WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest health threats

  1. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  2. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  3. Remote Sensing of Forest Health Indicators for Assessing Change in Forest Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Oak decline poses a substantial threat to forest health in the Ozark Highlands of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, where coupled with diseases and insect infestations, it has damaged large tracts of forest lands. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) crown health indicators (e.g. crown dieback, etc.), collected by the U.S. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and...

  4. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  5. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  6. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  7. Sociocultural perspectives on threats, risks, and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Jonathan W. Long; Frank K. Lake

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural perspectives on threats, risks, and health are explored in this chapter. The authors begin with a discussion of the linkages between well-being in the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and public health and well-being to set the context of socioecological resilience. This is followed by a summary of how trust and confidence influence the management of threats and...

  8. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  9. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global Public Health Threat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance is a global threat and has reached ... and World Health Organization (WHO) have taken ... and 5) Education of the public. .... to decrease transmission of microbes and ... interventions are designed for behavioral change.

  11. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today,...

  12. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Özden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today, deforestation is occurring in tropical countries that are expecting to gain agricultural area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between urbanization and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forest crimes, which are a major obstacle for sustainable forestry. Although forests cover about 27 % of Turkey’s territory, the forests are losing viability; the status of wood raw material per unit area and the total area of the country in the ratio of productive forests are becoming critical in Turkey. Turkey’s rugged terrain and factors such as human interventions, fires, deforestation for agriculture, illegal cuttings, or improper grazing reduce existing forests or cause deterioration of their structure. In the past, deforestation, as a result of human interventions in Turkey, was done by forest villagers who live in rural areas. The forest crimes depend on various socio-economic reasons and have many adverse effects on the sustainability of forest and forest existence. In developed countries, illegal interventions such as opening, grazing, cutting, occupation, use, settlement, or hunting crimes have been largely eliminated because of the absence of cadastral problems, the existence of more responsive people to protect the environment and forests and a rural population, which has a higher standard of living. In the last 20 years, there has been both a dramatic decrease in the population living in rural areas and a

  13. Analyzing forest health data

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Smith; Barbara L. Conkling

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on the Forest Health Monitoring Program’s development and use of analytical procedures for monitoring changes in forest health and for expressing the corresponding statistical confidences. The program’s assessments of long-term status, changes, and trends in forest ecosystem health use the Santiago Declaration: “Criteria and Indicators for the...

  14. Global demand for gold is another threat for tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L.; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The current global gold rush, driven by increasing consumption in developing countries and uncertainty in financial markets, is an increasing threat for tropical ecosystems. Gold mining causes significant alteration to the environment, yet mining is often overlooked in deforestation analyses because it occupies relatively small areas. As a result, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the spatial extent of gold mining impacts on tropical forests. In this study, we provide a regional assessment of gold mining deforestation in the tropical moist forest biome of South America. Specifically, we analyzed the patterns of forest change in gold mining sites between 2001 and 2013, and evaluated the proximity of gold mining deforestation to protected areas (PAs). The forest cover maps were produced using the Land Mapper web application and images from the MODIS satellite MOD13Q1 vegetation indices 250 m product. Annual maps of forest cover were used to model the incremental change in forest in ˜1600 potential gold mining sites between 2001-2006 and 2007-2013. Approximately 1680 km2 of tropical moist forest was lost in these mining sites between 2001 and 2013. Deforestation was significantly higher during the 2007-2013 period, and this was associated with the increase in global demand for gold after the international financial crisis. More than 90% of the deforestation occurred in four major hotspots: Guianan moist forest ecoregion (41%), Southwest Amazon moist forest ecoregion (28%), Tapajós-Xingú moist forest ecoregion (11%), and Magdalena Valley montane forest and Magdalena-Urabá moist forest ecoregions (9%). In addition, some of the more active zones of gold mining deforestation occurred inside or within 10 km of ˜32 PAs. There is an urgent need to understand the ecological and social impacts of gold mining because it is an important cause of deforestation in the most remote forests in South America, and the impacts, particularly in aquatic systems, spread well

  15. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-30

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke.  Created: 9/30/2013 by Division of Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 9/30/2013.

  16. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the U.S. for Warn Early Warning System for Forest Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx 751 million acres (approx 1/3 of total land). Several abiotic and biotic damage agents disturb, damage, kill, and/or threaten these forests. Regionally extensive forest disturbances can also threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work at finer scales. daily MODIS data provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis, leveraging vegetation phenology. In response, the USFS and NASA began collaborating in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS).

  17. Measuring and mapping threats to forests: issues and opportunities with an empirical study from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Spatially explicit tools for prioritizing conservation and land-use in human dominated landscapes are becoming common in recent years. Such efforts are also efficient in minimizing management costs and to provide future possible scenarios to aid management decisions. We propose and develop a spatially explicit framework and novel tool - Future Forest - for simulating scenarios for future forest management actions. We integrate both forest/vegetation characteristics, selected ecosystem services provided by corresponding forest/vegetation and nineteen possible threats and/or disturbances to forests that are either anthropogenic or occurring naturally, and may influence forest/vegetation characteristics and expected outcomes from forests. Our modelling framework provides options for necessary future actions either from conservation or from production forestry perspectives, and to ensure sustainable forest management in an area. In addition to that our threat assessment and mapping tool are useful in indentifying vulnerable zone of forests to specific anthropogenic, natural or other threats, and to take precautionary actions against each identified threats. We applied our modelling framework and spatial tool for measuring and mapping threats to a Bangladesh forest, with recommended actions to ensure sustainable forest management and to spatially prioritize zones for special management needs. We finally discuss issues and opportunities that our spatially explicit framework and novel tool may offer.

  18. Forest health in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, Marco; Schlegel, Markus; Holdenrieder, Ottmar

    2015-05-01

    Forest pathology, the science of forest health and tree diseases, is operating in a rapidly developing environment. Most importantly, global trade and climate change are increasing the threat to forest ecosystems posed by new diseases. Various studies relevant to forest pathology in a changing world are accumulating, thus making it necessary to provide an update of recent literature. In this contribution, we summarize research at the interface between forest pathology and landscape ecology, biogeography, global change science and research on tree endophytes. Regional outbreaks of tree diseases are requiring interdisciplinary collaboration, e.g. between forest pathologists and landscape ecologists. When tree pathogens are widely distributed, the factors determining their broad-scale distribution can be studied using a biogeographic approach. Global change, the combination of climate and land use change, increased pollution, trade and urbanization, as well as invasive species, will influence the effects of forest disturbances such as wildfires, droughts, storms, diseases and insect outbreaks, thus affecting the health and resilience of forest ecosystems worldwide. Tree endophytes can contribute to biological control of infectious diseases, enhance tolerance to environmental stress or behave as opportunistic weak pathogens potentially competing with more harmful ones. New molecular techniques are available for studying the complete tree endobiome under the influence of global change stressors from the landscape to the intercontinental level. Given that exotic tree diseases have both ecologic and economic consequences, we call for increased interdisciplinary collaboration in the coming decades between forest pathologists and researchers studying endophytes with tree geneticists, evolutionary and landscape ecologists, biogeographers, conservation biologists and global change scientists and outline interdisciplinary research gaps.

  19. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  20. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

  1. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products Resident to the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. Sometimes these have resulted in regionally evident disturbance progressions (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and have resulted in extensive forest overstory mortality. In addition to stand replacement disturbances, other forests are subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and varying types and intensities of ephemeral damage from storms. Sometimes, after prolonged severe disturbance, signs of recovery in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can occur. The growing prominence and threat of forest disturbances in part have led to the formation and implementation of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act which mandated that national forest threat early warning system be developed and deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oakridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build and roll-out the near real time ForWarn early warning system for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines that are used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six forest change products that are refreshed every 8 days. ForWarn employs daily quarter kilometer MODIS NDVI data from the Aqua and Terra satellites, including MOD13 data for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS 7 NDVI for compiling current NDVI. In doing so, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally de-noise, fuse, and aggregate current and historical MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of products per year. The 24 day compositing interval enables disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. Forest change products are

  2. Phytophthora species, new threats to the plant health in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Choi, Woobong

    2014-12-01

    Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species) of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species, namely, P. alni, P. inundata, P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P. quercina, and P. ramorum, are discussed in this review with focus on history, disease, biology, management, and plant quarantine issues.

  3. Men's Health: Prevent the Top Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and public health: Frequently asked questions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm. Accessed July 25, 2016. Aug. 03, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/mens-health/in-depth/mens-health/art-20047764 . ...

  4. Ebola virus – new threat to global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2015-12-01

        The Ebola virus outbreak constitutes a serious warning that epidemics may occur anywhere and places every afflicted nation at risk. Therefore it is essential to institute measures to stop its spread and its future threat, which is a moral obligation of members of the health profession, whether academicians, researchers, or health ministry officials.

  5. Sugary beverages represent a threat to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M

    2012-12-01

    Sugary beverages represent a major global threat to the health of all populations. The shifts in distribution, marketing, and sales have made them the plague of the globe in terms of obesity, diabetes, and a host of other chronic health problems. The fructose-laden beverages have unique properties that lead to lack of dietary compensation and direct adverse effects on our health. Global efforts to limit marketing and sales are necessary to protect the health of the planet.

  6. Geospatiotemporal data mining in an early warning system for forest threats in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.M. Hoffman; R.T. Mills; J. Kumar; S.S. Vulli; W.W. Hargrove

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of geospatiotemporal data mining of multi-year land surface phenology data (250 m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in this study) for the conterminous United States as part of an early warning system to identify threats to forest ecosystems. Cluster...

  7. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  8. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation discusses an effort to compute and post weekly MODIS forest change products for the conterminous US (CONUS), as part of a web-based national forest threat early warning system (EWS) known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The US Forest Service, NASA, USGS, and ORNL are working collaboratively to contribute weekly change products to this EWS. Large acreages of the nation's forests are being disturbed by a growing multitude of biotic and abiotic threats that can act either singularly or in combination. When common at regional scales, such disturbances can pose hazards and threats to floral and faunal bio-diversity, ecosystem sustainability, ecosystem services, and human settlements across the conterminous US. Regionally evident forest disturbances range from ephemeral periodic canopy defoliation to stand replacement mortality events due to insects, disease, fire, hurricanes, tornadoes, ice, hail, and drought. Mandated by the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003, this forest threat EWS has been actively developed since 2006 and on-line since 2010. The FCAV system employs 250-meter MODIS NDVI-based forest change products as a key element of the system, providing regional and CONUS scale products in near real time every 8 days. Each of our forest change products in FCAV is based on current versus historical 24 day composites of NDVI data gridded at 231.66 meter resolution. Current NDVI is derived from USGS eMODIS expedited products. MOD13 NDVI is used for constructing historical baselines. CONUS change products are computed for all forests as % change in the current versus historical NDVI for a given 24 day period. Change products are computed according to previous year, previous 3 year and previous 8 year historical baselines. The use of multiple baselines enables apparent forest disturbance anomalies to be more fully assessed. CONUS forest change products are posted each week on the FCAV, a web mapping service constructed and

  9. CHIKUNGUNYA - A SERIOUS THREAT FOR PUBLIC HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrnjaković Cvjetković, Ivana B; Cvjetković, Dejan; Patić, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Nataša; Stefan Mikić, Sandra; Milošević, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya is a contagious disease caused by Chikungunya virus, an arbovirus from the Togaviridae family. This infection is mostly spread by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes, especially Aedes albopiclus, which have spread from Asia to America and Europe including some countries surrounding Serbia. EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES: The outbreak of epidemics has been reported in Philippines, Sumatra, Java, Indonesia, West Africa region (from Senegal to Cameroon), Congo, Nigeria, Angola, Uganda, Guinea, Malawi, Central African Republic, Burundi, South Africa and India. At the beginning of the 21st century, large outbreaks were recorded on the island of Réunion. During 2006, 1.400.000 cases of chikungunya infection were recorded in India. Local transmission of infection in continental Europe was reported from Northeast Italy (254 suspected and 78 laboratory confirmed cases in Emilia-Romagna region) and France (two cases in 2010). From December 2013 to June 2014, 5.294 confirmed cases and more than 180.000 suspected cases of chikungunya were reported in the Caribbean. The disease presents suddenly with fever, rush and arthralgia. In general, chikungunya is a mild self - limited disease. Less often, it may be presented with signs of meningoencephalitis or fulminant hepatitis, sometimes with fatal outcome. Fast developing international traffic and booming tourism as well as the vector spreading from its homeland make chikungunya a real threat to our country.

  10. Chikungunya - a serious threat for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chikungunya is a contagious disease caused by Chikungunya virus, an arbovirus from the Togaviridae family. This infection is mostly spread by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes, especially Aedes albopictus, which have spread from Asia to America and Europe including some countries surrounding Serbia. Epidemiologic Features. The outbreak of epidemics has been reported in Philippines, Sumatra, Java, Indonesia, West Africa region (from Senegal to Cameroon, Congo, Nigeria, Angola, Uganda, Guinea, Malawi, Central African Republic, Burundi, South Africa and India. At the beginning of the 21st century, large outbreaks were recorded on the island of Réunion. During 2006, 1.400.000 cases of chikungunya infection were recorded in India. Local transmission of infection in continental Europe was reported from Northeast Italy (254 suspected and 78 laboratory confirmed cases in Emilia-Romagna region and France (two cases in 2010. From December 2013 to June 2014, 5.294 confirmed cases and more than 180.000 suspected cases of chikungunya were reported in the Caribbean. Clinical Findings. The disease presents suddenly with fever, rush and arthralgia. In general, chikungunya is a mild self - limited disease. Less often, it may be presented with signs of meningoencephalitis or fulminant hepatitis, sometimes with fatal outcome. Conclusion. Fast developing international traffic and booming tourism as well as the vector spreading from its homeland make chikungunya a real threat to our country. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31084 i br. TR43007

  11. Forests, Trees and Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard; Sangster, Marcus; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The link between modern lifestyles and increasing levels of chronic heart disease, obesity, stress and poor mental health is a concern across the world. The cost of dealing with these conditions places a large burden on national public health budgets so that policymakers are increasingly looking...... Union’s COST Action E39 ‘Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing’, and draws together work carried out over four years by scientists from 25 countries working in the fields of forestry, health, environment and social sciences. While the focus is primarily on health priorities defined within Europe...... at prevention as a cost-effective alternative to medical treatment. Attention is turning towards interactions between the environment and lifestyles. Exploring the relationships between health, natural environments in general, and forests in particular, this groundbreaking book is the outcome of the European...

  12. New threats to health data privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjun; Zou, Xukai; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jake Y

    2011-11-24

    Along with the rapid digitalization of health data (e.g. Electronic Health Records), there is an increasing concern on maintaining data privacy while garnering the benefits, especially when the data are required to be published for secondary use. Most of the current research on protecting health data privacy is centered around data de-identification and data anonymization, which removes the identifiable information from the published health data to prevent an adversary from reasoning about the privacy of the patients. However, published health data is not the only source that the adversaries can count on: with a large amount of information that people voluntarily share on the Web, sophisticated attacks that join disparate information pieces from multiple sources against health data privacy become practical. Limited efforts have been devoted to studying these attacks yet. We study how patient privacy could be compromised with the help of today's information technologies. In particular, we show that private healthcare information could be collected by aggregating and associating disparate pieces of information from multiple online data sources including online social networks, public records and search engine results. We demonstrate a real-world case study to show user identity and privacy are highly vulnerable to the attribution, inference and aggregation attacks. We also show that people are highly identifiable to adversaries even with inaccurate information pieces about the target, with real data analysis. We claim that too much information has been made available electronic and available online that people are very vulnerable without effective privacy protection.

  13. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  14. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  15. Soil: A Public Health Threat or Savior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IL Pepper; CP Gerba; DT Newby; CW Rice

    2009-05-01

    Soil is the most complicated biomaterial on the planet due to complex soil architecture and billions of soil microbes with extreme biotic diversity. Soil is potentially a source of human pathogens, which can be defined as geo-indigenous, geo-transportable, or geotreatable. Such pathogens cumulatively can and do result in multiple human fatalities annually. A striking example is Helminths, with current infections worldwide estimated to be around two billion. However, soil can also be a source of antibiotics and other natural products that enhance human health. Soilborne antibiotics are used to treat human infections, but can also result in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Natural products isolated from soil resulted in 60% of new cancer drugs between the period 1983–1994. Soils are also crucial to human health through their impact on human nutrition. Finally, from a global perspective, soils are vital to the future well-being of nations through their impact on climate change and global warming. A critical review of soil with respect to public health leads to the conclusion that overall soil is a public health savior. The value of soil using a systems approach is estimated to be $20 trillion, and is by far the most valuable ecosystem in the world.

  16. Mangrove forest exploration of Tambelan And Serasan Islands: Species composition, mapping of mangrove forest distribution and potential threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAYA IHYA ULUMUDDIN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Ulumuddin YI, Setyawan AD. 2017. Mangrove forest exploration of Tambelan And Serasan Islands: Species composition, mapping of mangrove forest distribution and potential threat. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 45-55. Knowledge of the exact species plant composition of mangroves in any country or government is a basic and an important prerequisite to understanding all the aspects of structure and function of mangroves, as well as their conservation and management. The present study is going to describe the results of Natuna Sea Expedition, involving the inventory of mangrove species, mangrove forest mapping, and interview about mangrove use. This expedition has been conducted at 4th-16th November 2010 in Tambelan and Serasan Islands, Natuna Waters, Riau Archipelago. The inventory was conducted by survey method through the mangrove area, and the mapping was conducted by satellite imagery interpretation of ALOS AVNIR-2 acquisitions year 2009 and 2010, combined with the data field of mangrove position. There were 18 mangrove species and 31 associates species in Tambelan and Serasan Islands, which were the destination of the expedition. The vegetation was distributed in mangrove forests in the bays, the stream narrows, and covered islands. Mangrove forests in such two islands have not been treated significantly, but there was threat potential regarding of the tendency to occupy mangrove area for the homeland.

  17. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps.

  18. Forest health monitoring: 2006 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national technical reportpresents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective usingdata from a variety of sources. The report is organized according to the

  19. Obesogens: A new threat to Public Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana F. Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of overweight and obese individuals has increased at an alarming rate in recent decades. The imbalance of energy as a result of a high caloric intake and a low energy expenditure does not explain this increase alone, so other behavioral, genetic and environmental factors must be playing an important role. The endocrine disruption hypothesis suggests that human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs -which act as obesogens- interferes inappropriately with lipid metabolism and adipogenesis, among other mechanisms, thus promoting obesity and overweightness. Some obesogens have already been identified, but the catalogue of chemical residues that might contribute to this environmental hypothesis has not been completed. The identification of chemicals that are directly related to the development of obesity and its metabolic complications would contribute to establish and/or improve the recommendations and requirements of the public and private sectors on food and consumer good safety and, ultimately, on public health policies.

  20. Forest health monitoring: 2001 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Conkling; John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national report uses FHM data, as well as data from a variety of other programs, to provide an overview of forest health based on the criteria and indicators of sustainable forestry framework of the Santiago Declaration. It presents information about the status of and trends in various forest health indicators...

  1. On forest ecosystem health and its Connotations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper cursorily introduced some ideas and approaches of ecosystem health researches. The definition and connotations of forest ecosystem health have also been expatiated. Defining forest ecosystem health has been discussed from the management objective approach, ecosystem approach, and integration approach. To impel the relative researches in China, more attention on the properties of a forest ecosystem should be paid.

  2. Tropical montane cloud forests: current threats and opportunities for their conservation and sustainable management in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Meave, Jorge A; González-Espinosa, Mario; Ramírez-Marcial, Neptalí

    2011-03-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are among the most threatened ecosystems globally in spite of their high strategic value for sustainable development due to the key role played by these forests in hydrological cycle maintenance and as reservoirs of endemic biodiversity. Resources for effective conservation and management programs are rarely sufficient, and criteria must be applied to prioritize TMCF for conservation action. This paper reports a priority analysis of the 13 main regions of TMCF distribution in Mexico, based on four criteria: (1) forest quality, (2) threats to forest permanence, (3) threats to forest integrity, and (4) opportunities for conservation. Due to the diverse socio-environmental conditions of the local communities living in Mexican TMCF regions, their associated social characteristics were also evaluated to provide a background for the planning of conservation actions. A set of indicators was defined for the measurement of each criterion. To assign priority values for subregions within each main region, an international team of 40 participants evaluated all the indicators using multicriteria decision-making analysis. This procedure enabled the identification of 15 subregions of critical priority, 17 of high priority, and 10 of medium priority; three more were not analysed due to lack of information. The evaluation revealed a number of subjects that had hitherto been undetected and that may prove useful for prioritization efforts in other regions where TMCF is similarly documented and faces equally severe threats. Based on this analysis, key recommendations are outlined to advance conservation objectives in those TMCF areas that are subjected to high pressure on forest resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Future of Health Care Delivery in Iran, Opportunities and Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Majdzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of important social and technological trends on health care delivery, in the context of developing “Iran's Health System Reform Plan by 2025”.Methods: A detailed review of the national and international literature was done to identify the main trends affecting health system. To collect the experts’ opinions about important trends and their impact on health care delivery, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs and semi-structured in-depth interviews techniques were used. The study was based on the STEEP model. Final results were approved in an expert’s panel session.Results: The important social and technological trends, affecting health system in Iran in the next 15 years are demographic transition, epidemiologic transition, increasing bio-environmental pollution, increasing slums, increasing private sector partnership in health care delivery, moving toward knowledge-based society, development of information and communication technology, increasing use of high technologies in health system, and development of traditional and alternative medicine. The opportunities and threats resulting from the above mentioned trends were also assessed in this study.Conclusion: Increasing healthcare cost due tosome trends like demographic and epidemiologic transition and uncontrolled increase in using new technologies in health care is one of the most important threats that the health system will be facing. The opportunities that advancement in technology and moving toward knowledge-based society create are important and should not be ignored.

  4. Future of health care delivery in iran, opportunities and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, F; Esmailzadeh, H; Rostamigooran, N; Majdzadeh, R; Doshmangir, L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of important social and technological trends on health care delivery, in the context of developing "Iran's Health System Reform Plan by 2025". A detailed review of the national and international literature was done to identify the main trends affecting health system. To collect the experts' opinions about important trends and their impact on health care delivery, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and semi-structured in-depth interviews techniques were used. The study was based on the STEEP model. Final results were approved in an expert's panel session. The important social and technological trends, affecting health system in Iran in the next 15 years are demographic transition, epidemiologic transition, increasing bio-environmental pollution, increasing slums, increasing private sector partnership in health care delivery, moving toward knowledge-based society, development of information and communication technology, increasing use of high technologies in health system, and development of traditional and alternative medicine. The opportunities and threats resulting from the above mentioned trends were also assessed in this study. Increasing healthcare cost due to some trends like demographic and epidemiologic transition and uncontrolled increase in using new technologies in health care is one of the most important threats that the health system will be facing. The opportunities that advancement in technology and moving toward knowledge-based society create are important and should not be ignored.

  5. Forest health conditions in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacz, Borys [USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, 1601 North Kent Street, RPC7-FHP, Arlington, VA 22209 (United States)], E-mail: btkacz@fs.fed.us; Moody, Ben [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Castillo, Jaime Villa [Comision Nacional Forestal, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Fenn, Mark E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution.

  6. Forest health monitoring: 2003 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt H. Riitters; Barbara L. Conkling; William D. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national reports present results from forest health data analyses focusing on a national perspective. The Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests are used as a reporting framework. This report has five main sections. The first contains introductory material....

  7. Qualia: A Prescription for Developing a Quality Health Threat Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Figure 10. Health Threat Assessment Strategy Canvas . (From: Kim and Mauborgne, 2005, p. 29...cost (p. 13). The development of a blue ocean strategy canvas includes consideration of four factors. These factors answer the questions, “What...is that of a starfish as opposed to that of a spider . The starfish organization represents a network of nodes that will continue to thrive if a leg

  8. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  9. Big Data and Health Economics: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brendan

    2016-02-01

    'Big data' is the collective name for the increasing capacity of information systems to collect and store large volumes of data, which are often unstructured and time stamped, and to analyse these data by using regression and other statistical techniques. This is a review of the potential applications of big data and health economics, using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) approach. In health economics, large pseudonymized databases, such as the planned care.data programme in the UK, have the potential to increase understanding of how drugs work in the real world, taking into account adherence, co-morbidities, interactions and side effects. This 'real-world evidence' has applications in individualized medicine. More routine and larger-scale cost and outcomes data collection will make health economic analyses more disease specific and population specific but may require new skill sets. There is potential for biomonitoring and lifestyle data to inform health economic analyses and public health policy.

  10. Forest health monitoring: 2004 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt H. Riitters; Barbara L. Conkling

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national technical report presents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective using data from a variety of sources. Results presented in the report pertain to the Santiago Declaration’s Criterion 1— Conservation of Biological Diversity and Criterion 3—Maintenance of Forest Ecosystem Health and...

  11. Forest health monitoring: 2002 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt H. Riitters; Barbara L. Conkling

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national technical report presents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective using data from a variety of sources. This annual report focuses on “Criterion 3—Maintenance of Forest Ecosystem Health and Vitality” from the “Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forestry of the Santiago Declaration”...

  12. A three-act play: pentachlorophenol threats to the cork oak forest soils mycobiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Adélia; Martins, Celso; Silva Pereira, Cristina

    2017-07-10

    Atmospheric release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) constitutes a silent threat through chronic contamination of soils at global scale; yet fundamental understanding of their occurrence, sources and fate is still largely lacking. Similar to a three act play, this review comprises Setup, Confrontation and Resolution. The first emphasises the eighty years of the history of pentachlorophenol (PCP) usage, only recently classified as POP. The second focus on active sources of PCP pollution, including inside cork oak forests in N.W. Tunisia; a threat partially neutralised by the soil microbial diversity, especially fungi. As Resolution, the need for improved knowledge on the global distribution and impacts of PCP in soil microbial diversity as means to preserve the multi-functionality of terrestrial ecosystem is emphasised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Defining the public health threat of food fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, John; Moyer, Douglas C

    2011-01-01

    Food fraud, including the more defined subcategory of economically motivated adulteration, is a food risk that is gaining recognition and concern. Regardless of the cause of the food risk, adulteration of food is both an industry and a government responsibility. Food safety, food fraud, and food defense incidents can create adulteration of food with public health threats. Food fraud is an intentional act for economic gain, whereas a food safety incident is an unintentional act with unintentional harm, and a food defense incident is an intentional act with intentional harm. Economically motivated adulteration may be just that-economically motivated-but the food-related public health risks are often more risky than traditional food safety threats because the contaminants are unconventional. Current intervention systems are not designed to look for a near infinite number of potential contaminants. The authors developed the core concepts reported here following comprehensive research of articles and reports, expert elicitation, and an extensive peer review. The intent of this research paper is to provide a base reference document for defining food fraud-it focuses specifically on the public health threat-and to facilitate a shift in focus from intervention to prevention. This will subsequently provide a framework for future quantitative or innovative research. The fraud opportunity is deconstructed using the criminology and behavioral science applications of the crime triangle and the chemistry of the crime. The research provides a food risk matrix and identifies food fraud incident types. This project provides a starting point for future food science, food safety, and food defense research. Food fraud, including the more defined subcategory of economically motivated adulteration, is a food protection threat that has not been defined or holistically addressed. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, led to the development of food defense as an autonomous area of

  14. NOISE IN THE INDUSTRY – THREAT FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin IRIMIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The success of certain industrial activities bring both benefits and negative effects such as pollution, occupational diseas-es, exposure of workers and residents of neighboring areas and high risk in case of technological failure. An undesirable effect of industrial activity which may be considered a threat to workers and residents in the immediate vicinity of industrial sites is the noise. Due to the presence of technology in all activities, is a major problem considering its nature and harmful repercussions on health. Hearing loss and deafness caused by occupational exposure to noise at work are the most common occupational diseases that occur in the European Union. The development of modern technology by increasing the power and speed of the technical equipment, contributed to diversify and increase the number of sources of noise and vibration, and thus to increase the number of people exposed. This paper analyzes the effect of noise from industrial equipment and health risks.

  15. Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan D. DeSantis; W. Keith Moser

    2016-01-01

    Forest health will likely be threatened by a number of factors - including fragmentation, fire regime alteration, and a variety of diseases, insects, and invasive plants - along with global climate change (Krist et al. 2007, Tkacz et al. 2008). By itself, global climate change could dramatically and rapidly alter forest composition and structure (Allen and Breshears...

  16. Cluster Analysis-Based Approaches for Geospatiotemporal Data Mining of Massive Data Sets for Identification of Forest Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Trans Mills; Forrest M Hoffman; Jitendra Kumar; William W. Hargrove

    2011-01-01

    We investigate methods for geospatiotemporal data mining of multi-year land surface phenology data (250 m2 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) in this study) for the conterminous United States (CONUS) as part of an early warning system for detecting threats to forest ecosystems. The...

  17. Invasive Lionfish (Pterosis volitans) Pose Public Health Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, a native of Indo-Pacific oceans, is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins. Lionfish were inadvertently introduced into the western Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s and have overpopulated and dispersed widely into the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Initiatives to control lionfish populations were launched, including the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-sponsored "Lionfish as Food Campaign".2 Recently, scientists from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that lionfish caught off the US Virgin Islands contained ciguatoxins and could cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP); a seafood-borne poisoning without an antidote or any specific treatment, and a potential for prolonged neurotoxicity. Lionfish pose several public health threats. New strategies to control the lionfish population explosion in coastal waters and offshore fisheries are needed now to ensure seafood safety and public health. The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, is native to the reefs of the western Indian and Pacific Oceans (Figure 1). Brightly colored with red, white, and black stripes and adorned with feathery fins, the lionfish is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins (Figure 2). Lionfish were introduced into the western North Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s after some specimens were discarded by dissatisfied amateur aquarists and others escaped from hurricane-flooded public aquariums.1 Since lionfish are voracious carnivores, have few natural predators, and reproduce prolifically, they have overpopulated and dispersed widely from Cape Hatteras to Florida, throughout the Caribbean Sea, and into the Gulf of Mexico.1 The population density of lionfish in its new, invaded territory now exceeds that of its native habitat.1 As a result, campaigns to control lionfish populations were launched in Florida and the Caribbean. Lionfish now pose several public

  18. The health information system security threat lifecycle: an informatics theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Juanita I; Dawson, Linda L

    2009-12-01

    This manuscript describes the health information system security threat lifecycle (HISSTL) theory. The theory is grounded in case study data analyzing clinicians' health information system (HIS) privacy and security (P&S) experiences in the practice context. The 'questerview' technique was applied to this study of 26 clinicians situated in 3 large Australian (across Victoria) teaching hospitals. Questerviews rely on data collection that apply standardized questions and questionnaires during recorded interviews. Analysis (using Nvivo) involved the iterative scrutiny of interview transcripts to identify emergent themes. Issues including poor training, ambiguous legal frameworks containing punitive threats, productivity challenges, usability errors and the limitations of the natural hospital environment emerged from empirical data about the clinicians' HIS P&S practices. The natural hospital environment is defined by the permanence of electronic HISs (e-HISs), shared workspaces, outdated HIT infrastructure, constant interruption, a P&S regulatory environment that is not conducive to optimal training outcomes and budgetary constraints. The evidence also indicated the obtrusiveness, timeliness, and reliability of P&S implementations for clinical work affected participant attitudes to, and use of, e-HISs. The HISSTL emerged from the analysis of study evidence. The theory embodies elements such as the fiscal, regulatory and natural hospital environments which impede P&S implementations in practice settings. These elements conflict with improved patient care outcomes. Efforts by clinicians to avoid conflict and emphasize patient care above P&S tended to manifest as security breaches. These breaches entrench factors beyond clinician control and perpetuate those within clinician control. Security breaches of health information can progress through the HISSTL. Some preliminary suggestions for addressing these issues are proposed. Legislative frameworks that are not related to

  19. Fungal contamination in swine: a potential occupational health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2013-01-01

    Poor air quality in a pig-confinement building may potentially place farmers at higher health risk than other workers for exposure to airborne pollutants that may reach infectious levels. The aim of this study was to assess worker exposure to fungi in indoor environments in Portuguese swine buildings. Air samples from 7 swine farms were collected at a flow rate of 140 L/min, at 1 m height, onto malt extract agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (MEA). Surfaces samples of the same indoor sites were obtained by swabbing the surfaces. Samples from the floor covering were also collected from four of seven swine farms. All collected samples were incubated at 27°C for 5-7 days. After lab processing and incubation of obtained samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3), CFU/cm(2), and CFU/g and qualitative results were determined with identification of isolated fungal species. Aspergillus versicolor was the most frequent species found in air (21%), followed by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17%) and Penicillium sp. (14%). Aspergillus versicolor was also the most frequent species noted on surfaces (26.6%), followed by Cladosporium sp. (22.4%) and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17.5%). Chrysosporium was the most frequently found genera in the new floor covering (38.5%), while Mucor was the most prevalent genera (25.1%) in used floor covering. Our findings corroborate a potential occupational health threat due to fungi exposure and suggest the need for a preventive strategy.

  20. Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Borba, Renata S.; Wilson, Michael; Spivak, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees’ natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the constitutive benefits of propolis on the honey bee immune system, and its known therapeutic, colony-level effects against the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis. We also review the limited research on the effects of propolis against other pathogens, parasites and pests (Nosema, viruses, Varroa destructor, and hive beetles) and how propolis may enhance bee products such as royal jelly and honey. Although propolis may be a source of pesticide contamination, it also has the potential to be a detoxifying agent or primer of detoxification pathways, as well as increasing bee longevity via antioxidant-related pathways. Throughout this paper, we discuss opportunities for future research goals and present ways in which the beekeeping community can promote propolis use in standard colonies, as one way to improve and maintain colony health and resiliency. PMID:28468244

  1. Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Borba, Renata S; Wilson, Michael; Spivak, Marla

    2017-04-29

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees' natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the constitutive benefits of propolis on the honey bee immune system, and its known therapeutic, colony-level effects against the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis. We also review the limited research on the effects of propolis against other pathogens, parasites and pests (Nosema, viruses, Varroa destructor, and hive beetles) and how propolis may enhance bee products such as royal jelly and honey. Although propolis may be a source of pesticide contamination, it also has the potential to be a detoxifying agent or primer of detoxification pathways, as well as increasing bee longevity via antioxidant-related pathways. Throughout this paper, we discuss opportunities for future research goals and present ways in which the beekeeping community can promote propolis use in standard colonies, as one way to improve and maintain colony health and resiliency.

  2. Zika virus: Global health challenge, threat and current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hafsa; Zia, Aadarash; Anwer, Amania; Aziz, Muneeba; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes, etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It is usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors. The intrinsic incubation period is not yet fully known but it is observed that the very first symptoms of ZIKV infection can appear or develop within 3-12 days of time period and usually subside within 7 days of time. There is a strong relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly; other serious brain anomalies to the infant or newborn are Guillain-Barré syndrome. To date no vaccines are available for ZIKV prevention hence only symptomatic treatment is recommended in infected patients. Usually ZIKV is detected by serologic (IgM ELISA), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) along with in-house" molecular techniques (RT-PCR). ZIKV infection being imminent global health issue warrants strong protective measures to prevent it from becoming an epidemic. Early detection and prevention is the key to tackle this grave potential health hazard. J. Med. Virol. 89:943-951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Public health and bioterrorism: renewed threat of anthrax and smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Arūne; Luksiene, Zivile; Zagminas, Kestutis; Surkiene, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism is one of the main public health categorical domains. According to sociological analytics, in postmodern society terrorism is one of the real threats of the 21st century. While rare, the use of biological weapons has a long history. Recently, anthrax has been evaluated as one of the most dangerous biological weapons. Naturally occurring anthrax in humans is a disease acquired from contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products. Usually anthrax infection occurs in humans by three major routes: inhalational, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal. Inhalational anthrax is expected to account for most serious morbidity and most mortality. The clinical presentation of inhalation anthrax has been described as a two-stage illness. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis. Antibiotics, anthrax globulin, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, vaccine are possible tools of therapy. Smallpox existed in two forms: variola major, which accounted for most morbidity and mortality, and a milder form, variola minor. Smallpox spreads from person to person primarily by droplet nuclei or aerosols expelled from the oropharynx of infected persons and by direct contact. In the event of limited outbreak with few cases, patients should be admitted to the hospital and confined to rooms that are under negative pressure and equipped with high-efficiency particulate air filtration. In larger outbreaks, home isolation and care should be the objective for most patients. Progress in detection, suitable vaccines, postexposure prophylaxis, infection control, and decontamination might be serious tools in fight against the most powerful biological weapon. To assure that the public health and healthcare system can respond to emergencies, the government should direct resources to strengthen the emergency-response system, create medication stockpiles, and improve the public health infrastructure.

  4. EMERGING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HOSPITAL A THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichal Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance(AMR threatens the health of many throughout the world, since both old and new infectious diseases remain a formidable public health threat. When pathogenic microorganisms can multiply beyond some critical mass in the face of invading antimicrobials, treatment outcome is compromised. This phenomenon is referred as antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to assess the overall antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from tertiary care hospitals as majority of patients here receive empirical antibiotics therapy. Method: This retrospective study was carried out in teaching hospital, Greater Noida to determine prevalence of multidrug resistance in patients in relation to empirical antibiotic therapy in hospital. Various samples (pus,urine,blood were collected for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: Total 500 bacterial strains isolated from ICU, surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology and orthopaedics and their sensitivity pattern was compared in this study. The highest number of resistant bacterias were of pseudomonas sp. i.e. 21(33.87% followed by 16(25.80% of staphylococcus aureus, 12(19.35% of Escherichia coli, Klebseilla sp & Proteus vulgaris were 05(8.06% each & Citrobacter sp. 03(4.83%. Total 62(12.4% bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to multiple drugs. The 31 (50% of these resistant bacteria were prevalent in ICU, 12(19.35% in Surgery, 11(17.74% in Gynaecology, 08(12.90% in Orthopaedics.. All the bacterial strains were resistant to common antibiotics like Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Doxycycline & Cotrimoxazole and some were even resistant to Imipenem. Conclusion: Therefore we have outlined the nature of the antimicrobial resistance problem as an important health issue for national and international community. It is advised to avoid use of empirical antibiotics therapy.

  5. The Role of Health Educators in Dealing with Biological Threats in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Sowby, Sherman

    2002-01-01

    Health educators play a key role in assisting the nation deal with and be prepared for potential biological attacks. This article summarizes information found in the literature about likely bioterrorist threats to the U.S. population and discusses the responsibilities of health educators in regard to these threats. Among the important roles health…

  6. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chandy; P Abraham; G Sridharan

    2008-11-01

    The emerging viral diseases haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are a cause of global concern as they are increasingly reported from newer regions of the world. The hantavirus species causing HFRS include Hantaan virus, Seoul virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus while Sin Nombre virus was responsible for the 1993 outbreak of HCPS in the Four Corners Region of the US. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine, feces and saliva of infected rodents. Rodents are the natural hosts of these viruses and develop persistent infection. Human to human infections are rare and the evolution of the virus depends largely on that of the rodent host. The first hantavirus isolate to be cultured, Thottapalayam virus, is the only indigenous isolate from India, isolated from an insectivore in 1964 in Vellore, South India. Research on hantaviruses in India has been slow but steady since 2005. Serological investigation of patients with pyrexic illness revealed presence of anti-hantavirus IgM antibodies in 14.7% of them. The seropositivity of hantavirus infections in the general population is about 4% and people who live and work in close proximity with rodents have a greater risk of acquiring hantavirus infections. Molecular and serological evidence of hantavirus infections in rodents and man has also been documented in this country. The present review on hantaviruses is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system.

  7. No, Your Cat Isn't a Threat to Your Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163700.html No, Your Cat Isn't a Threat to Your Mental Health ... 22, 2017 TUESDAY, Feb. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cat owners can breathe a sigh of relief: Your ...

  8. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2017-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...

  9. Forest Health Management and Detection of Invasive Forest Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaelyn Finley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review paper are to provide an overview of issues related to forest health and forest entomology, explain existing methods for forest insect pest detection, and provide background information on a case study of emerald ash borer. Early detection of potentially invasive insect species is a key aspect of preventing these species from causing damage. Invasion management efforts are typically more feasible and efficient if they are applied as early as possible. Two proposed approaches for detection are highlighted and include dendroentomology and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR. Dendroentomology utilizes tree ring principles to identify the years of outbreak and the dynamics of past insect herbivory on trees. NIR has been successfully used for assessing various forest health concerns (primarily hyperspectral imaging and decay in trees. Emerald ash borer (EAB (Agrilus planipennis, is a non-native beetle responsible for widespread mortality of several North American ash species (Fraxinus sp.. Current non-destructive methods for early detection of EAB in specific trees are limited, which restricts the effectiveness of management efforts. Ongoing research efforts are focused on developing methods for early detection of emerald ash borer.

  10. Stereotype threat among black and white women in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W

    2014-07-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat-the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes-to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one's ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women.

  11. US Forest Service Forest Health Protection Insect and Disease Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — This data is a compilation of forest insect, disease and abiotic damage mapped by aerial detection surveys on forested areas in the United States. US Forest Service,...

  12. Application of rangeland health indicators on forested plots on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggie G. Toone; Sara Goeking

    2017-01-01

    Typical indicators of rangeland health are used to describe health and functionality of a variety of rangeland ecosystems. Similar indicators may be applied to forested locations to examine ecological health at a local forest level. Four rangeland health indicators were adapted and applied to data compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky...

  13. Mental Health Problems in Adolescence and the Interpretation of Unambiguous Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D.; Moses, Ernestina; Castellini, Julieta; Scott, James

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant threat perception has been linked to paranoia, anxiety and other mental health problems, and is widely considered to be a core, transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. However, to date there has been only limited investigation of whether mental health problems are associated with a biased interpretation of stimuli that have explicit (as opposed to ambiguous) connotations of threat. In the present study, 41 adolescents diagnosed with a mental illness and 45 demographically matched controls were asked to provide danger ratings of stimuli normatively rated as being either low or high in potential threat. All participants were also asked to complete background measures of cognitive function, mental health and wellbeing. The results indicated that the two groups did not differ in their capacity to discriminate between low and high threat stimuli, nor did they differ in the absolute level of threat that they attributed to these stimuli. However, for the control group, the overall level of threat perceived in facial stimuli was correlated with two important indices of mental health (depression and anxiety). No associations emerged in the clinical group. These data are discussed in relation to their potential implications for the role of aberrant threat perception in transdiagnostic models of mental health. PMID:26039081

  14. Mental health problems in adolescence and the interpretation of unambiguous threat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie D Henry

    Full Text Available Aberrant threat perception has been linked to paranoia, anxiety and other mental health problems, and is widely considered to be a core, transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. However, to date there has been only limited investigation of whether mental health problems are associated with a biased interpretation of stimuli that have explicit (as opposed to ambiguous connotations of threat. In the present study, 41 adolescents diagnosed with a mental illness and 45 demographically matched controls were asked to provide danger ratings of stimuli normatively rated as being either low or high in potential threat. All participants were also asked to complete background measures of cognitive function, mental health and wellbeing. The results indicated that the two groups did not differ in their capacity to discriminate between low and high threat stimuli, nor did they differ in the absolute level of threat that they attributed to these stimuli. However, for the control group, the overall level of threat perceived in facial stimuli was correlated with two important indices of mental health (depression and anxiety. No associations emerged in the clinical group. These data are discussed in relation to their potential implications for the role of aberrant threat perception in transdiagnostic models of mental health.

  15. The Mikea Forest Under Threat (southwest Madagascar : How public policy leads to conflicting territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Blanc-Pamard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With 10 million hectares, forest covers only 16% of the territory of Madagascar in 2005. Deforestation is attaining alarming proportions and is recognized as a major environmental problem. This process has recently accelerated, particularly in the southwest of the country. The main factor promoting deforestation is slash-and-burn maize cultivation. Pioneer agriculture is developing rapidly at the expense of the forest. Loss of forest is linked to several factors: demographic pressure caused by immigration, saturation of the most fertile lands, the relaxation of state regulations on forest clearing, and above all the role of maize cultivation associated with a booming export market. The maize fever causes irreversible destruction of the dry forest since the process of deforestation is followed by a process of savannization. Land clearing is a strategy for controlling resources and development of a territory. It was not until the late 1990s that environmental policies were designed to reduce the loss of forest cover and conserve the endemic flora and fauna of such a large area. The creation of the Mikea national park is currently underway. But the process has been slowed by an ilmenite mining project which poses a new threat to the forest. Furthermore, since 2008, an oil exploration licence has been granted in this area. The conflicting land uses of three government-sponsored projects destabilize local populations who have been encouraged by the state to preserve the forest.En 2005, avec 10 millions d’hectares, la forêt ne couvrait que 16 % du territoire de Madagascar. La déforestation atteint des niveaux alarmants et est reconnue comme un problème environnemental majeur. Ce processus s’est récemment accéléré, en particulier dans le sud-ouest du pays. La principale cause de déforestation est la culture du maïs sur brûlis et l’agriculture de défrichage se développe rapidement aux dépens de la forêt. Le recul de la forêt est li

  16. Guardian or threat: does golden eagle predation risk have cascading effects on forest grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies on intraguild predation have mainly focused on within-class assemblages, even though avian top predators may also influence mammalian mesopredator prey. By using nation-wide long-term data from Finland, northern Europe, we examined the impacts of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) together with red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (Martes martes) on forest-dwelling herbivores, black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia). We hypothesized that eagles may alleviate the overall predation pressure on grouse by imposing intraguild predation risk on mesopredators. The predation impact of eagle was modelled using eagle density estimates and distance to eagle nest. Wildlife triangle counts were used as predation impact proxies of mammalian mesopredators and as measures of response in grouse. Our results show that eagle density correlated negatively with black grouse abundance indices while being positively associated with the proportion of juveniles in both grouse species, irrespective of the abundance of mesopredators. Yet, foxes and martens alone had a negative effect on the abundance indices and the proportion of young in the two grouse species. This suggests that the possible cascading effects of eagles are not mediated by decreased mesopredator numbers, but instead by fear effects. Alternatively, they may be mediated by other species than fox or marten studied here. In conclusion, we found support for the hypothesis that eagles provide protection for juvenile black and hazel grouse, whereas they are a threat for adult grouse. This important information helps us to better understand the role of avian top predators in terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. Health consequences of forest fires in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; McKee, Douglas; Thomas, Duncan

    2005-02-01

    We combined data from a population-based longitudinal survey with satellite measures of aerosol levels to assess the impact of smoke from forest fires that blanketed the Indonesian islands of Kalimantan and Sumatra in late 1997 on adult health. To account for unobserved differences between haze and nonhaze areas, we compared changes in the health of individual respondents. Between 1993 and 1997, individuals who were exposed to haze experienced greater increases in difficulty with activities of daily living than did their counterparts in nonhaze areas. The results for respiratory and general health, although more complicated to interpret, suggest that haze had a negative impact on these dimensions of health.

  18. Meeting Report: Threats to Human Health and Environmental Sustainability in the Pacific Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert G. Arnold; David O. Carpenter; Donald Kirk; David Koh; Margaret-Ann Armour; Mariano Cebrian; Luis Cifuentes; Mahmood Khwaja; Bo Ling; Irma Makalinao; César Paz-y-Miño; Genandrialine Peralta; Rajendra Prasad; Kirpal Singh; Peter Sly; Chiharu Tohyama; Alistair Woodward; Baoshan Zheng; Todd Maiden

    2007-01-01

    ..., and wealth. The primary goal of the Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Sciences (PBC) is to promote multidisciplinary, multinational efforts to improve regional human and environmental health. Steps toward that goal include recognition of existing health-related problems and the new threats that will accompany rapid regional economic ...

  19. Combating the Triple Threat: The Need for a One Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lonnie J

    2013-10-01

    We live in a world that is rapidly changing, complex, and progressively interconnected. The convergence of people, animals, and their products embedded in an ever-changing environment has created a new dynamic. This dynamic is characterized by new threats to the health of humans, animals, and the environment. In addition, the health of each of these three domains is profoundly and inextricably linked and elaborately connected. Our interconnectedness strongly suggests that our future success in improving health will be based on a new integrative, holistic, and collaborative approach termed One Health. One Health demands that we work across professions, disciplines, and old boundaries. The challenges to our health are unique and profound, and old solutions to our new "wicked" problems are no longer as relevant or effective as in the past. The concept of One Health is not new but has reemerged as a concept to both better understand the triple threats to health and to better address these contemporary challenges using new approaches. This article discusses the health threats to each domain and calls for a new model to confront these challenges by shifting strategies and interventions upstream, closer to the origins of the threats. One Health is a new paradigm that can be used to improve the health of people, animals, and our environment as a collective rather than restricting our actions to any single domain.

  20. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  1. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests: Threats, opportunities and implications for their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koen; November, Eva; Wassie, Alemayehu; Abiyu, Abrham; Demissew, Sebsebe; Daye, Desalegn D; Giday, Kidane; Haile, Mitiku; TewoldeBerhan, Sarah; Teketay, Demel; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Binggeli, Pierre; Deckers, Jozef; Friis, Ib; Gratzer, Georg; Hermy, Martin; Heyn, Moïra; Honnay, Olivier; Paris, Maxim; Sterck, Frank J; Muys, Bart; Bongers, Frans; Healey, John R

    2016-05-01

    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about their region-wide distribution and conservation value. We (1) performed the first large-scale spatially-explicit assessment of church forests, combining remote-sensing and field data, to assess the number of forests, their size, shape, isolation and woody plant species composition, (2) determined their plant communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species-poor. Tree species composition of church forests varied with elevation and precipitation, and resembled the potential natural vegetation. With a wide distribution over the landscape, these church forests have high conservation value. However, long-term conservation of biodiversity of individual patches and evolutionary potential of species may be threatened by isolation, small sizes of tree species populations and disturbance, especially when considering climate

  2. Regulatory underpinnings of Global Health security: FDA's roles in preventing, detecting, and responding to global health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Brooke; Bond, Katherine C; Maher, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, health officials from around the world announced the Global Health Security Agenda, a critical effort to strengthen national and global systems to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats and to foster stronger collaboration across borders. With its increasing global roles and broad range of regulatory responsibilities in ensuring the availability, safety, and security of medical and food products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is engaged in a range of efforts in support of global health security. This article provides an overview of FDA's global health security roles, focusing on its responsibilities related to the development and use of medical countermeasures (MCMs) for preventing, detecting, and responding to global infectious disease and other public health emergency threats. The article also discusses several areas-antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and supply chain integrity-in which FDA's global health security roles continue to evolve and extend beyond MCMs and, in some cases, beyond traditional infectious disease threats.

  3. Health Education in India: A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the health education profession and discipline in India. Materials from CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, and Internet were collected to conduct the open coding of the SWOT analysis. Strengths of health education in India include an elaborate…

  4. Forest ecosystem health assessment and analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOFengjin; OUYANGHua; ZHANGQiang; FUBojie; ZHANGZhicheng

    2004-01-01

    Based on more than 300 forest sample plots surveying data and forestry statistical data, remote sensing information from the NOAA AVHRR database and the daily meteorological data of 300 stations, we selected vigor, organization and resilience as the indicators to assess large-scale forest ecosystem health in China and analyzed the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health and influencing factors. The results of assessment indicated that the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health showed a decreasing trend along latitude gradients and longitude gradients. The healthy forests are mainly distributed in natural forests, tropical rainforests and seasonal rainforests; secondarily orderly in northeast national forest zone, subtropical forest zonation and southwest forest zonation; while the unhealthy forests were mainly located in warm temperate zone and Xinjiang-Mongolia forest zone. The coefficient of correction between Forest Ecosystem Health Index (FEHI) and annual average precipitation was 0.58 (p<0.01), while the coefficient of correlation between FEHI and annual mean temperatures was 0.49 (p<0.01), which identified that the precipitation and temperatures affect the pattern of FEHI, and the precipitation's effect was stronger than the temperature's. We also measured the correlation coefficient between FEHI and NPP, biodiversity and resistance, which were 0.64, 0.76 and 0.81 (p<0.01) respectively. The order of effect on forest ecosystem health was vigor, organization and resistance.

  5. Energy Saving Bulbs: An Emerging Threat to Public Health, from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt ... the energy-saving bulbs as their use increase in. Nigeria. ... levels of mercury, such that the United States.

  6. Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil A. R.; Gurr, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging infections caused by fungi have become a widely recognized global phenomenon. Their notoriety stems from their causing plagues and famines, driving species extinctions, and the difficulty in treating human mycoses alongside the increase of their resistance to antifungal drugs. This special issue comprises a collection of articles resulting from a Royal Society discussion meeting examining why pathogenic fungi are causing more disease now than they did in the past, and how we can tackle this rapidly emerging threat to the health of plants and animals worldwide. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience’. PMID:28080997

  7. Rubber and pulp plantations represent a double threat to Hainan's natural tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Cannon, Charles H; Slik, J W Ferry; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Dai, Zhi-Cong

    2012-04-15

    Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot and harbors large areas of tropical forests, particularly in the uplands. The Changhua watershed is the cradle of Hainan's main river and a center of endemism for plants and birds. The watershed contains great habitat diversity and is an important conservation area. We analyzed the impact of rubber and pulp plantations on the distribution and area of tropical forest in the watershed, using remote sensing analysis of Landsat images from 1988, 1995 and 2005. From 1988 to 1995, natural forest increased in area (979-1040 sq km) but decreased rapidly (763 sq km) over the next decade. Rubber plantations increased steadily through the study period while pulp plantations appeared after 1995 but occupied 152 sq km by 2005. Rubber and pulp plantations displace different types of natural forest and do not replace one another. Because pulp is not as profitable as rubber and existing pulp processing capacity greatly exceeds local supply, considerable pressure exists on remaining upland forests. We recommend for future management that these plantation forests be reclassified as 'industrial', making a clear policy distinction between natural and industrial forestry. Additionally, the local government should work to enforce existing laws preventing forest conversion on marginal and protected areas.

  8. [Counterfeit drugs as a gobal threat to health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Mikov, Momir

    2011-01-01

    According to the World Health Organisation, counterfeit medicines are medicines that are mislabelled deliberately and fraudulently regarding their identity and/or source. All kinds of medicines have been counterfeited, both branded and generic ones. Counterfeit medicines may include products containing correct or wrong ingredients; without active or with insufficiently or over-active ingredients, or with fake packaging. Many sources of information have been explored, including reports from the national medicine regulatory authorities, pharmaceutical companies and literature data. Since the time counterfeit drugs first appeared, they have become more sophisticated and more difficult to be detected. The World Health Organisation estimate is that up to 1% of medicines available in the developed world are likely to be counterfeit. This figure rises to 10% globally, although in some developing countries it is 50%. The World Health Organisation estimate is that 50% of medicines available via the internet are counterfeit. The knowledge about counterfeit drugs should be used to educate students of pharmacy and medicine, health professionals and patients. The most important players in campaign against counterfeit medicines are health professionals. Pharmacists and doctors should stay vigilant and report suspicious products, and consider counterfeits as a possible cause of adverse reactions or therapeutic failure. Patients should inform their pharmacists and doctors if they suspect any irregularity concerning their medication, if they experience side effects or a decrease in beneficial effect. The crucial step in the prevention of counterfeit medicines is to get supplied from reliable sources, i.e. licensed pharmacies.

  9. 'Loneliness Epidemic' Called a Major Public Health Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentation Saturday at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association (APA) in Washington, D.C. Holt-Lunstad presented ... until published in a peer-reviewed journal. SOURCE: American Psychological Association, news release, Aug. 5, 2017 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...

  10. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  11. SOIL CADMIUM AS A THREAT TO HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cd contamination of soils has been a public concern since the demonstration that soil Cd from Zn mine wastes which contaminated rice paddies had caused excessive Cd absorption and adverse health effects in members of subsistence farm families who consumed rice grown on the contam...

  12. Propolis counteracts some threats to honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations in North America and Europe are currently experiencing high and unsustainable annual losses. It is critically important to understand the impact of individual stressors and the interactions among stressors in order to develop solutions to increase colony health...

  13. [Work community--a threat and support to mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinokki, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    The absolute and relative amount of employees who have disability pensions due to mental disorders has increased over the last few decades. During the last ten years, both disability pensions and absences due to sickness have increased about 1.5-fold. The significance of a good work environment and community to an employee's mental health is and has been widely studied. Many of these studies have shown that poor organization and problems with social relationships and management at work may increase the probability of mental disorders. At the same time, a positive environment and atmosphere at work with suitable challenges for the employees can motivate them to commit to their work. This can increase the employees willingness to continue working until the proper retirement age and promote mental health.

  14. Dietary protein oxidation: A silent threat to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, M; Luna, C

    2017-11-22

    Protein oxidation has become a topic of great scientific interest in the field of food science and nutrition. Food proteins are known to be preferential targets of radical species, and protein oxidation has relevant consequences on protein functionality and food quality. Current trends in this field call attention to the nutritional and health dimensions of oxidized foods. Both lipid and protein oxidation products are accumulated in food during processing and storage and also upon food intake during the subsequent digestion phases. The gastrointestinal tract and internal organs are exposed to the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of these species. While the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of particular dietary lipid oxidation products is well known, the impact of dietary oxidized proteins on human health has been largely ignored. The well-established association between in vivo protein oxidation and aging and age-related diseases urges scientists to investigate the contribution of dietary protein oxidation to particular pathological conditions. Recent reports indicate the involvement of dietary protein oxidation species on particular health disorders, which emphasizes the link between dietary and in vivo protein oxidation.

  15. Plasmodium knowlesi: from Malaysia, a novel health care threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    Epidemic foci of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been identified during the past ten years in Malaysia, in particular in the States of Sarawak and Sabah (Malaysia Borneo), and in the Pahang region (peninsular Malaysia). Based on a review of the available recent international literature, the authors underline the importance of molecular biology examinations, polymerase chain reactions (PCR), performed with primers specific for P. knowlesi, since the current microscopic examination (haemoscope) may fail to distinguish P. knowlesi from Plasmodium malariae, due to the very similar appearance of the two parasites. P. knowlesi has been described as the causal agent of life-threatening and lethal forms of malaria: its clinical picture is more severe when compared with that of P. malariae, since the disease is characterized by greater parasitaemia, as opposed to that documented in the course of P. malariae disease. The most effective carrier is Anopheles leucosphyrus: this mosquito is attracted by both humans and monkeys. Among primates, the natural hosts of P. knowlesi are Macaca fascicularis and Macaca nemestina, while Saimiri scirea and Macaca mulatta, which cannot become infected in nature, may be useful in experimental models. When underlining the potentially severe evolution, we note the key role played by prompt disease recognition, which is expected to be more straightforward in patients monitored in endemic countries at high risk, but should be carefully implemented for subjects being admitted to hospital in Western countries suffering from the typical signs and symptoms of malaria, after travelling in South-East Asia where they were engaged in excursions in the tropical forest (trekking, and similar outdoor activities). In these cases, the diagnosis should be prompt, and suitable treatment should follow. According to data in the literature, in non-severe cases chloroquine proves very effective against P. knowlesi, achieving the disappearance of signs and

  16. Inequalities in health--future threats to equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning-Schepers, L J; Stronks, K

    1999-01-01

    In discussions about equity there is a tendency to focus on the inequalities in health status that appear to be the result of the material and immaterial consequences of a lower income, professional or social status in society. If we look at publications such as the Black Report in the UK or Ongelijke gezondheid in The Netherlands, we have to accept that despite our universal access to healthcare and the existence in many Western countries of social security measures that preclude 'real' poverty, considerable differences in health continue to exist between socioeconomic groups. This is corroborated for many other European countries in the research carried out by a concerted action led by Mackenbach. These inequalities in health have been referred to in many countries as inequities, meaning that society finds them unjust and expects them to be 'avoidable' or amenable to policy interventions. However, the research on the causal networks underlying the occurrence and the avoidability of inequalities in health remains sparse and intervention studies seem to focus on policy measures that can be evaluated, but which will most likely have a limited impact on the inequalities measured at the population level. Thus the research community leaves policymakers with very little evidence on which to build policy initiatives that are nevertheless requested by many governments. The third element, which needs to be addressed in this context, is the ominous inequality in access to healthcare. Since the debate on equity in health has rightly been initiated in the context of a broader, more intersectoral approach to health policy, very little attention has been paid, so far, to the issue of universal access to quality healthcare services. This is because in the second half of this century most Western (European) countries have created a healthcare system with universal access, financed either through taxation or through social insurance schemes. It is these financing systems that will

  17. Sleep impairment is a threat to good health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Bonke, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Long-term sleep impairment is related to an increased risk of somatic health problems, e.g. overweight, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature death. Avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, energy-rich or fatty foods and light from computer screens close to bedtime may counteract impaired...... sleep. A quiet, dark and well-tempered bedroom and physical activity during the day may have a positive impact on sleep. Impaired sleep may be related to stress and conditions at home or at work. Psychological sleep treatment is free of adverse side effects with effects comparable to effects of medical...

  18. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  19. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Halperin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise.

  20. Health benefits, ecological threats of low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Thomas; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Arvesen, Anders; Singh, Bhawna; Verones, Francesca

    2017-03-01

    Stabilizing global temperature will require a shift to renewable or nuclear power from fossil power and the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) for remaining fossil fuel use. Non-climate co-benefits of low-carbon energy technologies, especially reduced mortalities from air pollution and decreased ecosystem damage, have been important arguments for policies to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking into account a wide range of environmental mechanisms and the complex interactions of the supply chains of different technologies, we conducted the first life cycle assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts of a global low-carbon electricity scenario. Our assessment indicates strong human health benefits of low-carbon electricity. For ecosystem quality, there is a significant trade-off between reduced pollution and climate impacts and potentially significant ecological impacts from land use associated with increased biopower utilization. Other renewables, nuclear power and CCS show clear ecological benefits, so that the climate mitigation scenario with a relatively low share of biopower has lower ecosystem impacts than the baseline scenario. Energy policy can maximize co-benefits by supporting other renewable and nuclear power and developing biomass supply from sources with low biodiversity impact.

  1. US Public Health Preparedness for Zika and Other Threats Remains Vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2016-04-01

    The unanticipated global outbreak of Zika virus infection is the most current but certainly not the last emerging infectious disease challenge to confront the US public heath system. Despite a number of such threats in recent years, significant gaps remain in core areas of public health system readiness. Stable, sustained investments are required to establish a solid foundation for achieving necessary national public health emergency preparedness and response capacity.

  2. Endocrine disrupters--a threat to women's health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, R H; Harris, R M

    2011-02-01

    Endocrine disruption has been a topic of public concern for many years and its study remains high on the scientific agenda. Endocrine disrupters (EDs) are compounds which may be of industrial or natural origin and which act to dysregulate steroid function and metabolism. As well as their actions on nuclear steroid receptors, EDs can inhibit the pathways of steroid synthesis and degradation. They not only affect reproductive function but also affect a range of tissues which are steroid sensitive such as the central nervous system and thyroid. Results from the latest studies suggest that EDs may also affect the immune system, glucose homeostasis and can act as epigenetic modulators resulting in transgenerational effects. Research in this area has led to the development of drugs used in the treatment of several types of hormone-sensitive cancer. However, despite many years of effort, the effects on human health of long-term environmental exposure to EDs, whether singly or as mixtures, remain unknown. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cold surge: a sudden and spatially varying threat to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Wu, Pei-Chih; Chen, Vivian Yi-Ju; Su, Huey-Jen

    2009-05-01

    While cold surge is one of the most conspicuous features of the winter monsoon in East Asia, its impact on human health remains underexplored. Based on the definition by the Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan, we identified four cold surges between 2000 and 2003 and collected the cardiovascular disease mortality data 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after these events. We attempted to answer the following research questions: 1) whether the cold surges impose an adverse and immediate effect on cardiovascular mortality; 2) whether the people living in temperate zones have a higher tolerance of extreme temperature drop than those in the subtropics. With geographic weighting techniques, we not only found that the cardiovascular disease mortality rates increased significantly after the cold surges, but also discovered a spatially varying pattern of tolerance to cold surges. Even within a small study area such as Taiwan, human reaction to severe weather drop differs across space. Needless to say, in the U.S., these findings should be considered in redirecting policy to address populations living in warm places when extreme temperature drops occur.

  4. Global survey of anthropogenic neighborhood threats to conservation of grass-shrub and forest vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade; Peter Vogt

    2012-01-01

    The conservation value of natural vegetation is degraded by proximity to anthropogenic land uses. Previous global assessments focused primarily on the amount of land protected or converted to anthropogenic uses, and on forest vegetation. Comparative assessments of extant vegetation in terms of proximity to anthropogenic land uses are needed to better inform...

  5. Protecting human and ecological health under viral threats in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, S

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbroke in 2003, and the avian influenza A (H5N1) also outbroke in 2003 and continued to 2004. These pandemic viral diseases originated in South East Asia. Many human and animal lives were lost. Economic damages due to the pandemics were also very large. The question arises of why did the pandemics originate from South East Asian areas. Human influenza A consists of many sub-types of coronaviruses including the SARS virus and the avian influenza (H5N1) that are all variants of RNA of avian coronavirus. Variants are formed during infection of a coronavirus through not only birds but also mammals, including human beings. There are hot spots where viral infection rates are accelerated among birds, mammals and human beings. Suspicious areas are in South East Asia, where living conditions of birds, mammals and human beings are so close that there are always risks of viral infection. When we see the living conditions of farmers in southern China, northern Vietnam, Laos and northern Myanmar, they commonly raise ducks/chickens with pigs sharing ponds into which they discharge household wastewater, including human excreta, and pig excreta that are significant carriers of viruses. Bird faeces are also key carriers of the viruses. In the ponds, they raise ducks and conduct fish culture. Other important players are migrating birds from North Asia, which are principal vectors of avian influenza viruses. There is an urgent necessity of improving human and ecological health in South East Asia to control viral infection among birds, mammals and human beings. We can hinder the vicious cycle of virus infection through water contamination in ponds by providing good human, pig and chicken sanitation. It is easy to provide good sanitation practices for human, pigs and chickens, introducing collection and treatment of excreta. Our modern water technology can find good solutions for the problem.

  6. Forests or fields? A response to the theory that tropical forest conservation poses a threat to the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P M

    1993-04-01

    A rebuttal is provided of David Wood's proposal to open up tropical forests to agricultural uses. Concern is raised that his proposal exaggerates the ability of forests to regenerate after agricultural uses, sacrifices tropical forests in the name of alleviating poverty and in support of large land owners, and prevents valuable potential resource use by local populations. There is misunderstanding by Wood of conservationists' postures and the cause of current deforestation. In Brazil, deforestation has occurred primarily for low productivity cattle pasture (62% of all private land in the Amazon region in ranches over 1000 hectares-ha). Only 11% of private Amazonian land was in farms of less than 100 ha; only 30% of this size farm area was involved in 1991 in deforestation, while 70% of deforestation took place on ranches over 100 ha. Mass migrations of Brazil's population from the northeast to the Transamazon Highway and from Parana to Rondonia were impelled by increasing concentration of land tenure in migrant areas, and not by population growth. The rate of deforestation has slowed due to the economic recession. A World Bank study indicates that redistributing unproductive large landholdings in northeastern Brazil would increase agricultural output by 80%. The agricultural productivity of tropic areas is not as assured; Wood's support is based on preliminary findings, which are being revised with more cautionary thinking. Wood also understates the maintenance of soil fertility with fertilizers. The issue of scale also affects the use of agroforestry and perennial crop plantations such as rubber and cacao, which can only absorb the production of small areas, due to marketing constraints and physical resource limitations. Conservationists have not effectively redirected World Bank efforts to protect environments and help the impoverished, as suggested by Wood. Forest recovery has been very slow in large cattle pastures, and would take thousands of years if the land

  7. Scientometrics of Forest Health and Tree Diseases: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Pautasso

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining forest health is a worldwide challenge due to emerging tree diseases, shifts in climate conditions and other global change stressors. Research on forest health is thus accumulating rapidly, but there has been little use of scientometric approaches in forest pathology and dendrology. Scientometrics is the quantitative study of trends in the scientific literature. As with all tools, scientometrics needs to be used carefully (e.g., by checking findings in multiple databases) and its ...

  8. Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William A; Ruchirawat, Kuhnying Mathuros; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Berger, Martha; Carpenter, David; Damstra, Terri; de Garbino, Jenny Pronczuk; Koh, David; Landrigan, Philip J; Makalinao, Irma; Sly, Peter D; Xu, Y; Zheng, B S

    2003-08-01

    The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more recently introduced chemical threats such as asbestos construction materials; arsenic in groundwater; methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India; untreated manufacturing wastes released to landfills; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorous pesticides; and atmospheric lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline. To address these problems, pediatricians, environmental health scientists, and public health workers throughout Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have begun to build local and national research and prevention programs in children's environmental health. Successes have been achieved as a result of these efforts: A cost-effective system for producing safe drinking water at the village level has been devised in India; many nations have launched aggressive antismoking campaigns; and Thailand, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan have all begun to reduce their use of lead in gasoline, with resultant declines in children's blood lead levels. The International Conference on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children, held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 2002, brought together more than 300 representatives from 35 countries and organizations to increase awareness on environmental health hazards affecting children in these regions and throughout the world. The conference, a direct result of the Environmental Threats to the Health of Children meeting held in Manila in April 2000, provided participants with the latest scientific data on children's vulnerability to

  9. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge.

  10. Emerging viral threats in Gabon: health capacities and response to the risk of emerging zoonotic diseases in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgarel, M; Wauquier, N; Gonzalez, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are currently the major threat to public health worldwide and most EID events have involved zoonotic infectious agents. Central Africa in general and Gabon in particular are privileged areas for the emergence of zoonotic EIDs. Indeed, human incursions in Gabonese forests for exploitation purposes lead to intensified contacts between humans and wildlife thus generating an increased risk of emergence of zoonotic diseases. In Gabon, 51 endemic or potential endemic viral infectious diseases have been reported. Among them, 22 are of zoonotic origin and involve 12 families of viruses. The most notorious are dengue, yellow fever, ebola, marburg, Rift Valley fever and chikungunya viruses. Potential EID due to wildlife in Gabon are thereby plentiful and need to be inventoried. The Gabonese Public Health system covers geographically most of the country allowing a good access to sanitary information and efficient monitoring of emerging diseases. However, access to treatment and prevention is better in urban areas where medical structures are more developed and financial means are concentrated even though the population is equally distributed between urban and rural areas. In spite of this, Gabon could be a good field for investigating the emergence or re-emergence of zoonotic EID. Indeed Gabonese health research structures such as CIRMF, advantageously located, offer high quality researchers and facilities that study pathogens and wildlife ecology, aiming toward a better understanding of the contact and transmission mechanisms of new pathogens from wildlife to human, the emergence of zoonotic EID and the breaking of species barriers by pathogens.

  11. Mitigating Future Avian Malaria Threats to Hawaiian Forest Birds from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Avian malaria, transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands, has been a primary contributor to population range limitations, declines, and extinctions for many endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. Avian malaria is strongly influenced by climate; therefore, predicted future changes are expected to expand transmission into higher elevations and intensify and lengthen existing transmission periods at lower elevations, leading to further population declines and potential extinction of highly susceptible honeycreepers in mid- and high-elevation forests. Based on future climate changes and resulting malaria risk, we evaluated the viability of alternative conservation strategies to preserve endemic Hawaiian birds at mid and high elevations through the 21st century. We linked an epidemiological model with three alternative climatic projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project to predict future malaria risk and bird population dynamics for the coming century. Based on climate change predictions, proposed strategies included mosquito population suppression using modified males, release of genetically modified refractory mosquitoes, competition from other introduced mosquitoes that are not competent vectors, evolved malaria-tolerance in native honeycreepers, feral pig control to reduce mosquito larval habitats, and predator control to improve bird demographics. Transmission rates of malaria are predicted to be higher than currently observed and are likely to have larger impacts in high-elevation forests where current low rates of transmission create a refuge for highly-susceptible birds. As a result, several current and proposed conservation strategies will be insufficient to maintain existing forest bird populations. We concluded that mitigating malaria transmission at high elevations should be a primary conservation goal. Conservation strategies that maintain highly susceptible species like Iiwi (Drepanis coccinea) will likely benefit

  12. Mitigating future avian malaria threats to Hawaiian forest birds from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Atkinson, Carter T.; LaPointe, Dennis; Samuel, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Avian malaria, transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands, has been a primary contributor to population range limitations, declines, and extinctions for many endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. Avian malaria is strongly influenced by climate; therefore, predicted future changes are expected to expand transmission into higher elevations and intensify and lengthen existing transmission periods at lower elevations, leading to further population declines and potential extinction of highly susceptible honeycreepers in mid- and high-elevation forests. Based on future climate changes and resulting malaria risk, we evaluated the viability of alternative conservation strategies to preserve endemic Hawaiian birds at mid and high elevations through the 21st century. We linked an epidemiological model with three alternative climatic projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project to predict future malaria risk and bird population dynamics for the coming century. Based on climate change predictions, proposed strategies included mosquito population suppression using modified males, release of genetically modified refractory mosquitoes, competition from other introduced mosquitoes that are not competent vectors, evolved malaria-tolerance in native honeycreepers, feral pig control to reduce mosquito larval habitats, and predator control to improve bird demographics. Transmission rates of malaria are predicted to be higher than currently observed and are likely to have larger impacts in high-elevation forests where current low rates of transmission create a refuge for highly-susceptible birds. As a result, several current and proposed conservation strategies will be insufficient to maintain existing forest bird populations. We concluded that mitigating malaria transmission at high elevations should be a primary conservation goal. Conservation strategies that maintain highly susceptible species like Iiwi (Drepanis coccinea) will likely benefit

  13. The forest as a classroom: preparing for mental health practice

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Marthe Lyngås; Ruud, Ireen; Grov, Ellen Karine

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive effects of physical activity, health promotion and disease prevention, in treatment of mental illnesses are well documented. Mental health practice for nursing students highlights the important connection between physical activities and mental health. This study aims to examine the outcome from nursing students’ participation using The forest as a classroom. Students’ collaboration by problem solving, theoretical discussions and performance of activities in the forest serv...

  14. Scientometrics of Forest Health and Tree Diseases: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pautasso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining forest health is a worldwide challenge due to emerging tree diseases, shifts in climate conditions and other global change stressors. Research on forest health is thus accumulating rapidly, but there has been little use of scientometric approaches in forest pathology and dendrology. Scientometrics is the quantitative study of trends in the scientific literature. As with all tools, scientometrics needs to be used carefully (e.g., by checking findings in multiple databases and its results must be interpreted with caution. In this overview, we provide some examples of studies of patterns in the scientific literature related to forest health and tree pathogens. Whilst research on ash dieback has increased rapidly over the last years, papers mentioning the Waldsterben have become rare in the literature. As with human health and diseases, but in contrast to plant health and diseases, there are consistently more publications mentioning “tree health” than “tree disease,” possibly a consequence of the often holistic nature of forest pathology. Scientometric tools can help balance research attention towards understudied emerging risks to forest trees, as well as identify temporal trends in public interest in forests and their health.

  15. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada's invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations.

  16. Threat of heavy metal contamination in eight mangrove plants from the Futian mangrove forest, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bei; Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    Mangrove plants play an important role in heavy metal maintenance in a mangrove ecosystem. To evaluate the characteristics of heavy metal contamination in the Futian mangrove forest, Shenzhen, China, eight heavy metals in mangrove sediments and plants were monitored, including essential elements such as Cu and Zn, and non-essential elements such as Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg. The results showed that the heavy metals exhibited the following scheme: Zn > As > Cu ≈ Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd ≈ Hg in sediment cores, among which Cd, As, Pb and Hg contents were nearly ten times higher than the background values. There was no significant difference in metal maintenance capability between native and exotic species. In mangrove plants' leaves and stems, concentrations of Cu, Zn and As were higher than other heavy metals. The low bioconcentration factors for most heavy metals, except for Cr, implied the limited ability of heavy metal accumulation by the plants. Mangrove plants seem to develop some degree of tolerance to Cr. The factor analysis implies that anthropogenic influences have altered metal mobility and bioavailability.

  17. Domestic dogs in rural area of fragmented Atlantic Forest: potential threats to wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Martinez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild animals and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to understand the role of dogs in the rural environment and assess the possible risks they offer to native fauna. The data were obtained from structured questionnaires answered by dogs' owners from rural Viçosa. Results regarding the socioeconomic status of the owners revealed that the majority belonged to either the middle class or low educational level categories. In addition, it was observed that there is a preference for male dogs due to its guard activity and that most dogs live unconstrained. Even though most dogs are provided with good food management, 58% of them prey on wildlife. However, more than half of the dogs do not consume their prey which can be explained by the inherited ability of artificial selection but 36.5% of them have scavenger diet. Most of the dogs were immunized against rabies, whereas, only 28.8% were immunized against infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, distemper and parvovirus. In conclusion, the management of dogs by rural owners, mainly unrestrained living, and allied to inadequate vaccination coverage suggest that dogs are predators of Viçosa's rural wildlife and potential disseminators of disease.

  18. [Assessing forest ecosystem health I. Model, method, and index system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Dai, Limin; Ji, Lanzhu; Deng, Hongbing; Hao, Zhanqing; Wang, Qingli

    2004-10-01

    Ecosystem health assessment is one of the main researches and urgent tasks of ecosystem science in 21st century. An operational definition on ecosystem health and an all-sided, simple, easy operational and standard index system, which are the foundation of assessment on ecosystem health, are necessary in obtaining a simple and applicable assessment theory and method of ecosystem health. Taking the Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem as an example, an originally creative idea on ecosystem health was put forward in this paper based on the idea of mode ecosystem set and the idea of forest ecosystem health, together with its assessment. This creative idea can help understand what ecosystem health is. Finally, a formula was deduced based on a new effective health assessment method--health distance (HD), which is the first time to be brought forward in China. At the same time, aiming at it's characteristics by status understanding and material health questions, a health index system of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem was put forward in this paper, which is a compound ecosystem based on the compound properties of nature, economy and society. It is concrete enough to measure sub-index, so it is the foundation to assess ecosystem health of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest in next researches.

  19. Policy guidance on threats to legislative interventions in public health: a realist synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Lesley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legislation is one of the most powerful weapons for improving population health and is often used by policy and decision makers. Little research exists to guide them as to whether legislation is feasible and/or will succeed. We aimed to produce a coherent and transferable evidence based framework of threats to legislative interventions to assist the decision making process and to test this through the 'case study' of legislation to ban smoking in cars carrying children. Methods We conceptualised legislative interventions as a complex social interventions and so used the realist synthesis method to systematically review the literature for evidence. 99 articles were found through searches on five electronic databases (MEDLINE, HMIC, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Social Policy and Practice and iterative purposive searching. Our initial searches sought any studies that contained information on smoking in vehicles carrying children. Throughout the review we continued where needed to search for additional studies of any type that would conceptually contribute to helping build and/or test our framework. Results Our framework identified a series of transferable threats to public health legislation. When applied to smoking bans in vehicles; problem misidentification; public support; opposition; and enforcement issues were particularly prominent threats. Our framework enabled us to understand and explain the nature of each threat and to infer the most likely outcome if such legislation were to be proposed in a jurisdiction where no such ban existed. Specifically, the micro-environment of a vehicle can contain highly hazardous levels of second hand smoke. Public support for such legislation is high amongst smokers and non-smokers and their underlying motivations were very similar - wanting to practice the Millian principle of protecting children from harm. Evidence indicated that the tobacco industry was not likely to oppose legislation and

  20. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife--threats to biodiversity and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszak, P; Cunningham, A A; Hyatt, A D

    2000-01-21

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with "spill-over" from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs with no overt human or domestic animal involvement. These phenomena have two major biological implications: first, many wildlife species are reservoirs of pathogens that threaten domestic animal and human health; second, wildlife EIDs pose a substantial threat to the conservation of global biodiversity.

  1. [Tuberculosis and refusal of treatment: resorting to legislation on serious health threats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, R; Le Gueut, M

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians are regularly confronted with the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. For several years, the French public health authorities have been studying the possibility of compelling treatment or isolation, but no plan has been implemented even though European and American experiences have shown the effectiveness of restrictive measures. Neither the statutory exceptions to the principle of consent to medical treatment nor the conditions of implementation of "required care" allow legally binding measures against patients refusing care or isolation. The legislation on serious health threats has recently been applied to the situation of a refusal of treatment in the context of tuberculosis. It allowed the patient to be ordered to observe prescribed care and the possibility of forced isolation in the event of breach of this order. The legislation on serious health threats is a response to the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. However the opinion of the legal authority as to its necessity and proportionality to the risk remains unknown. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The voluntary community health movement in India: a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Bhatia, G

    1996-12-01

    There has been a prolific growth of voluntary organizations in India since independence in 1947. One of the major areas of this growth has been in the field of community health. The purpose of this article is to historically trace the voluntary movement in community health in India, analyze the current status, and predict future trends of voluntary efforts. A review of the literature in the form of a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis was the method of this study. Some of the key trends which emerged as the priority areas for progress and for strengthening voluntary organizations in the future were enhancing linkages between health and development; building upon collective force; greater utilization of participatory training; establishing egalitarian and effectual linkages for decision making at the international level; developing self-reliant community-based models; and the need for attaining holistic empowerment at individual, organizational, and community levels through "duty consciousness" as opposed to merely asking for rights.

  3. Universal health coverage: a quest for all countries but under threat in some.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Balabanova, Dina; Basu, Sanjay; Ricciardi, Walter; Stuckler, David

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, health care has been making a growing contribution to population health in many countries. Yet its benefits are still denied to many people worldwide. This article describes how many countries, both developed and developing, have pursued the quest to achieve universal health care. This has been an explicitly political process. In Europe, it emerged from a belief in solidarity, a fear of revolution, and a changing view of the role of the state. In developing countries, progress was more erratic, characterized by debates about the affordability of universal health care, until it was realized that functioning health systems were essential to deliver development goals. Throughout, the United States has been an exception. An analysis of progress toward universal health care, combining a review of existing theories and new empirical analysis, identifies five factors as important: the strength of organized labor and left-wing parties, adequate economic resources, absence of societal divisions, weakness of institutions that might oppose it (such as organized medicine), and windows of opportunity. Having noted the substantial benefits accruing from universal health care, the article concludes with an analysis of how universal health care is under threat in some European countries and a warning about the risks posed by current radical austerity policies.

  4. An integrated process and management tools for ranking multiple emerging threats to animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Voller, Fay; Montibeller, Gilberto; Franco, L Alberto; Sribhashyam, Sumitra; Watson, Eamon; Hartley, Matt; Gibbens, Jane C

    2013-02-01

    The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs supports the use of systematic tools for the prioritisation of known and well defined animal diseases to facilitate long and medium term planning of surveillance and disease control activities. The recognition that emerging events were not covered by the existing disease-specific approaches led to the establishment of the Veterinary Risk Group (VRG), constituted of government officials, and supporting structures such as the Risk Management Cycle and the Emerging Threat Highlight Report (ETHiR), to facilitate the identification, reporting and assessment of emerging threats to UK's animal health. Since its inception in November 2009 to the end of February 2011, the VRG reviewed 111 threats and vulnerabilities (T&V) reported through ETHiR. In July 2010 a decision support system (DSS) based on multi-criteria-decision-analysis (MCDA) improved ETHiR to allow the systematic prioritisation of emerging T&V. The DSS allows the regular ranking of emerging T&V by calculating a set of measurement indices related to the actual impact, possible impact on public perception and level of available capabilities associated with every T&V. The systematic characterisation of the processes leading to the assessment of T&V by the VRG has led to a consistent, auditable and transparent approach to the identification and assessment of emerging risks. The regular use of MCDA to manage a portfolio of emerging risks represents a different and novel application of MCDA in a health related context. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  6. [Mental health reform in Israel: how to increase the opportunities and reduce the threats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisha, David; Grinshpoon, Alexander

    2007-04-01

    Since the publication in 1990 of the Netanyahu Commission Report on Health Reform in Israel the issue of Mental Health Reform (MHR) has been discussed extensively. As steps toward the implementation of the MHR progressed, concerns were increasingly voiced that it would adversely affect the accessibility, availability and quality of mental health services. The main source of threat is attributed to the mechanisms of Managed Behavioral Health Care (MBHC) expected to be applied by the Health Funds. The authors review recent evaluation studies of MBHC in the US with a special reference to issues pertaining to ambulatory treatment of those suffering from mental illness and to outpatient psychotherapy. The findings reviewed suggest that the key to the success of MBHC systems is a strategy endeavoring to bring together the professional and the economic management mechanisms of the service system in a mutually supporting effort to bring about a paradigmatic change in the organization, payment methods and evaluation of the services. The authors also refer to recent studies of outpatient psychotherapy that provide information about trends and utilization patterns and provide support for its overall effectiveness. The authors discuss the implications of the findings reviewed to the implementation of the MHR in Israel.

  7. Multiple Threats to Child Health from Fossil Fuel Combustion: Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P

    2017-02-01

    Approaches to estimating and addressing the risk to children from fossil fuel combustion have been fragmented, tending to focus either on the toxic air emissions or on climate change. Yet developing children, and especially poor children, now bear a disproportionate burden of disease from both environmental pollution and climate change due to fossil fuel combustion. This commentary summarizes the robust scientific evidence regarding the multiple current and projected health impacts of fossil fuel combustion on the young to make the case for a holistic, child-centered energy and climate policy that addresses the full array of physical and psychosocial stressors resulting from fossil fuel pollution. The data summarized here show that by sharply reducing our dependence on fossil fuels we would achieve highly significant health and economic benefits for our children and their future. These benefits would occur immediately and also play out over the life course and potentially across generations. Going beyond the powerful scientific and economic arguments for urgent action to reduce the burning of fossil fuels is the strong moral imperative to protect our most vulnerable populations. Citation: Perera FP. 2017. Multiple threats to child health from fossil fuel combustion: impacts of air pollution and climate change. Environ Health Perspect 125:141-148; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP299.

  8. [Analysing strengths and weaknesses: opportunities and threats for service providers in the German health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensen, Peter; Wollert, Silke; Schawrz, Thomas; Luger, Thomas; Roeder, Norbert

    2003-05-01

    Hospitals in the German health care system are confronted with increasing economic competition due to paradigm shifts in funding inpatient treatment. Major hospitals, such as university hospitals, will be under significantly greater pressure to keep up the ability to compete by uniform per case payment. The new hospital funding system based on a Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) system and the economic competition involved require analyses of organisational and locational factors. Cooperativeness and efficient utilisation of resources, properties and staff will be determining factors to secure existence. Adequate responses and strategies are essential to cope with the growing operating requirements. Carrying out an analysis identifying one's own strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats will help to focus activities and sustainable strategies into areas where the strengths and the greatest opportunities lie. An example of the process of strategic planning and positioning is shown for a university department of dermatology.

  9. Threat appeals in health communication: messages that elicit fear and enhance perceived efficacy positively impact on young male drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel N; Sarma, Kiran M

    2016-07-27

    Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These 'threat appeals' feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. To address limitations of previous research, we first identified a road safety advertisement that objectively and subjectively elicited fear using physiological and subjective measures. Study 1 (n = 62) examined the effect of this advertisement, combined with a manipulation designed to increase perceived efficacy, on speed choice. Study 2 (n = 81) investigated whether a state emotion, anger, impacts on the effectiveness of the advertisement in changing four distinct driving behaviours. Both studies examined short-term effects only. Study 1 findings indicated that a high threat message, when combined with high perceived efficacy, can lead to a decrease in speed choice. Study 2 results suggested that increased levels of state anger may counteract the potential value of combining fear-arousing threats and efficacy-building messages. Findings suggest that threat-based road safety communications that target affective (fear) and cognitive (perceived efficacy) mechanisms can positively affect driving behaviours. State emotions, such as anger, may negatively impact on the effectiveness of the message. Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the use of efficacy-building messages in threat-based communications, but highlight the need for further research into the complex array of affective influences on driving.

  10. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-08-17

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18(th) of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the

  11. Ebola viral disease in West Africa: a threat to global health, economy and political stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and povertydriven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/ response, poverty and disconnect

  12. Opportunities and Threats for College Women's Health: Health Care Reform and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakaboski, Tamara; Hunter, Liz; Manning-Ouellette, Amber

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010 (P.L. 118-148) has already changed college students' health care options and has a larger impact on women as they outnumber men in college enrollment and require unique services. Through a feminist policy framework, we discuss how the PPACA impacts college women's health and…

  13. Bet-hedging dry-forest resilience to climate-change threats in the western USA based on historical forest structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lawrence Baker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry forests are particularly subject to wildfires, insect outbreaks, and droughts that likely will increase with climate change. Efforts to increase resilience of dry forests often focus on removing most small trees to reduce wildfire risk. However, small trees often survive other disturbances and could provide broader forest resilience, but small trees are thought to have been historically rare. We used direct records by land surveyors in the late-1800s along 22,206 km of survey lines in 1.7 million ha of dry forests in the western USA to test this idea. These systematic surveys (45,171 trees of historical forests reveal that small trees dominated (52-92% of total trees dry forests. Historical forests also included diverse tree sizes and species, which together provided resilience to several types of disturbances. Current risk to dry forests from insect outbreaks is 5.6 times the risk of higher-severity wildfires, with small trees increasing forest resilience to insect outbreaks. Removal of most small trees to reduce wildfire risk may compromise the bet-hedging resilience, provided by small trees and diverse tree sizes and species, against a broad array of unpredictable future disturbances.

  14. Evaluation of the forest ecosystem health in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Li; Han Hai-rong; Ma Qin-yan; Liu Hong-wen; Xia Wei-wei; Cheng Xiao-qin

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of ecosystem health has become one of the main research topics of ecosystem science, thus more and more assessment methods and frameworks have been put forward in recent years. However, the attention people pay to ecosystem health is actually more about what the social functions the ecosystem affords, which depend on the integrity and maintenance of the ecosystem structure and function, and the intensity of disturbance from outside. Accordingly, this research commenced from three main aspects,selected the evaluation indices, and then established the Evaluation Index System of Beijing Forest Ecosystem Health (EIS-BFEH).In the EIS-BFEH, each of the three foundations contained an easily-operated and standard sub-index system, which compounded the specific natural and social conditions of Beijing and was concrete enough to measure and evaluate. Then with the method of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), the comprehensive index (CI) could be obtained, which represented the health of the forest ecosystem. As a case study, the forest ecosystems in the Badaling area were sampled, evaluated, compared and ranked by use of the EIS-BFEH. The result show that the health of natural forests is much better than that of plantations in the Badaling forest center: the average comprehensive index of the former is 7.9, while the latter is only 6.6. From the results, it could also be found that there are nine units in the healthy state, two units in the subhealthy state, and only one unit of Robinia pseudoacacia in the morbid state.

  15. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans: A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  16. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2013-12-27

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  17. Genomic analysis of diversity, population structure, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae, an urgent threat to public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Holt (Kathryn E.); H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); R.N. Zadoks (Ruth N.); S. Baker (Stephen); C.A. Whitehouse (Chris A.); D. Dance (David); A. Jenney (Adam); T.R. Connor (Thomas R.); L.Y. Hsu (Li Yang); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); S. Brisse; H. Cao (Hanwei); J. Wilksch (Jonathan); C. Gorrie (Claire); M.B. Schultz (Mark B.); D.J. Edwards (David J.); K. Van Nguyen (Kinh); T.V. Nguyen (Trung Vu); T.T. Dao (Trinh Tuyet); M. Mensink (Martijn); V. Le Minh (Vien); N.T.K. Nhu (Nguyen Thi Khanh); C. Schultsz (Constance); K. Kuntaman (Kuntaman); P.N. Newton (Paul N.); C.E. Moore (Catrin E.); R.A. Strugnell (Richard A.); N.R. Thomson (Nicholas R.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractKlebsiella pneumoniae is nowrecognized as an urgent threat to human health because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains associated with hospital outbreaks and hypervirulent strains associated with severe community-acquired infections. K. pneumoniae is ubiquitous in the

  18. Evaluation of Forest Health Conditions using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. In July 2016, the team deployed UAS at locations in the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks in order to familiarize FHP staff with capabilities of UAS for evaluating insect and disease damage. While many potential uses of UAS to evaluate and monitor forest health can be envisioned, this project focused on use of a small UAS for rapid assessment of insect and disease damage. Traditional ground-based methods are limited by distance from ground to canopy and inaccessibility of forest stands due to terrain conditions. Observation from fixed-wing aircraft provide a broad overview of conditions but are limited by minimum safe flying altitude (500' AGL) and aircraft speed ( 100 mph). UAS may provide a crucial bridge to fill in gaps between ground and airborne methods, and offer significant cost savings and greater flexibility over helicopter-based observations. Previous uses of UAS for forest health monitoring are limited - this project focuses on optimizing choice of vehicle, sensors, resolution and area scanned from different altitudes, and use of visual spectrum vs NIR image collection. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. Sites were chosen for conditions favorable to UAS operation and presence of forest insect and disease agents including spruce broom rust, aspen leaf miner, birch leaf roller, and willow leafblotch miner. A total of 29 flights were conducted with 9000+ images collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, and medium- (Sony NEX-7) vs low-resolution (GoPro Hero) cameras. Invaluable

  19. Air Pollution and Forest Health: Establishing Cause and Effect in the Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I participated in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains,” in Stara Lesna, Slovakia from May 22–26, 2001. Researchers from Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the U.S. met to present their results from a three-year cooperative study of tree health and air quality monitoring in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. Much of the work reported related to assessing the crown condition of trees in permanent plots in natural or managed (planted forests in the mountains. The endpoint was tree condition, with results extrapolated to the forests in the Carpathian range. From this I learned that, of the 50,000 trees evaluated, European beech (Fagus sylvatica was the most healthy, while Norway spruce (Picea abies (the principal forest tree and white fir (Abies alba sustained crown defoliation of up to 12.8%. The cause of this crown defoliation and tree decline was usually attributed to “air pollution” as a generic term and an automatic assumption. It is well known that deposition of heavy metals and acidic sulfur and nitrogen compounds can cause tree decline and predispose affected trees to bark beetles and climatic damage. Chemical analyses can also be done to detect metals and sulfur compounds in trees and soils. Sometimes these analyses were done, but most often the assumption was that crown defoliation was caused by air pollution. The assumption was that given sufficient exposure to high enough concentrations of toxic elements, sooner or later there will be a visible adverse response.

  20. Population distribution and threats to sustainable management of selected non-timber forest products in tropical lowland rainforests of south western Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimoh S.O.; Amusa T.O.; I.O.Azeez

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled harvesting of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) poses a serious risk of extermination to several of these species in Nigeria.Yet,there is a paucity of information on the distribution,population status and sustainable management of NTFPs in most of the tropical lowland rainforests.We,therefore,assessed the population,distribution and threats to sustainable management of NTFPs within the tropical lowland rainforests of Omo and Shasha Forest Reserves,south western Nigeria.Data were obtained through inventory surveys on five top priority species including:bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O'Rorke) Baill),African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull.Arg.) Hutch.& Dalziel syn.Plukenetia conophora),chew-stick (Massularia acuminata (G.Don) Bullock),fever bark (Annickia chlorantha Setten & P.J.Maas syn.Enantia chloranta) and bush pepper (Piper guineense Schumach.& Thonn.).Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used for the inventory.Each forest reserve was stratified into three,viz:less disturbed natural forest (for areas that have been rested for at least ten years),recently disturbed natural forest (for areas that have suffered one form of human perturbation or the other in the last five years),and plantation forest (for areas carrying forest plantation).Data were collected from eighteen 10 m ×500 m belt transects located in the above strata.The species were generally fewer in both plantation and recently disturbed natural forest than the less disturbed natural forest,suggesting that forest disturbances (habitat modification) for other uses may have an effect on the occurrence and densities of the NTFPs.Exceptions to this trend were found for P.guineense and T.conophorum,which were fairly common in both plantation and recently disturbed natural forest.Among three tree NTFP species (i.e.I.gabonensis,M.acuminata and A.chlorantha),only I.gabonensis showed a significant difference in overall DBH size classes for both

  1. Adapting to the Changing Climate: An Assessment of Local Health Department Preparations for Climate Change-Related Health Threats, 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Roser-Renouf

    Full Text Available Climate change poses a major public health threat. A survey of U.S. local health department directors in 2008 found widespread recognition of the threat, but limited adaptive capacity, due to perceived lack of expertise and other resources.We assessed changes between 2008 and 2012 in local public health departments' preparedness for the public health threats of climate change, in light of increasing national polarization on the issue, and widespread funding cutbacks for public health. A geographically representative online survey of directors of local public health departments was conducted in 2011-2012 (N = 174; response rate = 50%, and compared to the 2008 telephone survey results (N = 133; response rate = 61%.Significant polarization had occurred: more respondents in 2012 were certain that the threat of local climate change impacts does/does not exist, and fewer were unsure. Roughly 10% said it is not a threat, compared to 1% in 2008. Adaptation capacity decreased in several areas: perceived departmental expertise in climate change risk assessment; departmental prioritization of adaptation; and the number of adaptation-related programs and services departments provided. In 2008, directors' perceptions of local impacts predicted the number of adaptation-related programs and services their departments offered, but in 2012, funding predicted programming and directors' impact perceptions did not. This suggests that budgets were constraining directors' ability to respond to local climate change-related health threats. Results also suggest that departmental expertise may mitigate funding constraints. Strategies for overcoming these obstacles to local public health departments' preparations for climate change are discussed.

  2. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2016-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi- State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  3. [Zika virus as a new threat to the health and life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2016-03-01

    The newly emerging pathogens are increasingly becoming a threat to health and life, as the cause of epidemic infections. In the last three years there were outbreaks caused by Zika virus, which was transmitted by mosquitoes mainly from the region of South America. However, reports WHO and CDC indicate that infection has now reached to most countries of the world, including European countries. The clinical picture of what is observed during the infection is not very distinctive, because apart from febrile states, and pain syndrome, including retrobulbar pain syndrome in the acute phase there are no other symptoms. The problem is especially severe neurological complications in the form of Guillain-Barre syndrome and other neurological disorders, as well as microcephaly had been found in newborns of mothers infected with the virus Zika. Treatment of infected patients boils down to symptomatic, because there is no vaccine or drugs to inhibit the replication of the virus. Underway while work on genetically modified mosquitoes to their offspring quickly wasting away. As part of the preventive measures recommended to bypass areas where the density of mosquitoes is particularly dangerous.

  4. Microplastic pollution, a threat to marine ecosystem and human health: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shivika; Chatterjee, Subhankar

    2017-08-16

    Human populations are using oceans as their household dustbins, and microplastic is one of the components which are not only polluting shorelines but also freshwater bodies globally. Microplastics are generally referred to particles with a size lower than 5 mm. These microplastics are tiny plastic granules and used as scrubbers in cosmetics, hand cleansers, air-blasting. These contaminants are omnipresent within almost all marine environments at present. The durability of plastics makes it highly resistant to degradation and through indiscriminate disposal they enter in the aquatic environment. Today, it is an issue of increasing scientific concern because these microparticles due to their small size are easily accessible to a wide range of aquatic organisms and ultimately transferred along food web. The chronic biological effects in marine organisms results due to accumulation of microplastics in their cells and tissues. The potential hazardous effects on humans by alternate ingestion of microparticles can cause alteration in chromosomes which lead to infertility, obesity, and cancer. Because of the recent threat of microplastics to marine biota as well as on human health, it is important to control excessive use of plastic additives and to introduce certain legislations and policies to regulate the sources of plastic litter. By setup various plastic recycling process or promoting plastic awareness programmes through different social and information media, we will be able to clean our sea dustbin in future.

  5. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels

  6. Dynamic genetic conservation in the presence of invasive insect and pathogen threats to forest tree species of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Koch; R.A. Sniezko

    2017-01-01

    Ex-situ genetic conservation focused on collection and storage of seed can play an important role in conserving the genetic diversity of species under grave threat by biotic organisms or a changing climate. However, ex-situ genetic conservation is primarily a static activity and does not allow for evolution of the species under a continuing,...

  7. Actions for prevention and control of health threats related to maritime transport in European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Guglielmetti, Paolo; Lemos, Cinthia Menel; Nichols, Gordon; Paux, Thierry; Schlaich, Clara; Cornejo, Miguel Davila; Martinez, Carmen Varela; Dionisio, Mauro; Rehmet, Sybille; Jaremin, Bogdan; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Actions at European Union level for International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 implementation and maritime transport were focused on two European projects implemented between 2006 and 2011. Situation analysis and needs assessment were conducted, a Manual including European standards and best practice and training material was developed and training courses were delivered. Ship-to-port and port-to-port communication web-based network and database for recording IHR Ship Sanitation Certificates (SSC) were established. Fifty pilot inspections based on the Manual were conducted on passenger ships. A total of 393 corrective actions were implemented according to recommendations given to Captains during pilot inspections. The web-based communication network of competent authorities at ports in EU Member States was used to manage 13 events/outbreaks (dengue fever, Legionnaires' disease, gastroenteritis, meningitis, varicella and measles). The European information database system was used for producing and recording 1018 IHR SSC by 156 inspectors in 6 countries in accordance with the WHO Handbook for inspection of ships and issuance of SSC. Implementation of corrective actions after pilot inspections increased the level of compliance with the hygiene standards in passenger ships sailing within the EU waters and improved hygiene conditions. The communication tool contributed to improvement of outbreak identification and better management through rapid sharing of public health information, allowing a more timely and coordinated response. After the implementation of actions on passenger ships, the European Commission co-funded a Joint action that will expand the activities to all types of ships and chemical, biological and radio-nuclear threats (deliberate acts/accidental). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. National Forest Health Monitoring Program, Monitoring Urban Forests in Indiana: Pilot Study 2002, Part 2: Statewide Estimates Using the UFORE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak; Anne Buckelew Cumming; Daniel Twardus; Robert Hoehn; Manfred Mielke

    2007-01-01

    Trees in cities can improve environmental quality and human health. Unfortunately, little is known about the urban forest resource and what and how it contributes to local, regional, and national societies and economies. To better understand the urban forest resource and its value, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Health Monitoring Program...

  9. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  10. Fungal diseases: an emerging threat to human, animal, and plant health : workshop summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, LeighAnne

    2011-01-01

    .... On December 14 and 15, 2010, the IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop to explore the scientific and policy dimensions associated with the causes and consequences of emerging fungal diseases...

  11. Fungal diseases: an emerging threat to human, animal, and plant health : workshop summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, LeighAnne

    2011-01-01

    "Fungal diseases have contributed to death and disability in humans, triggered global wildlife extinctions and population declines, devastated agricultural crops, and altered forest ecosystem dynamics...

  12. Is avian influenza virus A(H5N1) a real threat to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A; Ranghiero, A; Zanetti, A; Pariani, E

    2011-09-01

    The A(H5N1) influenza remains a disease of birds with a significant species barrier: in the presence of some tens million cases of infection in poultry--with a wide geographical spread--, only a few hundreds cases have occurred in humans. To date, human cases have been reported in 15 countries--mainly in Asia--and all were related to the onset of outbreaks in poultry. A peak of H5N1 human cases was recorded in 2006, then decreasing in subsequent years. Despite this trend, the H5N1 virus still represents a possible threat to human health, considering that more than half of human cases of H5N1 have been fatal. Moreover, despite the drop in the number of cases, the risk of a novel pandemic cannot be excluded, since H5N1 continues to circulate in poultry in countries with elevated human population density and where monitoring systems are not fully appropriate. In addition, there is a major global concern about the potential occurrence of a reassortment between the 2009 pandemic H1N1 and the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses following a co-infection in a susceptible host. Therefore, the implementation of appropriate surveillance and containment measures is crucial in order to minimize such risk. In conclusion, H5N1 avian influenza is still a rare disease in humans but its clinical severe outcome requires a careful monitoring of the virus's ability to evolve and to trigger a new pandemic.

  13. COST action FP801- established and emerging Phytophthora: incresasing threats to woodland and forest ecosystems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodward, S.; Vannini, A.; Werres, S.; Osswald, W.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Jung, T.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapidly growing international trade in plants and ongoing impacts of climate change, impacts of plant pathogens in the genus Phytophthora are increasing, threatening the biodiversity and sustainability of European forest ecosystems. Through the European Cooperation in Science and Technology

  14. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... and analysis, markets, climate change adaptation, forest conditions, threats to forest health, and... ] by visiting the Committee's Web site at: http://www.fs.fed.us/spf/coop/frcc/ . DATES: The meeting... change or cancellation. Anyone who would like to bring related matters to the attention of the...

  15. [Zoonoses with wildlife reservoirs: a threat to public health and the economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello C, Carlos; Cabello C, Felipe

    2008-03-01

    The world is experiencing an increase in emergent infections as a result of anthropogenic changes of the biosphere and globalization. Global warming unrestricted exploitation of natural resources such as forests and fisheries, urbanization, human migration, and industrialization of animal husbandry cause environmental destruction and fragmentation. These changes of the biosphere favor local emergence of zoonoses from their natural biotopes and their interaction with domestic animals and human populations. Subsequently, international commerce, human and animal migration and travel, favor the dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens worldwide. Chile is undergoing an important degradation of many wild-life biotopes, affecting their diversity and contributing to the dissemination of zoonoses such as Chagas disease, Hantavirus, rabies, fish tapeworms, and marine vibriosis. Moreover, agents of many other zoonoses such as inverted exclamation markeptospirosis, hydatidosis, salmonellosis, rabies, brucellosis and anthrax have been detected in different wild-life environments in the country. The intensification and accelerations of the anthropogenic deterioration of the biosphere in Chile, as results of the unrestricted utilization of natural resources and global climate change, suggests that emergence of new zoonoses in the near future will lead to important public health and economic problems. Forestalling of these problems will require active epidemiológica! surveillance of wild and domestic animals with a wide range of modern molecular and ancillary epidemiológica! tools. This also demands government and private sector (i.e., animal husbandry) intervention, funding and the collaboration of professionals in human and veterinary medicine with those in the environmental sciences including ecology, climatology and oceanography.

  16. Are insecure jobs as bad for mental health and occupational commitment as unemployment? Equal threat or downward spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Otto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of unemployment and job insecurity for mental health (self-esteem; life satisfaction and occupational commitment (occupational self-efficacy; affective occupational commitment comparing the "equal threat" assumption with the "downward spiral" assumption. Whereas the equal threat model suggests that unemployment and (perceived insecure employment are similarly threatening phenomena, the downward spiral model assumes that there might be a spectrum of employment insecurity, ranging from secure employment to long-term unemployment, that is associated with decreasing mental health and occupational commitment. Controlling for socio-demographic background variables and personality traits, results of ANCOVAs, in which we distinguished between workers who were (more or less securely employed and those who were either insecurely employed or short- or long-term unemployed revealed that the insecurely employed workers were no better off than those who were (short-term unemployed - in line with the equal threat hypothesis. Only for occupational self-efficacy did we find some support for the downward spiral model.

  17. Using the {Beta}-binomial distribution to characterize forest health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnoch, S. J. [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Athens, GA (United States); Anderson, R.L.; Sheffield, R. M. [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Forest health monitoring programs often use base variables which are dichotomous (i e. alive/dead, damaged/undamaged) to describe the health of trees. Typical sampling designs usually consist of randomly or systematically chosen clusters of trees for observation.It was claimed that contagiousness of diseases for example may result in non-uniformity of affected trees, so that distribution of the proportions, rather than simply the mean proportion, becomes important. The use of the {Beta}-binomial model was suggested for such cases. Use of the {Beta}-binomial distribution model applied in forest health analyses, was described.. Data on dogwood anthracnose (caused by Discula destructiva), a disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.), was used to illustrate the utility of the model. The {Beta}-binomial model allowed the detection of different distributional patterns of dogwood anthracnose over time and space. Results led to further speculation regarding the cause of the patterns. Traditional proportion analyses like ANOVA would not have detected the trends found using the {Beta}-binomial model, until more distinct patterns had evolved at a later date. The model was said to be flexible and require no special weighting or transformations of data.Another advantage claimed was its ability to handle unequal sample sizes.

  18. Use of media and public-domain Internet sources for detection and assessment of plant health threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hartley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Event-based biosurveillance is a recognized approach to early warning and situational awareness of emerging health threats. In this study, we build upon previous human and animal health work to develop a new approach to plant pest and pathogen surveillance. We show that monitoring public domain electronic media for indications and warning of epidemics and associated social disruption can provide information about the emergence and progression of plant pest infestation or disease outbreak. The approach is illustrated using a case study, which describes a plant pest and pathogen epidemic in China and Vietnam from February 2006 to December 2007, and the role of ducks in contributing to zoonotic virus spread in birds and humans. This approach could be used as a complementary method to traditional plant pest and pathogen surveillance to aid global and national plant protection officials and political leaders in early detection and timely response to significant biological threats to plant health, economic vitality, and social stability. This study documents the inter-relatedness of health in human, animal, and plant populations and emphasizes the importance of plant health surveillance.

  19. The effect of education on the knowledge of environmental threats on health in students of elementary schools in Bushehr port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ravanipour

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than one fourth of diseases around the world are caused by environmental threats. These threats have multifactorial effects on children's health. So, it needs collaboration between teachers, parents, students, and public health authorities to decrease them and improve health. Methods: A total of 18 primary schools were selected using random cluster sampling. After a need assessment analysis about environmental threads, the 3rd and 4th degree students of selected primary schools were invited to draw posters about air pollution, water sanitation, food contamination, natural disaster, solid waste pollution, and sea and beach pollution. Then, a booklet based on the initial need assessment about environmental threads was designed and used for a six weeks educational course. The students drew a second poster after the educational course taught by their teachers. The posters were scored for technical aspects and health concepts by independent examiners. Results: The mean score of students' knowledge about environmental threads increased after intervention (P<0.05. There was no difference between 4th graders and 5th graders, but girls showed a higher score than boys. Conclusion: In primary schools, booklet-based education was effective in promotion of the students' knowledge about environmental threads on health. Therefore, a booklet-based education, designed according to local need assessments, is recommended as a complementary education in primary schools.

  20. Using the beta-binomial distribution to characterize forest health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnoch, S.J.; Anderson, R.L.; Sheffield, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    The beta-binomial distribution is suggested as a model for describing and analyzing the dichotomous data obtained from programs monitoring the health of forests in the United States. Maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters is given as well as asymptotic likelihood ratio tests. The procedure is illustrated with data on dogwood anthracnose infection (caused by Discula destructiva) in the southeastern United States. The parameters estimates have important biological interpretation, and tests of hypotheses are more meaningful than traditional statistical analyses. The value of a modeling approach to dichotomous data analysis is emphasized.

  1. Multi-scale modeling of relationships between forest health and climatic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Xingang Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    Forest health and mortality trends are impacted by changes in climate. These trends can vary by species, plot location, forest type, and/or ecoregion. To assess the variation among these groups, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data were obtained for 10 states in the southeastern United States and combined with downscaled climate data from the Weather Research and...

  2. Quantifying spatial patterns in the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest to assess forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, T. F.

    2013-05-01

    Over the past century western United States have experienced drastic anthropogenic land use change from practices such as agriculture, fire exclusion, and timber harvesting. These changes have complex social, cultural, economic, and ecological interactions and consequences. This research studied landscapes patterns of watersheds with similar LANDFIRE potential vegetation in the Southern Washington Cascades physiographic province, within the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest (YTF) and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Naches Ranger District (NRD). In the selected watersheds, vegetation-mapping units were delineated and populated based on physiognomy of homogeneous areas of vegetative composition and structure using high-resolution aerial photos. Cover types and structural classes were derived from the raw, photo-interpreted vegetation attributes for individual vegetation mapping units and served as individual and composite response variables to quantify and assess spatial patterns and forest health conditions between the two ownerships. Structural classes in both the NRD and YTF were spatially clustered (Z-score 3.1, p-value 0.01; Z-score 2.3, p-value 0.02, respectively), however, ownership and logging type both explained a significant amount of variance in structural class composition. Based on FRAGSTATS landscape metrics, structural classes in the NRD displayed greater clustering and fragmentation with lower interspersion relative to the YTF. The NRD landscape was comprised of 47.4% understory reinitiation structural class type and associated high FRAGASTAT class metrics demonstrated high aggregation with moderate interspersion. Stem exclusion open canopy displayed the greatest dispersal of structural class types throughout the NRD, but adjacencies were correlated to other class types. In the YTF, stem exclusion open canopy comprised 37.7% of the landscape and displayed a high degree of aggregation and interspersion about clusters throughout the YTF. Composite cover

  3. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  4. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: Assessment of threat scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goix, Sylvaine [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Lévêque, Thibaut [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management), 20 Avenue du Grésillé, BP 90406, 49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Xiong, Tian-Tian [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Schreck, Eva [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); and others

    2014-08-15

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO{sub 4}, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management. - Highlights: • Seven micro- and nano- monometallic characterized particles were studied as references. • Bioaccessibility, eco and cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential assays were performed. • According to calculated threat scores: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  5. On the Ecology and Conservation of Sericinus montelus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae - Its Threats in Xiaolongshan Forests Area (China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiushan Li

    Full Text Available Here we present a detailed analysis of the life history, mobility and habitat requirements of the butterfly Sericinus montelus on the basis of extensive field observations, experimental breeding, capture-mark- recapture (CMR and transect surveys.We found that S. montelus has three generations per year and overwinters as pupae on shrub branches in Xiaolongshan. The adults of first generation have a peak of emergence in late April. The second generation emerges at the end of June and the third in early to middle August. Within the study region, larvae of S. montelus are monophagous on Aristolochia contorta. Adults fly slowly and lay eggs in clusters.Life tables show that natural enemies and human activities such as mowing, weeding and trampling during the egg and larval stages are key factors causing high mortality, killing up to 43% of eggs and 72% of larvae thereby limiting population growth and recovery.The populations of S. montelus in Xiaolongshan have a rather patchy distribution. According to CMR data, adults fly a maximum distance of 700m within a lifespan of 6 days. The host plant A. contorta, grows along the low banks of fields, irrigation ditches and paths, and can be highly affected by agricultural activities, like mowing, weeding and herding, which impact larval survival.For S. montelus should mainly focus on reducing agricultural threats to the host plant A. contorta and on increasing habitat connectivity.

  6. COST action TD1407: network on technology-critical elements (NOTICE)--from environmental processes to human health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobelo-García, A; Filella, M; Croot, P; Frazzoli, C; Du Laing, G; Ospina-Alvarez, N; Rauch, S; Salaun, P; Schäfer, J; Zimmermann, S

    2015-10-01

    The current socio-economic, environmental and public health challenges that countries are facing clearly need common-defined strategies to inform and support our transition to a sustainable economy. Here, the technology-critical elements (which includes Ga, Ge, In, Te, Nb, Ta, Tl, the Platinum Group Elements and most of the rare-earth elements) are of great relevance in the development of emerging key technologies-including renewable energy, energy efficiency, electronics or the aerospace industry. In this context, the increasing use of technology-critical elements (TCEs) and associated environmental impacts (from mining to end-of-life waste products) is not restricted to a national level but covers most likely a global scale. Accordingly, the European COST Action TD1407: Network on Technology-Critical Elements (NOTICE)-from environmental processes to human health threats, has an overall objective for creating a network of scientists and practitioners interested in TCEs, from the evaluation of their environmental processes to understanding potential human health threats, with the aim of defining the current state of knowledge and gaps, proposing priority research lines/activities and acting as a platform for new collaborations and joint research projects. The Action is focused on three major scientific areas: (i) analytical chemistry, (ii) environmental biogeochemistry and (iii) human exposure and (eco)-toxicology.

  7. Estado del conocimiento y principales amenazas de los humedales boscosos de agua dulce de Chile Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CORREA-ARANEDA

    2011-09-01

    en el tiempo.Forested freshwater wetlands are naturally flooded or saturated areas with hydrophilic forest vegetation which is worldwide distributed and is known as "pitrantos, hualves o hualhues" in Chile. This paper gives to know the state of art of these wetlands in Chile, through a description of its biological, physical-chemical and hydro-dynamic characteristics, identifying the main threats to its conservation and the main research needs. These environments can be permanently or temporarily flooded, depending on microclimatic, biological and edaphical processes. Its vegetation is dominated by species of the family Myrtaceae. Both hydric behavior and vegetation structure are major aspects that directly determine the water physical-chemical characteristics and the distribution patterns of biological communities. Chile's forested wetlands have been studied broadly from a vegetation and floristic point of view, but basic studies on limnology, hydrology or fauna are lacking, which results on a total lack of knowledge about its functioning at the ecosystem level and the effects that human activities on basins (e.g., agricultural, stockbreeding, forest could have on its hydric and biological components. In spite of being ecosystems of great cultural and ecological significance, important weakness can be identified on its state of conservation, as they are not protected by conservation tools that exist in Chile nowadays. Therefore, forested wetlands emerge as unique ecosystems of global importance, nearly unknown in Chile and of great interest on developing an important number of research lines, even though their high susceptibility facing anthropic disturbances threaten their continuance.

  8. Perceptions of Forest Health among Preservice Educators and Implication for Teaching Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Lauretta, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) determine preservice educators' perceptions of forest health, (b) define the experiences which may have influenced their understanding, and (c) identify the approaches they might use to convey forest health information. Twelve interviews were conducted with preservice science and agriculture education…

  9. Perceptions of Forest Health among Preservice Educators and Implication for Teaching Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Lauretta, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) determine preservice educators' perceptions of forest health, (b) define the experiences which may have influenced their understanding, and (c) identify the approaches they might use to convey forest health information. Twelve interviews were conducted with preservice science and agriculture education…

  10. Perceptions of Forest Health among Preservice Educators and Implication for Teaching Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Lauretta, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) determine preservice educators' perceptions of forest health, (b) define the experiences which may have influenced their understanding, and (c) identify the approaches they might use to convey forest health information. Twelve interviews were conducted with preservice science and agriculture education…

  11. Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bryan W; Lazorchak, James M; Howard, Meredith D A; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Morton, Steve L; Perkins, Dawn A K; Reavie, Euan D; Scott, Geoffrey I; Smith, Stephanie A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortunately, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of HABs in inland waters are poorly understood across spatiotemporal scales and differentially engaged among states, tribes, and territories. Harmful algal bloom impacts are not as predictable as those from conventional chemical contaminants, for which water quality assessment and management programs were primarily developed, because interactions among multiple natural and anthropogenic factors determine the likelihood and severity to which a HAB will occur in a specific water body. These forcing factors can also affect toxin production. Beyond site-specific water quality degradation caused directly by HABs, the presence of HAB toxins can negatively influence routine surface water quality monitoring, assessment, and management practices. Harmful algal blooms present significant challenges for achieving water quality protection and restoration goals when these toxins confound interpretation of monitoring results and environmental quality standards implementation efforts for other chemicals and stressors. Whether HABs presently represent the greatest threat to inland water quality is debatable, though in inland waters of developed countries they typically cause more severe acute impacts to environmental quality than conventional chemical contamination events. The authors identify several timely research needs. Environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and risk-assessment expertise must interface with ecologists, engineers, and public health practitioners to engage the complexities of HAB assessment and management, to address the forcing factors for HAB formation, and

  12. On the present status of distribution and threats of high value medicinal plants in the higher altitude forests of the Indian eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Gajurel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Himalaya region is a rich repository of medicinal plants.  Excessive collection and unsustainable harvesting of medicinal plants from the wild are leading to a depletion of populations and threatening species in the region.  A study was conducted to explore the diversity, distribution and population status of selected medicinal plants species in the higher altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, India through extensive field surveys and consultations with the local communities.  Out of about 75 medicinal plants recorded, 41 rare and commercially important medicinal plants were observed in the sub-temperate to alpine forest within an altitudinal range of 1500–4500 m.  Taxonomically these species fall under 25 families of higher plants, of which 31 are dicots, seven are monocots and three gymnosperms.  Many threatened species like Taxus wallichiana, Coptis teeta, Panax pseudoginseng, Panax sikkimensis were recorded in specific localities.  The western part of the state exhibits maximum species diversity.  Out of the various threats observed, improper harvesting, habitat loss and trade are found to be more destructive to the population.  Intensive efforts from both in situ and ex situ conservation practices are necessary for sustainable management and conservation of these species. 

  13. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  14. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-12-01

    The flaviviruses dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex spp.), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses.

  15. Leptospira interrogans at the human-wildlife interface in northern Botswana: a newly identified public health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbins, S E; Sanderson, C E; Alexander, K A

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. In northern Botswana, humans live in close proximity to a diversity of wildlife and peridomestic rodents and may be exposed to a variety of zoonotic pathogens. Little is known regarding the occurrence and epidemiology of L. interrogans in Africa despite the recognized global importance of this zoonotic disease and the threat it poses to public health. In Botswana, banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) live in close proximity to humans across protected and unprotected landscapes and may be a useful sentinel species for assessing the occurrence of zoonotic organisms, such as L. interrogans. We utilized PCR to screen banded mongoose kidneys for leptospiral DNA and identified 41.5% prevalence of renal carriage of L. interrogans (exact binomial 95% CI 27.7-56.7%, n = 41). Renal carriage was also detected in one Selous' mongoose (Paracynictis selousi). This is the first published confirmation of carriage of L. interrogans in either species. This is also the first report of L. interrogans occurrence in northern Botswana and the only report of this organism in a wildlife host in the country. Pathogenic Leptospira are usually transmitted indirectly to humans through soil or water contaminated with infected urine. Other avenues, such as direct contact between humans and wildlife, as well as consumption of mongooses and other wildlife as bushmeat, may pose additional exposure risk and must be considered in public health management of this newly identified zoonotic disease threat. There is a critical need to characterize host species involvement and pathogen transmission dynamics, including human-wildlife interactions that may increase human exposure potential and infection risk. We recommend that public health strategy be modified to include sensitization of medical practitioners to the presence of L. interrogans in the region, the potential for human infection, and implementation of clinical screening. This study

  16. Water and Forest Health: Drought Stress as a Core Driver of Forest Disturbances and Tree Mortality in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. D.; Williams, P.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing warmth and dry climate conditions have affected large portions of western North America in recent years, causing elevated levels of both chronic and acute forest drought stress. In turn, increases in drought stress amplify the incidence and severity of the most significant forest disturbances in this region, including wildfire, drought-induced tree mortality, and outbreaks of damaging insects and diseases. Regional patterns of drought stress and various forest disturbances are reviewed, including interactions among climate and the various disturbance processes; similar global-scale patterns and trends of drought-amplified forest die-off and high-severity wildfire also are addressed. New research is presented that derives a tree-ring-based Forest Drought Stress Index (FDSI) for the three most widespread conifer species (Pinus edulis, Pinus ponderosa, and Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the southwestern US (Arizona, New Mexico), demonstrating nonlinear escalation of FDSI to levels unprecedented in the past 1000 years, in response to both drought and especially recent warming. This new work further highlights strong correlations between drought stress and amplified forest disturbances (fire, bark beetle outbreaks), and projects that by ca. 2050 anticipated regional warming will cause mean FDSI levels to reach extreme levels that may exceed thresholds for the survival of current tree species in large portions of their current range. Given recent trends of forest disturbance and projections for substantially warmer temperatures and greater drought stress for much of western North America in coming years, the growing risks to western forest health are becoming clear. This emerging understanding suggests an urgent need to determine potentials and methods for managing water on-site to maintain the vigor and resilience of western forests in the face of increasing levels of climate-induced water stress.

  17. Components of Population Vulnerability and Their Relationship With Climate-Sensitive Health Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, P B; Richardson, M J

    2016-03-01

    Climate change is increasingly being framed as risks that will impact the poorest and most vulnerable communities among us. This has led to more efforts to estimate climate change risks across populations and in the context of human health and health equity. We describe the public health dimensions of climate vulnerability-exposure, population sensitivity, and adaptive capacity-and explore how these dimensions can modify population health impacts and their distribution. An overview of health disparities associated with specific climate risks is presented, and we offer potential solutions grounded in equitable urban development and improved characterization of climate vulnerabilities.

  18. The Big Society in an age of austerity: threats and opportunities for Health Consumer and Patients' Organizations in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Rob; Jones, Kathryn

    2015-12-01

    Health consumer and patients' organizations (HCPOs) seek to influence policy. But how are they affected by developments in the policy context and political environment? The article draws on original research into HCPOs in the UK by the authors, including a major survey undertaken in 1999 and interviews with HCPOs and policymakers between 2000 and 2003 as well as a further survey in 2010. It also draws on a review of key government policies on health and the voluntary sector since 1997. Developments in the political environment and policy context have created both opportunities and threats for HCPOs as they seek to influence policy. These include policies to promote choice and competition in public services; support for a greater role for the voluntary sector and civil society in health and welfare (including the current government's 'Big Society' idea); NHS reorganization; changes to the system of patient and public involvement; and austerity measures. Devolution of powers within the UK with regard to health policy and the rising profile of the EU in health matters have also had implications for HCPOs. This analysis raises key issues for future research in the UK and elsewhere, such as how will HCPOs be able to maintain independence in an increasingly competitive environment? And how will they fare in an era of retrenchment? There are also challenges for HCPOs in relation to maintaining relationships in a new institutional setting characterized by multilevel governance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Space-born spectrodirectional estimation of forest properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrelst, J.

    2010-01-01

    With the upcoming global warming forests are under threat. To forecast climate change impacts and adaptations, there is need for developing improved forest monitoring services, which are able to record, quantify and map bio-indicators of the forests’ health status across the globe. In this context,

  20. Remote Sensing of Bioindicators for Forest Health Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, Shawn Carlisle

    The impacts of tropospheric ozone on forest health in Mediterranean type climates in California, USA and Catalonia, Spain were investigated using a combination of remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and field studies focused on sensitive bioindicator conifer species and ambient ozone monitoring. For the field validation of impacts of tropospheric ozone on conifer health, the Ozone Injury Index (OII) was applied to the bioindicator species Pinus ponderosa, Pinus jeffreyi, and Pinus uncinata. Combining these three tools, it was possible to build meaningful ecological models covering large areas to enhance our understanding of the biotic and abiotic interactions which affect forest health. Regression models predicting ozone injury improved considerably when incorporating ozone exposure with GIS related to plant water status, including water availability and water usage, as a proxies for estimating the stomatal conductance and ozone uptake R2=0.35, p = 0.016 in Catalonia, R2=0.36, p < 0.001 in Yosemite and R2=0.33, p = 0.007 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in California). Individual OII components in Catalonia were modeled with improved success compared to the original full OII, in particular visible chlorotic mottling (R2=0.60, p < 0.001). The visual chlorotic mottling component of the OII was the most strongly correlated to remote sensing indices, in particular the photochemical reflectance index (PRI; R2=0.28, p=0.0044 for OIIVI-amount and R 2=0.33 and p=0.0016 for OIIVI -severity). Regression models assessing ozone injury to conifers using imaging spectroscopy techniques also improved when incorporating the GIS proxies of stomatal conductance (R 2=0.59, p<0.0001 for OII in California and R2=0.68, p<0.0001 for OIIVI in Catalonia). Finally, taking advantage of a time series of ambient ozone monitoring in Catalonia, it was found that all models improved when incorporating the cumulative exposure to ozone over a period of three years (R2=0.56, p

  1. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-06-01

    Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms 'online pharmacies', 'Internet pharmacies', 'cyber pharmacies', 'rogue pharmacies', and 'e-pharmacies' using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999-2005. Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K.; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-01-01

    Background Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. Sources of data A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms ‘online pharmacies’, ‘Internet pharmacies’, ‘cyber pharmacies’, ‘rogue pharmacies’, and ‘e-pharmacies’ using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999–2005. Areas of agreement Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Areas of controversy Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Growing points Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. Areas timely for developing research There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. PMID:27151957

  3. Addressing a Threat to the Healthfulness of Tomorrow's Generation: The Case of Cigarette Smoking in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Catherine O.; Petersen, Inge; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has widely received the attention of international and local health bodies. Efforts are being made towards curbing smoking prevalence globally with a view to reduce the health, economic and social effects of smoking in the society. While some developed countries are recording success in this effort mainly through stringent…

  4. Forest health monitoring in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania: A baseline report on selected forest reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Madoffe; James Mwang' ombe; Barbara O' Connell; Paul Rogers; Gerard Hertel; Joe Mwangi

    2005-01-01

    This status report presents the results of 43 permanent forest health study plots (3871 trees, saplings, and seedlings) established in 2000 and 2001 in parts of three areas of the Eastern Arc Mountains - the Taita Hills in Kenya (Ngangao and Chawia), the East Usambara Mountains (Amani Nature Reserve) and the Uluguru Mountains (Morogoro Teachers College and Kimboza) in...

  5. Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children’s Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William A.; Ahanchian, Hamid; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Carpenter, David O.; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ha, Eun-Hee; Huo, Xia; King, Malcolm; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; da Silva, Emerson R.; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D.; Stein, Renato T.; van den Berg, Martin; Zar, Heather; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Exposures to environmental pollutants during windows of developmental vulnerability in early life can cause disease and death in infancy and childhood as well as chronic, non-communicable diseases that may manifest at any point across the life span. Patterns of pollution and pollution-related disease change as countries move through economic development. Environmental pollution is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to the World Health Organization, pollution is responsible for 8.9 million deaths around the world each year; of these, 94% (8.4 million) are in LMICs. Toxic chemical pollution is growing into a major threat to children’s health in LMICs. The disease and disability caused by environmental pollution have great economic costs, and these costs can undercut trajectories of national development. To combat pollution, improved programs of public health and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed in high-income countries must now be transferred to LMICs to assist these emerging economies to avoid the mistakes of the past. A new international clearinghouse is needed to define and track the health effects of pollution, quantify the economic costs of these effects, and direct much needed attention to environmental pollution as a risk factor for disease. PMID:26930243

  6. Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children's Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William A; Ahanchian, Hamid; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Carpenter, David O; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ha, Eun-Hee; Huo, Xia; King, Malcolm; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D; Stein, Renato T; van den Berg, Martin; Zar, Heather; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    Exposures to environmental pollutants during windows of developmental vulnerability in early life can cause disease and death in infancy and childhood as well as chronic, non-communicable diseases that may manifest at any point across the life span. Patterns of pollution and pollution-related disease change as countries move through economic development. Environmental pollution is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to the World Health Organization, pollution is responsible for 8.9 million deaths around the world each year; of these, 94% (8.4 million) are in LMICs. Toxic chemical pollution is growing into a major threat to children's health in LMICs. The disease and disability caused by environmental pollution have great economic costs, and these costs can undercut trajectories of national development. To combat pollution, improved programs of public health and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed in high-income countries must now be transferred to LMICs to assist these emerging economies to avoid the mistakes of the past. A new international clearinghouse is needed to define and track the health effects of pollution, quantify the economic costs of these effects, and direct much needed attention to environmental pollution as a risk factor for disease.

  7. Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the development of a health technology assessment program in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Rabia; Meads, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The Turkish healthcare system is currently undergoing reform, and efficient use of resources has become a key factor in determining the allocation of resources. The objective of this study was to analyze strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) in the development of a health technology assessment (HTA) program in Turkey. A SWOT analysis was performed using a literature review and interviews with key people in the Turkish Ministry of Health and Ministry of Labor and Social Security. Regarding recent reforms in health care, investments for information network and databank are the strengths, but the traditional "expert-based" decision making, poor availability of data, and poor quality of data could be seen as some of the weaknesses. Another major weakness is lack of general awareness of HTA. Increasing demand for transparency in decision making, demand for evidence, and demand for credibility by decision makers are some of the opportunities, and current healthcare reforms, i.e., restructuring of healthcare and general health insurance, could also be seen as major opportunities. These opportunities unfortunately could be threatened by lack of funding, and resources are challenged by large, recent national investments. There is a good opportunity for Turkey to use the skills in HTA currently being developed through activities in Europe and the Americas to assist in the development of a much more cost-effective and transparent healthcare system in Turkey.

  8. Developing a Nuclear Global Health Workforce Amid the Increasing Threat of a Nuclear Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M; Dallas, Cham E

    2016-02-01

    This study argues that any nuclear weapon exchange or major nuclear plant meltdown, in the categories of human systems failure and conflict-based crises, will immediately provoke an unprecedented public health emergency of international concern. Notwithstanding nuclear triage and management plans and technical monitoring standards within the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization (WHO), the capacity to rapidly deploy a robust professional workforce with the internal coordination and collaboration capabilities required for large-scale nuclear crises is profoundly lacking. A similar dilemma, evident in the early stages of the Ebola epidemic, was eventually managed by using worldwide infectious disease experts from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and multiple multidisciplinary WHO-supported foreign medical teams. This success has led the WHO to propose the development of a Global Health Workforce. A strategic format is proposed for nuclear preparedness and response that builds and expands on the current model for infectious disease outbreak currently under consideration. This study proposes the inclusion of a nuclear global health workforce under the technical expertise of the International Atomic Energy Agency and WHO's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network leadership and supported by the International Health Regulations Treaty. Rationales are set forth for the development, structure, and function of a nuclear workforce based on health outcomes research that define the unique health, health systems, and public health challenges of a nuclear crisis. Recent research supports that life-saving opportunities are possible, but only if a rapidly deployed and robust multidisciplinary response component exists.

  9. Towards a framework for teaching about information technology risk in health care: Simulating threats to health data and patient safety

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author describes work towards developing an integrative framework for educating health information technology professionals about technology risk. The framework considers multiple sources of risk to health data quality and integrity that can result from the use of health information technology (HIT) and can be used to teach health professional students about these risks when using health technologies. This framework encompasses issues and problems that may arise from varied ...

  10. Hazardous substance releases at the community level: a practical approach to analyzing potential health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufer, L; Narkunas, D

    1994-07-01

    1. When a hazardous substance release occurs in a community, public health nurses must consider whether community members have been exposed, and whether that exposure is sufficient to impact public health. 2. An exposure pathway is the process by which an individual is exposed to contaminants that originate from some source of contamination. The exposure pathway method is effective in determining whether community members are exposed to hazardous substances in their community. 3. After determining a completed exposure pathway, a toxicological analysis estimates the dose of hazardous substances community members may have received and whether that dose may increase risks for an adverse health effect. 4. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) provides information to health care professionals that can assist them in conducting exposure and toxicological analyses.

  11. Health of eastern North American sugar maple forests and factors affecting decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long; Scott W. Bailey; Richard A. Hallett; Philip M. Wargo

    2002-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a keystone species in the forests of the northeastern and Midwestern United States and eastern Canada. Its sustained health is an important issue in both managed and unmanaged forests. While sugar maple generally is healthy throughout its range, decline disease of sugar maple has occurred sporadically during the past...

  12. The forest health monitoring national technical reports: examples of analyses and results from 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling; Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2008-01-01

    This brochure presents examples of analyses included in the first four Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) national technical reports. Its purpose is to introduce the reader to the kinds of information available in these and subsequent FHM national technical reports. Indicators presented here include drought, air pollution, forest fragmentation, and tree mortality. These...

  13. Has Virginia pine declined? The use of Forest Health Monitoring and other information in the determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Burkman; William A. Bechtold

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of Virginia pine, focusing on Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) results and using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) information to determine if Virginia pine is showing a decline. An examination of crown condition data from live trees in the FHM program from 1991 through 1997 showed that Virginia pine had significantly...

  14. Is transfusion-transmitted dengue fever a potential public health threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier

    2015-05-12

    Dengue is an arboviruses due to single-stranded enveloped ribonucleic acid viruses, named dengue viruses (DENV), that include four serotypes and are mainly transmitted via the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (A. aegypti and A. albopictus). The distribution of the disease was historically limited to intertropical areas; however, during the last thirty years, the perimeter of the disease extended considerably and temperate areas are now at risk of outbreaks. The present global burden of dengue is considerable: 2.5 billion people over more than 100 countries are concerned; 50 to 100 million infections occur every year, with a number of fatal cases of approximately 20000. Although frequently asymptomatic or limited to a mild fever, dengue is responsible for severe cases mainly consecutive to the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications that can lead to shock and death, notably in children from poor-resource settings. The place of DENV as a transfusion-transmitted pathogen has been recognized only in 2008. At the present time, only five cases of transfusion-transmitted dengue, including one case of dengue hemorrhagic fever, have been formerly documented. This review provides a general overview of dengue, its viruses and their vectors. It replaces the disease in the context of other viral diseases transmitted by arthropods. It discusses the threat of dengue on the supply of blood products in endemic and non endemic areas. Finally, it describes the specific and non specific measures available for improving the security of blood products with regards to this emerging risk. Interestingly, in 2009, the American Association of Blood Banks placed DENV in the highest category of emerging infectious agents for their potential impact on transfusion recipient safety for the next years in North America.

  15. A climate change-induced threat to the ecological resilience of a subtropical monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoyi; Peng, Changhui; Li, Yuelin; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei; Tang, Xuli; Liu, Juxiu; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that tropical forests may not be resilient against climate change in the long term, primarily owing to predicted reductions in rainfall and forest productivity, increased tree mortality, and declining forest biomass carbon sinks. These changes will be caused by drought-induced water stress and ecosystem disturbances. Several recent studies have reported that climate change has increased tree mortality in temperate and boreal forests, or both mortality and recruitment rates in tropical forests. However, no study has yet examined these changes in the subtropical forests that account for the majority of China's forested land. In this study, we describe how the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest has responded to global warming and drought stress using 32 years of data from forest observation plots. Due to an imbalance in mortality and recruitment, and changes in diameter growth rates between larger and smaller trees and among different functional groups, the average DBH of trees and forest biomass have decreased. Sap flow measurements also showed that larger trees were more stressed than smaller trees by the warming and drying environment. As a result, the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest community is undergoing a transition from a forest dominated by a cohort of fewer and larger individuals to a forest dominated by a cohort of more and smaller individuals, with a different species composition, suggesting that subtropical forests are threatened by their lack of resilience against long-term climate change.

  16. Human skin wounds: A major and snowballing threat to public health and the economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, C.K.; Gordillo, G.M.; Roy, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated excess of US$25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obes......In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated excess of US$25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes...... overshadowed the significance of wounds per se as a major health problem. For example, NIH's Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT; http://report.nih.gov/), directed at providing access to estimates of funding for various disease conditions does list several rare diseases but does not list wounds...

  17. The role of self-aspects in emotions elicited by threats to physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskul, Ayse K; Hynie, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we examined the relationship between self-aspects and socially engaging and socially disengaging emotions elicited by imagined and real physical health problems. In Study 1, participants imagined themselves experiencing a health problem described in a hypothetical scenario and rated the extent to which they would experience a list of emotions. The experience of socially engaging emotions such as shame and embarrassment was predicted by the endorsement of collective self. In Study 2, participants recalled a past health problem and emotions they experienced during its course. Again, collective self predicted the extent to which people mentioned socially engaging emotions in their free recall of emotions. Independent self was not related to the imagined experience of socially disengaging emotions in Study 1 or the recollection of such emotions in Study 2.

  18. Threat to democracy: Physical and mental health impact of democracy movement in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wai Kai; Hall, Brian J; Canetti, Daphna; Lau, Kam Man; Ng, Sin Man; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence and critical predictors of anxiety and depressive symptoms and self-rated health, following the Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong. Random digit dialing recruited a population-representative sample of 1208 Chinese Hong Kong citizens (mean age=46.89 years; 63% female) in the first two weeks of February 2015. Respondents gave their informed consent and reported personal, social, and economic resource loss since the Umbrella Movement (Conservation of Resources-Evaluation), current anxiety symptoms (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and self-rated health (1=very good, 4=very bad). A total of 47.35% (95% CI=44.55, 50.17) respondents reported moderate/severe anxiety symptoms and 14.4% (95% CI=12.54, 16.50) reported moderate/severe depressive symptoms; 9.11% (95% CI=7.61, 10.86) reported "poor" or "very poor" health. Multivariable regressions revealed that personal and social resource loss was associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms and greater odds of "very poor" health (adjusted odds ratios/incidence rate ratios=5-102%), independent of lower education level and income and being unmarried. This study was cross-sectional in nature and thus could not determine causality from the associations between resource loss and outcome variables. Second, the telephone survey relied on self-reports; response bias and social desirability could influence respondents' answers and discount data validity. Third, potential confounders such as preexisting mental and physical health issues and concurrent predictors like exposure to the Umbrella Movement were not assessed. This is one of the first studies following any recent political movement (e.g., The Arab Spring) to quantify distress and the associated correlates of distress among affected citizens. Perceived psychosocial resource losses were critical predictors of poor outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia reveal new threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ponti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.

  20. Climate Change is Likely to Worsen the Public Health Threat of Diarrheal Disease in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vance

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease is an important health challenge, accounting for the majority of childhood deaths globally. Climate change is expected to increase the global burden of diarrheal disease but little is known regarding climate drivers, particularly in Africa. Using health data from Botswana spanning a 30-year period (1974–2003, we evaluated monthly reports of diarrheal disease among patients presenting to Botswana health facilities and compared this to climatic variables. Diarrheal case incidence presents with a bimodal cyclical pattern with peaks in March (ANOVA p < 0.001 and October (ANOVA p < 0.001 in the wet and dry season, respectively. There is a strong positive autocorrelation (p < 0.001 in the number of reported diarrhea cases at the one-month lag level. Climatic variables (rainfall, minimum temperature, and vapor pressure predicted seasonal diarrheal with a one-month lag in variables (p < 0.001. Diarrheal case incidence was highest in the dry season after accounting for other variables, exhibiting on average a 20% increase over the yearly mean (p < 0.001. Our analysis suggests that forecasted climate change increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation may increase dry season diarrheal disease incidence with hot, dry conditions starting earlier and lasting longer. Diarrheal disease incidence in the wet season is likely to decline. Our results identify significant health-climate interactions, highlighting the need for an escalated public health focus on controlling diarrheal disease in Botswana. Study findings have application to other arid countries in Africa where diarrheal disease is a persistent public health problem.

  1. The Nation's Top HIV/AIDS Researcher Discusses This Continuing Health Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I would ask that people learn more about science and biomedical research and lend their support. The more people understand, the more they will see how what we do here at the NIH is so important to their own lives and to the health of our nation and the world. Summer 2009 ...

  2. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, S.J.; Fooks, A.R.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered path

  3. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, S.J.; Fooks, A.R.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered path

  4. Sustainable forest management in poplar plantations: forest health and biodiversity criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Martín García, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    La implementación de la Gestión Forestal Sostenible se consigue a través de criterios e indicadores, y aunque diferentes conjuntos han sido desarrollados según el país, todos ellos están de acuerdo en que los criterios de sanidad forestal y biodiversidad deben ser piezas claves. El objetivo de esta tesis fue mejorar los actuales indicadores y buscar otros nuevos dentro de los criterios de sanidad forestal y biodiversidad. Para este propósito, se muestrearon una amplia variedad de plantaciones...

  5. Sustainable forest management in poplar plantations: forest health and biodiversity criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Martín García, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    La implementación de la Gestión Forestal Sostenible se consigue a través de criterios e indicadores, y aunque diferentes conjuntos han sido desarrollados según el país, todos ellos están de acuerdo en que los criterios de sanidad forestal y biodiversidad deben ser piezas claves. El objetivo de esta tesis fue mejorar los actuales indicadores y buscar otros nuevos dentro de los criterios de sanidad forestal y biodiversidad. Para este propósito, se muestrearon una amplia variedad de plantaciones...

  6. Climate change threats to population health and well-being: the imperative of protective solutions that will last

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The observational evidence of the impacts of climate conditions on human health is accumulating. A variety of direct, indirect, and systemically mediated health effects have been identified. Excessive daily heat exposures create direct effects, such as heat stroke (and possibly death), reduce work productivity, and interfere with daily household activities. Extreme weather events, including storms, floods, and droughts, create direct injury risks and follow-on outbreaks of infectious diseases, lack of nutrition, and mental stress. Climate change will increase these direct health effects. Indirect effects include malnutrition and under-nutrition due to failing local agriculture, spread of vector-borne diseases and other infectious diseases, and mental health and other problems caused by forced migration from affected homes and workplaces. Examples of systemically mediated impacts on population health include famine, conflicts, and the consequences of large-scale adverse economic effects due to reduced human and environmental productivity. This article highlights links between climate change and non-communicable health problems, a major concern for global health beyond 2015. Discussion Detailed regional analysis of climate conditions clearly shows increasing temperatures in many parts of the world. Climate modelling indicates that by the year 2100 the global average temperature may have increased by 3-4°C unless fundamental reductions in current global trends for greenhouse gas emissions are achieved. Given other unforeseeable environmental, social, demographic, and geopolitical changes that may occur in a plus-4-degree world, that scenario may comprise a largely uninhabitable world for millions of people and great social and military tensions. Conclusion It is imperative that we identify actions and strategies that are effective in reducing these increasingly likely threats to health and well-being. The fundamental preventive strategy is, of course

  7. Climate change threats to population health and well-being: the imperative of protective solutions that will last

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Kjellstrom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The observational evidence of the impacts of climate conditions on human health is accumulating. A variety of direct, indirect, and systemically mediated health effects have been identified. Excessive daily heat exposures create direct effects, such as heat stroke (and possibly death, reduce work productivity, and interfere with daily household activities. Extreme weather events, including storms, floods, and droughts, create direct injury risks and follow-on outbreaks of infectious diseases, lack of nutrition, and mental stress. Climate change will increase these direct health effects. Indirect effects include malnutrition and under-nutrition due to failing local agriculture, spread of vector-borne diseases and other infectious diseases, and mental health and other problems caused by forced migration from affected homes and workplaces. Examples of systemically mediated impacts on population health include famine, conflicts, and the consequences of large-scale adverse economic effects due to reduced human and environmental productivity. This article highlights links between climate change and non-communicable health problems, a major concern for global health beyond 2015. Discussion: Detailed regional analysis of climate conditions clearly shows increasing temperatures in many parts of the world. Climate modelling indicates that by the year 2100 the global average temperature may have increased by 34°C unless fundamental reductions in current global trends for greenhouse gas emissions are achieved. Given other unforeseeable environmental, social, demographic, and geopolitical changes that may occur in a plus-4-degree world, that scenario may comprise a largely uninhabitable world for millions of people and great social and military tensions. Conclusion: It is imperative that we identify actions and strategies that are effective in reducing these increasingly likely threats to health and well-being. The fundamental preventive

  8. Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162518.html Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months Public health ... doesn't necessarily mean the end of the Zika threat in the United States, a public health ...

  9. Genomic analysis of diversity, population structure, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae, an urgent threat to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Kathryn E.; Wertheim, Heiman; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Baker, Stephen; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Dance, David; Jenney, Adam; Connor, Thomas R.; Hsu, Li Yang; Severin, Juliëtte; Brisse, Sylvain; Cao, Hanwei; Wilksch, Jonathan; Gorrie, Claire; Schultz, Mark B.; Edwards, David J.; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Nguyen, Trung Vu; Dao, Trinh Tuyet; Mensink, Martijn; Minh, Vien Le; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Schultsz, Constance; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Newton, Paul N.; Moore, Catrin E.; Strugnell, Richard A.; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is now recognized as an urgent threat to human health because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains associated with hospital outbreaks and hypervirulent strains associated with severe community-acquired infections. K. pneumoniae is ubiquitous in the environment and can colonize and infect both plants and animals. However, little is known about the population structure of K. pneumoniae, so it is difficult to recognize or understand the emergence of clinically important clones within this highly genetically diverse species. Here we present a detailed genomic framework for K. pneumoniae based on whole-genome sequencing of more than 300 human and animal isolates spanning four continents. Our data provide genome-wide support for the splitting of K. pneumoniae into three distinct species, KpI (K. pneumoniae), KpII (K. quasipneumoniae), and KpIII (K. variicola). Further, for K. pneumoniae (KpI), the entity most frequently associated with human infection, we show the existence of >150 deeply branching lineages including numerous multidrug-resistant or hypervirulent clones. We show K. pneumoniae has a large accessory genome approaching 30,000 protein-coding genes, including a number of virulence functions that are significantly associated with invasive community-acquired disease in humans. In our dataset, antimicrobial resistance genes were common among human carriage isolates and hospital-acquired infections, which generally lacked the genes associated with invasive disease. The convergence of virulence and resistance genes potentially could lead to the emergence of untreatable invasive K. pneumoniae infections; our data provide the whole-genome framework against which to track the emergence of such threats. PMID:26100894

  10. Analysis of environment state in technogenic region and its threat to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishenko S.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to give a complex hygienic evaluation of environment state in Donetsk region and to determine the degree of their potential danger to population health. It includes air pollution, water contamination, state of soil. Nearly 43000 samples of air, 32000 drinking water samples and 4500 soil samples were analyzed. Regions with the highest rate of environmental pollution were defined. It was found that the main sources of environment pollution in Donetsk region are ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy enterprises, power, coal, building industry and transport. All other sources ac¬count for only 5-10% of total emissions. Level of harmful technogenic pressing on population’s health was determined.

  11. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the pig health monitoring systems used in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, K D C; Nevel, A

    2009-10-17

    Several systems are being used in England to record information about the health of pigs. The British Pig Health Scheme (BPHS), the National Animal Disease Information System (NADIS), the Zoonoses Action Plan (ZAP) for Salmonella and the Veterinary Investigation Diagnosis Analysis (VIDA) system have been assessed to make recommendations for their future separate or joint development. The structure, organisation, processes, data quality, dissemination, utilisation and acceptance of each system have been assessed. Information was extracted from documents and websites, and informal interviews were conducted with technical experts and stakeholders. The systems covered a broad range of objectives, used variable approaches and operated at very different scales and budgets. There was a high level of awareness and involvement by the industry. Common weaknesses of the systems were the lack of in-depth quantitative analysis of the data, the lack of assessment of each system's impact, and the unknown level of bias as a result of the voluntary or selective participation in them.

  12. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered pathogenic potential or by changes in behavior or socioeconomic, environmental, or ecologic characteristics of the hosts. We discuss causal factors that influence the dynamics associated with emergence or...

  13. Meeting report: threats to human health and environmental sustainability in the pacific basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G; Carpenter, David O; Kirk, Donald; Koh, David; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Cebrian, Mariano; Cifuentes, Luis; Khwaja, Mahmood; Ling, Bo; Makalinao, Irma; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Peralta, Genandrialine; Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Kirpal; Sly, Peter; Tohyama, Chiharu; Woodward, Alistair; Zheng, Baoshan; Maiden, Todd

    2007-12-01

    The coastal zone of the Pacific Rim is home for about one-third of the world's population. Disproportionate growth of Far Eastern economies has produced a disproportionate share of related environmental difficulties. As the region searches for acceptable compromises between growth and environmental quality, its influence on global environmental health is certain to increase. Consequences of global environmental change such as habitat alteration, storms, and sea level rise will be particularly acute among Pacific Rim nations. Adverse health effects from arsenic exposure in Pacific Rim nations have been used to justify drinking water standards in the United States and elsewhere. As global manufacturing in the Pacific Rim increases, the centroid of global air quality and waste management issues will shift further toward Far Eastern nations. The Eleventh International Conference of the Pacific Basin Consortium (PBC) was held in September 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of the conference was to bring together individuals to discuss regional challenges to sustainable growth. The historic emphasis of the conference on hazardous wastes in relation to human health makes the PBC an ideal forum for discussing technical aspects of sustainable economic growth in the Pacific region. That role is reflected in the 2005 PBC conference themes, which included management of arsenic in potable waters, air quality, climate change, pesticides, mercury, and electronics industry waste-each with emphasis on relationships to human health. Arsenic management exemplifies the manner in which the PBC can focus interdisciplinary discussion in a single technical area. The conference program provided talks on arsenic toxicology, treatment technologies, management of arsenic-bearing residuals from water treatment, and the probable societal costs and benefits of arsenic management.

  14. A "Triple Threat" to Research Protocols and Logistics: Adolescents, Sexual Health, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Passmore, Denise; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss lessons learned from conducting research with urban communities. A brief overview of the Health Improvement Project for Teens (HIPTeens) will be provided. It will be followed by several suggestions concerning recruitment and retention of participants, challenges related to working in impoverished environments, hiring and training of research teams, interacting with administration and community, and strategies for doing research in diverse settings.

  15. One world, one health: the threat of emerging swine diseases. A North American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P R

    2012-03-01

    The predicted expansion of global livestock populations to meet the food and fibre demands of the growing human population raises numerous concerns, including the implications for disease emergence. The evolution of animal production in developed countries has been marked by substantial reduction in farm numbers with correspondingly larger herd sizes, specialization of enterprises, concentration or ownership and vertical integration. Innovations in the structure and operations of swine production have been largely driven by efforts to improve swine health, and the impact of several important swine diseases has declined. Productivity in swine production and the safety of pork products have increased markedly. The most significant emerging infectious diseases of pigs over the last decades have been highly host-specific viruses rather than multihost pathogens. While some bacterial pathogens of pigs have increased in importance in modern systems, improved management systems and biosecurity have enabled herd sizes to increase without negative impact on swine health. The most vulnerable scenario for disease emergence in swine, particularly for zoonotic agents, may be rapid expansion and intensification of swine industries in developing countries without incorporating the stringent biosecurity measures and veterinary oversight that have helped maintain the health and productivity of large herds in North America. Factors that may influence disease emergence in the long term include regulatory measures (particularly related to antimicrobial use), genetics and feeding practices. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. A Multicriteria Risk Analysis to Evaluate Impacts of Forest Management Alternatives on Forest Health in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Jactel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate change, forests are likely to face new hazards, which may require adaptation of our existing silvicultural practices. However, it is difficult to imagine a forest management approach that can simultaneously minimize all risks of damage. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA has been developed to help decision makers choose between actions that require reaching a compromise among criteria of different weights. We adapted this method and produced a multicriteria risk analysis (MCRA to compare the risk of damage associated with various forest management systems with a range of management intensity. The objective was to evaluate the effect of four forest management alternatives (FMAs (i.e., close to nature, extensive management with combined objectives, intensive even-aged plantations, and short-rotation forestry for biomass production on biotic and abiotic risks of damage in eight regional case studies combining three forest biomes (Boreal, Continental, Atlantic and five tree species (Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris, Picea sitchensis, and Picea abies relevant to wood production in Europe. Specific forest susceptibility to a series of abiotic (wind, fire, and snow and biotic (insect pests, pathogenic fungi, and mammal herbivores hazards were defined by expert panels and subsequently weighted by corresponding likelihood. The PROMETHEE ranking method was applied to rank the FMAs from the most to the least at risk. Overall, risk was lower in short-rotation forests designed to produce wood biomass, because of the reduced stand susceptibility to the most damaging hazards. At the opposite end of the management intensity gradient, close-to-nature systems also had low overall risk, due to lower stand value exposed to damage. Intensive even-aged forestry appeared to be subject to the greatest risk, irrespective of tree species and bioclimatic zone. These results seem to be robust as no significant differences in relative

  17. Interpreting ambiguous health and bodily threat : Are individual differences in pain-related vulnerability constructs associated with an on-line negative interpretation bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancleef, Linda M. G.; Peters, Madelon L.; De Jong, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the association between pain-related anxiety and an on-line interpretation bias for putative physical health threat. Healthy volunteers (n = 80) completed measures on Anxiety Sensitivity, Injury/illness Sensitivity, Fear of Pain and Pain Catastrophizing. Furthermore, they

  18. Public health threat of new, reemerging, and neglected zoonoses in the industrialized world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Sally J; Fooks, Anthony R; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered pathogenic potential or by changes in behavior or socioeconomic, environmental, or ecologic characteristics of the hosts. We discuss causal factors that influence the dynamics associated with emergence or reemergence of zoonoses, particularly in the industrialized world, and highlight selected examples to provide a comprehensive view of their range and diversity.

  19. Planted forest health: The need for a global strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, M J; Brockerhoff, E G; Wingfield, B D; Slippers, B

    2015-08-21

    Several key tree genera are used in planted forests worldwide, and these represent valuable global resources. Planted forests are increasingly threatened by insects and microbial pathogens, which are introduced accidentally and/or have adapted to new host trees. Globalization has hastened tree pest emergence, despite a growing awareness of the problem, improved understanding of the costs, and an increased focus on the importance of quarantine. To protect the value and potential of planted forests, innovative solutions and a better-coordinated global approach are needed. Mitigation strategies that are effective only in wealthy countries fail to contain invasions elsewhere in the world, ultimately leading to global impacts. Solutions to forest pest problems in the future should mainly focus on integrating management approaches globally, rather than single-country strategies. A global strategy to manage pest issues is vitally important and urgently needed.

  20. One world--one health: the threat of emerging swine diseases. An Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayudhya, S Nuntawan Na; Assavacheep, P; Thanawongnuwech, R

    2012-03-01

    Owing to the expanding globalization, the trans-boundary spread of an epizootic can easily result from uncontrolled animal movements and human traffic. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a major trans-boundary disease in most Asian countries. Its sporadic re-emergence suggests that collaborative FMD control strategies should be uniformly implemented in endemic countries to ensure the overall national herd vaccination coverage, biocontainment when outbreaks occur, and strict biosecurity control of animal movement between countries. Sustained commitments from governments, cooperative diplomatic relationships, and public awareness campaigns are critical to FMD control, to ensure collaboration among veterinarians, traders and farmers throughout Southeast Asia (SEA). Recently, highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) and porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) spread from China to Southeast Asian countries, causing major economic losses. Foot and mouth disease, HP-PRRS, and PED currently remain endemic and may continue to sporadically re-emerge, owing to inadequate public health management and/or biosecurity failures. Therefore, the risk factors must be identified to better understand the epidemiology of these diseases in an effort to develop effective control measures. International coordination through the establishment of a collaborative network supported by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) should be implemented to prevent trans-boundary transmission among countries. This review discusses trans-boundary swine diseases of particular importance to SEA, including FMD, HP-PRRS and PED, with a primary focus on major factors contributing to the spread of these diseases and important control measures, reflecting the impact of globalization on disease control and surveillance. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Kjellstrom

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective: To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods: Schoolchildren (N=285 aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results: There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%, had fatigue (76%, and headaches (38% in Yaoundé. Prevalences (% were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39, feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21, and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18. Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions: Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.

  2. Towards a framework for teaching about information technology risk in health care: Simulating threats to health data and patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Borycki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author describes work towards developing an integrative framework for educating health information technology professionals about technology risk. The framework considers multiple sources of risk to health data quality and integrity that can result from the use of health information technology (HIT and can be used to teach health professional students about these risks when using health technologies. This framework encompasses issues and problems that may arise from varied sources, including intentional alterations (e.g. resulting from hacking and security breaches as well as unintentional breaches and corruption of data (e.g. resulting from technical problems, or from technology-induced errors. The framework that is described has several levels: the level of human factors and usability of HIT, the level of monitoring of security and accuracy, the HIT architectural level, the level of operational and physical checks, the level of healthcare quality assurance policies and the data risk management strategies level. Approaches to monitoring and simulation of risk are also discussed, including a discussion of an innovative approach to monitoring potential quality issues. This is followed by a discussion of the application (using computer simulations to educate both students and health information technology professionals about the impact and spread of technology-induced and related types of data errors involving HIT.

  3. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  4. Leather waste--potential threat to human health, and a new technology of its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomaznik, K; Adamek, M; Andel, I; Uhlirova, M

    2008-12-30

    In this paper, the authors deal with the problem of processing various types of waste generated by leather industry, with special emphasis to chrome-tanned waste. The agent that makes this waste potentially hazardous is hexavalent chromium. Its compounds can have negative effects on human health and some CrVI salts are considered carcinogens. The authors present the risks of spontaneous oxidization of CrIII to CrVI in the open-air dumps as well as the possible risks of wearing bad quality shoes, in which the chromium content is not controlled. There are several ways of handling primary leather waste, but no satisfactory technology has been developed for the secondary waste (manipulation waste, e.g. leather scraps and used leather products). In this contribution, a new three-step hybrid technology of processing manipulation waste is presented and tested under laboratory, pilot-scale and industrial conditions. The filtrate can be used as a good quality NPK fertilizer. The solid product, titanium-chromium sludge, can serve as an inorganic pigment in glass and ceramic industry. Further, the authors propose selective collection of used leather products (e.g. old shoes), the hydrolysable parts of which can be also processed by the new hybrid technology.

  5. Antibiotics in Serbian Households: a Source of Potential Health and Environmental Threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusturica, Milica Paut; Tomić, Zdenko; Bukumirić, Zoran; Horvat, Olga; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir; Sabo, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide data indicate that antibiotics are frequently used inappropriately. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of storage and wastage of antibacterial agents in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. The study was performed in 8 months period (December 2011-July 2012) in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. The households were randomly selected from the telephone directory. The interviewer performed the survey visiting each household. The total number of antibacterial agents in the 383 surveyed households was 318, constituting 7.3% of the total stored medications. From 383 families included in the study antibiotics were found in 178 (46.5%). In 13 (7.3%) families were found more than one pack of the same antibiotics. The median number of antibacterial agents per household was 1 (range 1-5). The most common antibacterial agents that were not in current use were cephalexin (22.1%) and amoxicillin (16.6%), followed by doxycycline (11.4%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (11.4%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (9.2%). The percentage of expired antibacterial agents was 20.8%, while 85.2% were not currently in use. Antibacterial agents were commonly encountered in Serbian households, and a relatively large percentage was wasted. Informational and educational activities aimed at improving the public knowledge about antimicrobials play the leading role in reducing imprudent use of antibiotics. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  6. Diphtheria remains a threat to health in the developing world: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the epidemiology of diphtheria are occurring worldwide. A large proportion of adults in many industrialized and developing countries are now susceptible to diphtheria. Vaccine-induced immunity wanes over time unless periodic booster is given or exposure to toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae occurs. Immunity gap in adults coupled with large numbers of susceptible children creates the potential for new extensive epidemics. Epidemic emergencies may not be long in coming in countries experiencing rapid industrialization or undergoing sociopolitical instability where many of the factors thought to be important in producing epidemic such as mass population movements and difficult hygienic and economic conditions are present. The continuous circulation of toxigenic C. diphtheriae emphasizes the need to be aware of epidemiological features, clinical signs, and symptoms of diphtheria in vaccine era so that cases can be promptly diagnosed and treated, and further public health measures can be taken to contain this serious disease. This overview focused on worldwide data obtained from diphtheria with particular emphasis to main factors leading to recent epidemics, new clinical forms of C. diphtheriae infections, expression of virulence factors, other than toxin production, control strategies, and laboratory diagnosis procedures.

  7. Endocrine disruptors in food contact materials; is there a health threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    Food Contact Materials (FCMs) are a major source of endocrine disrupting chemical substances (EDCs), thus forming an important part of human exposure to these compounds, to which this article is addressed. The potential impact of such exposures on endocrine function, and thereby health outcomes, requires scientifically valid evidence so that appropriate risk management decisions can be taken to diminish human exposure, particularly in vulnerable population groups like infants and small children. Relevant aspects of exposure assessment are discussed based on testing migration of EDCs from FCMs, together with the different approaches so used. The specific migration testing determines whether limits for defined substances are met. However not all EDCs present in the leachate may be found by these means. In fact, the chances of detecting EDCs in the food simulant (leachate) are improved when it is subjected the relevant biological testing, thus helping to provide improved protection against these chemical substances. Nevertheless, official controls and risk management decisions do not necessarily take such testing into account, as the relevant legislation is based on specific migration limits that may be easily quantified and addressed in the risk management process. Elucidating the link between observed endocrine activity and any toxic effects so arising, is complicated by the complexity of endocrine interrelationships coupled with relatively limited sensitivity of toxicological tests. Any risk assessment implies a rather high uncertainty and should include also any cumulative effects. This review discusses the effects of the EDCs like bisphenol A, phthalates and benzophenone found in FCMs. In addition, the approaches from the USA and EU for systematically evaluating man-made EDCs in the environment are also considered, including appropriate prioritisation criteria.

  8. Isolation and Identification of Brucella melitensis Biovar 3 from Vaccinated Small Ruminants: A Public Health Threat in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Dreshaj, S; Robaj, A; Sylejmani, D; Ramadani, N; Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, a human brucellosis case with severe clinical symptoms was reported at the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Prishtina, Kosovo. A trace-back investigation was conducted to find the source of human infection. A total of 49 blood samples and 15 corresponding milk samples from sheep and goats raised on the patient's farm were taken for serological and molecular analysis. Serology using RBT and CFT revealed 11 positive animals. Twelve milk samples were PCR positive. A Brucella strain isolated from a goat's milk sample was classified as Brucella melitensis biovar 3, indicating the first ever isolation and report in Kosovo. The use of the Bruce-ladder PCR provided differentiation between the field strain and the vaccine strain. Hence, the accidental transmission of the vaccine strain Rev 1 that was previously used for the vaccination of the farm animals could be excluded. The findings of this study show that brucellosis is still a public health threat in Kosovo despite control measures. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. [Microbiological threat from buildings and rooms and its influence on human health (sick building syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochmański, W; Barabasz, W

    2000-01-01

    In buildings we can observe many different strains of bacteria, over 400 species of mould fungi, many strains of fungus causing the rotting of wood and wood like materials, many species of algae, aphids, and other types of growths and seed plants and also over 30 types of mites especially those seen in house dust. Buildings, especially their interiors have a very specific microclimate. Within it areas of so called ecological lows are formed in which conditions for settlement, growth and reproduction of these organisms take place. A building, which is a hazard to the health of its residents, is called a "sick building" from the term "sick building syndrome". The incidence and development of some types of mould fungus is associated with the production of very toxic metabolites which are called secondary metabolites i.e. mycotoxins. Long term human, especially in relation to children, contact with the species producing the most potent mycotoxins like aflatoxin--Apergillus flavus, ochratoxins--Aspergillus ochraceus, rubratoxins--Penicillium rubrum or strachybotrytoxins--Strachybotrys chartarum may even be the cause of death. Mould fungus or just mould is a saprophytic fungus derived from many different systemic groups (Mucor, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarinum). Fungi can produce lethal mycotoxins such as: alternariol, aflatoxins, gliotoxins, ochratoxins, nivalenol, cytinine, dicumarol, rugulosine, trichoviridine and about 200 more which considering their mutagenicity are potentially dangerous to humans, animals, flora and microorganisms. Research which was begun by Prof. Julian Aleksandrowicz and Prof. Bolesław Smyk in 1970 and 1971 showed that the so called "leukaemia houses" of leukaemia victims had an abundance of toxinogenic fungus in them, particularly the most potent fungus which turned out to be Aspergillus flavus. Toxinogenic funguses are abundant in many living spaces and cellars in older and also in new housing. Mycotoxins have been shown to be very toxic

  10. The emergence of Ebola as a global health security threat: From ′lessons learned′ to coordinated multilateral containment efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kalra

    2014-01-01

    as a public health threat. Here we present a review of EBOV infection in an effort to further educate medical and political communities on what the Ebolavirus disease entails, and what efforts are recommended to treat, isolate, and eventually eliminate it.

  11. The Emergence of Ebola as a Global Health Security Threat: From ‘Lessons Learned’ to Coordinated Multilateral Containment Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sarathi; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Galwankar, Sagar C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Arquilla, Bonnie; Hoey, Brian A.; Sharpe, Richard P.; Sabol, Donna; Jahre, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    health threat. Here we present a review of EBOV infection in an effort to further educate medical and political communities on what the Ebolavirus disease entails, and what efforts are recommended to treat, isolate, and eventually eliminate it. PMID:25538455

  12. Forest management practices and the occupational safety and health administration logging standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; David Elton Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established safety and health regulations for the logging industry. These new regulations move beyond the prior OSHA pulpwood harvesting standard by including sawtimber harvesting operations. Because logging is a major tool used by forest managers to meet silvicultural goals, managers must be aware of what...

  13. Production rates for United States Forest Service brush disposal planning in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Stu Hoyt; Nathaniel Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Timber harvesting operations generate brush and other vegetative debris, which often has no marketable value. In many western U.S. forests, these materials represent a fire hazard and a potential threat to forest health and must be removed or burned for disposal. Currently, there is no established, consistent method to estimate brush disposal production rates in the U....

  14. The debate on climate change and health in the context of ecological public health: a necessary corrective to Costello et al.'s 'biggest global health threat', or co-opted apologists for the neoliberal hegemony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, B

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed to global health by climate change has been widely discussed internationally. The United Kingdom public health community seem to have accepted this as fact and have called for urgent action on climate change, often through state interventionist mitigation strategies and the adoption of a risk discourse. Putting aside the climate change deniers' arguments, there are critics of this position who seem to accept climate change as a fact but argue that the market and/or economic development should address the issue. Their view is that carbon reduction (mitigation) is a distraction, may be costly and is ineffective. They argue that what is required is more economic development and progress even if that means a warmer world. Both positions however accept the fact of growth based capitalism and thus fail to critique neoliberal market driven capitalism or posit an alternative political economy that eschews growth. Ecological public health, however, appears to be a way forward in addressing not only social determinants of health but also the political and ecological determinants. This might allow us to consider not just public health but also planetary health and health threats that arise from growth based capitalism. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Shoreline Video Assessment Method (S-VAM): Using dynamic hyperlapse image acquisition to evaluate shoreline mangrove forest structure, values, degradation and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jock R; Duke, Norman C; Wood, Apanie L

    2016-08-30

    Climate change with human direct pressures represent significant threats to the resilience of shoreline habitats like mangroves. A rapid, whole-of-system assessment strategy is needed to evaluate such threats, better linking innovative remote sensing with essential on-ground evaluations. Using the Shoreline Video Assessment Method, we surveyed around 190km of the mostly mangrove-fringed (78%) coastline of Kien Giang Province, Vietnam. The aim was to identify anthropogenic drivers of degradation, establishing baseline for specific rehabilitation and protection strategies. Fish traps occupy at least 87% of shoreline mangroves, around which there were abundant human activities - like fishing, crabbing, farming, plus collecting firewood and foliage. Such livelihoods were associated with remnant, fringing mangrove that were largely degraded and threatened by erosion retreat, herbivory, and excessive cutting. Our assessment quantified associated threats to shoreline stability, along with previous rehabilitation intervention measures. The method offers key opportunities for effective conservation and management of vulnerable shoreline habitats.

  16. The European Union Joint Procurement Agreement for cross-border health threats: what is the potential for this new mechanism of health system collaboration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha; Schroder-Bäck, Peter; Brand, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    The Joint Procurement Agreement (JPA) is an innovative instrument for multi-country procurement of medical countermeasures against cross-border health threats. This paper aims to assess its potential performance. A literature review was conducted to identify key features of successful joint procurement programmes. Documentary analysis and a key informants' interview were carried out to analyse the European Union (EU) JPA. Ownership, equity, transparency, stable central financing, standardisation, flexibility and gradual development were identified as important prerequisites for successful establishment of multi-country joint procurement programmes in the literature while security of supply, favourable prices, reduction of operational costs and administrative burden and creation of professional expert networks were identified as desirable outcomes. The EU JPA appears to fulfil the criteria of ownership, transparency, equity, flexibility and gradual development. Standardisation is only partly fulfilled and central EU level financing is not provided. Security of supply is an important outcome for all EU Member States (MS). Price savings, reduction in administrative burden and creation of professional networks may be particularly attractive for the smaller MS. The JPA has the potential to increase health system collaboration and efficiency at EU level provided that the incentives for sustained commitment of larger MS are sufficiently attractive.

  17. Combatting Insider Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter G.

    Risks from insider threats are strongly context dependent, and arise in many ways at different layers of system abstraction for different types of systems. We discuss various basic characteristics of insider threats, and consider approaches to the development and use of computer-related environments that require systems and networking to be trustworthy in spite of insider misuse. We also consider future research that could improve both detectability, prevention, and response. This chapter seeks to cope with insider misuse in a broad range of application domains - for example, critical infrastructures, privacy-preserving database systems, financial systems, and interoperable health-care infrastructures. To illustrate this, we apply the principles considered here to the task of detecting and preventing insider misuse in systems that might be used to facilitate trustworthy elections. This discussion includes an examination of the relevance of the Saltzer-Schroeder-Kaashoek security principles and the Clark-Wilson integrity properties for end-to-end election integrity. Trustworthy system developments must consider insider misuse as merely one set of threats that must be addressed consistently together with many other threats such as penetrations, denials of service, system faults and failures, and other threats to survivability. In addition, insider misuse cannot be realistically addressed unless significant improvements are made in the trustworthiness of component systems and their networking as well as their predictably trustworthy compositions into enterprise solutions - architecturally, developmentally, and operationally.

  18. Forest health status in the Carpahian Mountains over the period 1997-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Ovidiu; Tanase, Mihai; Georgeta, Jianu; Anisoara, Lazar; Peiov, Agata; Uhlirova, Hana; Pajtik, Josef; Wawrzoniak, Jerzy; Shparyk, Yuri

    2004-07-01

    The results of forest health status assessments in the Carpathian Mountains from the monitoring networks developed by the European Union Scheme on the Protection of Forest Against Atmospheric Pollution (EU Scheme) and International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests), have led to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other stressors on forests at the regional scale. During the period 1997-2001, forests in the Carpathian Mountains were severely affected by air pollution and natural stresses with 29.7-34.9% of the trees included in defoliation classes 2-4. The broadleaves were slightly healthier than the conifers, and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was the least affected species. Norway spruce (Picea abies) has poor health status, with 42.9-46.6% of the trees damaged (2-4% defoliation classes). Silver fir (Abies alba) damage was also high, with 46.0-50.9% in defoliation classes 2-4. Pines (primarily Pinus sylvestris) were the least affected of the conifers, with 24.9-33.8% in defoliation classes 2-4. The results from the transnational networks (16x16 km) show that the Carpathian forests are slightly more damaged than the average for the entire Europe. The correlative studies performed in individual European countries show the relationships between air pollution stressors with trends in defoliation and a possible effect of natural stresses at each site. More specific, effects of tree age, drought, ozone and acid deposition critical level exceedances were demonstrated to affect crown condition. - About 1/3 of the Carpathian forest trees are damaged by natural stressors and air pollution.

  19. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Satoshi Hirabayashi; Allison Bodine; Eric. Greenfield

    2014-01-01

    Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and...

  20. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, David J; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Bodine, Allison; Greenfield, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and forests in the conterminous United States removed 17.4 million tonnes (t) of air pollution in 2010 (range: 9.0-23.2 million t), with human health effects valued at 6.8 billion U.S. dollars (range: $1.5-13.0 billion). This pollution removal equated to an average air quality improvement of less than one percent. Most of the pollution removal occurred in rural areas, while most of the health impacts and values were within urban areas. Health impacts included the avoidance of more than 850 incidences of human mortality and 670,000 incidences of acute respiratory symptoms.

  1. Forest health status in the Carpathian Mountains over the period 1997-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Ovidiu; Tanase, Mihai; Georgeta, Jianu; Anisoara, Lazar; Peiov, Agata; Uhlirova, Hana; Pajtik, Josef; Wawrzoniak, Jerzy; Shparyk, Yuri

    2004-07-01

    The results of forest health status assessments in the Carpathian Mountains from the monitoring networks developed by the European Union Scheme on the Protection of Forest Against Atmospheric Pollution (EU Scheme) and International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests), have led to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other stressors on forests at the regional scale. During the period 1997-2001, forests in the Carpathian Mountains were severely affected by air pollution and natural stresses with 29.7-34.9% of the trees included in defoliation classes 2-4. The broadleaves were slightly healthier than the conifers, and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was the least affected species. Norway spruce (Picea abies) has poor health status, with 42.9-46.6% of the trees damaged (2-4% defoliation classes). Silver fir (Abies alba) damage was also high, with 46.0-50.9% in defoliation classes 2-4. Pines (primarily Pinus sylvestris) were the least affected of the conifers, with 24.9-33.8% in defoliation classes 2-4. The results from the transnational networks (16 x 16 km) show that the Carpathian forests are slightly more damaged than the average for the entire Europe. The correlative studies performed in individual European countries show the relationships between air pollution stressors with trends in defoliation and a possible effect of natural stresses at each site. More specific, effects of tree age, drought, ozone and acid deposition critical level exceedances were demonstrated to affect crown condition.

  2. Early indications of drought impacts on forests in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Ted Leininger; Xingang Fan

    2015-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, drought can pose a significant threat to forests by reducing the  amount of available water, thereby stressing trees. Destructive changes in crown conditions provide the first visible  indication of a problem in a forested area, making it a useful indicator for problems within an  ecosystem. Forest Health and Monitoring (FHM) and...

  3. Developing a Forest Health Index for public engagement and decision support using local climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Cundiff, J.

    2013-12-01

    Forest health is an oft-used term without a generally accepted definition. Nonetheless, the concept of forest health continues to permeate scientific, resource management, and public discourse, and it is viewed as a helpful communication device for engagement on issues of concern to forests and their surrounding communities. Notwithstanding the challenges associated with defining the concept of 'forest health,' we present a model for assessing forest health at a watershed scale. Utilizing the Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado--a mountain watershed of 640,000 forested acres--as a case study, we have created a Forest Health Index that integrates a range of climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data into an assessment organized along a series of public goals including, 1) Ecosystem Services, 2) Public Health & Safety, 3) Sustainable Use & Management, and 4) Ecological Integrity. Methods for this index were adopted from an earlier effort called the Ocean Health Index by Halpern et al, 2012. Indicators that represent drivers of change, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as effects of change, such as primary productivity and phenology, were selected. Each indicator is assessed by comparing a current status of that indicator to a reference scenario obtained through one of the following methods: a) statistical analysis of baseline data from the indicator record, b) commonly accepted normals, thresholds, limits, concentrations, etc., and c) subjective expert judgment. The result of this assessment is a presentation of graphical data and accompanying ratings that combine to form an index of health for the watershed forest ecosystem. We find this product to have potential merit for communities working to assess the range of conditions affecting forest health as well as making sense of the outcomes of those affects. Here, we present a description of the index methodology, data results from engagement with forest watershed stakeholders, example results of data

  4. Health assessment of wild lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) populations in the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes, Brazil (1996-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in South America and is listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species. Health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. Health information from 65 wild tapirs from two Brazilian biomes, Atlantic Forest (AF) and Pantanal (PA), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). The study included physic, hematologic and biochemical evaluations, microbiologic cultures, urinalysis, and serologic analyses for antibodies against 13 infectious agents (viral and bacterial). The AF and PA tapirs were significantly different for several hematologic and biochemical parameters. Ten bacteria taxa were identified in the AF and 26 in the PA. Antibodies against five viruses were detected: Bluetongue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. A high prevalence of exposure to Leptospira interrogans (10 serovars: Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, and Pyrogenes) was detected in both the AF and PA sites. A greater diversity of serovars and higher antibody titers were found in the PA. Statistically significant differences between sites were found for L. interrogans, equine encephalitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. Based on physical evaluations, both AF and PA populations were healthy. The differences in the overall health profile of the AF and PA tapir populations appear to be associated with environmental factors and infectious diseases ecology. The extensive datasets on hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, and microbiology results from this paper can be used as reference values for wild tapirs.

  5. Assessing very high resolution UAV imagery for monitoring forest health during a simulated disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Jonathan P.; Watt, Michael S.; Pearse, Grant D.; Heaphy, Marie; Dungey, Heidi S.

    2017-09-01

    Research into remote sensing tools for monitoring physiological stress caused by biotic and abiotic factors is critical for maintaining healthy and highly-productive plantation forests. Significant research has focussed on assessing forest health using remotely sensed data from satellites and manned aircraft. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may provide new tools for improved forest health monitoring by providing data with very high temporal and spatial resolutions. These platforms also pose unique challenges and methods for health assessments must be validated before use. In this research, we simulated a disease outbreak in mature Pinus radiata D. Don trees using targeted application of herbicide. The objective was to acquire a time-series simulated disease expression dataset to develop methods for monitoring physiological stress from a UAV platform. Time-series multi-spectral imagery was acquired using a UAV flown over a trial at regular intervals. Traditional field-based health assessments of crown health (density) and needle health (discolouration) were carried out simultaneously by experienced forest health experts. Our results showed that multi-spectral imagery collected from a UAV is useful for identifying physiological stress in mature plantation trees even during the early stages of tree stress. We found that physiological stress could be detected earliest in data from the red edge and near infra-red bands. In contrast to previous findings, red edge data did not offer earlier detection of physiological stress than the near infra-red data. A non-parametric approach was used to model physiological stress based on spectral indices and was found to provide good classification accuracy (weighted kappa = 0.694). This model can be used to map physiological stress based on high-resolution multi-spectral data.

  6. Use of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Detection and Random Forest Pattern Recognition Techniques for Classifying Chemical Threat Agents and Detecting Chemical Attribution Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozier, Erich D; Mooney, Douglas D; Friedenberg, David A; Klupinski, Theodore P; Triplett, Cheryl A

    2016-07-19

    In this proof of concept study, chemical threat agent (CTA) samples were classified to their sources with accuracies of 87-100% by applying a random forest statistical pattern recognition technique to analytical data acquired by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-TOFMS). Three organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, and dicrotophos, were used as the model CTAs, with data collected for 4-6 sources per CTA and 7-10 replicate analyses per source. The analytical data were also evaluated to determine tentatively identified chemical attribution signatures for the CTAs by comparing samples from different sources according to either the presence/absence of peaks or the relative responses of peaks. These results demonstrate that GC × GC-TOFMS analysis in combination with a random forest technique can be useful in sample classification and signature identification for pesticides. Furthermore, the results suggest that this combination of analytical chemistry and statistical approaches can be applied to forensic analysis of other chemicals for similar purposes.

  7. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents.Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scientific and technical community.Material and Methods: The main bibliographic and Internet references have been identified using common reference analysis tools. Their conclusions and recommendations have been comprehensively summarized.Main results: Collection of the principal references and their most important conclusions relating to the main accident risk factors, their causes and consequences, the means used towards their prevention, both instrumental as well as in the aspects of training and business management, besides the influence of the growing mechanization of logging operations on those risks.Research highlights: Accident risk is higher in forest harvesting than in most other work sectors, and the main risk factors such as experience, age, seasonality, training, protective equipment, mechanization degree, etc. have been identified and studied.   The paper summarizes some relevant results, one of the principal being that the proper entrepreneurial risk management is a key factor leading to the success in minimizing labour risks.Key words: labour risk; forestry; accident rates; preventive measures; entrepreneurial risk management.

  8. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea, P. M.; Tolosana-Esteban, E.; Roman-Jordan, E.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents. Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scientific and technical community. Material and Methods: The main bibliographic and Internet references have been identified using common reference analysis tools. Their conclusions and recommendations have been comprehensively summarized. Main results: Collection of the principal references and their most important conclusions relating to the main accident risk factors, their causes and consequences, the means used towards their prevention, both instrumental as well as in the aspects of training and business management, besides the influence of the growing mechanization of logging operations on those risks. Research highlights: Accident risk is higher in forest harvesting than in most other work sectors, and the main risk factors such as experience, age, seasonality, training, protective equipment, mechanization degree, etc. have been identified and studied. The paper summarizes some relevant results, one of the principal being that the proper entrepreneurial risk management is a key factor leading to the success in minimizing labour risks. (Author)

  9. 8 Pets That Pose Maior Health Threats to Kids%8种威胁孩子健康的宠物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nancy Shute

    2008-01-01

    @@ That iguana in your son's bedroom isn't just a reptile.It's also a deadly-germ machine. So says the American Academy of Pediatrics,which warns parents that many of the"easy"pets-the ones that don't shed,don't need to be walked,and don't throw up on the sofa-pose serious health threats to young children.And here I was so ready to convince my daughter that lizards are almost as cuddly as a Beverly Hills Chihuahua.

  10. Implementation of the Forest Service Open Space Conservation Strategy in Washington State: Exploring the Role of the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Pringle; Lee K. Cerveny; Gordon A. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The loss of open space was declared one of the “four threats to the health of our nation’s forests” by former USDA Forest Service Chief Dale Bosworth in 2004. Since then, the agencywide Open Space Conservation Strategy (OSCS) was released and the “four threats” were incorporated into the agency’s National Strategic Plan. These actions indicate that the OSCS is in the...

  11. Ultraviolet radiation, human health, and the urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler; Richard H. Grant

    2000-01-01

    Excess exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, particularly the ultraviolet B (UVB) portion, has been linked with adverse effects on human health ranging from skin cancers to eye diseases such as cataracts. Trees may prevent even greater disease rates in humans by reducing UV exposure. Tree shade greatly reduces UV irradiance when both the sun and sky are...

  12. The empty forest revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now.

  13. Worker’s Competency and Perception toward Safety and Health on Forest Harvesting Operation in Indonesian Long Rotation Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of prevention measures such as government regulations and recommendations through technical and managerial researches, unsafe working practices are still a common practice in Indonesia's forestry work, especially in tree harvesting operation.  In order to determine competency level of both field supervisor and workers as a baseline in developing participatory occupational safety and health (OSH protection program, a previously developed competency assessing instrument has been modified.  Further, the redesigned instrument was used to verify competency level of field supervisor and forestry workers (chainsawman, hauling workers, and truck drivers from 6 different forest sites with similar working method.  Results showed that both group of respondents had overestimated their competency level in practical aspect, indicated by the gap existence between OSH self-perception value and the standard-based assessment value.  The gap significantly occurred in knowledge, skill, and attitude elements; however working attitudes rest in the worst level.  This finding then indicated that improving working attitude should be taken as the goal priority in the OSH protection programs in Indonesia.  In short, when the discussion is pointed to practical activities, OSH protection program should adapt such strategies which put serious consideration on control mechanism.Keywords: tree harvesting, workers, safety and health, competency, attitude

  14. Satellite Data Aid Monitoring of Nation's Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service’s Asheville, North Carolina-based Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Prineville, Oregon-based Western Wildlands Environmental Threat Assessment Center partnered with Stennis Space Center and other agencies to create an early warning system to identify, characterize, and track disturbances from potential forest threats. The result was ForWarn, which is now being used by federal and state forest and natural resource managers.

  15. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service’s Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of theVital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year−1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year−1 in most indicators.

  16. Diagnostics and air pollution damage appraisals: Are we being sufficiently careful in appraising our forest health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, J.M. [Dept. of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Numerous forest surveys are conducted annually on a worldwide basis. These surveys have multiple purposes which may include estimates of forest growth and productivity, community structure, biodiversity appraisals and/or forest condition (health) appraisals as examples. Many of these surveys are then utilized by others in developing reports of a more generalized nature. Hence, data collected without attention to detail may become lost in averages and the data itself can more easily become susceptible to accidental or directed misinterpretations and manipulations. Such may very well be the case in surveys previously conducted to determine forest condition (health) and subsequent misinterpretations about generalized symptoms being ascribed to air pollutants as their sole etiological agents. Terms such as forest decline and `Waldsterben` and `neuartige Waldschaeden` have become erroneously associated with air pollutants (acid rain) as the primary etiological agent. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zahlreiche Waldbestandsaufnahmen werden jaehrlich weltweit durchgefuehrt. Sie dienen vielseitigen Zwecken, so z.B. Waldzuwachs- und -ertragsschaetzungen, Feststellung von Struktur und Artenreichtum der Lebensgemeinschaft Wald, und/oder Wald- (Gesundheits-)zustandserhebung. Viele dieser Bestandsaufnahmen werden dann von Dritten bei der Erstellung mehr allgemeiner Berichte praktisch ausgewertet. Damit koennen Daten, die ohne Beachtung von Einzelheiten erhoben wurden, in Durchschnittswerten verloren gehen und die einzelnen Daten selbst leicht Gegenstand zufaelliger oder gezielter Fehlauslegung und Zweckentfremdung werden. Das kann durchaus der Fall sein bei frueheren Wald- (gesundheits-)zustandserhebungen und nachfolgenden Fehleinschaetzungen verallgemeinerter Symptome, die ausschliesslich der Luftverschmutzung zugeschrieben wurden. Ausdruecke wie Rueckgang der Gesundheit des Waldes ``Waldsterben`` und ``neuartige Waldschaeden`` wurden faelschlich mit Luftverschmutzung (saurer Regen) als

  17. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J; Manning, Douglas R; Callahan, Kristina K; Marshall, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year(-1) for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year(-1) in most indicators.

  18. Interpreting ambiguous health and bodily threat: are individual differences in pain-related vulnerability constructs associated with an on-line negative interpretation bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancleef, Linda M G; Peters, Madelon L; De Jong, Peter J

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined the association between pain-related anxiety and an on-line interpretation bias for putative physical health threat. Healthy volunteers (n=80) completed measures on Anxiety Sensitivity, Injury/illness Sensitivity, Fear of Pain and Pain Catastrophizing. Furthermore, they performed an interpretation task, in which spontaneous (on-line) inferences were indirectly assessed from reaction times and accuracy of a lexical decision to the final word of an ambiguous description. Results demonstrated a general facilitation of responses to final words that endorsed a health-threatening resolution of ambiguity (e.g., illness). This effect correlated positively with individual levels of Fear of Pain, but was found to be unrelated to levels of Anxiety Sensitivity, Injury/illness Sensitivity or Pain Catastrophizing. Implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  19. Tree health influences diameter growth along site quality, crown class and age gradients in Nothofagus forests of southern Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of tree health on annual diameter increment of trees along gradients in stand site quality, crown classes and tree age in Nothofagus pumilio forests of Southern Patagonia. Healthy trees had higher annual diameter increment than unhealthy trees along all gradients (site quality, crown class, tree age). We argue that tree health could be employed as a qualitative variable in models of tree growth to estimate aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in this forest system. ...

  20. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on curative and health enhancement effects of forest therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamioka H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hiroharu Kamioka,1 Kiichiro Tsutani,2 Yoshiteru Mutoh,3 Takuya Honda,4 Nobuyoshi Shiozawa,5 Shinpei Okada,6 Sang-Jun Park,6 Jun Kitayuguchi,7 Masamitsu Kamada,8 Hiroyasu Okuizumi,9 Shuichi Handa91Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, 2Department of Drug Policy and Management, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Todai Policy Alternatives Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 5Food Labeling Division, Consumer Affairs Agency, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, Tokyo, 6Physical Education and Medicine Research Foundation, Nagano, 7Physical Education and Medicine Research Center Unnan, Shimane, 8Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine, Shimane, 9Mimaki Onsen (Spa Clinic, Tomi City, Nagano, JapanObjective: To summarize the evidence for curative and health enhancement effects through forest therapy and to assess the quality of studies based on a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs.Study design: A systematic review based on RCTs.Methods: Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included one treatment group in which forest therapy was applied. The following databases – from 1990 to November 9, 2010 – were searched: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Ichushi-Web. All Cochrane databases and Campbell Systematic Reviews were also searched up to November 9, 2010.Results: Two trials met all inclusion criteria. No specific diseases were evaluated, and both studies reported significant effectiveness in one or more outcomes for health enhancement. However, the results of evaluations with the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 and CLEAR NPT (A Checklist to Evaluate a Report of a Nonpharmacological Trial checklists generally showed a remarkable lack of description in the studies. Furthermore, there was a

  1. Blending forest fire smoke forecasts with observed data can improve their utility for public health applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuchi, Weiran; Yao, Jiayun; McLean, Kathleen E.; Stull, Roland; Pavlovic, Radenko; Davignon, Didier; Moran, Michael D.; Henderson, Sarah B.

    2016-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by forest fires has been associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes, including exacerbation of respiratory diseases and increased risk of mortality. Due to the unpredictable nature of forest fires, it is challenging for public health authorities to reliably evaluate the magnitude and duration of potential exposures before they occur. Smoke forecasting tools are a promising development from the public health perspective, but their widespread adoption is limited by their inherent uncertainties. Observed measurements from air quality monitoring networks and remote sensing platforms are more reliable, but they are inherently retrospective. It would be ideal to reduce the uncertainty in smoke forecasts by integrating any available observations. This study takes spatially resolved PM2.5 estimates from an empirical model that integrates air quality measurements with satellite data, and averages them with PM2.5 predictions from two smoke forecasting systems. Two different indicators of population respiratory health are then used to evaluate whether the blending improved the utility of the smoke forecasts. Among a total of six models, including two single forecasts and four blended forecasts, the blended estimates always performed better than the forecast values alone. Integrating measured observations into smoke forecasts could improve public health preparedness for smoke events, which are becoming more frequent and intense as the climate changes.

  2. Perceived Threat and Corroboration: Key Factors That Improve a Predictive Model of Trust in Internet-based Health Information and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter R; Briggs, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Background How do people decide which sites to use when seeking health advice online? We can assume, from related work in e-commerce, that general design factors known to affect trust in the site are important, but in this paper we also address the impact of factors specific to the health domain. Objective The current study aimed to (1) assess the factorial structure of a general measure of Web trust, (2) model how the resultant factors predicted trust in, and readiness to act on, the advice found on health-related websites, and (3) test whether adding variables from social cognition models to capture elements of the response to threatening, online health-risk information enhanced the prediction of these outcomes. Methods Participants were asked to recall a site they had used to search for health-related information and to think of that site when answering an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a general Web trust questionnaire plus items assessing appraisals of the site, including threat appraisals, information checking, and corroboration. It was promoted on the hungersite.com website. The URL was distributed via Yahoo and local print media. We assessed the factorial structure of the measures using principal components analysis and modeled how well they predicted the outcome measures using structural equation modeling (SEM) with EQS software. Results We report an analysis of the responses of participants who searched for health advice for themselves (N = 561). Analysis of the general Web trust questionnaire revealed 4 factors: information quality, personalization, impartiality, and credible design. In the final SEM model, information quality and impartiality were direct predictors of trust. However, variables specific to eHealth (perceived threat, coping, and corroboration) added substantially to the ability of the model to predict variance in trust and readiness to act on advice on the site. The final model achieved a satisfactory fit: χ2 5 = 10

  3. Musculoskeletal Health Conditions Represent a Global Threat to Healthy Aging: A Report for the 2015 World Health Organization World Report on Ageing and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew M; Cross, Marita J; Hoy, Damian G; Sànchez-Riera, Lídia; Blyth, Fiona M; Woolf, Anthony D; March, Lyn

    2016-04-01

    Persistent pain, impaired mobility and function, and reduced quality of life and mental well-being are the most common experiences associated with musculoskeletal conditions, of which there are more than 150 types. The prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal conditions increase with aging. A profound burden of musculoskeletal disease exists in developed and developing nations. Notably, this burden far exceeds service capacity. Population growth, aging, and sedentary lifestyles, particularly in developing countries, will create a crisis for population health that requires a multisystem response with musculoskeletal health services as a critical component. Globally, there is an emphasis on maintaining an active lifestyle to reduce the impacts of obesity, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes in older people. Painful musculoskeletal conditions, however, profoundly limit the ability of people to make these lifestyle changes. A strong relationship exists between painful musculoskeletal conditions and a reduced capacity to engage in physical activity resulting in functional decline, frailty, reduced well-being, and loss of independence. Multilevel strategies and approaches to care that adopt a whole person approach are needed to address the impact of impaired musculoskeletal health and its sequelae. Effective strategies are available to address the impact of musculoskeletal conditions; some are of low cost (e.g., primary care-based interventions) but others are expensive and, as such, are usually only feasible for developed nations. In developing nations, it is crucial that any reform or development initiatives, including research, must adhere to the principles of development effectiveness to avoid doing harm to the health systems in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A multi-criteria risk analysis to evaluate impacts of forest management alternatives on forest health in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jactel, H.; Branco, M.; Duncker, P.; Gardiner, B.; Grodzki, W.; Langström, B.; Moreira, F.; Netherer, S.; Nicoll, B.; Orazio, C.; Piou, D.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Tojic, K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to climate change, forests are likely to face new hazards, which may require adaptation of our existing silvicultural practices. However, it is difficult to imagine a forest management approach that can simultaneously minimize all risks of damage. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been

  5. Designing and conducting tabletop exercises to assess public health preparedness for manmade and naturally occurring biological threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dausey David J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2001, state and local health departments in the United States (US have accelerated efforts to prepare for high-impact public health emergencies. One component of these activities has been the development and conduct of exercise programs to assess capabilities, train staff and build relationships. This paper summarizes lessons learned from tabletop exercises about public health emergency preparedness and about the process of developing, conducting, and evaluating them. Methods We developed, conducted, and evaluated 31 tabletop exercises in partnership with state and local health departments throughout the US from 2003 to 2006. Participant self evaluations, after action reports, and tabletop exercise evaluation forms were used to identify aspects of the exercises themselves, as well as public health emergency responses that participants found more or less challenging, and to highlight lessons learned about tabletop exercise design. Results Designing the exercises involved substantial collaboration with representatives from participating health departments to assure that the scenarios were credible, focused attention on local preparedness needs and priorities, and were logistically feasible to implement. During execution of the exercises, nearly all health departments struggled with a common set of challenges relating to disease surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, communications, command and control, and health care surge capacity. In contrast, performance strengths were more varied across participating sites, reflecting specific attributes of individual health departments or communities, experience with actual public health emergencies, or the emphasis of prior preparedness efforts. Conclusion The design, conduct, and evaluation of the tabletop exercises described in this report benefited from collaborative planning that involved stakeholders from participating health departments and exercise developers and

  6. A Review of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana: What Are the Sustainability Threats and Prospects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo

    2016-01-01

    Background The introduction of the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) in Ghana in 2003 significantly contributed to improved health services utilization and health outcomes. However, stagnating active membership, reports of poor quality health care rendered to NHIS-insured clients and cost escalations have raised concerns on the operational and financial sustainability of the scheme. This paper reviewed peer reviewed articles and grey literature on the sustainability challenges and prospects of the NHIS in Ghana. Methods Electronic search was done for literature published between 2003–2016 on the NHIS and its sustainability in Ghana. A total of 66 publications relevant to health insurance in Ghana and other developing countries were retrieved from Cochrane, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Googlescholar for initial screening. Out of this number, 31 eligible peer reviewed articles were selected for final review based on specific relevance to the Ghanaian context. Results Ability of the NHIS to continue its operations in Ghana is threatened financially and operationally by factors such as: cost escalation, possible political interference, inadequate technical capacity, spatial distribution of health facilities and health workers, inadequate monitoring mechanisms, broad benefits package, large exemption groups, inadequate client education, and limited community engagement. Moreover, poor quality care in NHIS-accredited health facilities potentially reduces clients’ trust in the scheme and consequently decreases (re)enrolment rates. These sustainability challenges were reviewed and discussed in this paper. Conclusions The NHIS continues to play a critical role towards attaining universal health coverage in Ghana albeit confronted by challenges that could potentially collapse the scheme. Averting this possible predicament will largely depend on concerted efforts of key stakeholders such as health insurance managers, service providers, insurance subscribers, policy

  7. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  8. The conservation of diversity in forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig

    1988-01-01

    Deforestation, pollution, and climatic change threaten forest diversity all over the world. And because forests are the habitats for diverse organisms, the threat is extended to all the flora and fauna associated with forests, not only forest trees. In a worst case scenario, if the tropical forest in Latin America was reduced to the areas now set aside in parks and...

  9. [The social and hygienic aspects in the protection of the health of forest industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzyanov, L M

    1990-01-01

    The study of social and hygiene aspects in the industry of forest exploitation permitted to point out the changes that occurred in the field of mechanization and automation of production processes, which radically influenced the working conditions and characteristics, as well as the health indices. The study approaches some economic, social and hygiene problems. Proposals are made regarding the improvement of medical care organization for workers, for example the drawing up of a complex programme of prophylaxis of diseases in the enterprises for wood industrialization and of utilization of the computation technique.

  10. Ethical models underpinning responses to threats to public health: a comparison of approaches to communicable disease control in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Sabina; Moran, Nicola; Petrini, Carlo; Shickle, Darren

    2008-11-01

    Increases in international travel and migratory flows have enabled infectious diseases to emerge and spread more rapidly than ever before. Hence, it is increasingly easy for local infectious diseases to become global infectious diseases (GIDs). National governments must be able to react quickly and effectively to GIDs, whether naturally occurring or intentionally instigated by bioterrorism. According to the World Health Organisation, global partnerships are necessary to gather the most up-to-date information and to mobilize resources to tackle GIDs when necessary. Communicable disease control also depends upon national public health laws and policies. The containment of an infectious disease typically involves detection, notification, quarantine and isolation of actual or suspected cases; the protection and monitoring of those not infected; and possibly even treatment. Some measures are clearly contentious and raise conflicts between individual and societal interests. In Europe national policies against infectious diseases are very heterogeneous. Some countries have a more communitarian approach to public health ethics, in which the interests of individual and society are more closely intertwined and interdependent, while others take a more liberal approach and give priority to individual freedoms in communicable disease control. This paper provides an overview of the different policies around communicable disease control that exist across a select number of countries across Europe. It then proposes ethical arguments to be considered in the making of public health laws, mostly concerning their effectiveness for public health protection.

  11. Environmental risks perception--a study of the awareness of families to threats in areas with increased health disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Marchwińska-Wyrwał, Ewa; Piekut, Agata; Hajok, Ilona; Bilewicz-Wyrozumska, Teresa; Kuraszewska, Bernadeta

    2013-01-01

    Children are at greater risk than adults to experience adverse effects from environmental agents. Significant neurological damage to children can occur even at very low levels of exposure. Reliable protection of children living in areas with high environmental hazards is not possible without their parent's' understanding of where, how and why children's exposures occur. The aim of the presented study was to indicate families' awareness of environmental risks with increased health disorders in children in the chosen area of the Silesian Province. Rates of development disorders in general, including physical and psychomotor development disorders, in a population of children from the study area were estimated. A questionnaire was used in order to explore through a door-to-door survey the perceptions of environmental risk in a population of 2,491 residents. The presented study shows that the parents' awareness of environmental health risks is not satisfactory. The majority expressed an opinion that the outdoor environment exerts a major influence upon the state of health, but less than 1% of the parents were aware of the indoor environmental risk. The most effective way to prevent children's exposure is to teach the community to identify environmental threats and educate them on how to their protect children. The appropriate policies and programmes should be developed and implemented as this seems to be the most effective and cheapest way to prevent children's exposure to environmental risks.

  12. Merging national forest and national forest health inventories to obtain an integrated forest resource inventory--experiences from Bavaria, Slovenia and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Marko; Bauer, Arthur; Ståhl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    To meet the demands of sustainable forest management and international commitments, European nations have designed a variety of forest-monitoring systems for specific needs. While the majority of countries are committed to independent, single-purpose inventorying, a minority of countries have merged their single-purpose forest inventory systems into integrated forest resource inventories. The statistical efficiencies of the Bavarian, Slovene and Swedish integrated forest resource inventory designs are investigated with the various statistical parameters of the variables of growing stock volume, shares of damaged trees, and deadwood volume. The parameters are derived by using the estimators for the given inventory designs. The required sample sizes are derived via the general formula for non-stratified independent samples and via statistical power analyses. The cost effectiveness of the designs is compared via two simple cost effectiveness ratios. In terms of precision, the most illustrative parameters of the variables are relative standard errors; their values range between 1% and 3% if the variables' variations are low (s%forest resources to be used for decision making and national and international policy making. Such information can be cost-efficiently provided through integrated forest resource inventories.

  13. Development history and bibliography of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator for forest health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, KaDonna C

    2013-06-01

    Comprehensive assessment of individual-tree crown condition by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has its origins in the concerns about widespread forest decline in Europe and North America that developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Programs such as the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, US National Vegetation Survey, Canadian Acid Rain National Early Warning System, and joint US-Canadian North American Sugar Maple Decline Project laid the groundwork for the development of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator. The crown-condition assessment protocols were selected and refined through literature review, peer review, and field studies in several different forest types during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Between 1980 and 2011, 126 publications relating specifically to the crown-condition indicator were added to the literature. The majority of the articles were published by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service or other State or Federal government agency, and more than half were published after 2004.

  14. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha-1 year-1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did not

  15. Epidemiology today: Mitigating threats to an ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-06-27

    Ecosystems comprise all the living and non-living things in a particular area (e.g., rain forest, desert), which interact and maintain equilibrium. Loss of equilibrium (e.g., clear-cutting trees in a rain forest) can mean the decline of the ecosystem, unless it is able to adapt to the new circumstances. The term "knowledge ecosystem" describes an approach to managing knowledge in a particular field; the components of this system include the people, the technological skills and resources, and information or data. Epidemiology can be thought of as a knowledge ecosystem and, like ecological systems, its existence can be threatened, from both internal and external forces that may alter its equilibrium. This paper describes some threats to the epidemiology knowledge ecosystem, how these threats came about, and what responses we can make that may serve to mitigate those threats.

  16. Human health risks due to heavy metals through consumption of wild mushrooms from Macheke forest, Rail Block forest and Muganyi communal lands in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Ndumo, Tafungwa; Moyo, Mambo

    2015-12-01

    The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii (AL) and Cantharellus floridulus (CF) mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest (mining town), Macheke forest (commercial farming), and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The transfer factors, mushrooms-soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1.045 ± 0.028 to 7.568 ± 0.322, 0.025 ± 0.001 to 0.654 ± 0.005, and a maximum of 5.78 ± 0.31 mg/kg, respectively, in all the three sampling areas. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Rail Block forest (mining town) > Macheke forest (commercial farming) > Muganyi communal lands for the concentrations in both mushrooms and total concentration in their substrates. C. floridulus accumulated higher concentrations of Al, Zn, and Pb than A. loosii at each site under study. Zn in both AL and CF (Muganyi communal lands) and Pb in AL (Rail Block forest) were absorbed only from the soils, while other sources of contamination were involved elsewhere. The consumption of 300 g of fresh A. loosii and C. floridulus per day by children less than 16 kg harvested from Rail Block forest would cause health problems, while mushrooms from Macheke Forest and Muganyi communal lands were found to be safe for human consumption. Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. loosii and C. floridulus from Rail Block forest for they have significant levels of heavy metals compared to those from Macheke forest and Muganyi communal lands.

  17. Threat of the Health Quality of Garden Produces Linked to Pollution by Toxic Metals on Some Gardening Sites of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koumolou Luc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Water and soil are vital resources used in agriculture. Current data establish a link between the pollution of soil, water and public health. For this reason, this study attempted to establish a link between the level of pollution of garden sites in lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd and Arsenic (As and the health quality of vegetables grown there, through the quality of soil and of the irrigation water. Approach: Composite samples of vegetables, irrigation water and soil taken in the same periods at two garden sites in the city of Cotonou and another one in the village of Aplahoue, were analyzed for Pb, Cd and As by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The amounts (average ± SD have been compared by the statistical Student p test (T>t = 0.05. Results: The results show that all the vegetables grown on the three sites are differently contaminated with Pb, Cd and As, as well as their irrigation water and the soil. However, the link attempted to be established between pollution of soil, irrigation water and quality of vegetables, could not be obvious, it has been discussed. Soil pollution with toxic metals seems to be of minor importance and does not directly influence the contamination of vegetables Conversely to soil pollution, the levels of contamination of irrigation water by trace metals (Cd and As are much closer to that of vegetables, apart Pb. However, the high urban and atmospheric pressures in Cotonou have significantly influenced the contamination. For, it is in Aplahoue, farming environment, that the lowest amounts of metals in water and in the vegetables have been recorded. Conclusion/Recommendations: There is a risk of contamination in the food chain by heavy metals whose consumption through these gardening products could cause public health problems. Thus, the adoption of reasonable behavior and the development of new technologies are needed to associate food security, economic development, the preservation of the

  18. Preliminary analysis of the forest health state based on multispectral images acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czapski Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this publication is to present the current progress of the work associated with the use of a lightweight unmanned platforms for various environmental studies. Current development in information technology, electronics and sensors miniaturisation allows mounting multispectral cameras and scanners on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV that could only be used on board aircraft and satellites. Remote Sensing Division in the Institute of Aviation carries out innovative researches using multisensory platform and lightweight unmanned vehicle to evaluate the health state of forests in Wielkopolska province. In this paper, applicability of multispectral images analysis acquired several times during the growing season from low altitude (up to 800m is presented. We present remote sensing indicators computed by our software and common methods for assessing state of trees health. The correctness of applied methods is verified using analysis of satellite scenes acquired by Landsat 8 OLI instrument (Operational Land Imager.

  19. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  20. Mapping tree health using airborne laser scans and hyperspectral imagery: a case study for a floodplain eucalypt forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendryk, Iurii; Tulbure, Mirela; Broich, Mark; McGrath, Andrew; Alexandrov, Sergey; Keith, David

    2016-04-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) are two complementary remote sensing technologies that provide comprehensive structural and spectral characteristics of forests over large areas. In this study we developed two algorithms: one for individual tree delineation utilizing ALS and the other utilizing ALS and HSI to characterize health of delineated trees in a structurally complex floodplain eucalypt forest. We conducted experiments in the largest eucalypt, river red gum forest in the world, located in the south-east of Australia that experienced severe dieback over the past six decades. For detection of individual trees from ALS we developed a novel bottom-up approach based on Euclidean distance clustering to detect tree trunks and random walks segmentation to further delineate tree crowns. Overall, our algorithm was able to detect 67% of tree trunks with diameter larger than 13 cm. We assessed the accuracy of tree delineations in terms of crown height and width, with correct delineation of 68% of tree crowns. The increase in ALS point density from ~12 to ~24 points/m2 resulted in tree trunk detection and crown delineation increase of 11% and 13%, respectively. Trees with incorrectly delineated crowns were generally attributed to areas with high tree density along water courses. The accurate delineation of trees allowed us to classify the health of this forest using machine learning and field-measured tree crown dieback and transparency ratios, which were good predictors of tree health in this forest. ALS and HSI derived indices were used as predictor variables to train and test object-oriented random forest classifier. Returned pulse width, intensity and density related ALS indices were the most important predictors in the tree health classifications. At the forest level in terms of tree crown dieback, 77% of trees were classified as healthy, 14% as declining and 9% as dying or dead with 81% mapping accuracy. Similarly, in terms of tree

  1. Ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030: Scientific Developments from the 2016 INTEREST Conference in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Catherine A; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Kilmarx, Peter; Ferrari, Guido; Schechter, Mauro; Kane, Coumba Touré; Venter, François; Boucher, Charles Ab; Ross, Anna-Laura; Zewdie, Debrework; Eholié, Serge Paul; Katabira, Elly

    2017-01-01

    The underpinning theme of the 2016 INTEREST Conference held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, 3-6 May 2016 was ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Focused primarily on HIV treatment, pathogenesis and prevention research in resource-limited settings, the conference attracted 369 active delegates from 34 countries, of which 22 were in Africa. Presentations on treatment optimization, acquired drug resistance, care of children and adolescents, laboratory monitoring and diagnostics, implementation challenges, HIV prevention, key populations, vaccine and cure, hepatitis C, mHealth, financing the HIV response and emerging pathogens, were accompanied by oral, mini-oral and poster presentations. Spirited plenary debates on the UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment cascade goal and on antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis took place. Joep Lange career guidance sessions and grantspersonship sessions attracted early career researchers. At the closing ceremony, the Yaoundé Declaration called on African governments; UNAIDS; development, bilateral, and multilateral partners; and civil society to adopt urgent and sustained approaches to end HIV by 2030.

  2. Applicability of SWOT analysis for measuring quality of public oral health services as perceived by adult patients in Finland. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, T; Lahti, S; Leino-Kilpi, H

    1999-10-01

    To determine the applicability of SWOT analysis for measuring the quality of public oral health services from the adult client's perspective. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire developed in an earlier study. The study group consisted of all adult (over 18 years of age) clients (n = 256) using public municipal oral health services in Kirkkonummi, Finland, during 2 weeks in 1995. Before treatment, patients filled out a questionnaire that measured the importance of their expectations in different aspects of oral care. After the appointment, they filled out a similar questionnaire that measured the enactment of these expectations in the treatment situation. The response rate was 51%. The difference between subjective importance and enactment of expectations was tested by Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results were interpreted using both a conventional analysis of "expectation enacted or not" and SWOT analysis, which is used in strategic planning to identify areas of strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O) and threats (T) in an organisation. In 28 statements out of 35, the two analyses revealed similar interpretations. In most areas the patient-perceived quality of the services was good. Weaknesses were found in the following areas: communicating to patients the causes and risk of developing oral diseases, informing them about different treatment possibilities, and including patients in decision-making when choosing restorative materials. SWOT analysis provided more structured interpretation of the results, and can be more easily transferred to development of services.

  3. Securing 'supportive environments' for health in the face of ecosystem collapse: meeting the triple threat with a sociology of creative transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Blake; Dooris, Mark; Haluza-Delay, Randolph

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reflect on and explore what remains to be done to make the concept of supportive environments--one of the Ottawa Charter's five core action areas--a reality in the context of growing uncertainty about the future and accelerated pace of change. We pay particular attention to the physical environment, while underscoring the inextricable links between physical and social environments, and particularly the need to link social and environmental justice. The paper begins with a brief orientation to three emerging threats to health equity, namely ecological degradation, climate change, and peak oil, and their connection to economic instability, food security, energy security and other key determinants of health. We then present three contrasting perspectives on the nature of social change and how change is catalyzed, arguing for an examination of the conditions under which cultural change on the scale required to realize the vision of 'supportive environments for all' might be catalyzed, and the contribution that health promotion as a field could play in this process. Drawing on sociological theory, and specifically practice theory and the work of Pierre Bourdieu, we advocate rethinking education for social change by attending more adequately to the social conditions of transformative learning and cultural change. We conclude with an explication of three key implications for health promotion practice: a more explicit alignment with those seeking to curtail environmental destruction and promote environmental justice, strengthening engagement with local or settings-focused 'communities of practice' (such as the Transition Town movement), and finding new ways to creatively 'engage emergence', a significant departure from the current dominant focus on 'risk management'.

  4. Pesticide Residues in Commercial Lettuce, Onion, and Potato Samples From Bolivia—A Threat to Public Health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Renjel, Susana; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2017-01-01

    Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10...... or together would lead to exposures that exceeded the acceptable daily intake or the acute reference dose. To protect consumers from pesticide poisonings and chronic effects, the development of measures for prevention, control, and monitoring of food contamination by pesticides in Bolivia is suggested....

  5. Pesticide Residues in Commercial Lettuce, Onion, and Potato Samples From Bolivia—A Threat to Public Health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Renjel, Susana; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2017-01-01

    Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10...... lettuce samples from La Paz were sampled on August 15, 2015 at a local market and screened for 283 pesticides. Residues of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, difenoconazol, or/and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in 50% of the lettuce samples, whereas no pesticides were found in potatoes and onions. In 20...

  6. 森林生态系统健康评价指标在中国的应用%Forest ecosystem health assessment and analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖风劲; 欧阳华; 张强

    2004-01-01

    Based on more than 300 forest sample plots surveying data and forestry statistical data,remote sensing information from the NOAA AVHRR database and the daily meteorological data of 300 stations, we selected vigor, organization and resilience as the indicators to assess large-scale forest ecosystem health in China and analyzed the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health andinfluencing factors. The results of assessment indicated that the spatial pattern of forest ecosystemhealth showed a decreasing trend along latitude gradients and longitude gradients. The healthy forestsare mainly distributed in natural forests, tropical rainforests and seasonal rainforests; secondarilyorderly in northeast national forest zone, subtropical forest zonation and southwest forest zonation;while the unhealthy forests were mainly located in warm temperate zone and Xinjiang-Mongoliaforest zone. The coefficient of correction between Forest Ecosystem Health Index (FEHI) and annualaverage precipitation was 0.58 (p<0.01), while the coefficient of correlation between FEHI andannual mean temperatures was 0.49 (p<0.01), which identified that the precipitation and temperaturesaffect the pattern of FEHI, and the precipitation's effect was stronger than the temperature's. We alsomeasured the correlation coefficient between FEHI and NPP, biodiversity and resistance, which were0.64, 0.76 and 0.81 (p<0.01) respectively. The order of effect on forest ecosystem health was vigor,organization and resistance.

  7. Multiple Zoonotic Parasites Identified in Dog Feces Collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal—A Potential Threat to Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Letra Mateus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs play many roles and their presence within people’s houses has increased. In rural settings dog faeces are not removed from the streets, representing an environmental pollution factor. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence of environmental contamination with zoonotic intestinal parasites of three groups of dogs in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, with a particular emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. We collected 592 dog faecal samples from the environment, farm and hunting dogs. Qualitative flotation coprological analysis was performed and the frequency in the positive samples ranged between 57.44% and 81.19% in different groups. We isolated up to four different parasites in one sample and detected seven intestinal parasitic species, genera or families overall. Ancylostomatidae was the most prevalent parasite, followed by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Toxascaris leonina. Taeniidae eggs were analyzed with the PCR technique and revealed not to be from Echinococcus. The parasite prevalence and the diversity of zoonotic parasites found were high, which calls for a greater awareness of the problem among the population, especially hunters. Promoting research at the local level is important to plan control strategies. Health education should be developed with regard to farmers and hunters, and a closer collaboration between researchers, practitioners and public health authorities is needed.

  8. Multiple zoonotic parasites identified in dog feces collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal-a potential threat to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Teresa Letra; Castro, António; Ribeiro, João Niza; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2014-09-01

    Dogs play many roles and their presence within people's houses has increased. In rural settings dog faeces are not removed from the streets, representing an environmental pollution factor. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence of environmental contamination with zoonotic intestinal parasites of three groups of dogs in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, with a particular emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. We collected 592 dog faecal samples from the environment, farm and hunting dogs. Qualitative flotation coprological analysis was performed and the frequency in the positive samples ranged between 57.44% and 81.19% in different groups. We isolated up to four different parasites in one sample and detected seven intestinal parasitic species, genera or families overall. Ancylostomatidae was the most prevalent parasite, followed by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Toxascaris leonina. Taeniidae eggs were analyzed with the PCR technique and revealed not to be from Echinococcus. The parasite prevalence and the diversity of zoonotic parasites found were high, which calls for a greater awareness of the problem among the population, especially hunters. Promoting research at the local level is important to plan control strategies. Health education should be developed with regard to farmers and hunters, and a closer collaboration between researchers, practitioners and public health authorities is needed.

  9. Threats to Bitcoin Software

    OpenAIRE

    Kateraas, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Collect and analyse threat models to the Bitcoin ecosystem and its software. The create misuse case, attack trees, and sequence diagrams of the threats. Create a malicious client from the gathered threat models. Once the development of the client is complete, test the client and evaluate its performance. From this, assess the security of the Bitcoin software.

  10. From past to better public health programme planning for possible future global threats: case studies applied to infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigat, Roberte; Wallet, France; André, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The impact of weather change and global pollution on the development and/or the transformation of microorganisms is no longer to be demonstrated. In this respect, heavy trends can be taken into account. This general context needs the development of anticipation procedures and the knowledge of the perception of prevention by the public for short, medium and long term actions. After a short discussion on the concept of emerging issues, the authors present some past examples of public health programs. These examples (malaria, dengue, chikungunya and cholera) are used to propose optimized ways of decision/action that may help to avoid possible crisis in a rapidly changing world. Then, the different lessons learnt are, under certain limits, associated with a forecasting analysis.

  11. From past to better public health programme planning for possible future global threats: case studies applied to infection control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberte Manigat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of weather change and global pollution on the development and/or the transformation of microorganisms is no longer to be demonstrated. In this respect, heavy trends can be taken into account. This general context needs the development of anticipation procedures and the knowledge of the perception of prevention by the public for short, medium and long term actions. After a short discussion on the concept of emerging issues, the authors present some past examples of public health programs. These examples (malaria, dengue, chikungunya and cholera are used to propose optimized ways of decision/action that may help to avoid possible crisis in a rapidly changing world. Then, the different lessons learnt are, under certain limits, associated with a forecasting analysis.

  12. Ethics, privacy and the legal framework governing medical data: opportunities or threats for biomedical and public health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Yves; Levêque, Alain

    2013-06-21

    Privacy is an important concern in any research programme that deals with personal medical data. In recent years, ethics and privacy have become key considerations when conducting any form of scientific research that involves personal data. These issues are now addressed in healthcare professional training programmes. Indeed, ethics, legal frameworks and privacy are often the subject of much confusion in discussions among healthcare professionals. They tend to group these different concepts under the same heading and delegate responsibility for "ethical" approval of their research programmes to ethics committees. Public health researchers therefore need to ask questions about how changes to legal frameworks and ethical codes governing privacy in the use of personal medical data are to be applied in practice. What types of data do these laws and codes cover? Who is involved? What restrictions and requirements apply to any research programme that involves medical data?

  13. The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sikka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus (ZIKV, first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80% after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s, and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global

  14. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks and Environmental Injustice: Is There a Hidden and Unequal Threat to Public Health in South Carolina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sacoby; Zhang, Hongmei; Burwell, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Dalemarre, Laura; Jiang, Chengsheng; Rice, Lashanta; Williams, Edith; Naney, Charles

    2013-10-01

    There are approximately 590,000 underground storage tanks (USTs) nationwide that store petroleum or hazardous substances. Many of these tanks are leaking, which may increase the risk of exposure to contaminants that promote health problems in host neighborhoods. Within this study, we assessed disparities in the spatial distribution of leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in South Carolina (SC). Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the difference in the proportion of populations who host a LUST compared to those not hosting a LUST for all sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were applied to examine the association of distance to the nearest LUST with relevant sociodemographic measures. As percent black increased, the distance (both in kilometers and miles) to the nearest LUST decreased. Similar results were observed for percent poverty, unemployment, persons with less than a high school education, blacks in poverty, and whites in poverty. Furthermore, chi-square tests indicated that blacks or non-whites or people with low SES were more likely to live in LUST host areas than in non-host areas. As buffer distance increased, percent black and non-white decreased. SES variables demonstrated a similar inverse relationship. Overall, burden disparities exist in the distribution of LUSTs based on race/ethnicity and SES in SC.

  15. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks and Environmental Injustice: Is There a Hidden and Unequal Threat to Public Health in South Carolina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sacoby; Zhang, Hongmei; Burwell, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Dalemarre, Laura; Jiang, Chengsheng; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith; Naney, Charles

    2014-01-01

    There are approximately 590,000 underground storage tanks (USTs) nationwide that store petroleum or hazardous substances. Many of these tanks are leaking, which may increase the risk of exposure to contaminants that promote health problems in host neighborhoods. Within this study, we assessed disparities in the spatial distribution of leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in South Carolina (SC). Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the difference in the proportion of populations who host a LUST compared to those not hosting a LUST for all sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were applied to examine the association of distance to the nearest LUST with relevant sociodemographic measures. As percent black increased, the distance (both in kilometers and miles) to the nearest LUST decreased. Similar results were observed for percent poverty, unemployment, persons with less than a high school education, blacks in poverty, and whites in poverty. Furthermore, chi-square tests indicated that blacks or non-whites or people with low SES were more likely to live in LUST host areas than in non-host areas. As buffer distance increased, percent black and non-white decreased. SES variables demonstrated a similar inverse relationship. Overall, burden disparities exist in the distribution of LUSTs based on race/ethnicity and SES in SC. PMID:24729829

  16. The first genotype determination of Acanthamoeba potential threat to human health, isolated from natural water reservoirs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Idzińska, Alicja; Chomicz, Lidia

    2014-07-01

    Different species of amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in many parts of the world and known as free-living organisms. Some strains of the protozoans may exist as parasites and cause risk to human health as causative agents of serious human diseases. Currently, in Poland, there is no sufficient information about the distribution of Acanthamoeba strains and their genotypes in the environment. Therefore, 20 environmental surface water samples were collected from different sites located at five water reservoirs in Gdynia, Sopot, and Gdańsk (northern Poland). The material was cultured to obtain Acanthamoeba isolates that were then specifically analyzed with both PCR and real-time PCR assays. Of the 20 samples examined, Acanthamoeba DNA was found in 13 samples tested with the use of real-time PCR; in 10 of them, DNA of the amoeba was also detected using PCR technique. The comparison with sequences available in the GenBank confirmed that the PCR products are fragments of Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene and that isolates represent T4 genotype, known as the most common strains related to AK cases. This is the first investigation in Poland describing Acanthamoeba detection in environmental water samples with molecular techniques and genotyping. The results indicate that surface water in Poland may be a source of acanthamoebic strains potentially pathogenic for humans.

  17. The financial crisis and health care systems in Europe: universal care under threat? Trends in health sector reforms in Germany, the United Kingdom, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Giovanella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes trends in contemporary health sector reforms in three European countries with Bismarckian and Beveridgean models of national health systems within the context of strong financial pressure resulting from the economic crisis (2008-date, and proceeds to discuss the implications for universal care. The authors examine recent health system reforms in Spain, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Health systems are described using a matrix to compare state intervention in financing, regulation, organization, and services delivery. The reforms’ impacts on universal care are examined in three dimensions: breadth of population coverage, depth of the services package, and height of coverage by public financing. Models of health protection, institutionality, stakeholder constellations, and differing positions in the European economy are factors that condition the repercussions of restrictive policies that have undermined universality to different degrees in the three dimensions specified above and have extended policies for regulated competition as well as commercialization in health care systems.

  18. Electronic cigarette: a threat or an opportunity for public health? State of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protano, C; Di Milia, L M; Orsi, G B; Vitali, M

    2015-01-01

    The e-cigarette, also known as e-cig, represents an emerging issue of great concern for public health. The aim of the present report was to explore the scientific literature about the use of electronic cigarette (e-cig), with a particular reference to the features of "toxicological safety", "effectiveness in overcoming the addiction to smoking the traditional cigarette" and "necessary research agenda". The efficacy of e-cig for smoking cessation is uncertain: some authors found that it can be a valid support, but long-term cessation rate has not be assessed. Other studies evidenced that e-cig is often used not for quitting smoking but to avoid smoking ban for traditional cigarettes and, even, some researches evidenced that it appears to contribute to nicotine addiction. E-cig smoking seems to be less dangerous of conventional cigarettes, but its use is not risk-free. Besides, cases of accidental or intentional poisoning with liquid solutions of e-cig have been reported. Also, the smoke of e-cig decreases indoor air quality, releasing particulate matter and other toxics that can persist on surfaces for days and generating passive exposure. These phenomena are similar to environmental tobacco smoke produced by conventional smoking, that is the sum of second- and third-hand smoke. We propose to call them "environmental electronic smoke", "electronic-second- hand smoke" and "electronic-third-hand smoke", respectively. Uncertainties relating to e-cig features determined the sequence, in the short term, of warnings and regulations approved and then replaced. In conclusion, although in recent years many researches were performed, evidences is limited and there is a need to study in deep all these issues.

  19. PLASTIC BAGS – THREAT TO ENVIRONMENT AND CATTLE HEALTH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM GONDAR CITY OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velappagoundar Ramaswamy and Hardeep Rai Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted in Gondar city of Ethiopia for six years (2004/05 to 2009/10 to observe the impact of plastic bags usage on environment and cattle health. Paper packaging is vanishing slowly in the city and limited to small shops only. Open dumping of plastic bags containing wastes is observed commonly near road side, open plots, river side, in drains and public places however, it is prohibited under Ethiopian law. Winds carry bags to distant areas sometimes found entangled on the trees and shrubs create nuisance. During rainy season, the blockage of drains and overflowing of water was observed in some areas of the city. During study period, out of 711 rumenotomies done, in 111 (15.61% and 600 (84.39% animals, emergency rumenotomy and elective rumenotomy was performed, respectively. The quantity of the foreign bodies (FB’s collected from the rumen was ranging from 0.75 to 2.0 kg in 28 animals (3.94%; 2.0 to 5.0 kg in 116 animals (16.32%; 5.0 to 9.0 kg in 217 animals (30.52% and above 9.0 kg in 350 animals (49.23%. Due to absence of plastic recycling unit in the Gondar city or in nearby areas, there is no practice of collecting and selling these products to junk dealers. Use of reusable bags made of cloths, jute and other natural fibers must be encouraged. In order to save the life of animals, residents should not pack and throw the food items in plastic bags. The cattle owners may be advised not to allow their cattle to freely wander in streets especially in the cities. They should see that the grazing lands are not polluted with the polythene and other wastes. Awareness may be created on careless disposal of plastic bags and as well as the periodical cleaning of these wastes in the grazing area.

  20. Síndrome de insulinorresistencia, una amenaza para la salud Resistance to insulin, a threat for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Yanes Quesada

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el síndrome de insulinorresistencia describe un grupo de anomalías clínicas relacionadas, que ocurren más comúnmente en sujetos con resistencia a la insulina, lo cual le confiere una elevada morbilidad, sobre todo, metabólica y cardiovascular. DESARROLLO: se realizó el presente trabajo con el objetivo de revisar las entidades que se asocian al síndrome de insulinorresistencia, siendo las más frecuentes: los eventos cardiovasculares, la hipertensión arterial, las dislipoproteinemias, la obesidad y los trastornos de la tolerancia a la glucosa. Otros trastornos asociados son: apnea obstructiva de sueño, hígado graso no alcohólico y el síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos. CONCLUSIONES: constituye un elevado riesgo de morbilidad y mortalidad para los pacientes que lo padecen, y existen diferentes afecciones asociadas que comprometen la salud y la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. Estas entidades deben ser buscadas de forma activa en los pacientes con este diagnósticoINTRODUCTION: insulin resistance syndrome describes a group of related clinical anomalies, occurring with a great frequency in subjects presenting with resistance to insulin, which confers a high morbidity, mainly, the metabolic and cardiovascular ones. DEVELOPMENT: aim of present paper is to review entities associated to insulin resistance syndrome, where the more frequent are: cardiovascular events, high blood pressure, dyslipoproteinemias, obesity, and disorders associated with glucose-tolerance. Others associated disorders are: dream-obstructive apnea, non-alcoholic fat liver, and polycystic ovary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: it is a high risk of mortality and morbidity for patients presenting it, and there are different associated affections involving health and live quality of these patients. These entities must to be searched in a active way in patients with this diagnosis

  1. Emerging Threats for Human Health in Poland: Pathogenic Isolates from Drug Resistant Acanthamoeba Keratitis Monitored in terms of Their In Vitro Dynamics and Temperature Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Chomicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphizoic amoebae generate a serious human health threat due to their pathogenic potential as facultative parasites, causative agents of vision-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK. Recently, AK incidences have been reported with increasing frequency worldwide, particularly in contact lens wearers. In our study, severe cases of AK in Poland and respective pathogenic isolates were assessed at clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. Misdiagnoses and the unsuccessful treatment in other ophthalmic units delayed suitable therapy, and resistance to applied chemicals resulted in severe courses and treatment difficulties. Molecular assessment indicated that all sequenced pathogenic corneal isolates deriving from Polish patients with AK examined by us showed 98–100% homology with Acanthamoeba genotype T4, the most prevalent genotype in this human ocular infection worldwide. In vitro assays revealed that the pathogenic strains are able to grow at elevated temperature and have a wide adaptive capability. This study is our subsequent in vitro investigation on pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains of AK originating from Polish patients. Further investigations designed to foster a better understanding of the factors leading to an increase of AK observed in the past years in Poland may help to prevent or at least better cope with future cases.

  2. Emerging Threats for Human Health in Poland: Pathogenic Isolates from Drug Resistant Acanthamoeba Keratitis Monitored in terms of Their In Vitro Dynamics and Temperature Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz, Lidia; Conn, David Bruce; Padzik, Marcin; Szaflik, Jacek P; Walochnik, Julia; Zawadzki, Paweł J; Pawłowski, Witold; Dybicz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Amphizoic amoebae generate a serious human health threat due to their pathogenic potential as facultative parasites, causative agents of vision-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Recently, AK incidences have been reported with increasing frequency worldwide, particularly in contact lens wearers. In our study, severe cases of AK in Poland and respective pathogenic isolates were assessed at clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. Misdiagnoses and the unsuccessful treatment in other ophthalmic units delayed suitable therapy, and resistance to applied chemicals resulted in severe courses and treatment difficulties. Molecular assessment indicated that all sequenced pathogenic corneal isolates deriving from Polish patients with AK examined by us showed 98-100% homology with Acanthamoeba genotype T4, the most prevalent genotype in this human ocular infection worldwide. In vitro assays revealed that the pathogenic strains are able to grow at elevated temperature and have a wide adaptive capability. This study is our subsequent in vitro investigation on pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains of AK originating from Polish patients. Further investigations designed to foster a better understanding of the factors leading to an increase of AK observed in the past years in Poland may help to prevent or at least better cope with future cases.

  3. Potential utility of SumbandilaSat imagery for monitoring indigenous forest health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous forest degradation is regarded as one of the most important environmental issues facing sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa in particular. Indigenous forest degradation is characterised by habitat fragmentation stemming from logging...

  4. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  5. Improving Nutrition and Health through Non-timber Forest Products in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health are fundamental pillars of human development across the entire life-span. The potential role of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in improving nutrition and health and reduction of poverty has been recognized in recent years. NTFPs continue to be an important source of household food security, nutrition, and health. Despite their significant contribution to food security, nutrition, and sustainable livelihoods, these tend to be overlooked by policy-makers. NTFPs have not been accorded adequate attention in development planning and in nutrition-improvement programmes in Ghana. Using exploratory and participatory research methods, this study identified the potentials of NTFPs in improving nutrition and food security in the country. Data collected from the survey were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16.0). Pearson's correlation (p<0.05) showed that a significant association exists between NTFPs and household food security, nutrition, and income among the populations of Bibiani-Bekwai and Sefwi Wiawso districts in the western region of Ghana. NTFPs contributed significantly to nutrition and health of the poor in the two districts, especially during the lean seasons. The results of the survey also indicated that 90% of the sampled population used plant medicine to cure various ailments, including malaria, typhoid, fever, diarrhoea, arthritis, rheumatism, and snake-bite. However, a number of factors, including policy vacuum, increased overharvesting of NTFPs, destruction of natural habitats, bushfires, poor farming practices, population growth, and market demand, are hindering the use and development of NTFPs in Ghana. The study also provides relevant information that policy-makers and development actors require for improving nutrition and health in Ghana. PMID:21608423

  6. Queen Quality and the Impact of Honey Bee Diseases on Queen Health: Potential for Interactions between Two Major Threats to Colony Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Strand, Micheline K; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R

    2017-05-08

    Western honey bees, Apis mellifera, live in highly eusocial colonies that are each typically headed by a single queen. The queen is the sole reproductive female in a healthy colony, and because long-term colony survival depends on her ability to produce a large number of offspring, queen health is essential for colony success. Honey bees have recently been experiencing considerable declines in colony health. Among a number of biotic and abiotic factors known to impact colony health, disease and queen failure are repeatedly reported as important factors underlying colony losses. Surprisingly, there are relatively few studies on the relationship and interaction between honey bee diseases and queen quality. It is critical to understand the negative impacts of pests and pathogens on queen health, how queen problems might enable disease, and how both factors influence colony health. Here, we review the current literature on queen reproductive potential and the impacts of honey bee parasites and pathogens on queens. We conclude by highlighting gaps in our knowledge on the combination of disease and queen failure to provide a perspective and prioritize further research to mitigate disease, improve queen quality, and ensure colony health.

  7. Air pollution and climate change effects on health of the Ukrainian forests: monitoring and evalution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igor F. Buksha; Valentina L. Meshkova; Oleg M. Radchenko; Alexander S. Sidorov

    1998-01-01

    Forests in the Ukraine are affected by environmental pollution, intensive forestry practice, and recreational uses. These factors make them sensitive to impacts of climate change. Since 1989 Ukraine has participated in the International Cooperative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests). A network of monitoring plots has...

  8. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go on to disc...... of threats, and their mitigation. Another important observation is that the distinction between insiders and outsiders seems to loose significance as IT infrastructure is used in performing insider attacks....

  9. Ebola Virus ─ A Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejbah Uddin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus is a filamentous, enveloped, non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. It belongs to the Filoviridae and was first recognized near the Ebola River valley in Zaire in 1976. Since then most of the outbreaks have occurred to both human and nonhuman primates in sub-Saharan Africa. Ebola virus causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to hemorrhagic fever, it could be used as a bioterrorism agent. Although its natural reservoir is yet to be proven, current data suggest that fruit bats are the possibility. Infection has also been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines. Human infection is caused through close contact with the blood, secretion, organ or other body fluids of infected animal. Human-to-human transmission is also possible. Ebola virus infections are characterized by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock. The virus constitutes an important public health threat in Africa and also worldwide as no effective treatment or vaccine is available till now

  10. Wealth a Threat to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Overweight problems and related deseases are causing 400.000 death alone in the USA, and other countries are catching up. Together with too much food intake, too little use of the body energy is the main cause of the problem. It is shown how more physical exercise can help solving another big...... problem humanity is facing, cutting down on energy coonsumption and its associated environmental problems. Examples are walking or biking in stead of using car or other motorized transport, and the problems call for a completely new way of planning our buildings, cities, etc. to make them 'not too...

  11. Wealth a Threat to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    problem humanity is facing, cutting down on energy coonsumption and its associated environmental problems. Examples are walking or biking in stead of using car or other motorized transport, and the problems call for a completely new way of planning our buildings, cities, etc. to make them 'not too......Overweight problems and related deseases are causing 400.000 death alone in the USA, and other countries are catching up. Together with too much food intake, too little use of the body energy is the main cause of the problem. It is shown how more physical exercise can help solving another big...

  12. Mapping Robinia Pseudoacacia Forest Health Conditions by Using Combined Spectral, Spatial and Textureal Information Extracted from Ikonos Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhao, Y.; Pu, R.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    In this study grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) textures and a local statistical analysis Getis statistic (Gi), computed from IKONOS multispectral (MS) imagery acquired from the Yellow River Delta in China, along with a random forest (RF) classifier, were used to discriminate Robina pseudoacacia tree health levels. The different RF classification results of the three forest health conditions were created: (1) an overall accuracy (OA) of 79.5% produced using the four MS band reflectances only; (2) an OA of 97.1% created with the eight GLCM features calculated from IKONOS Band 4 with the optimal window size of 13 × 13 and direction 45°; (3) an OA of 94.0% created using the four Gi features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with the optimal distance value of 5 and Queen's neighborhood rule; and (4) an OA of 96.9% created with the combined 16 spectral (four), spatial (four), and textural (eight) features. The experimental results demonstrate that (a) both textural and spatial information was more useful than spectral information in determining the Robina pseudoacacia forest health conditions; and (b) IKONOS NIR band was more powerful than visible bands in quantifying varying degree of forest crown dieback.

  13. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus-related transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kakani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for “exotic” viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, i.e. 42% of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, i.e. by 89%.

  14. Designing Forest Adaptation Experiments through Manager-Scientist Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, L. M.; Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Three common forest adaptation options discussed in the context of an uncertain future climate are: creating resistance, promoting resilience, and enabling forests to respond to change. Though there is consensus on the broad management goals addressed by each of these options, translating these concepts into management plans specific for individual forest types that vary in structure, composition, and function remains a challenge. We will describe a decision-making framework that we employed within a manager-scientist partnership to develop a suite of adaptation treatments for two contrasting forest types as part of a long-term forest management experiment. The first, in northern Minnesota, is a red pine-dominated forest with components of white pine, aspen, paper birch, and northern red oak, with a hazel understory. The second, in southwest Colorado, is a warm-dry mixed conifer forest dominated by ponderosa pine, white fir, and Douglas-fir, with scattered aspen and an understory of Gambel oak. The current conditions at both sites are characterized by overstocking with moderate-to-high fuel loading, vulnerability to numerous forest health threats, and are generally uncharacteristic of historic structure and composition. The desired future condition articulated by managers for each site included elements of historic structure and natural range of variability, but were greatly tempered by known vulnerabilities and projected changes to climate and disturbance patterns. The resultant range of treatments we developed are distinct for each forest type, and address a wide range of management objectives.

  15. Holocene occurrence of Lophodermium piceae, a black spruce needle endophyte and possible paleoindicator of boreal forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J. P. Paul; Payette, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Holocene occurrences of conifer needle endophytes have not previously been reported. We report the fossil remains of Lophodermium piceae (Fckl.) Hoehn., a fungal endophyte of black spruce ( Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) needles, in macrofossils dating back to 8000 cal yr BP. Spruce budworm head capsules and L. piceae remains were found preceding charcoal layers delineating the transformation of four spruce-moss forest sites to spruce-lichen woodland. As L. piceae is found solely on senescent needles, its increased presence during these transformation periods likely indicates that the forests were in decline due to the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) when they burned. Future paleoecological studies incorporating needle fungi observations could be used to investigate the historical occurrence of tree disease and the role of fungi in forest health and decline.

  16. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  17. Building a citizen-agency partnership among diverse interests: the Colville National Forest and Northeast Washington Forestry Coalition Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Gordon; Angela Mallon; Carolin Maier; Linda Kruger; Bruce Shindler

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about forest health and the threat of wildfire across the Western United States increasingly provide the impetus for communities to find land management solutions that serve multiple interests. Funding and procedural changes over the past decade have positioned federal agencies to put greater emphasis on multistakeholder partnerships and public outreach...

  18. Mapping Robinia Pseudoacacia Forest Health Conditions by Using Combined Spectral, Spatial, and Textural Information Extracted from IKONOS Imagery and Random Forest Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The textural and spatial information extracted from very high resolution (VHR remote sensing imagery provides complementary information for applications in which the spectral information is not sufficient for identification of spectrally similar landscape features. In this study grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM textures and a local statistical analysis Getis statistic (Gi, computed from IKONOS multispectral (MS imagery acquired from the Yellow River Delta in China, along with a random forest (RF classifier, were used to discriminate Robina pseudoacacia tree health levels. Specifically, eight GLCM texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, dissimilarity, contrast, entropy, angular second moment, and correlation were first calculated from IKONOS NIR band (Band 4 to determine an optimal window size (13 × 13 and an optimal direction (45°. Then, the optimal window size and direction were applied to the three other IKONOS MS bands (blue, green, and red for calculating the eight GLCM textures. Next, an optimal distance value (5 and an optimal neighborhood rule (Queen’s case were determined for calculating the four Gi features from the four IKONOS MS bands. Finally, different RF classification results of the three forest health conditions were created: (1 an overall accuracy (OA of 79.5% produced using the four MS band reflectances only; (2 an OA of 97.1% created with the eight GLCM features calculated from IKONOS Band 4 with the optimal window size of 13 × 13 and direction 45°; (3 an OA of 93.3% created with the all 32 GLCM features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with a window size of 13 × 13 and direction of 45°; (4 an OA of 94.0% created using the four Gi features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with the optimal distance value of 5 and Queen’s neighborhood rule; and (5 an OA of 96.9% created with the combined 16 spectral (four, spatial (four, and textural (eight features. The most important feature ranked by RF

  19. Using wood-based structural products as forest management tools to improve forest health, sustainability and reduce forest fuels : a research program of the USDA Forest Service under the National Fire Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Hunt; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    Currently, after logging or thinning operations much of the low value timber is either left standing or is felled and left on the ground, chipped, or burned because most North American mills are not equipped to handle this material. In many areas of Western U.S., this forest residue does not decompose if felled and it soon becomes susceptible to forest insect or...

  20. Emerging oomycete threats to plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevnina, Lida; Petre, Benjamin; Kellner, Ronny; Dagdas, Yasin F; Sarowar, Mohammad Nasif; Giannakopoulou, Artemis; De la Concepcion, Juan Carlos; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pennington, Helen G; van West, Pieter; Kamoun, Sophien

    2016-12-05

    Oomycetes, or water moulds, are fungal-like organisms phylogenetically related to algae. They cause devastating diseases in both plants and animals. Here, we describe seven oomycete species that are emerging or re-emerging threats to agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and natural ecosystems. They include the plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora ramorum, Plasmopara obducens, and the animal pathogens Aphanomyces invadans, Saprolegnia parasitica and Halioticida noduliformans For each species, we describe its pathology, importance and impact, discuss why it is an emerging threat and briefly review current research activities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  1. Alternative Threat Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. King III

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many challenges facing risk analysis practitioners, perhaps the most difficult to overcome is in the field of terrorist threat analysis. When estimating the threat associated with naturally occurring events, historical data provides a great deal of insight into the frequency of those events. Threat associated with accidents applies many operations research tools to gauge future failure-rates (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis being perhaps the most widely known. However, estimating the probability of an individual's or group's attacking a specific (or even a generic target is an element of risk analysis in which art and intuition are applied far more regularly than is science.

  2. Understanding Forest Health with Remote Sensing-Part II—A Review of Approaches and Data Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lausch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress in forest ecosystems (FES occurs as a result of land-use intensification, disturbances, resource limitations or unsustainable management, causing changes in forest health (FH at various scales from the local to the global scale. Reactions to such stress depend on the phylogeny of forest species or communities and the characteristics of their impacting drivers and processes. There are many approaches to monitor indicators of FH using in-situ forest inventory and experimental studies, but they are generally limited to sample points or small areas, as well as being time- and labour-intensive. Long-term monitoring based on forest inventories provides valuable information about changes and trends of FH. However, abrupt short-term changes cannot sufficiently be assessed through in-situ forest inventories as they usually have repetition periods of multiple years. Furthermore, numerous FH indicators monitored in in-situ surveys are based on expert judgement. Remote sensing (RS technologies offer means to monitor FH indicators in an effective, repetitive and comparative way. This paper reviews techniques that are currently used for monitoring, including close-range RS, airborne and satellite approaches. The implementation of optical, RADAR and LiDAR RS-techniques to assess spectral traits/spectral trait variations (ST/STV is described in detail. We found that ST/STV can be used to record indicators of FH based on RS. Therefore, the ST/STV approach provides a framework to develop a standardized monitoring concept for FH indicators using RS techniques that is applicable to future monitoring programs. It is only through linking in-situ and RS approaches that we will be able to improve our understanding of the relationship between stressors, and the associated spectral responses in order to develop robust FH indicators.

  3. Using silviculture to improve health in northeastern conifer and eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1995-01-01

    The traditional role of silviculture was to manipulate forest vegetation to provide wood and related forest products for humanity's benefit over a long period. Silviculturists soon noticed that such manipulation influenced other components of the ecosystem. In particular, insects and diseases responded dramatically to silvicultural practices-both positively and...

  4. Thought on development of forest health industry in Hunan%对湖南发展森林康养产业的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏方敏; 李锡泉

    2016-01-01

    本文从国内外森林康养的定义、发展现状、科学理论依据、医学证明等几方面分别阐述了对森林康养的认识,并在分析湖南发展森林康养的优势的基础上,提出了湖南森林康养产业发展的建议。%Knowledge about forest health industry was elaborated from the aspect of the development actuality,forest health definition,scientific theory basis and medical evidence. According to the analysis of the development advantages for forest health in Hunan,some strategies for forest health industry development in Hunan were put forward.

  5. Using a Forest Health Index as an Outreach Tool for Improving Public Understanding of Ecosystem Dynamics and Research-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osenga, E. C.; Cundiff, J.; Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Taylor, J. R.; Jack-Scott, E.

    2015-12-01

    An interactive tool called the Forest Health Index (FHI) has been developed for the Roaring Fork watershed of Colorado, with the purpose of improving public understanding of local forest management and ecosystem dynamics. The watershed contains large areas of White River National Forest, which plays a significant role in the local economy, particularly for recreation and tourism. Local interest in healthy forests is therefore strong, but public understanding of forest ecosystems is often simplified. This can pose challenges for land managers and researchers seeking a scientifically informed approach to forest restoration, management, and planning. Now in its second iteration, the FHI is a tool designed to help bridge that gap. The FHI uses a suite of indicators to create a numeric rating of forest functionality and change, based on the desired forest state in relation to four categories: Ecological Integrity, Public Health and Safety, Ecosystem Services, and Sustainable Use and Management. The rating is based on data derived from several sources including local weather stations, stream gauge data, SNOTEL sites, and National Forest Service archives. In addition to offering local outreach and education, this project offers broader insight into effective communication methods, as well as into the challenges of using quantitative analysis to rate ecosystem health. Goals of the FHI include its use in schools as a means of using local data and place-based learning to teach basic math and science concepts, improved public understanding of ecological complexity and need for ongoing forest management, and, in the future, its use as a model for outreach tools in other forested communities in the Intermountain West.

  6. Health Assessment of the White Pine Community in the Lincoln National Forest of New Mexico through Spectral Reflectivity Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, A. E.; Pingitore, N. E.; Keller, R.; Conklin, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    The health of forests worldwide has become of greater interest to the scientific community in the last decades. Catastrophic events such as wild fires, insect infestations, and diseases all point to a less than ideal state in these areas. In the last fifteen years the Forest Health Protection office of the Forest Service identified and has been monitoring the distribution and effects of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) in the white pine community in the stands of the Lincoln National Forest. The Lincoln National Forest covers an area of approximately 1,196,419 acres in parts of four counties in southeastern New Mexico. It consists of three ranger districts: Sacramento, Smokey Bear and Guadalupe. The Lincoln National Forest attracts visitors because of its natural beauty and recreational areas. It is also home to several endangered and threatened species such as the Mexican Spotted Owl., the Sacramento Prickly Poppy, and the Sacramento Mountain Thistle. Loss of white pine stands is detrimental not only from a human perspective but would also result in loss of natural habitats for already rare species. According to Conklin (1994) there are nearly 500,000 acres of forests in the Sacramento Mountains, the adjoining White Mountains and the nearby Capitan Mountains that contain southwestern white pine. Starting in 1990 Conklin established several infected plots within this area and monitors them on a 3-year rotation period. In an attempt to further analyze the effects of the disease, samples from the different localities were obtained and their spectral responses studied by using a GER spectroradiometer with data acquisition capabilities in the 350 to 2500 nm range. The interaction of an object with electromagnetic energy is unique for each target and is based on its physical characteristics. We are able to note spectral differences in areas other than the visible range which are not accessible to the human eye. Plants stressed by such factors as drought

  7. Application of the Ecosystem Disturbance and Recovery Tracker in Detection of Forest Health Departure from Desired Conditions in Sierra Nevada National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaton, M.; Koltunov, A.; Ramirez, C.

    2016-12-01

    to disturbance, including topographic position, and position within species' ranges. Further development of eDaRT, including refining the baseline period identification and clustering parameters, may provide a highly informative and efficient method for detecting and monitoring forest health within the NRV framework.

  8. Research Progress of China' s Forest Health Risk%中国森林健康风险研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂子凡; 张贵

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify each factor influencing China's forest health condition, the author firstly analyzed the connotation of forest health and concluded that the ideal healthy forests were those that had certain resistance and could normally grow without being threatened by factors such as forest fire, harmful organisms (plants, pestilence, insect pests, and so on), meteorological disasters, air pollution and deforestation. Meanwhile, the function or value of forest including underground water, recreation location, wild animal protection, wood supply and self-updating would not be affected. It then analyzed all factors influencing China' s forest health and illustrated all the urgent problems confronting research on forest health risks. Finally it envisioned the research on China' s forest health from the aspects of forest health risk indicator system establishment, evaluation of each forest health risk indicator's influence on forest damage or losses, regulation of insurance rate of each forest health risk indicator, forest category, forest structure, forest industry structure adjustment and forest health management policy. It was believed that this research was significant for the _ sustainable development of forest health and could provide efficient methods for management of future forest resources.%为了摸清影响中国森林健康的各风险因子,笔者先明晰了森林健康的内涵,认为理想的健康森林应是在森林火灾、有害生物灾害(植物、病、虫害等)、气象灾害、空气污染、林木采伐等众多风险因素影响下,森林的正常生长不会因此受到威胁,且具有一定的抵抗能力,同时森林所具有的涵养水源、游憩、野生动物保护、提供木材、自我更新等功能和价值不会因此受到影响;再分析了影响目前中国森林健康的各风险因子;同时,论述了国内外关于森林健康风险研究仍面临亟待解决的问题;最后,从森林健康风险指标体系

  9. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  10. Invasive forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2006-01-01

    Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazards–are now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...

  11. Motivations for rule compliance in support of forest health: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kim; Diss-Torrance, Andrea

    2014-06-15

    This study replicates and extends research conducted in 2008. Based on a random sample of 800 campers who used Wisconsin state parks and forests in 2010, it confirms that calculated, normative, and social motivations are all important determinants of firewood movement rule compliance, a context where regulatees have primarily sporadic short-term interests, and where costs of compliance and non-compliance are both low. The study uses bi-variate statistical tests and recursive partitioning (standard and conditional permutation random forests) for analysis, and discusses findings from the perspective of a natural resources regulator of activities in multiple domains (e.g., business and recreational uses of forests in both rural and urban settings). It demonstrates how knowledge of motivations for compliance can inform two integrative research and analysis frameworks - motivational postures and social marketing, and discusses how affect and social norms may be utilized to improve regulator effectiveness.

  12. Aspects of Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter;

    2010-01-01

    The insider threat has received considerable attention, and is often cited as the most serious security problem. It is also considered the most difficult problem to deal with, because an “insider” has information and capabilities not known to external attackers. The difficulty in handling the ins...

  13. Cyber Intelligence Threat Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    possible direction of their behavior. and determines their interest in targeting the organization. t Intrinsic (personally rewarding ) Extrinsic (receive...external reward or avoid punishment) Software Engineering Institute I Cm·nt·git• .\\lellon Lnin·r·sity Targeted Data Understanding what a threat

  14. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    on to discuss a number of approaches from the technological, the sociological, and the socio-technical domain. We draw two main conclusions. Tackling insider threats requires a combination of techniques from the technical, the sociological, and the socio-technical domain, to enable qualified detection...

  15. Caribbean dry forest networking: an opportunity for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Banda-Rodriguez; J. Weintritt; R.T. Pennington

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forest is the most threatened tropical forest in the world. Though its overall plant species diversity is lower than in neighboring biomes such as rain forest, species endemism can be high, and its conservation has often been neglected. Caribbean dry forests face diverse threats including tourism, agriculture, and climate change. The Latin...

  16. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tranquilli

    Full Text Available Numerous protected areas (PAs have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  17. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  18. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  19. Air pollution, precipitation chemistry and forest health in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA (United States)]. E-mail: abytnerowicz@fs.fed.us; Badea, Ovidiu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Popescu, Flaviu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Simeria (Romania); Musselman, Robert [USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Tanase, Mihai [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Barbu, Ioan [Forest Research and Management Institute, Campulung Moldovenecs (Romania); Fraczek, Witold [Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA (United States); Gembasu, Nicolae [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Surdu, Aurelia [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Danescu, Florin [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Postelnicu, Daniela [ESRI Romania, Bucharest (Romania); Cenusa, Radu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Campulung Moldovenecs (Romania); Vasile, Cristian [ESRI Romania, Bucharest (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    In the Retezat Mountains concentrations of O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in summer season 2000-2002 were low and below toxicity levels for forest trees. While NH{sub 3} concentrations were low in 2000, the 2001 and 2002 concentrations were elevated indicating possibility for increased N deposition to forest stands. More than 90% of the rain events were acidic with pH values <5.5, contributing to increased acidity of soils. Crown condition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was good, however, defoliation described as >25% of foliage injured increased from 9.1% in 2000 to 16.1% in 2002. Drought that occurred in the southern Carpathians between fall 2000 and summer 2002 and frequent acidic rainfalls could cause the observed decline of forest condition. Both Norway spruce and European beech with higher defoliation had lower annual radial increments compared to the trees with low defoliation. Ambient O{sub 3} levels found in the Retezat did not affect crown condition of Norway spruce or European beech. - Retezat Mountains are characterized by relatively clean air, acidic precipitation, and healthy, well growing forests.

  20. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  1. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  2. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community Disparities in Lung Health Series "Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community" is part of the American Lung Association's ...

  3. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  4. Bioterrorism: is it a real threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, René; Preiser, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    The Geneva Protocol of 1925 commits the signatory nations to refraining from the use of biological weapons. However, the terrorist assaults of September 2001 and, subsequently, the anthrax-containing letters are cause for great concerns: new threats to the security of nations are expected, as terrorist organizations seem to increasingly explore novel ways of spreading terror. In this context, naturally emerging diseases such as SARS, monkeypox or West Nile fever assume new importance because it is difficult to distinguish between natural epidemics and possible bioweapon assaults. Great efforts on the part of governments and public health authorities are necessary to counteract these threats.

  5. The Construction of Farmland Protection Forest and Farmland Shelterbelt Threat to Prevention%农田防护林建设及其农田防护林胁地的预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任国庆

    2012-01-01

      Farmland shelterbelt is the use of the forest protection efficiency and in the farmland by certain specifications build criss-cross forest belt. Liaoning area shelter belt mainly is to protect the farmers day, make crops from sand storms, drought, frost and other natural disasters harm, the regulation of climate, high yield and stable for farmland to create conditions.%  农田防护林是利用森林的防护效能而在农田中按一定规格标准营造的纵横交错的林带。辽宁地区防护林带主要是保护农天,使作物免受风沙、干旱,霜冻等自然灾害的危害,调节气候,为农田稳产高产创造条件。

  6. Threat in dreams: an adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark; Turnbull, Oliver; Tredoux, Colin

    2008-12-01

    Revonsuo's influential Threat Simulation Theory (TST) predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions. Participants in a high crime area (South Africa: n=208) differed significantly from participants in a low crime area (Wales, UK: n=116) in having greater recent exposure to a life-threatening event (chi([1,N=186])(2)=14.84, pdreams (chi([1,N=287])(2)=6.11, pdream threats (Fisher's Exact test, p=.2478). Overall, the incidence of threat in dreams was extremely low-less than 20% of dreams featured realistic survival threats. Escape from dream threats occurred in less than 2% of dreams. We conclude that this evidence contradicts key aspects of TST.

  7. Nuclear Threats and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Garry Jacobs; Winston P. Nagan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legalit...

  8. Flexible training under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties.

  9. Bluetooth Threat Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Dunning, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Since its release in 1999, Bluetooth has become a commonly used technology available on billions of devices through the world. Bluetooth is a wireless technology used for information transfer by devices such as Smartphones, headsets, keyboard/mice, laptops/desktops, video game systems, automobiles, printers, heart monitors, and surveillance cameras. Dozens of threats have been developed by researchers and hackers which targets these Bluetooth enabled devices. The work in this thesis provides ...

  10. Globalization and international trade in the twenty-first century: opportunities for and threats to the health sector in the south.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, E; McLeod, K

    2000-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are important forces at the turn of the century. This article explores how freer international trade will affect developing countries that are net importers of health care goods and services. Four commodities are used as special cases for discussion: pharmaceuticals, health care technologies, pesticides, and tobacco and its related products. The authors discuss the role of international specialized agencies, such as the World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, and World Bank, that are concerned with international trade and its health and health care consequences, and argue that closer collaboration is required among these agencies if the negative effects of trade liberalization on developing countries are to be mitigated. The authors pose a number of research questions that could help in developing proactive policies for the South on the trade of goods and services with harmful effects on health as well as those with potential health and economic benefits.

  11. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  12. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  13. Analysing non-malicious threats to urban smart grids by interrelating threats and threat taxonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr; Montoya, L.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the smart grid threat landscape is important for designing resilient urban grids of the future. To this end, an analysis could first cross reference threat categorizations and interrelate treat events on the basis of threat lists that complement each other. This paper show

  14. The threat from without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassi Saressalo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Of greatest importance in ethnic folklore are the recognised and unrecognised elements that are used when founding identity on tradition. For the aim of ethnic identification is to note and know the cultural features that connect me with people like me and separate me from people who are not like me. Every group and each of its members thus needs an opponent, a contact partner in order to identify itself. What about the Lapps? The ethnocentric values of ethnic folklore provide a model for this generalising comparison. 'They' are a potential danger, are unknown, strange, a threat from beyond the fells. They are sufficiently common for the group's ethnic feeling. It is here that we find tradition, folk tales, describing the community's traditional enemies, describing the threat from without, engendering preconceived ideas, conflicts and even war. The Lapps have never had an empire, they have never conquered others' territory, they have never engaged in systematic warfare against other peoples. For this reason Lapp tradition lacks an offensive ethnic folklore proper with emphasis on aggression, power, violence, heroism and an acceptance of the ideology of subordinating others. On the contrary,Lapp folklore is familiar with a tradition in which strangers are always threatening the Lapps' existence, plundering their territories, burning and destroying. The Lapp has always had to fight against alien powers, to give in or to outwit the great and powerful enemy. In the Lapp tradition the staalo represents an outside threat that cannot be directly concretised. If foes are regarded as concrete enemies that may be defeated in physical combat or that can be made to look ridiculous, a staalo is more mythical, more supranormal, more vague. One basic feature of the staalo tradition is that it only appears as one party to a conflict. The stories about the Lapp who succeeds in driving away a staalo threatening the community, to outwit the stupid giant or to kill

  15. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  16. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  17. Disturbing forest disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats

  18. Little Threat of Zika Spread from Rio Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Little Threat of Zika Spread From Rio Olympics: Study Because it's winter in Brazil, mosquito activity ... HealthDay News) -- Travelers and competitors at the 2016 Olympic Games in Brazil are not likely to contract ...

  19. Exotic mosquito threats require strategic surveillance and response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cameron E; Doggett, Stephen L

    2016-12-14

    Mosquito-borne diseases caused by endemic pathogens such as Ross River, Barmah Forest and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses are an annual concern in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. More than a dozen mosquito species have been implicated in the transmission of these pathogens, with each mosquito occupying a specialised ecological niche that influences their habitat associations, host feeding preferences and the environmental drivers of their abundance. The NSW Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Monitoring Program provides an early warning system for potential outbreaks of mosquito-borne disease by tracking annual activity of these mosquitoes and their associated pathogens. Although the program will effectively track changes in local mosquito populations that may increase with a changing climate, urbanisation and wetland rehabilitation, it will be less effective with current surveillance methodologies at detecting or monitoring changes in exotic mosquito threats, where different surveillance strategies need to be used. Exotic container-inhabiting mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus pose a threat to NSW because they are nuisance-biting pests and vectors of pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. International movement of humans and their belongings have spread these mosquitoes to many regions of the world. In recent years, these two mosquitoes have been detected by the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources at local airports and seaports. To target the detection of these exotic mosquitoes, new trapping technologies and networks of surveillance locations are required. Additionally, incursions of these mosquitoes into urban areas of the state will require strategic responses to minimise substantial public health and economic burdens to local communities.

  20. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3% were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ.

  1. The interRAI Acute Care instrument incorporated in an eHealth system for standardized and web-based geriatric assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the acute hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Els; Wellens, Nathalie I H; Flamaing, Johan; Declercq, Anja; Moons, Philip; Boonen, Steven; Milisen, Koen

    2013-09-05

    The interRAI Acute Care instrument is a multidimensional geriatric assessment system intended to determine a hospitalized older persons' medical, psychosocial and functional capacity and needs. Its objective is to develop an overall plan for treatment and long-term follow-up based on a common set of standardized items that can be used in various care settings. A Belgian web-based software system (BelRAI-software) was developed to enable clinicians to interpret the output and to communicate the patients' data across wards and care organizations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the (dis)advantages of the implementation of the interRAI Acute Care instrument as a comprehensive geriatric assessment instrument in an acute hospital context. In a cross-sectional multicenter study on four geriatric wards in three acute hospitals, trained clinical staff (nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, and geriatricians) assessed 410 inpatients in routine clinical practice. The BelRAI-system was evaluated by focus groups, observations, and questionnaires. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats were mapped (SWOT-analysis) and validated by the participants. The primary strengths of the BelRAI-system were a structured overview of the patients' condition early after admission and the promotion of multidisciplinary assessment. Our study was a first attempt to transfer standardized data between home care organizations, nursing homes and hospitals and a way to centralize medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. With the BelRAI-software, privacy of data is guaranteed. Weaknesses are the time-consuming character of the process and the overlap with other assessment instruments or (electronic) registration forms. There is room for improving the user-friendliness and the efficiency of the software, which needs hospital-specific adaptations. Opportunities are a timely and systematic problem detection and continuity of care. An actual shortage of

  2. Intergovernmental Unity of Effort in Support of Biological Threat Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    96  xii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Health Security Policy Biological Threat...level. Retrieved September 18, 2012, from http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_threats/com/preparedness/docs/HEOF_en.pdf. Europa a Constitution for Europe...home.html. Europa Summaries of EU Legislation (2008, September). The fight against bioterrorism (communication). Retrieved January 15, 2011, from

  3. IA-D3: An Assessment Process for Military Health Support in Stability Operations (MSOs), Enabling Medical Diplomacy for Countering Irregular Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    health, pediatrics , tropical medicine, geriatrics])?. (2) Do medical persom1el have training or experience in CMO (language/cultural skills, civil...34Developing Future Command Surgeons and Staff for Joint Operations and Assignments." JCOA Journal (Summer 2010): 51. 34 APPENDIX A - HSSChecklist...health, pediatrics , adequate number of female providers, etc.)? (3) .Will other MNF (multinational force) nations conduct or support medical civil

  4. The influence of chemical characteristics of precipitation on tree health in Banjica Forest (Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most represented tree species in the Banjica Forest are Acer negundo, Quercus robur, Acer pseudoplatanus, Populus nigra, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Fraxinus ornus and Robinia pseudoacacia. According to the ICP Forests combined assessment (degree of defoliation and decolorization, endangered species are Populus nigra (64.3% of heavily damaged trees, Quercus robur (45.5%, Fraxinus pennsylvanica (37.0% and Acer negundo (26.6%, while the situation is much better for Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus ornus. For Robinia pseudoacacia, 83% of trees are without decolorization, however, defoliation is established. In the period from April to October 2009, the average pH of rainwater was 5.46, and 5.18 in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- in the period from April to October 2009 amounted to an average of 24.21 mg/l, and 28.87 mg/l in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- and pH values is a possible explanation for the condition of the trees. [Acknowledgments. The results are a part of the project III47007 funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  5. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things

  6. Wild harvests from Scottish woodlands: an exploration of the health and well-being of non-timber forest products collection and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Martin; Marla Emery; Alison Dyke

    2005-01-01

    Small-scale gathering of nontimber forest products (NTFPs) - wild edibles, medicinals, craft materials, etc. - has a range of benefits which have a specific bearing on the health and well-being of gatherers in contemporary Scottish society. The information discussed in this paper is drawn from qualitative research which focused on identifying and understanding the...

  7. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  8. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  9. Environmental Health: High-level Strategy and Leadership Needed to Continue Progress toward Protecting Children from Environmental Threats. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to toxic chemicals or environmental pollutants may harm the health of the nation's 74 million children and contribute to increases in asthma and developmental impairments. In 2007, 66 percent of children lived in counties exceeding allowable levels for at least one of the six principal air pollutants that cause or aggravate asthma,…

  10. Beyond Threats to Health: May Consumers' Interests in Safety Trump Fundamental Freedoms in Information on Foodstuffs? Reflections on Berger v Freistaat Bayern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this case the ECJ emphasizes that public authorities may issue warnings about foodstuffs that are no risk to consumers’ health, but are unsafe as they are unfit for human consumption. The Court backs up its reasoning by the wording of Art. 17 (2) of Regulation No 178/2002, which allows Member Sta

  11. Factors governing speed of societal responses to threats: precision of definition of the threat may be more important than its anticipated likely severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, N J

    2002-11-01

    Responses to two recent international public health threats, AIDS and BSE, both exemplify missed opportunities for early intervention. They are in contrast to the response to the Y2K computer issue, a threat of lesser-anticipated consequence but one that was more precisely defined. Lessons from these experiences should inform the public health response to new threats, such as the emergence of multiple drug resistance in human pathogens.

  12. Moving threat : Attention and distance change interact in threat responding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudova, I.; Krypotos, A.-M.; Effting, M.; Kindt, M.; Beckers, T.

    2017-01-01

    Defensive reactions need to be quick and appropriate to ensure survival. Thus, it is crucial that threats trigger immediate action upon detection, even in the absence of awareness. In addition, the form of such action should be appropriate to the imminence of the threat. Thus, attention should be

  13. Innate health threat among a visibly hidden immigrant group: a formative field data analysis for HIV/AIDS prevention among Zimbabwean workers in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Chikombero, Mandi; Modie-Moroka, Tirelo

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the collapse of the national economy and political instability, Zimbabwe has experienced a diaspora in recent years. Although Zimbabweans are now the largest immigrant group in most sub-Saharan countries, Zimbabwean immigrants are a mostly illegal and socioeconomically marginalized population. This study explores the lives of Zimbabwean workers in Botswana from a health communication perspective and provides suggestions for accelerating the diffusion of HIV/AIDS prevention information and practices among the target population. In particular, this ethnographic report portrays how the Zimbabwean workers in Botswana make sense of their surroundings and perceive information on HIV/AIDS prevention and other public health risks. Field data analysis highlights several communication features among the immigrants, including reliance on interpersonal communication, high rate of mobile phone adoption, inaccurate public awareness on HIV/AIDS and prevention messages, and stagnated communication with health care services. By connecting Dervin's sensemaking theory to Roger's diffusion of innovations theory, the suggestions from this study can be applied to design HIV/AIDS prevention interventions for the immigrants and socioeconomically marginalized groups.

  14. Examining the ecosystem health and sustainability of the world's largest mangrove forest using multi-temporal MODIS products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque, Asif; Myint, Soe W; Wang, Chuyuan

    2016-11-01

    Sweeping across Bangladesh and India, the Sundarbans forest is the world's largest contiguous mangrove forest. Although the human population density is high at the edge, Sundarbans has not encountered significant areal transformation in the last four decades. However, we argue that forest degradation can occur discontinuously within the forest without alteration of the entire forest area. In this paper, we used MODIS land products to compare the spatiotemporal ecological dynamics of the Bangladesh and Indian part of this mangrove forest between 2000 and 2010. We used the following 5 ecological parameters for our analysis: the Percent Tree Cover (PTC), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Evapotranspiration (ET). Our pixel-based time-series trend analysis for each MODIS image stack, using an ordinary least square (OLS) regression method, showed that forest degradation is happening in fragmented parcels within the forest. The degradation rate is comparatively higher in the Bangladesh part than in the Indian part of Sundarbans. Compartments 8, 10, 12, and 15 in the Bangladesh part, in particular, show high degradation, while compartment 48 and the southern edge of 45 show slight increases in PTC or EVI. Forest degradation in the Indian part of the forest is evident in the National Park and Reserve Forest blocks; however, no substantial degradation is evident in the western section. We have identified certain anthropogenic stressors (i.e., oil pollution, shrimp farming) and natural stressors (i.e., increased salinity, cyclones, forest fire) which might be responsible for the observed degradation. We have provided sustainable planning options and policy transformation alternatives for those areas under pressure from these stressors. We anticipate that our analysis of forest degradation will help management agencies, conservators, and policy makers achieve better management of this world's largest mangrove forest for

  15. Adaptation of Asia-Pacific forests to climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyu Wang; John L Innes; Tongli Wang; Haijun Kang; Shari Mang; Brianne Riehl; Brad Seely; Shirong Liu; Futao Guo; Qinglin Li

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems throughout the Asia-Pacific region. The loss of forests due to climate-induced stress will have extensive adverse impacts on biodiversity and an array of ecosystem services that are essential for the maintenance of local economies and public health. Despite their importance, there is a lack of decision-support tools required to evaluate the potential effects of climate change on Asia-Pacific ecosystems and economies and to aid in the development of regionally appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. The project Adaptation of Asia-Pacific Forests to Climate Change, summarized herein, aims to address this lack of knowledge and tools and to provide support for regional managers to develop effective policy to increase the adaptive capacity of Asia-Pacific forest ecosystems. This objective has been achieved through the following activities:(1) development of a high-resolution climate downscaling model, ClimateAP, appli-cable to any location in the region; (2) development of climate niche models to evaluate how climate change might affect the distribution of suitable climatic conditions for regionally important tree species;(3) development and application of forest models to assess alternative manage-ment strategies in the context of management objectives and the projected impacts of climate change;(4) evaluation of models to assess forest fire risk and the relationship between forest fire and climate change;(5) development of a technique to assess ecosystem carbon storage using LiDAR; and (6) evaluation of how vegetation dynamics respond to climate change using remote sensing technol-ogy. All project outputs were developed with a focus on communication and extension to facilitate the dissemina-tion of results to regional forest resource managers to support the development of effective mitigation and adaptation policy.

  16. The impact of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on pregnancy outcomes, infant health, and the threat of third-hand smoke exposure to our environment and to our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, T Allen; Mazela, Jan; Adamczak, Aleksandra; Merritt, Travis

    2012-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with various adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, carries a lot of serious complications such as spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, and reduced birth weight of the newborn. Children of smoking mothers have an increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory diseases during infancy. Smoking also causes long-term risk of maternal health problems such as: heart disease, cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and higher mortality rate. Because women are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy than at any other time, there are attempts to increase motivation and help them to stop smoking at the procreative phase of their life. The article describes interventions that are carried out in Loma Linda, where the educational program "When You Smoke Your Baby Smokes" reminds parents about the health effects of smoking during pregnancy and harmful impact on child's health caused by second-hand smoke. Another threat to health and environment of our children, is the nicotine coming from indirect exposure to tobacco smoke. Residual nicotine that persists in high concentrations on the interior surfaces, including clothing, is forming in the reaction of nitric acid carcinogenic compounds of specific nitrosamines. In addition, ozone and related atmospheric oxidants react with nicotine smoke or smoke coming from the second-hand smoke, giving the smallest particles with high risk of asthma. Efforts towards reducing exposure to tobacco smoke coming from the passive and indirect smoking should be placed at a high priority throughout the European Union.

  17. Aboriginal health learning in the forest and cultivated gardens: building a nutritious and sustainable food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroink, Mirella L; Nelson, Connie H

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program.

  18. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  19. Communication issues during bomb threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, S A

    How should healthcare security professionals handle a bomb threat? How can a large complex best be searched? The author discusses why he believes the judicial use of radios and cellular phones during emergencies can enhance security's ability to handle bomb threat situations, and offers guidelines to follow.

  20. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  1. Forest in My Neighborhood: An Exercise Using Aerial Photos to Engage Students in Forest Ecology & Land Use History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Glenn R.; McEwan, Ryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Human activity has profoundly altered the deciduous forest of the eastern United States. Modern forest is a patchwork of stands of varying ages, sizes, and shapes reflecting a complex history of land use. Much modern forest is nestled in and around human communities, and faces the threat of imminent clearance for residential and commercial…

  2. Forest in My Neighborhood: An Exercise Using Aerial Photos to Engage Students in Forest Ecology & Land Use History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Glenn R.; McEwan, Ryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Human activity has profoundly altered the deciduous forest of the eastern United States. Modern forest is a patchwork of stands of varying ages, sizes, and shapes reflecting a complex history of land use. Much modern forest is nestled in and around human communities, and faces the threat of imminent clearance for residential and commercial…

  3. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful.

  4. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  5. Endemicity of H9N2 and H5N1 avian influenza viruses in poultry in China poses a serious threat to poultry industry and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao HU,Xiufan LIU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The H9N2 and H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs have been circulating in poultry in China and become endemic since 1998 and 2004, respectively. Currently, they are prevalent in poultry throughout China. This endemicity makes them actively involved in the emergence of the novel lineages of other subtypes of influenza viruses, such as the well-known viruses of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N2 and the 2013 novel H7N7, H7N9 and H10N8 subtypes, thereby threatening both the poultry industry and public health. Here, we will review briefly the prevalence and evolution, pathogenicity, transmission, and disease control of these two subtypes and also discuss the possibility of emergence of potentially virulent and highly transmissible AIVs to humans.

  6. Reassessing biological threats: Implications for cooperative mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine Grace Young

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple factors ranging from globalization to ecosystem disruption are presenting the global community with evolving biological threats to local, national, and global security that reach beyond the realm of traditional bioweapons threats. As a result, mitigation strategies have adapted necessarily to the increased diversity of biological threats. In general, response and preparedness strategies have largely shifted from being primarily reactive to traditional biological weapons to more proactive in nature. In this review, we briefly explore biological threats through a wider aperture, to embrace a deeper appreciation of viral pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and agricultural pathogens, and their potential to cause civil, economic, and political devastation. In addition we discuss current mitigation strategies codified by the Global Health Security Agenda and the One Health paradigm, as well as some of the available tools to assist with their sustainable implementation.

  7. [Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbereau, S

    2006-12-01

    The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world.

  8. Stereotype Threat as Validity Threat: The Anxiety-Sex-Threat Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

    2008-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been invoked to explain underperformance on a variety of groups for whom the stereotypes allege inferior cognitive abilities. In math testing, stereotype threat has been used to explain sex differences in test performance. This paper describes an experimental study on a large sample (n = 313), in which the role of anxiety and…

  9. Disruption of calcium nutrition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire) alters the health and productivity of red spruce and sugar maple trees and provides lessons pertinent to other sites and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley

    2010-01-01

    Pollution-induced acidification and other anthropogenic factors are leaching calcium (Ca) and mobilizing aluminum (Al) in many forest soils. Because Ca is an essential nutrient and Al is a potential toxin, resulting depletions of Ca and increases in available Al may significantly alter the health and productivity of forest trees. Controlled experiments on red spruce (...

  10. 水源涵养林健康评价指标系统的结构解析%Structure analysis of forest ecosystem health assessment indicators system of water conservation forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 张会儒; 熊志祥; 王传立; 刘帅

    2014-01-01

    For the status of forest health indicators too much, too inundant, lack of operability and ambiguous, a water conservation forest health assessment indicator system has been established from five aspects such as vitality of system, structure, system resilience, woodland and forest management, screening out 30 indicators in stand scale. According to the principles of systems science, the structure and hierarchy of the correlation between the indexes of water conservation forest health evaluation index system were analyzed by applying the improved analytic structural model. After the structure analysis, and the water conservation forest health assessment index system was set up. On this basis, the indexes and factors of the system were quantitatively studied by adopting the combination entropy correction with AHP weight combined method. The results show that the water conservation forest health assessment indicator system is a five-echelon system, the effects of volume of the unit area, height of average tree, average DBH and on annual volume growth in the first level system indicators of water conservation forest health were the biggest five indexes, and the effect of dead inverted wood number on the water conservation forest health in fifth level of the system was the minimum. Through the forest health assessment, the indicator system was established with hierarchy clear and well-structured relations. According to the hiberarchy of hierarchical system, the more reasonable, credibility and more consistent with the actual situation index weight were obtained. The findings will be an academic basis for the water conservation forest health assessment and health management practice.%针对森林健康评价指标过多、过泛、可操作性不强、含义不清的现状,在深入分析西洞庭湖区水源涵养林结构特征的基础上,从系统活力、林分结构、系统恢复力、林地环境和森林经营5个方面筛选30个指标建立林分尺度

  11. Modelling ultraviolet threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, I.

    2016-10-01

    Electro-optically (EO) guided surface to air missiles (SAM) have developed to use Ultraviolet (UV) wavebands supplementary to the more common Infrared (IR) wavebands. Missiles such as the US Stinger have been around for some time but are not considered a proliferation risk. The Chinese FN-16 and Russian SA-29 (Verba) are considered a much higher proliferation risk. As a result, models of the missile seekers must be developed to understand the characteristics of the seeker and the potential performance enhancement that are included. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to introduce the steps that have been taken to characterise and model these missiles. It begins by outlining some of the characteristics of the threats, the key elements of a UV scene, the potential choice of waveband for a detector, the initial modelling work to represent the UV detector of the missile and presents initial results. The modelling shows that the UV detection range of a typical aircraft is dependent on both the size of the aircraft and its reflectivity. However, the strength of this correlation is less than expected. As a result, further work is required to model more seeker types and to investigate what is causing the weak correlations found in these initial investigations. In addition, there needs to be further study of the sensitivities of the model to other variables, such as the modelled detectivity of the detector and the signal to noise ratio assumed. Overall, the outcome of this work will be to provide specifications for aircraft size and reflectivity that limit the effectiveness of the UV channels.

  12. Effects of livestock exclusion on tree regeneration in church forests of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, A.; Sterck, F.J.; Teketay, D.; Bongers, F.

    2009-01-01

    In Ethiopia, forests near churches, are the last remnant forest patches. These forests are currently under threat, probably due to diminishing areas of the forest itself and repeated grazing for extended periods by cattle. We assessed the effect of livestock exclusion on the regeneration of four

  13. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children.

  14. Benefits and costs of improved cookstoves: assessing the implications of variability in health, forest and climate impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuland, Marc A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K

    2012-01-01

    Current attention to improved cook stoves (ICS) focuses on the "triple benefits" they provide, in improved health and time savings for households, in preservation of forests and associated ecosystem services, and in reducing emissions that contribute to global climate change. Despite the purported economic benefits of such technologies, however, progress in achieving large-scale adoption and use has been remarkably slow. This paper uses Monte Carlo simulation analysis to evaluate the claim that households will always reap positive and large benefits from the use of such technologies. Our analysis allows for better understanding of the variability in economic costs and benefits of ICS use in developing countries, which depend on unknown combinations of numerous uncertain parameters. The model results suggest that the private net benefits of ICS will sometimes be negative, and in many instances highly so. Moreover, carbon financing and social subsidies may help enhance incentives to adopt, but will not always be appropriate. The costs and benefits of these technologies are most affected by their relative fuel costs, time and fuel use efficiencies, the incidence and cost-of-illness of acute respiratory illness, and the cost of household cooking time. Combining these results with the fact that households often find these technologies to be inconvenient or culturally inappropriate leads us to understand why uptake has been disappointing. Given the current attention to the scale up of ICS, this analysis is timely and important for highlighting some of the challenges for global efforts to promote ICS.

  15. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. A. Curi; Paschoal,A. M. O.; Massara,R. L.; SANTOS, H. A.; Guimarães,M.P.; M. Passamani; Chiarello,A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitologi...

  16. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  17. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  18. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  19. Health assessment of pine forest as affected by geothermal activities: Presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig) (Homoptera: Aphidae) associated with higher concentrations of boron on pine needles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora

    2014-01-01

    .... In the geothermal field "Los Humeros", located between the borders of the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico was realized a forest health monitoring to know the assessment could have these emissions of sulphur...

  20. Community-based Forest Resources Management in Nigeria: Case study of Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Borokini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption of this approach in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, where the communities weretrained in establishment and management of forest plantations with readily available market for theirtimber; employment for some of the community youths as well as community development projects.This paper calls for the adoption of this system in other protected areas in Nigeria, while theGovernment should provide basic amenities for the communities as alternatives to those forest products.Keywords: Community-based forest management, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Protected areas, Nigeria.

  1. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  2. Assessing the global threat from Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Justin; Chaisson, Lelia H; Kucirka, Lauren M; Bi, Qifang; Grantz, Kyra; Salje, Henrik; Carcelen, Andrea C; Ott, Cassandra T; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Ferguson, Neil M; Cummings, Derek A T; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    First discovered in 1947, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remained a little-known tropical disease until 2015, when its apparent association with a considerable increase in the incidence of microcephaly in Brazil raised alarms worldwide. There is limited information on the key factors that determine the extent of the global threat from ZIKV infection and resulting complications. Here, we review what is known about the epidemiology, natural history, and public health effects of ZIKV infection, the empirical basis for this knowledge, and the critical knowledge gaps that need to be filled.

  3. Zika Virus: Old Rival, New Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV, originally isolated in 1947, caused a worldwide epidemic between January 2014 and February 2016 in which a total of 39 countries have reported autochthonous circulation (33 or indirect evidence of local transmission (6. The total area affected by ZIKV infection is expanding steadily. ZIKV has become a new threat to public health, and the recent cluster of microcephaly and other neurologic disorders suspected to be due to ZIKV has lead the World Health Organization to announce that it is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Because of its current importance, this review summarizes the currently available data on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, and transmission of ZIKV and its related diseases.

  4. Assessment of microbial health hazards associated with wastewater application to willow coppice, coniferous forest and wetland systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlander, Anneli

    2006-04-15

    Treatment and reuse of wastewater by irrigation of willow coppice, forest or wetlands may create new exposure routes for pathogens. This thesis summarises results from a series of field and laboratory studies aimed at identifying and quantifying the microbial health hazards associated with such alternative wastewater treatment systems. Leaching and retention of viruses in the soil-plant system were studied in a lysimeter experiment using a bacteriophage as model organism. The presence and die-off of pathogens was studied in three full-scale systems with wastewater irrigation of willow in southern Sweden. The reduction in pathogens was also studied in microcosms under controlled conditions. In addition, the presence and die-off of pathogens in two wetlands was studied. Finally, a risk assessment was made in order to identify and quantify the most important exposure routes of pathogens. In the Swedish full-scale systems, the average reduction in microorganisms in the wastewater treatment plants was in the range 1.3-2.5 log10. Analyses of faeces collected in the irrigated area did not indicate an increase in pathogens in mammals and birds, whereas indicator organisms were detected in foliage and in some groundwater samples in the fields. The results of the lysimeter study showed very high retention of viruses in sandy soils, whereas leaching to groundwater was substantial and extremely rapid in the clay soil. In the microcosm study Campylobacter were rapidly reduced (<3 h) while Salmonella bacteria were highly resistant. No single factor (light, temperature or radiation) was found to govern the reduction. In the wetlands studied, the reduction in suspended particles seemed to be the main factor controlling bacterial elimination from the water phase. In the sediment, survival of microorganisms was prolonged. The theoretical microbial risk assessment indicated a substantial risk of viral infections caused by direct contact with the wastewater, with aerosols from

  5. Comparison of NASA OMI and MLS Ozone Products with US Forest Service Ground-based Ozone Monitoring Data for US Forest Service Air Quality / Forest Management Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.; Brooks, A.; Moussa, Y.; Spencer, T.; Thompson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone, formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight, is a significant threat to the health of US National Forests. Approximately one third of ozone is absorbed by plants during the uptake of carbon dioxide. This increases the vegetation's susceptibility to drought, beetle infestation, and wildfire. Currently the US Forest Service has ground monitoring stations sparsely located across the country. This project looks specifically at the area surrounding several Class I Wilderness Areas in the Appalachian region. These areas are the highest priority for protection from air pollutants. The Forest Service must interpolate ozone concentrations for areas between these monitoring stations. Class I Wilderness Areas are designated by the Forest Service and are defined as a total 5000 acres or greater when the Clean Air Act was passed in 1977. This Act mandated that the EPA create national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants including ground-level ozone. This project assessed the feasibility of incorporating NASA ozone data into Forest Service ozone monitoring in an effort to enhance the accuracy and precision of ozone exposure measurements in Class I Wilderness Areas and other federally managed lands in order to aid in complying with the Clean Air Act of 1977. This was accomplished by establishing a method of comparison between a preliminary data product produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses OMI/MLS data to derive global tropospheric ozone measurements and Forest Service ozone monitoring station measurements. Once a methodology for comparison was established, statistical comparisons of these data were performed to assess the quantitative differences.

  6. Measurement invariance of the Short Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale and of the Health Empowerment Scale in German and French women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocchi, Serena; Labrie, Nanon H M; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    Measurement invariance is a crucial prerequisite to carry out cross-cultural research and to provide knowledge that enables culturally diverse patients to feel comfortable with their health providers. Although trust in doctors and health empowerment are widely studied, no previous research has examined their measurement invariance. The Short Wake Forest Physician Trust scale and the Health Empowerment scale were administered online. Participants were 217 German-speaking women ( M = 39.07, standard deviation = 5.71) and 217 French-speaking women ( M = 39.11, standard deviation = 5.82). Demonstration of partial scalar invariance was met and reasons for non-invariant items are discussed. The study was evaluated applying COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments checklist.

  7. Assessment of visible vegetation injury and forest health at Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, after Hurricane Hugo

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The forests and upland communities of the CRNWR have changed dramatically between 1988 and 1992. Although both the extent and magnitude of pollution-like...

  8. Threat image projection in CCTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, David; Thomas, Nicola; Baker, Bob

    2007-10-01

    Operators are key components in a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system, being the link between the system technology and its effective use. Operators' performance will largely determine the level of service provided by the system. There have been few studies testing operator performance, while much work has been done to test the performance of the technology. Previous work on CCTV operator performance carried out by the Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) has used filmed video and subjects who knew they were undergoing testing, meaning subjects are likely to be concentrating harder on performing well. HOSDB believes that there is a need for a test that would be able to be routinely used in a CCTV control room throughout the course of a normal shift to provide management with operational performance data. Threat Image Projection (TIP) is routinely used in X-Ray baggage scanners to keep operators alert to possible threats. At random intervals, a threat target image is superimposed over the image of the baggage being screened. The operator then responds to this threat. A similar system could be used for CCTV operators. A threat image would be randomly superimposed over the live CCTV feed and the operator would be expected to respond to this.

  9. Nano threats and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Worries in the science community about a public backlash against nanotechnology have been growing in recent months. Currently, public fears range from the reasonable, such as the unknown effects of nanoparticles on health and the environment, to what scientists consider to be the ridiculous - a world overrun by plagues of self-replicating nanorobots. This is the 'grey goo' scenario that looms large in Prey, the recent novel by Michael Crichton that seems to have kick-started this current bout of nano-angst. The nightmare scenario for scientists is that the public - egged on by various pressure groups - will reject nanotechnology in the same way that the UK and other countries have rejected genetically modified (GM) food. (U.K.)

  10. A Case Study of Nitrogen Saturation in Western U.S. Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Fenn

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtually complete nitrification of the available ammonium in soil and nitrification activity in the forest floor are important factors predisposing forests in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California to nitrogen (N saturation. As a result, inorganic N in the soil solution is dominated by nitrate. High nitrification rates also generate elevated nitric oxide (NO emissions from soil. High-base cation saturation of these soils means that soil calcium depletion or effects associated with soil acidification are not an immediate risk for forest health as has been postulated for mesic forests in the eastern U.S. Physiological disturbance (e.g., altered carbon [C] cycling, reduced fine root biomass, premature needle abscission of ozone-sensitive ponderosa pine trees exposed to high N deposition and high ozone levels appear to be the greater threat to forest sustainability. However, N deposition appears to offset the aboveground growth depression effects of ozone exposure. High nitrification activity reported for many western ecosystems suggests that with chronic N inputs these systems are prone to N saturation and hydrologic and gaseous losses of N. High runoff during the winter wet season in California forests under a Mediterranean climate may further predispose these watersheds to high nitrate leachate losses. After 4 years of N fertilization at a severely N saturated site in the San Bernardino Mountains, bole growth unexpectedly increased. Reduced C allocation below- ground at this site, presumably in response to ozone or N or both pollutants, may enhance the bole growth response to added N.

  11. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  12. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  13. Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  14. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, J. W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.;

    2016-01-01

    environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...... facilitate interdisciplinary research, ensuring decision-making that supports sustainable development........ Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...

  15. Potential of Pest and Host Phenological Data in the Attribution of Regional Forest Disturbance Detection Maps According to Causal Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman Steve; Christie, William

    2014-01-01

    Near real time forest disturbance detection maps from MODIS NDVI phenology data have been produced since 2010 for the conterminous U.S., as part of the on-line ForWarn national forest threat early warning system. The latter has been used by the forest health community to identify and track many regional forest disturbances caused by multiple biotic and abiotic damage agents. Attribution of causal agents for detected disturbances has been a goal since project initiation in 2006. Combined with detailed cover type maps, geospatial pest phenology data offer a potential means for narrowing the candidate causal agents responsible for a given biotic disturbance. U.S. Aerial Detection Surveys (ADS) employ such phenology data. Historic ADS products provide general locational data on recent insect-induced forest type specific disturbances that may help in determining candidate causal agents for MODIS-based disturbance maps, especially when combined with other historic geospatial disturbance data (e.g., wildfire burn scars and drought maps). Historic ADS disturbance detection polygons can show severe and extensive regional forest disturbances, though they also can show polygons with sparsely scattered or infrequent disturbances. Examples will be discussed that use various historic disturbance data to help determine potential causes of MODIS-detected regional forest disturbance anomalies.

  16. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization......Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  17. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  18. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  19. Approach and Significance of Biochemical Threats Event for Children and Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz

    2010-01-01

    Chemical and biologcal emergencies increasingly threaten the health and safety of people worldwide and are designed to create fear and cause harm to the general population. By the increase of biological and chemical agents and by becoming more aware of effects of its, nurses should be more informed to provide better healthcare to the affected patients during a threat and after a threat and to translate, to react quickly in all levels of threat situations. Children and pregnant women are parti...

  20. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  1. Understanding Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews current and anticipated cyber-related threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) and Critical Infrastructures (CI). The potential impact of cyber-terrorism to CII and CI has been coined many times since the term was first coined during the 1980s. Being the relevanc

  2. The threat of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daliakopoulos, I.N.; Tsanis, I.K.; Koutroulis, A.; Kourgialas, N.N.; Varouchakis, A.E.; Karatzas, G.P.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinisation is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring in Europe. The effects of salinisation can be observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Drivers of salinisation can be detected both in the natural and man-made environment, with climate and th

  3. Understanding Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews current and anticipated cyber-related threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) and Critical Infrastructures (CI). The potential impact of cyber-terrorism to CII and CI has been coined many times since the term was first coined during the 1980s. Being the

  4. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  5. Range-wide threats to a foundation tree species from disturbance interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen W. Dillon; Ross K. Meentemeyer; John B. Vogler; Richard C. Cobb; Margaret R. Metz; David M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    The geographic range of tanoak, Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S. H. Oh (Fagaceae), encompasses tremendous physiographic variability, diverse plant communities, and complex disturbance regimes (e.g., development, timber harvest, and wildfire) that now also include serious threats posed by the invasive forest...

  6. Advances of Air Pollution Science: From Forest Decline to Multiple-Stress Effects on Forest Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Paoletti; M. Schaub; R. Matyssek; G. Wieser; A. Augustaitis; A. M. Bastrup-Birk; A. Bytnerowicz; M. S. Gunthardt-Goerg; G. Muller-Starck; Y. Serengil

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of...

  7. 细菌耐药性:正悄然威胁人类和动物的健康%Antimicrobial Resistance:A silent threat for human, animal and environmental health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Burchard; 孙荣钊; 胡藕祥

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance(AMR)is an ancient mechanism that,after the industrializa-tion of antimicrobials(AM),became ubiquitous in its origin and detrimental consequences and cannot be confront-ed without a multidisciplinary approach. THE European Union and the international community have created initiatives to fight AMR and,different AMR surveillance programs have detected an alarming increase in AMR across the globe. This,together with the slow progress in the discovery of new antibiotic and other alternatives AM,represent a serious threat to global health. Lower percentages of AMR observed in the North of Europe are associated to the prudent use of AM and holistic approaches in the control of infections. These results that are a motive for optimism in the fight against AMR using comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches.%自抗菌药产业化以来,细菌耐药性问题就无处不在并造成严重的不良后果,研究发现只有多学科参与,采取综合措施才能应对此类问题。欧盟和国际社会提出了应对耐药性动议,多个耐药性监测项目发现全球对耐药性的关切不断增强。此外,新型抗生素及其替代品的研究进展缓慢,耐药性正严重威胁着人类健康。北欧因谨慎使用抗菌药及其综合防控措施行之有效,因而耐药性问题比较小。总的来说,多学科参与,采取综合性措施应对耐药性问题的效果相当乐观。

  8. Problems of Forest Management in Municipal Forests of the City of Poznań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaszczak Roman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some selected management problems in municipal forests occurring as a result of the increasing pressure on recreation and urbanization. The object of investigation was municipal forests of the city of Poznań. A thesis was formed that the consequences of the recreational pressure can be reduced through reasonable equipment of forest areas in appropriate recreational infrastructure. The second thesis put forward an assumption that an uncontrolled urban pressure posed a threat to the stability of ecosystems of municipal forests.

  9. Tropical grassy biomes: misunderstood, neglected, and under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Catherine L; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Bond, William J; Hoffmann, William A; Andersen, Alan N

    2014-04-01

    Tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) are globally extensive, provide critical ecosystem services, and influence the earth-atmosphere system. Yet, globally applied biome definitions ignore vegetation characteristics that are critical to their functioning and evolutionary history. Hence, TGB identification is inconsistent and misinterprets the ecological processes governing vegetation structure, with cascading negative consequences for biodiversity. Here, we discuss threats linked to the definition of TGB, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation schemes (REDD+), and enhanced atmospheric CO2, which may facilitate future state shifts. TGB degradation is insidious and less visible than in forested biomes. With human reliance on TGBs and their propensity for woody change, ecology and evolutionary history are fundamental to not only the identification of TGBs, but also their management for future persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Trial by fire : Postfire development of a tropical dipterocarp forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwstadt, Mark Geerten Lambertus van

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decades, uncontrolled forest fires have formed an increasing threat for tropical forests, often causing large-scale ecological and economic damage. My research shows that, even though the damage caused by the fire is enormous, a single fire does not cause the complete destruction of a

  11. Study and Practice of Forest-bathing Field in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunming; ZHENG; Xiaoya; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Japan has made remarkable achievements in the study and development of forest tourism for health care reason. Through the comprehensive investigation into the development of forest-bathing field in Japan, this paper studied the forest tourism for health care factor in Japan and concluded the evaluation standard and construction of forest-bathing field, as well as personnel training. In the end, some suggestions were proposed for the study and development of forest tourism for health care factor in Asia.

  12. The future of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.

  13. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  14. The Legal Side of Campus Threat Assessment and Management: What Student Counselors Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jeffrey J.; Moncure, Thomas M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies what student mental health professionals need to know about legal issues of relevance to threat assessment and management. The article summarizes the common law duties and the common law and statutory standards of care that are likely to apply to the work of college and university threat assessment and management teams. The…

  15. Is China Threat a Hoax?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Weigan; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing Olympics has focused unprecedented world attention on China this year. Many people hail the Games as an occasion that showcases China's growing contribution to world development and harmony. But intent on politicizing this global event, a few modern Cassandras still cling to the flawed China Threat theory. In this paper, the author traces the origins of this fallacious theory. He sees it as a product of Western empiricism viewed through an historical and philosophical prism. He argues that the assertion of threat arises from a generalization of historical facts. The assertion links China's growing clout with declining Western dominance in international affairs. Starting with the myth that peace is possible only among democracies, the theory predicts the inevitability of conflict between the West and China, a country with an alleged expansionist tradition and under an authoritarian system.

  16. Forest Histories & Forest Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The climate changes projected for the future will have significant consequences for forest ecosystems and our ability to manage them. It is reasonable to ask: Are there historical precedents that help us understand what might happen in the future or are historical perspectives becoming irrelevant? What synergisms and feedbacks might be expected between rapidly changing climate and land–use in different settings, especially at the wildland–urban interface? What lessons from the past might help...

  17. 76 FR 36896 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Forestwide Invasive Plant Treatment Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Forest Service Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Forestwide Invasive Plant Treatment Environmental... impact statement. SUMMARY: Invasive plants have been identified as a major threat to the biological diversity and ecological integrity within and outside the Salmon-Challis National Forest. Invasive plants...

  18. Forest-land conversion, ecosystem services, and economic issues for policy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Smail; David J. Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The continued conversion and development of forest land pose a serious threat to the ecosystem services derived from forested landscapes. We argue that developing an understanding of the full range of consequences from forest conversion requires understanding the effects of such conversion on both components of ecosystem services: products and processes....

  19. Cyber Terrorism– Global Security Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanoski, Mitko; Petreski, Drage

    2013-01-01

    It is more than obvious that the way of conducting terrorism with the time is becoming more sophisticated. The cyber terrorism is real threat to fast technology development. Potential targets are systems which control the nation’s defenses and critical infrastructure. The terrorist of the future will win the wars without firing a shot - just by destroying infrastructure that significantly relies on information technology. The fast growth of the Internet users and Internet dependence dramat...

  20. Subordinates as Threats to Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai; Segendorff, Björn

    2001-01-01

    A leader of an organization may view a subordinate as threatening or weakening the leader's position. The threat may increase with the subordinate's ability and reduce the rents the leader wins. In particular, a leader who trains his subordinate reduces the cost to the owner of a firm in replacing the leader, and so reduces the leader's bargaining power. The leader therefore provides inefficiently low training for the subordinate.

  1. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  2. Amphibian diversity and endemism in the swamp forests of Agusan Marsh, Agusan del Sur, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlita L. Almeria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Agusan Marsh, an ecologically significant wetland in the Philippines, consists of an extensivefloodplain heavily dissected by numerous rivers and streams making it a very important source offreshwater, storing more than 15% of the nation’s freshwater resource in the form of swamp forests.Since amphibians are very good indicators of climate change and ecosystem health, species diversity andendemism were assessed in sago swamp, terminalia, mixed swamp, and peat swamp forests in AgusanMarsh using a combination of cruising, pitfall trap and quadrat methods. Seventeen species with 41%endemism were recorded. Of the seven endemic species, five are Mindanao endemic. The twoundescribed species of Oreophryne and one Philautus could be new species and were observed in theterminalia, sago, and mixed swamp forests but not in the peat swamp forest. The peat swamp forestwhere the invasive Rhinella marina was abundant, had the least species richness owing to habitatdisturbance brought about by human encroachment. The highest species richness and abundance wereobserved in the terminalia forest primarily due to the presence of suitable microhabitats. Four vulnerablespecies were recorded in the marsh. Most of the vulnerable and endemic species were documented in theterminalia and mixed swamp forests. High diversity and more or less even distribution were observed inall sites. Three amphibian species are considered socio-economically important and are hunted for foodand bait for fish. The presence of endemic and vulnerable species indicates that Agusan Marsh is a keyconservation site. Logging and widespread mining, discharging tons of mine tailings into the rivers whichfind their way into the swamp forests are just some of the threats to the amphibians in the marsh.Conservation action is necessary to protect the endemic and vulnerable species in the swamp forests andthe Agusan marsh in general.

  3. Pesticide residues in rivers of a Brazilian Rain Forest Reserve: assessing potential concern for effects on aquatic life and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Rosana; Elfvendahl, Sara; Kylin, Henrik; Molander, Sverker

    2003-06-01

    Pesticide residues in water, sediment, and fish samples from rivers of a Brazilian Rain Forest Reserve were measured in November 1998, March 1999, and January 2000. Concentrations of the individual pesticides were compared to ecotoxicological benchmarks based on acute toxicity tests, and to regulatory guidelines to determine the potential concern for effects on aquatic life and human health. Pesticides and metabolites were detected at all 7 sites surveyed. Residues of a total of 27 pesticides or metabolites were found in water and/or sediment samples and fish have accumulated some of the most persistent of these residues. Measured concentrations in water and sediment indicated concern for preservation of aquatic fauna. Several pesticides in water were above levels for drinking water recommended by Brazilian and/or European Union authorities, indicating also a concern for human health.

  4. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  5. Structure, development and health status of spruce forests affected by air pollution in the western Krkonoše Mts. in 1979–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Král Jan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and health status of waterlogged or peaty spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst. forests in the summit parts of the Krkonoše Mts. in the Czech Republic were studied in 1979–2014. The objective was to evaluate the stand structure, dead wood, trend of the health status and productivity on four permanent research plots (PRP in relation to air pollution (SO2 and NOx concentrations and climatic conditions (temperatures and precipitation amounts. Stand structure was evaluated on the base of the measured parameters of individual trees on PRP. The health status of trees was evaluated according to foliage, and their vitality was assessed according to their radial growth documented by dendrochronological analyses. The radial growth was negatively correlated with SO2 and NOx concentrations. Stand dynamics during the observation period was characterised by increased tree mortality, the presence of dead wood and reduction of stand density from 1983 to 1992, while the most severe impairment of health status and stand stability occurred in 1982–1987. The foliage mass of living trees has been gradually increasing since 1988, but no pronounced improvement of tree vitality was documented after the decrease in SO2 concentration. However, particularly physiologically weakened spruce trees were attacked by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus. The process of forest damage is manifested not only by foliage reduction but also by symptoms of various necroses on the assimilatory organs. In terms of climatic data, the weather in April had the most important effect on radial growth. Diameter increment showed positive statistically significant correlation with temperature in growing season, but the precipitation effect was low.

  6. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  7. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  8. Existential and psychological problems connected with Threat Predicting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamcarz Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present a very important phenomenon affecting human integrity and homeostasis that is Threat Prediction Process. This process can be defined as “experiencing apprehension concerning results of potential/ actual dangers,” (Mamcarz, 2015 oscillating in terminological area of anxiety, fear, stress, restlessness. Moreover, it highlights a cognitive process distinctive for listed phenomenon’s. The process accompanied with technological and organization changes increases number of health problems affecting many populations. Hard work conditions; changing life style; or many social and political threats have influence on people’s quality of life that are even greater and more dangerous than physical and psychological factors, which, in turn, have much more consequences for human normal functioning. The present article is based on chosen case studies of a qualitative analysis of threat prediction process

  9. The herpetofauna of the cloud forests of Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Larry David; McCranie, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The cloud forest amphibians and reptiles constitute the most important herpetofaunal segment in Honduras, due to the prevalence of endemic and Nuclear Middle American-restricted species. This segment, however, is subject to severe environmental threats due to the actions of humans. Of the 334 species of amphibians and reptiles currently known from Honduras, 122 are known to be distributed in cloud forest habitats. Cloud forest habitats are found throughout the mountainous interior of Honduras...

  10. The herpetofauna of the cloud forests of Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Larry David; James R. McCranie

    2010-01-01

    The cloud forest amphibians and reptiles constitute the most important herpetofaunal segment in Honduras, due to the prevalence of endemic and Nuclear Middle American-restricted species. This segment, however, is subject to severe environmental threats due to the actions of humans. Of the 334 species of amphibians and reptiles currently known from Honduras, 122 are known to be distributed in cloud forest habitats. Cloud forest habitats are found throughout the mountainous interior of Honduras...

  11. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  12. GIS-based Spatial Knowledge Mining Method of Forest Health%基于GIS的下蜀镇森林健康知识空间数据挖掘方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婷; 李明阳; 吴文浩

    2012-01-01

    森林健康是森林可持续经营的一项重要评价指标.文章以地理信息系统软件ATcGIS、统计分析软件SPSS为挖掘工具,通过主成分分析和聚类分析方法对江苏省句客市下蜀镇的森林健康知识空间数据进行挖掘.研究表明:在影响森林健康等级高低的主成分因子中,以林分生产活力因子的重要性最强;在森林健康空间聚类的3种类别中,林分生产活力的大小导致了类别1和类别2之间的差异,而类别2和类别3的差别主要集中于环境胁迫要素的差异.%Forest health is a significant evaluation index of forest sustainable management. By using geographic information system software ArcGlS and statistical software SPSS, together with melhods of principal component analysis and cluster analysis, spatial knowledge of forest health in Xiashu Town oi Jurong City, were exploded. Kesearch results show that; ( 1 ) among the three component factors which influence forest health, forest production active factor contributes most; (2) in three spatial clustering categories of forest health , forest production active faclor lends to the differences between category i and category 2 , while the difference between category 2 and category 3 is caused from the environmental stress variable.

  13. SMOS and climate data applicability for analyzing forest decline and forest fires

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro Danon, David; Vayreda, Jordi; Martínez Vilalta, Jordi; Vall-Llossera Ferran, Mercedes Magdalena; Banque, Mireia; Camps Carmona, Adriano José; Piles Guillem, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Forests partially reduce climate change impact but, at the same time, this climate forcing threatens forest's health. In recent decades, droughts are becoming more frequent and intense implying an increase of forest decline episodes and forest fires. In this context, global and frequent soil moisture observations from the ESA's SMOS mission could be useful in controlling forest exposure to decline and fires. In this paper, SMOS observations and several climate variables are analyzed together ...

  14. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D.; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems. PMID:26366576

  15. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Sahner

    Full Text Available Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization. Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra. We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  16. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  17. Impact of forest fire on diversity of hymenopteran insects – a study at Copia species-used forest, Son La Province

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Nhi, Pham; Vu Tru, Hoang; Van Phu, Pham

    2017-01-01

    Besides the unsustainable exploitation, farming activities and economic development activities, forest fire is considered as one of the major threats to biodiversity and deforestation in Vietnam. In forest ecosystems, any changes in insect communities can affect species composition, nutrient cycling and numerous other ecological processes. The impact of forest fires, however, is not equal to different insect groups. In this paper, we study the impact of forest fires to hymenopteran insects at...

  18. Preparedness for Threat of Chikungunya in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Damian; Horwood, Paul F.; Ropa, Berry; Hancock, Thane; Guillaumot, Laurent; Rickart, Keith; Frison, Pascal; Pavlin, Boris; Souares, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused significant outbreaks of illness during 2005–2007 in the Indian Ocean region. Chikungunya outbreaks have also occurred in the Pacific region, including in Papua New Guinea in 2012; New Caledonia in April 2013; and Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, in August 2013. CHIKV is a threat in the Pacific, and the risk for further spread is high, given several similarities between the Pacific and Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreaks. Island health care systems have difficulties coping with high caseloads, which highlights the need for early multidisciplinary preparedness. The Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network has developed several strategies focusing on surveillance, case management, vector control, laboratory confirmation, and communication. The management of this CHIKV threat will likely have broad implications for global public health. PMID:25062306

  19. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Wireless LAN Security Threats & Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Waliullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless LANs are everywhere these days from home to large enterprise corporate networks due to the ease of installation, employee convenience, avoiding wiring cost and constant mobility support. However, the greater availability of wireless LANs means increased danger from attacks and increased challenges to an organisation, IT staff and IT security professionals. This paper discusses the various security issues and vulnerabilities related to the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN encryption standard and common threats/attacks pertaining to the home and enterprise Wireless LAN system and provide overall guidelines and recommendation to the home users and organizations.

  1. New Threat to World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aggregate amount of money and credit in the global economy has risen sharply over the past 30 years,with its growth rate and stock far exceeding that of the real economy or real assets of the world.This is the view of Xiang Songzuo,professor at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology,whose opinion was first published in a recent article in China Business News.Xiang said this situation is a real threat to the world economy.Excerpts of his article are reprinted below:

  2. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one of the most famous mobile operating systems 'Symbian'; its vulnerabilities and recommended protection technologies.

  3. Perceived Threat of Malaria and the Use of Insecticide Treated Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... The study found that malaria was perceived as a serious health problem and a threat to the ..... include corruption, maladministration, favouritism and nepotism at the government levels. ..... index.html on the 23rd of May, 2009).

  4. Lungs in a warming world: climate change and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Aaron S; Rice, Mary B

    2013-05-01

    Climate change is a health threat no less consequential than cigarette smoking. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially CO₂, in the earth's atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, temperature variability, air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods, all of which put respiratory health at risk. These changes in climate and air quality substantially increase respiratory morbidity and mortality for patients with common chronic lung diseases such as asthma and COPD and other serious lung diseases. Physicians have a vital role in addressing climate change, just as they did with tobacco, by communicating how climate change is a serious, but remediable, hazard to their patients.

  5. Microbial Threats to Health. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    uremic esp. undercooked a new pathogen syndrome beef and raw milk Haemophilus Brazilian purpuric Contact with dis- Possibly an increase influenzae bio...in the encephalopathy encephalopathy containing infected rendering process (BSE) agent in cows sheep tissue Chikungunya Fever, arthritis, Bite of...food safety. Recent concerns about bovine spongiform encephalopathy FACTORS IN EMERGENCE 65 (BSE) illustrate this point. In 1980, in England, the

  6. THREATS TO BIOTOPES IN AGROECOSYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimierz Sporek; Monika Sporek

    2014-01-01

    One of the conditions of the species continuity is a natural living space (habitat), in which the species achieves its basic needs. Large area of agriculture and forestry monoculture are not conducive to existence of game animals. Permanent devastation of game preserves, windbreaks, liquidation of foraging sites and shelterbelts force the wild animals to feed in the field and forest crops. In modern agrotechnique – the usage of plant protection products deprives the wild species (eg the...

  7. Psychobiological responses to social threat: evolution of a psychological model in psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Margaret E

    2009-01-01

    There exists a bidirectional network of interactions between the central nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system. The existence of these pathways allows stressful life experience to impact the immune system with important implications for health. One powerful elicitor of changes in the autonomic, endocrine and immune systems is threat to social status. This review describes the development of a human model of social status threat that specifies a set of contextual, psychological and biological pathways that may underlie the health consequences of threats to social status and regard. The role of cognitive processes in shaping the physiological response to the social world will be emphasized.

  8. Evaluation of regeneration potential of Pinus koraiensis in mixed pine-hardwood forests in the Xiao Xing'an Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-bin; MOU Pu; WANG Tian-ming; GE Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Large scale harvest of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seeds as a food product in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest of northeastern China poses a serious threat to the sustainability and restoration of this endangered regional ecosystem.Seed collection over past decades greatly reduced the seed bank and subsequent seedling and sapling recruitment,and impacting a wide array of granivorous animals that rely on the pine seeds.We surveyed Korean pine seeds,including solid seeds (SS),insect consumed seeds (ICS) and other (animal) consumed (OCS)kernels,of the seed bank (forest floor and the top 10 cm of mineral soil),the seedlings and saplings from 1 m2 sample plots in five forest types in Liangshui Nature Reserve (LNR) of the southern Xiao Xing'an Mountains in northeastern China to provide accurate information for assessing the Korean pine regeneration potential.The average number of pine seeds in the seed bank were 11.2 seeds/m2,9.1 seeds/m2,4.6 seeds/m2,1.1 seeds/m2,and 0.2 seeds/m2 in Korean pine-basswood forest,mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,mixed conifer-hardwood forest,white birch forests,and oak forests,respectively.In the first three forest types,percentages of SS (potentially viable seeds) were 11.2%,3.5% and 27.8%,respectively.The percentages of ICS (not viable seeds) were consistent at around 35%.The higher but variable percentages of OCS (not viable seeds) indicated high seed predation in these forests.Compared with other studies,we recorded higher percentages of seed damage,probably due to our survey approach and the increased depth of seed bank sampled in our study.Depletion of pine seeds in the seed bank greatly reduced seedling and sapling recruitment.Densities of pine seedlings varied from about 180 trees/ha in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest to about 5,400 trees/ha in the mixed conifer-hardwood forests and showed a high degree of spatial variation.Saplings were rare in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,but ranged in the

  9. Resilience, Vulnerability and Residual Threat: An Assessment from Indian Sundarban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T.

    2016-12-01

    The estuarine islands within Indian Sundarban are extremely vulnerable due to climate change, erosion, flooding and increasing population pressure. Around 4.6 million people are living under constant threat of climatic shocks, affecting their farm based economy and dependency on forest resources for their livelihood. This paper attempts to focus on the dynamics of system's resilience in the backdrop of higher level of vulnerability. Globally the assessment of island vulnerability is generally more focused towards the climate change impacts, rather than taking into account other determining drivers with proper weightage. Three estuarine islands namely Sagar, Ghoramara and Mousani at the western part of Indian Sundarban Delta (ISD) have been chosen for this study to derive the indicator based scoring method using the household survey data from twenty seven (27) sampled `Mouza' (lowest administrative boundary; village) with cluster random sampling. Vulnerability and resilience of these islands have been calculated using the indicators like housing condition, electrification, population density, accretion, adult secondary education level, percentage of people `Below Poverty Line' (BPL) based on per capita income. Residual threats for these islands have been obtained by subtracting the score of resilience and vulnerability of the system. Result suggests that all these islands are in less resilient condition to combat the negative impact of the influencing factors. Sapkhali, Ghoramara, Bankimnagar, Shibpur and Baliara are becoming sensitive from excess residual threats. This study is an initiation for identifying the thrust areas need to address with effective policy adaptation, necessary to minimize the existing vulnerable conditions in these islands. Key words: Vulnerability, Resilience, Residual threat, Indian Sundarban

  10. Vulnerability of the boreal forest to climate change: are managed forests more susceptible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, A. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gauthier, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Saint-Foy, PQ (Canada). Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre; Bergeron, Y.; Harvey, B. [Quebec Univ., Abitibi-Temiscaminque, PQ (Canada)

    2004-02-01

    This paper postulates that forests dominated by younger seral stages are less vulnerable to climate change that those composed of mature and overmature stands. To support this analysis, an overview of expected changes in climate conditions was provided. Expected changes include higher maximum temperatures, higher minimum temperatures and a decrease in periods of intense cold and fewer frost days; reduction in the diurnal temperature range; an increase in the apparent heat index; greater numbers of intense precipitation; and, increased risk of drought associated with air mass movements. A comparison between conditions in a managed forest mosaic and natural forests was made, with managed forests differing due to efforts to regulate the age structure. The inversion in the age structure of forest mosaics creates significant changes in structural characteristics and composition, including greater hardwood components and more even-aged stands. It was concluded that in Canada, managed boreal forests are younger and have less black spruce and more hardwoods and fir, making younger forests less vulnerable to fire and more amenable to fire control due to increased accessibility. It was also noted that because of their relative youth, managed forests are more vulnerable to regeneration failure and that managed forests with more balsam fir and trembling aspen are at greater risk for insect outbreaks. In addition, wind throw, a threat to older forests, is not significant in managed forests. 15 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  12. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eZhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes-Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed.

  13. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ZIKA virus (ZIKV poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is being performed by RT-PCR and IgM-captured enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA. The real brunt of the virus is, however, borne by children and adults alike. Case studies of the ZIKV outbreaks in the French Polynesia and other places have suggested that there is a close link between the ZIKV and Gullian-Barre syndrome (GBS. The GBS has closely followed in areas facing ZIKV outbreaks. Although solid evidence is yet to emerge, clinical data integration has revealed a large number of ZIKV patients having GBS. Moreover, the amniotic fluids, blood cord, and miscarriage tissues of mothers have been detected with ZIKV, which indicates that the virus either gets transferred from mother to fetus or seeks direct entry in the fetus, causing microcephaly and other brain anomalies in the newborn babies. Studies on mice have confirmed the link between the ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in babies. Reports have highlighted the sexual transmission of the ZIKV, as it has been detected in the semen and saliva of affected persons. The intensity with which the ZIKA is spreading can collapse the health sector of several countries, which are poor. A comprehensive strategy is a need of an hour to combat this virus so as to prevent its transmission and avert the looming threat. At the same time, more research on the cure of the ZIKV is imperative.

  14. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...

  15. PARTICULARITIES AND THREATS ON THE BIODIVERSITY FROM CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea BĂLTĂREŢU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Because it has a specific geographic position and it’s situated at the crossroads of several bio-geographical regions and as a result of its ecological characteristics, the climate and geo-morphological conditions, Croatia is one of the wealthiest countries from Europe concerning the biodiversity. The great variety of the territory, maritime and underground habitats has determined the existence of numerous species and subspecies, including a significant number of endemic species. Although the climate of Croatia has a great value, many of its components are threatened. The most important threats of wild species are losing the habitats and the degradation. Because of its shape and its position in Europe, Croatia has very rich landscape diversity. Croatia contains significant populations of many species that are threatened at the European level. These are connected to preserved large areas of their habitats. Vast mountain beech and fir forests are rich in bear, wolf and lynx populations. Large wetland complexes with alluvial forests are important breeding, the migration and wintering sites for European water birds and for wetland birds nesting in forests. The wealth of marine biodiversity, in combination with the immense diversity of islands and cliffs with endemic life forms, gives the Croatian coastal area international significance.

  16. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodriquez, Jose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt theft of nuclear materials. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat.

  18. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-07

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. World's soils are under threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca; Pennock, Daniel Jon; McKenzie, Neil; Badraoui, Mohamed; Chude, Victor; Baptista, Isaurinda; Mamo, Tekalign; Yemefack, Martin; Singh Aulakh, Mikha; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hong, Suk Young; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Arrouays, Dominique; Black, Helaina; Krasilnikov, Pavel; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Alegre, Julio; Henriquez, Carlos Roberto; de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, Maria; Taboada, Miguel; Espinosa-Victoria, David; AlShankiti, Abdullah; Kazem AlaviPanah, Sayed; El Mustafa Elsheikh, Elsiddig Ahmed; Hempel, Jon; Camps Arbestain, Marta; Nachtergaele, Freddy; Vargas, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources Report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecurity among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the State of the World's Soil Resources Report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  20. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election......, are important determinants of the use and effectiveness of dissolution threats in policymaking. Analyzing an original time-series data set from a multiparty parliamentary democracy, we find evidence in line with key empirical implications of the model....

  1. Army Guide to Deployment Health: Health Threat Information and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    needed) and other gear are in good condition and fit properly. ` Practice putting on/removing clothing, masks, and gear. ensure clothing items and hair ... bleach per gallon of water). ` Promptly remove dead rodents from the area (use disposable gloves or plastic bags over the hands when handling any...some plants have thorns, stinging hairs , or toxic resins that may puncture the skin or cause skin irritation, rashes or infections. ` discourage

  2. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mesinger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  3. Fever from the forest: prospects for the continued emergence of sylvatic dengue virus and its impact on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Cardosa, Jane; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Holmes, Edward C.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes that circulate among humans emerged independently from ancestral sylvatic progenitors that were present in non–human primates, following the establishment of human populations that were large and dense enough to support continuous inter-human transmission by mosquitoes. This ancestral sylvatic–DENV transmission cycle still exists and is maintained in non-human primates and Aedes mosquitoes in the forests of Southeast Asia and West Africa. Here, we provide an overview of the ecology and molecular evolution of sylvatic DENV and its potential for adaptation to human transmission. We also emphasize how the study of sylvatic DENV will improve our ability to understand, predict and, ideally, avert further DENV emergence. PMID:21666708

  4. Information security practices emerging threats and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, Ahmed; Woungang, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces novel research targeting technical aspects of protecting information security and establishing trust in the digital space. New paradigms, and emerging threats and solutions are presented in topics such as application security and threat management; modern authentication paradigms; digital fraud detection; social engineering and insider threats; cyber threat intelligence; intrusion detection; behavioral biometrics recognition; hardware security analysis. The book presents both the important core and the specialized issues in the areas of protection, assurance, and trust in information security practice. It is intended to be a valuable resource and reference for researchers, instructors, students, scientists, engineers, managers, and industry practitioners. .

  5. An Ecological Assessment of the Pandemic Threat of Zika Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Colin J.; Dougherty, Eric R.; Getz, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus poses a severe threat to human health. While the range of the virus has been cataloged growing slowly over the last 50 years, the recent explosive expansion in the Americas indicates that the full potential distribution of Zika remains uncertain. Moreover, many studies rely on its similarity to dengue fever, a phylogenetically closely related disease of unknown ecological comparability. Here we compile a comprehensive spatially-explicit occurrence dataset fr...

  6. Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panic, Katarina; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Until now, social marketing campaigns mainly targeted children using traditional media. However, little is known about the effectiveness of computer games to communicate health-related information to children. This study compares the impact of an interactive game as a medium to provide health information and improve children's dietary habits to the impact of more traditional media. Using a 2 × 3 between-subject factorial design with 190 children (7-9 years old), this study investigates the effect of threat messages (weak vs. strong) concerning dental hygiene on behavioral outcome (snack choice), and how this effect is moderated by the type of medium used to communicate subsequent health information after the threat appeal (computer game, information brochure, narrative story). Results show a positive significant effect of perceived threat on children's adaptive behavior. However, this effect only remains significant when afterwards children are exposed to a narrative health-related story. When children play a game or read a brochure, they need to devote more attention to process this content, distracting them from the original threat message. In sum, when a threat message is followed by additional health information, the medium through which this information is presented influences the effectiveness of the preceding threat message.

  7. Forest resources of the Gila National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Gila National Forest 1994 inventory including...

  8. Forest resources of the Prescott National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Rogers

    2003-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Prescott National Forest 1996...

  9. Threat by association: do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the threatening group, carry over to other groups that individuals actually do encounter in their local environment (e.g., immigrants). The main goal of our studies was to experimentally identify this carry-over effect of intergroup threat. Specifically, we hypothesized that (by definition relatively abstract) symbolic threats (e.g., threats to the ingroup's worldview) have an especially strong carry-over potential because those threats can be easily attributed to other outgroups. We tested these predictions in one correlational and two experimental studies. The results of all three studies confirmed our hypothesis that particularly distant symbolic threats were predictive of intolerance towards local outgroups.

  10. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology.

  11. Vibrotactile and visual threat cueing with high g threat intercept in dynamic flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, L.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Carlander, O.; Levin, B.; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Veltman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    In a TNO and FOI joint study, nine fighter pilots participated in a threat detection and intercept experiment in the Swedish Dynamic Flight Simulator. Visual threat cueing with a simulated Gripen aircraft head-up display (HUD) symbology was compared with combined visual and vibrotactile threat

  12. Vibrotactile and visual threat cueing with high g threat intercept in dynamic flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, L.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Carlander, O.; Levin, B.; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Veltman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    In a TNO and FOI joint study, nine fighter pilots participated in a threat detection and intercept experiment in the Swedish Dynamic Flight Simulator. Visual threat cueing with a simulated Gripen aircraft head-up display (HUD) symbology was compared with combined visual and vibrotactile threat cuein

  13. Threat by association : Do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the thre

  14. Spatial distribution of Culicidae (Diptera larvae, and its implications for Public Health, in five areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piovezan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In view of the adaptive ability of mosquitoes and their role in the transport of infective agents, entomological surveys undertaken in transitional environments are very important for the determination of the risk they represent for Public Health. Among the principal vectors of the infectious agents involved in the occurrence of important arboviruses, such as dengue, for example, are the Culicidae-insects capable of installing themselves in the urban nuclei, which exist within areas containing vestigial forests. This present study conducted a survey of mosquito species by means of traps to catch their larvae installed in five rural areas within the Atlantic Forest domain and containing its vestigial vegetation in the municipality of Santa Bárbara D'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 13,241 larvae belonging to six mosquito species were collected on 920 occasions (32.52% of positive collections. Aedes albopictus (64.23% and Aedes aegypti (32.75% were the most frequent, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (1.32%, Aedes fluviatilis (1.04%, Culex Complex Coronator (0.40% and Toxorhynchites theobaldi (0.22%. Three areas were analyzed by means of Simpson's diversity index and the spatial analysis showed that the sites with the greatest abundance of Ae. aegypti presented lower diversity values and were associated with more highly consolidated urban nuclei. The vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika has great infesting ability in urban areas, which means that the early implementation of entomological surveillance and control activities in specific areas - such as transitional ones - is highly important.

  15. Occurrence of Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species in oak forests of southern Poland and their association with site conditions and the health status of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, R; Stępniewska, H; Bilański, P; Kolařík, M

    2014-11-01

    Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species are known to be serious pathogens of forest trees. Little is known, however, about the presence of P. plurivora in Polish oak forests and their role in oak decline. The aims of this study were to identify P. plurivora in healthy and declining Quercus robur stands in southern Poland and to demonstrate the relationship between different site factors and the occurrence of P. plurivora. In addition, the virulence of P. plurivora and other Phytophthora species was evaluated through inoculations using 2-year-old oak seedlings. Rhizosphere soil was investigated from 39 oak stands representing different healthy tree statuses. The morphology and DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene were used for identifications. P. plurivora, an oak fine root pathogen, was isolated from rhizosphere soil samples in 6 out of 39 stands. Additionally, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora polonica and Phytophthora rosacearum-like were also obtained from several stands. The results showed a significant association between the presence of P. plurivora and the health status of oak trees. Similar relationships were also observed for all identified Phytophthora species. In addition, there was evidence for a connection between the presence of all identified Phytophthora species and some site conditions. Phytophthora spp. occurred more frequently in declining stands and in silt loam and sandy loam soils with pH ≥ 3.66. P. plurivora and P. cambivora were the only species capable of killing whole plants, producing extensive necrosis on seedling stems.

  16. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. A. Curi

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation, 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47% followed by Toxocara (18% and Trichuris (8%. Other less prevalent (<2% parasites found were Capillaria, Ascaridia, Spirocerca, Taeniidae, Acantocephala, Ascaris, Dipylidium caninum, Toxascaris, and the protozoans Cystoisospora and Eimeria. Mixed infections were found in 36% of samples, mostly by Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Previous deworming had no association with infections, meaning that this preventive measure is being incorrectly performed by owners. Regarding risk factors, dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.

  17. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  18. Perception of the Threat of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Louck, Keren

    2016-04-28

    In light of the tense and ongoing security situation in Israel, one important issue that needs to be analyzed and understood is the perception of terrorism threats. Most studies focused mainly on the psychological implications of terrorist acts; this study examines the complexity of the manner in which the individual perceives the threat of terrorism. In all, 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men) were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. Qualitative analysis indicates that the components of the perception of terrorism that construct the evaluation and subjective perception of the participants are as follows: (a) perception of control, which is a feeling of loss of control and helplessness due to uncertainty, inability to predict threats, and the vagueness of the threat; (b) perception of vulnerability to the threat, such as a feeling of vulnerability to and potential victimization by terrorism; and (c) perception of fear of terrorism that includes responses of fear, anxiety, feeling of danger, and emotional distress. In addition, gender differences were found in the analysis. The findings of this study help gain a better understanding as to how people perceive the threat of terrorism. The findings also enable an understanding of the complexity of living under ongoing terrorism threats and may assist in understanding how citizens cope with and adjust to this threat. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Target threat assessment using fuzzy sets theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Azimirad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The threat evaluation is significant component in target classification process and is significant in military and non military applications. Small errors or mistakes in threat evaluation and target classification especial in military applications can result in huge damage of life and property. Threat evaluation helps in case of weapon assignment, and intelligence sensor support system. It is very important factor to analyze the behavior of enemy tactics as well as our surveillance. This paper represented a precise description of the threat evaluation process using fuzzy sets theory. A review has been carried out regarding which parameters that have been suggested for threat value calculation. For the first time in this paper, eleven parameters are introduced for threat evaluation so that this parameters increase the accuracy in designed system. The implemented threat evaluation system has been applied to a synthetic air defense scenario and four real time dynamic air defense scenarios. The simulation results show the correctness, accuracy, reliability and minimum errors in designing of threat evaluation system

  20. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fernandes Junior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed towards the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during direct threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, no direct threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by direct threat stimuli. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies.