WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest energy supply

  1. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  2. Operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D

    2012-06-15

    Ambitious international efforts to combat climate change have lead to a large interest about the use of forest biomass for energy in many countries. In order to meet the expected growing demand in the future, it will be necessary to improve operational efficiency of existing forest energy supply chains and support the establishment of efficient supply chains in new operational environments. The thesis applied a three-dimensional approach which examines forest energy supply chains from a technical, social and economic viewpoint. Four case studies in different operational environments have been carried out to investigate the applicability of the three dimensional approach to improve operational efficiency. The technical dimension was investigated in Paper 1 and 2. In Paper 1, the effects of climatic conditions, covering of piles, and partial debarking on drying of roundwood were studied in four experimental trials located in Scotland, Finland and Italy. In Paper 2, the chipping of forest biomass was studied in two different operational environments. The investigation of the social dimension in Paper 3 provides insights into the setup of two different supply chains through business process mapping and simulation. Finally, in paper 4, which investigated the economic dimension, an analysis of the effect of the operational environment on technology selection and design of supply chains, is presented. The thesis demonstrates that the chosen approach was practical to investigate the complex relationships between the chosen technologies and different supply chain actors and stakeholders thereby contributing to maintain or improve operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains. Due to its applicability in different operational environments, the approach is also suitable in a more global context. Furthermore, it captures the effect of different aspects and characteristics of the various operational environments on the setup and organization of supply chains. This will

  3. Moisture management, energy density and fuel quality in forest fuel supply chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvanainen, T. [Joensuu Science Park Ltd., Joensuu (Finland); Sikanen, L. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland); Roser, D. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided tools for reducing the moisture content (MC) in wood chips, as moisture is one of the main quality factors for woody biomass, along with energy density and cleanness. The amount of water in solid wood fuels has a considerable effect on transportation efficiency, combustion efficiency and emissions. Under favourable storage conditions, MC can be decreased from typical fresh cut 50-55 per cent to 20-30 per cent in relatively short periods of storing by natural or artificial drying. Minor modifications can boost natural drying in fuel wood supply chains. This natural drying effect can have significant effects on the total energy efficiency and emissions of supply chains. The effect of improved packing density on transportation phase was discussed along with the need to control chip purity and size distribution. A procedure developed at the University of Joensuu and in the Finnish Forest Research Institute was used to estimate transportation costs and emissions according to transportation fleet and MC of the transported fuel. tabs., figs.

  4. Forest industry wood fuel supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The potential for wood fired energy production in the UK is significant. Large scale developments are currently underway which could utilise over 100,000 green tonnes of forest residues. The fuel supply chain is likely to be complicated and there are perceived risks in its organisation and security. This report sets out to address some of these perceived risks and suggest suitable measures to reduce it. Six areas of the fuel supply chain have been studied, namely; Extraction, Comminution, Transport, Assessment and payment of wood fuel; Environmental impact; Nutrient recycling (ash disposal). (author)

  5. Energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} -eq emissions of forest chip supply chains in Finland 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariniemi, A.; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: arto.kariniemi@metsateho.fi, Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy calculated what would be the total fuel consumption and CO{sub 2}-eq emissions of forest chip production if the use of forest chips is 24 TWhin 2020 in Finland in accordance with the target set of Long-term Climate and Energy Strategy. CO{sub 2}-eq emissions were determined with Metsaeteho OY's updated Emissions Calculation Model. If the production and consumption of forest chips in Finland are 24 TWh in 2020, then the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions would be around 245000 tonnes. The volume of diesel consumption was 79 million litres and petrol 1,5 millions litres. Electric rail transportation and chipping at the mill site consumed 15 GWh of electricity. The supply chain with the lowest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions was logging residues comminuted at plant. Conversely, the highest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions came from stump wood when operating with terminal comminuting. Some 3% of the energy content was consumed during the forest chip production. Energy input/output ratio in the total volume was 0.030 MWh/MWh which varied from 0.022 to 0.044 between the supply systems researched. Hence, forest chip production gave a net of some 97% of the energy content delivered at the plant. (orig.)

  6. Forest biomass supply chains in Ireland: A life cycle assessment of GHG emissions and primary energy balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Fionnuala; Devlin, Ger; McDonnell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wood energy supply chains are analysed for energy requirements and GHG emissions. • Use of residues and stumps for energy is evaluated for Irish conditions. • Results highlight transportation as the most energy and GHG emission intensive step. • Wood energy compares favourably with other biomass sources and fossil fuels. - Abstract: The demand for wood for energy production in Ireland is predicted to double from 1.5 million m 3 over bark (OB) in 2011 to 3 million m 3 OB by 2020. There is a large potential for additional biomass recovery for energetic purposes from both thinning forest stands and by harvesting of tops and branches, and stumps. This study builds on research within the wood-for-energy concept in Ireland by analysing the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions associated with thinning, residue bundling and stump removal for energy purposes. To date there have been no studies on harvesting of residues and stumps in terms of energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions across the life cycle in Ireland. The results of the analysis on wood energy supply chains highlights transport as the most energy and greenhouse gas emissions intensive step in the life cycle. This finding illustrates importance of localised production and use of forest biomass. Production of wood chip, and shredded bundles and stumps, compares favourably with both other sources of biomass in Ireland and fossil fuels

  7. Possible effects of the hurricane Gudrun on the regional Swedish forest energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerheden, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a snapshot speculative analysis of some possible effects of the massive windthrow in south Sweden on January 8-9, 2005. Hurricane Gudrun damaged buildings and blocked roads, making large areas inaccessible except by helicopter. Electricity and telecommunications were shambolic. Around 70 million cubic metres were windthrown, equalling a 'normal' Swedish annual felling-a gross value exceeding EUR20,000,000,000. The paper presents the subsequent restoration work that has placed a special focus on the forest sector. In south Sweden, logging work will last for a couple of years. The roundwood market will be severely strained. For individual forest owners, the economic effects of the storm are often disastrous. To ensure that forest owners will retrieve at least part of the pre-storm forest value, restoration aims at the salvaging of maximum value. Sawmills try to store the most valuable timber for years to come, decreasing the risk of painful capacity adjustments and protecting export opportunities. Forest fuel value is low compared to sawlogs and pulpwood. Thus, the forest energy sector has received little attention. Forest chippers normally contribute important marginal quantities of wood fuels, but since no logging residues will be harvested from the windthrown forests for a period of 2-3 years, they are put out of business and may disappear from the market. Heating and power plants will receive an abundance of industrial by-products in the coming 2-3 years, followed by a period of expected shortage of woody biomass for energy production. With few forest chippers left, the situation will be troublesome. (author)

  8. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  9. The effects of location, feedstock availability, and supply-chain logistics on the greenhouse gas emissions of forest-biomass energy utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jappinen, E,

    2013-11-01

    Forest biomass represents a geographically distributed feedstock, and geographical location affects the greenhouse gas (GHG) performance of a given forest-bioenergy system in several ways. For example, biomass availability, forest operations, transportation possibilities and the distances involved, biomass end-use possibilities, fossil reference systems, and forest carbon balances all depend to some extent on location. The overall objective of this thesis was to assess the GHG emissions derived from supply and energy-utilization chains of forest biomass in Finland, with a specific focus on the effect of location in relation to forest biomass's availability and the transportation possibilities. Biomass availability and transportation-network assessments were conducted through utilization of geographical information system methods, and the GHG emissions were assessed by means of lifecycle assessment. The thesis is based on four papers in which forest biomass supply on industrial scale was assessed. The feedstocks assessed in this thesis include harvesting residues, smalldiameter energy wood and stumps. The principal implication of the findings in this thesis is that in Finland, the location and availability of biomass in the proximity of a given energyutilization or energy-conversion plant is not a decisive factor in supply-chain GHG emissions or the possible GHG savings to be achieved with forest-biomass energy use. Therefore, for the greatest GHG reductions with limited forest-biomass resources, energy utilization of forest biomass in Finland should be directed to the locations where most GHG savings are achieved through replacement of fossil fuels. Furthermore, one should prioritize the types of forest biomass with the lowest direct supply-chain GHG emissions (e.g., from transport and comminution) and the lowest indirect ones (in particular, soil carbon-stock losses), regardless of location. In this respect, the best combination is to use harvesting residues

  10. Energy supply. Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhof, N.

    1983-01-01

    This anthology presents nine papers dealing with the following subjects: 1) international and national aspects of energy supply, 2) regional and local energy supply concepts, and 3) issues of district-heat supply. Each of the nine papers was entered separately.

  11. Finnish farmers' willingness to produce and supply biomass from energy crops and forest residues. A survey of landowners' attitudes and intentions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Latvala, T. (Pellervo Economic Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)), Email: anna-kaisa.ramo@ptt.fi; Silvennoinen, H. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)), Email: harri.silvennoinen@joensuu.fi

    2009-07-01

    According to EU's Climate and Energy Plan Finland is obliged to increase the proportion of renewable energy sources considerably by the year 2020. The obligation is challenging and requires among others a considerably increased use of biomass. Besides wood energy crop production provides a considerable potential as energy source in Finland. Farmer forest owners are one of the key groups regarding the supply of field energy crops and energy wood in Finland. Basically, farmers have a positive attitude towards the production of field energy crops and energy wood. Their interest in bio-energy related entrepreneurship has also increased in recent years. However, farmers do not find the business environment of biomass production satisfactory. Still the results indicate that the number of field crop producers would at least double by the year 2012. The increase is, however, considerably less than the estimated potential of recent scenarios. The results also imply that famer forest owners have not any intentions to increase their energy wood supplies in the next few years. This is mainly due to undeveloped energy wood markets and unsatisfactory energy wood prices. In order to enhance the biomass production and supply, both field energy crop and energy wood markets and extension need to be improved to meet farmers' needs. (orig.)

  12. Energy economics and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission

  13. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  14. Understanding forest-derived biomass supply with GIS modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, B. K.; Blomqvist, L.; Hall, P.

    2012-01-01

    distribution, and the cost of delivery as forests are frequently remote from energy users. A GIS-based model was developed to predict supply curves of forest biomass material for a site or group of sites, both now and in the future. The GIS biomass supply model was used to assist the New Zealand Energy...... Efficiency and Conservation Authority's development of a national target for biomass use for industrial heat production, to determine potential forest residue volumes for industrial heat and their delivery costs for 19 processing plants of the dairy company Fonterra, and towards investigating options...

  15. Energy supply and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The author emphasizes the necessity and importance of nuclear energy for the energy supply and stresses the point that it is extremely important to return to objective arguments instead of having emotional disputes. In this connection, it would be necessary for the ministries in question to have clear-cut political responsibility from which, under no circumstances, they may escape, and which they cannot pass on to the courts either. Within the framework of listing present problems, the author is concerned with the possibility of improved site planning, the introduction of a plan approval procedure and questions concerning immediately enforceable nuclear licences. He also deals with a proposal, repeatedly made, to improve nuclear licensing procedures on the one hand by introducing a project-free site-appointment procedure, and on the other hand by introducing a simplified licensing procedure for facilities of the same kind. Splitting the procedure into site and facility would make sense solely for the reason that in many cases the objections are, above all, directed against the site. (HP) [de

  16. Energy discharge heater power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.

    1992-11-01

    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  17. An economic model of international wood supply, forest stock and forest area change

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Wood supply, the link between roundwood removals and forest resources, is an important component of forest sector models. This paper develops a model of international wood supply within the structure of the spatial equilibrium Global Forest Products Model. The wood supply model determines, for each country, the annual forest harvest, the annual change of forest stock...

  18. An innovative container supply chain for forest chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, Kalle; Korpinen, Olli-Jussi; Laettilae, Lauri; Foehr, Jarno; Ranta, Tapio [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland)], e-mail: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi

    2012-11-01

    Most forest chips are transported by trucks with a solid frame. Forest-chip volumes will at least double before 2020, which means longer transport distances from the supply areas to the largest demand sites in Finland. The study concentrates on an innovative container solution based on a channel composite structure, creating a lighter, temperature-isolated, and more durable structure. In addition to the structural benefits, the container includes an innovative supply chain with a beneficial handling operation, interchangeability and maximising of the payload capacity, resulting in an energy- and cost-efficient solution. This innovative-container-based supply chain for forest chips has been studied via cost analysis, GIS analysis, and discrete-event simulation methods. The purpose of the study was to compare a truck of interchangeable containers with solid-frame trucks. The option of interchangeable containers allows combining truck logistics with other modes of transport, such as trains and waterways. The study showed the cost-efficiency potential of container truck logistics, stemming from the cost and payload savings and the supply-chain productivity advantages over solid-frame trucks. The innovative solution for interchangeable-container logistics is an option for large-scale supply of forest chips.

  19. Energy supply today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is the synthesis of two lectures on the energy market in the FRG and the problems of the future energy supply. The main point of the explanations is nuclear energy and power supply the basic thoughts of which are explained in detail. A general view at the present situation on the individual energy sections shows that by using regenerative energy sources and energy savings only the increasing energy need cannot be met. Also in the case of coal, when having used it for a long time through the technologies of gasification and liquidation, its quantitative limits will be seen sooner than it would be the case otherwise. For long terms, nuclear energy is the only way to guarantee the mankind a relatively rishless supply of energy in the generation of power and process heat, especially when the fast breeders are used. (UA) [de

  20. Synergies between energy supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jianzhnog; Yan, Jinyue; Desideri, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national lev...... and integration of local renewables including solar energy wind geothermal waste heat and biomass is presented.......Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national level...... objectives to be understood and optimally coordinated. The latest research on the network coupling technologies analysis of synergies between energy supply networks and optimal use of synergies in network operation is discussed. A diagram on the possible interactions between different energy networks...

  1. Supply chain modeling of forest fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Helene; Lundgren, Jan T.; Roennqvist, Mikael

    2001-04-01

    We study the problem of deciding when and where forest residues are to be converted into forest fuel, and how the residues are to be transported and stored in order to satisfy demand at heating plants. Decisions also include whether or not additional harvest areas and saw-mills are to be contracted. In addition, we consider the flow of products from saw-mills and import harbors, and address the question about which terminals to use. The planning horizon is one year and monthly time periods are considered. The supply chain problem is formulated as a large mixed integer linear programming model. In order to obtain solutions within reasonable time we have developed a heuristic solution approach. Computational results from a large Swedish supplying entrepreneur are reported.

  2. Supply chain modeling of forest fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, Helene; Lundgren, Jan T.; Roennqvist, Mikael

    2001-04-01

    We study the problem of deciding when and where forest residues are to be converted into forest fuel, and how the residues are to be transported and stored in order to satisfy demand at heating plants. Decisions also include whether or not additional harvest areas and saw-mills are to be contracted. In addition, we consider the flow of products from saw-mills and import harbors, and address the question about which terminals to use. The planning horizon is one year and monthly time periods are considered. The supply chain problem is formulated as a large mixed integer linear programming model. In order to obtain solutions within reasonable time we have developed a heuristic solution approach. Computational results from a large Swedish supplying entrepreneur are reported

  3. European energy supplies; some considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2009-01-01

    European leaders are increasing conscious of their heavy dependence on energy supplies from Russia. In an attempt to articulate a strategy to improve energy security and Solidarity Action Plan in november 2008. This essay examines the E U-Russia energy partnership and argues that despite a number of supply-interruptions, of threats of interruptions, the interdependence between Brussels and Moscow is likely to endure, at least the foreseeable future. [it

  4. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  5. Supplying safety and energy independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2001-03-01

    The french Observatory of the Energy wonders about the energy independence notion. Many risks are possible: physical, economical, geo-political, social and ecological risks. Because those risks are numerous, the answers for a supplying safety are also numerous. In this context the energy policy is a difficult art which the public opinion needs to be more and more aware. (A.L.B.)

  6. Estonian energy forest project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, A.; Kirt, E.; Kull, K.; Lasn, R.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, J.; Ross, V.; Sulev, M.

    1994-04-01

    In February 1993 an agreement of Swedish-Estonian scientific co-operation on energy forest was signed. In may five energy forest plantations (altogether 2 ha) were established in Estonia with Swedish selected clones of Salix viminalis and Salix dasyclados. The research within this project is carried out within three main directions. The studies of basic ecophysiological processes and radiation regime of willow canopy will be carried out in Toravere. The production ecology studies, comparison of the productivity of multiple clones on different soil types is based on the plantations as vegetation filter for wastewater purification is studied on the basis of plantations in Vaeike-Maarja and Valga (author)

  7. Energy supply - a global problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1990-01-01

    The text of a speech celebrating the 10 years operation of the nuclear power plant in Goesgen. The author expresses his opinion on the future of nuclear energy, on the responsibility towards the next generation and on the energy supply for the Third World. He draws attention to the gap between north and south and to the limited amount of resources and mention the CO2-problem and the potential of nuclear energy

  8. Overview of MPC applications in supply chains: Potential use and benefits in the management of forest-based supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Pinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This work aims to provide an overview of Model Predictive Controllers (MPC applications in supply chains, to describe the forest-based supply chain and to analyse the potential use and benefits of MPC in a case study concerning a biomass supply chain.Area of study: The proposed methods are being applied to a company located in Finland.Material and methods: Supply chains are complex systems where actions and partners’ coordination influence the whole system performance. The increase of competitiveness and need of quick responses to the costumers implies the use of efficient management techniques. The control theory, particularly MPC, has been successfully used as a supply chain management tool. MPC is able to deal with dynamic interactions between the partners and to globally optimize the supply chain performance in the presence of disturbances. However, as far as is authors’ knowledge, there are no applications of this methodology in the forest-based supply chains. This work proposes a control architecture to improve the performance of the forest supply chain. The controller is based on prediction models which are able to simulate the system and deal with disturbances.Main results: The preliminary results enable to evaluate the impacts of disturbances in the supply chain. Thus, it is possible to react beforehand, controlling the schedules and tasks’ allocation, or alert the planning level in order to generate a new plan.Research highlights:   Overview of MPC applications in supply chains; forest-based supply chain description; case study presentation: wood biomass supply chain for energy production; MPC architecture proposal to decrease the operation times.Keywords: biomass; forest; Model Predictive Control; planning; supply chain.

  9. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierret, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  10. Energy supply and energy saving in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ilchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main problems and solutions of energy saving and energy supply in Ukraine. Low energy efficiency has become one of the main factors of the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. The most relevant scientific and methodical approaches to assessment of the level of energy consumption and saving are indicated. The comparative analysis of annual energy use has been made. A potential to solve energy supply problems is strongly correlated with the ability to ensure the innovative development of economy for efficient and economical use of existing and imported energy resources. The ways for reducing of energy resource consumption have been suggested. Creation of technological conditions for the use of alternative energy sources is considered to be rational also. The development of renewable sources of energy (alternative and renewable energy sources will provide a significant effect in reducing the use of traditional energy sources, harmful emissions and greenhouse gas. Under these conditions, increasing of energy efficiency of economy and its competitiveness can be real. Improvement of environmental and social conditions of citizens of the country will mark a positive step towards the EU, and also will cancel some problems of the future generation.

  11. Energy pricing under uncertain supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a new pricing system - based on the Chilean tariff regulations - to deal with an uncertain energy supply. It consists of a basic rate for each unit actually consumed and a compensation that the utilities pay their customers for each unit of energy that they voluntarily reduce below their normal consumption during an energy shortage. Within the framework of a model that portrays the stylized facts of the Chilean electric system, and assumes risk-neutral agents, this paper shows the equivalency of the new pricing system with both contingent pricing and priority pricing. (Author)

  12. Forest industries energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G. C.

    1977-10-15

    Data on energy use in the manufacturing process of the wood products industry in 1974 are tabulated. The forest industries contributed 10% of New Zealand's factory production and consumed 25% of all industrial energy (including that produced from self-generated sources such as waste heat liquors and wood wastes) in that year. An evaluation of the potential for savings in process heat systems in existing production levels is shown to be 3% in the short, medium, and long-term time periods. The industry has a high potential for fuel substitution in all sectors. The payback periods for the implementation of the conservation measures are indicated.

  13. Biomass energy consumption in Nigeria: integrating demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoh, S.; Soaga, J.

    1999-01-01

    The study examined the present and future consumption of biomass energy in Nigeria. Direct consumption of fire wood for domestic purposes is the predominant form of biomass energy consumption. Charcoal plays minot roles in biomass energy supply. The current and expected demand for fuelwood is projected to increase by 399% whereas supply is expected to decrease by 17.2% between 1995 and year 2010. Resource adequacy in terms of planned supply is on the decline. Forest estates which is the only planned strategy for fuelwood and wood production is projected to decline from 6.37 million ha. in 1990 to 2.4 million ha, in year 2010. The possibilities of meeting the fuelwood demand in the future is precarious. Policy measures aimed at increasing forest estates. reduction of loss of forest lands to other uses and encouragement of private forestry are recommended

  14. Aggregate Timber Supply: From the Forest to the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Subhrendu K. Pattanayak

    2003-01-01

    Timber supply modeling is a means of formalizing the production behavior of heterogeneous landowners managing a wide variety of forest types and vintages within a region. The critical challenge of timber supply modeling is constructing theoretically valid and empirically practical aggregate descriptions of harvest behavior. Understanding timber supply is essential for...

  15. Rwanda after the war: supply and rational management of biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategeka, A.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the effects of the war in Rwanda on biomass energy and biomass energy supply. Seven projects identified to be carried out immediately involve rationalisation of biomass energy use in urban and rural areas, supplying charcoal from forest thinnings, rehabilitation of damaged forests, examination of the feasibility of peat extraction, urban supply of peat, wood energy conservation, and pilot production of papyrus briquettes. (UK)

  16. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  17. Energy supply and energy policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1985-01-01

    The article gives an outline of the problems of energy supply in Switzerland, with some emphasis upon the extent to which Federal and Cantonal constitutions and the functioning of Swiss democracy, notably the relatively frequent recourse to referendums and the strong public interest in conservation and ecology, affect the nature of decisions upon technical matters such as the authorisation and siting of generating plants and the construction of transmission lines. The dominating factor in the energy situation in Switzerland has been and will remain the need to import about 84% of the energy used, mainly in the form of oil, the cost of which is nearly 10% of the total value of all imports. Water power accounts for 13% of the total supply and is approaching the limit of its possible development. The use of energy constantly increases but the political difficulties in the way of providing the consequently necessary resources increase if anything still more rapidly. The resulting difficult situation is discussed in some detail. The author urges the energy industry to view its political difficulties in a positive manner, and to see them rather as a spur to effort than as merely an unwelcome obstacle to private enterprise. (C.J.O.G.)

  18. Feedstock quality : an important consideration in forest biomass supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryans, M. [FP Innovations, Vancouver, BC (Canada). FERIC

    2009-07-01

    The move to forest-based sources of biomass requires an emphasis on the quality of forest residues. Customers set the feedstock requirements, and demand homogeneous and predictable quality. The top quality factors are appropriate moisture content, consistent particle size, chlorine content, and clean material. The seasonal variability of the resource means that suppliers must determine how to deliver a year-round supply with appropriate moisture content. Methods such as pre-piling and covering with a tarp are being tested. Although mills tailored for biomass deliveries have modernized boilers capable of burning a variety of biomass feedstocks at varying moisture contents, a 10 per cent reduction in moisture content can offer a good return on investment because suppliers could transports more energy content and less water per tonne of biomass. This presentation also discussed the range of equipment choices available for delivering the right-sized biomass, and outlined the right and wrong practices that influence biomass quality along the supply chain. figs.

  19. Setting up fuel supply strategies for large-scale bio-energy projects using agricultural and forest residues. A methodology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a coherent methodology to set up fuel supply strategies for large-scale biomass-conversion units. This method will explicitly take risks and uncertainties regarding availability and costs in relation to time into account. This paper aims at providing general guidelines, which are not country-specific. These guidelines cannot provide 'perfect fit'-solutions, but aim to give general help to overcome barriers and to set up supply strategies. It will mainly focus on residues from the agricultural and forestry sector. This study focuses on electricity or both electricity and heat production (CHP) with plant scales between 1040 MWe. This range is chosen due to rules of economies of scale. In large-scale plants the benefits of increased efficiency outweigh increased transportation costs, allowing a lower price per kWh which in turn may allow higher biomass costs. However, fuel-supply risks tend to get higher with increasing plant size, which makes it more important to assess them for large(r) conversion plants. Although the methodology does not focus on a specific conversion technology, it should be stressed that the technology must be able to handle a wide variety of biomass fuels with different characteristics because many biomass residues are not available the year round and various fuels are needed for a constant supply. The methodology allows for comparing different technologies (with known investment and operational and maintenance costs from literature) and evaluation for different fuel supply scenarios. In order to demonstrate the methodology, a case study was carried out for the north-eastern part of Thailand (Isaan), an agricultural region. The research was conducted in collaboration with the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia (RWEDP), a project of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in Bangkok, Thailand. In Section 2 of this paper the methodology will be presented. In Section 3 the economic

  20. Harvest choice and timber supply models for forest forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym Polyakov; David N Wear

    2010-01-01

    Timber supply has traditionally been modeled using aggregate data, whereas individual harvest choices have been shown to be sensitive to the vintage and condition of forest capital stocks. In this article, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products in a seven-state region of the US South directly from stand-level harvest choice models applied to...

  1. 76 FR 67721 - PNE Energy Supply, LLC;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-186-000] PNE Energy Supply, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Supply, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that...

  2. Valuing diversity in energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim

    2010-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the role of supply diversity in promoting energy security. This paper explores ways of valuing diversity. A possible incentive mechanism for promoting diversity which takes account of underlying 'disparities' between different technology options is developed. The mechanism provides a way of trading off cost and diversity and results in an 'efficient' cost-diversity frontier by analogy with financial portfolio theory. If all technologies are believed to be equally disparate, the appropriate mechanism is a 'levy' imposed on market share. If the technologies are not equally disparate, the levy needs to be adjusted by technology-specific multipliers that take account of levels of disparity and patterns of market share. The analysis is applied to two stylised situations. In the long-run equilibrium case, the implications of both different patterns of disparity and different values attached to diversity are investigated. The paper also explores the implications of applying such a mechanism to the current Great Britain electricity system. The implications in terms of financial flows, for both the market as a whole and for individual operators, are investigated. Finally, the appropriateness of such a mechanism in the light of other policy goals, and possible future research directions, is discussed. (author)

  3. Secure Energy Supply 2009. Welcome address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this invitation lecture professor Slugen (President of Slovak Nuclear Society and President of European Nuclear Society) invited the participants of the International Conference: Secure Energy Supply 2009.

  4. Perspectives of energy supply in unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieske, F.

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with the role of the various energy carriers within a future energy concept. The energy supply industry aims at a well-balanced energy mixture which is to include nuclear energy as well as domestic and imported coal. The supply industry will not turn a deaf ear to opening up the competitive scene, the author thinks, however, there well have to be special economic and technical preconditions. (orig.) [de

  5. Sustainable development and energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    'Sustainable' is an old established term which has made a political career in the past ten years. The roots of this career extend back into the 18th century, when an economic concept of forest management was developed to replace yield maximization achieved by means of complete deforestation by yield optimization attained by conservative forest management. This latter type of forest management was termed 'sustainable'. The language used in today's sustainability debate was based on the idea of preserving the capital provided by nature and living on the interest. As a consequence, the term 'sustainable' became one of the key points in environmental policy and economic policy after the Brundtland report had been published (V. Hauff, 1987), which also constitutes the background to this article. (orig.) [de

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Uninterruptible Power Supplies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Uninterruptible Power Supplies that are...

  8. Estimation of Energy Not Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenek Medvec; Lukas Prokop

    2008-01-01

    Damages in industrial company are raising during electrical interruption of power supply. These damages have usually different character and financial damages are most usual. Value of damage is nearly pertinent to type of industrial branch and working load of production line. Total value of customer costs depends on time of interruption. The paper refers to cost calculation based on public sources for industrial company during interruption of electrical power supply.

  9. National economic aspects of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschopp, P.

    1981-01-01

    The author discusses the economic place value of energy supply for production, the influence of energy on national economy structure and specialisation, cost/gain effects of alternative energy strategies, the effects of energy policy on the labour market, and the need for clearer aims in energy policy. (H.V.H.)

  10. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  11. Uncertainty in future water supplies from forests: hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Achterman, G. L.; Alexander, L. E.; Brooks, K. N.; Creed, I. F.; Ffolliott, P. F.; MacDonald, L.; Wemple, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    Forests account for 33 percent of the U.S. land area, process nearly two-thirds of the fresh water supply, and provide water to 40 percent of all municipalities or about 180 million people. Water supply management is becoming more difficult given the increasing demand for water, climate change, increasing development, changing forest ownership, and increasingly fragmented laws governing forest and watershed management. In 2006, the US National Research Council convened a study on the present understanding of forest hydrology, the hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape, and research and management needs for sustaining water resources from forested landscapes. The committee concluded that while it is possible to generate short-term water yield increases by timber harvesting, there are a variety of reasons why active forest management has only limited potential to sustainably increase water supplies. These include the short-term nature of the increases in most environments, the timing of the increases, the need for downstream storage, and that continuing ground- based timber harvest can reduce water quality. At the same time, past and continuing changes in forest structure and management may be altering water supplies at the larger time and space scales that are of most interest to forest and water managers. These changes include the legacy of past forest management practices, particularly fire suppression and clearcutting; exurban sprawl, which permanently converts forest land to nonforest uses; effects of climate change on wildfires, insect outbreaks, forest structure, forest species composition, snowpack depth and snowmelt; road networks; and changes in forest land ownership. All of these changes have the potential to alter water quantity and quality from forests. Hence, the baseline conditions that have been used to estimate sustained water yields from forested watersheds may no longer be applicable. Stationarity also can no longer be assumed for the

  12. Securitization of energy supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Guy C.K.; Cherp, Aleh; Jewell, Jessica; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three sources of energy security risks, namely sovereignty, robustness and resilience, affect China’s energy chains. • Energy security issues in China both have shaped and at the same time were shaped by ideas and institutions. • China remains rigid with equating ‘security’ with ‘national security’ and the notion of “national” is socially constructed. • Powerful actors, such as Chinese NOCs, inclined to interpret the problem so that it fits their preferred solution. • Securitization of any energy supply chains results from their historical roots, system properties and institutional agents. - Abstract: Energy policies in China, the world’s largest energy consumer, are an important factor in shaping the global energy system. While scholars agree that energy security is a major driver of China’s energy policies, there is insufficient understanding of what exactly constitutes China’s energy security from the policy perspective. We apply recent insights from the Global Energy Assessment, particularly the idea of vital energy systems, and the securitization theory to propose a framework for explaining China’s energy security policies in their historic evolution. We pay specific attention to explaining how particular energy supply chains are constructed and securitized. We draw data from over 300 Chinese and over 100 English publications and 30 interviews with energy officials and experts in China. We demonstrate that China’s focus on vulnerabilities of its oil supply chain at the expense of improving the reliability of domestic electricity supply is not accidental. It has its roots in historic events, properties of energy systems, as well as the presence of powerful institutional agents interested in securitizing the oil supply chain but not other vital energy systems. We suggest that this focus on the oil supply chain is likely to be maintained in the future, possibly accompanied by increasing concerns over natural gas

  13. Energy supply - a global problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittstieg, G.

    1980-12-01

    A briefly commented data collection is presented. The following diagrams are related to energy requirements and consumption as well as primary energy reserves. Finally some comments referring to nuclear energy are given. (UA) [de

  14. Forest biomass-based energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; Pankaj Lal; Andres Susaeta; Robert C. Abt; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsHarvesting woody biomass for use as bioenergy is projected to range from 170 million to 336 million green tons by 2050, an increase of 54 to 113 percent over current levels.Consumption projections for forest biomass-based energy, which are based on Energy Information Administration projections, have a high level of...

  15. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  16. Designing Wood Supply Scenarios from Forest Inventories with Stratified Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Kilham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest growth and wood supply projections are increasingly used to estimate the future availability of woody biomass and the correlated effects on forests and climate. This research parameterizes an inventory-based business-as-usual wood supply scenario, with a focus on southwest Germany and the period 2002–2012 with a stratified prediction. First, the Classification and Regression Trees algorithm groups the inventory plots into strata with corresponding harvest probabilities. Second, Random Forest algorithms generate individual harvest probabilities for the plots of each stratum. Third, the plots with the highest individual probabilities are selected as harvested until the harvest probability of the stratum is fulfilled. Fourth, the harvested volume of these plots is predicted with a linear regression model trained on harvested plots only. To illustrate the pros and cons of this method, it is compared to a direct harvested volume prediction with linear regression, and a combination of logistic regression and linear regression. Direct harvested volume regression predicts comparable volume figures, but generates these volumes in a way that differs from business-as-usual. The logistic model achieves higher overall classification accuracies, but results in underestimations or overestimations of harvest shares for several subsets of the data. The stratified prediction method balances this shortcoming, and can be of general use for forest growth and timber supply projections from large-scale forest inventories.

  17. Projecting demand and supply of forest biomass for heating in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromborg, Erik; Havskjold, Monica; Lislebo, Ole; Rorstad, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the increase in demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. By then there is a political aim to double the national production of bioenergy from the level in 2008. The competitiveness of woody biomass in central and district heating is analyzed in a model selecting the least-cost heating technology and scale in municipalities given a set of constraints and under different fuels price scenarios. The supply of forest biomass from roundwood is estimated based on data of forest inventories combined with elasticities regarding price and standing volumes. The supply of biomass from harvesting residues is estimated in an engineering approach based on data from the national forest inventories and roundwood harvest. The results show how the production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes for bioenergy. One conclusion from the analyses is that the government target of 14 TWh more bioenergy by 2020 is not likely to be met by current technologies and policy incentives. The contribution of the analysis is the detailed presentation of the heat market potentials and technology choices combined with supply functions for both roundwood and harvesting residues. - Highlights: → This paper accesses the demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. → Market share for wood in central and new district heating is analyzed in a cost-minimizing model. → The supply of forest biomass includes wood chips from import, roundwood and harvesting residues. → The production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes. → The government target for bioenergy is not met by current technologies and policy incentives.

  18. Regional supply, demand and utilization of forest biomass in South-East Finland; Metsaeenergian kaeytoen kasvun liiketoimintamahdollisuudet Kaakkois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laihanen, M.; Karhunen, A.; Ranta, T.

    2011-07-01

    Rising demand of forest biomass in South-East Finland has created need to evaluate the impact for different energy users and producers. The aim of this study is to settle the current demand and availability of forest biomass and to evaluate the opportunities the growth offers. Initial data of study base on current structure of energy supply and on current energy demand. The information can be used as a guideline when evaluating local sufficiency of energy wood and business opportunities for local actors such as energy producers and forest fuel suppliers. Main aim of the study is to create prosperity and entrepreneurship to South-East Finland. Analysis included following tasks: gathering data about the current and potential use and users of forest biomass (logging residues, stumps and small diameter energy wood), settling local availability of forest fuels, creating forest biomass balance to indicate the sufficiency of local resources and to identify the effects of current business opportunities around forest biomass sector. Results of the study illustrate local balance between use and availability of energy wood, need for labor and revenue of forest biomass supply in South-East Finland. Evaluation analysis constructed for regional and local needs combine the current and potential use of forest biomass with local availability. Analysis represents model for evaluating local possibilities of utilization of forest biomass. Co-operation with Forestry Centre of South-East Finland was productive through entire study. (orig.)

  19. Energy exchange increases supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2004-01-01

    Since October 5, 2004, Endex is an official futures market for energy. All the energy businesses and large-scale consumers in the Netherlands can trade electricity, and in the future also gas, anonymously [nl

  20. Issue on supply chain of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • One of the most relevant debates, is related to energy and environmental issue. • The development of renewable energy usage is due to several factors. • Indeed challenges from a supply chain point of view are required. • Thorough survey on topics of supply chain and renewable energy has been conducted. • Findings are discussed against the backdrop of SCs as sustainable RE option. - Abstract: Actually, one of the most relevant debates, among both citizens that government, is related to energy and environmental issue. The development of renewable energy usage is due to several factors such as the political strategic decisions and geographical situation. Indeed the high development of renewable energies requires challenges from a supply chain point of view. In this paper, a thorough survey of the extant literature on the topic of supply chain (SC) and renewable energy (RE) has been conducted. English papers published on international peer-reviewed journals from 2003 to 2013 have been considered. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) resolves the duality between environmental, economic and social aspects. Sustainable manufacturing practices play an essential role in promoting renewable energy development and commercialization; this will require significant changes to the industry’s traditional Supply Chain Management and business model. The aim of the paper is investigate literature insights useful to increase the performance and overcome barriers to the RE supply chain development. Like many typical supply chains, also supply chain related to RE includes elements such as: physical, information, and financial flows. The present research is useful to individualize characteristics of a RE supply chain. Moreover, the research is useful improve the performance of RE supply chain in some aspects like: • better control supply chain costs to make renewable energy more affordable; • manage supply chain to address weakened demand in the near

  1. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  2. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Abt, Robert C.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS) was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  3. Nuclear power: energy security and supply assurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; McDonald, A.

    2008-01-01

    Expectations are high for nuclear power. This paper first summarizes recent global and regional projections for the medium-term, including the 2007 updates of IAEA projections plus International Energy Agency and World Energy Technology Outlook projections to 2030 and 2050. One driving force for nuclear power is concern about energy supply security. Two potential obstacles are concerns about increased nuclear weapon proliferation risks, and concerns by some countries about potential politically motivated nuclear fuel supply interruptions. Concerning supply security, the paper reviews different definitions, strategies and costs. Supply security is not free; nor does nuclear power categorically increase energy supply security in all situations. Concerning proliferation and nuclear fuel cut-off risks, the IAEA and others are exploring possible 'assurance of supply' mechanisms with 2 motivations. First, the possibility of a political fuel supply interruption is a non-market disincentive discouraging investment in nuclear power. Fuel supply assurance mechanisms could reduce this disincentive. Second, the risk of interruption creates an incentive for a country to insure against that risk by developing a national enrichment capability. Assurance mechanisms could reduce this incentive, thereby reducing the possible spread of new national enrichment capabilities and any associated weapon proliferation risks. (orig.)

  4. Options for new Swiss energy supply strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S.; Jakob, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ecologically neutral, cost efficient, without supply shortages, independent from foreign countries, risk- and waste-free - that is the image of an ideal future energy supply. But even if considerable ecological and economical improvements of various energy supply options can be achieved, the next generation of heat and power plants with the associated up- and down-stream parts of energy chains, will not comply with all such idealistic requirements. As research in the framework of the GaBE Project on 'Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems' has shown, among the reasons for this are the limited medium term potential of renewable energy sources, and the necessity to employ primarily non-renewable energy carriers for the emerging more efficient energy conversion processes. (author)

  5. Monitoring the Vulnerability of Energy Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnansonounou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of the world evolution, the public decision makers, the energy supply industry and the consumers in industrialised countries are more and more sensitive to the vulnerability of energy supply. The emergence of new big consumer countries and the perspective of oil and gas depletion at the end of the current century raise the concerns about how to share fairly the remaining resources for the common and sustainable development of the mankind. Erratic energy prices discourage investment and delay the energy transition. Voluntary measures are needed mainly in industrialised countries in order to develop alternative and sustainable energy sources and to avoid world struggle for energy procurement. In this contribution a synthetic energy vulnerability index is defined for monitoring energy supply vulnerability. The proposed index is based on energy intensity, oil and gas import dependency, CO 2 content of primary energy supply, electricity supply vulnerability and non-diversity in transport fuels. The preliminary assessment of this synthetic index for selected industrialised countries provides promising results that need however further refinement.(author)

  6. Supply assurance by versatile energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaek, W.

    1982-01-01

    The scope of future possibilities of covering the energy requirements of the Federal Republic of Germany has been explained in four sessions handling the topics: structure and covering of the primary energy requirements, contributions of fossil and other energy sources, hydrocarbons and nuclear energy as well as perspectives and political reaction. All energy carriers are required in order to guarantee supply safety, but the industrial nations should make greater use of their know-how and capitals in order to meet short supply of raw material with flexibility. (orig.) [de

  7. Mineral supplies for atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C S

    1950-03-31

    In a preliminary discussion the author describes the process of fission and discusses the materials required. Geological considerations are presented along with information regarding the occurrences of thorium and uranium deposits. The chief sources of uranium ore are the Belgian Congo, the Great Bear Lake in Canada, the Erzgebirge in Bohemia, and the low grade carnotite ore in Colorado, and possibly a deposit in Siberia. The monazite sands of Travancore are the most useful source of thoria today. The world's supply of uranium is somewhat under 10,000 tons of ore annually and thorium approximately 5,000 tons of suitable monazite sand.

  8. Energy supply and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.; Geiger, B.; Rudolph, M.

    1995-01-01

    Today we know that there is no such thing as an ecologically harmless energy source. This applies also to the industrial-scale utilisation of alternative energy sources. In the case of nuclear power, a reevaluation of its risks may be useful in view of the impending global climate change which, however, the author denies. It is an illusion to think that the causes of the exorbitant increase in energy consumption can be remedied on a medium-term basis, so the only possible solution is an optimum utilisation of energy and maximum energy conservation. The book discusses key problems of environmental protechtion and environmental policy from a global point of view. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Supply of basic food, energy, and energy-supplying foodstuffs to the population of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdan, M R

    1979-04-27

    The supply of energy and energy-supplying foodstuffs to the population of Jordan is determined on a regional basis. Food is supplied by the agricultural sector and by imports. The influence of prices on foreign trade and consumption is analyzed. The investigation shows that most of the food supplied is of vegetable origin. The demand for animal protein is covered by 82% on an average. There are no symptoms of malnutrition among the population.

  10. Energy supply in East Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Tsutomu

    1988-07-10

    East Germany has abundant brown coal, about 90.4% of primary energy production in 1986. The high dependence upon brown coal has been established since its reevaluation in 1980 and the production is reaching a peak. Its share in power generation is also as high as 83.3% in the year. Therefore, the energy sufficiency of East Germany is about 80%. Problems are arising, however, in deterioration of excavation conditions and coal quality. Domestic energy resources such as the uranium and natural gas are also used to the maximum extent. The nuclear power has about 10% of share in the power generation. The share expansion policy is seemingly maintained even after the accident of Chernoble. Exploration, excavation and reprocessing of the uranium are conducted under the leadership of USSR. The country depends upon the oil in a very low level, less than 1%, as a result of the energy conservation policy in 1980's. (1 fig, 5 tabs)

  11. Energy costs and Portland water supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, W.M.; Hawley, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The changing role of electrical energy on the Portland, Oregon, municipal-water-supply system is presented. Portland's actions in energy conservation include improved operating procedures, pump modifications, and modifications to the water system to eliminate pumping. Portland is implementing a small hydroelectric project at existing water-supply dams to produce an additional source of power for the area. Special precautions in construction and operation are necessary to protect the high quality of the water supply. 2 references, 7 figures.

  12. Mountain forest wood fuel supply chains: comparative studies between Norway and Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, Clara; Spinelli, Raffaele; Hillring, Bengt Gunnar; Solberg, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of mountain forest wood fuel supply chains from Norway and Italy are presented and compared. Results from previous studies in which greenhouse gas emissions and costs were evaluated using life cycle assessment and cost analysis respectively, are compared. The supply chain is more mechanized in Norway than Italy. Steeper terrain and low road density partly explain the persistence of motor-manual felling in the Italian case. Mechanized forest harvesting can increase productivity and reduce costs, but generates more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than motor-manual harvesting. In both cases, the main sources of GHG emissions are truck transportation and chipping. The total emissions are 22.9 kg CO 2 /m 3 s.o.b. (Norway) and 13.2 kg CO 2 /m 3 s.o.b. (Italy). The Norwegian case has higher costs than the Italian one, 64 €/m 3 s.o.b. and 41 €/m 3 s.o.b. respectively, for the overall supply chain. The study shows that mountain forests constitute an interesting source for fuel biomass in both areas, but are a rather costly source, particularly in Norway. The study also exemplifies the care needed in transferring LCA results between regions and countries, particularly where forest biomass is involved. - Highlights: • We compare two mountain forest wood fuel supply chains in Norway and in Italy. • Transportation by truck generate the highest emissions in both case studies. • The energy use of the Norwegian supply chain was approximately twice as high as the Italian one. • Changes in fuel consumption affect significantly emissions and energy use from transportation and chipping operations. • Cable yarding and transportation by truck were the most expensive phases respectively in the Italian and Norwegian supply chain

  13. Tactical supply chain planning for a forest biomass power plant under supply uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Nazanin; Sowlati, Taraneh; Ouhimmou, Mustapha; Rönnqvist, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in biomass supply is a critical issue that needs to be considered in the production planning of bioenergy plants. Incorporating uncertainty in supply chain planning models provides improved and stable solutions. In this paper, we first reformulate a previously developed non-linear programming model for optimization of a forest biomass power plant supply chain into a linear programming model. The developed model is a multi-period tactical-level production planning problem and considers the supply and storage of forest biomass as well as the production of electricity. It has a one-year planning horizon with monthly time steps. Next, in order to incorporate uncertainty in monthly available biomass into the planning, we develop a two-stage stochastic programming model. Finally, to balance the risk and profit, we propose a bi-objective model. The results show that uncertainty in availability of biomass has an additional cost of $0.4 million for the power plant. Using the proposed stochastic optimization model could reduce this cost by half. - Highlights: • Developed a two-stage stochastic optimization model to consider supply uncertainty. • Maximized the profit of a forest biomass power plant value chain. • Minimized two risk measures, variability index and downside risk, to manage risks. • Stochastic optimization model provided feasible solution for all scenarios. • Results showed a trade-off between profit and risk management

  14. World supply of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel.

    1981-01-01

    At the end of 1980 nuclear energy accounted for 9% of the world production of electricity stemming from 262 power stations, utilising mainly the process of water reactors and representing an installed capacity of 142 GWe. This production, apparently limited, already represents the equivalent of 150 million TOE. The 600 nuclear power stations in service, under construction or ordered represent a total of 450 GWe. In 1985, their production ought to cover 15% of the world requirements of electricity, which corresponds to a doubling of the share of nuclear energy within 6 years. During these recent years, the development of nuclear energy has undergone a significant slowing down and the number of orders for new nuclear power stations has dropped considerably in particular in the United States. Considering the time required and the available industrial capacity, the accumulated capacity which could be installed worlwide by 1990 could attain 530 GWe, equivalent to 650 MTOE covering 24% of the world production of electricity and 7% of the world consumption of primary energy. A determined effort for the end of this century could end up by the installation of 1200 GWe of capacity, generating 1.5 GTOE. The share of nuclear energy would then represent 35% of the production of electricity [fr

  15. Sustainable energy supply; Baerekraftig energioppdekning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kr.; Rosenberg, Eva [Institutt for energiteknikk, Kjeller(Norway); Kubberud Trond ECON, Oslo (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    This report discusses the potential for reducing the use of energy and quantifies the environmental disadvantages and estimated environmental costs of various energy carriers in Norway. The MARKAL model is used to work out three scenarios for a more sustainable use of energy. It is found that the environmental impact of NOx emissions are much greater than that of sulfur emissions. The damage caused by CO2 and NOx are of the same order of magnitude. The studies indicate that if the damage to the environment is internalized into the energy system, then it will lead to increased use of gas in the industry and transport sectors. The results are sensitive with respect to the cost development for the cleaning technology of conventional energy carriers and for storage and transport of gas. Internalizing the external costs is not enough to eliminate the environmental damage, at least not as this is valued today and with the technology supposed to be available for the next 30-40 years.

  16. Problems of energy supply planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2009-01-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), existing within IAEA Vienna decided to prepare energy and nuclear vision of 21st century. We were asked on behalf of AER Working Group F - 'Spent Fuel Transmutations' and INPRO IAEA collaborative project RMI 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the 21st century' to prepare material about the situations, reasons and expected time table concerning future nuclear fuel cycle closing and influences of fossil raw materials deficiencies, expected during the coming century. Material does not content, specially in the second part complete solution and partially is only formulating extremely complex problems of mutual interaction of technologies, raw materials availability and economy needs, together with political demands of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and ecology, taking into account equal rights to have electricity and further services using nuclear energy. (author)

  17. Energy trading and pricing in microgrids with uncertain energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Shubing; Yang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE) generation (wind power) determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profi....... In particular, the uncertainty of the energy supply from the energy provider is considered. Simulation results show that the energy provider can obtain more profit using the proposed decision-making scheme.......This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE) generation (wind power) determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profit...

  18. Decentralised energy supply in 2020 - Commercial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimaier, M.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive article summarises the commercial aspects of a study made by the German Association of Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies VDE on the topic of decentralised energy supply in the year 2020. In a previous article, the technical aspects were examined. This article looks at the findings in connection with commercial aspects of the production of power in decentralised facilities including those using renewable sources of energy. The potential of these forms of electricity generation for the year 2020 is looked at both from the political and economical points of view. The general conditions prevailing for the implementation of decentralised power production in Germany such as the Renewable Energy Law and legislation on combined heat and power generation are discussed. The influence of electricity tariffs and competition in the market is examined, as are various scenarios and concepts for the supply of both power and heating energy. Ways of providing a sustainable energy supply without having to subsidise particular concepts are discussed

  19. Nuclear energy and the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    2005-01-01

    Security of energy supply was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. In this paper, the author discusses the problem of energy supply security. Can security of supply be measured? What is the role of government and of nuclear energy? And what are measures for ensuring security of supply? (A.L.B.)

  20. International Conference SES 2006. Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Conference SES 2006 (Secure Energy Supply, Bezpecna dodavka energie) was realised in Bratislava, during September 26 - 29, 2006 in the hotel Crowne Plaza and deals with most important problems of world and Slovak energetics. In work of Conference took part 108 slovak and 33 foreign participant from 11 countries of the world. Negotiations were realised in five sessions. First two days were devoted to lectures and second two days were visits of selected slovak energetic equipment. On the Conference has resounded matter of fact, that secure energy supply is extremely important subject for economy, but also for population

  1. Energy supply and demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  2. Energy supply security and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The title memo has been sent to the Dutch Lower House. This memo reflects the response of the cabinet to the advice on Energetic Foreign Policy of the Dutch Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV) and the Dutch Energy Council (AER). Moreover, the development of foreign policy with respect to energy supply security is depicted. [mk] [nl

  3. International Conference SES 2009: Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: Opening addresses; (I) Energy policy; (II) Environment, Renewable sources and NPPs; (III) Secure energy supply - New nuclear units. Verbal 21 presentations have been inputted into INIS, all in the form of the full authors' presentations.

  4. Forest industries energy reserch: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G C

    1976-01-01

    The forest industries, which contribute 10% of New Zealand's factory production and consume 25% of all industrial energy (including self-generated sources such as waste liquors and wood wastes), were closely investigated to determine the extent to which imported energy sources can be substituted by local sources and savings made in the specific energy consumption of the industry's products. Issues considered as fundamental to the study were conservation of the nation's fossil fuels; nuclear power should be considered only after full study of its implications; restraints on the growth of energy demands; a greater emphasis on renewable energy resources; and new energy-intensive industries must account for the environmental and social costs of providing the energy. The study was commenced in February 1975 and involved a series of visits to all the major plants and a few representative smaller plants. Energy balances for all the major plants were prepared and are published in the text of the report. The forest-based industries have developed from a large number of small scattered sawmills, drawing from indigenous resources into a few large industrial units which are capital-intensive and produce a wide variety of products serving the home and export markets. They fall into four categories, roughly as follows: large integrated units; intermediate-size integrated mills; sawmills and chip plants; and manufacturing.

  5. Social aspects of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    The continued growth of the world's population makes continued economic growth indispensable. If economic growth were to stop, this would be an invitation to fighting for distribution. In the absence of progress, social improvements become utopian. In the absence of growth, at least for the next fifty years, there will be no means by which to correct even the worst inequalities in the world. It is probably not exaggerating to assume that the whole of mankind could not survive the next fifty years in the absence of the results derived from growth. At any rate, the attitudes and developments in the highly industrialized countries and in the industrializing countries will be decisive. Here is where the keys will be found to opening for the poorest the door to a more promising future and, at the same time, reducing the deadly threat to one's own existence. Economic growth can exist only if there is energy growth, and nuclear power is the only available source able to satisfy in an economic way the demand for energy, which will continue to rise on the medium term. (orig.) [de

  6. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  7. A supply chain analysis framework for assessing state-level forest biomass utilization policies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Dennis R.; Moseley, Cassandra; Lee, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The number of state policies aimed at fostering biomass utilization has proliferated in recent years in the United States. Several states aim to increase the use of forest and agriculture biomass through renewable energy production. Several more indirectly encourage utilization by targeting aspects of the supply chain from trees standing in the forest to goods sold. This research classifies 370 state policies from across the United States that provides incentives for forest biomass utilization. We compare those policies by types of incentives relative to the supply chain and geographic clustering. We then develop a framework for policy evaluation building on the supply chain steps, which can be used to assess intended and unintended consequences of policy interactions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance forest biomass utilization.

  8. Conception for economical energy utilization and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H; Canzler, B

    1977-10-01

    This study was performed to study the factors which determine energy consumption within buildings and how to optimize such energy use. The parameters of the principal energy consumers, i.e., HVAC and lighting systems, were analyzed. Possibilities for obtaining economical energy supplies and for reducing energy consumption were studied with emphasis on adapting the building mechanical equipment and the building design and construction to each other. It was concluded that planning for energy conservation in buildings will decrease the cost of constructing and operating buildings if the architect, building contractor and building operator work together from the initial planning stages.

  9. Supply chains of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-15

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small sized thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2008. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2008 by these suppliers was 6.5 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected in March-May 2009. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in Finland in 2008. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. 70% of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 29% at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, nearly a half of chips were comminuted at plants and more than 40% at terminals

  10. Supply systems of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small-diameter thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2009. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2009 by these suppliers was 8,4 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected from March-May, 2010. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-diameter thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply system in Finland in 2009. The chipping at plant supply system was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. Nearly 70 % of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 28 % at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply system was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-diameter wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, similarly roughly 70 % of chips were comminuted at plants and 23 % at terminals. (orig.)

  11. Supply chains of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips. stump wood chips, and chips from small-sized thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2008. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2008 by these suppliers was 6,5 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected in March-May 2009. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in Finland in 2008. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. 70% of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 29% at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, nearly a half of chips were comminuted at plants and more than 40 % at terminals. (orig.)

  12. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Reliability has always been a concern in the energy sector, but concerns are escalating as energy demand increases and the political stability of many energy supply regions becomes more questionable. But how does one define and measure reliability? We introduce a method to assess reliability in energy supply systems in terms of adequacy and security. It derives from reliability assessment frameworks developed for the electricity sector, which are extended to include qualitative considerations and to be applicable to new energy systems by incorporating decision-making processes based on expert opinion and multi-attribute utility theory. The method presented here is flexible and can be applied to any energy system. To illustrate its use, we apply the method to two hydrogen pathways: (1) centralized steam reforming of imported liquefied natural gas with pipeline distribution of hydrogen, and (2) on-site electrolysis of water using renewable electricity produced independently from the electricity grid

  13. Towards energy self sufficiency in the North: Energy conservation and forest biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A symposium was held to address the issues of controlling energy demand through conservation, and increasing the range of energy supply using forest products (biomass) as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels in Canada's northern climates. Sections on retrofitting of thermal insulation, production of wood fuels, and unconventional energy analyses of these technologies are included. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 23 papers.

  14. Interest in energy wood and energy crop production among Finnish non-industrial private forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Jaervinen, E.; Latvala, T.; Toivonen, R.; Silvennoinen, H.

    2009-01-01

    EU targets and regulations regarding energy production and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been tightening in the 2000s. In Finland the targets are planned to be achieved mainly by increasing the use of biomass. Wood already accounts for a marked proportion of Finnish energy production, but additional reserves are still available. Energy crop production also has considerable potential. Practically all Finnish farmers are also forest owners. Therefore, private forest owners are in a decisive position regarding the supply of energy wood and crops in Finland. In this paper the future supply of biomass is examined according to their past behaviour, intentions and attitudes. Finnish forest owners have a positive attitude towards the use of wood and crops in energy production. Price is becoming more critical as a motive for the supply of energy wood. Recreation and nature conservation play a smaller role than factors related to wood production and forest management as for motives for harvesting energy wood. However, almost a half of forest owners in this study were uncertain of their willingness to supply biomass. This is partly due to limited knowledge of the issues involved in energy wood and agricultural energy crop production and the underdeveloped markets for energy biomass. In order to achieve the targets, supply should be activated by further developing market practices, information, guidance and possibly other incentives for landowners. In general, there is interest among landowners in increasing the supply of energy biomass. However, the growth of supply presumes that production is an economically attractive and competitive alternative, that the markets are better organized than at present, and that more comprehensive information is available about bioenergy and biomass markets and production techniques.

  15. Energy supplies yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knizia, K

    1987-08-20

    The article is based on a paper read in May 1987 on the following subjects: Trends on the German energy market; the risk of dependence on imported oil; coal and nuclear power; the energy situation worldwide, in Western Europe, and in the Third World; the increasing importance of electric power generation; towards a power-plus-hydrogen economy. According to the author, only coal and nuclear power combined will be able to assure energy supply on a long-term basis and to make Germany independent of the unstable world energy market. (MOS).

  16. Perspectives for a global energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, P.

    1987-01-01

    The economic development of the industrial world and the population explosion in the Third World will lead to a further increase in world energy consumption. Up to the year 2020 a doubling of today's consumption must be reckoned with. Further increases may be necessary in order to raise the per capita consumption of the population in the Third World. In order to meet this increasing demand it is necessary to consider all available energy sources. The nonrenewable energy sources oil, coal, gas and uranium will have to carry a greater proportion than the current 80 %. The resources suffice for that. However many obstacles must be surmounted in order to secure an essentially increasing energy production. Shortage symptoms with oil are to be expected within a foreseeable space of time. Only coal and nuclear energy can close the gap. In order to avert adverse effects on the climate, CO 2 emissions must be controlled. This can best be achieved by promoting water power, solar energy and nuclear energy as the principal sources. The postulates of the Swiss energy policy 'saving', 'substitution', 'research' and 'provision' seek to guarantee the energy supply. The promotion of hydro, solar and nuclear power must be added. The postulate of a withdrawal from nuclear energy is untenable considering its worldwide development. It would retard Switzerland in its pursuit of supply security and a better environment. 6 figs

  17. The security of energy supplies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillemin, Francois

    2002-01-01

    As an attempt occurred against a French oil tanker in the Persian Gulf (in 2002), and showed that security of oil supplies is not only related to oil shock or to political environment such as the Cold War, this article discusses issues of security for European energy supplies. It first addresses the situation and the evolution of energy needs and resources in the World and in Europe: predictions of evolution of consumption and production, major role of fossil fuels in the European consumption. It discusses the outage risks: the supply security can be analysed with respect to consumption per sector, per usage or per energy product, and Europe must face three major risks (no more hydrocarbon resources at a reasonable cost, economic risk due to market volatility, geopolitical risk). The next part discusses the perspective of a European strategy. It identifies several elements of choice for Europe in terms of energy demand management, of opening up to competition of electricity and gas markets. It discusses European ambitions in terms of supply security: need of a community framework, actual propositions of a directive for oil and gas

  18. Energy from forests: environmental and wildlife implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, D [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY; Chick, S; Vergara, W

    1981-09-01

    This report analyzes the feasibility of utilizing forests in North America as an energy source. The analysis focuses on three major aspects: (1) the technology of converting wood biomass to energy; (2) the potential of wood as a source of energy; and (3) the environmental implications of using forest products for energy. 49 references, 6 tables.

  19. The energy supply situation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederer, P.

    2007-01-01

    The focus is on 4 energy supply issues of decisive relevance to energy supply in Germany, but also in other countries in Europe and worldwide: (1) How will the global energy situation develop? (2) What is the organization, and the development, of the market in which we are doing business? (3) What are the challenges facing the power industry in view of a threatening climate change? (4) Against this backdrop, how do we design the energy mix of the future? Analysis of these 4 points shows that, for a foreseeable time, all types of energy generation are necessary if Germany and Europe are to be supplied energy efficiently, securely, and in a way not polluting the environment. Hence, these concrete conclusions can be drawn: (1) We need more renewable energies in Germany, in Europe, and worldwide. (2) We need the development of 700 C coalfired power plant technology in order to first advance the development of CCS (carbon capture and storage) technology and thus minimize CO 2 emissions from fossil-fired power plants. (3) We need increases in energy efficiency which help us satisfy the steadily growing need for energy with dwindling fossil resources. (4) We need nuclear power because of its ability to produce baseload electricity free from CO 2 . For nuclear power, it is now important that politics and the power industry jointly find ways and means to reassess, in an unbiased way, the plant operating lives laid down in the current Atomic Energy Act. This is required, inter alia, because of the challenges in climate policy and because of global economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  20. Extension planning for electrical energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieselt, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the future as well as in the past, and in particular in the next decade a considerable increase in electrical energy demand can be expected. To satisfy this demand in a reliable and sufficient manner will force the utilities to invest large sums of money for the operation and the extension of power generation and distribution plants. The size of these investments justifies the search for more and more comprehensive and at the same time more detailed planning methods. With the help of system analysis a planning model for the electricity supply industry of a major supply area will be designed. (orig./RW) [de

  1. Energy supply strategies as an entrepreneurial task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennigsen-Foerder, R. v.

    1982-01-01

    Energy utilities today are forced to live with the discrepancy between the wishes of the energy market and the wishes of politicians. This is the profound and real consequence of turning away from the market economy concept in energy supply, which has been observed increasingly since 1973/74. One major reason is the excessive emphasis on the continuity of supply, at the expense of economy, in the energy sector. This is understandable, of course, for the first oil crisis and the perception by society of the risks inherent in energy technologies have caused safety consciousness to grow. All this must be perceived against a background of a general move by society in favor of living in safety and without risk. This may explain why energy policy feels it has detected a need to act for the 'safety' goal. However, as far as striving for technical safety is concerned, the attitudes adopted by the German utilities under their own responsibility do not justify the existence of an individual government program. German industry unreservedly has always subscribed to the priority of safety in energy plants. No other point of view would be permissible in the light of its responsibility towards the public, but also towards its own personnel and the owners of the respective plants. (orig.) [de

  2. Timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Paul E. Sendak; William H. McWilliams; Neil Huyler; Thomas Malecek; Worthen Muzzey; Toni Jones

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area using USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis data, production information provided by forest industry, and a stump-to-mill logging cost-prediction model. Nonavailable timberland that includes reserve and steep-terrain lands is...

  3. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  4. The role of nuclear energy for Korean long-term energy supply strategy : application of energy demand-supply model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu Nam

    1995-02-01

    An energy demand and supply analysis is carried out to establish the future nuclear energy system of Korea in the situation of environmental restriction and resource depletion. Based on the useful energy intensity concept, a long-term energy demand forecasting model FIN2USE is developed to integrate with a supply model. The energy supply optimization model MESSAGE is improved to evaluate the role of nuclear energy system in Korean long-term energy supply strategy. Long-term demand for useful energy used as an exogeneous input of the energy supply model is derived from the trend of useful energy intensity by sectors and energy carriers. Supply-side optimization is performed for the overall energy system linked with the reactor and nuclear fuel cycle strategy. The limitation of fossil fuel resources and the CO 2 emission constraints are reflected as determinants of the future energy system. As a result of optimization of energy system using linear programming with the objective of total discounted system cost, the optimal energy system is obtained with detailed results on the nuclear sector for various scenarios. It is shown that the relative importance of nuclear energy would increase especially in the cases of CO 2 emission constraint. It is concluded that nuclear reactor strategy and fuel cycle strategy should be incorporated with national energy strategy and be changed according to environmental restriction and energy demand scenarios. It is shown that this modelling approach is suitable for a decision support system of nuclear energy policy

  5. A safe energy supplying for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffin-Payne, J.

    2001-01-01

    Contrarily to other European nations like United-kingdom, Germany or Norway, France has no important fossil energy resources. The 2 major oil crisis (in 1973 and 1979) made public opinion abruptly aware of the urgent necessity for the diversification of energy supplying. Today the French production of electricity rests on nuclear energy, fossil energy and renewable energies (hydroelectricity). France is the first European country for nuclear energy (88 millions tons of oil equivalent in 1999) and for renewable energy (29 millions toe). The energy independence rate has sharply increased in 20 years from 26% in 1973 it reaches now 49%. France has developed an important capacity of fossil fuels storage about 10.5 milliards m 3 , it means that France can face a 30% decrease in its energy imports for a year without reducing its industrial output. Because of their energy choices Switzerland and France are the European countries the least sensible to price fluctuations of oil and gas. The doubling of oil price has implied a 0.32 francs rise of kWh cost in France and a 1.8 francs rise elsewhere in Europe. (A.C.)

  6. Laser Energy Transmission for a Wireless Energy Supply to Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Nobuki; Takeda, Kazuya

    2008-01-01

    We can find a lot of robot applications in construction activities, where it is very difficult or dangerous for a man to access and only robots can work. The time will come soon when the actual use of those robots is extensively realized and the wireless energy transmission technology using laser is a unique means to supply energy to those robots.

  7. Security of Europe's energy supply. Russia's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffaux, P.

    1994-01-01

    A conference on ''Europe's Energy supplies by Russia'', has been organised march 17th 1994 by the Energy and Raw Materials Geopolitics Centre and the Moscow Energy Club, with participation of the World Energy Council. The round-table on petrol outlined the Eastern Europe dependency and the skepticism of western petroleum companies concerning Russian's deposits. The round table on gas outlined the importance of Russian's gas deposits and the development of its european exportations. The round table on nuclear power stated the heavy costs of security improvements, and argued for the taking off, after year 2000, of a new generation of reactors jointly designed by western and russian engineers. (D.L.). 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Forest biomass as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.E. Laks; R.W. Hemingway; A. Conner

    1979-01-01

    The Task Force on Forest Biomass as an Energy Source was chartered by the Society of American Foresters on September 26, 1977, and took its present form following an amendment to the charter on October 5, 1977. It built upon the findings of two previous task forces, the Task Force on Energy and Forest Resources and the Task Force for Evaluation of the CORRIM Report (...

  9. Decentralized energy supply on the liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, H.

    1999-01-01

    Starting in 2001, the electricity market is to be progressively liberalized. The process will be completed by the year 2006. What role will decentralized power generation using combined cycle power plants play on a liberalized market ? The background conditions are essentially favourable: both the new energy act, which has been in force since 1 January 1999, and the planned energy levy suggest that this technology will become increasingly widespread. In addition, the price trend for combined cycle plants components together with low energy costs are having a favourable impact. On the other hand, great uncertainty is being created by the process of liberalization and the current flood of investments in power generation. However, electricity supply is unlikely to be in surplus for long in a context of sustained economic growth. (author)

  10. Meeting renewable energy and land use objectives through public–private biomass supply partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galik, Christopher S.; Abt, Robert C.; Latta, Gregory; Méley, Andréanne; Henderson, Jesse D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reducing encroachment and increased use of renewable energy are U.S. military goals. • Strong forest markets and high forest land rent can affect land use change patterns. • Military bioenergy demand may stimulate forest markets and expand forest area. • GHG benefits of increased bioenergy demand accrue regionally but not nationally. • Targeted bioenergy market development may be preferable to region-wide deployment. - Abstract: Bioenergy is a significant source of renewable energy in the U.S. and internationally. We explore whether creation of localized bioenergy markets near existing military installations in the southeastern U.S. could simultaneously address military renewable energy generation objectives while reducing urban encroachment. We model the use of public–private partnerships to stimulate the creation of these markets, in which stable installation demand is paired with stable supply from surrounding landowners. We employ two economic models – the SubRegional Timber Supply (SRTS) model and the Forest and Agricultural Sector Model with Greenhouse Gases (FASOMGHG) – to assess how markets influence forest and agriculture land use, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation at the regional and national levels. When all selected installations increase bioenergy capacity simultaneously, we find increased preservation of forest land area, increased forest carbon storage in the region, and increased renewable energy generation at military installations. Nationally, however, carbon stocks are depleted as harvests increase, increasing GHG emissions even after accounting for potential displaced emissions from coal- or natural gas-fired generation. Increasing bioenergy generation on a single installation within the southeast has very different effects on forest area and composition, yielding greater standing timber volume and higher forest carbon stock. In addition to demonstrating the benefits of linking two

  11. Role of biomass in global energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, G.; Christensen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Bioenergy is energy of biological and renewable origin, normally in the form of purpose-grown energy crops or by-products from agriculture, forestry or fisheries. Biomass provides approximately 11-14% of the world's energy, but there are significant differences between industrialised and developing countries. In many developing countries biomass is the most important energy source. As a global average, biomass provides approximately 35% of developing countries' energy, but there are large regional differences. Many sub-Saharan African countries depend on biomass for up to 90% of their energy indicating that they have little in the way of industry or other modern activities. In the last decade interest in bioenergy has increased in industrialised countries partly due to growing concern about climate change, technological advances in biomass conversion, increasing focus on security of energy supply, and increasing interest in renewable energy generally. Two trends emerge: The developing countries will in general aim to reduce their dependence on traditional bioenergy. The relative share of bioenergy in the energy balance will therefore go down, though the number of people depending on traditional bioenergy probably will remain constant, with corresponding consequences for health and resources. Industrialised countries, plus a number of developing countries, will aim to increase their use of modern bioenergy technologies. With the traditional association of bioenergy as old fashioned and for the poor, the recent interest in biomass resources has invented a new term 'modern bioenergy' which covers a number of technological areas from combustion at domestic, industrial or power plant scale, gasification, hydrolysis, pyrolysis, extraction, digestion etc. There are some barriers to the increased use of bioenergy, but they can be overcome through dedicated interventions by public and private sector entities. (BA)

  12. Energy supplying of the Europe and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    1998-03-01

    This paper aims to answer the question on the impact of the energy supply in Europe on the foreign and safety policy. The geo-political principles of the energy, the european petroleum and gaseous supply and the american policy facing the european energy supply are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Fuel forests: a spreading energy resource in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N J.H.

    1981-09-01

    The fuel potential of forests, particularly in Third World countries, to raise the contribution of fuelwood to global energy resources is receiving positive notice in the incentive programs for forestry projects offered by lending institutions and actions taken by governments to arrest the loss of forest cover. Residential and industrial use of wood must be balanced by rigorous woodland protection and management to increase tree planting. The example of Korea's success in increasing fuelwood supplies illustrates the importance of public understanding and community involvement so that local environmental and cultural factors are considered and local leaders are involved. 56 references, 1 table. (DCK)

  14. Quantifying the role of forested lands in providing surface drinking water supply for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika Cohen; Ge Sun; Liangxia Zhang; Peter Caldwell; Suzanne Krieger

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture published a General Technical Report (GTR-SRS-197) in 2014 that quantified the role that water originating on National Forest System lands contributed to the drinking water supply and determined what population and communities were being served in the 13 Southern States of Region 8 of the Forest Service. The...

  15. Uruguay Energy Supply Options Study: a Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Supply and Demand Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.

    1997-01-01

    Uruguay is in the middle of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system.Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country s membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay.The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay s energy supply system.The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries.The Government of Uruguay contracted Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenario ns with the support of several Uruguayan Institutions.Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios

  16. Forests, energy and the New Zealand home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, J B

    1976-02-25

    Any increase in output of electrical energy in New Zealand is in the face of mounting capital requirements and increasingly intractable social costs. However, a peculiarity of New Zealand overall energy distribution is the large proportion of electricity (47%) devoted to domestic heat production. Alternative developments in the use of combustion for this purpose are considered and the unique potential of fuelwood in New Zealand highlighted. Logging wastes and thinnings in existing exotic forests could in theory supply more than current calorific requirements. Inconvenience and inefficiency arising from partial combustion, rather than the low calorific value, have eliminated consideration of fuelwood as a serious fuel option. The actual retail price, on a heat value basis, is at present only about one-fifth that of fuel oil and could become much less. Complete combustion of fuelwood is a realisable possibility. A suitable domestic unit might embody controllable forced draught, countercurrent heating of incoming air, and heat-shielding of combustion zone; all heating applications would use the driven steam of effluent gases. One such device is outlined tentatively. Successful development and widespread adoption of such a unit would have considerable material and social benefits for New Zealand. Research costs would be trivial in relation to potential return.

  17. Nuclear energy and safety of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    According to all kinds of studies, the demand for energy grows more rapidly than population. And it also happens that the consumption of electric energy grows more rapidly than consumption of other primary energies. In view of the spectacular growth of some developing countries, the question is: what type of energy source will we use to cover the growing demand for electric power? If energy should be cheep, reliable and clean, nuclear power should be one of the source used to cover the growing demand. In this respect, it is important to analyze the nuclear fuel cycle to ascertain the reliability of the nuclear power supply. From this perspective,there are three important stages of the front-end of the fuel cycle: uranium concentrate fabrication, enrichment and manufacturing. In recent years, mining production has barely covered half of the demand for uranium, while the rest has been covered by the so-called secondary sources: inventories, strategic reserves, dilution of highly enriched uranium from military weapons, or reprocessing. The known reserves today are enough to cover 65 years of operation of the current fleet. These reserves are much larger if we include those not currently available, or if natural uranium is used directly or reprocessing is included. In the enrichment stage, there is a needed to start operation before the end of the decade of the new plants that are planned. The entry into the market of highly enriched military uranium distroit this market. There is 30% excess capacity in manufacturing which is concentrated in one supplier that accounts for 50% of this excess. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that the fuel assembly is not a commodity, which means that the excess capacity cannot be used directly by the market. To conclude, it can be safety said that, although uranium is not exempt from the tensions to which other raw materials are subject and, as all the fossil fuels, it too could be depleted, the advance of technologies and the

  18. Logging firms, nonindustrial private forests, and forest parcelization: evidence of firm specialization and its impact on sustainable timber supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Rickenbach; Thomas W. Steele

    2006-01-01

    Increasing forest parcelization has raised concerns about tract-size economies and sustainable timber supply. We explored this issue by examining the logging sector and forest ownership in northern Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Using 2004 survey data, we found that 48% of logging firms demonstrated a near exclusive reliance on nonindustrial private...

  19. Nuclear power as a regional energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLoon, Frank.

    1983-02-01

    The author describes the Point Lepreau nuclear power plant and its impact on the electric power grid and the economy of the small province of New Brunswick. The 600 MW CANDU reactor is considered suitable for small operations and has an excellent world record. Although nuclear energy has high capital costs, its fuel costs are low, thus rendering it comparatively inflation free. Its fuel costs of 3 to 4 mills are contrasted with 40 mills for oil-fuelled units. The cost advantage of uranium over coal and oil permits New Brunswick to put aside funds for waste management and decommissioning. Regulatory streamlining is needed to reduce both expense and time of construction. The CANDU system is ideally suited to providing base load, with coal as an intermediate load supply and hydro for peaking. There is room for tidal power as a future part of the mix

  20. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  1. Energy supply and environmental protection as conflicting targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, G.

    1976-01-01

    The conflict between sufficient energy supply and efficient environmental protection is didactically analysed as a complex of topics for the political education. Education principles and sequencies basing on opinions of supporters and opponents of nuclear energy are shown. Aims of education are briefly shown with the examples of the energy supply of the FRG and the energy problems of Europe. (HP) [de

  2. Modelling renewable supply chain for electricity generation with forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palander, Teijo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a multiple objective model to large-scale and long-term industrial energy supply chain scheduling problems is considered. The problems include the allocation of a number of fossil, peat, and wood-waste fuel procurement chains to an energy plant during different periods. This decision environment is further complicated by sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. A dynamic linear programming model can be efficiently used for modelling energy flows in fuel procurement planning. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, the resulting model cannot be directly used to solve the combined heat and electricity production problem in a manner that is relevant to the energy industry. Therefore, this approach was used with a multiple objective programming model to better describe the combinatorial complexity of the scheduling task. The properties of this methodology are discussed and four examples of how the model works based on real-world data and optional peat fuel tax, feed-in tariff of electricity and energy efficiency constraints are presented. The energy industry as a whole is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency regulation. These decisions should be made on the basis of comprehensive techno-economic analysis using local energy supply chain models. -- Highlights: → The energy policy decisions are made using comprehensive techno-economic analysis. → Peat tax, feed-in tariff and energy efficiency increases renewable energy production. → The potential of peat procurement deviates from the current assumptions of managers. → The dynamic MOLP model could easily be adapted to a changing decision environment.

  3. Sustainable electric energy supply by decentralized alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A., E-mail: Ahmad.Zahedi@jcu.edu.au [James Cook University, Queensland (Australia). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2010-07-01

    The most available and affordable sources of energy in today's economic structure are fossil fuels, namely, oil, gas, and coal. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, have limited reserves, and have serious environmental problems associated with their use. Coal and nuclear energy are used in central and bulky power stations to produce electricity, and then this electricity is delivered to customers via expensive transmission lines and distribution systems. Delivering electric power via transmission and distribution lines to the electricity users is associated with high electric power losses. These power losses are costly burdens on power suppliers and users. One of the advantages of decentralized generation (DG) is that DG is capable of minimizing power losses because electric power is generated at the demand site. The world is facing two major energy-related issues, short term and long term. These issues are (i) not having enough and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices and (ii) environmental damages caused by consuming too much energy in an unsustainable way. A significant amount of the current world energy comes from limited resources, which when used, cannot be replaced. Hence the energy production and consumption do not seem to be sustainable, and also carries the threat of severe and irreversible damages to the environment including climate change.The price of energy is increasing and there are no evidences suggesting that this trend will reverse. To compensate for this price increase we need to develop and use high energy efficient technologies and focusing on energy technologies using renewable sources with less energy conversion chains, such as solar and wind. The world has the potential to expand its capacity of clean, renewable, and sustainable energy to offset a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions from conventional power use. The increasing utilization of alternative sources such as hydro, biomass, geothermal, ocean energy, solar and

  4. Energy Management. Special. Magazine for energy supply and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Mil, R.

    2000-05-01

    The special Energy Management was issued in cooperation with many participating businesses in the Netherlands which provided articles on recent developments and new services and products with respect to the liberalized energy market in the Netherlands and Europe

  5. Integrating sustainable biofuels and byproducts into forest industry supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Hensen; Maureen Essen; Nathaniel Anderson; Larry Peters; April Kimmerly

    2016-01-01

    Forest biomass is a promising feedstock for the production of bioenergy, biofuels, and bioproducts because it is renewable and widely available as a byproduct of forest management. Its harvest and use also has the potential to positively impact rural communities, especially those negatively impacted by upheaval in the forest sector.

  6. Sustainable use of forest biomass for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupak Moeller, Inge

    2005-01-01

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, and political action plans at European and national levels exist for an increased use. The use of forest biomass for energy can imply different economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages for the society, the energy sector and forestry. For the achievement of an increased and sustainable use of forest biomass for energy, the EU 5th Framework project WOOD-EN-MAN aimed at synthesising current knowledge and creating new knowledge within the field

  7. Supply side energy management for sustainable energy ( development in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uqaili, M.A.; Harijan, K.; Memon, M.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficient country. Indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported energy. The indigenous coal is of poor quality. Environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from energy use are becoming significant environmental issues in the country. Sustainability is regarded as a major consideration for both urban and rural development in Pakistan. People in the country have been exploiting the natural resources with no consideration to the effects-both short term (environmental) and long term (resource crunch). The urban areas of the country depend to a large extent on commercial energy sources. The rural areas use non-commercial sources like firewood, agricultural wastes and animal dung. Even this is decreasing over the years, with the villagers wanting to adopt the ready to use sophisticated technology. The debate now is to identify a suitable via media. The option that fills this gap aptly is the renewable energy source. This paper analyses the supply side management of energy resources in relation to sustainable energy development. The present study shows that for achieving long-term environmental sustainable development, renewable energy is the major option that could meet the growing energy needs in Pakistan. (author)

  8. Unattended nuclear systems for local energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Bancroft, A.R.; Hilborn, J.W.; McDougall, D.S.; Ohta, M.M.

    1988-02-01

    This paper describes recent developments in a small nuclear heat and electricity production system - the SLOWPOKE Energy System - that make it possible to locate the system close to the load, and that could have a major impact on local energy supply. The most important unique features arising from these developments are walk-away safety and the ability to operate in an unattended mode. Walk-away safety means that radiological protection is provided by intrinsic characteristics and does not depend on either engineered safety systems or operator intervention. This, in our view, is essential to public acceptance. The capability for unattended operation results from self-regulation; however, the performance can be remotely monitored. The SLOWPOKE Energy System consists of a water-filled pool, operating at atmospheric pressure, which cools and moderates a beryllium-reflected thermal reactor that is fuelled with 100 to 400 kg of low-enriched uranium. The pool water also provides shielding from radioactive materials trapped in the fuel. Heat is drawn from the pool and transferred either to a building hot-water distribution system or to an organic liquid which is converted to vapour to drive a turbine-generator unit. Heating loads between 2 qnd 10 MWt, and electrical loads up to 1 MWe can be satisfied. SLOWPOKE is a dramatic departure from conventional nuclear power reactors. Its nuclear heat source is intrinsically simple, having only one moving part: a solid neutron absorber which is slowly withdrawn from the reactor to balance the fuel burnup. Its power is self-regulated and excessive heat production cannot occur, even for the most severe combinations of system failure. Cooling of the fuel is assured by natural physical processes that do not depend on mechanical components such as pumps. These intrinsic characteristics assure public safety and ultra high reliability

  9. Unattended nuclear systems for local energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Bancroft, A.R.; Hilborn, J.W.; McDougall, D.S.; Ohta, M.M.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes recent developments in a small nuclear heat and electricity production system - the SLOWPOKE energy system - that make it possible to locate the system close to the load, and that could have a major impact on local energy supply. The most important unique features arising from these developments are walk-away safety and the ability to operate in an unattended mode. Walk-away safety means that radiological protection is provided by intrinsic characteristics and does not depend on either engineered safety systems or operator intervention. This, in our view, is essential to public acceptance. The capability for unattended operation results from self-regulation, however the performance can be remotely monitored. The SLOWPOKE energy system consists of a water-filled pool, operating at atmospheric pressure, which cools and moderates a beryllium-reflected thermal reactor that is fuelled with 100 to 400 kg of low enriched uranium. The pool water also provides shielding from radioactive materials trapped in the fuel. Heat is drawn from the pool and transferred either to a building hot-water distribution system or to an organic liquid which is converted to vapour to drive a turbine-generator unit. Heating loads between 2 and 10 MWt, and electrical loads up to 1 MWe can be satisfied. SLOWPOKE is a dramatic departure from conventional nuclear power reactors. Its nuclear heat source is intrinsically simple, having only one moving part: a solid neutron absorber which is slowly withdrawn from the reactor to balance the fuel burnup. Its power is self-regulated and excessive heat production cannot occur, even for the most severe combinations of system failure. Cooling of the fuel is assured by natural physical processes that do not depend on mechanical components such as pumps. These intrinsic characteristics assure public safety and ultra high reliability. (author)

  10. Energy-Cost Optimisation in Water-Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Farrukh Mahmood; Haider Ali

    2013-01-01

    Households as well as community water-supply systems for utilisation of underground aquifers are massive consumers of energy. Prevailing energy crisis and focus of the government on demand-side energy policies (i.e., energy conservation) in Pakistan raises need of using energy efficient techniques in almost every aspect of life. This paper analyses performance of community relative to household water-supply system in connection with efficient energy utilisation. Results suggest that total ope...

  11. Energy forest cultivation and the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Simon

    1994-01-01

    The place of energy forestry in the landscape is discussed, principally with reference to Britain and Europe. The importance of design as a means of ensuring an attractive appearance, while meeting functional and economic requirements, is stressed. Simple design principles which help energy forests, mainly short rotation arable coppice, to fit into the landscape are suggested. (author)

  12. Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, Pentti

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration cuttings. The production goal of forest chips is 5 million m 3 solid (10TWh) in 2010. The use of forest chips is promoted by means of environmental taxes, financial aid for investments, and financial support for research, development and commercialization of technology. In 2002, altogether 365 heating and power plants larger than 0.4MW used forest chips. The total consumption was 1.7 million m 3 , the use of small houses and farms included. The growth of use is presently about 350000 m 3 per annum, but reaching the official goal will require an annual growth of 400000 m 3 during this decade. The consumption of roundwood per capita, 15m 3 per annum, is in Finland 20 times as high as the average consumption of the EU countries, respectively. Consequently, residual forest biomass is abundantly available. The capacity of heating and power plants to use forest chips is large enough to meet the goal. However, users require competitive chip prices, good quality control of fuel and reliable supply chains, and new efficient procurement systems are being developed. The paper deals with the drivers of this development: support measures of the Government; strong support to research, development and commercialization of forest chip production from the National Technology Agency Tekes; advanced infrastructure for the procurement of timber for the forest industries; positive attitude and active participation of the forest industries; the active role of leading forest machine and boiler manufacturers, and the possibility to cofire wood and peat fuels in large fluidized bed boilers so as to

  13. Long-term equilibrium effects of constraints in energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: introduction; the economic role of energy; the economics of energy price; a first attempt to model long term effects (energy consumption and economic activity); what is a price hike (energy supply and demand functions before and after price hike); modelling energy price hikes; implications and lessons for nuclear energy; the present reality. (U.K.)

  14. Sustainable energy use and energy supply - from vision to reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hake, J.F.; Eich, R.

    2003-01-01

    Agenda 21 formulated in connection with the UN-Summit in Rio de Janeiro summarises the demands and suggestions concerning a sustainable energy use and energy supply: 'Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. Much of the world's energy, however, is currently produced and consumed in ways that could not be sustained if technology were to remain constant and if overall quantities were to increase substantially.' Since the adoption of Agenda 21 the energy issue has been at the centre of the Rio process, either directly, if aspects of supply for humans are concerned, or indirectly, if the anthropogenic greenhouse effect is dealt with. Germany takes an active role in participating in the Rio process, adopting it to national conceptions and supporting other countries on their path to Sustainable Development. Milestones of the German Rio Process are the commitment to the goals and actions of the Rio Declaration and the Agenda 21 as well to the corresponding UN conventions. The German Federal Government has taken several actions. In summer 2000 the Federal Cabinet adopted a bill according to which a Council for Sustainable Development (Nachhaltigkeitsrat) was to be instituted at the beginning of 2001. The Council's task is to participate in the development and formulation of a sustainability strategy for the Federal Republic of Germany. Furthermore, the Federal Government has agreed on the institution of a State Secretary Committee for Sustainable Development. The Committee's task is among other things to define concrete projects for the implementation of the federal sustainable strategy. (BA)

  15. Multi-perspective analysis of China's energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jiang-Bo; Ji, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    China's energy supply security has faced many challenges such as the drastic change of the international energy environment and the domestic energy situation and so on. This paper constructs a multi-dimensional indicator system for the main risks deriving from four aspects to evaluate the situation of China's energy supply security and analyze its evolution characteristics from 1994 to 2011. The results indicate that the situation of China's energy supply security generally presented a downtrend during 1994–2008, as a result of increasing international energy market monopoly and high volatility of international crude oil prices. After 2008, the overall level of China's energy supply security has improved to the level of 2003, which is attributed to the relatively stable international energy environment as well as the effective implementation of energy policies. - Highlights: • A multi-dimensional index system for energy supply security is constructed. • The dynamic influences of external and internal risks are analyzed. • China's energy supply security presents a downward trend during 1994–2008. • The level of China's energy supply security has improved since 2009

  16. Security of Energy Supply - Indicators for Measuring Vulnerability and Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, C.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, secure and affordable energy supplies are an essential requirement for economies to work, much less develop and grow in the long term. The present study, Energy security of supply - indicators for measuring vulnerability and risk, develops a broad methodical assessment concept to raise awareness among policy makers and the public regarding the vulnerability of energy supplies to potential energy crises. It explores the different aspects of vulnerability, from the primary energy level to energy infrastructure (storage, networks, power plant parks) to the efficiency and cost of energy consumption for end users. The individual characteristics of the formal concept were quantitatively evaluated for several OECD regions (Germany, UK, Sweden, Poland, Italy, France and the US) using a comprehensive empirical database and reduced to a single indicator for assessing energy supply vulnerability. Part of the database comprises historical observations for the period between 1978 and 2007.(author).

  17. Quantifying the role of National Forest system lands in providing surface drinking water supply for the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Caldwell; Corinne Muldoon; Chelcy Ford-Miniat; Erika Cohen; Suzanne Krieger; Ge Sun; Steven McNulty; Paul V. Bolstad

    2014-01-01

    Forests and water are inextricably linked, and people are dependent on forested lands to provide clean, reliable water supplies for drinking and to support local economies. These water supplies are at risk of degradation from a growing population, continued conversion of forests to other land uses, and climate change. Given the variety of threats to surface water, it...

  18. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and context of security of supply, the study uses transparent and policy-relevant indicators to show that, together with improvements in energy efficiency, nuclear energy has indeed contributed significantly to enhanced energy supply security in OECD countries over the past 40 years. Content: Foreword; Executive Summary; 1. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy - Concepts and Issues: - Energy supply security: An introduction, - Why security of energy supply remains a policy issue in OECD countries, - The external dimension: import dependence, resource exhaustion and carbon policy, - The internal dimension: economic, financial and technical considerations for energy supply security - Orientations for government policies to enhance the security of energy supply, - Conclusions; 2. Indicators and Models for Measuring Security of Energy Supply Risks: - Introduction, - Different approaches towards designing the Supply/Demand Index, - A detailed review of selected security of supply indicators, - Comprehensive models for assessing the security of energy supply, - The Supply/Demand Index, - Concluding observations; 3. Evolution of the Security of Energy Supply in OECD Countries: - Time-dependent quantification of the security of energy supply, - Changes in security of supply in selected OECD countries, - Electricity generation and the security of energy supply, - The contribution of nuclear energy and energy intensity to the security of energy supply, - The geographical distribution of SSDI values, - Conclusions; 4. Public

  19. Model analyses for sustainable energy supply under CO2 restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Ishitani, Hisashi.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims at clarifying key points for realizing sustainable energy supply under restrictions on CO 2 emissions. For this purpose, possibility of solar breeding system is investigated as a key technology for the sustainable energy supply. The authors describe their mathematical model simulating global energy supply and demand in ultra-long term. Depletion of non-renewable resources and constraints on CO 2 emissions are taken into consideration in the model. Computed results have shown that present energy system based on non-renewable resources shifts to a system based on renewable resources in the ultra-long term with appropriate incentives

  20. Supply reliability and dynamic safety analysis of an alternative energy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Markert, Frank; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of risk and supply chain modelling by means of analysing a case concerning a Hydrogen Refuelling Station in Berlin. It presents a framework that can analyse an energy supply chain and at the same time enables easy reporting and presentation of various results...

  1. Balancing the supply mix to meet tomorrow's energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggin, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation emphasized the need to balance the power supply mix to ensure future energy needs. A balanced supply includes generation supply options that include renewable energy sources, natural gas, oil or coal. The role of combined heat and power (CHP) and district energy in this supply mix is considered to be a potential generation solution. The challenge facing Ontario's Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) is to balance supply and demand, phase out coal, promote renewables, diminish demand and determine the new role for natural gas. A graph by the National Energy Board depicting Canada's energy future and scenarios for supply and demand to 2025 indicates that gas yields from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin are declining. It is expected that with growing demands for natural gas, prices will remain high and there will be a need for new generation capacity. The viable options for energy supply include a re-examination of the district energy advantage through industrial waste heat, biomass and other renewables, and the integration of industrial and community energy systems. Other options include the continued recognition of distributed generation in the form of combined heat and power. 4 figs

  2. Long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    An interim report on the long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies in Japan as prepared by an ad hoc committee, Advisory Committee for Energy was given for the period up to the year 2000. As the energy demands in terms of crude oil, the following figures are set: 460 million kl for 1990, 530 million kl for 1995, and 600 million kl for 2000. In Japan, without domestic energy resources, over 80% of the primary energy has been imported; the reliance on Middle East where political situation is unstable, for petroleum is very large. The following things are described. Background and policy; energy demands in industries, transports, and people's livelihood; energy supplies by coal, nuclear energy, petroleum, etc.; energy demand/supply outlook for 2000. (Mori, K.)

  3. A supply and demand based volatility model for energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamura, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new volatility model for energy prices using the supply-demand relationship, which we call a supply and demand based volatility model. We show that the supply curve shape in the model determines the characteristics of the volatility in energy prices. It is found that the inverse Box-Cox transformation supply curve reflecting energy markets causes the inverse leverage effect, i.e., positive correlation between energy prices and volatility. The model is also used to show that an existing (G)ARCH-M model has the foundations on the supply-demand relationship. Additionally, we conduct the empirical studies analyzing the volatility in the U.S. natural gas prices. (author)

  4. A supply and demand based volatility model for energy prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamura, Takashi [J-POWER, 15-1, Ginza 6-Chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-8165 (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a new volatility model for energy prices using the supply-demand relationship, which we call a supply and demand based volatility model. We show that the supply curve shape in the model determines the characteristics of the volatility in energy prices. It is found that the inverse Box-Cox transformation supply curve reflecting energy markets causes the inverse leverage effect, i.e., positive correlation between energy prices and volatility. The model is also used to show that an existing (G)ARCH-M model has the foundations on the supply-demand relationship. Additionally, we conduct the empirical studies analyzing the volatility in the U.S. natural gas prices. (author)

  5. Evaluating Economic Alternatives for Wood Energy Supply Based on Stochastic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Flores Hernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Productive forests, as a major source of biomass, represent an important pre-requisite for the development of a bio-economy. In this respect, assessments of biomass availability, efficiency of forest management, forest operations, and economic feasibility are essential. This is certainly the case for Mexico, a country with an increasing energy demand and a considerable potential for sustainable forest utilization. Hence, this paper focuses on analyzing economic alternatives for the Mexican bioenergy supply based on the costs and revenues of utilizing woody biomass residues. With a regional spatial approach, harvesting and transportation costs of utilizing selected biomass residues were stochastically calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. A sensitivity analysis of percentage variation of the most probable estimate in relation to the parameters price and cost for one alternative using net future analysis was conducted. Based on the results for the northern region, a 10% reduction of the transportation cost would reduce overall supply cost, resulting in a total revenue of 13.69 USD/m3 and 0.75 USD/m3 for harvesting residues and non-extracted stand residues, respectively. For the central south region, it is estimated that a contribution of 16.53 USD/m3 from 2013 and a total revenue of 33.00 USD/m3 in 2030 from sawmill residues will improve the value chain. The given approach and outputs provide the basis for the decision-making process regarding forest utilization towards energy generation based on economic indicators.

  6. Optimization of the Public Buildings Energy Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipović, P.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest in the improvement of energy efficiency in public buildings nowadays atthe EU level. Increasing energy efficiency can lead to both better thermal comfort, as well as netsavings on energy bills. Furthermore, the right choice of energy source can lead to large savings inC...

  7. Energy of forest biomass in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupin, N.; Krivak, B.; Dundovic, J.

    2005-01-01

    Forest biomass is organic substance raised in forest ecosystem, consisting of trees and bushes which are used for mechanical processing and thermal use. Croatia, with 44 percent of surface under forests, has the renewable energy potential in forest biomass that could cover as much as about 50 percent of the current heating consumption. The existence of an appropriate heating consume and district heating are a prerequisite for exploitation of the mentioned potential. At the same time, heating consumption enables the utilization of cogeneration plants and the paper gives examples of such possibilities in industry, community and special facilities (sport centres, hotels, hospitals etc.). Among them, the so called 'Croatian energy absurdum' is mentioned. The paper underlines the feasibility of exploitation of forest biomass at the national level and suggests that, in order to promote and accelerate the development of cogeneration plants, the HED expert group should be established. The task of the expert group would be to draft proposal for appropriate measures in this regard and submit it to the Government for consideration.(author)

  8. Climate Change, Forests, and Water Supply: Managing to Reduce Vulnerability in Central Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, J.; Duinker, P.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change is increasingly relevant in managing Canada’s forests sustainably. Forest managers are faced with the necessity of incorporating climate change into forest management plans. The formulation and evaluation of potential management strategies to contend with expected impacts of climate change will be necessary to reduce forest sector vulnerability. The Halifax Regional Water Commission manages forest watersheds for the purpose of supplying clean water to much of the Halifax Regional Municipality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the future forest structure of the two principal watersheds supplying the Halifax Regional Municipality using simulation modelling and to develop a framework of adaptive forest management. A combination of uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, and field data collection are used to refine, calibrate, and validate the spatially dynamic landscape disturbance model LANDIS-II prior to the incorporation of climate change scenarios into model simulations. Final model-based analysis will inform framework development dedicated to improving watershed resilience in the face of future climate change. This study is applicable to forest management under a changing climate, but also has further significance to water security, as watershed management and point-source protection are tightly linked to forest management.

  9. Comparison of centralized and decentralized energy supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Thomas; Fahl, Ulrich; Voß, Alfred

    1991-01-01

    Communal energy programs are often embedded in a conception of a decentralized energy supply system where electricity is produced by a number of smaller power plants. For a comprehensive survey the question arises whether these decentralized systems are more advantageous than centralized systems with regard to the criterions energy consumption, safety of supply, environmental compatibility and economy. In the following, after a definition of the term "decentralized", the present structure of ...

  10. Technologies for building integrated energy supply; Teknologier for bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katic, I.

    2011-07-15

    The current report is part of the deliverables from the project ''Building Integrated Energy Supply'' supported by the Danish Energy Authority R and D program. It describes a range of technologies for individual supply of heat and/or electricity to dwellings with respect to their stage of development and possible application in the near future. Energy supply of buildings is becoming more and more complex, partly as a result of increasing demands for comfort, efficiency and reduced emissions, partly as a result of rising oil prices and improved competitiveness of alternative energy sources. The days where ordinary boilers were the dominant source of individual supply of dwellings are becoming past these years. The challenge of the new range of technologies lies to a high extent in the fluctuating nature of their energy conversion and their interaction with the supply grids for heat and electricity. There is thus an increasing demand to understand the nature of the different supply technologies, besides a regular update of their economical key figures. The technologies briefly described in this study are: Solar heating, passive solar energy, biofuel boilers, heat pumps, micro CHP, solar photovoltaic and energy storage systems. The selected technologies are all assessed to play an important role in future's mix of supply technologies in Denmark, especially heat pumps and solar. (Author)

  11. Agro-energy supply chain planning: a procedure to evaluate economic, energy and environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Ginaldi; Francesco Danuso; Franco Rosa; Alvaro Rocca; Oxana Bashanova; Emiliano Sossai

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand for energy and expected shortage in the medium term, solicit innovative energy strategies to fulfill the increasing gap between demand-supply. For this purpose it is important to evaluate the potential supply of the energy crops and finding the areas of EU where it is most convenient. This paper proposes an agro-energy supply chain approach to planning the biofuel supply chain at a regional level. The proposed methodology is the result of an interdisciplinary team work a...

  12. Wood fuel supply as a function of forest owner preferences and management styles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, F.; Roos, A.

    2002-01-01

    The commercial demand for wood fuel is rapidly increasing in Sweden, and the domestic supply comes primarily from private non-industrial forest owners. A model was developed to analyse decision-making among these private forest owners. The model covers five factors: economics, transaction costs, concerns about soil fertility, forestry, and previous experience. It was applied in a survey among forest owners in four communities in central Sweden in 1999. Wood fuels had been sold from 60% of the estates. Analysis suggests that the price paid had little influence on the decision to sell. Transaction costs had been alleviated by the traditional timber buyer organizing the fuel trade, and by minimizing measurement in the forest. The primary reason for selling wood fuel was that the harvesting operation cleared the ground of debris. There is a general concern for loss in soil fertility due to wood fuel harvesting which is why some owners do not sell forest fuels. Two types of fuel-selling forest owners were identified: (1) an active manager seeking different gains from wood fuel harvest, and (2) an owner who primarily relies on the advice of the timber buyer. The findings indicate that large-scale traders of wood fuels have to be active in increasing supply, making direct contact with forest owners, and connecting trade with information on ecological and silvicultural effects. Offering ash recycling may enhance supply more than marginal price increases. (author)

  13. Response of frugivorous primates to changes in fruit supply in a northern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, I

    2014-08-01

    Few attempts have been made to understand how spatiotemporal changes in fruit supply influence frugivores in tropical forests. The marked spatiotemporal variation in fruit supply can affect frugivore abundance and distribution, but studies addressing the effects of this variation on primates are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate how the spatiotemporal distribution of fruits influences the local distribution of three frugivorous primates in the eastern part of the Maracá Ecological Station, a highly seasonal Amazonian rainforest. Specifically, it was hypothesised that primate distribution will track changes in fruit supply, resulting that sites with high fruit availability should be heavily used by primates. During a 1-year study, fruit supply (ground fruit surveys) and primate density (line-transects) were monitored in twelve 2 km-long transects at monthly intervals. Fruit supply varied seasonally, being low during the dry season. The density of Ateles belzebuth was positively related to fruit supply during fruit shortage, but Cebus olivaceus and Alouatta macconnelli did not follow the same pattern. The supply of Sapotaceae fruit was an important component determining local distribution of A. belzebuth during the overall fruit shortage. Highly frugivorous primates such as A. belzebuth respond to seasonal decline in fruit supply by congregating at places with high fruit supply in this forest, particularly, those with many individuals of species of Sapotaceae. This study underscores the importance of small-scale spatiotemporal changes of fruit supply as a key component of frugivorous primate ecology in highly seasonal environments.

  14. Energy supply security in Europe: principles and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    After having recalled a dozen of reasons for some worries about energy supply security in Europe during the past months (oil price increase, intentional interruption of gas and oil deliveries by Russia respectively to Ukraine and Belarus, creation of a new CO 2 trading scheme, tensions on the European electricity markets, and so on), the author distinguishes and discusses those which are actually a threat to energy supply and those which are not. Then, he proposes a classification of these threats in relationship with the reasons for delivery interruption, production capacity limitation, or price increase. These reasons can be political situations and decisions, technical problems, commercial reasons. Then, the author examines what European policy makers can do to manage these risks and ensure energy supply security. This needs economic as well as political responses, coherence between domestic energy policies and energy supply security, and an efficient foreign policy based on a multilateral approach

  15. Forest availabilities for energy and materials by 2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Antoine; Pilate, Marion; Py, Nicolas; Thivolle-Cazat, Alain; Bouvet, Alain; Rantien, Caroline; Buitrago, Miriam; Mousset, Jerome

    2016-02-01

    In order to reduce its dependency on fossil energies and to struggle against effects of climate change, France defined an ambitious objective of 40 per cent for biomass in its renewable energy mix by 2020, with a large part of forestry products. This study aims at determining future exploitable wood volumes, in quantity as well as in quality by 2035, in order to support the elaboration of national and regional forest-wood policies. By using several data (in situ measurements, maps of private forests, regulatory zoning maps), a precise and realistic assessment of exploitable volumes has been performed. The authors also assessed capacities of the French forest to meet production objectives which could be defined for the twenty years to come. Two scenarios have been used in the implemented models: a scenario of constant forestry (same practices as now over 20 years) and a scenario of progressive dynamic management (evolution of species to obtain an increase of volume production). Wood availabilities are distributed among different potential uses: construction, industry and energy, and small woods. Unworkable volumes are taken into account. Demand is also modelled according to different market scenarios, and results obtained by supply scenarios and demand scenarios are compared

  16. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  17. Stimulating Investments in Energy Efficiency Through Supply Chain Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Marchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention to energy efficiency is recently experiencing substantial growth. To overcome the several barriers currently existing that represent an obstacle to the successful implementation of the wide set of energy efficiency measures available, the cooperation among members of a supply chain offers a huge potential. In supply chains, in addition to the traditional coordination of the operations, the members may also share financial resources or act jointly on the capital market. This study presents a two-stage supply chain model considering the opportunity to invest in new energy efficient technologies which are affected by learning effects: the member of the supply chain with better energy performance and/or better financial conditions may find it more profitable to invest in the development of the energy efficiency of its partner. The objective of the model is to determine the optimal investment for each supply chain member so as to maximize the Net Present Value of the supply chain. The impacts of the proposed joint decision-making are investigated through some numerical analysis and managerial insights are proposed: the joint decision-making process on the financial flows for the energy efficiency investments results are especially advantageous (up to a 20% increase of the supply chain Net Present Value when members have different access to capital, which could be the result of different economic conditions in companies’ countries, as well as different credit policies or different credit ratings.

  18. Security of supply and regulation of energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the security of energy supplies has re-emerged as a central issue in the energy policy arena in the UK and elsewhere. This re-emergence takes place against a backdrop of increased liberalisation of the energy markets, so that security of supply needs to be revisited within this context. Security of supply is multifaceted, but is often discussed in terms of physical availability of energy sources and their commodity price risk. This paper discusses the relationship between security of supply and network regulation - that is, how the energy networks, and appropriate regulation of them, can contribute to security of supply in liberalised energy sectors. Energy networks are predominantly natural monopolies and as a result are generally subject to regulatory oversight. We discuss a range of issues and trends that pose challenges and opportunities to network regulation and which call for new and innovative measures. The paper identifies a number of areas where network regulation can play a significant role in increasing the security of supply of future energy systems. (author)

  19. Mountain Norway spruce forests: Needle supply and its nutrient content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marcela; Vacek, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 327-332 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Šumava Mts. * Mountain Norway spruce forest * needle mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  20. Stakeholder perspectives on converting forest biomass to energy in Oregon, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stidham, Melanie; Simon-Brown, Viviane [Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Within the state of Oregon, USA, there is considerable interest in the possibility of converting forest biomass to energy. A number of studies have assessed the technical feasibility of forest biomass energy, but few have focused on social aspects, an important consideration in projects involving public forests. This study explores the social context of converting forest biomass to energy, using qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty individuals representing nine different stakeholder groups. Information gained through interviews was used to understand stakeholder views on forest biomass energy, including their perspectives on potential barriers and opportunities in Oregon. Findings indicate the most challenging barrier will be access to long-term, consistent supply. A related challenge is the long history of contention between parties over forest products coming from public lands. However, findings also show that there are many areas of common ground between these groups that have historically been at odds, such as agreement on the necessity of restoration treatments in certain forest types, the by-product of which could be used for biomass generation. Potential conflicts still exist, for instance over projects in mixed conifer forests. Development of policies and projects through inclusive, collaborative approaches could alleviate controversies, potentially allowing more activities to move forward. Information provided by this research creates a foundation for discussions as forest biomass energy becomes an increasingly prominent issue in Oregon, the western USA, and other regions of the world. (author)

  1. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy systems in general. The proposed framework comprises four stages including identification of input variables for energy generation, establishment of models of energy generation by individual sources, development of artificial intelligence, and finally summation of selected sources. A case study of a solar, wind, and hydro hybrid system was undertaken with a linear programming approach. Substantial results were obtained with regard to how load requests were constantly satisfied while minimizing the cost of electricity. The developed framework gained its originality from the fact that it has included models of individual sources of energy that even make the optimization problem more complex. This paper also has impacts on the development of policies which will encourage the integration and development of renewable energies.

  2. Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented

  3. Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, O V [National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented.

  4. The forbidden fuel: Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulu, Leo Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity.

  5. The forbidden fuel. Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulu, Leo Charles [Michigan State University, Department of Geography, 103 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity. (author)

  6. The forbidden fuel: Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulu, Leo Charles, E-mail: zulu@msu.ed [Michigan State University, Department of Geography, 103 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity.

  7. What is the place of the energy supply security and energy independence in the energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Since the petroleum crisis and the electric power cuts of the 1999 storm, the energy security interest is growing. The author recall the structural risks of the energy systems and the vulnerability of the occidental economies to the supply disruptions. They propose then a long term cooperation between producer and consumer countries, a development of operational tools to face the crisis and a supply security inside the europe. (A.L.B.)

  8. Security of supply in the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, Federico

    2007-01-01

    The incentive schemes in the liberalized energy markets do not ensure short-term security of supply. The paper analyzes the regulatory measures suitable to tackle the issue, and evaluates their effects on market power [it

  9. Energy supply options for Lithuania: A detailed multi-sector integrated energy demand, supply and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The Technical Co-operation (TC) project Energy Supply Options for Lithuania: A Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Demand, Supply and Environmental Analysis (LIT/0/004) was implemented 2001-2002 by a national team with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The principal objective of the project was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of Lithuania's future energy supply options taking into consideration the early closure of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (Ignalina NPP). Lithuania, a country in transition to full membership of the European Union, has to comply with the energy acquis (Chapter 14). The 'acquis communautaire' (the body of common rights and obligations which bind all the Member States together) must be adopted by all applicant countries. Implementing the acquis requires not only adequate legislation, well functioning institutions (e.g. a regulatory body as required in the electricity and gas directives) or schedules for restructuring the energy sector but also measures to enhance energy supply security, improvement of energy networks, efficiency improvements throughout the energy system and compliance with European environmental standards. Within the overall context of the transition to EU membership, this study focuses on the future development of the electricity sector and the impacts on energy supply security and environmental performance of a closure of Ignalina NPP by 2009, a pre-condition for accession stipulated by the European Union. The project coincided with the preparation of the new National Energy Strategy for Lithuania and therefore was set up to support the strategy formulation process

  10. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  11. Alternative energy supply system to a rural village in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Background Most households in rural developing countries do not have access to modern energy supply. Household level biogas energy was considered as an option but failed due to lack of sufficient resources for its installation and operation. A community energy system can be an option, but most

  12. Market penetration of energy supply technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condap, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Techniques to incorporate the concepts of profit-induced growth and risk aversion into policy-oriented optimization models of the domestic energy sector are examined. After reviewing the pertinent market penetration literature, simple mathematical programs in which the introduction of new energy technologies is constrained primarily by the reinvestment of profits are formulated. The main results involve the convergence behavior of technology production levels under various assumptions about the form of the energy demand function. Next, profitability growth constraints are embedded in a full-scale model of U.S. energy-economy interactions. A rapidly convergent algorithm is developed to utilize optimal shadow prices in the computation of profitability for individual technologies. Allowance is made for additional policy variables such as government funding and taxation. The result is an optimal deployment schedule for current and future energy technologies which is consistent with the sector's ability to finance capacity expansion.

  13. The impact of forest thinning on the reliability of water supply in central Arizona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Simonit

    Full Text Available Economic growth in Central Arizona, as in other semiarid systems characterized by low and variable rainfall, has historically depended on the effectiveness of strategies to manage water supply risks. Traditionally, the management of supply risks includes three elements: hard infrastructures, landscape management within the watershed, and a supporting set of institutions of which water markets are frequently the most important. In this paper we model the interactions between these elements. A forest restoration initiative in Central Arizona (the Four Forest Restoration Initiative, or 4FRI will result in thinning of ponderosa pine forests in the upper watershed, with potential implications for both sedimentation rates and water delivery to reservoirs. Specifically, we model the net effect of ponderosa pine forest thinning across the Salt and Verde River watersheds on the reliability and cost of water supply to the Phoenix metropolitan area. We conclude that the sediment impacts of forest thinning (up to 50% of canopy cover are unlikely to compromise the reliability of the reservoir system while thinning has the potential to increase annual water supply by 8%. This represents an estimated net present value of surface water storage of $104 million, considering both water consumption and hydropower generation.

  14. The Impact of Forest Thinning on the Reliability of Water Supply in Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonit, Silvio; Connors, John P.; Yoo, James; Kinzig, Ann; Perrings, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in Central Arizona, as in other semiarid systems characterized by low and variable rainfall, has historically depended on the effectiveness of strategies to manage water supply risks. Traditionally, the management of supply risks includes three elements: hard infrastructures, landscape management within the watershed, and a supporting set of institutions of which water markets are frequently the most important. In this paper we model the interactions between these elements. A forest restoration initiative in Central Arizona (the Four Forest Restoration Initiative, or 4FRI) will result in thinning of ponderosa pine forests in the upper watershed, with potential implications for both sedimentation rates and water delivery to reservoirs. Specifically, we model the net effect of ponderosa pine forest thinning across the Salt and Verde River watersheds on the reliability and cost of water supply to the Phoenix metropolitan area. We conclude that the sediment impacts of forest thinning (up to 50% of canopy cover) are unlikely to compromise the reliability of the reservoir system while thinning has the potential to increase annual water supply by 8%. This represents an estimated net present value of surface water storage of $104 million, considering both water consumption and hydropower generation. PMID:25835003

  15. Typology of the supply chains of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies are characterized by a growing importance of cooperation and the creation of networks of enterprises, organizations and institutions, which are all part of a supply chain, in order to achieve competitive advantage in a market. The aim of this study was to determine the structure of the supply chains of non-wood forest products in selected forest areas of Central Serbia (Golijsko, Podrinjsko-kolubarsko, Posavsko-podunavsko, Rasinsko and Tarsko-zlatiborsko FAs. The comparative method was applied in this paper, along with the method of specialization (classification, the method of structural partial analysis (supply chain analysis and the statistical method (analysis of frequencies and two-step cluster. The data collection was conducted in 2011, by using the technique of door-to-door survey. The analysis of the basic types of the supply chains of non-wood forest products and their main stages (purchasing, processing and placement was conducted in the selected areas. A cluster analysis showed that there were six basic types of supply chains in the selected forest areas and one dominant type. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 443007/16 –III: Istraživanja klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu -praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat: Socio-ekonomski razvoj, ublažavanje i adaptacija na klimatske promene

  16. Development and supply of the world energy requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, E.

    1981-01-01

    Recently published research reveals that the world energy requirement can and must grow more slowly than previously anticipated. In order to supply developing nations with the energy necessary for the expansion of their economies, energy saving and oil substitution assume greater significance in the industrialised countries such as the Federal Republic. Future fulfillment of the world energy requirement will be characterised by escalating costs for supply, especially for the current main energy carrier oil, on the one hand and by increased use of coal and nuclear energy as well unconventional fossils such as regenerative energies on the other. Nuclear energy and thus the electricity economy must play a key function in the future energy supply of industrial nations such as Federal Germany. Nuclear energy enables, both directly and indirectly, the substitution of oil in the heat market, supplies the process heat required for coal production and, due to the ease of storage or uranium, provides a hedge against fluctuations on the world energy market. (orig.) [de

  17. Wind Energy: A Maturing Power Supply Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Erik Lundtang; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that wind energy for electrification will prove to be an appropriate technology with very positive socioeconomic benefits, especially in developing countries. Provides examples of projects conducted by a Danish wind research laboratory. (TW)

  18. World uranium reserves and assurance of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This book deals mainly with those aspects of energy policy which concern uranium supply. A different complexion is put on the quantitative estimates of world uranium supplies available which are being overshadowed by political problems resulting from the special properties of this primary energy source as well as from its geographical distribution. The national policy of non-proliferation and the resource policy are demonstrated, taking the largest uranium supply countries as examples. The consumers' policy is explained, taking Europe and Japan as an example. Furthermore, a few possible political solutions are suggested. (UA) [de

  19. Energy supply and use in a rural West African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Nathan G.; Bryden, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Over three billion people live in the rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. Often rural households have many unmet energy needs, including cooking, lighting, heating, transportation, and telecommunication. Designing solutions to meet these needs requires an understanding of the human, natural, and engineered systems that drive village energy dynamics. This paper presents the results of a novel study of energy supply and use over a one year period in an isolated rural village of 770 people in Mali. Quantitative data and narrative descriptions from this study portray village energy supply and use. Annual village energy use is 6000 MJ cap −1 yr −1 . Domestic energy needs account for 93% of village energy use. Wood is the primary energy source and provides 94% of the village energy supply. Approximately 98% of the wood is used for domestic consumption. The uses of wood in the home are cooking (52.2%), heating water (22.2%), space heating (19.1%), and other activities (6.5%). This paper also reports variations in energy usage over the period of a year for a broad range of domestic, artisan, transport, and public energy uses. -- Highlights: ► Village energy supply and use is driven by human, natural, and engineered systems. ► Village energy use varies by 250% between the hot and cold seasons. ► Domestic wood consumption accounts for 92% of village energy. ► Solar PV cells and batteries supply power to pumps, lights, and personal electronics. ► Every household uses multiple energy sources to meet basic needs.

  20. Energy supply options for climate change mitigation and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobran, Flavio

    2010-09-15

    Modern society is dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs, but their combustion is producing emissions of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. If these emissions remain unconstrained they risk of producing significant impacts on humanity and ecosystems. Replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources can stabilize anthropogenic global warming and thus reduce the climate change impacts. The deployment of alternative energy supply technologies should be based on objectives that are consistent with sustainability indicators and incorporate quantitative risk assessment multiattribute utility decision methodologies capable of ascertaining effective future energy supply options.

  1. Long-term strategies in world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1980-01-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis of Laxenburg, Austria has carried out a comprehensive systems analysis in which the problems of the long-term world energy supply are treated first qualitatively and then quantiatively. The results of this five-year study have been published in a book entitled 'Energy in a Finite World: a Global Energy Systems Analysis.' This summary of the book indicates that the world's energy supply in the next fifty years will not be limited by resources, but the rates at which new technologies will be built up. (orig.) [de

  2. Energy supply waste water treatment plant West Brabant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poldervaart, A; Schouten, G J

    1983-09-01

    For the energy supply for the waste water treatment plant (rwzi-Bath) of the Hoogheemraadschap West-Brabant three energy sources are used: biogas of the digesters, natural gas and electricity delivered by the PZEM. For a good balance between heat/power demand and production a heat/power plant is installed. By using this system a high efficiency for the use of energy will be obtained. To save energy the oxygen concentration in the aerationtanks is automatically controlled by means of regulating the position of the air supply control valves and the capacity and number of the turbocompressors. For the oxygen controlsystem a Siemens PLC is used.

  3. Long term trends in world energy demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this address, the author discusses projected changes in fuel use, shifts in energy consumption and projected increases in carbon dioxide emissions. He expects these energy issues to cause geopolitical uncertainties that will complicate attempts to reduce greenhouse gases. There is great concern for the poverty-stricken areas of Asia and Africa. Thirty-five to forty-five percent of their energy needs will be supplied by scarce fuelwood and poor animal and vegetal residues by the year 2020. International cooperation will be needed to alleviate the tensions caused by these inequities of energy supplies

  4. Comparative Assessment of Energy Supply Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.; Vladu, I. F.

    2000-01-01

    The complexity facing today's energy planners and decision-makers, particularly in electricity sector, has increased. They must take into account many elements in selecting technologies and strategies that will impact near term energy development and applications in their countries. While costs remain a key factor, tradeoffs between the demands of environmental protection and economic development will have to be made. This fact, together with the needs of many countries to define their energy and electricity programmes in a sustainable manner, has resulted in a growing interest in the application of improved data, tools and techniques for comparative assessment of different electricity generation options, particularly from an environmental and human health viewpoint. Although global emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, e.g. SO 2 , NO x and particulate, must be reduced, the reality today is that these emissions are increasing and are expected to continue increasing. In examining the air pollutants, as well as water effluents and solid waste generated by electricity production, it is necessary to assess the full energy chain from fuel extraction to waste disposal, including the production of construction and auxiliary materials. The paper describes this concept and illustrates its implementation for assessing and comparing electricity generation costs, emissions, wastes and other environmental burdens from different energy sources. (author)

  5. Supply reliability and dynamic safety analysis of an alternative energy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Markert, Frank; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of risk and supply chain modelling by means of analysing a case concerning a Hydrogen Refuelling Station in Berlin. It presents a framework that can analyse an energy supply chain and at the same time enables easy reporting and presentation of various results...... by utilizing Dis-crete Event Simulation (DES). The industrial implication of this work is to provide practitioners with an anal-ysis framework for improved decision support. The novelty of this paper is the approach to model a supply chain together with a dynamically modelled event tree-based approach...

  6. Security of energy supply. Facts and possibilities for action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hake, Juergen-Friedrich; Rath-Nagel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The energy infrastructure of a country has a decisive influence on the standard of living there, the competitiveness of its economy and its inner political stability. In the debate about the energy transition in Germany attention is primarily being focused on the future energy mix and how it might change, but in particular on the technical challenges involved as well as the costs of the transition as a whole. Given the growing instability that will arise in the electricity networks in the process of transition, as well as the problems that could occur with the supply of natural gas as a result of the Ukraine crisis, the issue of security of energy supply in Germany (as well as Europe) needs to be addressed anew: Is the energy supply at risk? What sources are available at home and abroad, and what leeway is there for changing the procurement mix?

  7. The Caspian, a linchpin of energy supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeinalov, F.

    2010-01-01

    As well as being an essential link between Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Caspian Sea is an abundant energy source of strategic importance. European and Russian. companies come into conflict in the area, as do those of China and the United States. How interests will pan out lies in the hands of Central Asian countries. (author)

  8. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  9. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe. European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2005-01-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  10. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  11. An energy supply and demand model for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, R.B.

    1981-08-01

    The topic of this thesis is the development of a model of energy supply and demand in South Africa to project energy flows up to the year 2005 and also to assess the implications of policy actions. In this thesis, a method of determining energy flows taking generally accepted economic and technological factors into account is developed. Also, various situations are tested, in order to determine the following: 1) Likely energy flows up to 2005, as well as possible upper and lower bounds. 2) Significant final demand sectors, in terms of energy requirements. 3) The effects of changes in supply and demand sector technology. 4) The implications of policy options such as enengy independence. Owing to the different characteristics of the energy supply and demand sectors, the following techniques were used: 1) Energy demand sectors. 2) Energy supply sectors. 3) Supply/demand equilibration 4) Output. Through successive runs of the model, the policy-maker is able to indentify likely values of energy flows, as well as upper and lower boundaries given the described set of assumptions. The following statements are made as conclusions: 1) The growth rate of domectic coal demand is likely to be 5,5 % per annum up to 2005. 2) The Iron and Steel industry and the Mining industry have the greatest potential effect on coal demand. 3) The coal growth rate stated above implies certain improvements in coal to liquid fuel and electricity conversion. 4) The coal demands of oil energy independence are listed, highlighting the fact that major coal exports and energy independence may be mutually exclusive. Other conclusions regarding capital requirements, oil imports and coking coal utilization are described. The model permits a consistent and inteqrated forecast of national energy flows to be made, providing the policymaker with projections that include the effects of uncertainty with regard to future technologies and economic output. This feature is crucial for policy formulation

  12. Energy supply: No gas from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempkens, W

    1983-03-01

    In the last twelve years the share of natural gas in the total consumption of primary energy has increased twelve-fold and now amounts to 16 per cent. One-third of this is produced in West Germany. Although world deposits will last well into the next century, attempts are already being made to perfect techniques for obtaining gas from coal. However, the cubic metre price of synthetic gas is still anything but competitive.

  13. Decentralized energy supply and electricity market structures

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Christoph; Vogel, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Small decentralized power generation units (DG) are politically promoted because of their potential to reduce GHG-emissions and the existing dependency on fossil fuels. A long term goal of this promotion should be the creation of a level playing field for DG and conventional power generation. Due to the impact of DG on the electricity grid infrastructure, future regulation should consider the costs and benefits of the integration of decentralized energy generation units. Without an adequate c...

  14. Energy 2000: towards new tensions on supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delessy, H.; Harasty, H.; Paris-Horvitz, S.

    1991-01-01

    An economic-energy scenario concerning world economy up to 2000 is proposed, based on a moderate growth hypothesis and an oil price growth of 3 pc a year. An oil shortage is taken into account and its consequences are simulated. Then, the macroeconomical and energetic effects of an important oil price rise are examined and its consequences on inflation, recession and money transfers in the 6 more industrialized countries are described

  15. Is the energy supply secure after 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1981-01-01

    At the centre of the remarks is the meeting of the demand for electricity in the Federal Republic of Germany, and furthermore nuclear energy for the base load and coal for the middle. In detail the author analyses the controversy which has already been around too long, and that is that of the continued extension of nuclear technology, and forcibly warning of the dangers which result from these delaying tactics. In this context, we are reminded of our dependence on imported oil and of the balance of payments' deficit resulting from the extremely sharply risen and still rising oil-prices. The strongly export-orientated German industry today not only produces with the highest wage unit-costs in the world, but also with energy which is too expensive, in particular compared to its competitors, for example France. Another just as important aspect is the endangering of promising technologies in which nuclear technology no doubt plays a big role. Highly qualified positions are in danger here. In conclusion the author appeals strongly to a energy policy of good sense in our country; it must be treated now so that no more valuable time is uselessly wasted. (orig./UA) [de

  16. Supply chain management in Forest products industry-case study for S?dra Cell Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; PAN

    2016-01-01

    The supply chain plays an increasing significant role in current global business operation process.It is not just considered as a crucial factor for leading the company to achieve their strategic goals,but also assisting firm’s to enhance the competitiveness in its own industry.This report choses the Swedish forest company-S?dra Cell as a case company to analysis its supply chain management advantages and disadvantages. It also states the role of supply chain management theory in assisting organization to achieve its strategic goal and marketing strategies.

  17. Risk and risk policy in the field of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nydegger, A.

    1980-01-01

    The economic and energy-political questions relating to securing the supply of energy to Switzerland are considered. Several points are made: 1. The fear of an imminent global shortage of oil is exaggerated. For various reasons the demand for oil will fall significantly in the next ten years, long before oil and other conventional energy resources begin to fail. 2. The short-term supply of oil should not be put at risk by excessive parsimony in using supplies from the North Sea and North America with the object of conserving them. 3. Switzerland should take much more vigorous steps to deal with a sudden breakdown of oil supplies by substituting electricity for direct oil burning, and developing electricity generation and transmission, cultivating coal imports, causing local authorities to develop plans for dealing with a sudden failure of energy supplies and industry (e.g. the food refrigeration industry) to plan for energy rationing. 4. Thought should be given to legal and political problems that would be caused by acute energy shortage, and due consideration given to this possibility in judging the need for additional nuclear generation. 5. The eminence of Switzerland in banking and engineering should be fully used to encourage stability and rationality in the pricing of oil and adequate recycling of oil funds to support development in the Third World. (C.J.O.G.)

  18. Energy security of supply under EU climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenenberg, H.; Wetzelaer, B.J.H.W.

    2006-12-01

    The implications of various climate policies for the security of supply in the EU-25 were investigated. The security of supply was quantified using the Supply/Demand (S/D) Index. This index aggregates quantitative information on a country's energy system into one single figure. It takes a value between 0 and 100, with higher values indicating a more secure energy system. The S/D Index was calculated for the year 2020 based on the information in a series of policy scenarios, including a baseline (S/D Index 50.7), an energy efficiency scenario (53.8), two renewable energy scenarios (52.6 and 53.3) and two scenarios with combined policies (55.9 and 55.6).The S/D Index proved a useful indicator for assessing the implications of climate policies for the security of supply. As climate policies become more stringent, CO2 index fall, and the S/D index increases. The magnitude of the changes in the two indices is not always similar however. Major falls in CO2 indices in the order of 20% for two scenarios with combined energy efficiency and renewable energy polices lead to less noteworthy improvements in the associated S/D indices. Nevertheless, this combination of policies leads to the greatest improvements in the security of supply

  19. Optimizing energy for a 'green' vaccine supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the 'net zero energy' (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7-10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  20. Nutrient balances in the forest energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Bengt

    2006-02-01

    In Sweden, recycling of stabilised wood-ashes to forests is considered to compensate for nutrient removals from whole-tree harvesting (i.e. use of harvest residues - slash - for energy purposes). This study has analysed nutrient fluxes through the complete forest energy cycle and estimated mass balances of nutrients in harvested biomass with those in ashes, to investigate the realism in large-scale nutrient compensation with wood-ash. Expected nutrient fluxes from forests through energy plants were calculated based on nutrient and biomass data of forest stands in the Nordic countries, and from data on nutrient fluxes through CFB-plants. The expected stoichiometric composition of wood-ashes was compared with the composition of CFB-fly ashes from various Swedish energy plants. Nutrient contents for different tree fractions were calculated to express the average nutrient concentrations in slash and stems with bark, respectively. A nutrient budget synthesis of the effects of whole-tree harvesting on base cation turnover in the following stand was presented for two experimental sites. Major conclusions from the study are: In the CFB-scenario, where the bottom ash is deposited and only the fly ash can be applied to forests, the fly ash from the slash do not meet the demands for nutrient compensation for slash harvesting. Stem material (50% wood, 50% bark) must be added at equivalent amounts, as the slash to produce the amounts of fly ash needed for compensation of slash harvesting. In the scenario where more stem material was added (75% of total fuel load), the amounts of fly ashes produced hardly compensated for nutrient removals with both stem and slash harvesting. The level of nutrient compensation was lowest for potassium. The stoichiometric nutrient composition of CFB-fly ashes from Swedish energy plants is not similar with the nutrient composition of tree biomass. The higher Ca/P ratio in ashes is only partly explained by the mixture of fuels (e.g. increasing bark

  1. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  2. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  3. Forests and water: effects of forest management on floods, sedimentation, and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry W. Anderson; Marvin D. Hoover; Kenneth G. Reinhart

    1976-01-01

    From the background of more than 100 years' collective experience in watershed research and from comprehensive review of the literature of forest hydrology, the authors summarize what is known about the forest's influence on the water resource, particularly the effects of current forestry practices. They first examine the fundamental hydrologic processes in...

  4. Energy balance of a pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Dexter, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the energy balance of a pine forest were initiated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to gain information on the exchange of gaseous materials between the atmosphere and the forest ecosystem. This information allows better estimates of the deposition velocities of gaseous pollutants necessary for plume calculations and ecosystem modeling studies. Studies to date show that the exchange of water vapor is influenced most by diffusion resistances associated with the vegetative canopy. Vegetative and atmospheric diffusion resistance vary diurnally, with high values occurring at night and low values observed during the day. Thus, water vapor exchange is greatest during the daylight hours. Future plans include measurements of exchange of other gases such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

  5. Alternative energy supply strategies for Pakistan and their economic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, A.I.; Khan, A.M.; Khan, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan is beset with serious energy supply difficulties arising from a fast growing demand for commercial energy, a poor energy resource base and the high cost of imported energy. The commercial energy requirements are expected to rise from 22.4 million tonnes of coal equivalent (tce) in 1980 to 80 million tce by the year 2000 and to about 200 million tce by 2020, while the country's proven fossil-fuel reserves are only 440 million tce and cannot cope with the demand for long. Pakistan is already dependent on imported energy for 90% of its oil requirements or 30% of the total commercial energy, and is spending 5.5% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on energy imports. The paper analyses the economic implications of a few alternative energy supply strategies. These strategies correspond to two different rates of petroleum exploration and development activity, a high and a low average size of new petroleum finds, and the large-scale use of nuclear power starting in 1990 or after the year 2000. It is found that in the most favourable case (high level of petroleum drilling activity with a high success rate and nuclear power use starting in 1990) Pakistan would be able to achieve self-sufficiency in oil by 2010 and in the total energy supply shortly after 2020. The energy sector's investment requirement will, however, increase gradually from 3% of GDP now to almost 6% of GDP by 2020. (author)

  6. The role of nuclear energy system for Korean long-term energy supply strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, K.N.; Lee, D.G.; Lim, C.Y.; Lee, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    The energy supply optimization model MESSAGE-III is improved to evaluate the role of nuclear energy system in Korean long-term energy supply strategy. Emphasis is placed on the potential contribution of nuclear energy in case of environmental constraints and energy resource limitation. The time horizon is 1993-2040. A program to forecast useful energy demand is developed, and optimization is performed from the overall energy system to the nuclear energy system. Reactor and fuel cycle strategy and the expanded utilization options for nuclear energy system are suggested. FBRs, HTGRs and thorium fuel cycle would play key roles in the long run. The most important factors for nuclear energy in Korean energy supply strategy would be the availability of fossil fuels, CO 2 reduction regulation, and the supply capability of nuclear energy. (author)

  7. A new power supply for superconductive magnetic energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karady, G.G.; Han, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a new power supply for a superconductive magnetic energy storage system, which permits a fast independent regulation of the active and reactive power, is presented. The power supply is built with several units connected in parallel. Each unit consists of a 24-pulse bridge converter, thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer, and thyristor-switched capacitor bank. Its system operation is analyzed by computer simulation and a feasible system realization is shown. A superconductive magnetic energy storage system with the proposed power supply has the capability of leveling the load variation, damping the low-frequency oscillation, and improving the transient stability in the power system. This power supply can be built with commercially available components using well-proven technologies

  8. Optimizing energy for a ‘green’ vaccine supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the ‘net zero energy’ (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7–10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. PMID:25444811

  9. Geographical cost-supply analysis forest biomass for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  10. Supply chain cost analysis of long-distance transportation of energy wood in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvanainen, Timo; Anttila, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of bioenergy has resulted in a growing demand for long-distance transportation of energy wood. For both biofuels and traditional forest products, the importance of energy efficiency and rail use is growing. A GIS-based model for energy wood supply chains was created and used to simulate the costs for several supply chains in a study area in eastern Finland. Cost curves of ten supply chains for logging residues and full trees based on roadside, terminal and end-facility chipping were analyzed. The average procurement costs from forest to roadside storage were included. Railway transportation was compared to the most commonly used truck transportation options in long-distance transport. The potential for the development of supply chains was analyzed using a sensitivity analysis of 11 modified supply chain scenarios. For distances shorter than 60 km, truck transportation of loose residues and end-facility comminution was the most cost-competitive chain. Over longer distances, roadside chipping with chip truck transportation was the most cost-efficient option. When the transportation distance went from 135 to 165 km, depending on the fuel source, train-based transportation offered the lowest costs. The most cost-competitive alternative for long-distance transport included a combination of roadside chipping, truck transportation to the terminal and train transportation to the plant. Due to the low payload, the energy wood bundle chain with train transportation was not cost-competitive. Reduction of maximum truck weight increased the relative competitiveness of loose residue chains and train-based transportation, while reduction of fuel moisture increased competitiveness, especially of chip trucks.

  11. Modelling the potential role of forest thinning in maintaining water supplies under a changing climate across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the sensitivity of water yield to forest thinning and other forest management/disturbances and climate across the conterminous United States (CONUS). Leaf area index (LAI) was selected as a key parameter linking changes in forest ecosystem structure and functions. We used the Water Supply Stress Index model to examine water yield...

  12. Renewable energy supply for electric vehicle operations in California

    OpenAIRE

    Papavasiliou, Anthony; Oren, Shmuel S.; Sidhy, Ikhlaq; Kaminsky, Phil; 32nd IAEE International Conference

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological progress, policy thrust and economic circumstances, the large scale integration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is becoming a reality in California, however the variable and unpredictable supply of these renewable resources poses a significant obstacle to their integration. At the same time we are witnessing a strong thrust towards the large scale deployment of electric vehicles which can ideally complement renewable power supply by acting as stor...

  13. The fast reactor and energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The progress made with fast reactor development in many countries is summarised showing that the aim is to provide to the nation concerned an ability to instal fast reactor power stations at the end of this century or early in the next one. Accepting the importance of fast reactors as a potential independent source of energy, problems concerning economics, industrial capability, technical factors, public acceptibility and in particular plutonium management, are discussed. It is concluded that although fast reactors have reached a comparatively advanced stage of development, a number of factors make it likely that their introduction for electricity generation will be a gradual process. Nevertheless it is necessary to complete demonstration and development phases in good time. (U.K.)

  14. Technology and energy supply. Chapter5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thring, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    In order to avoid World War III or other world-wide disaster, it is essential to have a fuel policy in which the developed countries bring their per capita energy consumption down to about the present world average figure (1.8 tce per capita per annum) over the next 30 years (3 to 4% per annum reduction). The use of the premium fuels, electricity, natural gas and oil, will have to be reduced at about twice this rate if the underdeveloped countries are to have a reasonable share; this is essential to reduce world tensions. Thus, in particular, Britain needs no new power stations, but will have to convert existing ones to the use of pass-out steam. This policy is examined and proposals are made. (author)

  15. Power sales contract/energy supply agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The factors involved in negotiating power purchase/sales arrangements in Ontario's newly deregulated electricity market are described, and the ways in which they will evolve in the future are predicted. Indications are that the trends that will govern the changes in the electric power industry will be the same as those that existed in the natural gas industry. For this reason, a comparative evaluation of purchase and sale agreements in the two industries was provided. Traditional power purchase arrangements, including requests for proposals, the seller's response, the memorandum of understanding, and the principal terms of a traditional bilateral power purchase agreement were examined. The author predicted that over time, and probably fairly fast in power pool jurisdictions, the traditional power purchase agreement will give way to the concept of energy as a pure commodity and to a standard form of agreement. 1 appendix

  16. Supply Chain Management for Improved Energy Efficiency: Review and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Marchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency represents a key resource for economic and social development, providing substantial benefits to different stakeholders, ranging from the entities which develop energy efficient measures to everyone in society. In addition to cost savings, multiple benefits can be achieved by supporting a better alignment between energy issues and strategic business priorities: e.g., improved competitiveness, profitability, quality, etc. Thus, energy efficiency can be a strategic advantage, not just a marginal issue, for companies. However, most firms, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs, face many problems and, in some cases, hostility when trying to effectively implement energy efficiency actions. The most dominant barriers are the access to capital and the lack of awareness (especially in terms of life cycle cost effects. The supply chain viewpoint represents one of the main opportunities for overcoming those barriers and improving energy performance even for weaker companies. Since the current literature on energy efficiency and practical approaches to ensure energy efficiency mainly focus on energy performance on a single-firm basis, this paper aims to provide a systematic review of papers on the integration of energy efficiency in supply chain design and management published in academic journal, thereby defining potential research streams to close the gaps in the literature. A number of literature reviews have been published focusing on specific aspects of sustainable or on green supply chain management; however, to the best of our knowledge, no review has focused on the energy efficiency issue. Firstly, the present paper shows how considering energy consumption in supply chain management can contribute to more energy-efficient processes from a systemic point of view. Then, the review methodology used is defined and the sampled papers are analyzed and categorized based on the different approaches they propose. From these

  17. Energy supply today and tomorrow, national and global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.

    2003-01-01

    A status report about 'Energy Supply Today and Tomorrow, National and Global' focuses mainly on global aspects. Today's world energy consumption is dominated by more than 80% of fossil sources of energy followed by so-called non-commercial energies, such as wood and plant and animal wastes, contributing 10%; nuclear power, 7%; and hydroelectric power, 2%. The development of energy consumption until the middle of this century will continue to be driven by the further growth of the world population, and by the need to meet the rising demand for energy in the developing countries. Because of their availability and flexible uses, oil, natural gas, and coal as fossil sources of energy will continue to meet a considerable share of the requirement. The use of nuclear power, a source meeting all criteria, such as safety, waste management, and competitiveness, is both justifiable and desirable. Restrictive decisions about nuclear power taken today must not impair the freedom of choice of future generations. Using renewable energies is just as desirable as increasing energy efficiency; however, the technical and physical potentials available for this purpose should not be overrated. This makes it imperative to protect the supply of energy 'in this difficult interim phase' with all the options available, and to open up prospects for the future, also by conducting the appropriate energy and environmental research. The balance between continuity of supply, environmental compatibility, and competitiveness must be taken into account in this effort. In the second half of the 21 st century, it is possible that energy consumption will stabilize when the world's population ceases to grow. New technologies, some of which may not even be known today or may still be under development, could then pave the way for an energy supply system which, in toto, would be less of a burden on the environment. (orig.)

  18. Energy Supply and Demand Planning Aspects in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, M.; Urbancic, A.; Al Mansour, F.; Merse, S.

    1997-01-01

    Slovenia can be considered a sufficiently homogenous region, even though specific climatic conditions exist in some parts of the country. Urban regions with high energy consumptions density differ in logistic aspects and in the potential of renewable energy sources. The difference in household energy demand is not significant. The planning study is based on the ''Integrated Resource Planning'' approach. A novel energy planning tool, the MESAP-PlaNet energy system model, supplemented by auxiliary models of technology penetration, electricity demand analysis and optimal expansion planning (the WASP package) has been used. The following segments has been treated in detail: industry, households and both central and local supply systems. Three intensities of energy efficiency strategies are compared: Reference, Moderate and Intensive. The intensity of demand side management programs influence the level and dynamics of activation of conservation potentials. Energy tax is considered in the Moderate and Intensive strategies. On the supply side the issue of domestic coal use is discussed. Reduction in the use of coal is linked to energy efficiency strategies. It has been found that energy efficiency strategies consistently improve economic efficiency, security of supply and protection of health and environment. The only conflicting area is social acceptability, due to both the energy tax reform and the loss of mining jobs. (author)

  19. Canadian energy supply and demand 1993 - 2010: Trends and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The National Energy Board has since 1959 prepared and maintained projections of energy supply requirements and has from time to time published reports on them. The objectives of this report are to provide a comprehensive 'all energy' market analysis and outlook to service as a standard of reference for all parties interested in Canadian energy issues; to provide a framework for public discussion on emerging energy issues of national importance and to monitor the prospects for the supply, demand and price of natural gas in Canada pursuant to the Market-Based Procedure for regulating. The focus being on the broad outlines of prospective energy market developments under different underlying assumptions about key variables. 7 tabs., 60 figs

  20. Canadian energy supply and demand 1993 - 2010: Trends and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The National Energy Board has since 1959 prepared and maintained projections of energy supply requirements and has from time to time published reports on them. The objectives of this report are to provide a comprehensive `all energy` market analysis and outlook to service as a standard of reference for all parties interested in Canadian energy issues; to provide a framework for public discussion on emerging energy issues of national importance and to monitor the prospects for the supply, demand and price of natural gas in Canada pursuant to the Market-Based Procedure for regulating. The focus being on the broad outlines of prospective energy market developments under different underlying assumptions about key variables. 7 tabs., 60 figs.

  1. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  2. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichchou, M N; Loukil, T; Bareille, O; Chamberland, G; Qiu, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings

  3. Exploring energy saving policy measures by renewable energy supplying cooperatives (REScoops)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Hoppe, Thomas; Chalkiadakis, Georgios; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Akasiadis, Charilaos

    2017-01-01

    Cooperatives for renewable energy supply (REScoops) provide their members renewably generated energy within a cooperative model that enables members to co-decide on the cooperative’s future. REScoops do not only collectively own renewable energy production facilities and supply this to their

  4. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Optimization of the Forest Biomass Generation Supply Chain in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of forest residue to produce forest biomass energy can mitigate CO2 emissions and generate additional revenue for related eco-enterprises and farmers. In China, however, the benefit of this utilization is still in question because of high costs and CO2 emissions in the entire supply chain. In this paper, a multi-objective linear programming model (MLP is employed to analyze the trade-offs between the economic and environmental benefits of all nodes within the forest biomass power generation supply chain. The MLP model is tested in the Mao Wu Su biomass Thermoelectric Company. The optimization results show that (1 the total cost and CO2 emissions are decreased by US$98.4 thousand and 60.6 thousand kg, respectively; 3750 thousand kg of waste-wood products is reduced and 3750 thousand kg of sandy shrub stubble residue is increased; (2 64% of chipped sandy shrub residue is transported directly from the forestland to the power plant, 36% of non-chipped sandy shrub residue is transported from the forestland to the power plant via the chipping plant; (3 transportation and chipping play a significant role in the supply chain; and (4 the results of a sensitivity analysis show that the farmer’s average transportation distance should be 84.13 km and unit chipping cost should be $0.01022 thousand for the optimization supply cost and CO2 emissions. Finally, we suggest the following: (1 develop long-term cooperation with farmers; (2 buy chain-saws for regularly used farmers; (3 build several chipping plants in areas that are rich in sandy shrub.

  5. LARGE-scale forest fuel supply solution trough a regional terminal network; Terminaalitoimintoihin perustuvan metsaepolttoaineen hankintalogistiikkajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, T. [Etelae-Savon Energia Oy, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2006-12-19

    The aim of the study is to develop logistic systems for supply of forest fuel where a terminal is part of the supply chain. Operations in the terminal, supply chains of the forest fuel and joining them to the terminal network are testing and following p. Also operation and business models are under analyzing. Costs, cost factors, benefits and space requirement of the terminal and cost-effectiveness of the entrepreneurship of the terminal are carried out. (orig.)

  6. Linking consumer energy efficiency with security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, J.P.; Scharpf, E.W.; Carrington, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Most modern energy policies seek to achieve systematic ongoing incremental increases in consumer energy efficiency, since this contributes to improved security of supply, favourable environmental outcomes and increased economic efficiency. Yet realised levels of efficiency are typically well below the most cost-effective equilibrium due to variety of behavioural and organisational barriers, which are often linked to information constraints. In addition efficient users are normally unrewarded for collective benefits to system security and to the environment, thus reducing the incentives for energy consumers to invest in efficiency improvements. This paper examines the dichotomies and symmetries between supply- and demand-side solutions to energy security concerns and reviews opportunities to overcome barriers to improved consumer efficiency. A security market is identified as a mechanism to promote both demand- and supply-side investments that support electricity system security. Such a market would assist in setting the optimal quantity of reserves while achieving an efficient balance between supply- and demand-side initiatives. It would also help to smooth overall investment throughout the energy system by encouraging incremental approaches, such as distributed generation and demand-side alternatives where they provide competitive value. Although the discussion is applicable to energy systems in general, it focuses primarily on electricity in New Zealand

  7. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. S. Cullis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing

  8. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, James D. S.; Walker, Nicholas J.; Ahjum, Fadiel; Juan Rodriguez, Diego

    2018-02-01

    Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing additional water

  9. The Euratom supply agency. A small ENERGY UNION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohm-Hieber, Ute [European Commission, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Unit - Nuclear Fuel Market Operations

    2015-11-15

    In the 1950s, when the European Communities were founded the ECSC (Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community), concluded for 50 years and the EURATOM Treaty (Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community), with unlimited validity, were signed. On the present political agenda of the European Union, energy supply security has a high priority. The Juncker Commission therefore focusses on the concept of an Energy Union. The Euratom Treaty provides one successful example of a ''small sectorial Energy Union'' and may serve as stimulation for reflections for the Energy Union in other sectors.

  10. EU Energy Policy in a Supply-constrained World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.; Van der Linde, C.

    2008-10-01

    Energy is quickly becoming an issue of integration and disintegration of the EU and will perhaps turn out to be the ultimate litmus test of political and economic unity in the EU, as energy issues are increasingly intertwined with wider security issues on the continent. Very often, economic issues are elevated to the political-strategic level, serving a different agenda than merely contributing to the energy policy agenda of the EU. The challenges to the EU and its member states in the energy sector are many: some issues are part of the wider geopolitical and geo-economic agenda, but some are also the product of the new EU that emerged after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The enlargement with member states that are asymmetrically dependent on oil and gas supplies mainly from Russia has further emphasised the growth of structural energy import dependency. Moreover, the new member states did not have the benefit of introducing the energy 'acquis', i.e. liberalisation, in a period of ample supply and relatively low prices. From 2004 onwards, energy has become tighter and more politicised. It was these developments that also uncovered the calculated risk of the old member states to embark on liberalisation without putting a crisis management policy into place. With the increasing worries about the security of supply and the asymmetric exposure of Eastern Europe to a single supplier, energy security issues also began to dominate the internal policy debates both in energy and in external relations. The new developments require the EU member states to consider how and to what extent their external energy policies should also be merged into a more EU-wide approach, if they can agree on the common risks that need to be averted and the common benefits gained, and if and how a crisis mechanism for fuels other than oil is needed to manage the perceived increased security of supply risks. Moreover, they should also consider the internal market design they set out to implement and

  11. Designing indicators of long-term energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van Arkel, W.G.; Boots, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, so far amazingly little research work has been undertaken to construct meaningful indicators of long-run energy supply security for a particular nation or region. Currently, in addressing energy supply security, policy makers tend to emphasise short-term supply disruptions. In contrast, this pre-study accords with the broader Sustainability Outlook in considering the long-term perspective. This report starts with taking stock, in a concise way, of the official EU energy outlook and issues related to the opportunities to administer changes in the energy mix at the level of major energy use categories. Then a brief survey of relevant literature is made on long-term strategies to ensure survival of systems - be it biological, social, etc. - in an environment largely characterised by high uncertainty and a lot of unchartered territory. We found the work of Andrew Stirling very inspiring in this context. Based on his work and considering the limitations of the present research activity, we retained the Shannon index as the best 'simple' indicator of diversity. In the core of the report, the Shannon index is elaborated into four indicators of long-term energy supply security. Stepwise, additional aspects of long-term energy supply security are introduced. These aspects are: Diversification of energy sources in energy supply; Diversification of imports with respect to imported energy sources; Long-term political stability in regions of origin; The resource base in regions of origin, including the home region/country itself. After small adjustments to allow for data availability, these indicators were applied to the reference year 2030 of four long-term scenarios with data of base year 1995 and projections for underlying variables provided by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). Preliminary interpretation of the results suggests the usefulness of the indicators presented in this report. A second activity undertaken in this report was

  12. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, V.; Markandya, A.; Vicini, G.

    2007-01-01

    This policy compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level. (author)

  13. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Gracceva, Francesco; Markandya, Anil; Vicini, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level

  14. Canadian energy supply and demand 1993 - 2010: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The National Energy Board has since 1959 prepared and maintained projections of energy supply requirements and has from tine to time published reports on them. The objectives of this report are to provide a comprehensive `all energy` market analysis and outlook to service as a standard of reference for all parties interested in Canadian energy issues; to provide a framework for public discussion on emerging energy issues of national importance and to monitor the prospects for the supply, demand and price of natural gas in Canada pursuant to the Market-Based Procedure for regulating. The focus of the technical report provides detailed descriptions of the analytical methods used and the quantitative results. The quantitative analysis will be of value to users who wish to develop their own views of prospects or to have a detailed assessment of the impact of alternative assumptions. 106 tabs., 171 figs.

  15. Canadian energy supply and demand 1993 - 2010: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The National Energy Board has since 1959 prepared and maintained projections of energy supply requirements and has from tine to time published reports on them. The objectives of this report are to provide a comprehensive 'all energy' market analysis and outlook to service as a standard of reference for all parties interested in Canadian energy issues; to provide a framework for public discussion on emerging energy issues of national importance and to monitor the prospects for the supply, demand and price of natural gas in Canada pursuant to the Market-Based Procedure for regulating. The focus of the technical report provides detailed descriptions of the analytical methods used and the quantitative results. The quantitative analysis will be of value to users who wish to develop their own views of prospects or to have a detailed assessment of the impact of alternative assumptions. 106 tabs., 171 figs

  16. Nuclear safety and energy supply security: conflict or goal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy generation and safety problems at the nuclear power plant have been analysed. Nuclear power plants are operated on the commercial basis in many countries today. Safety and security in energy generation and distribution is a complex problem. Energy supply reliability, security energy price and other issues should be co-ordinated and solved at the same time. Decentralisation and deregulation means new challenges for regulatory bodies and assurance of security. International co-operation in this field is very important. Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) consolidates efforts of regulatory bodies of European countries in order to harmonize approaches of nuclear safety. Nuclear Safety, and security of energy supply is the task and goal at the same time. (author)

  17. Economics of alternative energy supply in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. V.

    1977-10-15

    Alternative means of supplying the main categories of energy demand in New Zealand are examined, using a common economic basis. In this context alternative means are defined to include those not presently in significant large-scale use in New Zealand but which have been demonstrated to be broadly technically feasible. Energy demand is conveniently divided into four categories each corresponding to a grade of energy required and each including all relevant demand in households, commerce, and industry. These categories are called low-grade heat, process heat, transport, and high-grade energy. The high-grade energy market is largely satisfied only by electricity and alternative means of supplying electricity are considered by other authors. The remaining categories are discussed. The comparison of alternatives includes a brief examination of how the comparative economics are affected by the economic criteria used and particularly the cash flow discount rate. The results obtained are of scoping accuracy only but some policy implications are suggested.

  18. Evaluation of NEB energy markets and supply monitoring function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    Canada's National Energy Board regulates the exports of oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids and electricity. It also regulates the construction, operation and tolls of international and interprovincial pipelines and power lines. It also monitors energy supply and market developments in Canada. The Board commissioned an evaluation of the monitoring function to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the monitoring activities, to identify gaps in these activities and to propose recommendations. The objectives of the monitoring mandate are to provide Canadians with information regarding Canadian energy markets, energy supply and demand, and to ensure that exports of natural gas, oil, natural gas liquids and electricity do not occur at the detriment of Canadian energy users. The Board ensures that Canadians have access to domestically produced energy on terms that are as favourable as those available to export buyers. The following recommendations were proposed to improve the monitoring of energy markets and supply: (1) increase focus and analysis on the functioning of gas (first priority) and other commodity markets, (2) increase emphasis on forward-looking market analysis and issue identification, (3) demonstrate continued leadership by encouraging public dialogue on a wide range of energy market issues, (4) improve communication and increase visibility of the NEB within the stakeholder community, (5) build on knowledge management and organizational learning capabilities, (6) improve communication and sharing of information between the Applications and Commodities Business Units, and (7) enhance organizational effectiveness of the Commodities Business Unit. figs

  19. Towards an ecologically sustainable energy production based on forest biomass - Forest fertilisation with nutrient rich organic waste matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegaard, Pia-Maria; Aakerback, Nina; Sahlen, Kenneth; Sundell, Markus [Swedish Polytechnic, Vasa (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The project is a collaboration between Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences in Umeaa, Swedish Polytechnic, Finland in Vaasa and the Finnish Forest Research Institute in Kannus. Today there are pronounced goals within the EU that lead towards an ecologically sustainable community and there is also a global goal to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions. These goals involve among other things efforts to increase the use of renewable biofuel as energy source. This will result in an enlarged demand for biomass for energy production. Therefore, the forest resources in the Nordic countries will be required for energy production to a far greater extent in the future. One way to meet this increased tree biomass demand is to increase forest tree growth through supply of nutrients, of which nitrogen is the most important. Organic nutrient rich waste matter from the society, such as sewage sludge and mink and fox manure compost from fur farms might be used as forest fertilizer. This would result in increased supply of renewable tree biomass, decreased net carbon dioxide emissions, increased forest ecosystem carbon sequestration, decreased methane emissions from sewage sludge landfill and decreased society costs for sludge landfill or incineration. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to develop methods for forest fertilisation with nutrient rich organic waste matter from municipal wastewater, sludge and manure from mink and fox farms. The project may be divided into three main parts. The first part is the chemical composition of the fertiliser with the objective to increase the nitrogen content in sludge-based fertilisers and in compost of mink and fox manure. The second part involves the technique and logistics for forest fertilisation i.e., to develop application equipment that may be integrated in existing forest technical systems. The third part consists of field fertilisation investigations and an environmental impact assessment

  20. New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES): a method of efficiently supplying energy to a community of industrial users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES) concept allows the use of coal by small as well as large industrial users. The NIPES concept consists of a system of Energy Supply Stations groups of cogeneration plants) and steam transmission lines that supplies process heat and electricity to multiple existing and/or new users in an industrial park(s) setting. The Energy Supply Stations grow along with the industrial park(s) as new industries are attracted by a reliable reasonably priced energy source. The growth of the Energy Supply Stations over a period of years allows the introduction of new energy sources and technologies as they become established. This report describes the generic NIPES concept and the results of the evaluation of a specific NIPES system for the Lake Charles, Louisiana, area. A ten-year process steam load growth scenario is developed including both new and existing industrial users. During the initial years of the growth scenario, process steam is supplied to the industrial users by several coal-fired plants. Later, as the process steam load develops, a two-unit nuclear plant is integrated into the specific NIPES system. An evaluation is also performed for a NIPES system consisting of all coal-fired plants. The specific NIPES system is compared to: (1) individual user owned oil-fired facilities for existing industrial users; and (2) individual user owned coal-fired facilities for new industrial plants. A financial analysis is performed to determine the total economic advantages associated with the NIPES system: savings in a steam costs for industrial users, potential return on investment for investors

  1. New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES): a method of efficiently supplying energy to a community of industrial users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES) concept allows the use of coal by small as well as large industrial users. The NIPES concept consists of a system of Energy Supply Stations groups of cogeneration plants) and steam transmission lines that supplies process heat and electricity to multiple existing and/or new users in an industrial park(s) setting. The Energy Supply Stations grow along with the industrial park(s) as new industries are attracted by a reliable reasonably priced energy source. The growth of the Energy Supply Stations over a period of years allows the introduction of new energy sources and technologies as they become established. This report describes the generic NIPES concept and the results of the evaluation of a specific NIPES system for the Lake Charles, Louisiana, area. A ten-year process steam load growth scenario is developed including both new and existing industrial users. During the initial years of the growth scenario, process steam is supplied to the industrial users by several coal-fired plants. Later, as the process steam load develops, a two-unit nuclear plant is integrated into the specific NIPES system. An evaluation is also performed for a NIPES system consisting of all coal-fired plants. The specific NIPES system is compared to: (1) individual user owned oil-fired facilities for existing industrial users; and (2) individual user owned coal-fired facilities for new industrial plants. A financial analysis is performed to determine the total economic advantages associated with the NIPES system: savings in a steam costs for industrial users, potential return on investment for investors.

  2. Development for a multi-purpose nuclear energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Sato, Kotaro; Imamura, Mitsuru; Tsuji, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    Hokkaido is one of the four largest island of Japan located in the northern, most of the area, where the atmospheric temperature goes lower than the other area in winter. Thus, an average energy consumption per capita is larger in amount during cold seasons. Nowadays this energy is supplied by fossil fuels. On the other hand, problem of the green house gas emission should be controlled as much as possible in order to avoid global warming. From this point of view, the authors have discussed with local people on the possibility to utilize nuclear clean energy in the daily life in Hokkaido district. Recently some leaders in local towns become interested to such activities and they want information about nuclear energy and related systems. It is a very good chance for us to exchange information on nuclear energy with regards to public acceptance, fears of nuclear power or radiation, the extent of satisfaction to be sure for construction of urban nuclear plants and requirements for such plants. We prepared technical presentation materials and visited a selected towns and continued discussion in various aspects. For example, proposal of a proto type design concept of a small reactor, safety, heat energy supply system. The audience was mainly representatives of the towns firstly and gradually ordinal people also attended the meetings. Based on the information, it could be expected to establish a concept for such district energy supply system. In this paper, some examples and results through these activities are presented. (author)

  3. EU initiative on energy infrastructures and continuity of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2004-01-01

    On December 10, 2003, the European Commission presented a comprehensive legislative package about energy infrastructure and continuity of supply. The proposals result in an agglomeration and extension of Community law provisions in the energy sector. A key role is played by the proposed directive ensuring the continuity of electricity supply and investments into infrastructure. This implies the need for the member countries henceforth to define the roles and responsibilities of grid operators and suppliers. The Energy Services Directive is to create a harmonized framework in the field of energy services and energy efficiency by providing common definitions, instruments, and methods. The legislative package has been forwarded to the European Parliament and to the Council. A first reading in the European Parliament is to be completed still in this legislative term by early May 2004. The Energy Ministers of the EU member countries were presented the package on continuity of supply on December 15, 2003. European legislation in the energy sector is keeping member countries busy, leaving them fewer and fewer possibilities for shaping policies of their own. There is danger of overregulation. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2006-01-01

    Developing and promoting a farsighted energy policy is a key aspect in achieving sustainable development in the European Union. Factors to be coped with in this context are the Union's increasing dependence on energy imports, and the threats facing the climate. Moreover, it is imperative that the Lisbon strategy be pursued, according to which Europe is to be made the world's most dynamic knowledge-based economic region by 2010. As early as in 2000, the EU Commission published its Green Paper, ''Towards a European Strategy of Continuity in Power Supply.'' Continuity of supply, in this context, not only stands for maximized self-sufficiency or minimized dependencies. What is at stake is a reduction of the risks stemming from dependence on imports and from changes in the environment. This goal can be achieved through a balanced and diverse structure both of energy resources and of the geographic origins of fuels. The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig.)

  5. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Nienhaus, Kristina [German Aerospace Center e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Klessmann, Corinna; Capone, Carolin; Stricker, Eva [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Graus, Wina; Hoogwijk, Monique [Ecofys Netherlands BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Winterfeld, Uta von; Samadi, Sascha [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The analysis of different global energy scenarios in part I of the report confirms that the exploitation of energy efficiency potentials and the use of renewable energies play a key role in reaching global CO2 reduction targets. An assessment on the basis of a broad literature research in part II shows that the technical potentials of renewable energy technologies are a multiple of today's global final energy consumption. The analysis of cost estimates for renewable electricity generation technologies and even long term cost projections across the key studies in part III demonstrates that assumptions are in reasonable agreement. In part IV it is shown that by implementing technical potentials for energy efficiency improvements in demand and supply sectors by 2050 can be limited to 48% of primary energy supply in IEA's ''Energy Technology Perspectives'' baseline scenario. It was found that a large potential for cost-effective measures exists, equivalent to around 55-60% of energy savings of all included efficiency measures (part V). The results of the analysis on behavioural changes in part VI show that behavioural dimensions are not sufficiently included in energy scenarios. Accordingly major research challenges are revealed. (orig.)

  6. Supply chain management applications for forest fuel procurement. Cost or benefit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, J.; Roeser, D. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu Research Unit (Finland)), email: johannes.windisch@metla.fi; Sikanen, L.; Gritten, D. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Science, Joensuu (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    It is commonly agreed that logistics is very demanding in forest fuel business. Even though logistics and supply chain management (SCM) tools already have found their way into forestry business, for example, in roundwood operations, they are not yet very widespread in the field of forest fuel procurement. The present study investigates if modern supply chain management applications are capable of increasing the profitability of forest fuel procurement operations. Since margins are low, decreasing the provision costs could boost wood-based bioenergy business. The study is based on the investigation of two Finnish forest owners associations (FOA) involved in forest fuel procurement using a modern SCM tool. The investigation is done by cost-benefit analysis (CBA) using the net present value (NPV) methodology to determine the profitability. According to the estimates made by the staff, which are based on data such as work time records and delivery notes from before and after introduction of the new system, in both FOAs, the benefits far outweigh the costs over a considered timespan of ten years. However, the amount of the NPV varied significantly. For FOA1, with an annual chip production of 150 000 loose m3, the NPV is 212 739 euro, while for FOA2, with an annual chip production of 37 000 loose m3, the NPV is 969 841 euro. Even if the NPV of FOA2 seems to be very high, the profitability of SCM tools in forest fuel procurement is clearly demonstrated. Additionally, the results indicate that a considerable cost saving potential in forest fuel procurement is attainable through improving work flows and thus reduce the work input. (orig.)

  7. Energy demand and supply, energy policies, and energy security in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoseok; Shin, Eui-soon; Chung, Woo-jin

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has enjoyed rapid economic growth and development over the last 30 years. Rapid increases in energy use-especially petroleum, natural gas, and electricity, and especially in the industrial and transport sectors-have fueled the ROK's economic growth, but with limited fossil fuel resources of its own, the result has been that the ROK is almost entirely dependent on energy imports. The article that follows summarizes the recent trends in the ROK energy sector, including trends in energy demand and supply, and trends in economic, demographic, and other activities that underlie trends in energy use. The ROK has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system, mainly induced by industrial, supply security, and environmental concerns, and energy policies in the ROK have evolved over the years to address such challenges through measures such as privatization of energy-sector activities, emphases on enhancing energy security through development of energy efficiency, nuclear power, and renewable energy, and a related focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The assembly of a model for evaluating energy futures in the ROK (ROK2010 LEAP) is described, and results of several policy-based scenarios focused on different levels of nuclear energy utilization are described, and their impacts on of energy supply and demand in the ROK through the year 2030 are explored, along with their implications for national energy security and long-term policy plans. Nuclear power continues to hold a crucial position in the ROK's energy policy, but aggressive expansion of nuclear power alone, even if possible given post-Fukushima global concerns, will not be sufficient to attain the ROK's 'green economy' and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals. - Research highlights: →Rapid industrialization caused ROK energy use to increase over 10-fold during 1970-2000, with dramatic structural changes. → Growth in energy use after 2000 slowed to under 5%/yr, and

  8. Operation of buildings: Energy supply and energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, H

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving in public administration. A list-like collection of the measures to monitor the consumption, the measures of saving energy at existing buildings, new systems and by new techniques. Examples with figures for the savings achieved in the region of Marburg-Biedenkopf (Hesse). Guidelines are set up which are mainly based on energy saving, heat recovery, use of new technologies and renewable energy sources, fluidized-bed combustion also in smaller plants of ca. 2 MW, waste management separating wastes into burnable/unburnable, information of the public administration and the people and the setting up of energy concepts. (PJH).

  9. Quantitative model of New Zealand's energy supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B. R. [Victoria Univ., Wellington, (New Zealand); Lucas, P. D. [Ministry of Energy Resources (New Zealand)

    1977-10-15

    A mathematical model is presented to assist in an analysis of energy policy options available. The model is based on an engineering orientated description of New Zealand's energy supply and distribution system. The system is cast as a linear program, in which energy demand is satisfied at least cost. The capacities and operating modes of process plant (such as power stations, oil refinery units, and LP-gas extraction plants) are determined by the model, as well as the optimal mix of fuels supplied to the final consumers. Policy analysis with the model enables a wide ranging assessment of the alternatives and uncertainties within a consistent quantitative framework. It is intended that the model be used as a tool to investigate the relative effects of various policy options, rather than to present a definitive plan for satisfying the nation's energy requirements.

  10. Research on energy supply, demand and economy forecasting in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Tsuyoshi; Kamezaki, Hiroshi; Yuyama, Tomonori; Suzuki, Atsushi

    1999-10-01

    This project aims to do research on forecasts of energy demand structure and electricity generation cost in each power plant in Japan in the 21st century, considering constructing successful FBR scenario. During the process of doing research on forecasts of energy demand structure in Japan, documents published from organizations in inside and outside of Japan were collected. These documents include prospects of economic growth rate, forecasts of amount for energy supply and demand, the maximum amount of introducing new energy resources, CO2 regulation, and evaluation of energy best mixture. Organizations in Japan such as Economic Council and Japan Energy Economic Research Institute have provided long-term forecasts until the early 21st century. Meanwhile, organizations overseas have provided forecasts of economic structure, and demand and supply for energy in OECD and East Asia including Japan. In connection with forecasts of electricity generation cost in each power plant, views on the ultimate reserves and cost of resources are reviewed in this report. According to some views on oil reserves, making assumptions based on reserves/production ratio, the maximum length of the time that oil reserves will last is 150 years. In addition, this report provides summaries of cost and potential role of various resources, including solar energy and wind energy; and views on waste, safety, energy security-related externality cost, and the price of transferring CO2 emission right. (author)

  11. Energy supply security and geopolitics : A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A; van der Linde, C

    The security of energy supply to the EU is examined in the context of two storylines. Markets and Institutions exemplifies an economically and politically integrated, multilateral world with effective institutions and markets, Regions and Empires involves a world broken up in rival political and

  12. Supply-side collaboration for energy-efficient renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.; Mlecnik, E.

    2015-01-01

    The supply side for nearly zero energy building (nZEB) renovation of owner-occupied single-family houses in Europe is suffering from a severe image problem of lack of knowledge and trust, inefficient construction processes, insufficient quality assurance and communication difficulties with

  13. Wave energy and its possibilities in the Danish power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traeholt Madsen, N.; Lorenzen, S.; Haunstrup Christensen, T.

    1997-06-01

    Mathematical theory of wave forces (wave height, spectrua, energy distribution and effect) is summarized. An attempt to estimate the Danish wave power potential on the basis of previous investigations og wave effect in various regions is presented. A brief review of wave energy applications and research constitutes basis for two scenarios of wave power adjustment into the 'Green society'. Power quality, environment, economics and supply reliability are estimated. (EG) 42 refs

  14. Integral evaluation of energy supply systems at mountain refuges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschauer, C. [Univ. of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Inst. for Chemical and Energy Engineering; Steinbacher, G. [Steinbacher and Steinbacher Civil Engineering Inc. (Austria); Weber, P. [DAV-Deutscher Alpenverein e.V. (Germany). Bundesgeschaeftsstelle; Deubler, Hubert

    2010-07-01

    Most of the mountain refuges scattered over the Alps (more than 1500) are not connected to public infrastructure, requiring decentralized supply and disposal and are therefore called island systems. The increasing number of guests goes along with a higher demand for comport and thus puts pressure on available resources. There are numerous challenges like remoteness, transport, low temperatures, seasonal operation and climate change to be faced. Furthermore, the supply and disposal system of an alpine hut has to merge different interests of the alpine associations, refuge operators, legal authorities and the alpine tourists. Therefore the respective infracstructure has to be managed as an overall-self-contained system. Energy supply is the central issue showing complex interaction with water supply, wastewater treatment and waste disposal. Many problems according to planning, decision-making, construction and operation concerning alpine infrastructure are reported. However detailed information on experiences made in these fields is missing at an international level so far. To correct this lack of data, the German Alpine Association (DAV) initiated the project ''Integral Evaluation of Supply and Disposal Systems of Mountain Refuges, IEVEBS'' in 2006, inviting all stakeholders (Alpine Associations, Legal Authorities, Planners, and Researchers) to participate. Additionally to the final project report which contains a detailed description and evaluation of the supply systems, guidelines will be elaborated in 2010 for planning, implementation and operation, all applicable at an international level. (orig.)

  15. Declining plant nitrogen supply and carbon accumulation in ageing primary boreal forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Mona N.; Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Trumbore, Susan; Högberg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forest soils are commonly characterized by a low plant nitrogen (N) supply. A high tree below-ground allocation of carbon (C) to roots and soil microorganisms in response to the shortage of N may lead to high microbial immobilisation of N, thus aggravating the N limitation. We studied the N supply at a Swedish boreal forest ecosystem chronosequence created by new land rising out of the sea due to iso-static rebound. The youngest soils develop with meadows by the coast, followed by a zone of dinitrogen fixing alder trees, and primary boreal conifer forest on ground up to 560 years old. With increasing ecosystem age, the proportion of microbial C out of the total soil C pool from the youngest to the oldest coniferous ecosystem was constant (c. 1-1.5%), whereas immobilised N (microbial N out of total soil N) increased and approached the levels commonly observed in similar boreal coniferous forests (c. 6-7 %), whereas gross N mineralization declined. Simultaneously, plant foliar N % decreased and the natural abundance of N-15 in the soil increased. More specifically, the difference in N-15 between plant foliage and soil increased, which is related to greater retention of N-15 relative to N-14 by ectomycorrhizal fungi as N is taken up from the soil and some N is transferred to the plant host. In the conifer forest, where these changes were greatest, we found increased fungal biomass in the F- and H-horizons of the mor-layer, in which ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to dominate (the uppermost horizon with litter and moss is dominated by saprotrophic fungi). Hence, we propose that the decreasing N supply to the plants and the subsequent decline in plant production in ageing boreal forests is linked to high tree belowground C allocation to C limited ectomycorrhizal fungi (and other soil microorganisms), a strong sink for available soil N. Data on organic matter C-14 suggested that the largest input of recently fixed plant C occurred in the younger coniferous forest

  16. Status of bio energy based on forest material - from the stub to the stove door; Status for bioenergi basert paa skogsvirke - fra stubben til ovnsdoera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lileng, Joern K.; Gjoelsjoe, Simen

    1999-07-01

    It is not well documented in Norway who possesses the competence and who is the user of forest material as bio fuel. Forest material is forest chips, secondary products from forestry, and firewood. The project reported was a literature study that throws light on the problem by referring to central persons and institutions in this field. The report also is a general introduction to bio energy based on forest material. The principle sections deal with (1) Climate policy, (2) Energy carriers based on forest material, (3) Systems for selection and treatment of bio fuel, (4) Methods for calculation of the supply of biomass in the forest, (5) Returning ash to the forest, (6) Transport, (7) Storage, (8) Assessment of bio energy, (9) Abstract of relevant Norwegian reports, (10) Bio energy projects and bio energy actors in Norway and (11) Proposed research projects and research work on forest material as fuel.

  17. Nonindustrial private forest owners' opinions to and awareness of energy wood market and forest-based bioenergy certification. Results of a case study from Finnish Karelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Pradipta; Mei, Qu; Pelkonen, Paavo [Eastern Finland Univ., Joensuu (Finland). School of Forest Sciences; Weckroth, Timo

    2012-12-01

    Nonindustrial private forest owners (NIPFs) in Finland are important stakeholders of forest management and roundwood supply decisions. Their role will also be significant to supply energy wood to meet Finland's target for renewable energy in the future. The main objectives of this study were to explore the opinions and awareness of the Finnish NIPFs related to the energy wood market and forest-based bioenergy certification issues in Finland and their relevance for future bioenergy policies. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among NIPFs in Finnish Karelia (N = 79). NIPFs considered price as the main deciding factor in harvesting and selling of energy wood. The present low price of energy wood compared to pulpwood did not motivate them to increase harvesting and selling of energy wood. The NIPFs appeared to be unaware of the forest-based bioenergy certification. However, they expected that such certification schemes would be easy to follow, develop energy wood market, and promote environmentally sound forest management practices in Finland. Private forest owners' associations and personal information letters emerged as the most favored means to disseminate information on forest-based bioenergy certification to the Finnish NIPFs. The study explored the opinions and awareness of the Finnish NIPFs related to energy wood market and forest based bioenergy certification from Finnish Karelia. The conclusions derived from the study might be highly policy-relevant concerning the development of energy wood market and related certification schemes. Future studies should include larger sample size for increasing the representativeness of the findings. (orig.)

  18. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES is also highly significant for water and energy development programs in the long-term. The objectives of this paper were to provide an estimation of the blue component of WFEP and WFES in China for the period from 2001 to 2014, and to evaluate the impact on water resources from energy production, the contribution of internal and external WFES, and water-energy related issues of the international energy trade by applying water footprint analysis based on the bottom-up approach. The results indicate that generally, the WFEP and WFES in China both maintained steady growth before 2013, with the WFEP increasing from approximately 3900 million m3/year to 10,400 million m3/year, while the WFES grew from 3900 million m3/year to 11,600 million m3/year. The fossil energy production caps of the 13th Five Year Plan can bring the water consumed for fossil energy production back to a sustainable level. Over the long-term, China’s energy trade plan should also consider the water and energy resources of the countries from which fossil energy is imported.

  19. Energy supply and demand in Canada and export demand for Canadian energy, 1966--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-01-01

    This report presents the results of a National Energy Board staff study of energy supply and demand in Canada to 1990. The study covers all forms of energy in Canada, and probable sources of supply for serving both indigenous and export demand for Canadian energy. Energy demand by market sector (residential and commercial, industrial, and transportation) is discussed in Chapters III, IV and V, respectively. Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and IX deal with supply prospects for Canadian petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity serving indigenous and export markets. A summary of the report is contained in Chapter II. Appendix A reviews general assumptions including those relating to population and household growth. Appendix B summarizes the methodology used for estimating residential energy demand, automobile transportation energy demand, and electricity supply. Appendix C includes a number of tables which provide detailed information. A list of definitions and abbreviations follows the Table of Contents.

  20. Energy efficiency of computer power supply units - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, B. [cepe - Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Huser, H. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland)

    2002-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the efficiency of computer power supply units, which decreases rapidly during average computer use. The background and the purpose of the project are examined. The power supplies for personal computers are discussed and the testing arrangement used is described. Efficiency, power-factor and operating points of the units are examined. Potentials for improvement and measures to be taken are discussed. Also, action to be taken by those involved in the design and operation of such power units is proposed. Finally, recommendations for further work are made.

  1. Biomass energy, forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosillo-Calle, Frank; Hall, D.O.

    1992-01-01

    Biomass in all its forms currently provides about 14% of the world's energy, equivalent to 25 million bbl oil/day; in developing countries where it is the major energy source, biomass supplies 35% of total energy use. Although biomass energy use affects the flux of carbon to the atmosphere, the main carbon emission problem is caused by fossil fuels and land clearance for agriculture. Biomass fuels make no net contribution to atmospheric CO 2 if used sustainably. A major global revegetation and reforestation effort is a possible strategy to reduce CO 2 emissions and to slow the pace of climatic change. However, a more attractive alternative strategy might be to substitute fossil fuels, especially coal, with biomass grown specifically for this purpose producing modern fuels such as electricity, liquids and gases. This paper examines biomass energy use, devegetation, biomass burning, the implications for global warming and the ability of biomass to sequester CO 2 and substitute for fossil fuels. It also discusses some socioeconomic and political issues. (author)

  2. Waste Biomass Based Energy Supply Chain Network Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Güneş Yıldız

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels, alleviating environmental impacts and ensuring sustainable economic growth are among the most promising aspects of utilizing renewable energy resources. Biomass is a major renewable energy resource that has the potential for creating sustainable energy systems that are critical in terms of social welfare. Utilization of biomass for bioenergy production is an efficient alternative for meeting rising energy demands, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and thus alleviating climate change. A supply chain for such an energy source is crucial for assisting deliverance of a competitive end product to end-user markets. Considering the existing constraints, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model for waste biomass based supply chain was proposed in this study for economic performance optimization. Performance of the proposed modelling approach was demonstrated with a real life application study realized in İstanbul. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were conducted which would serve as a foresight for efficient management of the supply chain as a whole

  3. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A., E-mail: Raluca.FELSEGHI@insta.utcluj.ro; Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Building Services Engineering Department, Bd. December 21, no. 128-130, 400600, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Răboacă, S. M. [National R& D Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, str. Uzinei, no. 4, Rm. Vălcea, 240050 (Romania); Aşchilean, I. [SC ACI Cluj SA, Avenue Dorobanţilor, no. 70, 400609, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  4. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Alternative Energy Supply Solutions to Public Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes energy supply alternatives for modernised public nearly zero energy buildings. The paper examines alternative energy production systems such as heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, adsorption cooling, biomass boiler, solar photovoltaic, wind turbines and combinations of these systems. The simulation of the analysed building energy demand for different energy production alternatives has been performed using TRNSYS modelling software. In order to determine an optimal energy supply variant, the estimated results of energy, environmental, and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi-criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Energy supply, nuclear power, and the international energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierer, H. von

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has greatly intensified the readiness for international cooperation on problems of reactor safety and for exchanges of operating experience. That accident was more than a regional event. If all psychological and political consequences are taken into account, its international significance is apparent. In principle, it demonstrated not the lack of safety of nuclear power plants generally, but rather that of the Soviet RBMK reactor line, which would not have been licensed in any Western country because of its inherent unsafety. In the long run, the worldwide acceptance of nuclear power can be regained and stabilized only by an open dialog and by international exchanges of experience. The pronounced growth of the world's population requires energy policy to think beyond national frontiers. The rising energy requirement permits of no other decision than to exploit all technically feasible and economically viable as well as ecologically tolerable sources of energy. This includes nuclear power as well as solar energy. (orig.) [de

  6. Impacts of Large Scale Wind Penetration on Energy Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kabouris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs, Distribution System Operators (DSOs and Wind Turbine Generators (WTG constructors. This paper aims to present in a thorough and coherent way the redrawn picture for Energy Systems under these conditions. Topics related to emergent technical challenges, technical solutions required and finally the impact on ESI due to large wind power penetration, are analyzed. Finally, general conclusions are extracted about the ESI current and future state and general directions are recommended.

  7. Consequences of forest energy for flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruuse, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report examines the effects of forest energy on the field layer vegetation, and includes whole-tree harvesting, liming, fertilization, wood ash distribution and the importance of broadleaved trees. Whole-tree harvesting is negative for some of the vascular plant species, and positive for others, and can have a drastically negative effect on lichens, mosses and decomposing fungi. Whole-tree harvesting can be accepted from the viewpoint of the flora if: - between 10 and 30 % of the slash is left on the clearcut area, - hardwood stands or mixed stands with hardwood are excepted from whole-tree harvesting, - dead lying or standing trees, a few broadleaved trees and old trees, are left on the clearcut area. Liming has some effects on the flora, especially a very negative effect on lichens and mosses. Liming can be accepted if; - it only takes place where whole-tree harvesting has been used or where acidification caused by air pollution has been observed, - the amounts are moderate, 2 to 4 tonnes/ha, and the liming material has a rather large grain size, - it is unevenly distributed, and - it is avoided in naturally acid stands with a special vegetation. Fertilization has negative effects on all the considered vegetation groups. It can only be accepted as compensation for whole-tree harvesting, and no more nitrogen must be added than is taken away in the harvest. In southern Sweden even the compensatory fertilization should be avoided. The consequences of wood ash distribution are little known. Until more facts are presented, only enough wood ash as to compensate for the loss through whole-tree harvesting should be distributed. If the use of forest energy would lead to an increase of the broadleaved tree ratio it would be positive. (54 refs.)

  8. Energy and supply concepts. Pt. 3. Energie- und Versorgungskonzepte. T. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziejczyk, K

    1989-01-01

    Part three deals with the classification of energy and supply concepts (primary and secondary energy sources, energy conversion processes). A discussion of classification criteria (4 criteria, different process levels) is followed by a description of process and energy flows (flowsheet showing the energy flow of an interconnected system combining electric power/steam/heat supplies and refrigeration), a presentation of concrete energy and supply concepts (flow sheet, selection and evaluation criteria, situation and process analysis, cost-benefit analysis, use of computers, system value analysis), approaches and solutions (decisions). The complex task of finding appropriate supply solutions is found to be depending on the knowledge, creativity, and methodical skill of those in charge. (HWJ).

  9. Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs

  10. The effects of rising energy costs and transportation mode mix on forest fuel procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, Peter; Gronalt, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Since fossil fuels have been broadly recognized as a non-renewable energy source that threatens the climate, sustainable and CO 2 neutral energy sources - such as forest fuels - are being promoted in Europe, instead. With the expeditiously growing forest fuel demand, the strategic problem of how to design a cost-efficient distribution network has evolved. This paper presents an MILP model, comprising decisions on modes of transportation and spatial arrangement of terminals, in order to design a forest fuel supply network for Austria. The MILP model is used to evaluate the impacts of rising energy costs on procurement sources, transport mix and procurement costs on a national scale, based on the example of Austria. A 20% increase of energy costs results in a procurement cost increase of 7%, and another 20% increase of energy costs would have similar results. While domestic waterways become more important as a result of the first energy cost increase, rail only does so after the second. One way to decrease procurement costs would be to reduce the share of empty trips with truck and trailer. Reducing this share by 10% decreases the average procurement costs by up to 20%. Routing influences the modal split considerably, and the truck transport share increases from 86% to 97%, accordingly. Increasing forest fuel imports by large CHPs lowers domestic competition and also enables smaller plants to cut their procurement costs. Rising forest fuel imports via ship will not significantly decrease domestic market shares, but they will reduce procurement costs considerably. (author)

  11. Joining Criteria for Harmonizing European Forest Available for Wood Supply Estimates. Case Studies from National Forest Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Fischer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For national and international reporting on forest available for wood supply (FAWS, harmonized data are needed. This information is required as forests provide goods for various sectors like the timber industry or the bioenergy sector. The effect of applying different thresholds to the three restriction classes (environmental, social and economic restriction within the proposed reference definition for FAWS was evaluated. We applied the reference definition for FAWS to national data sets provided by five European National Forest Inventories using harmonized thresholds. The effects on FAWS area and growing stock were evaluated for each restriction and threshold. All countries within this study could report on protected areas. Social restrictions were not applied in any country, data on other restrictions are available but definitions vary. The application of common thresholds for restrictions proved difficult as effects vary between countries. The economic restriction is the most challenging to assess as many countries do not have corresponding data for direct calculation of, e.g., harvesting costs. Using proxies for harvesting costs was difficult, as common thresholds may not be applied in different countries. For standardized reporting, a FAWS definition should be developed that utilizes existing, harmonized indicators to describe restrictions.

  12. The importance of North Sea oil to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauw, R. De

    1992-01-01

    There is no doubt about the importance of North Sea oil to the energy supply of the European Community. One might however be used to it and forget about the nature and the size of its impact on our economies. Firstly, this paper intends to estimate this impact - past, present and future. Secondly, a more qualitative approach will explore possible consequences of the implementation of the internal market for North Sea oil. Thirdly, the assistance given by the Community to innovative technologies which enabled North Sea oil to contribute, under better economic conditions and within a safer environment, to our supply is recalled. And finally, some remarks on energy policy form an EC perspective, are offered. (author)

  13. Rhetoric versus reality: Russian threats to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldthau, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    European gas demand will rise from presently 540 billion cubic meters (bcm) to around 800 bcm in 2030. As more than 50 percent of overall European imports originate from Russia, fears have been expressed that the Kremlin could use energy resources as a foreign policy tool. A thorough assessment of domestic consumption, production and investment volumes however reveals that Russian supply will have difficulties in matching growing domestic and European demand. Hence, as the author argues, the threat to European gas supply does not lie in geopolitics, but rather in a lack of investment in the Russian upstream sector. Higher domestic Russian gas prices, enhanced energy efficiency and increases in non-Gazprom production would however make it possible for Russia to meet domestic demand and its export commitments for natural gas

  14. A valuation study of fuel supply stability of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji; Nagata, Yutaka; Hitomi, Kazumi; Hamagata, Sumio; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    In order to assess potential benefits of nuclear power with regard to its characteristics of fuel supply stability, the following three aspects are valuated under the Japanese energy and electricity mix: a) economic stability; i.e. nuclear power's contribution to the whole energy and electricity mix in terms of resistance to fluctuation and/or fuel price hikes, b) procurement stability; i.e. natural uranium, the raw fuel material for nuclear power generation, is being imported from more reliable sources through adequately diverse markets than in the cases of oil and natural gas, and, c) passive reserve effect; i.e. fuel materials as running stocks at power stations and fuel service facilities could maintain nuclear power generation running for a certain duration under unexpected disruption of fuel supply. (author)

  15. Long-term outlook of energy demand and supply in Japan. Estimation of energy demand and supply for 'Nuclear Energy Vision 2100' of JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatematsu, Kenji; Kawasaki, Hirotsugu; Nemoto, Masahiro; Murakami, Masakazu

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we showed an energy demand and supply scenario toward the year 2100 in Japan, which underlies JAEA's 'Nuclear Energy Vision 2100' published in October 2008. This energy demand and supply scenario aimed at the coexistence of the reduction of the carbon dioxide emission and the energy security through reduction of the fossil fuel usage, positive electrification and the nuclear energy usage. We reduced the ratio of the fossil fuel in the primary energy supply to about 1/3 and extend the share of renewable and nuclear energy to 70% from current 15%. As a result, the carbon dioxide emission was reduced to current 10%, and it developed that the half was the contribution of the nuclear energy. (author)

  16. Secure energy supply without coal and nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, W.

    2008-01-01

    The future of energy policy and energy supply is determined by the rising global demand for every kind of energy. Europe is being confronted with an ever growing dependence on imported oil and gas. We thus fall victim to the volatile ups and downs of oil and gas prices on the world markets. These risks to industry, and thus to jobs, are simply underrated, even ignored, in this country. Challenges of this kind require strategic solutions instead of case-by-case decisions which, in addition, more often than not are based on emotion rather than facts. Finding strategic solutions means that we must use all our scientific, technological and industrial potentials to achieve our ambitious goals in climate policy. We must use energy as intelligently as possible, i.e., we must develop and, above all, use CO 2 -free coal-fired power plants, safe nuclear power, renewable energy sources, and take measures to ensure a highly efficient management of energy. Only those four-pronged approach will enable us to ensure optimally competition, continuity of supply, and protection of the environment and the climate. Those who negate or ignore this interrelation are bound to fail in economic and ecological reality. (orig.)

  17. Innovations in managing demand and supply of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughborough, K. [Enwave District Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Enwave District Energy Ltd. is one of North America's largest district energy system manufacturers which provides outsourced heating and cooling to more than 130 major buildings in downtown Toronto. This presentation described innovations in managing the supply and demand of energy, and provided several viewgraphs depicting service heating, district cooling, and the district energy distribution network in Toronto. One of Enwave's greatest innovations is the deep lake water cooling (DLWC) district cooling system. The $175 million capital joint infrastructure project which began in June 2002 will be on line in 2004. The district cooling system represents the largest renewable energy project in Canada with a total cooling capacity of 52,000 tons. The system relies on DLWC and conventional chillers. DLWC uses naturally cold water from Lake Ontario. The coldness from the water is used to provide air conditioning to the buildings in Toronto. The benefits include 75 per cent reduced energy use, the elimination of ozone depleting refrigerants, and the use of a renewable resource for providing a stable cooling supply. Emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and oxides of sulphur are also reduced. The benefits to the city include a reduced strain on the electricity infrastructure, cleaner air and improved health. tabs., figs.

  18. Energy supply security and geopolitics: A European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlje, Aad; Linde, Coby van der

    2006-01-01

    The security of energy supply to the EU is examined in the context of two storylines. Markets and Institutions exemplifies an economically and politically integrated, multilateral world with effective institutions and markets. Regions and Empires involves a world broken up in rival political and economic blocks, competing for resources and markets via political, economic and military power. It is shown that these storylines have a significant impact on the development of the energy market, on the way in which energy supply may be secured and on the effect and applicability of the several types of instruments available. The current EU is geared towards enlargement and a deepening of economic integration, based on the tenets of the post-1945 multilateral world system. The present world tends towards Regions and Empires and suggests that the EU may have to reorient its energy security policy. Energy policy must become an integral part of EU external trade and foreign relations and security policy. The EU should develop its own strategy, actively investing in dialogues with producer countries in the Persian Gulf and Africa and with Russia. Sustainable prosperity and governance in these regions will support EU energy security

  19. Triangulating the Sociohydrology of Water Supply, Quality and Forests in the Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    The North Carolina Research Triangle is among the most rapidly growing metropolitan areas in the United States, with decentralized governance split among several different municipalities, counties and water utilities. Historically smaller populations, plentiful rainfall, and riparian rights based water law provided both a sense of security for water resources and influenced the development of separate infrastructure systems across the region. The growth of water demand with rising populations with typical suburban sprawl, the development of multi-use reservoirs immediately downstream of urban areas, and increased hydroclimate variability have raised the potential for periodic water scarcity coupled with increasing eutrophication of water supplies. We discuss the interactions and tradeoffs between management of emerging water scarcity, quality and forest biodiversity in the Triangle as a model for the US Southeast. Institutional stakeholders include water supply and stormwater utilities, environmental NGOs, federal, state, county and municipal governments, developers and home owner associations. We emphasize principles of ecohydrologic resilience learned in heavily instrumented research watersheds, adapted to rapidly developing urban systems, and including socioeconomic and policy dynamics. Significant 20th century reforestation of central North Carolina landscapes have altered regional water balances, while providing both flood and water quality mitigation. The regrowth forest is dynamic and heterogeneous in water use based on age class and species distribution, with substantial plantation and natural regeneration. Forecasts of land use and forest structural and compositional change are based on scenario socioeconomic development, climate change and forecast wood product markets. Urban forest and green infrastructure has the potential to mediate the trade-offs and synergies of these goals, but is in a very nascent state. Computational tools to assess policy

  20. Report on energy supply and demand in Canada : 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, M.; Lacroix, J.; Smalldridge, G.; Svab, J.; Cromey, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of energy use in Canada. The year 1990 was used as a starting point because that is the base year for energy inventories for the Kyoto Protocol. Data was derived from monthly and quarterly surveys. The report describes data quality and methodology as well as energy conversion factors. It includes individual tables on primary and secondary energy for: coal, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, primary electricity, steam, coke, secondary electricity, refined petroleum products, non-energy refined petroleum products, solid wood waste, and spent liquor. The most recent data on energy demand and supply indicates that Canadians consumed energy for transportation twice as fast as the nation's industries did in the past 12 years. From 1990 to 2002, energy consumption in the transportation sector increased 22.7 per cent while demand in the industrial sector rose by 11.7 per cent. Canada's energy consumption increased 17.6 per cent from 1990 to 2002. In 2002, the transportation and industrial sectors each accounted for 30 per cent of total energy consumption. Consumption of natural gas, refined petroleum and coal increased 18.1 per cent, with the greatest increased being in natural gas. In 2002, electricity produced by water, nuclear power, wind and tidal action accounted for 25 per cent of energy consumption. Secondary electricity generation from fossil fuels increased steadily. The general increase in domestic demand for energy in 2002 was due to an increase in energy consumption by the industrial sector and by growing residential sales. In 2002, the rate of increase in energy consumption in Alberta was higher than in any other province due to a booming economy and rising population. Ontario consumed the most energy in 2002, accounting for 34 per cent of the country's energy demand

  1. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, P.

    2001-10-01

    On November 2000 the European Commission launched a broad debate on the security of energy supply in the European Union. Fortunately these debates are occurring simultaneously in Europe and in the US, thus providing an opportunity for a transatlantic debate and further cooperation. The author come back to european facts and figures, then to stress the dramatic changes in the context since 1990 and finally to discuss the policy options. (A.L.B.)

  2. Cost of supplying energy from New Zealand resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Robert G.

    1977-10-15

    The kinds of costs which face the community when a power project is promoted are broadly discussed. Sometimes, costs such as social, economic, and environmental impacts do not appear often in budgetary form. The growth of public participation is discussed. Components (investigation costs, development costs, distribution costs, social costs, environmental costs, etc.) which contribute to the cost of energy production and supply are examined in some detail.

  3. Forest treatment residues for thermal energy compared with disposal by onsite burning: Emissions and energy return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; David Calkin; Woodam Chung

    2010-01-01

    Mill residues from forest industries are the source for most of the current wood-based energy in the US, approximately 2.1% of the nation's energy use in 2007. Forest residues from silvicultural treatments, which include limbs, tops, and small non-commercial trees removed for various forest management objectives, represent an additional source of woody biomass for...

  4. The public water supply protection value of forests: A watershed-scale ecosystem services based upon total organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a cost-based methodology to assess the value of forested watersheds to improve water quality in public water supplies. The developed methodology is applicable to other source watersheds to determine ecosystem services for water quality. We assess the value of forest land for source wate...

  5. Risk benefits of climate-friendly energy supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Burgherr, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the central goals of sustainable development is the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. This is needed in order to prevent the anticipated climate change, and the potentially serious consequences for human beings and the environment. Energy supply systems constitute the dominant contributors to GHG emissions. This paper examines three illustrative emission scenarios for world-wide energy supply in the 21 st Century. These scenarios, including the associated GHG and major pollutant emissions, were chosen from a set established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using the emissions as a starting point, and based on recent findings concerning the impact on the environment and the financial costs resulting from global climate change on the one hand, and regional air pollution on the other hand, the present work provides estimates of the scenario-dependent, world-wide cumulative damage. The fossil-intensive reference scenario leads to overall damages which correspond to very substantial losses in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and which widely exceed the damages caused by the scenarios reflecting climate-friendly policies. Generally, the somewhat speculative estimates of the GHG-specific damages are much less significant than damages to human health and the environment caused by the major air pollutants. This means that the secondary benefits of climate-friendly, energy-supply options, i.e. those which avoid the impacts due to air pollution, alone justify strategies protecting the climate. (author)

  6. Energy saved neon sign lighting power supply for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanitteerapan, T.; Dokpikul, S.; Arunrungrasmi, S. [King Mongkut Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Technology Education, Faculty of Industrial Education

    2007-07-01

    Petroleum oil, natural gas and fossil fuels are commonly used in power plants for electrical power generation. However, because of their negative environmental impacts, energy and environmental savings from renewable energy resources are necessary choices. Solar energy can be converted to the electrical voltage by using solar arrays. This process can be used in many electrical applications. This paper introduced a neon sign lighting power supply for a small photovoltaic powered stand-alone commercial advertising board for a remote area in Thailand. The circuit implementation was very simple, consisting of an active switch device, a resonant capacitor and high frequency transformer. The control also operated as a fixed frequency and fixed duty ratio controller. The paper discussed the principle of neon sign lighting, power circuit operation, and control circuit operation. To verify the proposed power supply, the circuit experiment of the proposed power supply for the neon sign lighting was applied to a 10 foot long, 10 millimeter diameter bulb. The neon sign was ignited smoothly with little power consumption. 2 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  7. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranney, J W [Joint Institute for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States); Perlack, R D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  8. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Perlack, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  9. Consumption of forest chips as an energy source as part of the national action plan for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylitalo, E.

    2004-01-01

    them, the annual average increase in forest chips consumption should further increase to at least approximately 0.5 mill. m3 per year. The current estimated raw material supply for forest chips (10-16 mill. m 3 /a) will evidently fulfil demand. To achieve the goals, existing energy plants should in-crease their forest chips consumption be-cause at the moment there are no significant investments for new large-sized energy plants. This increase will probably quicken due to the emission trade starting within the EU-region in 2005: some of the energy plants will probably change from fossil fuels to wood-based fuels to avoid costs caused by the trade. There are also activities steered by government officials towards promoting the implementation of forest chips in energy generation, such as to support the development of harvesting and transport technology, to change energy taxation to promote forest chips utilisation, assistance for investments in new energy plants and assistance to harvesting and chipping activities for forest chips. (orig.)

  10. Natural gas supply strategies for European energy market actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Vincent

    2007-06-01

    The liberalization of the European energy markets leads to the diversification of supplies. Hence, we analyse the natural gas importation problem in a power producer point of view. Upstream and downstream natural gas markets are concentrated. In this oligopoly context, our topic is to focus on strategies which modify natural gas sourcing price. This by studying the surplus sharing on the natural gas chain. A European firm can bundle gas and electricity outputs to increase its market share. Therefore, a bundling strategy of a power producer in competition with a natural gas reseller on the final European energy market increases upstream natural gas price. Bundling also acts as a raising rival cost strategy and reduces the rivals' profit. Profits opportunities incite natural gas producers to enter the final market. Vertical integration between a natural gas producer and a European gas reseller is a way, for producers, to catch end consumer surplus. Vertical integration results in the foreclosure of the power producer on the upstream natural gas market. To be active on the natural gas market, the power producer could supply bundles. But, this strategy reallocates the rent. The integrated firm on natural gas gets the rent of electricity market in expenses of the power producer. Then, a solution for the power producer is to supply gas and electricity as complements. Then, we consider a case where vertical integration is not allowed. Input price discrimination by a monopolist leads to a lower natural gas price for the actor which diversifies its supplying sources. Furthermore, a bundling strategy increases the gap between the price proposed to the firm which also diversify its output and the firm which is fully dependent from the producer to supply natural gas on final market. (author)

  11. Energy contracting. Energy-related services and decentral energy supply. 2. ed.; Energie-Contracting. Energiedienstleistungen und dezentrale Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Martin

    2012-11-01

    According to the author, the intended German energy turnaround cannot be achieved solely on the basis of power from renewables and by constructing new passive buildings. Also required are decentral energy services if the energy saving and efficiency goals are to be achieved. In spite of many variations, the basic structure of these is the following: A contractor providing energy services does not only supply energy but also carries the risk and responsibility for efficient supply. This will relieve energy users, whether industrial or trade enterprises, public administration or home owners from this task; also, this integrated approach will open up undeveloped efficiency potentials. The book discusses current legal issues in a clear and practice-oriented manner and also provides a check list for energy contracting and an exemplary contract. (orig./RHM)

  12. New industrial park energy supply (NIPES) conceptual design: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The NIPES concept was originally envisioned as an energy supply source for new industrial plants in new industrial parks. However, the concept is readily adaptable to a combination of new and existing industrial plants. The concept is intended to minimize the problems associated with the use of coal in industrial applications as well as to improve the efficiency of energy utilization. Information is presented concerning a description of the NIPES concept; application of NIPES concept to Lake Charles, Louisiana; coal-fired plant design; nuclear plant design; thermal transmission system design; financial analysis; capital cost estimates; and results of financial analysis

  13. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G; Jenkins, N [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  14. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  15. Restructure and modernisation of the national energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jattke, A.; Haasis, H.D.; Oder, C.; Russ, P.; Rentz, O.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis is made of cost efficient strategies to reduce sulphur dioxide emissions, their application in middle and eastern Europe and their influence on the national energy supply structure. Hungary, Lithuania and the European part of the Russian Federation serve as representative examples of the varying energy industry structures, and of the likely future developments in Eastern Europe. Hungry is a wuntry in which the transformation from a planned to a market economy is already well underway. Lithuania represents a Balkan State striving for economic autonomy. The Russian Federation is of particular interest because of it's indigenous raw material deposits. (orig./UA) [de

  16. Integration of Building energy and energy supply simulations for low-energy district heating supply to energy-efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The future will demand implementation of C02 neutral communities, the consequences being a far more complex design of the whole energy system, since the future energy infrastructures will be dynamic and climate responsive systems. Software able to work with such level of complexity is at present...... a missing link in the development. In this paper is demonstrated how a link between a dynamic Building Simulation Programme (BSP) and a simulation program for District Heating (DH) networks can give important information during the design phase. By using a BSP it is possible to analyze the influence...... of the human behaviour regarding the building and link the results to the simulation program for DH networks. The results show that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher peak loads than expected according to reference values in standardized calculation of energy demand...

  17. The Importance of Reliable Nuclear Power For Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, Hans

    1989-01-01

    The severe accident at Chernobyl in 1986 caused a setback in public acceptance of nuclear power practically everywhere in the world. In some countries, the media even give the impression that nuclear power is on the way out worldwide, because of concerns about safety, radioactive waste disposal, and the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons. Let me give you a more accurate picture of the situation. At the beginning of this year there were about 430 nuclear power reactors in operation in 26 countries around the world and they produced more than 16% of the world's electric energy. That amount of electricity is equal to the total amount of electric energy that was produced in the world in 1956. I mention this because, when we concentrate on the problems which nuclear power is facing, we tend to forget that among all the major energy sources? coal, oil, gas, hydro and nuclear- it is nuclear which has experienced the fastest rise in relative importance for the global energy supply. Its contribution to global energy supply has increased from just under 1% in 1974 to about 5% in 1987. On the positive side we can note the continuation of strong nuclear power programmes with construction starts in France and Japan, the start of construction at Sizewell B, which marks a new departure for nuclear power in the United Kingdom, and the orders for the Korean units 11 and 12

  18. 2009 reference case scenario : Canadian energy demand and supply to 2020 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Board regulates the construction and operation of interprovincial and international oil and gas pipelines and power lines as well as the tolls and tariffs for the pipelines under its jurisdictions. The import and export of natural gas is also regulated by the NEB. The NEB examined the possible energy futures that might unfold for Canadians up to the year 2020. The factors that affect the supply of crude oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, electricity and coal in the short term were examined to determine the outlook for deliverability through 2020. The growing demand for energy was reviewed along with the adequacy of future energy supplies, and related issues of emerging technologies, energy infrastructure and energy exports. This assessment provided separate production outlooks for hydrocarbons, electricity and coal and outlined the key uncertainties to the supply outlook. The likely impact of recent economic, energy and policy trends on energy demand and supply were considered. It was concluded that energy markets in Canada will continue to function well. Energy prices will provide appropriate market signals for the development of energy resources to meet Canadian and export demand. A significant portion of Canadian demand for energy will be met by fossil fuels. However, the demand to move towards greener energy fuels should result in fewer greenhouse gas emissions. 1 tab., 27 figs.

  19. Assessing energy supply security: Outage costs in private households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron J.; Hähnel, Alexander; Erdmann, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the topic of energy supply security by proposing a Monte Carlo-based and a survey based model to analyze the costs of power interruptions. Outage cost estimations are particularly important when deciding on investments to improve supply security (e.g. additional transmission lines) in order to compare costs to benefits. But also other policy decisions on measures that have direct or indirect consequences for the supply security (e.g. a phasing out of nuclear energy) need to be based on results from outage cost estimations. The main focus of this paper lies with residential consumers, but the model is applied to commercial, industrial and governmental consumers as well. There are limited studies that have approached the problem of evaluating outage cost. When comparing the results of these studies, they often display a high degree of diversification. As consumers have different needs and dependencies towards the supply of electricity because of varying circumstances and preferences, a great diversity in outage cost is a logical consequence. To take the high degree of uncertainties into account, a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in this study for the case of private households in Germany. - Highlights: ► A macroeconomic model to assess outage cost is proposed. ► Possibilities for substitution are considered by analyzing individual preferences for the time-use. ► Uncertainties are taken into account by using a Monte Carlo simulation. ► This study reveals the distribution of outage costs to different electricity consumers. ► Implications for energy policy decisions are discussed.

  20. The single European energy market: the electricity supply sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The completion of the Internal Market in the Community by the end of 1992 has become a key objective and the focal point of the revival of the European Community. Within this overall objective, the development of the Single European Energy Market, the Internal Energy market, is a major element. The energy objectives for the Community, adopted in 1986 by the Council of Ministers and relating to targets in the energy sector to be achieved by 1995, contain what are effectively the aims of the Internal Energy Market. This is in a reference to the need for greater integration, free from barriers to trade, of the Internal Energy Market with a view to improving security of supply, reducing costs and improving economic competitiveness. In the light of these aims, the Commission drew up, in 1988, an inventory of potential obstacles to the achievement of the Internal Energy Market. This was accepted by the Council, together with a list of suggested priority areas of work, and has formed the basis of the Commission's efforts to move forward as quickly as possible in the development of the Internal Energy Market, in all branches of the energy sector. The impact on the electricity sector, in particular, is considered here. (author)

  1. Long-term energy supply programs in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W J; Wagner, H F

    1977-07-01

    A discussion of the energy research and development plans, priorities, strategies, timetables, and current projects of the West German Government covers the measures aimed at the rational use of energy for home heating, expanded electricity production by light-water reactors, and solar energy use for hot-water production by 1985; at energy savings in industry and transport, improvements in secondary energy technology, large-scale production of gas, electricity, liquids, and coke from coal, underground gasification, construction of fast breeder reactors, solar heating in industrial applications, and local use of geothermal and wind energy by 2000; and at complete reliance on coal, nuclear fission, controlled nuclear fusion, and solar sources after the year 2000; the changes in the energy supply and demand structure in these periods; the share of the various projects in the B.R.D. budget for energy; and the status of current pilot-plant activity in the areas of, e.g., liquefaction, gasification, fission, and energy conversion and storage.

  2. Legal problems of energy supply within the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The report contains two articles; the first one is titled: The Directives on Transit of Gas and Electricity - Considerations regarding the juridical limits of the realisation of the Internal Market in the Energy Sector. It has basic considerations regarding the competences of the EC-legal nature of primary and secondary Community law; it analyzes the network of competences, the legality of the Commission's Proposals concerning the Internal Energy Market and further on the possibilities of legal recourse for enterprises in the Federal Republic of Germany in case the proposal directives are adopted. The second article deals with legal problems of energy supply within the EC-especially under the aspect of British coal mining. It incluses considerations regarding a proposed European Energy Charter, recent developments in EC-law regarding electricity and natural gas, third country imports: dumping, and privatisation. (HSCH)

  3. Country profiles: Lithuania [Analysis of energy supply options and security of energy supply in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Lithuania is a very dependent country in terms of energy resources. In 2000 only about 13.8% of the primary energy requirement was covered by domestic resources. The remaining primary fuel requirement is imported from neighbouring countries, mainly from Russia - all crude oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel are imported from this country. There is a concern about the political and economic consequences of this dependence. There is a good interconnection with neighbouring countries for both electrical grid and gas pipelines. The supply of crude oil is also available via pipeline from Russia and two existing oil terminals from other countries, including orimulsion from Venezuela. Coal can be supplied by railway from both Russia and Poland

  4. Security of energy supply: Account of the security of supply in Denmark; Energiforsyningssikkerhed. Redegoerelse om forsyningssikkerheden i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-15

    A secure and stable energy supply is a prerequisite for a society like the Danish. Through many years of active energy policy we in Denmark have developed an efficient energy system with a very high security of supply. In coming decades it is necessary to implement a major transformation of our energy supplies to more renewable energy and phase out fossil fuels. The Government's vision is that we must have a Denmark that is independent of fossil fuels. With such a fundamental transformation of our energy supply and energy system it becomes a challenge to maintain the high security of supply, as we know it today. Conversely, it is not a long term solution to continue to allow society to be dependent on fossil fuels. And it is against this background, the Danish Minister for Climate and Energy submit this account on security of energy supplies in Denmark. The account shows that we in Denmark have a high security of supply. There is still access to sufficient energy resources, we have a well-functioning infrastructure, and we have good access to the exchange of energy within the EU and other countries. This places Denmark in a good situation. Today, Denmark has a significant import of especially petroleum and coal and export of petroleum and gas. The future declining production of oil and gas in the North Sea means an increasing need for imported fuels from fewer and fewer countries and regions, and at the same time there will be an increased international demand for the same fuels. This brings Denmark in the same situation as the other EU countries. Thus we have the basis for reducing consumption of fossil fuels and instead accommodate increasing amounts of renewable energy in our energy supply, but it requires a further development of the system to be possible to store energy and manage energy consumption. It will be necessary if the growing parts of our energy must come from fluctuating sources like wind and solar energy. Efficiency in energy supply has

  5. Sustainable energy supply - a key to global growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    From this overall concept of what constitutes sustainability, a range of considerations on equity of energy supply across regions, time scales over which fuel and energy source mixes and technology changes and the like, can be developed. Within the spatial dimension, considerations of sustainability that operate at the global scale need to be translated to the operations of large and small companies, national and local governments down to individual households. It is a complex mix in an increasingly complex world. But one thing is certain, the world's energy demand is going to continue to increase. This demand will be largely satisfied by fossil fuels and this use is not sustainable using current technology in the long term. Massive changes are required to turn the world around onto a more sustainable pathway that will probably take many decades even to make a significant start. The aim of this paper is to briefly explore some of the possible technological options that will guide us on the road to a more sustainable energy future. A genuinely sustainable energy system that also promotes sustainable growth with an improving standard of living for all is obviously a major challenge. At the same time the global demand for energy will continue to increase. On the global scale, the prospect of climate change imposes a major long-term constraint on the use of GHG emitting fuels and generating technologies. The long-term development of a sustainable energy system will require multiple interventions and a pluralistic approach to energy management. Ingredients within the mix are likely to require: 1. innovation in the way we currently generate and supply power 2. continued integration and greater penetration of renewables 3. greater use of embedded and distributed energy generation 4. aggressive end-use efficiency 5. development of technologies to enable continued use of fossil fuels until the transition to sustainability is completed. A combination of market and regulatory

  6. Energy supply with growing energy efficiency - the energy supply companies as driving force for rational energy use?; Energieversorgung bei wachsender Energieeffizienz - die Energieversorgungsunternehmen als Motor rationeller Energieverwendung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawe, J. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke VDEW e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Schulz, E. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke VDEW e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1996-09-23

    The authors explain that growing energy efficiency was and is the positive prerequisite for the development of the electricity supply industry. They show that the business-oriented use of the concept of integrated resource planning by economic enterprises can improve energy efficiency and thus contribute towards mastering future demands and challenges. With the eta-initiative for energy rationalism the German electricity suppliers also intend to continue being motors of energy efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verfasser verdeutlichen, dass wachsende Energie-Effizienz positive Voraussetzung fuer die Entwicklung der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft war und ist. Sie arbeiten heraus, dass die unternehmenswirtschaftliche Nutzung des Konzepts der Integrierten Ressourcen-Planung die Energie-Effizienz verbessern und damit dazu beitragen kann, die kuenftigen Anforderungen und Herausforderungen zu meistern. Mit der eta-Initiative fuer Energievernunft wollen die deutschen Stromversorger auch in Zukunft Motor der Energie-Effizienz bleiben. (orig.)

  7. Electricity supply: Supporting analysis for the National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Energy Information Administration at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. The results are based on assumptions provided by the Department of Energy's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. This report serves as an auxiliary document to the publication, Improving Technology: Modeling Energy Futures for the National Energy Strategy, prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to be used as input to the development of a National Energy Strategy. The excursions discussed in this report are not necessarily the policy options which will be selected for inclusion in the National Energy Strategy (NES). This report examines the effects of various supply side options for electric utilities. The three excursions presented are: (1) Effects of the Clean Air Act Amendments on Reducing SO 2 /NO x Emissions which evaluates the impacts of proposed legislation to amend the Clean Air Act (Title V of H.R. 3030 as amended on May 23, 1990); (2) Nuclear Life Extension/New Nuclear Orders which illustrates the impact of new nuclear power plant orders and the life extension of existing nuclear plants; and (3) Nuclear and Accelerated Fossil-Fueled Generating Technologies which portrays accelerated research and development of advanced fossil-fueled generating technologies, making them commercially available earlier, with the inclusion of the nuclear option. The baseline case of this report is an update and an extension of the base case projections in the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication, the Annual Energy Outlook 1990 (AEO), extending that forecast an additional 20 years to 2030. It represents the baseline case as it was on July 1990. 29 refs., 9 figs., 19 tabs. (JF)

  8. Nordic Forest Energy Solutions in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Gerasimov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The situation in Karelia, a region in Northwest Russia, is analyzed in the context of forest energy. The annual potential energy available from wood harvesting is about 7 tera watt hours (TWh (3.6 million m3, which is equal to the total need of Karelia in energy for municipal heating. We point out that the contribution to the municipal economy, the moderate heating cost, the enhanced energy security in the cold Russian climate, the environmental friendliness, the better access to the forests and the utilization of the proven Nordic forest energy solutions (NFES might have important consequences for strategy-making processes in forest energy development. For this purpose, connecting Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP with SWOT (internal strengths (S or weaknesses (W and external opportunities (O or threats (T analysis is proposed to identify local operational strategies and assign priorities. Major threats include lack of government support, an insufficient road network, the dominance of extensive forest management, gasification and financial indiscipline. Analysis indicates that NFES are viewed positively for the Russian conditions. The forest biomass market has virtually unlimited opportunities for growth. Together, with the transition to intensive forest management, favorable policy in terms of forestry development programs can support bioenergy development. The advantageous location of existing power plants next to forests, increasing fossil fuel prices, the improvement of the road network and the availability of new technology are seen as potential opportunities for NFES. However, the results also indicate that there is substantial uncertainty and skepticism concerning how such markets benefit forest leaseholders who would like to adopt forest energy. The lack of bioenergy technology development, high transportation cost, low awareness of NFES, high demands for roads, the requirement for skilled specialists and wood fuel quality are the main

  9. Energy, economy, and environment analysis and optimization on manufacturing plant energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lujia; Mears, Laine; Beaufort, Cleveland; Schulte, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are proposed. • Objectives of energy, economy, and environment are proved conflicting. • 3-input-5-output energy supply system of an automotive plant is studied. - Abstract: Increasing attention has recently been drawn to energy consumption in manufacturing plants. Facing the challenges from reducing emissions coupled with rising raw material prices and energy costs, manufacturers are trying to balance the energy usage strategy among the total energy consumption, economy, and environment, which can be self-conflicting at times. In this paper, energy systems in manufacturing environments are reviewed, and the current status of onsite energy system and renewable energy usage are discussed. Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are effectively formulated for making the best use of energy delivered to the production processes. Energy supply operation suggestions based on the optimization results are obtained. Finally, an example from an automotive assembly manufacturer is described to demonstrate the energy usage in the current manufacturing plants and how the optimization approaches can be applied to satisfy the energy management objectives. According to the optimization results, in an energy oriented operation, it takes 35% more in monetary cost; while in an economy oriented operation, it takes 17% more in megawatt hour energy supply and tends to rely more on the inexpensive renewable energy.

  10. Perspectives on long-term Eurasian energy supply: the role of the energy charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines Croatian energy outlook in the broader 'Eurasian' context, taking into consideration the prospect of increasing energy import dependency in Western and Central Europe, and assesses the contribution that multilateral instruments, such as the Energy Charter Treaty, can make in promoting security of supply.(author)

  11. Nuclear energy: one of the possibilities for the diversification of energy supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel

    1982-01-01

    The example of the nuclear energy development in France and in Japan demonstrates that nuclear energy has a fundamental role to play in a balanced policy of diversification of energy supply. The French nuclear programme and the fuel cycle are more particularly detailed [fr

  12. Optimal supply and demand investments in municipal energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfsman, Bjoern

    2004-01-01

    In many municipalities, there are district heating networks, which are quite commonly supplied by combined heat and power plants (CHP). A district heating network contains buildings of different types. In this paper, one such municipal energy system is analysed. In order to provide space heating and domestic hot water, investments could be made on the supply side in power plants, or on the demand side in the buildings, for example in the form of extra wall insulation. The electricity from the CHP plants is supplied to the municipality but can also be sold to the electricity market, and electricity can, of course, also be bought from the market. The variation in price on the spot market over any given day is significant. The need for district heat in the building stock also varies, for example due to climatic conditions. The energy system in the case study is analysed with a mixed integer linear programming model. The model has 3 h time steps in order to reflect diurnal variations, and an entire year is analysed. A case study is presented for the city of Linkoeping in Sweden. On the demand side, the options are: extra wall insulation, extra attic insulation and better types of windows. The building stock is divided into nine categories

  13. Modelling of Sudan’s Energy Supply, Transformation, and Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Rabah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop energy flow diagram (Sankey diagram of Sudan for the base year 2014. The developed Sankey diagram is the first of its kind in Sudan. The available energy balance for the base year 2012 is a simple line draw and did not count the energy supply by private and mixed sectors such as sugar and oil industries and marine and civil aviation. The private and mixed sectors account for about 7% of the national grid electric power. Four energy modules are developed: resources, transformation, demand, and export and import modules. The data are obtained from relevant Sudanese ministries and directorates and Sudan Central Bank. “e!Sankey 4 pro” software is used to develop the Sankey diagram. The main primary types of energy in Sudan are oil, hydro, biomass, and renewable energy. Sudan has a surplus of gasoline, petroleum coke, and biomass and deficit in electric power, gasoil, jet oil, and LPG. The surplus of gasoline is exported; however, the petroleum coke is kept as reserve. The deficit is covered by import. The overall useful energy is 76% and the loss is 24%. The useful energy is distributed among residential (38%, transportation (33%, industry (12%, services (16%, and agriculture (1% sectors.

  14. New energy replacement method for resonant power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Resonant Power Supply is an economically and technically advanced solution for Rapid Cycling Accelerators. Several papers dealt with the design and operation of these power supplies, however, the energy replacement methods were not discussed in the past. This paper analyzes different energy-replacement methods and presents a new method. This method uses a 24-pulse converter to regulate the magnet current during flat-top and injection periods and replaces the energy loss by charging the accelerator capacitor bank during the flat-top, reset and injection periods, charge is injected in the circuit during the acceleration period, when it replaces the energy loss. This paper compares the new method with the existing ones. The analyses proved the feasibility of the proposed method. The operation of the proposed method was verified by a model experiment, which showed that the new circuit can be controlled accurately and operates with smaller disturbances to the power line than the existing systems. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Adapting Chinese Forest Operations to Socio-Economic Developments: What is the Potential of Plantations for Strengthening Domestic Wood Supply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hoffmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, China’s forestry sector went through a transition phase characterized by a management and institutional reform process, with a constant rethinking of the ecological and societal role of forests within a unique political system. Nevertheless, despite impressive achievements in forest restoration and conservation efforts, the enhancement of ecosystem services and forest area expansion through plantation development, China was not able to improve its domestic timber supply capacities according to its demands. Consequently, the continually growing wood processing industry is facing a severe demand-and-supply gap, causing high dependencies on timber imports. Outdated forest operations practices, dominated by manual labour, are not able to meet supply demands or to implement new silvicultural strategies for enhancing forest quality and productivity and are a widely unnoted disruption of a sustainable development. Therefore, this review presents the status quo of China’s forest operations sector, how it is shaped by forest policy reforms and recent socio-economic developments. In addition, suggestions are developed how the sector can progress through policy adaptations in order to develop sustainable timber supply capacities based on a domestic plantation sector.

  16. Energy efficiency criteria in uninterruptible power supply selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Munoz, A.; Rosa, Juan Jose Gonzalez de la; Flores-Arias, J.M.; Bellido-Outerino, F.J.; Gil-de-Castro, A.

    2011-01-01

    With the generalized use of microelectronic devices, server computers and other susceptible equipment, the subject related to power quality (PQ) and its relationship to vulnerability of high performance plants are becoming an increasing concern to the industry. This paper addresses how uninterruptible power supply (UPS), particularly when configured in distributed DC mode, can become an energy efficient (EE) solution in high-tech buildings, especially when integrated with complimentary PQ measures. The paper is based on PQ audits conducted at different high-tech industries over the last years. It was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags (or dips). Among all categories of electrical disturbances, voltage sags and momentary interruptions are the nemeses of the automated industrial process. The paper analyzes the capabilities of modern electronic power supplies and the convenience of embedded solution. Finally it is addresses the role of the Standards on the protection of electronic equipment and the implications for the final costumer.

  17. A study of the role played by renewable energies in China's sustainable energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Molin, Huo; Ruoshui, Wang; Martinot, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper first provides an overview of the context of renewable energy development in China, including the country's recent renewable energy legislation. Further, it summarizes the current status of renewable energy development and the role it plays in the national energy supply. Next it introduces the national indicative targets for renewable energies in 2010 and 2020, and conducts a long term scenario of the role of renewable energies in China's energy system transition till 2050. It discusses the main risks involved in China's renewable energy development, and proposes some policy measures for risk management. (author)

  18. Firewood harvest from forests of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Part 1: Long-term, sustainable supply available from native forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.W.; Cawsey, E.M.; Stol, J.; Freudenberger, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin is a 1 million km 2 agricultural region of south-eastern Australia, although 29% of it retains native forests. Some are mallee eucalypt types, whilst the 'principal' types are dominated mainly by other eucalypt species. One-third of the 6-7 million oven-dry tonne of firewood burnt annually in Australia is obtained from these forests, principally through collection of coarse woody debris. There are fears that removal of this debris may prejudice the floral and faunal biodiversity of the Basin. The present work considers what silvicultural management practices will allow the long-term maintenance of the native forests of the Basin and their continued contribution to its biodiversity. It then estimates that the maximum, long-term, annual, sustainable yield of firewood which could be harvested, by collection of coarse woody debris, from principal forest types of the Basin would be 10 million oven-dry tonne yr -1 . An alternative, harvest of firewood from live trees by thinning the principal forests and clear-felling mallee forests, would be able to supply 2.3 million tonne yr -1 sustainably. Whilst coarse woody debris harvests could supply far more than the present demand for firewood from the Basin, they would lead to substantial reductions of the debris remaining in the forests; this may be detrimental to biodiversity maintenance. Live tree harvest does not lead to this problem, but would barely be able to supply existing firewood demand

  19. Vision 2050: sustainable energy supply and use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.; Brodmann, U.; Ott, W.

    2003-01-01

    This executive summary for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE summarises the results of a study carried out on the topic of how long-term strategies for Swiss energy policy. can be developed. A proposed series of studies is examined that is to show how Switzerland can find the way to a sustainable energy supplies and their sustainable use by the year 2050. Research areas are defined, particularly in the technical, behavioural and political sectors. Technical potentials in several areas, strategies and instruments are looked at, as is the social acceptance of proposed measures. Also, models for the analysis of economic effects are examined. Sustainability indicators and targets are reviewed, as are the benefits of developing strategies as early as possible. The report is completed with recommendations for further action

  20. A self-consistent nuclear energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii-e, Y.; Morita, T.; Kawakami, H.; Arie, K.; Suzuki, M.; Iida, M.; Yamazaki, H.

    1992-01-01

    A self-consistent nuclear energy supply system (SCNESS) is investigated for a Fast Reactor. SCNESS is proposed as a future stable energy supplier with no harmful influence on humans or environment for the ultimate goal of nuclear energy development. SCNESS should be inherently safe, be able to breed fissionable material, and transmute long-lived radioactive nuclides (i.e., minor actinides and long-lived fission products). The relationship between these characteristics and the spatial assignment of excess neutrons (v-1) for each characteristic are analyzed. The analysis shows that excess neutrons play an intrinsic role in realizing SCNESS. The reactor concept of SCNESS is investigated by considering utilization of excess neutrons. Results show that a small-size axially double-layered annular core with metal fuel is a choice candidate for SCNESS. SCNESS is concluded feasible. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs

  1. Geo-economy of world energy supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    For over 50 years now, the global primary energy demand structure has been based on fossil fuels for more than 80%. In 25 years, our energy needs will still be covered by an over 80% fossil energy mix according to the reference scenario of most energy agencies. Over this period of time, the economics of energy will be radically altered as a result of a long term sustained global demand of energy and a growing constraint on some hydrocarbon production, conventional oil in particular. The oil production profile on currently operated oil fields, essentially in the OECD, will further decline or require significantly increasing investments. Non conventional oil sources are already proving to be even more capital-intensive. In the face of dwindling reserves in the old OECD hydrocarbon basins, the only resource-rich region in the world with low extraction costs and available swing supply capacities is the Middle East. Tomorrow's oil industry and markets will therefore represent a risk concentrated around a single region in the world, whilst the global gas industry will face a risk concentrated around two regions in the world, including Russia and the Middle East. Massive investments in energy infrastructures will be necessary to bring gas from these two sources to the remote markets in Asia, Europe or the US. The era of cheap energy is definitely gone. Far from being an obsolete fuel, coal is and will remain the most abundant, competitive and favoured source of energy for power generation across the world. CO_2 emissions from coal use are coal's only handicap. The vision of our energy future is in front of us: the environment will be filthy, energy will be costly and geopolitical tensions between producers and consumers will be strong

  2. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically.

  3. The vision of a future energy supply network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, G.; Favre-Perrod, P.; Geidl, M.; Kloeckl, B.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses a concept developed within the framework of a project entitled 'Vision of Future Energy Networks' carried out at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. The project looked at the possibility of using synergies between various energy carriers and systems. Network topologies are discussed that can cope with the distributed production of energy in installations featuring technologies such as combined heat and power, micro gas turbines and wind-power installations. The topics discussed include the use of a large amount of such distributed generation capacity and which network topologies and storage requirements would be necessary for their operation. Also, under the title 'energy hubs', possible synergies with other forms of energy use are examined. The modelling, dimensioning and use of such hubs are dealt with for various scenarios, ranging from single family homes through to combinations of industrial complexes and whole residential areas. Questions of reliability are addressed and the idea of an 'Energy Interconnector' that supplies electrical, chemical and thermal energy is introduced

  4. Ideas on a competitive structure for German energy supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennigsen-Foerder, R v

    1985-12-20

    The author expresses the future need for action on the part of energy policy at Federal level in no uncertain terms. Regional experiments in energy policy and state-induced limits on competition in the heat market have documented the fact that watchfulness is to be recommended even in a relatively relaxed energy market. The author does admit that the level of electricity prices in the Federal Republic is comparatively high; overall, however, energy prices are in line with the world market situation. This can only be explained by deliberate renunciation of extensive state control of the primary energy structure. The competitiveness of German energy supplies can thus be closely linked up to the question as to what strategy will be pursued with regard to preparations for 'crisis contingency X', i.e. for another sudden explosion of energy costs. The author supports the thesis 'that it is more expensive from the point of view of the economy as a whole to prepare ex-ante for 'Day X' than it is to adapt to it ex-post'.

  5. Early forest fire detection using low-energy hydrogen sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nörthemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most huge forest fires start in partial combustion. In the beginning of a smouldering fire, emission of hydrogen in low concentration occurs. Therefore, hydrogen can be used to detect forest fires before open flames are visible and high temperatures are generated. We have developed a hydrogen sensor comprising of a metal/solid electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (MEIS structure which allows an economical production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarkic working unit in the forest was established. In this contribution, first experiments are shown demonstrating the possibility to detect forest fires at a very early stage using the hydrogen sensor.

  6. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  7. 2009 winter meeting: opening address - responsibility for Germany's energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Responsibility for energy supply concerns all stakeholders - politics, suppliers, and consumers - and requires unbiased analysis, realistic planning, and courageous commitment. We are facing enormous challenges: The financial crisis has arrived in the real economy and caused a deep recession. It is also against this background and that of energy prices rising again on a medium term, especially those of oil and natural gas, that the role of nuclear power in keeping prices down is indispensable. This makes life extension of German nuclear power plants an adjunct of a sustainable economic program, all the more so as it will not cost the taxpayer one cent. Climate protection - the operation of nuclear power plants in Germany annually saves emissions of approximately 150 million tons of CO 2 - and security of supply also work in favor of continued operation of these plants. The important subject of final storage of radioactive waste needs to be pursued consistently. The Konrad mine marks a first step, but results must now be achieved also for high-level waste, for instance, by further exploration of the Gorleben salt dome. An Apollo Program for Energy is also required in designing the future energy mix. This program would include, for instance, research and development of technologies with higher efficiency, new ways to store electricity, technologies of CO 2 separation and sequestration, and further development of renewable energies as well as fusion technology and advanced generation-IV reactors. Internationally, nuclear power is experiencing another upswing. With the exception of Germany, all other G8 countries, for instance, consider the use of nuclear power an absolutely meaningful enrichment of the energy mix. Definitive plans and applications for construction of new plants, respectively, in countries such as France, the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, and the United States of America underline the importance attached to nuclear power. (orig.)

  8. Decentralised energy supply as our future energy supply system? - An interview with Prof. Alexander Wokaun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    In this interview with Professor Alexander Wokaun, head of General Energy Research at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland, the decentralised use of small, gas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) units is discussed as a means of meeting Switzerland's Kyoto CO 2 commitments. The question on which of several new CHP technologies such as gas-fired engines and turbines, Stirling engines, fuel cells and thermo-photovoltaics will win the race is discussed. The efficiency and application areas of CHP technologies are examined and the problems involved when controlling complex electricity grids with many small decentrally placed generating facilities is discussed. Finally, Professor Wokaun is asked for his opinion on what the Swiss power mix will look like in 20 years

  9. Energy demand and supply prompts record results for Canadian companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The Canadian energy industry has shown consistent growth in recent years. This trend is expected to continue due high energy prices resulting from concerns regarding energy supply and increased demand for energy. The 2005 annual survey by Pricewaterhouse Coopers states that Canadian energy sectors have seen average revenues grow by 12.4 per cent from $934 million to $1.05 billion for conventional companies and by 30.5 per cent from $285 million to $372 million for income trusts. The survey provides a summary of Canada's energy industry, including crude oil, natural gas, oil and gas services, oil sands and electricity. The financial and operating information of the top 100 Canadian public oil and gas companies is also summarized, along with 31 oil and gas income trusts. The survey found that crude oil prices were influenced by price volatility and record highs in 2004. Price volatility was due to global political tensions, increased demand from China, India and the United States and lower crude supplies in the United States. Production of Canadian crude, including conventional, synthetic crude, heavy crude, natural gas and natural gas from liquids continued to increase in 2004. A strong pricing environment will likely continue, according to industry expectations, due to political instability in the Middle East and OPEC's tight crude supply strategy. Strong pricing is expected to enhance natural gas economics and promote increased capital investment and production. In 2004, the oil and gas service industry drilled a record 21,593 wells in Western Canada and a record 28,630 drilling permits will be issued. In 2004, there was also a strong demand for field services and improvements in many manufacturing firms. Production from Canadian oil sands in 2004 was over 1 million barrels per day. An estimated 174 billion barrels of oil lie within the oil sands, making Canada the second largest country in terms of global proven crude oil reserves. Several oil sands projects have

  10. Future energy supplies. Lessons from the world energy outlook 2001. Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattier, F.

    2002-01-01

    At a global level, primary energy resources are amply sufficient to meet the growing needs expected over the coming decades. Energy supplies may however be affected by economic, technological or political conditions. Supplies of oil and natural gas will be dependent in particular on the carrying out of the necessary investments in the field of development, production capacity, transport and distribution within a suitable time. The future for coal is above all linked to future environmental policies to be put in place and on the capacity of 'clean' coal technologies to respond to these. Due to their costs, which remain high, and to a lack of incentive policies, renewable energy sources should find it difficult to gain a major share of world energy markets. Finally, the future for nuclear energy remains dependent upon policies concerning security of supply or the fight against climatic change. (author)

  11. Environmental effects of energy forest (short rotation willow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with environmental effects of producing and combusting energy forest fuel. Energy forest means short rotation willow (Salix). Supposed effects of sewage sludge application are discussed as well. Energy forestry on agricultural land implies both advantages and disadvantages for the environment. Leaf litter (humified leaves) increases the humus content in the top soil. The soil fauna is also positively affected. Until now performed studies about nitrogen leakage from fields cultivated with energy forest (Salix), have not given any distinct results. A retarded drainage within energy forest fields is on the other hand noticed. While the root system of Salix is active during a long period of the year, the nitrogen leakage become less compared to traditional cultivation. The content of plant nutrients and organic matter in sewage sludge make a resource that can be useful for agricultural purposes, especially for energy forest cultivation. The content of heavy metals and organic emissions contradicts sludge application to agricultural land. Sewage sludge with todays quality increases somewhat the content of heavy metals in the soil. This condition can be counteracted to a certain extent by growing energy forest. It has been established that Salix has high ability to heavy metal uptake, especially cadmium. Growing energy forest on drained farm land is connected with a risk for root penetration into the drainage system. With enough water and plant nutrients in the top soil the risk is reduced. Shallow depth of the pipes increases the risk. Combustion of wood chip from energy forests (and other types of biomass) gives especially two advantages. It does not give any net contribution of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulphur discharge will be minimal since the sulphur content in wood fuels is low. Discharge of nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons may give some problems. These can be reduced by technological measures when combusting. 27 refs, 4 tabs

  12. Economic approach to assess the forest carbon implications of biomass energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Adam; Sohngen, Brent; Sedjo, Roger

    2012-06-05

    There is widespread concern that biomass energy policy that promotes forests as a supply source will cause net carbon emissions. Most of the analyses that have been done to date, however, are biological, ignoring the effects of market adaptations through substitution, net imports, and timber investments. This paper uses a dynamic model of forest and land use management to estimate the impact of United States energy policies that emphasize the utilization of forest biomass on global timber production and carbon stocks over the next 50 years. We show that when market factors are included in the analysis, expanded demand for biomass energy increases timber prices and harvests, but reduces net global carbon emissions because higher wood prices lead to new investments in forest stocks. Estimates are sensitive to assumptions about whether harvest residues and new forestland can be used for biomass energy and the demand for biomass. Restricting biomass energy to being sourced only from roundwood on existing forestland can transform the policy from a net sink to a net source of emissions. These results illustrate the importance of capturing market adjustments and a large geographic scope when measuring the carbon implications of biomass energy policies.

  13. A multilayered analysis of energy security research and the energy supply process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Kajikawa, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis reveals that energy security research is highly multidisciplinary. • Diversification is important for ensuring security in the energy supply process. • A multilayered overview of the energy supply process is important for energy risk management. • Consumer lifestyle innovation will be a part of energy security in the future. - Abstract: After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a reassessment of the energy system is needed in order to include such aspects as human security and resilience. More open and careful discussions are needed concerning the various risks and uncertainties of future energy options, both in Japan and globally. In this paper, we aim to offer a fundamental basis for discourse on energy security by analyzing the status and trends in academic publications on that issue. Our bibliometrics analysis indicates that research has shifted from promoting strategies for ensuring the self-sufficiency of the primary energy to diversification of the secondary energy supply chain by introducing energy networks consisting of an infrastructure established through international coordination. In the literature, the concept of energy security is ambiguous and allows for multiple interpretations. Our results illustrate the existence of highly multidisciplinary topics within energy security, which can be categorized into four perspectives: geopolitical, economic, policy related, and technological

  14. Effect of National-Scale Afforestation on Forest Water Supply and Soil Loss in South Korea, 1971–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Sun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation of forests in South Korea may provide an example of the benefit of afforestation on precipitation storage and erosion control. In this study, we presented the effects of afforestation on water supply and soil loss prevention. A spatio-temporal simulation of forest water yield and soil loss was performed from 1971–2010 using InVEST water yield and SWAT models. A forest stock change map was produced by combining land cover data and National Forest Inventory data. The forest water yield increased about twice with changes in forest stock and climate from 1971–2010 and showed a spatially homogeneous water supply capacity. In the same period, the soil loss decreased more than three times, and the volatility of soil loss, in the 2010s, was smaller than before. The analysis of the change in forest stock without considering climate change showed an increase of 43% in forest water yield and a decrease of 87% in soil loss. An increase in precipitation increased the water yield, but also increased the soil loss volume. A change in forest stock led to positive changes in both. This study presents functional positive effects of the afforestation program in South Korea that can be useful in various afforestation programs in other countries.

  15. Energy demand and supply in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, C J

    2017-04-01

    The energy required for muscle contraction is provided by the breakdown of ATP but the amount of ATP in muscles cells is sufficient to power only a short duration of contraction. Buffering of ATP by phosphocreatine, a reaction catalysed by creatine kinase, extends the duration of activity possible but sustained activity depends on continual regeneration of PCr. This is achieved using ATP generated by oxidative processes and, during intense activity, by anaerobic glycolysis. The rate of ATP breakdown ranges from 70 to 140 mM min -1 during isometric contractions of various intensity to as much as 400 mM min -1 during intense, dynamic activity. The maximum rate of oxidative energy supply in untrained people is ~50 mM min -1 which, if the contraction duty cycle is 0.5 as is often the case in cyclic activity, is sufficient to match an ATP breakdown rate during contraction of 100 mM min -1 . During brief, intense activity the rate of ATP turnover can exceed the rates of PCr regeneration by combined oxidative and glycolytic energy supply, resulting in a net decrease in PCr concentration. Glycolysis has the capacity to produce between 30 and 50 mM of ATP so that, for example, anaerobic glycolysis could provide ATP at an average of 100 mM min -1 over 30 s of exhausting activity. The creatine kinase reaction plays an important role not only in buffering ATP but also in communicating energy demand from sites of ATP breakdown to the mitochondria. In that role, creatine kinases acts to slow and attenuate the response of mitochondria to changes in energy demand.

  16. Primary energy sources for electricity supply in the FRG - demand and requirements as seen by the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierhoff, R.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from the present energy supply situation in the FRG, the attempt is made to elucidate basic tendencies for its development until 1990. The author pleads for the necessary growth by means of a series of theses. The supply with electric power being in the foreground can only be secured in the long run by means of greater utilization of coal and nuclear energy. Due to costs, other energy sources - playing a major role - will contribute less to the supply of electric power. (UA) [de

  17. An improved water budget for the El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico, as determined by the Water Supply Stress Index Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangxia Zhang; Ge Sun; Erika Cohen; Steven McNulty; Peter Caldwell; Suzanne Krieger; Jason Christian; Decheng Zhou; Kai Duan; Keren J. Cepero-Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the forest water budget is fundamental to making science-based forest management decisions. This study aimed at developing an improved water budget for the El Yunque National Forest (ENF) in Puerto Rico, one of the wettest forests in the United States. We modified an existing monthly scale water balance model, Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI), to reflect...

  18. Incorporating social benefits in multi-objective optimization of forest-based bioenergy and biofuel supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambero, Claudia; Sowlati, Taraneh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantified social benefits of forest- based biomass supply chain. • Developed multi-objective optimization model. • Incorporated social benefits into multi-objective model. • Solved the model using the AUGMECON method. • Applied the model to a case study in Canada. - Abstract: Utilization of forest and wood residues to produce bioenergy and biofuels could generate additional revenue streams for forestry companies, reduce their environmental impacts and generate new development opportunities for forest-dependent communities. Further development of forest-based biorefineries entails addressing complexities and challenges related to biomass procurement, logistics, technologies, and sustainability. Numerous optimization models have been proposed for the economic and environmental design of biomass-to-bioenergy or biofuel supply chains. A few of them also maximized the job creation potential of the supply chain through the use of employment multipliers. The use of a total job creation indicator as the social optimization objective implies that all new jobs generate the same level of social benefit. In this paper, we quantify the potential social benefit of new forest-based biorefinery supply chains considering different impacts of new jobs based on their type and location. This social benefit is incorporated into a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model that maximizes the social benefit, net present value and greenhouse gas emission saving potential of a forest-based biorefinery supply chain. The applicability of the model is illustrated through a case study in the interior region of British Columbia, Canada where different utilization paths for available forest and wood residues are investigated. The multi-objective optimization model is solved using a Pareto-generating method. The analysis of the generated set of Pareto-optimal solutions show a trade-off between the net present value of the supply chain and the other two

  19. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat......- and electricity supply of typical urban communities is possible and can be implemented in a cost-efficient way, if the energy planning is done systematically and in coherence with urban planning....

  20. Energy policy of the EU and the role of Turkey in Energy Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHTER AYKIN Sibel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available All the nations define strategies and develop policies on national and international levels to eliminate risks against energy security. The aim of this paper is to define the energy policy of the European Union and identify the potential of Turkey in securing energy supply to the European Union. To achieve this end, after explaining the policy frame of the European Union and that of Turkey in energy related matters, the existing and planned energy routes expanding from the Russian Federation, Caspian Sea and the Middle East to the European Continent are mapped, and the role assigned to Turkey as an energy hub is exemplified with reference to its accession process. It is concluded that Turkey’s membership is to enrich the European Union and contribute to its energy supply security.

  1. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Joao; Martins, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the 'heart and soul' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

  2. The renewable and nuclear energies in the basquet of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Corcoles, F.

    2008-01-01

    The share of nuclear and renewable sources in the energy portfolio yields great benefits to all stake holders and that both sources are not exclusive each other but offer multiple complementary features and synergy's, therefore both technologies should be part of the present and future energy mix. This portfolio should be enough and reliable all the time, guarantee the security of supply, protect the environment and give competitive prices. All these features are to a great extent met by nuclear and renewable technologies and therefore they should play an important role on world and national energy supply. (Author)

  3. Module power plant. An isle energy supply; Modulkraftwerk. Eine Inselenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, Christian; Luschtinetz, Thomas [Fachhochschule Stralsund (Germany). IRES

    2012-07-01

    The main project intention is the development of an autarkic power plant which can supply energy according to miscellaneous base- or peak load profiles. Possible application could be rural industries, public institutions, research stations or off-grid areas. The basic system is mounted in a shipping container which offers a wide range of transportation flexibility. The main advantage of the system is the intelligent and efficient coupling of the components. Due to the modular character of the components the power plant can be adjusted to specific energy profiles of the user. The system is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC) whereby the user can adjust the system by a touch panel. (orig.)

  4. Energy security of supply and oil shale resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkarmi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Jordan must utilize its huge oil shale deposits in order to increase domestic security of energy supply and benefit financially. Utilization processes will require large scale financial expenditures, beyond Jordan's means. Therefore, the BOT scheme seems to be the perfects solution. Since oil shale retorting technology will produce oil which can be traded to generate valuable foreign exchange revenues, it is more advantageous than direct burning technology which produces electricity limited to local consumption regardless of economics. Under the BOT scheme, the incentive, for the foreign sponsor is to return his investment via quantities of oil; for Jordan the aim is to meet local energy demand and acquire the plant infrastructure in the long term. Recent events in the more traditional oil fields of the region make such a project in Jordan more attractive. (author) 3 tabs. 2 figs

  5. Marine renewable energy sector early-stage supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Marine renewable energy is an emergent sector in Canada. Although supply chain studies have been performed on the United Kingdom and the United States markets, no study has been conducted yet in Canada. The aim of this study was therefore to perform a supply chain analysis in Canada to assess the maturity, strengths, and weaknesses of the sector and determine where the opportunities lie. The study emphasises that the sector is still at the prototype stage in Canada and that the industry must learn to improve its technology and begin to take on large scale projects. Canada has several strengths in the marine renewable energy sector, mainly in terms of resources and facilities, but there are also weaknesses pertaining to technology development and experience. The study concluded that the development of the sector must be centered on a solid vision; in the near term, technological innovation is needed to reach pre-commercialization while in the long term, the sector should aim for commercial application.

  6. The importance of nuclear power to energy supply in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of nuclear power is a matter of dispute also in Switzerland. The first opposition to plans for the Kaiseraugst nuclear power station near Basel sprang up in the seventies. In Switzerland, referenda are a popular expression of political disputes. On a federal level, a total of six referenda have been conducted about nuclear power since 1979. As a rule, antinuclear projects were rejected by a slim majority, except for the 1990 moratorium initiative. As a consequence, there was a ten-year ban on the construction of new nuclear power plants. Despite efforts by many parties it was not possible to develop a general consensus on an energy supply strategy. Because of the considerable importance to the power economy, and the economy at large, of nuclear power in Switzerland, where the five nuclear power plants in operation generate approx. 38% of the country's electricity, while 58% is produced in hydroelectric plants, a new Nuclear Power Act was adopted by Parliament in late February 2001. It constitutes the framework for the continued safe operation of nuclear power plants, keeps the nuclear option open for future planning, and handles spent fuel and waste management, final storage, and decommissioning. Also possible international solutions of final storage outside of Switzerland are taken into account. In this way, the Swiss government and parliament have advocated the continued use of nuclear power as one element of energy supply. (orig.) [de

  7. Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources. A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies, including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution, was developed and applied to a water supply system. The methodology developed includes three solutions: (1 the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed, (2 the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand, and (3 the use of other renewable energy sources, including a wind turbine, to supply energy to the pumping station, with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid. The use of an integrated solution (water and energy proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power, and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations, as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  8. Energy efficiency in a water supply system:Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena M.RAMOS; Filipe VIEIRA; Didia I.C.COVAS

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources.A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies,including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution,was developed and applied to a water supply system.The methodology developed includes three solutions:(1)the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed,(2)the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand,and(3)the use of other renewable energy sources,including a wind turbine,to supply energy to the pumping station,with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid.The use of an integrated solution(water and energy)proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power,and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations,as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  9. Sustainable energy strategies for green energy supply. Paper no. IGEC-1-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midilli, A.; Ay, M.; Dincer, I.

    2005-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are, first, to determine the sustainable energy strategies for green energy supply, and secondly, to derive the green energy recovery ratio and the sustainable green energy progress ratio, and thirdly, to investigate the effects of sustainable energy strategies on these ratios. For these purposes, 20-possible sustainable energy strategies are taken into consideration and are divided into three subgroups that are strategies on the technological impact, sectoral impact, and green energy impact in a society. Using the possible sustainable energy strategies, technological and sectoral impact ratios of green energy and also green energy activity ratio are determined and discussed in detail. Additionally, some Case studies are performed in the scope of this interesting investigation: (i) the effect of technological impact ratio on green energy recovery ratio, and sustainable green energy progress ratio, (ii) the effect of sectoral impact ratio on green energy recovery ratio, and sustainable green energy progress ratio, and (iii) the effect of green energy impact ratio on green energy recovery ratio and sustainable green energy progress ratio. It is found that sustainable green energy progress ratio increases with an increase of technological, sectoral, and green energy impact ratios. This means that all negative effects on the industrial, technological, sectoral and social developments partially and/or completely decrease throughout the transition and utilization to and of green energy and technologies when possible sustainable energy strategies are preferred and applied. Thus, the sustainable energy strategies can make an important contribution to the economies of the countries where green energy is abundantly produced. Therefore, the investment in green energy supply should be, for the future of world nations, encouraged by governments and other authoritative bodies who, for strategic reasons, wish to have a green alternative to fossil

  10. Non-OPEC Oil Supply: Economics and Energy Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourik, Maarten van [Paris (France); Shepherd, Richard K. [Perpignan (France)

    2003-07-01

    shift in investment strategy than the lure of better profits. However strong the evidence of an imminent peaking of offshore and perhaps total non-OPEC oil supply, the reality is that governments will not readily recognise a 'bad news' scenario that will inevitably tarnish their own political image. It follows that a global and permanent threat to their economies and energy security from a shortfall in oil supply outside the Persian Gulf and central Asia will only become a policy assumption if viable and attractive energy policy options are available. If there is single focus to any energy supply threat, then it is the market for transportation fuels, the strongest growing segment of the energy market and the only segment of the energy market where there are no significant alternatives already on offer. The second half of this paper suggests that there are industrial or financial obstacles to the large-scale introduction of fuels other than current specification gasoline and diesel. Almost all the current initiatives to explore and encourage alternative fuels address a long-term future in which fuel cells or hydrogen or 'California-clean' liquids replace the current fuels at the pump. Further, most research concentrates on the environmental aspects of the alternatives rather than their large-scale industrial availability. Yet the hard reality is that any solution to the global oil supply dilemma must be large scale (at least 10% of the total market for transportation fuels) and soon, which means within a decade. The technical facts are that fuels such as ethanol and methanol can be produced in very large volumes and delivered to the consumer without any significant change to the huge infrastructure constituted by the global internal combustion engine manufacturing industry and by the existing fuel distribution networks. This large, immediate and obvious opportunity has not been grasped so far for the excellent reason that the status quo is profitable

  11. Technologies of Selective Energy Supply at Evaporation of Food Solutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to create innovative evaporating equipment that can produce concentrates with a high content of solids, with a low level of thermal effects on raw materials. The significance of the solution of technological problems of the key process of food technologies - concentration of liquid solutions (juices, extracts, etc. is shown. Problems and scientific contradictions are formulated and the hypothesis on using of electromagnetic energy sources for direct energy transfer to solution’s moisture has been offered. The prospects of such an energy effect are proved by the energy management methods. The schemes of fuel energy conversion for the conventional thermal concentration technology and the innovative plant based on the electromagnetic energy generators are presented. By means of the similarity theory the obtained model is transformed to the criterial one depicted kinetic of evaporation process at the electromagnetic field action. The dimensionless capacity of the plant is expressed by the dependence between the Energetic effect number and relative moisture content. The scheme of automated experimental system for study of the evaporation process in the microwave field is shown. The experimental results of juice evaporation are presented. It has been demonstrated that the technologies of selective energy supply represent an effective tool for improvement of juice concentration evaporative plants. The main result of the research is design of the evaporator that allows reaching juice concentrates with °brix 95 at the temperature as low as 35 °С, i.e. 2…3 times superior than traditional technologies.

  12. An interim report on the outlook of long-term energy supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An interim report was presented by the supply/demand committee in Over-all Energy Council concerning the energy demand and supply outlook for fiscal 1990 as compared with fiscal 1980. The background for deciding the outlook of energy supply and demand and basic ideas for energy policy, and the outlook for energy supply and demand are outlined. The outlook was prepared, assuming yearly economic growth of about 5 % in 1980s and the utmost efforts by people in energy situation. The energy situation both domestic and abroad is largely changing, including energy saving efforts and petroleum price. The aggregate energy demand for fiscal 1990 was put at about 590 million kl in terms of crude oil. Then, concerning nuclear power generation, the power supply by nuclear energy in fiscal 1990 was estimated at 46 million kw accounting for 11.3 % of the total power supply. (Mori, K.)

  13. Forest Energy Project of Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergiaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M [Regional Council of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland (1994 - 1996) was one of the leading regional demonstration projects in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilisation. The target of this provincial project was to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilisation of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co- operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organisations. The project was a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains were formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they were also demonstrated. The project offered hence a wide test field for regional and national techno / economical wood fuel development. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project was a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. VTT Energy and the Forestry Board of Central Finland were responsible for the practical development work. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels took part in the project. The project were carried out during the years 1994 - 1996. The total costs were 4.4 million FIM. The aim is to create a practical model for the entire system, by which enables the economically profitable increment of the utilisation of chip fuels in Central Finland by 100 GWh/1996 and 500 GWh/a (about 250 000 m{sup 3}) to the end of the decade. (orig.)

  14. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  15. Hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery systems for remote energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centres in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaics, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilisation of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. (orig.) 8 refs.

  16. Multifunctional role of astrocytes as gatekeepers of neuronal energy supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian L Stobart

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic adjustments to neuronal energy supply in response to synaptic activity are critical for neuronal function. Glial cells known as astrocytes have processes that ensheath most central synapses and express G-protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors and transporters that respond to neuronal activity. Astrocytes also release substrates for neuronal oxidative phosphorylation and have processes that terminate on the surface of brain arterioles and can influence vascular smooth muscle tone and local blood flow. Membrane receptor or transporter-mediated effects of glutamate represent a convergence point of astrocyte influence on neuronal bioenergetics. Astrocytic glutamate uptake drives glycolysis and subsequent shuttling of lactate from astrocytes to neurons for oxidative metabolism. Astrocytes also convert synaptically reclaimed glutamate to glutamine, which is returned to neurons for glutamate salvage or oxidation. Finally, astrocytes store brain energy currency in the form of glycogen, which can be mobilized to produce lactate for neuronal oxidative phosphorylation in response to glutamatergic neurotransmission. These mechanisms couple synaptically-driven astrocytic responses to glutamate with release of energy substrates back to neurons to match demand with supply. In addition, astrocytes directly influence the tone of penetrating brain arterioles in response to glutamatergic neurotransmission, coordinating dynamic regulation of local blood flow. We will describe the role of astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in detail and discuss, in turn, how astrocyte dysfunction may contribute to neuronal bioenergetic deficit and neurodegeneration. Understanding the role of astrocytes as a hub for neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling mechanisms is a critical underpinning for therapeutic development in a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by chronic generalized brain ischemia and brain microvascular

  17. Adoption and supply of a distributed energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Neil Douglas

    2000-12-01

    Technical and economic developments in distributed generation (DG) represent an opportunity for a radically different energy market paradigm, and potentially significant cuts in global carbon emissions. This thesis investigates DG along two interrelated themes: (1) Early adoption and supply of the DG technology of internal combustion (IC) engine cogeneration. (2) Private and social cost implications of DG for private investors and within an energy system. IC engine cogeneration of both power and heat has been a remarkable success in the Netherlands with over 5,000 installations and 1,500MWe of installed capacity by 1997. However, the technology has struggled in the UK with an installed capacity of 110Mwe, fulfilling only 10% of its large estimated potential. An investment simulation model of DG investments in the UK and Netherlands was used, together with analysis of site level data on all DG adoptions from 1985 through 1997. In the UK over 60% of the early installations were sized too small (sales to the grid. Larger units can be sized for on-site heat requirements with electricity export providing revenue and aiding in management of energy networks. A comparison of internal and external costs of three distributed and three centralized generation technologies over a range of heat to power ratios (HPR) was made. Micro-turbines were found to be the lowest cost technology, especially at higher heat loads. Engines are also very competitive providing their NOx and CO emissions are controlled. A cost optimization program was used to develop an optimal green-field supply mix for Florida and New York. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. The role of PV electricity generation in fully renewable energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Peter, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sustainable energy supply will be based on renewable energies and it must use available resources efficiently. Earlier or later the energy supply will rely completely on renewable sources. A solar energy system that provides a reliable energy supply throughout the year includes the consistent use of local renewable energy sources (e.g. PV) wherever possible. Using Japan as a example it was shown that the vision of a full renewable energy supply, even with high shares of domestic sources is possible. Detailed simulations of such a system show that the PV systems play an important role delivering electricity at peak demand times. (authors)

  19. The high temperature reactor - an important tool in meeting the challenge of world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizia, K.; Schwarz, D.

    1988-01-01

    A growing and, in its majority, poor mankind will need increasing amounts of energy at moderate prices. At the same time, ecological stresses on our environment, on the forests of the Third World (firewood crisis), and on the climate must be limited. The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is a well-suited answer to all challenges, as it can supply electricity safely and economically, be built close to process steam and district heat consumers, procure more hydrocarbons from coal relative to a given release of CO 2 , and has the potential of splitting water with high efficiency. At times of affluent fossile fuels, however, and not yet apparent need to restrict their use for reasons of climate, individual companies cannot bear the development and introduction of HTRs all by themselves. Therefore governments are called upon for support. (orig.)

  20. The importance of North Sea gas to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probert, R.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas can, of course, be transported over very long distances but, because of the economics of gas transmission, its impact is most often local. This has certainly been the case with North Sea gas, which has clearly contributed significantly to European energy supply and will continue to do so for some time to come. The historical importance of the discovery of gas in the North Sea has been that it has enabled natural gas industries to grow rapidly in North West Europe. Without North Sea gas and Dutch gas it is difficult to see how town gas would have been replaced in North West Europe. Certainly, a much smaller natural gas industry would have emerged. North Sea gas has inevitably had the greatest impact on gas markets in the countries of the European Community and this will remain the case in future. Nevertheless, it is inevitable that gas will, in future, flow across more national boundaries than in the past, and that North Sea gas will have an important part to play in meeting the Central European demand for competitively priced, secure supplies. This paper discusses the United Kingdom market for gas and future demand both in the United Kingdom and more widely in Europe. An examination of the availability of gas supplies from the North Sea suggests that it is unlikely that there will be a surplus of gas for export from the United Kingdom continental shelf. Norway will remain the main source of exports, with the Netherlands also in a strong position. Transportation and political aspects are also considered. (author)

  1. Energy Cost Minimization in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Hybrid Energy Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing data demand has led to the significant increase of energy consumption in cellular mobile networks. Recent advancements in heterogeneous cellular networks and green energy supplied base stations provide promising solutions for cellular communications industry. In this article, we first review the motivations and challenges as well as approaches to address the energy cost minimization problem for such green heterogeneous networks. Owing to the diversities of mobile traffic and renewable energy, the energy cost minimization problem involves both temporal and spatial optimization of resource allocation. We next present a new solution to illustrate how to combine the optimization of the temporal green energy allocation and spatial mobile traffic distribution. The whole optimization problem is decomposed into four subproblems, and correspondingly our proposed solution is divided into four parts: energy consumption estimation, green energy allocation, user association, and green energy reallocation. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the total energy cost.

  2. Secure energy supply in 2025: Indonesia's need for an energy policy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujiyanto, Sugeng; Tiess, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia as an emerging country with one of the fastest growing economies requires sufficient supply with energy for national development. Domestic energy production cannot satisfy the domestic demand, and the deficiency necessitates growing imports. The present energy mix consists of 96% from non-renewable sources, i.e. fossil fuels, less than 4% from renewables. Government Regulation 5/2006 aims at increasing the proportion of renewable sources to 17%. Two scenarios for the energy situation in 2025 have been elaborated and are discussed. An overall energy policy strategy and regulatory framework covering non-renewable and renewable resources are crucial for securing energy demand. - Highlights: • Indonesia aims at 17% renewable energy in energy mix 2025. • Population growth exceeds increase of energy production. • Investment incentives for new technologies, exploration and efficient production are necessary. • Clear and comprehensive energy policy strategy and regulatory framework are crucial

  3. Perspective of long term demand and supply of energy and general inspection of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil crisis, Japanese energy policy was promoted to get rid of the excess dependence on petroleum and to attain energy security, but energy situation largely changed during the past ten years, and it has become necessary to make general inspection on the long term demand and supply of energy and the energy policy. After the second oil crisis, the worldwide demand of petroleum decreased drastically due to the rapid price rise, and the base price of crude oil was lowered for the first time. It is necessary to positively endeavor to reduce energy cost with new idea. The points of the general inspection are the correspondence of the energy policy to the large structural change of energy, the most desirable system for attaining the optimum structure of energy demand and supply and the utilization of market mechanism as far as possible. This report is the results of discussion held eight times since April, 1983. The change of energy situation in Japan and abroad and the perspective, the new problems in energy countermeasures and the trend of response, the preferential and effective promotion of general energy countermeasures and so on are reported. This report shows the fundamental direction of energy countermeasures hereafter, and the concrete and special examination must be made on many remaining problems. (Kako, I.)

  4. Forecasting forest chip energy production in Finland 2008-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Energy policy measures aim to increase energy production from forest chips in Finland to 10 TWh by year 2010. However, on the regional level production differences are large, and the regional estimates of the potential base of raw materials for the production of forest chips are heterogeneous. In order to analyse the validity of the above target, two methods are proposed to derive forecasts for region-level energy production from forest chips in Finland in the years 2008-2014. The plant-level data from 2003-2007 gives a starting point for a detailed statistical analysis of present and future region-level forest chip production. Observed 2008 regional levels are above the estimated prediction 95% confidence intervals based on aggregation of plant-level time averages. A simple time trend model with fixed-region effects provides accurate forecasts for the years 2008-2014. Forest chip production forecast confidence intervals cover almost all regions for the 2008 levels and the estimates of potential production levels for 2014. The forecast confidence intervals are also derived with re-sampling methods, i.e. with bootstrap methods, to obtain more reliable results. Results confirm that a general materials shortfall is not expected in the near future for forest chip energy production in Finland.

  5. Energy supply technologies. Hydro, ocean, wave and tidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenhann, J.; Larsen, Hans [Risoe National Lab. - DTU (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    This chapter presents an overview of current hydro, ocean, wave and tidal initiatives. Large hydro remains one of the lowest-cost generating technologies, although environmental constraints, resettlement impacts and the limited availability of sites have restricted further growth in many countries. Large hydro supplied 16 % of global electricity in 2004, down from 19 % a decade ago. Large hydro capacity totalled about 720 GW worldwide in 2004 and has grown historically at slightly more than 2 % annually. China installed nearly 8 GW of large hydro in 2004, taking the country to number one in terms of installed capacity (74 GW). With the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, China will add some 18.2 GW of hydro capacity in 2009. The socio-economic benefits of hydro include improved flood control and water supply. The socio-economic benefits of hydro include improved flood control and water supply. The socio-economic cost of hydro includes displacements and submergence. Further hydro can improve peak-capacity management. Ocean currents, some of which runs close to European coasts, carry a lot of kinetic energy. Part of this energy can be captured by sub-marine windmills and converted into electricity. These are more compact than the wind turbines used on land, simply because water is much denser than air. The main European countries with useful current power potential are France and the UK. Ocean tides are driven by the gravitational pull of the moon. With one high tide every 12 hours, a tidal power plant can operate for only four or five hours per cycle, so power from a single plant is intermittent. A suitably-designed tidal plant can, however, operate as a pimped storage system, using electricity during periods of low demand to store energy that can be recovered later. The only large, modern example of a tidal power plant is the 240 MW La Rance plant, built in France in the 1960s, which represents 91 % of the world tidal power capacity. Wave energy can be seen as

  6. Nuclear Option for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolundzija, V.; Mesarovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Present energy policy is required to ensure a balance between security of supply, competitiveness and environmental requirements. Recent changes involved by deregulation and liberalization of electricity and natural gas markets even strengthen such a policy. However, dependency on external energy sources carries risks that have to be managed since a large proportion of both oil and gas reserves are found in politically unstable regions. Electrical energy is a fundamental prerequisite for a civilized life and an essential commodity, but it cannot be stored and this restricts the extent to which there can be a real free market for electricity. Therefore, relying on imports of electricity to a large extent may prove unsecure because this requires a true, completely open market in which the opportunities for cross-border trade are effective and balanced and transport connections are adequate. This is equally applied to the countries in the South-Eastern Europe, despite very good prospects for development of the regional electricity market there. In this regard, the use of nuclear energy has not any risk associated with external dependency because there are abundant quantities of uranium available world-wide from many diverse sources. The inherent mitigation of supply risk associated with the use of uranium should act as an incentive to the further use of nuclear energy. In addition, already very large stocks of fuel assemblies and fuel-making materials available, especially when these are measured in terms of power generating capacity per year at current production rates. It is, therefore, very important for any country to recognize such strategic aspect of nuclear energy when addressing the issue of security of power supply. Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due

  7. Agro-energy supply chain planning: a procedure to evaluate economic, energy and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ginaldi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for energy and expected shortage in the medium term, solicit innovative energy strategies to fulfill the increasing gap between demand-supply. For this purpose it is important to evaluate the potential supply of the energy crops and finding the areas of EU where it is most convenient. This paper proposes an agro-energy supply chain approach to planning the biofuel supply chain at a regional level. The proposed methodology is the result of an interdisciplinary team work and is aimed to evaluate the potential supply of land for the energy production and the efficiency of the processing plants considering simultaneously economic, energy and environmental targets. The crop simulation, on the basis of this approach, takes into account environmental and agricultural variables (soil, climate, crop, agronomic technique that affect yields, energy and economic costs of the agricultural phase. The use of the Dijkstra’s algorithm allows minimizing the biomass transport path from farm to collecting points and the processing plant, to reduce both the transport cost and the energy consumption. Finally, a global sustainability index (ACSI, Agro-energy Chain Sustainability Index is computed combining economic, energy and environmental aspects to evaluate the sustainability of the Agroenergy supply chain (AESC on the territory. The empirical part consists in a pilot study applied to the whole plain of Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG a region situated in the North-Eastern part of Italy covering about 161,300 ha. The simulation has been applied to the maize cultivation using three different technologies (different levels of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization: low, medium and high input. The higher input technologies allow to achieve higher crop yields, but affect negatively both the economic and energy balances. Low input levels provides, on the average, the most favourable energy and economic balances. ACSI indicates that low inputs levels

  8. Energy forum 2005: Nuclear power - in competition with sustainable energy supply in Europe. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The forum of energy for future organized on 29st September 2005 the annual Energy Forum at Berlin. The Energy Forum 2005 dealt with nuclear power in competition with sustainable energy supply in Europe and didn't only give their members the possibility of a discussion on this actual theme. Furtheron demanding aims on CO2-reduction, increased raw material- and energy prices as the construction of a new Finnish nuclear power plant have countries moved to evaluate again the future-oriented role of nuclear power. (orig./GL)

  9. Nuclear energy and ensuring the long-term energy supply in the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    The author reports on the papers read at the Reactor Conference in 1975. He pays special attention to the development of energy supply from nuclear stations, investigates the motives behind the growing resistance of the public, and shows that the acceptance procedure ensures the construction and operation of safe nuclear power installations. He also discusses the possibilities of improved energy utilisation, the climatic changes in coming generations, the characteristics of supply with nuclear district heating and process heat, as well as the state of building projects with high-temperature reactors and fast breeders. (orig.) [de

  10. The forest products industry at an energy/climate crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; Baek, Youngsun

    2010-01-01

    Transformational energy and climate policies are being debated worldwide that could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. Because woody biomass can produce alternative transportation fuels, low-carbon electricity, and numerous other 'green' products in addition to traditional paper and lumber commodities, the future use of forest resources is highly uncertain. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), this paper assesses the future of the forest products industry under three possible U.S. policy scenarios: (1) a national renewable electricity standard, (2) a national policy of carbon constraints, and (3) incentives for industrial energy efficiency. In addition, we discuss how these policy scenarios might interface with the recently strengthened U.S. renewable fuels standards. The principal focus is on how forest products including residues might be utilized under different policy scenarios, and what such market shifts might mean for electricity and biomass prices, as well as energy consumption and carbon emissions. The results underscore the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and climate policies in order to moderate electricity and biomass price escalation while strengthening energy security and reducing CO 2 emissions. - Research highlights: →Transformational energy and climate policies such as a national renewable electricity standard, a national policy of carbon constraints, and incentives for industrial energy efficiency could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. →Each policy scenario reduces CO 2 emissions over time, compared to the business-as-usual forecast, with the carbon constrained policy producing the largest decline. As a package, the three policies together could cut CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector by an estimated 41% by 2030. →This study underscores the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and

  11. Main theorems of thermodynamics focused on future energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knizia, K

    1983-09-01

    Proceeding from the ethical aim to minimize sufferings, we have to develop rules of conduct which take into account the effects of our actions which in our complex world reach spatially as well as temporally further than in previous times. The basic laws of nature which govern our activities include the first and the second main theorems of thermodynamics. It is especially the second main theorem which also represent the creative principle of shaping and maintaining order and structures. In general, this is achieved by the use of the production factors: energy - information - matter. This also applies to the human creativity, including specific adjustment of these production factors related to man and his environment. It is only the correct use which can achieve an adequate supply of goods for a still growing world population, together with its peaceful and humane numerical stabilisation, satisfactory environment protection and careful consumption of raw material reserves.

  12. Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Viana; Warren B. Cohen; D. Lopes; J. Aranha

    2010-01-01

    Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two...

  13. The role and position of nuclear energy in the long-term energy supply of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yunqiao

    1992-03-01

    The history for development of world nuclear energy and policies in various countries are retrospected, and the development of world nuclear energy is reviewed. On the basis of analysis for the economy of nuclear power in abroad, it is verified that the cost of nuclear power is cheaper than that of coal-fired power. In the future, the nuclear power is still competitive in economy. The prospect for long-term energy supply in China is predicted on the present situation of energy industry. It is estimated that the gap between energy demands and supply will become larger and larger. The solution is to develop nuclear energy in south-east area. The long-term demands of electricity and electrical resources are estimated in China, and if nuclear energy is utilized, it will optimize the constitution of electricity. The economy of nuclear power is also evaluated. It is expected that the nuclear power will be cheaper than that of coal-fired power in China after equipment are made domestically and serially. From the analysis of the conditions of communication, transportation and pollution, the development of nuclear energy will reduce the tension of transportation and improve the environmental quality. Finally, the prospect of developing nuclear heating and the supply level of uranium resources in China are analyzed

  14. Wind energy availability above gaps in a forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Mann, Jakob; Dellwik, Ebba

    2009-01-01

    installation strategies. The canopy-planetary boundary-layer model SCADIS is used to investigate the effect of forest gap size (within the diameter range of 3 - 75 tree heights, h) on wind energy related variables. A wind turbine was assumed with following features: the hub height and rotor diameter of 3.5h...... were estimated from modelled data. The results show that the effect of the forest gaps with diameters smaller than 55h on wind energy captured by the assumed wind turbine and located in the centre of round low-roughness gap is practically insignificant. The high level of spatial variation of considered......There is a lack of data on availability of wind energy above a forest disturbed by clear-cuts, where a wind energy developer may find an opportunity to install a wind farm. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can provide spatial patterns of wind and turbulence, and help to develop optimal...

  15. Role of forest biomass energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Forest biomass holds a significant position for energy production in developing countries. Its importance is elucidated through various activities performed by the rural industries. The socio-economic and environmental aspects in utilizing this type of energy are also discussed. (Author)

  16. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political...

  17. Energy Demand and Supply Analysis and Outlook - Energy Forecast for 2001 and Policy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang; Ryu, Ji Chul [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The energy consumption in Korea has grown at impressive rates during the last 3 decades, along with the economic growth. The global concern about the environment issue and the restructuring in Korea energy industry has an effect on the pattern and trend of energy demand in Korea. Under the situation, this research are focusing on the analysis of energy consumption and forecast of energy demand. First of all, we analyze the trends and major characteristics of energy consumption, beginning with 1970s and up to the third quarter of 2000. In the analysis of energy consumption by energy types, we also perform qualitative analysis on the trends and characteristics of each energy types, including institutional analysis. In model section, we start with the brief description of synopsis and outline the survey on empirical models for energy demand. The econometric model used in KEEI's short-term energy forecast is outlined, followed by the result of estimations. The 2001 energy demand forecast is predicted in detail by sectors and energy types. In the year 2001, weak demand is projected to continue through the First Half, and pick up its pace of growth only in the Second Half. Projected total demand is 201.3 million TOE or 4.4% growth. In the last section, the major policy issues are summarized in three sub-sections: the restructuring in energy industry, the security of energy demand and supply, international energy cooperation including south-north energy cooperation. (author). 86 refs., 43 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Harvesting forest biomass for energy in Minnesota: An assessment of guidelines, costs and logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia El Sayed Abbas Mohamed

    The emerging market for renewable energy in Minnesota has generated a growing interest in utilizing more forest biomass for energy. However, this growing interest is paralleled with limited knowledge of the environmental impacts and cost effectiveness of utilizing this resource. To address environmental and economic viability concerns, this dissertation has addressed three areas related to biomass harvest: First, existing biomass harvesting guidelines and sustainability considerations are examined. Second, the potential contribution of biomass energy production to reduce the costs of hazardous fuel reduction treatments in these trials is assessed. Third, the logistics of biomass production trials are analyzed. Findings show that: (1) Existing forest related guidelines are not sufficient to allow large-scale production of biomass energy from forest residue sustainably. Biomass energy guidelines need to be based on scientific assessments of how repeated and large scale biomass production is going to affect soil, water and habitat values, in an integrated and individual manner over time. Furthermore, such guidelines would need to recommend production logistics (planning, implementation, and coordination of operations) necessary for a potential supply with the least site and environmental impacts. (2) The costs of biomass production trials were assessed and compared with conventional treatment costs. In these trials, conventional mechanical treatment costs were lower than biomass energy production costs less income from biomass sale. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that costs reductions are possible under certain site, prescriptions and distance conditions. (3) Semi-structured interviews with forest machine operators indicate that existing fuel reduction prescriptions need to be more realistic in making recommendations that can overcome operational barriers (technical and physical) and planning and coordination concerns (guidelines and communications

  19. The principle of environmental compatible energy supply in energy law characteristics and environmental (energy) legal connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The course of the investigation follows the path of the electric power. Considered are the electricity industry value-added stages with their environmental impact and their relevant legal regulations. The focus in each case are the environmentally relevant legal rules of EnWG, whose own contributions are examined for environmental objective as well as the interaction with other legislation. First, the value chain of the supply or production of primary energy sources is considered closer. Second, the conversion of primary energy sources in electricity is to take in the view. The conversion plant depending on widely varying environmental impacts and the relevant legal instruments are shown. Thirdly comes the electricity downstream value-added level of network operations, through which the electric power is transmitted and distributed. In the fourth stage, the effect of support of the legal requirements for the storage of electricity is considered. Fifth value chain is the distribution, through which the direct relationship between suppliers and customers is organized. [de

  20. Effect of energy saving lights on power supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timens, R.B.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Weak power supply networks are very sensitive to non-linear low power loads. Electronics in low power loads are non-linear, very basic, and consisting of a rectifier bridge and bulk capacitor, consuming current only in the peak of the supplied voltage. Due to the relative high power supply network

  1. Financial Mechanisms to Improve the Supply of Ecosystem Services from Privately-Owned Australian Native Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ferguson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of Australia’s native forest is privately-owned and is needing investment to maintain and improve the supply of a wide range of ecosystem services. This paper reviews mechanisms presently used in Australia to improve the supply of ecosystem services, with particular emphasis on financial mechanisms. Auction, green bond and biobanking schemes are widely and, so far, successfully used in a number of States, especially in projects where the actions required and ecosystem services can be readily measured. Measurement of biodiversity and biodiversity-based services remains problematic, despite some fairly widespread application of different measurement systems. Inadequate or variable measurement systems could engender a loss of investor interest if equivalence or gains cannot be appropriately verified. A new Biodiversity Investment Scheme is proposed, based on the structure used commercially in Managed Investment Schemes. The choice of mechanism, however, will be mainly determined by landowner attitudes to assignment of property rights, and by scale, the extent of public versus private consumption goods, and the transaction costs and risks.

  2. Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of bioavailable iron from forests to the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2011-06-01

    from oxidation of SO2 and from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources. Emission scenarios for IPCC AR5 report (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Fifth Assessment Report suggest that anthropogenic SO2 emissions are suppressed in the future to improve air quality. In future warmer and drier climate, severe fire years such as 2003 may become more frequent in boreal regions. The fire emission rates estimated in this study are applied to the aerosol chemistry transport model to examine the relative importance of biomass burning sources of soluble iron compared to those from dust sources. The model reveals that extreme fire events contribute to a significant deposition of soluble iron (20–40 % to downwind regions over the western North Pacific Ocean, compared to the dust sources with no atmospheric processing by acidic species. These results suggest that the supply of nutrients from large forest fires plays a role as a negative biosphere-climate feedback with regards to the ocean fertilization.

  3. USING REGIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURSES FOR HEATING SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study analyzed the possibility and conditions for the effective operation of heating systems during the transition of the heat-generating capacity to biofuels energy. The straw of cereal crops, which are prevailing in Dnipro region, is used for this. The main purpose is scientific calculation of opportunities and cost of specific measures for such a transition. As an example it was taken the boiler-room of campus at Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan (DNURT that consumes natural gas. Methodology. The work analyses the legislative base of Ukraine, which promotes the using of renewable energy sources as fuel, as well as the incentive mechanisms for the development of this trend. The paper identifies opportunities of Prydniprovsk region to ensure straw supply for the boiler-room. Cost parameters of cargo transportation on the territory of Ukraine in 2016, which depend on the distance and the size of the trucks, are analysed. These indicators, as well as indicators related to its purchase, are considered together with energy potential of using the straw as fuel. Findings. With existing in Ukraine (as of 2016 the grain yielding capacity in the agriculture and cost indicators in the field of transportations, the transition of capacity share to biofuel is sufficiently profitable. The thermal power unit cost can be reduced fourfold. Originality. For the first time it is proposed to use the new integrated approaches to assess the cost of thermal power unit boiler with its transition to the use of renewable energy sources. The authors also proposed a new logistics delivery of these sources to the place of their application. From a technical and cost points of view it was determined the optimal order of capacity transfer for new renewable sources of energy in a given region depending on the structure of areas under crops and their productivity. Originality. The introduction of the

  4. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coq, Chloe [SITE, Stockholm School of Economics, P.O. Box 6501, Stockholm 11383 (Sweden); Paltseva, Elena [Department of Economics, Copenhagen University, Oester Farimagsgade 5, Building 26, 1353 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political risks of the supplying country, risk associated with energy transit, and the economic impact of a supply disruption. We construct separate indexes for three primary energy types, oil, gas and coal, and demonstrate that Member States' levels of supply risk exposure differ across energies. Most other studies of this kind provide aggregate indexes combining different types of energy. Our results suggest that an aggregate approach could be misleading, at least for discussions of the short-term response to risks. We discuss the implications of our findings for the common energy policy. (author)

  5. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political risks of the supplying country, risk associated with energy transit, and the economic impact of a supply disruption. We construct separate indexes for three primary energy types, oil, gas and coal, and demonstrate that Member States' levels of supply risk exposure differ across energies. Most other studies of this kind provide aggregate indexes combining different types of energy. Our results suggest that an aggregate approach could be misleading, at least for discussions of the short-term response to risks. We discuss the implications of our findings for the common energy policy. (author)

  6. Problems of world energy supply until the turn of the millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinski, U.

    1981-01-01

    After a historical review of energy supply, world energy consumption until the year 2000 is estimated along with the potential of oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy sources. (UA) [de

  7. RE-SUPPLY: Securing the supply chains of wind power and solar PV Securing the supply chain for renewable energy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Franz; Vuille, Francois; Ziem, Sabine [E4tech UK Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Rastogi, Ankur; Sengupta, Subhabrata [Avalon Consulting, Mumbai (India)

    2012-11-15

    The RE-SUPPLY project aimed to provide insight into the elements of the supply chains which are presently or can in the future evolve as critical constraints in further large-scale deployment of on- and offshore wind and solar photovoltaic energy. The objectives of the study were twofold: Risk assessment: identify potential bottlenecks in the supply chains of wind and PV and assess their criticality and timeline for occurrence; and, Risk management: identify suitable mitigation strategies and recommend specific actions at policy and industry level.

  8. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  9. Towards a sustainable global energy supply infrastructure: Net energy balance and density considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, Ioannis N.; Wade, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs a framework of dynamic energy analysis to model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures as constrained by innate physical energy balance and dynamic response limits. Coal-fired generation meets the criteria of longevity (abundance of energy source) and scalability (ability to expand to the multi-terawatt level) which are critical for a sustainable energy supply chain, but carries a very heavy carbon footprint. Renewables and nuclear power, on the other hand, meet both the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. However, due to their substantially different energy densities and load factors, they vary in terms of their ability to deliver net excess energy and attain the scale needed for meeting the huge global energy demand. The low power density of renewable energy extraction and the intermittency of renewable flows limit their ability to achieve high rates of indigenous infrastructure growth. A significant global nuclear power deployment, on the other hand, could engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy, nuclear power is an unforgiving technology because human lapses and errors can have ecological and social impacts that are catastrophic and irreversible. Thus, the transition to a low carbon economy is likely to prove much more challenging than early optimists have claimed. - Highlights: → We model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures. → Coal is scalable and abundant but carries a heavy carbon footprint. → Renewables and nuclear meet the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. → The low power density and intermittency of renewables limit their growth potential. → Nuclear power continues to raise concerns about proliferation, safety, and waste.

  10. Interim report on the long-term outlook of energy demands and supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The supply/demand committee on Overall Energy Council has long deliberated on the outlook of energy demands and supplies, and finalized its report, assuming a yearly economic growth of about 5% in 1980s and utmost efforts by both the people and the government: the background and basic ideas to decide the outlook, the outlook of energy demands and supplies, and conclusions. The energy demand for fiscal 1990 is put at 590 million kl (crude oil equivalent) and for fiscal 2000 at 770 million kl with energy saving ratios 15.5% and 25%, respectively. The energy supply by nuclear power for fiscal 1990 is then put at 46,000 MW with 11.3% of the total. In the energy supply outlook for fiscal 1990, the aspects of the economy and stability as well as the quantity of respective energy sources are considered, overall to reduce the reliance on petroleum. (Mori, K.)

  11. Assessment of Political Vulnerabilities on Security of Energy Supply in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Česnakas Giedrius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that despite the evident link between political environment and security of energy supply, political elements are not sufficiently represented in contemporary scientific literature, namely in indexes that are designed for the assessment of security of energy supply. In an attempt to fill this gap, the article presents an innovative methodology for quantitative assessment of the political vulnerabilities on security of energy supply and applies it to the analysis of the Baltic States.

  12. Discussion on the hard or soft way in future energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, H

    1981-06-01

    The soft ideology of energy supply is discussed in a condensed form in this volume presented to Hans K. Schneider on the occasion of his 60th birthday. After having assessed all arguments, the author comes to the conclusion that problems involved in future energy supply may be solved in a better way by a well-functioning market economy than by means of dirigistic measures required for realizing the soft path of energy supply.

  13. Contributions of water supply from the weathered bedrock zone to forest soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Witty; Robert C. Graham; Kenneth R. Hubbert; James A. Doolittle; Jonathan A. Wald

    2003-01-01

    One measure of forest soil quality is the ability of the soil to support tree growth. In mediterranean-type ecosystems, such as most of California's forests, there is virtually no rainfall during the summer growing season, so trees must rely on water stored within the substrate. Water is the primary limitation to productivity in these forests. Many forest soils in...

  14. Present state of the perception gap of nuclear energy between Japanese nuclear energy supplying region and an energy consuming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    2002-01-01

    Public opinion surveys have been carried out since 1998 on what phase and on what extent of the perception of nuclear energy differs between Japanese dwelling in energy supplying region and an energy-consuming region. Southern Fukui rural district where 15 nuclear reactors are now installed and Osaka urban region of about 100 km apart from Fukui were selected as the respective targets for the energy supplying and consuming regions. Analyses of the data of about 3000 samples have revealed the followings. (1) The public in the nuclear energy supplying region are very friendly to nuclear energy so that only about 20 and 39 of the public are resistive to the general promotion of nuclear energy in Japan and to the construction of another nuclear reactor in their dwelling region, respectively. (2) On the other hand, in the energy-consuming region those respective fractions are 41 and 70 implying strong resistance to nuclear energy in the urban region. (3) Both the degree of interest in and the degree of knowledge on nuclear energy are very low, whereas the extent of fear to nuclear is high for the urban public. (4) Not only the fraction of the public who are satisfied with their present life, but the public fraction who is eagerly support the thought of return-to-nature are very high in the urban region. (5) On the other hand, in the energy supplying region, many peoples eagerly want their life to become more convenient than it is now, and 6) all those trends (I)-(5) are revealed more pronouncedly in the woman than the man. The perception gap of nuclear energy thus became clear between Japanese dwelling in rural and urban regions. On the basis of this knowledge, discussions on the nature of the so-called NIMBY will be made from the socio-psychological viewpoint and propositions will also be made on the methods to dissolve the perception gap of that soft. (author)

  15. Remote sensing mapping of carbon and energy fluxes over forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, G.J.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Pelgrum, H.; Mücher, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the EU project "Carbon and water fluxes of Mediterranean forests and impacts of land use/cover changes". The objectives of the project can be summarized as follows: (I) surface energy balance mapping using remote sensing, (ii) carbon uptake mapping using remote

  16. Future of forest energy in Europe in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riala, M.; Asikainen, A.

    2012-07-01

    The need to increase the use of forest energy is connected to the EU goals for use of renewable energy. If the targets are to be reached, forest energy should play a role. The share of forest energy out of all renewable energy will vary between countries. This study focuses on the future of forest energy. The method chosen was a two-round dissensus-based Delphi. The respondents consisted of members of the COST action FP 0902 and in the second round also of members of the RoK-FOR programme. Most of the respondents were experts in the field of forestry, from more than 20 countries. The first section of the survey addressed the issue of trends and operational environment. The respondents assessed the likelihood and desirability of several trends happening by 2030. They also, for example, estimated the increase in use of forest energy and the constraints to its use. There seemed to be a strong belief in technological development and beneficial policy interventions, but the respondents also recognised the problematic competitive situation in relation to other sources of energy. In terms of technological development, the experts saw that the main challenge to address is transport and logistics. This included a wide range of different issues, such as the handling of bulky, low-value product in an efficient way. The experts saw greatest development potential in improving energy density before transport, and multi-tree handling. Driver-assisting systems would be particularly useful in helping with the planning of felling, e.g. in the case of placing of tracks. Labour shortages are also a pertinent issue. The respondents gave many suggestions on ways to attract new workers to forestry, for example by increasing the salary to the level of manufacturing industry, and by promoting forestry as an environmentally friendly and technologically advanced employer. Overall, this report describes some alternative future prospects, which could be achieved by decisive action. Hopefully

  17. Perspectives of energy supply in unified Germany. Perspektiven der Energieversorgung im vereinigten Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieske, F. (Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG, Essen (Germany))

    1991-10-21

    This article deals with the role of the various energy carriers within a future energy concept. The energy supply industry aims at a well-balanced energy mixture which is to include nuclear energy as well as domestic and imported coal. The supply industry will not turn a deaf ear to opening up the competitive scene, the author thinks, however, there well have to be special economic and technical preconditions. (orig.).

  18. Eating energy-Identifying possibilities for reduced energy use in the future food supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallgren, Christine; Hoejer, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities for reducing future energy use for eating to a sustainable level. A backcasting approach is used to generate an image of the future where energy use for eating is 60% lower in 2050 than in 2000. The currently known potential to reduce energy use in the food supply system for producing, transporting, storing, cooking and eating food is explored and described in terms of a number of distinct changes that are numbered consecutively and presented in both a quantitative and qualitative way. Sweden is used as the case and all data regarding energy use apply for Swedish conditions. An exercise like this illustrates the possible outcome of taking sustainability seriously. If sustainability is to be achieved, some images of the future are needed so that potential targets can be identified. This paper does not present forecasts, but illustrates the kind of changes needed in order to achieve sustainable energy use in the food system.

  19. Proposal on concept of security of energy supply with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Matsui, Kazuaki; Yamada, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply (SoS) was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970s. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. SoS concept has been proposed which is defined by time frame and space frame as well. Wide meaning SoS consists of narrow meaning SoS of short-term energy crisis, which is the traditional concept, and long-term global energy problem, which has become important recently. Three models have been proposed here for evaluating SoS. A method to estimate energy security level in a quantitative manner by comparing with various measures has been also proposed, in which nuclear energy contribution onto SoS can be further measured. (author)

  20. Energy from the forests in Mediterranean countries; L'energie forestiere dans les pays mediterraneens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Montgolfier, J. [Strasbourg Univ., Alsace (France). Ecole nationale du genie de l' eau et de l' environnement

    2009-07-15

    Lands around the Mediterranean Sea have unique forested areas because of the climate that is characterized by dry summers and mild and rainy winters. The article described how communities in the Mediterranean have relied on forested areas as a source of wood energy for generations. It discussed the social and economic importance of Mediterranean forests, particularly for rural people in the south and east Mediterranean where forested areas play a role in the fight against poverty and food security. The damage to these areas resulting from forest neglect or overuse include an irreversible loss of biodiversity, risk of fire and the associated impacts. The role of sustainable forest management in the mitigation and adaptation to the effects of climate change was also discussed. 2 figs.

  1. Evaluation of security of supplies for the Danish energy system up to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.; Daub, J.; Dietrich, O.W.; Laut, P.

    1979-03-01

    Security of energy supplies is one of the criteria which ought to enter into the future extension possibilities for the Danish energy system. But security of supply is a difficult concept to quantify involving as it does both technical and political aspects. The report attempts to encircle the problems relating to security of supply, partly by describing and evaluating the supply structure and the amount of the resource which could be thought of as entering into the future Danish pattern of energy supply, and partly by analyzing the consequences for the Danish consumer of a break in the supply of a specific fuel. It is noted that a supply breakdown in the electric system is not treated in the report except insofar as the fuel entering into the electric system is covered in the study. (author)

  2. US energy product supply elasticities. A survey and application to the US oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Carol; Duggan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    We survey studies of simple energy supply models to find the most promising technique for developing supply elasticities in the U.S. crude oil market. The two dozen studies located include direct estimates of energy supply elasticities or cost studies from which supply or reserve elasticities can be inferred. We include all available studies for all forms of energy both primary and secondary. We find direct estimates of oil supply to obtain weak results unless depletion and price expectations are included. Oil product supply elasticities vary widely across studies but appear to be elastic. Studies that estimate reserve price elasticities by computing reserve costs appear to be the most promising for estimating reserve elasticities for fossil fuel supply. Hence we apply this technique to US oil reserves and find a reserve elasticity of 1.27

  3. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  4. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  5. Energy balance and evaporation of a short-rotation willow forest. Variation with season and stand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iritz, Z.

    1996-10-01

    Energy balance and evaporation of a short-rotation willow (Salix viminalis L.) forest was studied in relation to season and stand development. The developmental stage of the forest stand considerably influenced how the energy, received as net radiation, was partitioned between the connective fluxes and the storage components. The main part of the available energy was utilised for evaporation during most of the season. Only at the beginning of the season did the willow forest supply heat to the atmosphere. Later in the season, energy was taken from air and utilised for evaporation, which resulted in negative sensible heat fluxes. Soil heat storage was also a significant term in the energy balance and also strongly depended on canopy development. Changes in energy partitioning relative to leaf area indices indicated the existence of a threshold value for leaf area index of the developing canopy. The analysis suggested that the canopy of the willow forest could be considered as closed at a leaf area index of 2. It was further found that evaporation from well-irrigated willow forest occurred also during night-time, particularly in windy and dry weather conditions. The sources of nocturnal evaporation were both the canopy, i.e. indicating non-closed stomata, and the soil surface. Partitioning of the total evaporation into components was investigated using a physically-based model with a two-layer aboveground representation and a two-layer soil module. The model estimates evaporation with respect to developmental stage of the willow stand and also takes into account the interaction between the fluxes from the canopy and the soil surface. Good performance of the model indicated that, after further testing in drier conditions, it could be used as a tool for analysing the prerequisites for energy-forest establishment, and practical management of energy forest stands. 37 refs, 9 figs

  6. The best-mix of power demand and supply. Energy system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    In September 2012 after nationwide discussions, Energy and Environmental Council decided 'Innovative Strategy for Energy and the Environment': (1) Realization of a society not dependent on nuclear power, (2) Realization of green energy revolution, (3) For ensuring stable supply of energy, (4) Bold implementation of reform of electricity power systems and (5) Steady implementation of global warming countermeasures. Energy problem should be considered as supply and demand of whole energy. However, long-term energy problem such as in 2050 should assume global limits of fossil fuel supply and carbon dioxide emission and then in order to realize sustainable demand and supply of energy, maximum deployment of renewable energy power in primary energy and most practicable electrification of final demand for energy conservation should be implemented. Best mix of power and energy demand and supply would be significant to some extent. This article outlined analysis of power demand and supply in a long term, future power technologies and demand side management, and problems of power system operation and their solution, and then described energy system integration to realize power and energy/society best mix. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Creating hourly distributions at national level for various energy demands and renewable energy supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Drysdale, Dave; Hansen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    being recorded over longer time horizons, for example over one day. In this paper, a methodology is presented for creating hourly distributions for energy systems analysis tools. On the demand side, hourly distributions are developed for electricity, heating, cooling, and transport while the supply side...... includes wind, solar (photovoltaic and thermal), and wave power. Distributions are not created for dispatchable plants, such as coal, gas, and nuclear thermal plants, since their output is usually determined by the energy modelling tool rather than by a dependent resource. The methodologies are purposely...

  8. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens [Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    comes to the purchase costs and the railroad and large-scale sea transport costs. It is also worth noticing that the cost estimation models used in this study sometimes contain large steps for the different cost situations. This is the case for small-scale/base-load ships, purchase cost for Norwegian/Algerian LNG and wagon transport/system trains. The results are hence sometimes less accurate. As a side assignment, the costs for peak-shaving by the use of LNG is looked into. 20-30 MW for 24 hours per year need to be cut at Oeresundskraft's combined power and heat plant in Helsingborg. Here, the possibility of utilising portable LNG containers (as used by the Norwegian company Liquiline) is studied. In order to indicate the extent to which some key parameters affect the final cost, sensitivity analysis is carried out on the purchase price and the terminal costs. The results show that the Norwegian LNG costs 560-608 SEK/MWh (road), 570-689 SEK/MWh (railroad) and 537-555 SEK/MWh (sea). Algerian LNG costs 315-324 SEK/MWh (sea). The large difference between Norwegian and Algerian LNG is caused primarily by the much lower purchase costs of Algerian LNG, and also due to the difference in sea shipping costs. The purchase cost is about 80 % of the total cost for all cases. The transport cost is between 3 and 6 % and the terminal costs the balance, making it a larger component in the cases of Algerian than Norwegian LNG. It is shown that LNG could be an alternative to secure the Natural Gas supply after the Danish supply has run out. It has proven safe and the market is getting more and more mature. The fate of base-load LNG is largely determined by the other Natural Gas projects in the Nordic countries. The Natural Gas market price largely follows the oil price and as a consequence from this, LNG prices are also linked to the source of energy which it is primarily supposed to replace. The question is whether the market price is reduced - or at least less increased - due to the

  9. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens (Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    comes to the purchase costs and the railroad and large-scale sea transport costs. It is also worth noticing that the cost estimation models used in this study sometimes contain large steps for the different cost situations. This is the case for small-scale/base-load ships, purchase cost for Norwegian/Algerian LNG and wagon transport/system trains. The results are hence sometimes less accurate. As a side assignment, the costs for peak-shaving by the use of LNG is looked into. 20-30 MW for 24 hours per year need to be cut at Oeresundskraft's combined power and heat plant in Helsingborg. Here, the possibility of utilising portable LNG containers (as used by the Norwegian company Liquiline) is studied. In order to indicate the extent to which some key parameters affect the final cost, sensitivity analysis is carried out on the purchase price and the terminal costs. The results show that the Norwegian LNG costs 560-608 SEK/MWh (road), 570-689 SEK/MWh (railroad) and 537-555 SEK/MWh (sea). Algerian LNG costs 315-324 SEK/MWh (sea). The large difference between Norwegian and Algerian LNG is caused primarily by the much lower purchase costs of Algerian LNG, and also due to the difference in sea shipping costs. The purchase cost is about 80 % of the total cost for all cases. The transport cost is between 3 and 6 % and the terminal costs the balance, making it a larger component in the cases of Algerian than Norwegian LNG. It is shown that LNG could be an alternative to secure the Natural Gas supply after the Danish supply has run out. It has proven safe and the market is getting more and more mature. The fate of base-load LNG is largely determined by the other Natural Gas projects in the Nordic countries. The Natural Gas market price largely follows the oil price and as a consequence from this, LNG prices are also linked to the source of energy which it is primarily supposed to replace. The question is whether the market price is reduced - or at least less increased - due to

  10. ARE. Regional energy supplies - progress report 2000-2001; ARE. Regionale Energieversorgung 2000-2001. Taetigkeitsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    The ARE progress report discusses the following issues: Economic development and its effects on power supply; Deregulation of the electricity and gas market; Competition between regional utilities; Energy policy of the new German government; European regulations; Legislation on energy supply; Energy supply and cartel law; Regional supply in the East German states. [German] Der Taetigkeitsbericht der ARE befasst sich mit folgenden Themen: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung und ihre Auswirkung auf die Energiewirtschaft, Oeffnung des Monopoles fuer Strom und Gas, Wettbewerb der regionalen Energieversorger, Energiepolitik der neuen Bundesregierung, Europaeische Richtlininen, energiewirtschaftsrecht, Versorgungswirtschaft und Kartellrecht und der Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern.

  11. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchinda Maurice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4 was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country

  12. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner L; Merbold, Lutz; Ziegler, Waldemar; Mukelabai, Mukufute M; Muchinda, Maurice; Kolle, Olaf; Scholes, Robert J

    2011-08-19

    This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots) with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4) was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country will remain locked in the charcoal trap such as many other

  13. EVOLUTION OF THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN ENERGY RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestru MAXIMILIAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and political development of human society in recent decades put to the fore the issue of natural resources available to the earth; scientists are asking ever more seriously the question to what extent these resources can support the economic development in the future, can provide food and survival of a growing population and will be able to contribute to the eradication of underdevelopment. The emphasis of major events – the population explosion, the trend of depletion of natural resources, environmental deterioration, underdevelopment etc. – was and it is still discussed with increasing responsibility by specialists, being drafted a large number of forecasts for a variable duration perspective. The trend of depletion of natural resources is another phenomenon of the contemporary world and that will become, certainly, even more pronounced in the near future. Harnessing the increasing exhaustible natural resources with low reserves and a slow recovery of renewable resources raises acutely the issue regarding the conservation of these resources. In recent decades, there is a tendency to waste energy and raw materials in the society. There are produced goods without an absolute utility, being imposed artificially by advertising or fashion swings and many products are designed in such a way that it takes little to compel the buyer to replace them. The "consumption" civilization is characterized as a "society that throws" the population of developed countries (18% of world population dispelling waste form 20 to 25% of the material production of the world. Excessive consumption of raw materials and fuel was favoured by their relatively low prices, maintained under the pressure of interests of transnational companies, prices that disfavoured, however, the developing countries. Consequently, consumption of raw materials and fuel turned to the easily accessible resources that have been heavily exploited, partially abandoning some

  14. Export growth, energy costs, and sustainable supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The report examines sustainable supply chains in North America and the role played by rail intermodal : operations in lowering ten-mile fuel and emission costs. It examines whether current systems favor imports : over exports a current complaint ...

  15. Association between shortage of energy supply and nuclear gene mutations leading to carcinomatous transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria use glycolysis, an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway, whereas energy metabolism in the evolved eukaryotic cell is performed via oxidative phosphorylation, with all eukaryotic cell activities depending upon high energy consumption. However, in cancer cells evolving from eukaryotic cells, the energy metabolism switches from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The shortage of energy supply induces cancer cells to acquire specific characteristics. Base pair renewal is the most energy-consuming process in the cell, and shortage of energy supply may lead to errors in this process; the more prominent the shortage in energy supply, the more errors are likely to occur in base pair renewal, resulting in gene mutations and expression of cancer cell characteristics. Thus, shortage of energy supply is associated with carcinomatous transformation.

  16. The role of wind energy in the programme of power supply of northern Russia territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezroukikh, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this article examined technical, management and economic problems has been arising during working out of above mentioned Power Supply Programm based on the renewable energy sources usage and proved the leading role of wind energy in this Programm. (author)

  17. The role of wind energy in the programme of power supply of northern Russia territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezroukikh, P [Ministry for Fuel and Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    In this article examined technical, management and economic problems has been arising during working out of above mentioned Power Supply Programm based on the renewable energy sources usage and proved the leading role of wind energy in this Programm. (author)

  18. The role of wind energy in the programme of power supply of northern Russia territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezroukikh, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    In this article examined technical, management and economic problems has been arising during working out of above mentioned Power Supply Programm based on the renewable energy sources usage and proved the leading role of wind energy in this Programm. (author)

  19. Energy and competition. Supplying Europe with safe and low-cost energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The EC Commission and the Energy Committee of the European Parliament want to achieve more competition in energy supply. To this end, deregulation is to be carried out as a first step. The proposals under discussion are based on the English-Welsh model which, however, can hardly be applied to the whole of the EC and not at all to Germany, as it provides for government controlled ''pseudo''-competition to override real competition. At the same time, the German Federal Cartel Office tries to abolish altogether the concept of territorial protection. In a ''competition'' brought about by such means, foreign utilities operating in Germany would enjoy advantages over domestic utilities. From an all-European point of view, also the draft amendment to the Energy Economy Act proposed by the German Federal Ministry of Economics, and a number of regulations covering energy trust legislation, are appearing at the wrong time. (orig.) [de

  20. Carbon, energy and forest biomass: new opportunities and needs for forest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass provides a relevant fraction of world energy needs, not only in developing Countries. In Italy, several factors are presently contributing to a new interest for this resource, ranging from regulatory quotas for renewables to the increasing price of fossil fuel to the emergence of a European carbon stock exchange. This focus on renewable resources constitutes an important opportunity for the forest sector and for society by and large, but because of the potential dimensions of the emerging market it also requires new planning instruments, in order to avoid a sudden and widespread resumption of coppice management and a reduction of standing carbon stock in forest ecosystems, which would run contrary to the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. An example of the future demand for biomasses in Central Italy is presented, based on the possible use of fuelwood in new coal-fired power plants by the 'co-firing' technology.

  1. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  2. Analysis of energy wood supply chain in thinning operations: a case study in a pine stand of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldini S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thinning is an essential practice in Mediterranean pine forests management but is rarely applied because of the high harvesting costs. The new market of bioenergy products could give a profit to wood biomass harvesting activities, though the drawbacks of elevated supply chain costs, related to technical problems and lack of knowledge about the wood quality have to be overcome in advance. This study analyzed technical, economic, energy and environmental factors of a pine stand thinning in Central Italy, where collected biomass was directed to energy, in order to give a decisional support to reach economical profitability and environmental sustainability in thinning practices. The introduction of Full Tree System maximized the recovery of available biomass, full tree chipping produced material with Heating Value superior than single tree components. The use of a felling frame in motor-manual felling in comparison with the traditional chainsaw reduced operator effort, increasing the number of felled trees per hour, when the stump diameter remained under 15 cm. The energy wood supply chain is not sustainable from an economic point of view, the profitability could be reached only acting on suggested technical levers and particularly reducing costs of hauling operation. The estimation of output/input energy ratio in the supply chain underlined the feasibility of thinning practices for energy. The assessment of CO2 emissions confirmed the environmental sustainability of biomass supply chain in energy when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Study conclusions provide the guidelines for thinning treatment in Mediterranean pine stands, in order to reach environmental and economic sustainability of these practices.

  3. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Low Energy Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Müller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The North-east German Lowlands is a region with one of the highest forest fire risks in Europe. In order to keep damage levels as low as possible, it is important to have an effective early warning system. Such a system is being developed on the basis of a hydrogen sensor, which makes it possible to detect a smouldering forest fire before the development of open flames. The prototype hydrogen sensor produced at the Humboldt University Berlin has a metal/ solid electrolyte/insulator/ semiconductor (MEIS structure, which allows cost-effective production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarchic working unit could be installed in the forest. Field trials have shown that it is possible to identify a forest fire in its early stages when hydrogen concentrations are still low. A significant change in the signal due to a fire was measured at a distance of about 100m. In view of the potential impacts of climate change, the innovative pre-ignition warning system is an important early diagnosis and monitoring module for the protection of the forests.

  4. Prospects for jointly using solar and wind energy for heat supply and hot water supply to private houses under the conditions of Baku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamov, O. M.; Aliev, F. F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the discovery of the potential for jointly using solar and wind energy for heat supply (HS) and hot water supply (HWS) to a one-family private house located in the Apsheron Peninsula. (authors)

  5. RUSTEC: Greening Europe's energy supply by developing Russia's renewable energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anatole; Willems, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The North-West of Russia is characterized by a large renewable energy resource base in geographic proximity to the EU. At the same time, EU Member States are bound by mandatory renewable energy targets which could prove to be costly to achieve in the current budgetary context and which often face strong local opposition. Directive 2009/28/EC on Renewable Energy makes it possible for Member States to achieve their targets by importing electricity produced from renewable energy sources from non-EU countries. So far, most attention has been on the Mediterranean Solar Plan or Desertec. An EU–Russia Renewable Energy Plan or RUSTEC – being based on onshore wind/biomass/hydro energy and on-land interconnection, rather than solar power and subsea lines – could present a cost-efficient and short-term complement to Desertec. This article examines the political, geopolitical, economic, social and legal challenges and opportunities of exporting “green” energy from Russia to the EU. It argues that EU–Russian cooperation in the renewable energy field would present a win-win situation: Member States could achieve their targets on the basis of Russia's renewable energy potential, while Russia could begin to develop a national renewable energy industry without risking potential price increases for domestic consumers—a concern of great political sensitivity in Russia. - Highlights: ► Russia has a huge renewable energy potential in geographic proximity to the EU. ► This potential could help the EU decarbonize its electricity supply at least cost.► EU–Russia green energy export is a win-win situation but lacks political attention.► RUSTEC could be a short-term and cost-efficient complement to Desertec. ► RUSTEC would diversify EU energy imports/Russian exports and stimulate innovation.

  6. Air Quality and Health Impacts of an Aviation Biofuel Supply Chain Using Forest Residue in the Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vikram; Gao, Allan H; Martinkus, Natalie B; Wolcott, Michael P; Lamb, Brian K

    2018-04-03

    Forest residue is a major potential feedstock for second-generation biofuel; however, little knowledge exists about the environmental impacts of the development and production of biofuel from such a feedstock. Using a high-resolution regional air quality model, we estimate the air quality impacts of a forest residue based aviation biofuel supply chain scenario in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Using two potential supply chain regions, we find that biomass and biofuel hauling activities will add simulation. Using BenMAP, a health impact assessment tool, we show that avoiding slash pile burning results in a decrease in premature mortality as well as several other nonfatal and minor health effects. In general, we show that most air quality and health benefits result primarily from avoided slash pile burning emissions.

  7. World energy supply and demand and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzke, U.

    1977-01-01

    The OECD's world energy outlook analyses projected trends in energy damnd and supply for the OECD area and other major global regions to 1985. It provides a brief discussion of trends after 1985. OECD energy consumption is projected to grow more slowly than in the past. Conservation effects will increase efficiency of energy use per unit of economic growth. All domestic energy supplies in the OECD are projected to expand faster than in the past. The relative share of non-fossil energy sources in total production will be almost doubled. Assuming moderate economic growth, existing energy policies and a constnat real price for oil, the outlook's reference case projects OECD oil import at 35 million barrels a day by 1985. This level of import demand, when combined with the import needs of other oil importing areas, could approach the limit of availability of world oil supplies and as a result cause severe disequilibrium in world energy markets. The outlook indicates such severe disruption can be avoided by action to improve the world energy supply and demand balance without impeding economic growth objectives. Strong measures will be required both to conserve energy and to develop new energy supplies. The biggest increment to the OECD's energy supply by 1985 is expected to come from nuclear power. This substantial nuclear contribution will be inevitable and irreplaceable. As a result urgent solutions to problems concerning safety, availability of fuel cycle services, the environment, cost escalation and construction delays will be required

  8. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  9. Family forest owner preferences for biomass harvesting in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marla Markowski-Lindsay; Thomas Stevens; David B. Kittredge; Brett J. Butler; Paul Catanzaro; David Damery

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests, including family-owned forests, are a potential source of biomass for renewable energy. Family forest owners constitute a significant portion of the overall forestland in the U.S., yet little is known about family forest owners' preferences for supplying wood-based biomass. The goal of this study is to understand how Massachusetts family forest...

  10. Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope This paper discusses the identification of the environmental consequences of marginal electricity supplies in consequential life cycle assessments (LCA). According to the methodology, environmental characteristics can be examined by identifying affected activities, i...... in capacity but can be characterised as a complex set of affected electricity and heat supply technologies. A long-term YAM technology is identified for the Danish BAU2030 system in the case of three different long-term marginal changes in capacity, namely coal, natural gas or wind power. Discussion Four...... of four different situations are provided. We suggest that the technology mix with the installation of natural gas or coal power plant is applied as the marginal capacity. Conclusions The environmental consequences of marginal changes in electricity supply cannot always be represented solely by long...

  11. Creation of reactor's reliable system of emergency energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Brovkin, A.Yu.; Petukhov, V.K.; Chekushin, A.I.; Chernyaev, V.P.; Yagotinets, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    System of reliable power supply of the WWR-K reactor complex is described, which completely provides safety operation of reactor equipment in the case of total voltage loss from external power transmission lines as well as under destruction of accumulation batteries by earthquake more than 6 balls. Switching on in operation of diesel-generators and system of constant current supply from accumulator batteries is occurred automatically under cessation of voltage supply from centralized power system. Reliable reactor dampening in case it work on capacity has been ensured. Reactor cooling under its emergency shutdown during both the partial or the total loss of coolant in first counter has been carried out. Under full coolant loss the system of emergency reactor cooling has been switched on in operation

  12. Air pollution impacts from logistics related to forest biomass to energy chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Tarelho, L.; Lopes, M.; Monteiro, A.; Cascao, P.; Miranda, A.M. [CESAM and Dept. of Environment and Planning, Univ. of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal)], e-mail: anacristina@ua.pt

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, pressures on global environment and energy security have led to an increasing demand on renewable energy sources, and diversification of world's energy supply. Among these resources the forest biomass could exert an important role, since it is considered a renewable and CO{sub 2} neutral energy resource, and can potentially provide energy for heat, power and transport fuels. In this study were presented the results of the amounts of forest biomass residues (FBR) available in Portugal, taking into account some conditioning related with land characteristics (e.g. slope). Comparing the FBR consumption for industrial thermal power plants it is possible to verify that the FBR available (1.91x10{sup 6} ton (dry) year{sup -}1) in Portugal is enough to address the needs of industrial plants, but if the planned plants come into operation, the FBR available is no longer sufficient. The operations associated with the FBR harvesting were described, emphasizing the transport between the production locations and the industrial thermal plants. By applying a TRaffic Emission Model (TREM), it was estimated the fuel consumption and related gaseous emissions (CO, CO{sub 2}, PM, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O) associated with the transport of the FBR.

  13. Private forests, housing growth, and America’s water supply: A report from the Forests on the Edge and Forests to Faucets Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. H. Mockrin; R. L. Lilja; E. Weidner; S. M. Stein; M. A. Carr

    2014-01-01

    America’s private forests provide a vast array of public goods and services, including abundant, clean surface water. Forest loss and development can affect water quality and quantity when forests are removed and impervious surfaces, such as paved roads, spread across the landscape. We rank watersheds across the conterminous United States according to the contributions...

  14. Siting studies for an asymptotic U.S. energy supply system based primarily on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burwell, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear energy center (NEC) concept is an approach to siting wherein nuclear facilities would be clustered in and delimited to a relatively small number of locations throughout the United States. These designated centers would be concurrently developed to their full capability over several decades, at which time, they would be several times larger than the largest nuclear power stations in existence today. The centers would be permanently dedicated to nuclear operations including the future decommissioning of functionally obsolescent facilities as well as the commissioning of their replacements. The criteria for and characteristics of an acceptable nuclear energy system that could supply most of the U.S. energy requirements in the distant future are discussed. The time period is unspecified but occurs when fossil-fuel resources are depleted to such an extent that their use is economic only in special situations, and is not economic, in general, for use as fuel

  15. Mexico's long-term energy outlook : results of a detailed energy supply and demand simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzelmann, G.; Quintanilla, J.; Conde, L.A.; Fernandez, J.; Mar, E.; Martin del Campo, C.; Serrato, G.; Ortega, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article discussed the results of a bottom-up analysis of Mexico's energy markets which was conducted using an energy and power evaluation program. The program was used to develop energy market forecasts to the year 2025. In the first phase of the study, dynamic optimization software was used to determine the optimal, least-cost generation system expansion path to meet growing demand for electricity. A separate model was used to determine the optimal generating strategy of mixed hydro-thermal electric power systems. In phase 2, a nonlinear market-based approach was used to determine the energy supply and demand balance for the entire energy system, as well as the response of various segments of the energy system to changes in energy price and demand levels. Basic input parameters included information on the energy system structure; base-year energy statistics; and, technical and policy constraints. A total of 14 scenarios were modelled to examine variations in load growth, sensitivities to changes in projected fuel prices, variations in assumed natural gas availability, system reliability targets, and the potential for additional nuclear capacity. Forecasts for the entire energy system were then developed for 4 scenarios: (1) reference case; (2) limited gas scenario; (3) renewable energy; and (4) additional nuclear power generation capacity. Results of the study showed that Mexico's crude oil production is projected to increase annually by 1 per cent to 2025. Imports of petroleum products resulting from the country's rapidly growing transportation sector will increase. Demand for natural gas is expected to outpace projected domestic production. The long-term market outlook for Mexico's electricity industry shows a heavy reliance on natural gas-based generating technologies. It was concluded that alternative results for a constrained-gas scenario showed a substantial shift to coal-based generation and associated effects on the natural gas market. 4 refs., 26

  16. Summertime influences of tidal energy advection on the surface energy balance in a mangrove forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Barr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests are ecosystems susceptible to changing water levels and temperatures due to climate change as well as perturbations resulting from tropical storms. Numerical models can be used to project mangrove forest responses to regional and global environmental changes, and the reliability of these models depends on surface energy balance closure. However, for tidal ecosystems, the surface energy balance is complex because the energy transport associated with tidal activity remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify impacts of tidal flows on energy dynamics within a mangrove ecosystem. To address the research objective, an intensive 10-day study was conducted in a mangrove forest located along the Shark River in the Everglades National Park, FL, USA. Forest–atmosphere turbulent exchanges of energy were quantified with an eddy covariance system installed on a 30-m-tall flux tower. Energy transport associated with tidal activity was calculated based on a coupled mass and energy balance approach. The mass balance included tidal flows and accumulation of water on the forest floor. The energy balance included temporal changes in enthalpy, resulting from tidal flows and temperature changes in the water column. By serving as a net sink or a source of available energy, flood waters reduced the impact of high radiational loads on the mangrove forest. Also, the regression slope of available energy versus sink terms increased from 0.730 to 0.754 and from 0.798 to 0.857, including total enthalpy change in the water column in the surface energy balance for 30-min periods and daily daytime sums, respectively. Results indicated that tidal inundation provides an important mechanism for heat removal and that tidal exchange should be considered in surface energy budgets of coastal ecosystems. Results also demonstrated the importance of including tidal energy advection in mangrove biophysical models that are used for predicting ecosystem

  17. Changing Strategies in Global Wind Energy Shipping, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within the global wind energy market, a number of derived industries support the continued expansion of the ever larger onshore and offshore wind farms. One such derived industry is that of shipping, logistics, and supply chain management. Based on extensive case study work performed since 2009......, the paper reviews different wind energy markets globally. Subsequently, a number of supply chain set-ups serviced by the shipping, logistics, and supply chain management industry are reviewed. Finally, winning business models and strategies of current as well as emerging supply chain constituencies...

  18. Accelerator-driven thermal fission systems may provide energy supply advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the energy supply advantages of using accelerator-driven thermal fission systems. Energy supply issues as related to cost, fuel supply stability, environmental impact, and safety are reviewed. It is concluded that the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept, discussed here, has the following advantages: improved safety in the form of low inventory and subcriticality; reduced high-level radioactive waste management timescales for both fission products and actinides; and a very long-term fuel supply requiring no enrichment

  19. Renewable Energy Supply for Power Dominated, Energy Intense Production Processes - A Systematic Conversion Approach for the Anodizing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    >D Stollenwerk, T Kuvarakul, I Kuperjans,

    2013-06-01

    European countries are highly dependent on energy imports. To lower this import dependency effectively, renewable energies will take a major role in future energy supply systems. To assist the national and inter-European efforts, extensive changes towards a renewable energy supply, especially on the company level, will be unavoidable. To conduct this conversion in the most effective way, the methodology developed in this paper can support the planning procedure. It is applied to the energy intense anodizing production process, where the electrical demand is the governing factor for the energy system layout. The differences between the classical system layout based on the current energy procurement and an approach with a detailed load-time-curve analysis, using process decomposition besides thermodynamic optimization, are discussed. The technical effects on the resulting energy systems are shown besides the resulting energy supply costs which will be determined by hourly discrete simulation.

  20. Renewable Energy Supply for Power Dominated, Energy Intense Production Processes – A Systematic Conversion Approach for the Anodizing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stollenwerk, D; Kuvarakul, T; Kuperjans, I

    2013-01-01

    European countries are highly dependent on energy imports. To lower this import dependency effectively, renewable energies will take a major role in future energy supply systems. To assist the national and inter-European efforts, extensive changes towards a renewable energy supply, especially on the company level, will be unavoidable. To conduct this conversion in the most effective way, the methodology developed in this paper can support the planning procedure. It is applied to the energy intense anodizing production process, where the electrical demand is the governing factor for the energy system layout. The differences between the classical system layout based on the current energy procurement and an approach with a detailed load-time-curve analysis, using process decomposition besides thermodynamic optimization, are discussed. The technical effects on the resulting energy systems are shown besides the resulting energy supply costs which will be determined by hourly discrete simulation.

  1. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  2. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  3. Sustainable Management of Oleaginous Trees as a Source for Renewable Energy Supply and Climate Change Mitigation: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide a range of ecosystem services, including bioenergy supply and carbon sequestration, both contributing to significant climate change mitigation. Oleaginous trees have potential to provide bioenergy supplies through biodiesel-producing seed yield as well as contributing to carbon sequestration. This paper aims to show the provisions of bioenergy and carbon savings through forest rotation management and it will investigate the potential of oleaginous forest management in China. We use the land expectation value (LEV model to calculate the optimal joint values of timber, seed and total carbon savings, including carbon sequestration from forest and carbon reductions through energy substitutions. The results indicate that combining both values of seeds and carbon savings increase the LEV and rotation age (167,611 Yuan/ha, 78 years compared to sole timber value (26,053 Yuan/ha, 55 years. The optimization of the LEVs and the resulting optimal rotation ages are significantly sensitive to the discounting rate. Annual biodiesel potential production from Pistacia chinensis can take up 1.7% of the national diesel consumption in China. We conclude that China can use improved forest rotation management as an effective means for achieving goals in its low-carbon energy strategy.

  4. Challenges in energy supply and infrastructural development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the overall, developing countries must address the eminent energy challenges and invest more towards energy security as the key to industrialization and economic development. National energy mix must also be diversified to cover alternative fuels and renewable energy sources to ensure sustainability. Keywords: ...

  5. Conventional energy supply and impacts in African cities; L'approvisionnement en energie traditionnelle et impacts dans les villes africaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianka, M. [GAA/RPTES, Dakar (Senegal)

    2002-03-01

    Before discussing supplies of conventional energy in sub-Sahara, one must consider certain information and important facts. In each country, the supplies in conventional energy are moving within a holistic frame with inter sectoral links between energy and the other problems encountered by national economies: forestry, agriculture, livestock production, demography, urbanization, poverty. In this light, the author indicated it might be wise to take into account a few major facts that underlay the Urban Demand in Domestic Combustibles before devising sustainable solutions. It was explained that in most of the African countries located South of the Sahara, there was a trend toward greater urbanization and the movement of refugees. In large part, these trends are the result of poverty, conflicts, or the degradation of the environment. Therefore, it follows that energy consumption is concentrated in cities. In countries such as Burkina Faso or Zambia, a large proportion of urban dwellers still rely on biomass to meet their culinary needs, as well as heating and other tasks. Urbanization occurred in an anarchic manner, and the forests that used to encircle cities are fast disappearing, leaving in their wake pollution. In addition, the supply sources of biomass are farther than ever. Nowadays, the supply of wood energy for Dakar, the capital of Senegal, extends over an area covering 500 kilometres, rather than the 100 kilometres it required thirty years ago. Wood energy in cities is considered to be the major cause of deforestation. Health problems such as asthma are caused by the smoke emanating from the fires used to cook meals. A few solutions are beginning to emerge, linked to the presence of youth and women in the cities, as well as sufficient manpower to implement the solutions. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Criteria of energy supply: a challenge for comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Reissmann, K.F.

    1980-01-01

    6 criteria for a judgment of power supply systems, in particular the 'hard' and the 'soft' way, are named: 1) Preservation of existence; 2) efficiency; 3) freedom of action; 4) safety; 5) adaptability; and 6) the principle of social ethics. Finally, the application of these criteria is discussed in a general way. (UA) [de

  7. Effect of CO2 supply strategy on specific energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of CO2-dosing with exhaust gases on the efficiency of glasshouse tomato production. The paper shows that it can be recommended to ensure a continuing CO2 supply during the warm period. The discussion focuses on exhaust gases as a CO2 source, but the results also

  8. Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moest, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO 2 -certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO 2 -emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO 2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced.

  9. Drivers behind the development of forest energy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerheden, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The use of forest fuels has more than doubled in Sweden over the last 25-30 years. Almost a fifth of the utilized energy is now based on forest biomass. Concurrently, real prices of bioenergy have decreased to less than a third of what they were 25 years ago. Some principal driving forces behind this development are identified and discussed in this paper. The origin of this development was equally the result of a foreseen shortage of fibre and a reaction to this vulnerable position, made obvious through the 'oil crises'. Although Sweden has a long tradition of large-scale use of forest energy, 35 years ago she was almost totally dependent on imported oil. Forest mechanisation provided rational solutions to handling small diameter wood and stumps in conventional industrial processes, but also enabled the economical use of such wood for energy. During 3 decades of development, drivers and obstacles have shifted. What started to reduce dependence on fossil fuels was later driven by increased general environmental awareness. An emerging 'green' lobby blocked the development of nuclear power and expanded harnessing of hydropower which were alternative means of self-sufficiency. In the last 10-15 years, focus has changed again. Global concern for climatic change due to emissions of greenhouse gases is a powerful driver, endorsing increased use of CO 2 -neutral energy sources. Sustainability, resource cycling and the welfare of future generations are seen as goals for continued development. Ideals and policies do not, however, automatically induce change in regular operations. A set of drivers is identified, that has played the decisive role in practice. These include the direct technical-operational drivers, as well as indirect drivers through market development, taxation and other legislation

  10. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  11. An integrated approach to energy supply and demand: The role of nuclear energy in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neethling, D.C.; Bredell, J.H.; Basson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of an integrated approach to the development of an electricity strategy for Southern Africa is emphasized in view of the numerous options and initiatives that are available for supply and demand side management. Apart from present uncertainties concerning future electricity demand, other factors such as the availability of coal and uranium and the comparative costs of nuclear and coal-based electricity are regarded as the most important parameters which have as yet not been sufficiently quantified to decide on the timing and extent of nuclear energy in Southern Africa. (author)

  12. An integrated approach to energy supply and demand: The role of nuclear energy in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neethling, D C; Bredell, J H; Basson, J A [National Energy Council, Lynnwood Ridge (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    The importance of an integrated approach to the development of an electricity strategy for Southern Africa is emphasized in view of the numerous options and initiatives that are available for supply and demand side management. Apart from present uncertainties concerning future electricity demand, other factors such as the availability of coal and uranium and the comparative costs of nuclear and coal-based electricity are regarded as the most important parameters which have as yet not been sufficiently quantified to decide on the timing and extent of nuclear energy in Southern Africa. (author)

  13. Modelling Reliability of Supply and Infrastructural Dependency in Energy Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helseth, Arild

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents methods and models for assessing reliability of supply and infrastructural dependency in energy distribution systems with multiple energy carriers. The three energy carriers of electric power, natural gas and district heating are considered. Models and methods for assessing reliability of supply in electric power systems are well documented, frequently applied in the industry and continuously being subject to research and improvement. On the contrary, there are compar...

  14. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  15. Energy (r)evolution. Towards a fully renewable energy supply in the EU 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zervos, A.; Lins, C.; Muth, J. [European Renewable Energy Council EREC, Brussels (Belgium); Krewitt, W.; Simon, S.; Pregger, T.; Naegler, T. [DLR, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment, Stuttgart (Germany); Schmid, S. [DLR, Institute of Vehicle Concepts, Stuttgart (DE); Graus, W.; Blomen, E. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Baer, P. [Greenhouse Development Rights, EcoEquity, Assistant Professor, School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Aubrey, C. (ed.)

    2010-06-15

    Europe's energy policy is at a crossroads. Many of its power stations are nearing the end of their working lives and its infrastructure is aging. Important issues are at stake; energy security, stability of supply, growing demand, the employment of thousands and the urgent need to cut emissions and head off climate change. But an answer is within reach: energy savings and renewable energy, with zero fuel costs, zero reliance on scarce resources, and zero climate damaging emissions, is an increasingly attractive option. This study shows that investing in green energy will nudge up the cost of electricity in the short to medium term. But it will save trillions of Euros in fuel costs alone from 2030 and represents an immediate investment in jobs and energy security. It presents a revolution that will give Europe a global competitive advantage and act as a beacon to other regions looking to steer a course away from the dangerous climate change approaching from the horizon. The revolution is feasible, as calculations done by the Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment department of the German Aerospace Center show. But it is going to rely on supportive policies at European and member state level.

  16. Carbon neutral archipelago – 100% renewable energy supply for the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gils, Hans Christian; Simon, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A pathway to a 100% renewable energy supply for the Canary Islands is presented. • Hourly system operation is analysed, considering flexibility options and sector linkage. • Results show feasibility of a carbon neutral energy supply with local resources. • High resolution power system model highlights importance of grid connections. - Abstract: As many other small islands and archipelagos, the Canary Islands depend to a high degree on energy imports. Despite its small surface, the archipelago has a high potential for renewable energy (RE) technologies. In this paper, we present a scenario pathway to a 100% RE supply in the Canary Islands by 2050. It relies on a back-casting approach linking the bottom-up accounting framework Mesap-PlaNet and the high resolution power system model REMix. Our analysis shows that locally available technology potentials are sufficient for a fully renewable supply of the islands’ power, heat, and land transport energy demands. To follow the pathway for achieving a carbon neutral supply, expansion of RE technology deployment needs to be accelerated in the short-term and efforts towards greater energy efficiency must be increased. According to our results, an extended linkage between energy sectors through electric vehicles as well as electric heating, and the usage of synthetic hydrogen can contribute notably to the integration of intermittent RE power generation. Furthermore, our results highlight the importance of power transmission in RE supply systems. Supply costs are found 15% lower in a scenario considering sea cable connections between all islands.

  17. The energy supply of China. Markets and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.; Meidan, M.

    2005-07-01

    China is a great part of the energy world economy. In 2003 and 2004, the chinese economic growth had a direct impact on the world energy markets: it is a main factor of the great world economic demand growth and the energy prices increase. In the other hand this growth generates new investment of energy offer in the world. The author details the China energy policy and its efficiency quest, the insertion in the gas markets and the petroleum market facing the chinese energy security. (A.L.B.)

  18. Sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy - Possibilities and problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, I.; Asikainen, A.; Jonsell, M.

    2007-01-01

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations. guidelines....... and other synthesis publications on Sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages. disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the forestry or the Nordic and Baltic countries, the paper also identifies...

  19. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  20. Energy and Production Planning for Process Industry Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Waldemarsson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses industrial energy issues from a production economic perspective. During the past decade, the energy issue has become more important, partly due to rising energy prices in general, but also from a political pressure on environmental awareness concerning the problems with climate change. As a large user of energy the industry sector is most likely responsible for a lot of these problems. Things need to change and are most likely to do so considering current and assumed fut...

  1. Low Carbon Energy Supply for South East Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Ćosić, B.

    2015-01-01

    South East Europe consists of several smaller countries in terms of energy systems and thus,integrating energy systems of the whole region has significant benefits for all the countries included. However, as there are large differences between energy mixes of the countries included, careful energ...

  2. Energy supply. Resources - technologies - perspectives. [in German]. Energieversorgung. Ressourcen - Technologien - Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grathwohl, M

    1978-01-01

    After an outline of the general relationship between primary energy carriers and international economics, the energy potential of the individual energy carriers is investigated from an international point of view. In accordance with the survey character of this book, conventional and nuclear energy-conversion techniques are dealt with as far as they can be realized in energy-supply systems. A further major chapter deals with environmental and safety problems connected with different energy conversion processes.

  3. Policy implications of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the 1993 edition of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, and presents the implications of the projection that are important for GRI research and development planning and the gas industry. The survey of supply and demand considerations is followed by a breakdown of energy demand by type of fuel, by consumption sector, and by service application. Gas supply and prices are analyzed in terms of two scenarios: a constrained energy demand scenario, and an optimistic scenario. Tables and charts accompany the summary

  4. Energy-Saving Optimization of Water Supply Pumping Station Life Cycle Based on BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Miao; Wang, Jiayuan; Liu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    In the urban water supply system, pump station is the main unit of energy consumption. In the background of pushing forward the informatization in China, using BIM technology in design, construction and operations of water supply pumping station, can break through the limitations of the traditional model and effectively achieve the goal of energy conservation and emissions reduction. This work researches the way to solve energy-saving optimization problems in the process of whole life cycle of water supply pumping station based on BIM technology, and put forward the feasible strategies of BIM application in order to realize the healthy and sustainable development goals by establishing the BIM model of water supply pumping station of Qingdao Guzhenkou water supply project.

  5. The Outlook for Energy Supply and Demand (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    These lectures will review the challenges facing energy policy, the outlook for different sources of primary energy (fossil and renewable), how energy is used, and prospects for improved energy efficiency. A colloquium ‘Can Future Energy Needs be Met Sustainably?’, that I will be giving on Tuesday 15 September at 16:30, is part of this course – see separate Abstract for a summary. The lectures will provide more details and address topics that will only be mentioned in passing in the colloquium.

  6. Optimal synthesis and operation of advanced energy supply systems for standard and domotic home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buoro, Dario; Casisi, Melchiorre; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Definition of an optimization model for a home energy supply system. ► Optimization of the energy supply system for standard and domotic home. ► Strong improvement can be achieved adopting the optimal system in standard and domotic home. ► The improvements are consistent if supply side and demand side strategies are applied together. ► Solutions with internal combustion engines are less sensible to market price of electricity and gas. - Abstract: The paper deals with the optimization of an advanced energy supply systems for two dwellings: a standard home and an advanced domotic home, where some demand side energy saving strategies have been implemented. In both cases the optimal synthesis, design and operation of the whole energy supply system have been obtained and a sensitivity analysis has been performed, by introducing different economic constraints. The optimization model is based on a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) and includes different kinds of small-scale cogenerators, geothermal heat pumps, boilers, heat storages, solar thermal and photovoltaic panels. In addition, absorption machines, supplied with cogenerated heat, can be used instead of conventional electrical chiller to face the cooling demand. The aim of the analysis is to address the question if advanced demand strategies and supply strategies have to be regarded as alternatives, or if they have to be simultaneously applied, in order to obtain the maximum energy and economic benefit.

  7. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  8. Management Methods by Development of Objects of Energy Supply Taking into Account the Combined Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillova Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the methods of choice of optimal administrative decisions are examined on the development of objects energy supplies of housing and communal services. That would take into account nascent risks related to investment-building activity of energy supplying enterprises. It is shown that the basic condition of housing and utilities on an energy supply is the building of objects with a subsequent production, distribution and realization of electric energy, that allows at their reproduction to provide quality and reliability of energy supply to the consumers. Also the questions of decline of risks and exposure of factors, influencing on the processes of management development of objects of energy supply in the field of housing and utilities, estimation of organizationally-economic reliability and combined risks, estimation of possibility of the use of innovative energy technologies, alternative sources of energy supply, are investigated in the article. It is fixed, that risk indexes must be appraised not only on the investment stage of building object, but also on his operating stage (after commissioning on the basis of account of the great number of risks characterizing the combined risk.

  9. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, A J; Newell, Joshua P; Cousins, Joshua J

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water–energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal

  10. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  11. Bio-methanol potential in Indonesia: Forest biomass as a source of bio-energy that reduces carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suntana, Asep S. [Forest Systems and Bio-Energy Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Indonesian Ecolabeling Institute/Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia (LEI), Taman Bogor Baru Blok BIV No. 12, Bogor 16152 (Indonesia); Vogt, Kristiina A. [Forest Systems and Bio-Energy Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Interforest LLC, Holderness, NH 03245 (United States); Renewol LLC, 63260 Overtree Road, Bend, OR 97701 (United States); Turnblom, Eric C. [Forest Biometrics Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Upadhye, Ravi [ARU Associates, Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Since Indonesia has significant land area in different forest types that could be used to produce biofuels, the potential to sustainably collect and convert forest materials to methanol for use in energy production was examined. Using the annually available aboveground forest biomass, from 40 to 168 billion l of bio-methanol could be produced for use as a transportation fuel and/or to supply fuel cells to produce electricity. When a lower forest biomass availability estimate was used to determine how much electricity (methanol fed into fuel cells) could be produced in Indonesia, more than 10 million households or about 12,000 villages (20% of the total rural villages in Indonesia) would be supplied annually with electricity. Collecting forest biomass at the higher end of the estimated available biomass and converting it to methanol to supply fuel cells could provide electricity to more than 42 million households annually. This would be approximately 52,000 villages, or 86% of the total rural villages in Indonesian. When electricity is produced with bio-methanol/fuel cells, it could potentially supply from half to all of the current electricity consumed in Indonesia. By generating electricity using bio-methanol/fuel cells instead of from fossil fuels, from 9 to 38% of the total carbon currently emitted each year in Indonesia could be avoided. In contrast, substituting this same amount of bio-methanol for gasoline could provide all of the annual gasoline needs of Indonesia and contribute towards reducing their carbon emissions by about 8-35%. (author)

  12. Energy demand and supply in Pakistan and possible role or biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, A.; Naqvi, F.; Khan, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the traditional fuels meet about one third of the country's energy requirements, Pakistan still remains heavily dependent on imported energy to the extent of one third of its total commercial energy needs. This paper analyses the prospects of energy demand and supply over the next fifteen years and shows that with the expected possible exploitation of indigenous resources of fossil, hydro, nuclear and traditional fuels the country is likely to remain significantly dependent on imported commercial fuels. The possibilities of how bio technologies can help in enhancing the energy self sufficiency of the country by increasing supplies of traditional and commercial fuels, are outlined. (author)

  13. Results. Building integrated energy supply; Resultater. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations of which the best combinations were selected. The final result takes form of a single top-50 list with the best combinations of energy systems according to CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. The present report contains the conclusions of and comments on the project's results. (ln)

  14. The long-term forecast of Taiwan's energy supply and demand: LEAP model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yophy; Bor, Yunchang Jeffrey; Peng, Chieh-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The long-term forecasting of energy supply and demand is an extremely important topic of fundamental research in Taiwan due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on energy imports, and the nation's pursuit of sustainable development. In this article, we provide an overview of energy supply and demand in Taiwan, and a summary of the historical evolution and current status of its energy policies, as background to a description of the preparation and application of a Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model of Taiwan's energy sector. The Taiwan LEAP model is used to compare future energy demand and supply patterns, as well as greenhouse gas emissions, for several alternative scenarios of energy policy and energy sector evolution. Results of scenarios featuring 'business-as-usual' policies, aggressive energy-efficiency improvement policies, and on-schedule retirement of Taiwan's three existing nuclear plants are provided and compared, along with sensitivity cases exploring the impacts of lower economic growth assumptions. A concluding section provides an interpretation of the implications of model results for future energy and climate policies in Taiwan. - Research highlights: → The LEAP model is useful for international energy policy comparison. → Nuclear power plants have significant, positive impacts on CO 2 emission. → The most effective energy policy is to adopt demand-side management. → Reasonable energy pricing provides incentives for energy efficiency and conservation. → Financial crisis has less impact on energy demand than aggressive energy policy.

  15. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haertel, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  16. Analysis of the Possible Use of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in Urban Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Đurin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of water supply for the sustainability of urban areas, and due to the significant consumption of energy with prices increasing every day, an alternative solution for sustainable energy supply should be sought in the field of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. An innovative solution as presented in this paper has until now not been comprehensively analyzed. This work presents the solution with the application of a (Photovoltaic PV generator. The main technological features, in addition to the designing methodology and case study are presented in this paper. The critical period approach has been used for the first time for system sizing. The application of this sizing method provides a high reliability of the proposed system. The obtained results confirm the assumption that the PV generator is a promising energy sustainable solution for urban water supply systems. The service reservoir, which acts as water and energy storage for the proposed system, provides the basis for a sustainable solution of water and energy supply. In accordance with the proposed, the reliability of such system is high. This concept of energy supply operation does not generate any atmospheric emission of greenhouse gases, which contributes significantly to the reduction of the impacts of climate changes. The proposed solution and designing methodology are widely applicable and in accordance with the characteristics of the water supply system and climate.

  17. Analysis of the Robustness of Australia Economy and Energy Supply/Demand Fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslani Alireza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy has a strategic role in social and economic development of the countries. Due to the high dependency of energy supply to fossil fuels, fluctuations in prices and supply have macro/micro-economics effects for both energy exporters and importers. Therefore, understanding economic stability based on energy market changes is an important subject for policy makers and researchers. As the competitiveness of Australia products/services has high dependency on energy prices, analyzing the relationships of economics robustness with fossil fuel fluctuations is important for the policy makers and researchers. In this paper, the researchers investigate the effects of energy changes on Australian economics. In this regard, first, the impact of oil price on macro-economic parameters is discussed. After that, the main issues related to energy economics including resilience of the energy sector, energy policies, economics analysis of the energy sector, electricity markets are discussed.

  18. City-regions and the development of sustainable energy-supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, D.; Gibbs, D.C. [Hull Univ., Dept. of Geography, Hull (United Kingdom); Longhurst, J.W.S. [University of the West of England, Environmental Health and Science Dept., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    To achieve the CO{sub 2} reductions deemed necessary to limit the impact of adverse climate change will require real changes in the way we both use and supply energy. Although explicit international and national frameworks are necessary to facilitate reduction strategies, regional implementation and local initiatives are increasingly seen as having an important role to play, both in meeting national CO{sub 2} reduction targets and improving the local environment. This paper deals with supply side of the energy equation for Greater Manchester in the U.K., examining the potential for 'regional' energy supply options to contribute to a reduction in carbon intensity. By assessing actual and latent regional opportunities, the potential for achieving a more sustainable energy supply system is evaluated. (Author)

  19. Directed influence on anaerobic energy supply systems of qualified free style wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Sybil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally prove effectiveness of directed influence on anaerobic energy supply systems of free style wrestlers, considering individual characteristics of their bio energetic. Material: in this article the data of laboratory bicycle stress test «Vita maxima» and results of special control testing have been presented. 40 sportsmen participated in the experiment. Results: individual characteristics of dominating type of anaerobic energy supply have been determined. Statistically confident difference between development of lactate and a-lactate anaerobic energetic components were found. By the data of bio-chemical indicators’ changes the authors observed increase of adenosine triphosphate (glycolytic or creatine-phosphate in some, weaker developed mechanisms of anaerobic re-synthesis. Ways of influence on anaerobic energy supply systems, considering individual characteristics of dominating of different components (lactate or a-lactate have been found. Conclusions: it is recommended to take in consideration individual dominating type of energy supply.

  20. Renewable energy and food supply : Will there be enough land?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, S

    The use of renewable energy sources like photovoltaic systems and biomass plantations require land to intercept incoming solar radiation. This implies that the total amount of energy that can be obtained from these sources is limited. Next to this land is also in use for other purposes, of which

  1. Portland Energy Centre: Securing supply and clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    The rationale for, and benefits derivable from the proposed Portland natural gas-fired cogeneration plant, to be located beside the former Hearn power station near the Leslie Street Spit in Toronto, are discussed. The justification for and the single most important benefit promised by the proposed plant is that it could help Ontario achieve its coal phase-out target by displacing 100 per cent of the annual output of the Lakeview coal--fired power plant in Mississauga, as well as six per cent of the annual output of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant, in total supplying about 10 per cent of Toronto's electricity needs and providing steam to heat several office towers in downtown Toronto. Other benefits discussed include substantially improved air quality, reduced incidence of asthma and heart attacks, a more reliable power supply for Toronto, some 500 new jobs during construction, and 25 to 35 permanent jobs to operate the plant. The Fact Sheet also offers suggestions on how to generate political support for this project in particular and for renewable power sources in general

  2. Supplying safety and energy independence; Securite d'approvisionnement et independance energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, D. [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de L' Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    2001-03-01

    The french Observatory of the Energy wonders about the energy independence notion. Many risks are possible: physical, economical, geo-political, social and ecological risks. Because those risks are numerous, the answers for a supplying safety are also numerous. In this context the energy policy is a difficult art which the public opinion needs to be more and more aware. (A.L.B.)

  3. Management of tropical forests for products and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John I. Zerbe

    1992-01-01

    Tropical forests have always been sources for prized timbers, rubber, tannin, and other forest products for use worldwide. However, with the recent concern regarding global change, the importance of effective forest products management and utilization has increased significantly. The USDA Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, has...

  4. Modeling of biomass-to-energy supply chain operations: Applications, challenges and research directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafakheri, Fereshteh; Nasiri, Fuzhan

    2014-01-01

    Reducing dependency on fossil fuels and mitigating their environmental impacts are among the most promising aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources. The availability of various biomass resources has made it an appealing source of renewable energy. Given the variability of supply and sources of biomass, supply chains play an important role in the efficient provisioning of biomass resources for energy production. This paper provides a comprehensive review and classification of the excising literature in modeling of biomass supply chain operations while linking them to the wider strategic challenges and issues with the design, planning and management of biomass supply chains. On that basis, we will present an analysis of the existing gaps and the potential future directions for research in modeling of biomass supply chain operations. - Highlights: • An extensive review of biomass supply chain operations management models presented in the literature is provided. • The models are classified in line with biomass supply chain activities from harvesting to conversion. • The issues surrounding biomass supply chains are investigated manifesting the need to novel modeling approaches. • Our gap analysis has identified a number of existing shortcomings and opportunities for future research

  5. SWOT-AHP as an inclusive analytical tool of the forest-wood-energy chain: the case study of the Sarntal (South Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodinoska N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the use of forest biomass for energy purpose is steadily increasing to tackle energy security issues and to mitigate climate change by stabilizing greenhouse gases (GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. In Italy, the new National Energy Strategy established that the renewable energy must cover 20% of gross energy demand by 2020. In order to achieve this objective the forest biomass could be of fundamental importance. In this context of increasing extraction of wood residues from forests, it is relevant to analyse two key aspects: (1 the involvement of stakeholders in the strategy for the valorization of forest-wood-energy chain at local level; and (2 the potential impacts of increased forest biomass extraction on environment. This paper analyses these two aspects through the stakeholders’ opinions in a case study in the Alto Adige (Sarentino valley. Stakeholders’ opinions concerning the analysis of SWOT categories (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats of the bioenergy supply chain were investigated using the SWOT-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process approach. The results show that the local stakeholders emphasize some strengths (e.g., additional income over time for private forest owners and opportunities (e.g., development of shared forest management strategies among small forest owners of forest-wood-energy chain, and consider less relevant the weaknesses and threats. The results concerning one of most important potential threats - impacts on environment - show that all groups of stakeholders (public administrations, associations and NGO, research bodies and universities, and actors of rural sector consider positive the impacts of increased forest biomass extraction on recreational activities and negative on other three ecosystem services (carbon sequestration, hydrogeological protection, and biodiversity.

  6. Matching renewable energy supply and demand in green datacenters

    OpenAIRE

    Goiri, Iñigo; Haque, Md E.; Le, Kien; Beauchea, Ryan; Nguyen, Thu D.; Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Torres Viñals, Jordi; Bianchini, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose GreenSlot, a scheduler for parallel batch jobs in a datacenter powered by a photovoltaic solar array and the electrical grid (as a backup). GreenSlot predicts the amount of solar energy that will be available in the near future, and schedules the workload to maximize the green energy consumption while meeting the jobs' deadlines. If grid energy must be used to avoid deadline violations, the scheduler selects times when it is cheap. Evaluation results show that GreenS...

  7. Evaluating the impacts of energy supply technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peachey, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    The newly formed Chemical Institute of Canada (CIC)/Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering (CSChE) Energy Subject Division is working to develop a methodology for assessing and communicating to governments, regulators and the public the relative merits of different technologies for meeting energy demand requirements or reducing energy consumption. The focus is on developing a process that considers a broader range of issues than basic economics, or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 12 assessment criteria proposed would address five major areas of concerns including: a) how well assumptions have been tested against the scientific method over the life cycle of an energy development, b) impacts on the availability of the basic requirements for life, c) maintaining the quality of human life, d) maintaining the quality of the local environment (air, land and water), in the area where a specific technology is used, and e) considers the potential global impacts of GHG emissions. (author)

  8. Multipurpose nuclear process heat for energy supply in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, U.; Inden, P.; Oesterwind, D.; Hukai, R.Y.; Pessine, R.T.; Pieroni, R.R.; Visoni, E.

    1978-11-01

    The industrialized nations require 75% of the energy as heat and it is likely that developing countries in the course of industrialization will show a comparable energy consumption structure. The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) allows the utilization of nuclear energy at high temperatures as process heat. In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the development in the relevant technical areas is well advanced and warrants investigation as a matter for transfer to Brazil. In Brazil nuclear process heat finds possible applications in steel making, shale oil extraction, petroleum refining, and in the more distant future coal gasification with distribution networks. Based on growth forecasts for these industries a theoretical potential market of 38-53 GW (th) can be identified. At present nuclear process heat is marginally more expensive than conventional fossil technologies but the anticipated development is expected to add an economic incentive to the emerging necessity of providing a sound energy base in the developing countries. (author)

  9. Effects of boosting the supply temperature on pipe dimensions of low-energy district heating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the dimensioning of the low-energy District Heating (DH) piping networks operating with a control philosophy of supplying heat in low-temperature such as 55 °C in supply and 25°C in return regularly while the supply temperature levels are being boosted in cold...... winter periods. The performance of the existing radiators that were formerly sized with over-dimensions was analyzed, its results being used as input data for the performance evaluation of the piping network of the low-energy DH system operating with the control philosophy in question. The optimization...

  10. Supplying Dark Energy from Scalar Field Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that dark matter and dark energy consists of ultra-light self-interacting scalar particles. It is found that the Klein-Gordon equation with only two free parameters (mass and self-coupling) on a Schwarzschild background, at the galactic length-scales has the solution which corresponds to Bose-Einstein condensate, behaving as dark matter, while the constant solution at supra-galactic scales can explain dark energy.

  11. Effect of different glucose supply conditions on neuronal energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hongwen; Wang, Rubin; Qu, Jingyi

    2016-01-01

    The glucose-excited neurons in brain can sense blood glucose levels and reflect different firing states, which are mainly associated with regulation of blood glucose and energy demand in the brain. In this paper, a new model of glucose-excited neuron in hypothalamus is proposed. The firing properties and energy consumption of this type of neuron under conditions of different glucose levels are simulated and analyzed. The results show that the firing rate and firing duration of the neuron both...

  12. Energy efficiency of elevated water supply tanks for high-rise buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, C.T.; Mui, K.W.; Wong, L.T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency for water supply tank location in buildings. ► Water supply tank arrangement in a building affects pumping energy use. ► We propose a mathematical model for optimal design solutions. ► We test the model with measurements in 22 Hong Kong buildings. ► A potential annual energy saving for Hong Kong is up to 410 TJ. -- Abstract: High-rise housing, a trend in densely populated cities around the world, increases the energy use for water supply and corresponding greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an energy efficiency evaluation measure for water supply system designs and a mathematical model for optimizing pumping energy through the arrangement of water tanks in a building. To demonstrate that the model is useful for establishing optimal design solutions that integrate energy consumption into urban water planning processes which cater to various building demands and usage patterns, measurement data of 22 high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong are employed. The results show the energy efficiency of many existing high-rise water supply systems is about 0.25 and can be improved to 0.26–0.37 via water storage tank relocations. The corresponding annual electricity that can be saved is 160–410 TJ, a 0.1–0.3% of the total annual electricity consumption in Hong Kong.

  13. Factors affecting the availability of wood energy from nonindustrial private forest lands in the Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lindsay; Alphonse H. Gilbert; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1992-01-01

    Describes factors affecting the availability of fuelwood from nonindustrial private forests (NIPF) in the Northeast. The availability of market fuelwood depends heavily on tract size. The demand for land to supply the expanding urban fringe may result in a lower supply of market wood but also in more wood being cut to satisfy the owner's need for wood. NIPF owners...

  14. Calculation steps. Building integrated energy supply; Beregningsgang. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations. The present report describes the applied simulation models, and explains the results and computer codes. The parameter variations are described for each house as well as the common calculation steps for each house. The results are presented in case sheets, as performance graphs, and top-50 lists for the best cases regarding CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. (ln)

  15. DETERMINATION OF THE FOREST ROAD NETWORK INFLUENCE ON THE SUPPLY CHAIN FOR FIREWOOD PRODUCTION BY DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study a Discrete-event simulation (D-es has been developed to analyze the wood supply chain for firewood production in a mountain area in North-eastern Italy. The D-es is applied in the modeling of extraction (Full Tree System, processing of roundwood into wood assortments (cross-cut and sorting, offroad and on-road transport. In order to estimate the productivity functions and parameters, field studies were conducted to gather data about the different operations linked in the model. Also a GIS network analysis was developed to integrate the spatial information onthe covered distance to the D-es model for each of the supposed Scenarios. The results indicats that an increment of 5 m ha-1 of the forest road network could significantly increase the productivity of the wood supply chain up to 2%.

  16. Influence of the power supply parameters on the projectile energy in the permanent magnet electrodynamic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waindok, Andrzej; Piekielny, Paweł

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the research is to investigate, how the power supply parameters influence the kinetic energy of the movable element, called commonly a projectile or bullet. A calculation and measurement results of transient characteristics for an electrodynamic accelerator with permanent magnet support were presented in the paper. The calculations were made with using field-circuit model, which includes the parameters of the power supply, mass of the bullet and friction phenomenon. Characteristics of energy and muzzle velocity verso supply voltage (50 V to 350 V) and capacitance value (60 mF to 340.5 mF) were determined, as well. A measurement verification of selected points of calculation characteristics were carried out for investigated values of muzzle velocity. A good conformity between calculation and measurement results was obtained. Concluding, presented characteristics of the muzzle velocity and energy of the projectile vs. power supply parameters indicate, that accelerators could be used for fatigue testing of materials.

  17. The development of renewable energies and supply security: A trade-off analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Röpke, Luise

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of the green transformation on the German electricity sector with respect to the energy-political triangle. It focuses on how the development of renewable energies will affect security of electricity supply. In a cost–benefit analysis, the value of supply security is compared with its costs of provision. More specifically, the benefits of maintaining the present quality of electricity supply are the avoided social damages from electricity outages and are compared with the respective investment costs in the low- and medium-voltage distribution grid. It is shown that the transformation process towards a green and decentralized production structure will be costly for society, even though the costs can be reduced by different measures. - Highlights: • The effects of the transformation on the German electricity sector are analyzed. • The paper focuses on the trade-off between green energies and supply security. • The benefits of maintaining supply quality are compared with the investment costs. • The costs of maintaining supply quality by far exceed the induced welfare gains. • A strong focus on renewable energies endangers different energy-political goals

  18. Demand and Supply Side Management Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Hajizadeh, Amin; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    operational scenarios. Afterwards, the SSM strategy based on adaptive fuzzy control is proposed to control of power flow between hybrid renewable sources and PEVs of the main building for a short time interval. Moreover, an fuzzy sliding power control strategy for the controlling of battery energy storage...... is introduced to keep the balance between the requested power from building, PEV and output power of hybrid power generation resources. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the capability of the proposed power and energy flow control strategy....

  19. Present and prospective role of wind energy in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesto, E.; Ancona, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    Information is provided on world-wide wind energy applications for the production of electricity and the various factors driving the wind turbine market: technology improvements and cost reduction, national research, incentives, utility and public acceptance. Possible restraints to (noise, aesthetics) and benefits (especially in isolated systems) from wind plant integration in utility systems are considered, as well as the use of stand-alone wind systems. Some possible forecasts on the role of wind energy in the next two decades are also given. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Designing energy supply for the future. Gestaltung einer kuenftigen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessle, G [Roessle Unternehmensberatung, Ludwigsburg (Germany)

    1991-12-01

    The government can design the energy future in two ways: Either by a defining energy plants and their organisation in a concrete manner and dictating the measures and regulations accordingly, or, by setting an abstract aim such as reduction of emissions without spelling out the necessary measures. The first model I should like to call the 'regulation model' the second as 'deregulation model'. The difference in method and performance of both models is comparable to the difference between a socialist planned economy and a social market economy. (orig.).