. Verry (1969) described forest-plant communities in detail for the study watersheds (Sl through S6) on the MEF. The remaining area is described in...

  2. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  3. Forest cover, socioeconomics, and reported flood frequency in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Ghimire, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the determinants of the number of large floods reported since 1990. Using the same sample of countries as Bradshaw et al. (2007), and, like them, omitting socioeconomic characteristics from the analysis, we found that a reduction in natural forest cover is associated with an increase in the reported count of large floods. This result does not hold in any of three new analyses we perform. First, we expand the sample to include all the developing countries and all countries for which data were available but were omitted in their study. Second, and more importantly, since forest management is just one possible channel through which humans can influence reported flood frequency, we account for other important human-flood interactions. People are typically responsible for deforestation, but they are also responsible for other land use changes (e.g., urbanization), for floodplain and flood emergency management, and for reporting the floods. Thus, in our analysis we account for population, urban population growth, income, and corruption. Third, we exploit the panel nature of the data to control for unobserved country and time heterogeneity. We conclude that not only is the link between forest cover and reported flood frequency at the country level not robust, it also seems to be driven by sample selection and omitted variable bias. The human impact on the reported frequency of large floods at the country level is not through deforestation.

  4. RegionsТ Competition for Investment Projects in Forest Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Fedorovna Lapo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the problem of competition between regions for investments. It is hypothesized that the presence of legislative stimulating benefits in a particular region, ceteris paribus, promotes investment flows in forest projects from other regions and is an instrumentl of inter-regional competition. To test the hypotheses the researcher uses a modified model with spatial weighted exogenous variables in order to assess the spatial effects. The obtained estimates indicate the presence of spatial effects, both negative (an inter-regional competition for investment and positive (agglomeration effects. The author argues that the process of inter-regional competition for investment in projects on forest development is caused by benefits under taxes and payments into the regional budget, regulation of pricing (including actions by natural and local monopolies and depreciation policy and solutions to put some forest projects in the list of priority ones. Along with this, the paper identifies agglomeration effects induced by a number of benefits: direct dealings in investment by financing or property contribution, subsidies, state guarantees, credit security and partial payment of interest

  5. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period.

  6. THE VIEWS OF FOREST OUTSKIRT COMMUNITY ON AGROFORESTRY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Oka Suparwata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, development of agroforestry has been focused on the people living near forest. Positive views from community may have a good impact on agroforestry development program. This research aims to study the views of the forest outskrit community on the agroforestry development program in Dulamayo Barat village, Telaga Sub District, Gorontalo Regency, Gorontalo Province. The study used survey approach and focus group discussion (FGD method. Respondents were all the members of agroforestry farmer group. The entire population were taken for interview (10 respondents while FGD was attended by 26 participants. Data were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that 100% of the respondents want the program to be sustainable, although from the socio economic point of view the impact has not contributed significantly. From the respondents views of its benefit, 50% believe that the program is for critical land rehabilitation, 30% have a view for the improvement of environmental service, 10% view to increase community economy, and 10% view that the program is to eliminate erosion. These indicate that the community is concerned with agroforestry development, therefore, continuous facilitation is needed. Furthermore, the community expects to be actively involved in the agroforestry development program.

  7. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m 3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m 3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  8. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  9. The efficacy of economic-development programs in forest-dependent communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rory Fraser

    1997-01-01

    West Virginia is one of the poorest states in the nation and its rural communities are more hard pressed than their urban counterparts. At the same time, West Virginia is one of the most densely forested states in the USA. The combination of poverty amidst a wealth of forest suggest that economic development based on the forest resource could provide solutions for poor...

  10. Development of a downed woody debris forecasting tool using strategic-scale multiresource forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Christopher W. Woodall

    2017-01-01

    The increasing interest in forest biomass for energy or carbon cycle purposes has raised the need for forest resource managers to refine their understanding of downed woody debris (DWD) dynamics. We developed a DWD forecasting tool using field measurements (mean size and stage of stage of decay) for three common forest types across the eastern United States using field...

  11. Initial Development of Four Forest Species in Different Shading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Evaluated the initial development through destructive and non-destructive sampling, forest species Adenanthera pavonina, Cassia fistula, Parkia pendula and Hymenolobium petraeum, propagated by seeds at different levels of shading screens black poliefinas (0, 50 and 65% , in the region of Sinop, MT. There were no significant interactions between time and level of shading to any variable. Changes in fresh and dry weight at all levels of shading occurred from 30 DAT. The highest rates of growth were observed in 50% shading to A. pavonina, P. pendula and H. petraeum and 65% shading for C. fistula.Keywords: seedling, growth, physiology, climatic conditions.

  12. Use of forest biomass to provide energy in a context of sustainable rural development - Three case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Lopera, Jose Antonio

    2000-01-01

    The author includes topics like energy and global climatic change; sustainable development and study of cases (conservation and restoration of forests in the Atrato, pacific Colombian, forest handling, forest handling and forest systems in the Colombian Amazonian and conversion of subjected lands to cattle rising and itinerant agriculture to forest and other systems

  13. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of forest can be quantified and treated similar to ground measurement plots, producing locally relevant information to use independently with satellite data sources including synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, we examined LiDAR derived forest parameters with field measured data and developed general and specific AFCS models for tropical forests in central Sumatra. The general model is fitted for all types of natural and plantation forests while the specific model is fitted to the specific forest type. The study region consists of natural forests including peat swamp and dry moist forests, regrowth, and mangrove and plantation forests

  14. Modeling the effects of forest management on in situ and ex situ longleaf pine forest carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Martin; W.P. Cropper Jr; Kurt Johnsen; T.A. Stokes; John Butnor; P.H. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of forest carbon storage dynamics requires a variety of techniques including simulation models. We developed a hybrid model to assess the effects of silvicultural management systems on carbon (C) budgets in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations in the southeastern U.S. To simulate in situ C pools, the model integrates a growth and yield model...

  15. Populus (Salicaceae plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M. Romano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque los cultivos forestales son comunidades artificiales, modifican condiciones ambientales que pueden alterar la diversidad fúngica nativa. Se estudiaron los efectos del manejo forestal de una plantación de sauces (Salix y álamos (Populus sobre la biodiversidad de Agaromycetes durante un año en una isla del Delta del Paraná, Argentina. Se midieron el peso seco y el número de basidiomas. Se identificaron 28 especies pertenecientes a los Agaricomycetes: 26 especies de Agaricales, una de Polyporales y una de Russulales. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el manejo forestal de dicha plantación no afecta la abundancia ni la diversidad de basidiomas de Agaricomycetes.

  16. Recommendations for sustainable development of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina H. Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products--or NTFPs--are considered here to be botanical products harvested or originating from forest-based species, but excluding primary timber products, industrial boards and composites, and paper products. A recent study of non-timber forest products in Ontario, Canada, identified at least 50 types of NTFPs and hundreds of specific products used...

  17. Carbon flows and economic evaluation of mitigation options in Tanzania's forest sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makundi, W.; Okiting'ati, Aku

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the rate of forest use, deforestation and forest degradation, as well as the corresponding carbon flows, in the Tanzanian forest sector. It is estimated that the country lost 525,000 ha of forests in 1990, with associated committed emissions of 31.5 Mt carbon (MtC), and 7.05 MtC of committed carbon sequestration. The paper then describes the possible response options in the forest sector to mitigate GHG emissions, and evaluates the most stable subset of these - i.e. forest conservation, woodfuel plantations and agroforestry. The conservation options were found to cost an average of US$1.27 per tonne of carbon (tC) conserved. Five options for fuelwood plantations and agroforestry, with two different ownership regimes were evaluated. Each one of the options gives a positive net present value at low rates of discount, ranging from U.S.$1.06 to 3.4/tC of avoided emissions at 0% discount rate. At 10% discount, the eucalyptus and maize option has a highest PNV of U.S.$1.73/tC, and the government plantation gives a negative PNV (loss) of U.S.$ 0.13 tC sequestered. The options with a private/community type of ownership scheme fared better than government run options. This conclusion also held true when ranking the options by the BRAC indicator, with the government fuelwood plantation ranked the lowest, and the private agroforestry option of eucalyptus and corn performing best. The mitigation options evaluated here show that the forest sector in Tanzania has one of the most cost-effective GHG mitigation opportunities in the world, and they are within the development aspirations of the country. (Author)

  18. Long-term hydrology and water quality of a drained pine plantation in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs

    2011-01-01

    Long-term data provide a basis for understanding natural variability, reducing uncertainty in model inputs and parameter estimation, and developing new hypotheses. This article evaluates 21 years (1988-2008) of hydrologic data and 17 years (1988-2005) of water quality data from a drained pine plantation in eastern North Carolina. The plantation age was 14 years at the...

  19. Ecological Stoichiometric Characteristics of Two Typical Plantations in the Karst Ecosystem of Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danbo Pang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reforestation has been widely adopted to restore soil fertility and ecosystem service function in the rocky desertification region of southwestern China. However, there has been limited research concerning the stoichiometry of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P and nutrient resorption rate of plantations in karst ecosystems. In this study, we selected plantations of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. (PY and Eucalyptus maideni F. Muell. (EM in Yunnan Province. The C, N, and P concentrations and the C:N:P stoichiometry in different soil layers (0–10 cm, 10–20 cm, and 20–30 cm were examined. The nutrient limitation and nutrient resorption efficiency were also analyzed. The leaf C and N concentrations in the PY plantation were higher than that in the EM plantation; the P concentration demonstrated the opposite trend, both in green and senesced leaves. Soil C, N, and P concentrations in the EM plantation were much greater than in the PY plantation at all three depths and decreased with the depth of the soil. In addition, the high ratios of C:P, N:P, C:Available P, and N:Available P in soil coupled with the ratios of N:P in leaves indicate that the EM plantation has a greater P deficiency than the PY plantation. In the EM plantation, the relatively low P concentrations in senesced leaves indicates efficient TP (Total phosphorus resorption, which highlights that the high reuse proficiency of P could have favored moderating P limitation in the karst ecosystem. This research aids in understanding the stoichiometric characteristics that mediate forest properties, and provides a basis for management of vegetation in karst ecosystems.

  20. Silvicultural evaluations on maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton plantations in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Balekoğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial plantations have substantially reduced the pressure on natural forests. There are approximately 80.000 hectares of industrial plantations, established with fast growing coniferous species, 77.000 hectares of which are maritime pine plantations in Turkey. Furthermore, approximately 16.000 hectares of maritime pine plantations, which amount to about 20 percent of all maritime pine plantations in Turkey, occur in Istanbul. The aim of this study is to determine the growth pattern of maritime pine plantations located in Anatolian and European Istanbul: Kanlıca, Beykoz, Sultanbeyli and Şile-Sahilköy; and Bahçeköy-Bentler, Arnavutköy and Terkos-Durusu respectively. Specifically, the study examined individual trees within the above-mentioned sites to determine the first thinning age of the plantations. In addition, some specific silvicultural suggestions were offered for the plantations. The minimum and maximum recorded values for the trees’ age, DBH, height and stem volume were found in the range of 22-50 years, 26.6-46.8 cm, 14.0-23.0 m and 0.5150-1.8560 m3 respectively. In order to take advantage of the fast growing attributes of maritime pine which was found to grow fast within first 10 years, the first thinning should commence at the age of 11-12 years; thereafter, the second thinning should commence at the age of 18-20 years; finally, the final cut should be performed when the plantation is approximately 30 years of age. If rotation age is considered 40 years, the third thinning should commence at the age of 30 years.

  1. Development history and bibliography of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator for forest health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, KaDonna C

    2013-06-01

    Comprehensive assessment of individual-tree crown condition by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has its origins in the concerns about widespread forest decline in Europe and North America that developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Programs such as the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, US National Vegetation Survey, Canadian Acid Rain National Early Warning System, and joint US-Canadian North American Sugar Maple Decline Project laid the groundwork for the development of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator. The crown-condition assessment protocols were selected and refined through literature review, peer review, and field studies in several different forest types during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Between 1980 and 2011, 126 publications relating specifically to the crown-condition indicator were added to the literature. The majority of the articles were published by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service or other State or Federal government agency, and more than half were published after 2004.

  2. MEMORANDUM: Application of Best Management Practices to Mechanical Silvicultural Site Preparation Activities for the Establishment of Pine Plantations in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum to the Field, November 28, 1995, clarifying the applicability of forested wetlands best management practices to mechanical silvicultural site preparation activities for the establishment of pine plantations in the Southeast.

  3. Forest products cluster development in central Arizona—implications for landscape-scale forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Nicholls

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, close to 50,000 ac of hazardous fuels have been mechanically treated in east-central Arizona as part of the USDA Forest Service's first 10-year stewardship project on national forest lands. The need for coordinated wood products and biomass utilization in Arizona is likely to increase as broad-scale restoration treatments across Arizona's national...

  4. Modeling Potential Impacts of Planting Palms or Tree in Small Holder Fruit Plantations on Ecohydrological Processes in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kunert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon, but little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. To explore the potential impacts of plantations on local to regional water balance, we studied plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region. The study was conducted in a mixed fruit plantation containing a dicot tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum and a monocot palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleracea close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon. Scaling from sap flux measurements, palms had a 3.5-fold higher water consumption compared to trees with a similar diameter. Despite the high transpiration rates of the palms, our plantation had only one third of the potential water recycling capacity of natural forests in the area. Converting natural forest into such plantations will thus result in significantly higher runoff rates.

  5. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The weight of the past: land-use legacies and recolonization of pine plantations by oak trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, Irene; Pérez-Luque, Antonio J; Bonet, Francisco J; Zamora, Regino

    2013-09-01

    Most of the world's plantations were established on previously disturbed sites with an intensive land-use history. Our general hypothesis was that native forest regeneration within forest plantations depends largely on in situ biological legacies as a source of propagules. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed native oak regeneration in 168 pine plantation plots in southern Spain in relation to land use in 1956, oak patch proximity, and pine tree density. Historical land-use patterns were determined from aerial photography from 1956, and these were compared with inventory data from 2004-2005 and additional orthophoto images. Our results indicate that oak forest regeneration in pine plantations depends largely on land-use legacies, although nearby, well-conserved areas can provide propagules for colonization from outside the plantation, and pine tree density also affected oak recruit density. More intense land uses in the past meant fewer biological legacies and, therefore, lower likelihood of regenerating native forest. That is, oak recruit density was lower when land use in 1956 was croplands (0.004 +/- 0.002 recruits/m2 [mean +/- SE]) or pasture (0.081 +/- 0.054 recruits/m2) instead of shrubland (0.098 +/- 0.031 recruits/m2) or oak formations (0.314 +/- 0.080 recruits/m2). Our study shows that land use in the past was more important than propagule source distance or pine tree density in explaining levels of native forest regeneration in plantations. Thus, strategies for restoring native oak forests in pine plantations may benefit from considering land-use legacies as well as distance to propagule sources and pine density.

  7. Complex linkage between soil, soil water, atmosphere and Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, C.; Tiwari, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    alteration on soil texture and Ks. Also, relationship between T, RH, LAI and ASM developed can be used for soil moisture modelling for watersheds with eucalyptus plantations.

  8. Carbon density and distribution of six Chinese temperate forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying forest carbon(C) storage and distribution is important for forest C cycling studies and terrestrial ecosystem modeling.Forest inventory and allometric approaches were used to measure C density and allocation in six representative temperate forests of similar stand age(42-59 years old) and growing under the same climate in northeastern China.The forests were an aspen-birch forest,a hardwood forest,a Korean pine plantation,a Dahurian larch plantation,a mixed deciduous forest,and a Mongolian oak forest.There were no significant differences in the C densities of ecosystem components(except for detritus) although the six forests had varying vegetation compositions and site conditions.However,the differences were significant when the C pools were normalized against stand basal area.The total ecosystem C density varied from 186.9 tC hm-2 to 349.2 tC hm-2 across the forests.The C densities of vegetation,detritus,and soil ranged from 86.3-122.7 tC hm-2,6.5-10.5 tC hm-2,and 93.7-220.1 tC hm-2,respectively,which accounted for 39.7% ± 7.1%(mean ± SD),3.3% ± 1.1%,and 57.0% ± 7.9% of the total C densities,respectively.The overstory C pool accounted for > 99% of the total vegetation C pool.The foliage biomass,small root(diameter < 5mm) biomass,root-shoot ratio,and small root to foliage biomass ratio varied from 2.08-4.72 tC hm-2,0.95-3.24 tC hm-2,22.0%-28.3%,and 34.5%-122.2%,respectively.The Korean pine plantation had the lowest foliage production efficiency(total biomass/foliage biomass:22.6 g g-1) among the six forests,while the Dahurian larch plantation had the highest small root production efficiency(total biomass/small root biomass:124.7 g g-1).The small root C density decreased with soil depth for all forests except for the Mongolian oak forest,in which the small roots tended to be vertically distributed downwards.The C density of coarse woody debris was significantly less in the two plantations than in the four naturally regenerated forests.The variability

  9. Managing Southeastern US Forests for Increased Water Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Cohen, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Forested lands influence watershed hydrology by affecting water quantity and quality in surface and groundwater systems, making them potentially effective tools for regional water resource planning. In this study, we quantified water use and water yield by pine forests under varying silvicultural management (e.g., high density plantation, thinning, and prescribed burning). Daily forest water use (evapotranspiration, ET) was estimated using continuously monitored soil-moisture in the root-zone at six sites across Florida (USA), each with six plots ranging in forest leaf-area index (LAI). Plots included stands with different rotational ages (from clear-cut to mature pine plantations) and those restored to more historical conditions. Estimated ET relative to potential ET (PET) was strongly associated with LAI, root-zone soil-moisture status, and site hydroclimate; these factors explained 85% of the variation in the ET:PET ratio. Annual water yield (Yw) calculated from these ET estimates and a simple water balance differed significantly among sites and plots (ranging from -0.12 cm/yr to > 100 cm/yr), demonstrating substantive influence of management regimes. LAI strongly influenced Yw in all sites, and a general linear model with forest attributes (LAI and groundcover), hydroclimate, and site characteristics explained >90% of variation in observed Yw. These results can be used to predict water yield changes under different management and climate scenarios and may be useful in the development of payment for ecosystem services approaches that identify water as an important product of forest best management practices.

  10. The Development of an Expert System for Decision Making in Forest Resources Managemant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ilyana Mohd Zukki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are a repository of biodiversity which provides habitats for more than 50% of the earth’s plant and animal species, an important sink for carbon stores which provides many goods and ecosystem services and a critical contributor to livelihoods, mainly of the indigenous groups which are totally dependent on forests. Yet, forests are under pressure. Tropical forests are among the earth’s most threatened ecosystems, particularly threatened by human activities and climate change. Consequently, tropical forests are loosing capacity to provide basic goods and services that are essentials to human livelihood. Hence, every decision involving forest utilization should consider various criteria that are important for sustainable forest management. However, making decision about forest resources management often involves balancing conflicting, inadequate and incompatible values of many users and usage of a resource. One of the most fundamental and difficult task is the effective integration of environmental, economic and social values to achieve and maintain ecologically sustainable development. Therefore, an integrated technology such as an Analytical Hierarchy Process and expert systems is essential to be performed in making decision process for forest resources management because an AHP method is capable to capture both tangible and intangible criteria. This study places emphasis on the development of expert system for forest resources management to assist decision makers to select the best forest resources use based on Malaysian Criteria and Indicators [(MC&I2002].

  11. Flower and fruit production and insect pollination of the endangered Chilean tree, Gomortega keule in native forest, exotic pine plantation and agricultural environments Producción de flores y frutas y polinización por insectos de Gomortega keule en bosque nativo y en terrenos agrícolas, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONYA A LANDER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to discover whether patterns of flower and fruit production for Gomortega keule, an endangered Chilean tree, differ between exotic pine plantation, agricultural and native forest environments. A pilot study was also undertaken to identify the primary pollinators of G. keule. Although similar proportions of G. keule trees flowered in the agricultural and native forest áreas, more trees in the agricultural sites produced fruit compared to trees in the native forest sites. Flowering and fruiting of G. keule was extremely rare in the exotic pine plantations. Our data show that G. keule flowers are predominantly visited by syrphid flies in March-April, and that syrphids carry a greater proportion of G. keule pollen than the other insects collected. Native forest and low intensity agricultural systems appear to provide habitat in which syrphids forage and G. keule is able to produce fruit successfully, but exotic pine plantation does not; suggesting that a landscape made up of a mosaic of different landuse types is not necessarily inimical to the continued reproduction of G. keule, but that the combination and types of landuses and intensity of management must be carefully considered.El presente estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de establecer si los patrones de producción de flores y frutos de Gomortega keule (Gomortegaceae, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción, son diferentes entre áreas de plantaciones de pinos exóticos, terrenos agrícolas y áreas de bosque nativo. También fue llevado a cabo un estudio piloto para identificar los principales polinizadores de G. keule. A pesar de que en tierras agrícolas y en áreas de bosque nativo floreció una proporción similar de árboles de G. keule, en zonas agrícolas fructificó una mayor proporción en comparación con los árboles de áreas de bosque nativo. La floración y fructificación de G. keule fue extremadamente rara en las áreas de plantaciones de

  12. Análise faunística de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera: Apidae em ambientes de floresta nativa e plantios de Acacia mangium no Estado de Roraima. = Faunal analysis of the Euglossina bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae within the native Forest and plantations of Acacia mangium in the Brazilian State of Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Fernandes Tavares Maia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho comparar a Fauna de abelhas Euglossina de mata nativa com plantios de Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae atraídas por iscas odoríferas. Foram utilizadas armadilhas de garrafas de politereftalato de etila (PET, contendo fragrâncias de salicilato de metila e eugenol. As abelhas foram retiradas das armadilhas em intervalos de 30 em 30 minutos a contar das 6 horas até as 12 horas de cada dia de coleta. Foram selecionados três locais em mata nativa (Ilha de Maracá, Serra Grande e Itã e três em plantios de Acacia mangium (Haras Cunhã-Pucá, Fazenda Jacitara e Fazenda Umirizal. Em cada local de coleta as abelhas foram capturadas em um único dia, perfazendo um total de 6 dias de coletas para todos os locais. Foram coletados 123indivíduos de 21 espécies. Nos pontos de coleta nos plantios de Acacia mangium foram coletados 35 indivíduos pertencentes a 12 espécies e em mata nativa foram coletados 88 indivíduos pertencentes a 17 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Eulaema pseudocingulata (48 espécimes, Eul. meriana (12 espécimes, Eul. cingulata (11 espécimes, Euglossa augaspis (10 espécimes e Eug. amazonica (8 espécimes. Os pontos de coleta nos plantiosde Acacia mangium apresentaram baixa diversidade e abundância quando comparados com os pontos de coleta em mata nativa. = The objective of this study was to compare the Fauna of the Euglossina bees of native forest and plantings of Acacia mangium collected with odoriferous baits. Traps made from PET bottles were used, and contained fragrances of methyl salicilate and eugenol. The bees were removed from the traps in intervals of 30 in 30 minutes from 6 am to 12 pm every day during the period of collection. Three places were selected within the native forest (Island of Maracá, Serra Grande, and Itã, and from three plantations of Acacia mangium (Cunhã-Pucá farm, Jacitara farm and Umirizal farm. In each area of collection,the bees were captured on a

  13. Patchwork policy, fragmented forests: In-situ oil sands, industrial development, and the ecological integrity of Alberta's boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCrimmon, G.; Marr-Laing, T.

    2000-05-01

    Environmental impacts of current oil sands industry activities and the potential cumulative impacts of new in-situ oil sands development on the boreal forest of northeastern Alberta are reviewed. The objective is to improve understanding of the impacts of existing industrial activity on the broader boreal forest ecosystem, and the environmental implications of further disturbance to this ecosystem from future development of heavy and conventional fossil fuel reserves in the province. The report also outlines elements of a boreal forest use framework that could assist in managing industrial activity within ecologically sustainable limits and makes recommendations for specific actions that need to be taken by government and industry to guide future development decisions. The top 50 key landscape areas of interest in the province, identified by the World Wildlife Federation, based primarily on a series of reports by Alberta Environmental Protection, are briefly described. Implications of failure to act are also outlined. 138 end-notes, 8 tabs., 16 figs

  14. Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

    2011-12-01

    Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P mangrove plantation and induced natural regeneration as a carbon sequestration tool. The establishment of mangrove plantations appeared to be one measure for reducing the risk of cyclone damage after the Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss

  15. Performance of tropical legumes grown as understory of a eucalypt plantation in a seasonally dry area of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza F. Nicodemo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine tropical legumes were grown outside the canopy and in the understory of an 8-year-old Eucalyptus grandis stand in order to assess their seasonal production and forage quality for 4 evaluation periods. Incident photosynthetically active radiation in the understory was 18% of that outside the canopy. In the understory, production of Lablab purpureus, Centrosema schiedeanum, Clitoria ternatea, Pueraria phaseoloides, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Aeschynomene villosa, Estilosantes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata + S. macrocephala, Calopogonium mucunoides and Arachis pintoi was <1 kg/ha/d for most samples. Even considering this low production, the large area available for animal production in forest plantations might justify the interest in legumes because of their high nutritive value. Lablab purpureus produced the greatest amount of dry matter in the understory in the establishment phase (12.1 kg/ha/d, but did not persist. It could be a suitable candidate for a cover legume species mixture to provide early growth. Centrosema schiedeanum developed rapidly and showed a high capacity for ground cover (>70% and persistence, and had high nitrogen concentration, thus demonstrating good potential for protecting soils and promoting nutrient cycling in forest plantations. Another species with potential is A. pintoi, which established slowly but towards the end of the experiment showed moderate to high understory ground cover.Keywords: Dry matter production, forage quality, shade, silvopastoral system.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3151-160

  16. Linear infrastructure drives habitat conversion and forest fragmentation associated with Marcellus shale gas development in a forested landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Lillie A; Drohan, Patrick J; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2017-07-15

    Large, continuous forest provides critical habitat for some species of forest dependent wildlife. The rapid expansion of shale gas development within the northern Appalachians results in direct loss of such habitat at well sites, pipelines, and access roads; however the resulting habitat fragmentation surrounding such areas may be of greater importance. Previous research has suggested that infrastructure supporting gas development is the driver for habitat loss, but knowledge of what specific infrastructure affects habitat is limited by a lack of spatial tracking of infrastructure development in different land uses. We used high-resolution aerial imagery, land cover data, and well point data to quantify shale gas development across four time periods (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016), including: the number of wells permitted, drilled, and producing gas (a measure of pipeline development); land use change; and forest fragmentation on both private and public land. As of April 2016, the majority of shale gas development was located on private land (74% of constructed well pads); however, the number of wells drilled per pad was lower on private compared to public land (3.5 and 5.4, respectively). Loss of core forest was more than double on private than public land (4.3 and 2.0%, respectively), which likely results from better management practices implemented on public land. Pipelines were by far the largest contributor to the fragmentation of core forest due to shale gas development. Forecasting future land use change resulting from gas development suggests that the greatest loss of core forest will occur with pads constructed farthest from pre-existing pipelines (new pipelines must be built to connect pads) and in areas with greater amounts of core forest. To reduce future fragmentation, our results suggest new pads should be placed near pre-existing pipelines and methods to consolidate pipelines with other infrastructure should be used. Without these mitigation practices, we

  17. Poor stem form as a potential limitation to private investment in koa plantation forestry in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; James B. Friday; Janis Haraguchi; Travis Idol; Nicklos S. Dudley

    2010-01-01

    Providing economic incentives to landholders is an effective way of promoting sustainable forest management, conservation and restoration. In Hawaii, the main native hardwood species with commercial value is Acacia koa (koa), but lack of successful examples of koa plantation forestry hinders private investment. Financial models, which have been offered to encourage...

  18. Temporal optimisation of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Martin; Brigite Botequim; Tiago M. Oliveira; Alan Ager; Francesco Pirotti

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to support fire and forest management planning in eucalypt plantations based on economic, ecological and fire prevention criteria, with a focus on strategic prioritisation of fuel treatments over time. The central objective was to strategically locate fuel treatments to minimise losses from wildfire while meeting budget constraints and demands...

  19. Rehabilitation of monotonous exotic coniferous plantations: a case study of spontaneous establishment of different tree species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Magda; van Hees, A.; Prach, Karel

    -, č. 28 (2006), s. 141-148 ISSN 0925-8574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : restoration of coniferous plantations * natural regeneration * forest management Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2006

  20. Soil enzyme activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriere) plantations in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn)...

  1. GIS based approach for atmospheric carbon absorption strategies through forests development in Indian situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Surendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) play important role in forest management. An effective strategy for enhancement of atmospheric carbon absorption productivity is through forests development in degraded forest areas and waste lands. Forestry sector has significant emissions removal capability which can further be enhanced by operationalizing major afforestation and reforestation initiatives like National Mission for a Green India besides continued strengthening of the present protection regime of forests. Secondary data was collected and analyzed. Different types of waste lands require different strategies for their development into forest areas; but few waste lands like rocky regions, glacier regions etc. cannot be developed into forest areas. Atmospheric carbon management is major problem before world community in present circumstances to control environmental pollution. Various forest ecosystems play significant role in carbon absorption. The diffusional net absorption rate of anthropogenic carbon to the biosphere is some unknown function of the atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Estimations reveal that the average carbon absorption of the forests was around 1,240 grams (1.240 Kg) of carbon per square meter of canopy area. To stabilize atmospheric CO 2 , role of forestry depends on harvesting and disturbance rates, expectations of future forest productivity, and the ability to deploy technology and forest practices to increase the retention of sequestered CO 2 . There is a considerable self-damping effect that will moderate the future increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Capacity of the ocean to absorb carbon dioxide is limited; but atmospheric carbon absorption potentiality of India forests can be increased tremendously through reforestation, afforestation and development of degraded forest areas and waste lands. About 60 % of Indian waste lands can be developed to increase forest cover with reasonable efforts. When

  2. GIS based approach for atmospheric carbon absorption strategies through forests development in Indian situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Surendra Kumar [CCS Univ., Meerut (India). SCRIET

    2013-07-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) play important role in forest management. An effective strategy for enhancement of atmospheric carbon absorption productivity is through forests development in degraded forest areas and waste lands. Forestry sector has significant emissions removal capability which can further be enhanced by operationalizing major afforestation and reforestation initiatives like National Mission for a Green India besides continued strengthening of the present protection regime of forests. Secondary data was collected and analyzed. Different types of waste lands require different strategies for their development into forest areas; but few waste lands like rocky regions, glacier regions etc. cannot be developed into forest areas. Atmospheric carbon management is major problem before world community in present circumstances to control environmental pollution. Various forest ecosystems play significant role in carbon absorption. The diffusional net absorption rate of anthropogenic carbon to the biosphere is some unknown function of the atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Estimations reveal that the average carbon absorption of the forests was around 1,240 grams (1.240 Kg) of carbon per square meter of canopy area. To stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2}, role of forestry depends on harvesting and disturbance rates, expectations of future forest productivity, and the ability to deploy technology and forest practices to increase the retention of sequestered CO{sub 2}. There is a considerable self-damping effect that will moderate the future increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Capacity of the ocean to absorb carbon dioxide is limited; but atmospheric carbon absorption potentiality of India forests can be increased tremendously through reforestation, afforestation and development of degraded forest areas and waste lands. About 60 % of Indian waste lands can be developed to increase forest cover with reasonable efforts. When

  3. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED ALIAKBAR REZAEI TALESHI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rezaei-Taleshi SA. 2014. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas. Biodiversitas 15: 37-45. Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  4. Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2016-03-01

    Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness.

  5. The response of macroinvertebrates to artificially enhanced detritus levels in plantation streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, J. L.; Dobson, M.

    The leaves and wood from vegetation surrounding headwater streams constitute a major food source for aquatic invertebrates, providing they are retained upon the streambed and not transported downstream. This study investigated the response of aquatic invertebrates to artificially increased detritus retention, in an effort to reproduce the naturally occurring build up of dead organic matter associated with streams in old-growth forest. The background detrital standing stock in streams in Kielder Forest (Northumberland, UK) was low, approximately 32 gm-2. Two streams flowing through dense conifer plantation and one in open broadleaved woodland were manipulated by the addition of logs over a 10 m stream reach. After several months, log addition significantly enhanced detrital standing stocks in both conifer and broadleaved streams. Total invertebrate abundance, taxon richness and the numbers of certain numerically dominant families were significantly higher in experimental than reference reaches in both conifer and broadleaved streams. This response was most marked for detritivores, whilst non-detritivore groups often showed no response to the manipulation. Whilst in the short term the responses to enhanced retention may reflect a redistribution of the local fauna, it is argued that over a longer time-scale, a genuine increase in invertebrate density and diversity could occur. Allowing old-growth forest to develop in planted valley bottoms may be a viable management option for conservation. If established alongside streams, it would ensure continuous input of woody material and the fauna may benefit from the resulting increase in detritus retention.

  6. Effects of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on soil properties in and around sacred natural sites in the northern Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu Wassie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Eucalyptus (common name eucalyptus are widely planted all across Ethiopia—including on large areas of land previously allocated to food production. In recent decades eucalyptus has also increasingly been planted on lands around and within “church forests,” sacred groves of old-aged Afromontane trees surrounding Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido churches. These revered holy sites have long been recognized for their cultural values and also for their ecosystem services—including their potential to support species conservation and restoration, as church forests are some of the only remaining sanctuaries for many of Ethiopia’s indigenous and endemic plant and animal populations. Ethiopian Orthodox church communities have a long history of planting and nurturing indigenous tree seedlings to sustain church forest groves. However, due to the fast-growing nature of eucalyptuscombined with its widely recognized socio-economic benefits (as fuelwood, charcoal, construction wood, etc., this introduced species has been widely plantedaround church forests—in some cases even replacing native tree species within church forests themselves. In many developing country contexts the introduction of exotic eucalyptus has been shown to have ecological impacts ranging from soil nutrient depletion, to lowering water tables, to allelopathic effects. In this study, we collected soil samples from indigenous forest fragments (church forests, adjacent eucalyptus plantations, and surrounding agricultural land to examine how eucalyptus plantations in Ethiopian Orthodox church communitiesmight impact soil quality relative to alternative land uses. Soil properties, including organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were measured in samples across 20 church forest sites in South Gondar, East Gojjam, West Gojjam, Awi, and Bahir Dar Liyu zones in the Amhara Region of the northern Ethiopian Highlands. Findings indicate that although soil in

  7. Strategies for Sustainable Development of Non-Timber Forest Products in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Sene, Abdou

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, forests have been increasingly recognized as rich reservoirs for many valuable biological resources. As a result of the devastation caused by drought, clearing land for agriculture, and overexploitation of timber, there has been a growing interest in non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The Senegal Forestry Action Plan, designed to ensure sustainable forest management, stresses the importance of identifying the constraints to and opportunities for sustainable development of no...

  8. Assessment of weeds as alternative hosts of plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee plantations in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Peraza-Padilla; Martha Orozco-Aceves

    2018-01-01

    There is potential for weeds to be alternative hosts of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN), but a methodology that assesses the phytosanitary risk derived from the presence of weeds in plantations is not available. This research was conducted in order to determine if the presence of weeds in coffee plantations (organic and conventional) represented a phytosanitary risk due to their role as alternative hosts of PPN. The research was developed into two plantation located in Aserrí, San José, Costa...

  9. Development of lichen response indexes using a regional gradient modeling approach for large-scale monitoring of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Peter Neitlich

    2010-01-01

    Development of a regional lichen gradient model from community data is a powerful tool to derive lichen indexes of response to environmental factors for large-scale and long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service includes lichens in its national inventory of forests of...

  10. Ecosystemic forest management approach to ensure forest sustainability and socio-economic development of forest dependent communities: Evidence from Southeast Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mbairamadji

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide a full spectrum of goods and services that contribute to the socio-economic development of forest dependent communities. In tropical countries, the diversity of stakeholders depending on forests with their divergent interests and expectations, make sustainable forest management (SFM difficult to achieve. Although several studies advocate the decentralization of forest management and public participation as important processes for SFM, little has been done to demonstrate how these processes could contribute to forest sustainability and socioeconomic development of forest dependent communities. Moreover, almost no seminal paper has demonstrated how to integrate the ecological, economical and social issues of forest management, which have nevertheless been recognized as essential for sustainable forest management. This study develops an ecosystemic forest management approach based on “Stakeholder-Resource-Usage-Institution” dynamics as an appropriate framework for ensuring forest sustainability and socio-economic development. This approach is supported with lessons drawn on the limitations and pitfalls of the traditional forest management approach in Southeast Cameroon.Les forêts fournissent toute une gamme de biens et de services qui contribuent au développement socio-économique des communautés dépendantes de la forêt. Dans les régions tropicales, la diversité des parties prenantes qui dépendent des forêts rend la gestion durable des forêts difficile du fait d’attentes et d’intérêts divergents. Bien que plusieurs études estiment la décentralisation de la gestion des forêts et la participation publique comme importantes pour la gestion durable des forêts, peu d’initiatives ont été prises pour démontrer la manière dont ces actions pourraient contribuer à la durabilité de la forêt et au développement socio-économique des communautés dépendant de la forêt. En outre, aucun article majeur n’a d

  11. Hyperspectral and multispectral satellite sensors for mapping chlorophyll content in a Mediterranean Pinus sylvestris L. plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael Mª; Trujillo, Jesus; de la Orden, Manuel Sánchez; Hernández-Clemente, Rocío

    2014-02-01

    A new generation of narrow-band hyperspectral remote sensing data offers an alternative to broad-band multispectral data for the estimation of vegetation chlorophyll content. This paper examines the potential of some of these sensors comparing red-edge and simple ratio indices to develop a rapid and cost-effective system for monitoring Mediterranean pine plantations in Spain. Chlorophyll content retrieval was analyzed with the red-edge R750/R710 index and the simple ratio R800/R560 index using the PROSPECT-5 leaf model and the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) and experimental approach. Five sensors were used: AHS, CHRIS/Proba, Hyperion, Landsat and QuickBird. The model simulation results obtained with synthetic spectra demonstrated the feasibility of estimating Ca + b content in conifers using the simple ratio R800/R560 index formulated with different full widths at half maximum (FWHM) at the leaf level. This index yielded a r2 = 0.69 for a FWHM of 30 nm and r2 = 0.55 for a FWHM of 70 nm. Experimental results compared the regression coefficients obtained with various multispectral and hyperspectral images with different spatial resolutions at the stand level. The strongest relationships where obtained using high-resolution hyperspectral images acquired with the AHS sensor (r2 = 0.65) while coarser spatial and spectral resolution images yielded a lower root mean square error (QuickBird r2 = 0.42; Landsat r2 = 0.48; Hyperion r2 = 0.56; CHRIS/Proba r2 = 0.57). This study shows the need to estimate chlorophyll content in forest plantations at the stand level with high spatial and spectral resolution sensors. Nevertheless, these results also show the accuracy obtained with medium-resolution sensors when monitoring physiological processes. Generating biochemical maps at the stand level could play a critical rule in the early detection of forest decline processes enabling their use in precision forestry.

  12. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  13. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  14. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    Full Text Available Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira. We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  15. Threshold responses of forest birds to landscape changes around exurban development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suarez-Rubio

    Full Text Available Low-density residential development (i.e., exurban development is often embedded within a matrix of protected areas and natural amenities, raising concern about its ecological consequences. Forest-dependent species are particularly susceptible to human settlement even at low housing densities typical of exurban areas. However, few studies have examined the response of forest birds to this increasingly common form of land conversion. The aim of this study was to assess whether, how, and at what scale forest birds respond to changes in habitat due to exurban growth. We evaluated changes in habitat composition (amount and configuration (arrangement for forest and forest-edge species around North America Breeding Bird Survey (BBS stops between 1986 and 2009. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect change points in species occurrence at two spatial extents (400-m and 1-km radius buffer. Our results show that exurban development reduced forest cover and increased habitat fragmentation around BBS stops. Forest birds responded nonlinearly to most measures of habitat loss and fragmentation at both the local and landscape extents. However, the strength and even direction of the response changed with the extent for several of the metrics. The majority of forest birds' responses could be predicted by their habitat preferences indicating that management practices in exurban areas might target the maintenance of forested habitats, for example through easements or more focused management for birds within existing or new protected areas.

  16. Bringing People Back into Protected Forests in Developing Countries: Insights from Co-Management in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Zulu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines struggles to bring people back into protected forests to enhance sustainable forest management and livelihoods using insights emerging from a co-management project in Malawi. It uses mixed social science methods and a process-based conceptualization of co-management to analyze experiences, and theory of reciprocal altruism to explain major findings of continuing local forest-user commitment to co-management despite six years of conservation burdens largely for minimal financial benefits. It argues that overemphasis on cash incentives as the motivation for “self-interested” users to participate in co-management overlooks locally significant non-cash motivations, inflates local expectations, and creates perverse incentives that undermine socio-ecological goals. Some non-cash incentives outweighed cash-driven ones. Findings support broadening of incentives mechanisms, including via nested cross-scale institutional arrangements for holistic management that integrates adjacent forests into forest-reserve co-management. Strengthened institutions, improving community/government and intra-community trust, improved village forests easing pressure on the reserve, measures minimizing elite capture, and impetus from an external threat, enhanced forest condition. Generous forest rights and appropriate community licensing and benefit-sharing systems also helped. Bureaucratic/donor inefficiencies, wood-extraction challenges, poor forest-based enterprise development, and low resource value undermined performance. Insights on forest-management planning, fair cost-sharing, targeting the poor, and need for social learning are highlighted.

  17. Hydrological principles for sustainable management of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irena F. Creed; Gabor Z. Sass; Jim M. Buttle; Julia A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Forested landscapes around the world are changing as a result of human activities, including forest management, fire suppression, mountaintop mining, conversion of natural forests to plantations, and climate change (Brockerhoff et al., 2008; Cyr et al., 2009; Johnston et al., 2010; Miller et al., 2009; Kelly et al., 2010; Palmer et al., 2010). Forests...

  18. Caracterização da matéria orgânica do solo em fragmentos de mata atlântica e em plantios abandonados de eucalipto Quality of soil organic matter in fragments of atlantic forest and abandoned eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana do Couto Miranda

    2007-10-01

    capacidade de ceder elétrons para reações químicas do solo.The organic matter dynamics in Atlantic forest ecosystems must be understood to ensure the efficiency of conservation programs. Chemical characteristics of humic substances are important because they reflect the soil genesis processes and soil management, and can be used as indicator of the organic matter quality. The purpose of this study was to test the organic matter quality as a marker of the soil environment in areas of native Atlantic forest developed on a distrophyc Gleysol and a distrophyc Cambisol and in abandoned plantations of eucalyptus of different ages, at the União Biological Reserve, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the humified fractions of the soil organic matter and humic acids were evaluated by chemical and spectroscopic methods, in two soil layers (0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m. Soil fertility of the Biological Reserve was very low, representing a limiting factor for the humification process. Humic substances represented less than 50 % of the oxidized carbon, indicating that most of the organic matter consists of non-humic substances. Consequently, forest litterfall plays a central role in the plant/microorganism nutrition. The relative distribution of the humic fraction was not altered by the plant cover or soil class. The chemical nature of the humic acids was similar to fulvic acids. These characteristics were expressed by a low carbon content, high H/C and O/C ratios and high acidity values which resulted in humified material with low chemical evolution. Infrared spectroscopy indicated the effect of the soil class and plant cover on the chemical quality of the humic acids. The fluorescence intensity of humified material isolated from the Atlantic forest area was high, suggesting higher lability and capacity to release electrons for chemical reactions in the soil.

  19. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC) increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010). However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y). The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011), yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y). The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y), the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration.

  20. Spatial Variation in the Storages and Age-Related Dynamics of Forest Carbon Sequestration in Different Climate Zones—Evidence from Black Locust Plantations on the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China’s Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha−1. Soil organic C (SOC) increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010). However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y). The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011), yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha−1 to 28.4 Mg C ha−1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y). The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y), the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration. PMID:25799100

  1. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CALLISTO M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  2. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CALLISTO

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  3. CO2 Emissions in an Oil Palm Plantation on Tropical Peat in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, M.; Zhang, G.; Jantan, N. M.; Harun, M. H.; Kamarudin, N.; Choo, Y. M.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical peats are large contributors to greenhouse gas emissions and differ markedly from their counterparts at temperate latitudes. The rapid deforestation and subsequent land conversion of tropical virgin forests in Southeast Asia have been decried by environmental groups worldwide even though there is currently little robust scientific evidence to ascertain the net amount of greenhouse gas released to the atmosphere. The conversion to oil palm plantation at a large scale further exacerbates the situation. This paper shows preliminary data on CO2 emissions in a converted oil palm plantation grown on tropical peat in northeast Malaysia.

  4. Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. An international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttock, D.; Richardsson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Activities 1.2 (Forest management) and 1.2 (Harvesting) of Task XII/IEA Bioenergy Agreement carried out an international review of wood fuel from plantation cleaning and early thinning. The participating countries were Canada, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The individual country reviews and an international summary are presented in this paper. Each report gives country-related background information on forestry and wood utilization, energy potential from plantation cleaning and early thinning, environmental considerations from the viewpoint of wood fuel recovery, silvicultural systems and methods, cost of wood fuel, and knowledge gaps and problems

  5. MILDLY-DAMAGED FOREST AREAS IN BOREAL FORESTS OF THE WORLD. THE ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT, IMPOTANCE AND PROBABLE FUTURE OF THE CONCEPT OF MILDLY-DAMAGED FOREST AREAS WITH REGARD TO BOREAL FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zhuravleva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental goals at the global level, relating to forests, are conservation of biological diversity in the natural environment of its habitat and preservation of the environmental role (especially regarding the climate of forests. Major forest areas, not fragmented by infrastructure and preserving the diversity of relationships between landscape elements, are of crucial importance for solution of both these problems. Since many decisions, concerning conservation and management, are taken at inter-regional and inter-state levels or within the framework of various international processes, it is important to have clear and uniform criteria for identification of such areas. The article deals with occurrence, development and current state of the most common concepts of allocation thereof – the concept of mildly-damaged forest areas, based on the use of remote sensing data, especially images from Landsat satellites. The article substantiates a necessity of further development and update of the concept of intact forest landscapes: unification of approaches to their identification near northern boundaries of forests, adjustment of approaches to registering impacts of forest fires in the context of global climate change and land-use practices, adaption to new public data of remote sensing of the Earth.

  6. Developing and Evaluating Composites Based on Plantation Eucalyptus Rotary-cut Veneer and High-density Polyethylene Film as Novel Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To achieve value-added utilizations of plantation timbers, eucalyptus veneer/high-density polyethylene film composites were prepared, with process-factors (PF (hot-pressing temperature, HT; hot-pressing duration, HD; hot-pressing pressure, HP; HDPE-film content, HC and composite-properties (CP (water-resistant bonding-strength, BS; modulus of rupture, MOR; modulus of elasticity, MOE investigated. According to thermal analyses, 140 to 180 °C was appropriate for HT. Based on statistical analyses, HD was easier to affect CP, while MOE was easier to be affected by PF. Quantitative relationships between PF and CP were determined by the neural-network (ANN modeling. In ANN simulation surveys, CP displayed Gaussian distributions (R2 > 0.9 when PF changed in current ranges, with positive correlations between BS and MOR (R2 ≈ 0.5. Combining ANN and the genetic-algorithm, optimal processes (HT, 160 °C; HD, 50 s/mm; HP, 1.3 MPa; HC, 6 layers were found, and optimal results (BS, 1.30 MPa; MOR, 86.94 MPa; MOE, 8.33 GPa were comparable to various reported poplar-plywoods. Microscopic images demonstrated that composite interfaces were formed by the mechanical interlocking. The optimal BS attained Chinese standards for water-resistant plywoods, so proposed composites can serve as water-resistant and formaldehyde-free building materials for furniture and interior design.

  7. The Multiplier Effect of the Development of Forest Park Tourism on Employment Creation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuifa, Ke; Chenguang, Pan; Jiahua, Pan; Yan, Zheng; Ying, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article was employment creation by developing forest park tourism industries in China. Analysis of the statistical data and an input-output approach showed that 1 direct job opportunity in tourism industries created 1.15 other job opportunities. In the high, middle, and low scenarios, the total predicted employment in forest park…

  8. Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug P. Aubrey; David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus...

  9. Development of FVSOntario: A Forest Vegetation Simulator Variant and application software for Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray E. Woods; Donald C. E. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources is leading a government-industry partnership to develop an Ontario variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Based on the Lake States variant and the PrognosisBC user-interface, the FVSOntarioproject is motivated by a need to model the impacts of intensive forest management...

  10. Development of a Methodology for Predicting Forest Area for Large-Area Resource Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Cooke

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southcm Research Station, appointed a remote-sensing team to develop an image-processing methodology for mapping forest lands over large geographic areds. The team has presented a repeatable methodology, which is based on regression modeling of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Landsat Thematic...

  11. Research and development portfolio of the sustainability science team national sustainable operations USDA Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trista Patterson; David Nicholls; Jonathan Long

    2015-01-01

    The Sustainability Science Team (SST) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service Sustainable Operations Initiative is a 18-member virtual research and development team, located across five regions and four research stations of the USDA Forest Service. The team provides research, publication, systems analysis, and decision support to the Sustainable...

  12. Ecological scale and forest development: squirrels, dietary fungi, and vascular plants in managed and unmanaged forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.B. Carey; J. Kershner; B. Biswell; L.S. Dominguez de Toledo

    1999-01-01

    Understanding ecological processes and their spatial scales is key to managing ecosystems for biodiversity, especially for species associated with late-seral forest. We focused on 2 species of squirrel (Sciuridae: northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus, and Townsend's chipmunk, Tamias townsendii) in a crosssectional survey of managed and natural stands in...

  13. Water erosion risk prediction in eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are normally found in vulnerable ecosystems such as steep slope, soil with low natural fertility and lands that were degraded by agriculture. The objective of this study was to obtain Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors and use them to estimate water erosion risk in regions with eucalyptus planted. The USLE factors were obtained in field plots under natural rainfall in the Rio Doce Basin, MG, Brazil, and the model applied to assess erosion risk using USLE in a Geographic Information System. The study area showed rainfall-runoff erosivity values from 10,721 to 10,642 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Some soils (Latosols had very low erodibility values (2.0 x 10-4 and 1.0 x 10-4t h MJ-1 mm-1, the topographic factor ranged from 0.03 to 10.57 and crop and management factor values obtained for native forest, eucalyptus and planted pasture were 0.09, 0.12 and 0.22, respectively. Water erosion risk estimates for current land use indicated that the areas where should receive more attention were mainly areas with greater topographic factors and those with Cambisols. Planning of forestry activities in this region should consider implementation of other conservation practices beyond those already used, reducing areas with a greater risk of soil erosion and increasing areas with very low risk.

  14. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium Biomassa e atividade microbiana da serapilheira durante o desenvolvimento inicial de plantios puros e mistos de Eucalyptus grandis e Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  15. Conversion of traditional cropland into teak plantations strongly increased soil erosion in montane catchments of Southeastern Asia (Northern Laos; 2002-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, O.; Ribolzi, O.; Huon, S.; de Rouw, A.; Silvera, N.; Latsachack, K. O.; Soulileuth, B.; Lefèvre, I.; Pierret, A.; Lacombe, G.; Sengtaheuanghoung, O.; Valentin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Soil erosion delivers an excessive quantity of sediment to rivers of Southeastern Asia. Land use is rapidly changing in this region of the world, and these modifications may further accelerate soil erosion in this area. Although the conversion of forests into cropland has often been investigated, much fewer studies have addressed the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn cultivation systems with commercial perennial monocultures such as teak plantations. The current research investigated the impact of this land use change on the hydrological response and the sediment yields from a representative catchment of Northern Laos (Houay Pano, 0.6 km²) where long-term monitoring (2002-2014) was conducted (http://msec.obs-mip.fr/). The results showed a significant growth in the overland flow contribution to stream flow (from 16 to 31%). Furthermore, sediment yields strongly increased from 98 to 609 Mg km-2. These changes illustrate the severity of soil erosion processes occurring under teak plantations characterized by the virtual absence of understorey vegetation to dissipate raindrop energy, which facilitates the formation of an impermeable surface crust. This counter-intuitive increase of soil erosion generated by afforestation reflects the difficulty to find sustainable production solutions for the local populations of Southeastern Asia. To reduce soil loss under teak plantations, the development of extensive agro-forestry practices could be promoted.

  16. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  17. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  18. Litterfall production under pine plantations in the southern Andes region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Quichimbo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Litterfall research is an interesting aspect in environmental studies due to its significance in nutrient cycling specially in regions like the Andes where the interactions between biomass production and its decomposition is poorly understood. This study is focusing in the litterfall biomass production under pine plantations in southern Ecuador. The litterfall production was studied for five months at two-week intervals in three pine forest sites located in the southern Andes region of Ecuador. Monthly litterfall production ranged between 1067-1907 kg ha-1, in comparison with other coniferous stands around the world, this study revealed a higher litterfall production for tropical areas and particularly the highest production under pine plantations in the Andes region. This high litterfall production highlights the upmost importance of this forest component as a potential nutrient reservoir involved in the global nutrient cycling under landscapes dominated by this exotic forest specie in the tropical Andes.

  19. Impact assessment of the forest fires on Oarai Research and Development Center Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Yusuke; Kitamura, Ryoichi; Hanari, Akira; Sato, Isamu

    2016-03-01

    In response to new standards for regulating waste treatment facility ('new regulatory standards'; December 18, 2013 enforcement), it was carried out impact assessment of forest fires on the Waste Treatment Facility existed in Oarai Research and Development Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. At first, a fire spread scenario of forest fires was assumed. The intensity of forest fires was evaluated from field surveys, forest fire evaluation models and so on. As models of forest fire intensity evaluation, Rothermel Model and Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction (FBP) System were used. Impact assessment of radiant heat to the facility was carried out, and temperature change of outer walls for the assumed forest fires was estimated. The outer wall temperature of facility was estimated around 160degC at the maximum, it was revealed that it doesn't reach allowable temperature limit. Consequently, it doesn't influence the strength of concrete. In addition, a probability of fire breach was estimated to be about 20%. This report illustrates an example of evaluation of forest fires for the new regulatory standards through impact assessment of the forest fires on the Waste Treatment Facility. (author)

  20. Associations between forest characteristics and socio-economic development: a case study from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sónia Carvalho; Lovett, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    The integration of socio-economic and environmental objectives is a major challenge in developing strategies for sustainable landscapes. We investigated associations between socio-economic variables, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition in the context of Portugal. The main goals of the study were to 1) investigate relationships between forest conditions and measures of socio-economic development at national and regional scales, 2) test the hypothesis that a systematic variation in forest landscape metrics occurs according to the stage of socio-economic development and, 3) assess the extent to which landscape metrics can inform strategies to enhance forest sustainability. A ranking approach and statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis were used to achieve these objectives. Relationships between socio-economic characteristics, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition were only significant in the regional analysis of municipalities in Northern Portugal. Landscape metrics for different tree species displayed significant variations across socio-economic groups of municipalities and these differences were consistent with changes in characteristics suggested by the forest transition model. The use of metrics also helped inform place-specific strategies to improve forest management, though it was also apparent that further work was required to better incorporate differences in forest functions into sustainability planning.

  1. Chinese academic experts' assessment for forest bio-energy development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Mei; Ahponen, Pirkkoliisa; Tahvanainen, Liisa; Pelkonen, Paavo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current situation of the forest bio-energy development in China. This assessment is based on opinions of Chinese academic experts. Key drivers and uncertainties regarding the implementation, and the strategies for the future practices in the development of forest bio-energy were investigated. In addition, the purpose of this study was also to determine whether there is a consensus among the experts concerning forest bio-energy and if this consensus agrees with policy-makers in China. A thorough assessment was conducted using a two-round Delphi survey of sixty-one bio-energy experts in China. The results revealed the advantages, potential problems, and the experts' recommendations for the future development. Furthermore, the experts agreed that the Chinese government plays a dominant role in the development process of forest bio-energy in the country. The experts recognized that the process of developing forest bio-energy is a challenging task both domestically and globally. At the same time they also highlighted the potential benefits of developing forest bio-energy in China during the next ten years. The outcomes of this study could be used to give advice to policy-makers and to support the implementation of the future forest bio-energy policies in China.

  2. Yield prediction of young black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. plantations for woody biomass production using allometric relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Böhm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is an increasingly popular tree species for the production of woody biomass for bioenergy generation with short rotation coppices. Due to its potential to produce large amounts of biomass yields even under unfavourable growth conditions, this tree species is especially suitable for marginal sites, such as can be found in the post mining area of NE-Germany. Current research aims to reliably predict the yield potential of black locust short rotation coppices, but suffers from a lack of sufficient exact allometric functions until recently. This is especially true for the early growth years, which are of special importance for short rotation coppices. The objective of this study was to develop allometric equations based on tree height and shoot basal diameter (SBD for estimating yields of young black locust plantations. Therefore, dendrometric data were collected in a two, three, four and fourteen years old black locust short rotation forest located in the reclamation area of an opencast-lignite mining area in the Lower Lusatian region (Germany and used for equation developing. Until measurement, none of the plantations had been harvested. Closed correlations between SBD and tree height were observed, as well as between these parameters and single tree mass. The scattering of single tree masses could be explained slightly better by the SBD than by the tree height. In the year before a harvest an even better prediction probability of woody biomass was obtainable when both parameters were simultaneously interrelated with the single tree mass. The results illustrate that the woody above ground biomass of young black locust plantations can be estimated sufficiently precisely based on the easy determinable parameters tree height and particularly SBD.

  3. The Spanish National Forest Inventory: history, development, challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iciar Alberdi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important to have a statistically robust forest information data base which can be updated and can provide long-term information. National Forest Inventories (NFI provide one of the best large-scale sources of information, and therefore are a cornerstone of forest policies. The scopes of NFIs, which are the primary source of data for national and large-area assessments, has been broadened to include new variables to meet increasing information requirements. This paper describes the history, methodology and guidance of Spanish NFI and international requirements. The current objectives are determined by analysing future perspectives and possible direction of future assessments. These objectives include harmonization of NFI, open data source and to broaden the number of field variables monitored (multi-objective inventory in order to effectively fulfil information requirements.

  4. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  5. When you cannot see the forest for the trees: Effect of forest monocultures on biodiversity conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Rivera, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Human population is growing at rates that were unimaginable only a century ago, creating such pressure on resources, which will only decrease when the decline in birth rate stabilizes population. Among these resources, wood is one of the most demanded. Global consumption of wood is currently more than 3500 million m 3, a rate multiplied by six since 1950. To meet this demand, we manage millions of hectares of forests and forest plantations, part of which are cut down each year. This logging determines drastic effects on forests, affecting the biodiversity associated and the ecosystems services provided to society. This work is a review of the structural and functional characteristics that differentiate forests and forest plantations, in spite of the confusion between both ecosystems by FAO and the forest sector companies, which have coined the oxymoron planted forests. Forest plantations are more productive than forests from the point of view of the volume of wood that can be obtained from them, and if well managed, could minimize the pressure on forests. However, they do not provide many services that forests do provide, especially in the case of monospecific plantations consisting of even aged individuals of exotic species that are managed intensively. Some of the many techniques that combine the production of wood with the conservation of biodiversity are reviewed.

  6. Predicted stand volume for Eucalyptus plantations by spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Siti; Teodoro, RV; Myrna, GC; Nathaniel, CB; Leonardo, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    The main objective of the present study was to assess nonlinear models generated by integrating the stand volume growth rate to estimate the growth and yield of Eucalyptus. The primary data was done for point of interest (POI) of permanent sample plots (PSPs) and inventory sample plots, in Aek Nauli sector, Simalungun regency,North Sumatera Province,Indonesia. from December 2008- March 2009. Today,the demand for forestry information has continued to grow over recent years. Because many forest managers and decision makers face complex decisions, reliable information has become the necessity. In the assessment of natural resources including plantation forests have been widely used geospatial technology.The yield of Eucalyptus plantations represented by merchantable volume as dependent variable while factors affecting yield namely stands variables and the geographic variables as independent variables. The majority of the areas in the study site has stand volume class 0 - 50 m3/ha with 16.59 ha or 65.85 % of the total study site.

  7. Fuel forests: a spreading energy resource in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N J.H.

    1981-09-01

    The fuel potential of forests, particularly in Third World countries, to raise the contribution of fuelwood to global energy resources is receiving positive notice in the incentive programs for forestry projects offered by lending institutions and actions taken by governments to arrest the loss of forest cover. Residential and industrial use of wood must be balanced by rigorous woodland protection and management to increase tree planting. The example of Korea's success in increasing fuelwood supplies illustrates the importance of public understanding and community involvement so that local environmental and cultural factors are considered and local leaders are involved. 56 references, 1 table. (DCK)

  8. Technological status diagnosis used by partners of a Eucalyptus plantation reforesting company in Divinopolis, MG, Brazil; Levantamento do nivel tecnologico utilizado por parceiros no plantio de eucalipto de uma empresa reflorestadora na regiao de Divinopolis, MG, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccon, Eliane [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), DF (Mexico)]. Email: ececcon@miranda.ecologia.unam.mx

    1999-07-15

    Among the reforesting companies holding a partnership program on eucalyptus plantations with small and medium farmers in Minas Gerais, the Pains Florestal S.A. stands out for creating a research and development program in agroforestry systems with eucalyptus. Following a successful biological research, the need for a more specific diagnosis of the social-economic conditions emerged in order to assess the viability of the program. It was found that the company's partners lack important financial resources to start new agricultural and forest enterprises in their lands. Additionally, their technological level was low. The main income sources are livestock, corn plantations and charcoal production. On the other hand, most farmers presented a high level of interest in beginning new activities, provided credit conditions were available. (author)

  9. Forest management and water in the Republic of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a semi-arid country with a very limited area of natural forest. The early colonial governments encouraged the establishment of plantations to supply wood for local uses, and South Africa consequently has a long history of plantation...

  10. Tree Planting at the Bent Creek Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Barber

    1953-01-01

    Foresters everywhere are becoming increasingly conscious of the potentialities of tree selection and breeding. In the quest for suitable breeding material, many of the plantations of the past are assuming importance, for each plantation of introduced species may provide information on its adaptability to a certain area and the desirable and undesirable traits which...

  11. Albedo of a hybrid poplar plantation in central Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. T.; Bernier, P. Y.; Orchansky, A.; Thomas, B.

    2012-04-01

    Canada's boreal forest resources are coming under increasing pressure from competing land-uses, including establishment of protected areas, and losses of harvestable forest to mining and oil and gas exploration. In the prairie region, concerns about lack of wood supply for pulpmills and potential opportunities for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation, have spurred interest in afforestation of marginal agricultural land, notably with fast-growing hybrid poplars (HP). However, global modelling studies suggest that a shift from grassland or crops to forest cover in temperate and boreal regions could result in reduced surface albedo, particularly in winter, causing an increase in radiative forcing and reducing any climate mitigation benefits due to net GHG removal. We report on seven growing seasons of measurements of short-wave canopy albedo using tower-mounted instruments, along with eddy covariance measurements of carbon, water and energy balance, at a site in central Alberta planted with HP cuttings in spring 2005. The data show little systematic change in average albedo as vegetation has changed from bare ground to a plantation of 6 m trees. Reasons for this include very wide (3 m) spacing between the trees, and snow cover which often persists for 4-5 months and is highly visible below the bare canopies during winter. While measurements should continue as the trees grow larger, we postulate that extensive afforestation with HP is unlikely to have major effects on regional-scale surface albedo compared to the agricultural systems they replace. Normal rotation lengths are 15-20 years, hence even if older plantations have significantly lower winter albedo, their contribution to the regional average would be relatively small because they will cover only a small fraction of the landscape (e.g., compared to forests of boreal conifers or temperate broadleaved species).

  12. Interagency Collaborators Develop and Implement ForWarn, a National, Near Real Time Forest Monitoring Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    ForWarn is a satellite-based forest monitoring tool that is being used to detect and monitor disturbances to forest conditions and forest health. It has been developed through the synergistic efforts, capabilities and contributions of four federal agencies, including the US Forest Service Eastern Forest and Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Centers, NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and US Geological Survey Earth (USGS) Earth Research Observation System (EROS), as well as university partners, including the University of North Carolina Asheville's National Environmental Modeling and Analysis Center (NEMAC). This multi-organizational partnership is key in producing a unique, path finding near real-time forest monitoring system that is now used by many federal, state and local government end-users. Such a system could not have been produced so effectively by any of these groups on their own. The forests of the United States provide many societal values and benefits, ranging from ecological, economic, cultural, to recreational. Therefore, providing a reliable and dependable forest and other wildland monitoring system is important to ensure the continued health, productivity, sustainability and prudent use of our Nation's forests and forest resources. ForWarn does this by producing current health indicator maps of our nation's forests based on satellite data from NASA's MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors. Such a capability can provide noteworthy value, cost savings and significant impact at state and local government levels because at those levels of government, once disturbances are evident and cause negative impacts, a response must be carried out. The observations that a monitoring system like ForWarn provide, can also contribute to a much broader-scale understanding of vegetation disturbances.

  13. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsell, John F.; Fox, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km 2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km 2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km 2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  14. Planning a prescribed burn at Tectonagrandis Linn F. plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pedro Ramos Rodríguez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the frequency and severity of forest fires in the tropical region and in other parts of the world, have increased. The accumulation of forest fuel on the forest floor over the years dramatically increases the risk of fire. One of the alternatives to reduce this risk or the potential for damages is to reduce the amount of forest fuel using prescribed burns. This work had the objective of planning a prescribed burning at a Tectonagrandis plantation in Jipijapa, Manabí, Ecuador. The amount of woody dead fuel was determined using the planar intersections method. The amount of miscellaneous and green fuels was evaluated by collecting the material in boxes of 30 x 30 cm and in a plot of 1 m2, respectively, placing samples in stoves to remove moisture. Fire behavior was estimated by calculating parameters such as fire intensity, flame length and lethal scorch height. The total amount of forest fuel estimated was 11.17 t ha-1. The prescriptions obtained for the optimal intervals of the fire behavior parameters presented values of fire intensity between 16.43 and 33.89 kcal m-1 s-1; flame length between 0.54 and 0.76 m and lethal scorch height between 1.38 and 4.20 m. These values sufficiently argue the application of fire in the stand of T. grandis without danger to the trees.

  15. Forest development and carbon dynamics after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew. Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles periodically infest pine forests in western North America, killing many or most overstory pine stems. The surviving secondary stand structure, along with recruited seedlings, will form the future canopy. Thus, even-aged pine stands become multiaged and multistoried. The species composition of affected stands will depend on the presence of nonpines...

  16. Developing environmental marketing strategies in the framework of forest sector enterprises social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Polovska

    2012-01-01

    The approaches and methods of social responsibility implementation for developing environmental marketing strategies are examined, environmental marketing objectives for adopting social responsibility in forest sector are determined, principles of socially responsible environmental marketing are formulated.

  17. Variations des apports de litière et d'éléments minéraux dans les plantations de limba (Terminalia superba au Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokolo, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in Litter Production and Nutrient Supply in Plantations of Limba (Terminalia superba in Congo. A study was carried out in a chronosequence of Terminalia superba (7, 12 and 48 years and a nearby natural forest. The results show that the peaks of litterfall take place in rainy season contrary to the majority of the forest formations of the humid tropical zone. The return of nutrients to the soil via the leaf litter is higher in plantations than in forest. The calcium released from the leaf litter was up to 175 kg.ha-1.year1. The values obtained indicate a moderate nutrient use efficiency by Terminalia superba.

  18. Production de biomasse et quantification des flux d’azote dans une plantation mixte d’Eucalyptus urophylla x grandis et d’Acacia mangium au Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Tchichellé , Sogni Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Forest plantations represent 5% of the world forest area but provide more than one third of world wood supply. Sustainability of these systems is based on the long-term maintenance of their fertility without using fertilizers. The introduction of nitrogen (N) fixing species in forest plantations is one of the solutions to take-up this challenge. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of the introduction of Acacia mangium in pure stand of eucalypts on tree growth, biomass production an...

  19. Monitoring Forest Change in Landscapes Under-Going Rapid Energy Development: Challenges and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Pickell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated development of energy resources around the world has substantially increased forest change related to oil and gas activities. In some cases, oil and gas activities are the primary catalyst of land-use change in forested landscapes. We discuss the challenges associated with characterizing ecological change related to energy resource development using North America as an exemplar. We synthesize the major impacts of energy development to forested ecosystems and offer new perspectives on how to detect and monitor anthropogenic disturbance during the Anthropocene. The disturbance of North American forests for energy development has resulted in persistent linear corridors, suppression of historical disturbance regimes, novel ecosystems, and the eradication of ecological memory. Characterizing anthropogenic disturbances using conventional patch-based disturbance measures will tend to underestimate the ecological impacts of energy development. Suitable indicators of anthropogenic impacts in forests should be derived from the integration of multi-scalar Earth observations. Relating these indicators to ecosystem condition will be a capstone in the progress toward monitoring forest change in landscapes undergoing rapid energy development.

  20. Development of SNS Stream Analysis Based on Forest Disaster Warning Information Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; KIM, D.; Kang, M.; Woo, C.; Kim, D.; Seo, J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, H.; Heon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Forest disasters, such as landslides and wildfires, cause huge economic losses and casualties, and the cost of recovery is increasing every year. While forest disaster mitigation technologies have been focused on the development of prevention and response technologies, they are now required to evolve into evacuation and border evacuation, and to develop technologies fused with ICT. In this study, we analyze the SNS (Social Network Service) stream and implement a system to detect the message that the forest disaster occurred or the forest disaster, and search the keyword related to the forest disaster in advance in real time. It is possible to detect more accurate forest disaster messages by repeatedly learning the retrieved results using machine learning techniques. To do this, we designed and implemented a system based on Hadoop and Spark, a distributed parallel processing platform, to handle Twitter stream messages that open SNS. In order to develop the technology to notify the information of forest disaster risk, a linkage of technology such as CBS (Cell Broadcasting System) based on mobile communication, internet-based civil defense siren, SNS and the legal and institutional issues for applying these technologies are examined. And the protocol of the forest disaster warning information service system that can deliver the SNS analysis result was developed. As a result, it was possible to grasp real-time forest disaster situation by real-time big data analysis of SNS that occurred during forest disasters. In addition, we confirmed that it is possible to rapidly propagate alarm or warning according to the disaster situation by using the function of the forest disaster warning information notification service. However, the limitation of system application due to the restriction of opening and sharing of SNS data currently in service and the disclosure of personal information remains a problem to be solved in the future. Keyword : SNS stream, Big data, Machine

  1. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED ALIAKBAR REZAEI TALESHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  2. Improved Water Consumption Estimates of Black Locust Plantations in China’s Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Schwärzel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is a major tree species in China’s large-scale afforestation. Despite its significance, black locust is underrepresented in sap flow literature; moreover, the published water consumption data might be biased. We applied two field methods to estimate water consumption of black locust during the growing seasons in 2012 and 2013. The application of Granier’s original sap flow method produced a very low transpiration rate (0.08 mm d−1 while the soil water balance method yielded a much higher rate (1.4 mm d−1. A dye experiment to determine the active sapwood area showed that only the outermost annual ring is responsible for conducting water, which was not considered in many previous studies. Moreover, an in situ calibration experiment was conducted to improve the reliability of Granier’s method. Validation showed a good agreement in estimates of the transpiration rate between the different methods. It is known from many studies that black locust plantations contribute to the significant decline of discharge in the Yellow River basin. Our estimate of tree transpiration at stand scale confirms these results. This study provides a basis for and advances the argument for the development of more sustainable forest management strategies, which better balance forest-related ecosystem services such as soil conservation and water supply.

  3. Socioeconomic Collapse of Rural Areas, Atlantic Forest Transition and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R. F. B. D.; Batistella, M.; Moran, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    Centuries of human pressure over the Atlantic Forest has led the biome to encompass only 11.7 percent of forest remnants. On the other hand, natural regeneration has explained forest cover increase in specific regions since the 1960s as an outcome of land use policies, environmental legislation, agricultural modernization, economic development, and landscape biophysical conditions. We analyze Forest Transition (FT) pathways for the Paraíba Valley region, São Paulo State, Brazil looking for more sustainable relationships between land use and natural land cover. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Valley's farms were responsible for providing the largest portion of the state's wealth. Nowadays, the Valley contributes with only 6% to the state's gross product and the share of rural activities is now insignificant. Between 1962 and 2011, forest cover area increased from 225 to 446 thousand hectares. Rural household survey was conducted in three municipalities (n=90, thirty in each municipality). To select the municipalities among the thirty-four present in the Paraíba Valley, we applied the modified Thompson Tau technique to detect outlier values for three selected variables: natural forest cover, eucalyptus plantation cover, and municipal revenue. The outliers were discharged and the municipality with the best performance (maximum value) for each variable was selected. Based on the rural household surveys and GIS analysis of satellite imagery classifications, topography and hydrology variables, we conclude that the diminished land use pressure in the Paraíba Valley is allowing the regeneration of forest cover. Over the observed period, the FT was strongly influenced by the unsuitable topography for agriculture (steep slopes) and the economic urban development since the 1960s. However, more recently (2000s), FT is more affected by the vicinity of eucalyptus plantations, the active role of local communities denouncing illegal environmental threats (e

  4. Evaluation of the use of scientific information in developing the 1997 Forest plan for the Tongass National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred H. Everest; Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Stewart D. Allen

    1997-01-01

    The Tongass National Forest is the largest remaining relatively unaltered coastal temperate rain forest in the world. The Forest consists of 16.9 million acres of land distributed across more that 22,000 islands and a narrow strip of mainland in southeast Alaska. The Forest contains abundant timber, wildlife, fisheries, mineral, and scenic resources. The authors...

  5. Leaf Diseases On Eucalyptus Pellita F. Muell In Plantation Of Pt Surya Hutani Jaya At Sebulu East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Arsensi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus pellita is often grown in monoculture can be susceptible to disease whether grown in the nursery or the field. Currently in the plantation of PT Surya Hutani Jaya Sebulu is developing E. pellita derived from seed and clonal. The results were then called family. To determine the benefits to trees the company deliberately does not preserve this area so there will be generated trees family that excel in both productivity and resistance to pests and diseases. This study is aimed at determining the symptoms and signs of disease on the leaves the microorganisms that cause disease on the leaves as well as the incidence and severity of pathogen that attacks the leaves of E. pellita. The research was conducted at PT Surya Hutani Jaya Sebulu Kutai Kartanegara Regency East Kalimantan and continued with the identification of pathogens at the Laboratory of Forest Protection Faculty of Forestry University of Mulawarman. The object of this research was E. pellita of a 6 year old plantation spacing of 3 amp61620 2 m. The origin of E. pellita is a clone from Riau. Symptoms of the disease found at the progeny test were leaf spot and leaf blight. The pathogens were Cercospora sp. Pestalotia sp. Curvularia sp. Bipolaris sp. Marsonina sp. and Dactylaria sp. The incidence of leaf spot pathogen was 83.3 and leaf blight was 80.6 with the severity of 9.7 and 12.5 respectively.

  6. Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razakamanarivo, Ramarson H.; Razakavololona, Ando; Razafindrakoto, Marie-Antoinette; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Albrecht, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha −1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ► We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ► Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ► BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ► BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha -1 (<77% of the C in

  7. Model Development For Wireless Propagation In Forested Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    vegetation elements can be compared to the reduction of the propagated radio signals in buildings and urban areas. The diversity of operational...contexts for radio wave propagation through foliage is infinite, ranging from tall, dense canopy forests to open, low, sparse canopy woodlands [3], as...nearly flat and mainly consists of dry soil and sand that is covered by grass in some parts. The experimental site is mixed vegetation woodland with an

  8. Losing a jewel—Rapid declines in Myanmar’s intact forests from 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Ned; Khaing, Thiri; Thein, Zaw Min; Aung, Kyaw Moe; Aung, Kyaw Htet; Phyo, Paing; Tun, Ye Lin; Oo, Aung Htat; Neil, Anthony; Thu, Win Myo; Songer, Melissa; Huang, Qiongyu; Connette, Grant; Leimgruber, Peter

    2017-01-01

    New and rapid political and economic changes in Myanmar are increasing the pressures on the country’s forests. Yet, little is known about the past and current condition of these forests and how fast they are declining. We mapped forest cover in Myanmar through a consortium of international organizations and environmental non-governmental groups, using freely-available public domain data and open source software tools. We used Landsat satellite imagery to assess the condition and spatial distribution of Myanmar’s intact and degraded forests with special focus on changes in intact forest between 2002 and 2014. We found that forests cover 42,365,729 ha or 63% of Myanmar, making it one of the most forested countries in the region. However, severe logging, expanding plantations, and degradation pose increasing threats. Only 38% of the country’s forests can be considered intact with canopy cover >80%. Between 2002 and 2014, intact forests declined at a rate of 0.94% annually, totaling more than 2 million ha forest loss. Losses can be extremely high locally and we identified 9 townships as forest conversion hotspots. We also delineated 13 large (>100,000 ha) and contiguous intact forest landscapes, which are dispersed across Myanmar. The Northern Forest Complex supports four of these landscapes, totaling over 6.1 million ha of intact forest, followed by the Southern Forest Complex with three landscapes, comprising 1.5 million ha. These remaining contiguous forest landscape should have high priority for protection. Our project demonstrates how open source data and software can be used to develop and share critical information on forests when such data are not readily available elsewhere. We provide all data, code, and outputs freely via the internet at (for scripts: https://bitbucket.org/rsbiodiv/; for the data: http://geonode.themimu.info/layers/geonode%3Amyan_lvl2_smoothed_dec2015_resamp) PMID:28520726

  9. How are America's private forests changing? An integrated assessment of forest management, housing pressure, and urban development in alternate emissions scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinki. Mondal; Brett J. Butler; David B. Kittredge; Warren K. Moser

    2013-01-01

    Private forests are a vital component of the natural ecosystem infrastructure of the United States, and provide critical ecosystem services including clean air and water, energy, wildlife habitat, recreational services, and wood fiber. These forests have been subject to conversion to developed uses due to increasing population pressures. This study examines the...

  10. Community structure of vascular plants, arthropods, amphibians, and mollusks in managed forests of the Pacific Northwest (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie J. Wessell-Kelly; Deanna H. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Increasing global demands on forest resources are driving large-scale shifts toward plantation forestry. Simultaneously balancing resource extraction and ecological sustainability objectives in plantation forests requires the incorporation of innovative silvicultural strategies such as leave islands (green-tree retention clusters). Our primary research goal was to...

  11. Assesment of forest products market potential as a basis for forest sector development in the Jablanica District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main tasks of marketing research is the assessment of market potential. The aim of this research was to analyze the dynamics of selling and buying of wood and nonwood forest products (NWFPs within the analyzed enterprises in the Jablanica District. The purpose of this research was to examine the possibilities for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs directed towards a sustainable use of forest products in the area of the Jablanica District. The subject of this research is: purchased and placed quantities in the analyzed enterprises, as well as the prices that were realized for the products, with special emphasis on commercially important mushrooms. The research was conducted in the territory of Jablanica and it included five enterprises engaged in the purchasing, processing and sale of NWFPs and the Forest Estate (FE “Forest” Leskovac. The purchase of raw forest fruits and herbs had a growing trend (+ 17.8% in the 2006-2013 period. The average annual growth rate (AAGR of sales was 3.4% for medicinal plants and 30.6% for mushrooms. The AAGR of NWFPs export was + 32.6%. The placement of beech wood assortments (K class recorded a purchase AAGR of app. + 12.7%. In 2013, it was found that the NWFPs with the highest market value were: blueberry, dried boletus and chanterelle. In 2013, their total gross revenue in the domestic market amounted to 82.3 million RSD, whereas the total gross revenue of the analyzed beech wood assortments was 87 million RSD. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji i br. TP 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  12. Four decades of post-agricultural forest development have caused major redistributions of soil phosphorus fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijver, An De; Vesterdal, Lars; Hansen, Karin Irene

    2012-01-01

    , slowly cycling P and occluded P); in particular, we addressed the timerelated alterations in the inorganic versus organic P fractions. In less than 40 years of oak forest development, significant redistributions have occurred between different P fractions. While both the labile and the slowly cycling...... inorganic P fractions significantly decreased with forest age, the organic fractions significantly increased. The labile P pool (inorganic ? organic), which is considered to be the pool of P most likely to contribute to plant-available P, significantly decreased with forest age (from[20 to\\10% of total P......), except in the 0–5 cm of topsoil, where labile P remained persistently high. The shift from inorganic to organic P and the shifts between the different inorganic P fractions are driven by biological processes and also by physicochemical changes related to forest development. It is concluded...

  13. Understory plant diversity in mixed and pure plantations of jatropha curcas vs. native vegetation in the lower-middle reaches of the lancang-meikong river watershed, china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, G.L.; Ma, H.C.; Tang, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    22 plots at the Xiaoheijiang base, located in the lower-middle reaches of the Lancang-Meikong River in China, were investigated to analyze the understory biodiversity of Jatropha curcas plantations. Two kinds of mixed modes of J. curcas (mixed plantation with Macadamia integrifolia and mixed plantation with shrub species) and a pure plantation of J. curcas were planted, while the native vegetation served as a control. The plots were distributed along the gradients of forest management, succession and elevation by CCA analysis. Species richness was not significantly different for the different types of plantation, but the evenness of species could be affected, especially for the total community and the understory by planting J. curcas. The diversity and evenness indices of species were affected for the mixed plantation with different proportions of M. integrifolia, especially for the shrub layer, the Shannon diversity index and Pilou evenness index showed significant differences. And for the different mixed shrub species, only the Shannon diversity index and Pilou evenness index were significantly different. Finally, from the perspective of biological diversity, J.curcas plantation with shrub species would be a recommended planting model for ecological restoration in a dry-hot valley area, while J. curcas plantation with M. integrifolia would be an effective planting model to balance crop yield and food security. (author)

  14. Structure and development of old-growth, unmanaged second-growth, and extended rotation Pinus resinosa forests in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily J. Silver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Shawn Fraver; Brian J. Palik; John B. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    The structure and developmental dynamics of old-growth forests often serve as important baselines for restoration prescriptions aimed at promoting more complex structural conditions in managed forest landscapes. Nonetheless, long-term information on natural patterns of development is rare for many commercially important and ecologically widespread forest types....

  15. Effects of stand age and soil properties on soil bacterial and fungal community composition in Chinese pine plantations on the Loess Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dang

    Full Text Available The effects of Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis on soil variables after afforestation have been established, but microbial community changes still need to be explored. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we analyzed bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity in soils from three stands of different-aged, designated 12-year-old (PF1, 29-year-old (PF2, and 53-year-old (PF3, on a Chinese pine plantation and from a natural secondary forest (NSF stand that was almost 80 years old. Abandoned farmland (BL was also analyzed. Shannon index values of both bacterial and fungal community in PF1 were greater than those in PF2, PF3 and NSF. Proteobacteria had the lowest abundance in BL, and the abundance increased with stand age. The abundance of Actinobacteria was greater in BL and PF1 soils than those in other sites. Among fungal communities, the dominant taxa were Ascomycota in BL and PF1 and Basidiomycota in PF2, PF3 and NSF, which reflected the successional patterns of fungal communities during the development of Chinese pine plantations. Therefore, the diversity and dominant taxa of soil microbial community in stands 12 and 29 years of age appear to have undergone significant changes; afterward, the soil microbial community achieved a relatively stable state. Furthermore, the abundances of the most dominant bacterial and fungal communities correlated significantly with organic C, total N, C:N, available N, and available P, indicating the dependence of these microbes on soil nutrients. Overall, our findings suggest that the large changes in the soil microbial community structure of Chinese pine plantation forests may be attributed to the phyla present (e.g., Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota which were affected by soil carbon and nutrients in the Loess Plateau.

  16. Biogenic CO2 fluxes, changes in surface albedo and biodiversity impacts from establishment of a miscanthus plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Cherubini, Francesco; Michelsen, Ottar

    2014-01-01

    human influenced state to another.Concerning the impacts from biogenic CO2 fluxes, in the case of conversion from a forest to a miscanthus plantation (case A) there is a contribution to global warming, whereas when a fallow land is converted (case B), there is a climate cooling. When the effects from...

  17. The Luquillo Mountains: forest resources and their history

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. L. Weaver

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the El Yunque National Forest, which is also designated as Luquillo Experimental Forest, in northeastern Puerto Rico. The principal topics include the environmental setting (geology, soils, and climate), environmental gradients, arborescent flora, vertebrate fauna, and forest management (i.e., plantations, silvicultural operations,...

  18. An Approach to Orbital Image Classification for the Assessment of Potato Plantation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Terezinha Galvão Boulomytis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the city of Bueno Brandão, South of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, the Watershed of Rio das Antas is located prior to the public water supply and is susceptible to hydro-degradation due to the intensive agricultural activities developed in the area. The potato plantation is the most significant cropping in the city. Because of the possibility of interfering in the preservation areas, mainly the ones surrounding water courses and springs, it is very important to do the assessment of the plantation sites, in order to avoid the risk of water contamination. The procedures adopted by the agro activity farmers generally present the following features: intensive use of agro-chemicals, cropping in places with slopes which are higher than 20%, close to or in permanent preservation areas. The scope of this study was to develop the proper methodology for the assessment of the plantation areas, regarding the short time of procedure, as the period between the plantation and the harvest occurs in six months the furthest. These areas vary year in year out, as the plantation sites often change due to the land degradation. Because of that, geotechnologies are recommended to detect the plantation areas by the use of satellite images and accurate data processing. Considering the availability of LANDSAT medium resolution images, methods for their appropriate classification were approached to provide effective target detection.

  19. Development in techniques for studying forest roads on peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarilahti, M.

    1988-01-01

    A light seismic method, a short-pulse radar and a microwave probe are tested in assessing the properties of a forest road constructed on peatland. The light seismic method gave reliable values for estimating the bearing capacity of the road. It was found that bearing capacity was mostly dependent on embankment thickness, but quality of labric might also have an influence. Embankment thickness and peat depth can be measured on the radargram, and some additional information on road bed and peat obtained. The microwave peat probe permits recording of the continuous moisture profile in situ, which improves accuracy of planning

  20. Development in techniques for studying forest roads on peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarilahti, M.

    1988-07-01

    A light seismic method, a short-pulse radar and a microwave probe are tested in assessing the properties of a forest road constructed on peatland. The light seismic method gave reliable values for estimating the bearing capacity of the road. It was found that bearing capacity was mostly dependent on embankment thickness, but quality of labric might also have an influence. Embankment thickness and peat depth can be measured on the radargram, and some additional information on road bed and peat obtained. The microwave peat probe permits recording of the continuous moisture profile in situ, which improves accuracy of planning.

  1. Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzani A. Makhado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004 and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR 2002. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, single factor was also applied. This study found that Roburnia Plantation is highly exposed to fire risks. The mean (± s.d. output from the Wisner risk equation shows that fire is the highest risk at 7.7 ± 0.3, followed by harsh weather conditions at 5.6 ± 0.4 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 2.3 ± 0.2. Similarly, the mean (± s.d. output from the UNISDR risk equation also shows that fire is the highest risk at 2.9 ± 0.2, followed by harsh weather conditions at 2.2 ± 0.3 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 1.3 ± 0.2. There was no significant deference in the risk analysis outputs (p = 0.13. This study also found that the number of fire incidents were low during summer, but increased during winter and spring. This variation is mainly due to a converse relationship with rainfall, because the availability of rain moistens the area as well as the fuel. When the area and fuel is moist, fire incidents are reduced, but they increase with a decrease in fuel moisture.

  2. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow