WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest ecological structure

  1. Regional ecosystem structure and function: ecological insights from remote sensing of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Asner, Gregory P; Morton, Douglas C; Anderson, Liana O; Saatchi, Sassan S; Espírito-Santo, Fernando D B; Palace, Michael; Souza, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Ecological studies in tropical forests have long been plagued by difficulties associated with sampling the crowns of large canopy trees and large inaccessible regions, such as the Amazon basin. Recent advances in remote sensing have overcome some of these obstacles, enabling progress towards tackling difficult ecological problems. Breakthroughs have helped transform the dialog between ecology and remote sensing, generating new regional perspectives on key environmental gradients and species assemblages with ecologically relevant measures such as canopy nutrient and moisture content, crown area, leaf-level drought responses, woody tissue and surface litter abundance, phenological patterns, and land-cover transitions. Issues that we address here include forest response to altered precipitation regimes, regional disturbance and land-use patterns, invasive species and landscape carbon balance.

  2. US Forest Service Ecological Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations for...

  3. A tool for assessing ecological status of forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman Kassim, Abd; Afizzul Misman, Muhammad; Azahari Faidi, Mohd; Omar, Hamdan

    2016-06-01

    Managers and policy makers are beginning to appreciate the value of ecological monitoring of artificially regenerated forest especially in urban areas. With the advent of more advance technology in precision forestry, high resolution remotely sensed data e.g. hyperspectral and LiDAR are becoming available for rapid and precise assessment of the forest condition. An assessment of ecological status of forest ecosystem was developed and tested using FRIM campus forest stand. The forest consisted of three major blocks; the old growth artificially regenerated native species forests, naturally regenerated forest and recent planted forest for commercial timber and other forest products. Our aim is to assess the ecological status and its proximity to the mature old growth artificially regenerated stand. We used airborne LiDAR, orthophoto and thirty field sampling quadrats of 20x20m for ground verification. The parameter assessments were grouped into four broad categories: a. forest community level-composition, structures, function; landscape structures-road network and forest edges. A metric of parameters and rating criteria was introduced as indicators of the forest ecological status. We applied multi-criteria assessment to categorize the ecological status of the forest stand. The paper demonstrates the application of the assessment approach using FRIM campus forest as its first case study. Its potential application to both artificially and naturally regenerated forest in the variety of Malaysian landscape is discussed

  4. Recommendations for Construction and Management of Ecological Public Welfare Forest in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang XUE; Renhui HONG; Dunxi LI; Zhipan LIN; Xiaoyan WANG; Shaofeng SU

    2016-01-01

    This paper firstly evaluated ecological service functions of ecological public welfare forest in Hainan Province. Then,it introduced value structure and existing problems of ecological service functions. Focusing on optimization and adjustment of scale and distribution of ecological public welfare forest,it came up with recommendations for construction and management of ecological public welfare forest in Hainan Province.

  5. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests inBenin

  6. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests inBenin

  7. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in

  8. [Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

    2002-12-01

    With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology.

  9. Summarization on Evaluation of Ecological Value of Artificial Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUTao; ZHANGHuaxing

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a summarization on evaluation of value of artificial forest. The main contents include:(i) the difference in concepts between ecological function, ecological efficiency and ecological benefits of artificial forest; (ii) the motive and several taches of economic feedback or compensation for ecological benefit; (iii)the ecological efficiencies of artificial forest and the main correlative factors which includes the ecological efficiencies of artificial forest and the main correlation factors infecting the ecological efficiency;(iv) the basic math correlations between ecological efficiencies of artificial forest and the related factors; (v)service range of the ecological efficiencies of artificial forest; and (vi) the basic principle of measurement of ecological efficiencies of artificial forest. At the end, the basic methods of main ecological efficiencies of artificial forest are expatiated.

  10. Ecological Importance of Small-Diameter Trees to the Structure, Diversity and Biomass of a Tropical Evergreen Forest at Rabi, Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé R Memiaghe

    Full Text Available Tropical forests have long been recognized for their biodiversity and ecosystem services. Despite their importance, tropical forests, and particularly those of central Africa, remain understudied. Until recently, most forest inventories in Central Africa have focused on trees ≥10 cm in diameter, even though several studies have shown that small-diameter tree population may be important to demographic rates and nutrient cycling. To determine the ecological importance of small-diameter trees in central African forests, we used data from a 25-ha permanent plot that we established in the rainforest of Gabon to study the diversity and dynamics of these forests. Within the plot, we censused 175,830 trees ≥1 cm dbh from 54 families, 192 genera, and 345 species. Average tree density was 7,026 trees/ha, basal area 31.64 m2/ha, and above-ground biomass 369.40 Mg/ha. Fabaceae, Ebenaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most important families by basal area, density and above-ground biomass. Small-diameter trees (1 cm ≥ dbh <10 cm comprised 93.7% of the total tree population, 16.5% of basal area, and 4.8% of the above-ground biomass. They also had diversity 18% higher at family level, 34% higher at genus level, and 42% higher at species level than trees ≥10 cm dbh. Although the relative contribution of small-diameter trees to biomass was comparable to other forests globally, their contribution to forest density, and diversity was disproportionately higher. The high levels of diversity within small-diameter classes may give these forests high levels of structural resilience to anthropogenic/natural disturbance and a changing climate.

  11. Ecological Importance of Small-Diameter Trees to the Structure, Diversity and Biomass of a Tropical Evergreen Forest at Rabi, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memiaghe, Hervé R; Lutz, James A; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso; Kenfack, David

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests have long been recognized for their biodiversity and ecosystem services. Despite their importance, tropical forests, and particularly those of central Africa, remain understudied. Until recently, most forest inventories in Central Africa have focused on trees ≥10 cm in diameter, even though several studies have shown that small-diameter tree population may be important to demographic rates and nutrient cycling. To determine the ecological importance of small-diameter trees in central African forests, we used data from a 25-ha permanent plot that we established in the rainforest of Gabon to study the diversity and dynamics of these forests. Within the plot, we censused 175,830 trees ≥1 cm dbh from 54 families, 192 genera, and 345 species. Average tree density was 7,026 trees/ha, basal area 31.64 m2/ha, and above-ground biomass 369.40 Mg/ha. Fabaceae, Ebenaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most important families by basal area, density and above-ground biomass. Small-diameter trees (1 cm ≥ dbh tree population, 16.5% of basal area, and 4.8% of the above-ground biomass. They also had diversity 18% higher at family level, 34% higher at genus level, and 42% higher at species level than trees ≥10 cm dbh. Although the relative contribution of small-diameter trees to biomass was comparable to other forests globally, their contribution to forest density, and diversity was disproportionately higher. The high levels of diversity within small-diameter classes may give these forests high levels of structural resilience to anthropogenic/natural disturbance and a changing climate.

  12. Compensation for forest ecological services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Can; Wang Sen; Zhang Wei; Liang Dan

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses methods to compensate for the costs incurred in the supply of forest ecological services (FES), i.e.government dominated and market-based instruments as well as progress made so far in China. Factors which constrain the supply of these services and potential policy improvements are presented.

  13. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic abstract of the thesis for the library for the acquisitions department of Wageningen UR library (published as a html file so hyperlinks may be included) In English, one or 2 pages. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery Currently in the tropics, the area of second

  14. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Niemi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.

  15. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Host

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content. Climatic, forest composition, and soil data were used to parameterize the sample plots for use with LINKAGES, a forest growth model that simulates changes in composition and soil characteristics over time. Forest composition and soil properties varied within and among geomorphic features. LINKAGES simulations were using "bare ground" and the current overstory as starting conditions. Northern hardwoods or pines dominated the late-successional communities of morainal and dune landforms, respectively. The morainal landforms were dominated by yellow birch and sugar maple; yellow birch reached its maximum abundance in intermediate landscape positions. On the dune sites, pine was most abundant in drier landscape positions, with white spruce increasing in abundance with increasing soil moisture and N content. The differences in measured soil properties and predicted late-successional composition indicate that ecological land units incorporate some of the key variables that govern forest composition and structure. They further show the value of ecological classification and modeling for developing forest management strategies that incorporate the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest ecosystems.

  16. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  17. Forest landscape ecology and its applications in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shi-rong; Lin Yong; Sun Peng-sen; Li Chong-wei; Hu Yu-zhe

    2006-01-01

    Landscape ecology is playing an increasingly important role in resources management and landuse planning in recent decades and attracting much attention from resource managers and scientists in China as well as in the world. Reviews of landscape ecology development in China have been well documented, whereas forest landscape ecology and its applications receive relatively fewer reviews. In this paper, we first present a brief review of the historical development and current advances of landscape ecology in China and then introduce the applications of landscape ecology to forest park designs, urban greenspace planning, ecological restoration, biodiversity conservation and forest eco-hydrology. Finally, the problems with the application of forest landscape ecology in China, such as inadequate synthesis and integration, lack of basic research on patterns and processes, basic data shortage and model usage problem are discussed on the basis of which we suggest a future direction of forest landscape ecology in China.

  18. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  19. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  20. Management pattern of ecological public welfare forests in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong LOU; Anxing LIU; Guomin ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and actualities of ecologi-cal public welfare forests in South China are studied in this paper, including common and special management patterns. The restoration and reconstruction pattern of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests, zonal vegeta-tion in the key eco-zone, and the transformation pattern of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests in the general eco-zone with multi-forms are discussed in detail. The authors also point out, based on ecological transformation and utilization, that ecological public welfare forests should be oriented to multiple benefit utilization to maintain sustainable management.

  1. Strengthening Urban Forest Development Improving Urban Ecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGZehui

    2004-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, urban development in China has entered a period of rapid progress. While making significant achievements, urban environmental problems such as air pollution, heatisland effects, water loss and soil erosion have become increasingly prominent. To speed up the process of urbanization in China, new challenges have been imposed on urban forest development, urban environment protection and ecological urban development. Aimed at ecological and environment problems existing in urban development in China, summarizing Chinese experiences and learning from other countries, scientifically planning urban forest to promote urban ecological development, improving urban forest ecosystem to assure urban ecological safety, carrying on forest culture to develop urban ecological civilization, have become the main tasks and direction for urban forest development in China.

  2. A study on the measurement for forest ecological benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 李绪尧; 姜秋来; 李长胜; 刘鹏; 董丹峰; 林丽莎; 徐文婷

    2000-01-01

    The indexes of dependent variables of the measurement on the forest ecological benefits were defined according to the analysis of the multiple ecological benefits of forest. This indexes system includes water-reserving, soil and water conservation, wind and sand suppression, microclimate improvement, carbon dioxide assimilation, atmosphere purification, flood and drought mitigation, tourism resource and wild creature protection benefits. The main factors from the numerous factors that affect dependent variables were chosen as independent variables. At last, a multivariate linear model was established for measurement of forest ecological benefit. With this multivariate linear model the forest ecological benefit of China was calculated. The forest ecological benefit of China is 723816 million yuan per year, which equals to 23.07% of the gross domestic product of China.

  3. Random forests for classification in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, D Richard; Edwards, Thomas C; Beard, Karen H; Cutler, Adele; Hess, Kyle T; Gibson, Jacob; Lawler, Joshua J

    2007-11-01

    Classification procedures are some of the most widely used statistical methods in ecology. Random forests (RF) is a new and powerful statistical classifier that is well established in other disciplines but is relatively unknown in ecology. Advantages of RF compared to other statistical classifiers include (1) very high classification accuracy; (2) a novel method of determining variable importance; (3) ability to model complex interactions among predictor variables; (4) flexibility to perform several types of statistical data analysis, including regression, classification, survival analysis, and unsupervised learning; and (5) an algorithm for imputing missing values. We compared the accuracies of RF and four other commonly used statistical classifiers using data on invasive plant species presence in Lava Beds National Monument, California, USA, rare lichen species presence in the Pacific Northwest, USA, and nest sites for cavity nesting birds in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA. We observed high classification accuracy in all applications as measured by cross-validation and, in the case of the lichen data, by independent test data, when comparing RF to other common classification methods. We also observed that the variables that RF identified as most important for classifying invasive plant species coincided with expectations based on the literature.

  4. Panthers and Forests in South Florida: an Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jane Comiskey

    2002-06-01

    terms of spatial landscape patterns, highlighting the limitations of daytime telemetry data for characterizing overall habitat use. We conclude that the forest-centered view of panther habitat selection is based on an uncritical evaluation of telemetry data collected prior to the recent population expansion and on the unsupported assumption that day bed habitats are representative of nighttime habitat use. We find that numerous factors contribute to habitat suitability and population density and distribution, and that P. concolor in Florida, as elsewhere in their range, are habitat generalists, exploiting the broad spectrum of available habitats for hunting, resting, mating, travel, denning, and dispersal. Whereas panthers readily use forested habitat with understory and prey, we find no support for the view that only the forested land within a habitat mosaic is potential panther habitat, or for the contention that only forested habitats are used by panthers within existing home ranges. We suggest a more ecologically consistent management and recovery paradigm based on maintaining the integrity of the system of overlapping home ranges that characterizes panther social structure and satisfies breeding requirements. Such a paradigm focuses on the requirements for reproductive success of a small population in a changing environment.

  5. Ecological criterion effect on the forest road network longitudinal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hrůza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific way in which a forest road is designed affects the management in the forest environment and timber transport. The aim of this study was to find out whether an inclusion of the ecological criterion in the forest road design will change the parameter of the longitudinal gradient of forest hauling roads and whether these changes will have an effect on the accessibility of forest stands by timber hauling machinery. The possible changes in the longitudinal gradient can also affect the technology of forest road surfacing and the selection of the appropriate surface type. We can state that an inclusion of the ecological criterion in the forest road network design will bring statistically significant changes in longitudinal gradients of forest hauling roads. The mean longitudinal gradient of the current forest road network is 2.82 % and the mean longitudinal gradient of the forest road network designed with inclusion of the ecological criterion is 4.82 %. The results show statistically significant changes in the longitudinal parameters of forest hauling roads. However, it will not bring a need for a change in construction technology, and will not affect the accessibility of forest stands by timber hauling machinery.

  6. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ostertag

    Full Text Available The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha. While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species, six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1 and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C. Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological

  7. Balancing the Realization of Ecological,Economic and Social Values of Forests for Sustainable Forest Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Forests provide multiple ecological,economic and social benefits.A truly sustainable forest management should lead to a balanced realization of these forest values.This paper categorizes the forest resources as appreciating resources and depreciating resources in accordance with the specific form of forest values,and defines them conceptually in regard to the contrasting and competitive nature of these values.Necessary theoretic discussions were then made for the feasibility and operability in terms of t...

  8. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a transitional forest in Maranhao, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Jivanildo P.; Andréa Ricci-Lobão; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855) in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate), but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing th...

  9. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America

  10. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  11. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  12. Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Parren, M.P.E.; Traoré, D.

    2005-01-01

    Climbing plants, including lianas, represent a fascinating component of the ecology of tropical forests. This book focuses on the climbing plants of West African forests. Based on original research, it presents information on the flora (including a checklist), diversity (with overviews at several le

  13. Digitally determining forest inventory units with an ecological classification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Lina; WANG Qingli; Guofan Shao; DAI Limin; WANG Shunzhong; LI Xiufen; XU Dong

    2006-01-01

    Management-level forest resource data in China were obtained with a combination of two forest inventories. However, inconsistencies in the spatial attributes of forest data vary between the two inventory types and between two inventories of the same type. The inconsistencies make it inconvenient for long-term forest management planning with digital technologies. Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs) have been mapped in selected forestry regions in northeast China, where important forest industries are located. The boundaries of ELTs are determined by geomorphic conditions, which are quantified by Digital Elevation Models (DEM); ELTPs are classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers that are obtained with both remotely sensed and ground data. The ELTPs represent the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore they are reliable units for forest inventories and management. This paper introduces a case study for digitally determining forest inventory units in Benxi City, Liaoning Province, northeast China. The general objective of the study was to explain how a compatible forest inventory system should be designed and why the compatible forest inventory system was significant to digital forestry in China.

  14. Forest-succession models and their ecological and management implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, D.; Smith, T.M.; Weinstein, D.A.; Shugart, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Computer models of forest succession have been developed to an extent that allows their use as a tool for predicting forest ecosystem behavior over long periods of time. This paper outlines the use of one approach to forest succession modeling for a variety of problems including: (1) determining the effect of climate change on forests; (2) integrating information on wildlife habitat changes with the changes in forest structure associated with timber management; (3) assessing the potential effect of air pollutants on forest dynamics; and (4) determining the theoretical importance of disturbance on forest community diversity and function.

  15. Ecological characteristics of old-growth Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry F. Franklin; Kermit Jr. Cromack; William Denison; Arthur McKee; Chris Maser; James Sedell; Fred Swanson; Glen. Juday

    1981-01-01

    Old-growth coniferous forests differ significantly from young-growth forests in species composition, function (rate and paths of energy flow and nutrient and water cycling), and structure. Most differences can be related to four key structural components of old growth: large live trees, large snags, large logs on land, and large logs in streams. Foresters wishing to...

  16. Forensic forest ecology : unraveling the stand history of tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are occasionally hit by intense disturbances like hurricanes or droughts that kill many trees. We found evidence for such intense disturbances in a tree-ring study on tropical forests in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand. To reconstruct past disturbances we applied ‘forensic

  17. Forensic forest ecology : unraveling the stand history of tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are occasionally hit by intense disturbances like hurricanes or droughts that kill many trees. We found evidence for such intense disturbances in a tree-ring study on tropical forests in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand. To reconstruct past disturbances we applied ‘forensic fore

  18. Dictionary of forest structural terminology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report lists and defines attributes (both functional and structural) that have been used in other structural classifications of forest vegetation. Field techniques are summarized. The recommended use of each attribute and technique is presented...

  19. How livestock and flooding mediate the ecological integrity of working forests in Amazon River floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Christine M; Sheikh, Pervaze; Gagnon, Paul R; Mcgrath, David G

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of working forests to tropical conservation and development depends upon the maintenance of ecological integrity under ongoing land use. Assessment of ecological integrity requires an understanding of the structure, composition, and function and major drivers that govern their variability. Working forests in tropical river floodplains provide many goods and services, yet the data on the ecological processes that sustain these services is scant. In flooded forests of riverside Amazonian communities, we established 46 0.1-ha plots varying in flood duration, use by cattle and water buffalo, and time since agricultural abandonment (30-90 yr). We monitored three aspects of ecological integrity (stand structure, species composition, and dynamics of trees and seedlings) to evaluate the impacts of different trajectories of livestock activity (alleviation, stasis, and intensification) over nine years. Negative effects of livestock intensification were solely evident in the forest understory, and plots alleviated from past heavy disturbance increased in seedling density but had higher abundance of thorny species than plots maintaining low activity. Stand structure, dynamics, and tree species composition were strongly influenced by the natural pulse of seasonal floods, such that the defining characteristics of integrity were dependent upon flood duration (3-200 d). Forests with prolonged floods ≥ 140 d had not only lower species richness but also lower rates of recruitment and species turnover relative to forests with short floods forest regeneration, but overall forest integrity was largely related to the hydrological regime and age. Given this disjunction between factors mediating canopy and understory integrity, we present a subset of metrics for regeneration and recruitment to distinguish forest condition by livestock trajectory. Although our study design includes confounded factors that preclude a definitive assessment of the major drivers of

  20. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae from a transitional forest in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivanildo P. Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855 in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate, but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing the effect of the substrate temperature. Males and females differed significantly in perch height use above ground (males perched higher but the sexes did not differ in the trunk perimeter used. Gonatodes humeralis tended to use the larger tree trunks available in its environment and selected trunks with deeper leaf litter at the base. It is hypothesized that choosing tree trunks with deeper leaf litter is a defensive behavior against predation.

  1. Social-Ecological Changes in a Quilombola Community in the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Kjersti

    2014-01-01

    Through a combined adaptive cycle and political ecology approach, this article explores how the Afro-Brazilian Quilombolas of Bombas, living inside the protected area of PETAR, respond to and shape social-ecological changes in the Atlantic Forest. Field data reveal that both environmental restrictions and social policies of state transfer payments and food packages have contributed to decreased engagement in agricultural practices, loss of traditional knowledge, and reduced agro-biodiversity. The claim to land rights based on a Quilombola identity and recent negotiations with forest authorities insinuate a shift of this trend. Contrary to dominant conservation narratives, the findings indicate that small-scale shifting cultivation practices by the Quilombolas have the potential to increase structural ecological complexity of the Atlantic Forest. The article therefore argues that legalization of settlement and subsistence activities is important not only for livelihood security and social cohesion of Bombas inhabitants, but also possibly for biodiversity conservation.

  2. From "Forest Fires" and "Hunting" to Disturbing "Habitats" and "Food Chains": Do Young Children Come Up with Any Ecological Interpretations of Human Interventions within a Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Andriotou, Eirini

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at highlighting young children's reasoning about human interventions within a forest ecosystem. Our focus is particularly set on whether preschoolers are able to come up with any basic ecological interpretations of human actions upon forest plants or animals and how. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 70…

  3. From "Forest Fires" and "Hunting" to Disturbing "Habitats" and "Food Chains": Do Young Children Come Up with Any Ecological Interpretations of Human Interventions within a Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Andriotou, Eirini

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at highlighting young children's reasoning about human interventions within a forest ecosystem. Our focus is particularly set on whether preschoolers are able to come up with any basic ecological interpretations of human actions upon forest plants or animals and how. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 70…

  4. VALUE OF ECOLOGIC COMPONENT IN FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING. CASE STUDY: FORESTS ADJACENT TO BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Valentina RADULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To say environment management is, nowadays, of outmost importance for any ecosystem concerned in an understatement; nevertheless, in Romania, especially – as least, since the present paper analyses Romanian ecologic statu quo – improving forest management, so to speak, in Romania, is all the more important, since social and economic decisionmaking as to forests (e.g. forests close to Romania’s capital, Bucharest includes necessarily an ecologic component. The main issue is how to make this component as visible and important as posible, without simultaneously reducing the economic and social components.

  5. A Quantitative Index of Forest Structural Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Cale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest health is a complex concept including many ecosystem functions, interactions and values. We develop a quantitative system applicable to many forest types to assess tree mortality with respect to stable forest structure and composition. We quantify impacts of observed tree mortality on structure by comparison to baseline mortality, and then develop a system that distinguishes between structurally stable and unstable forests. An empirical multivariate index of structural sustainability and a threshold value (70.6 derived from 22 nontropical tree species’ datasets differentiated structurally sustainable from unsustainable diameter distributions. Twelve of 22 species populations were sustainable with a mean score of 33.2 (median = 27.6. Ten species populations were unsustainable with a mean score of 142.6 (median = 130.1. Among them, Fagus grandifolia, Pinus lambertiana, P. ponderosa, and Nothofagus solandri were attributable to known disturbances; whereas the unsustainability of Abies balsamea, Acer rubrum, Calocedrus decurrens, Picea engelmannii, P. rubens, and Prunus serotina populations were not. This approach provides the ecological framework for rational management decisions using routine inventory data to objectively: determine scope and direction of change in structure and composition, assess excessive or insufficient mortality, compare disturbance impacts in time and space, and prioritize management needs and allocation of scarce resources.

  6. Modeling the Carbon Implications of Ecologically Based Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Journal of Forestry 111, 59-66. Samuelson , L.J., Stokes, T.A., Johnsen, K.H., 2012. Ecophysiological comparison of 50-year-old longleaf pine, slash pine...and loblolly pine. Forest Ecology and Management 274, 108-115. Samuelson , L.J., Whitaker, W.B., 2012. Relationships between Soil CO2 Efflux and

  7. Modeling the Carbon Implications of Ecologically-Based Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Journal of Forestry 111, 59-66. Samuelson , L.J., Stokes, T.A., Johnsen, K.H., 2012. Ecophysiological comparison of 50-year-old longleaf pine, slash pine...and loblolly pine. Forest Ecology and Management 274, 108-115. Samuelson , L.J., Whitaker, W.B., 2012. Relationships between Soil CO2 Efflux and

  8. Community ecology of tropical forest snails: 30 years after Solem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since Solem’s provocative claim in the early 1980s that land snails in tropical forests are neither abundant nor diverse, at least 30 quantitative-ecological papers on tropical land snail communities have appeared. Jointly, these papers have shown that site diversity is, in fact, high in tropical fo

  9. Adaptive economic and ecological forest management under risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Mo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Background:Forest managers must deal with inherently stochastic ecological and economic processes. The future growth of trees is uncertain, and so is their value. The randomness of low-impact, high frequency or rare catastrophic shocks in forest growth has significant implications in shaping the mix of tree species and the forest landscape. In addition, the fluctuations of wood prices influence greatly forest revenues. Methods: Markov decision process models (MDPs) offer a rigorous and practical way of developing optimum management strategies, given these multiple sources of risk. Results: Examples illustrate how such management guidelines are obtained with MDPs for combined ecological and economic objectives, including diversity of tree species and size, landscape diversity, old growth preservation, and carbon sequestration. Conclusions:The findings il ustrate the power of the MDP approach to deal with risk in forest resource management. They recognize that the future is best viewed in terms of probabilities. Given these probabilities, MDPs tie optimum adaptive actions strictly to the state of the forest and timber prices at decision time. The methods are theoretically rigorous, numerically efficient, and practical for field implementation.

  10. Adaptive economic and ecological forest management under risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest managers must deal with inherently stochastic ecological and economic processes. The future growth of trees is uncertain, and so is their value. The randomness of low-impact, high frequency or rare catastrophic shocks in forest growth has significant implications in shaping the mix of tree species and the forest landscape. In addition, the fluctuations of wood prices influence greatly forest revenues. Methods Markov decision process models (MDPs offer a rigorous and practical way of developing optimum management strategies, given these multiple sources of risk. Results Examples illustrate how such management guidelines are obtained with MDPs for combined ecological and economic objectives, including diversity of tree species and size, landscape diversity, old growth preservation, and carbon sequestration. Conclusions The findings illustrate the power of the MDP approach to deal with risk in forest resource management. They recognize that the future is best viewed in terms of probabilities. Given these probabilities, MDPs tie optimum adaptive actions strictly to the state of the forest and timber prices at decision time. The methods are theoretically rigorous, numerically efficient, and practical for field implementation.

  11. Geographic information analysis: An ecological approach for the management of wildlife on the forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a summary of the project funded by NAGw-1460 as part of the Earth Observation Commericalization/Applications Program (EOCAP) directed by NASA's Earth Science and Applications Division. The goal was to work with several agencies to focus on forest structure and landscape characterizations for wildlife habitat applications. New analysis techniques were used in remote sensing and landscape ecology with geographic information systems (GIS). The development of GIS and the emergence of the discipline of landscape ecology provided us with an opportunity to study forest and wildlife habitat resources from a new perspective. New techniques were developed to measure forest structure across scales from the canopy to the regional level. This paper describes the project team, technical advances, and technology adoption process that was used. Reprints of related refereed journal articles are in the Appendix.

  12. Soils characterisation along ecological forest zones in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Alois; Dhendup, Kuenzang; Bahadur Rai, Prem; Gratzer, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Elevational gradients are commonly used to characterise vegetation patterns and, to a lesser extent, also to describe soil development. Furthermore, interactions between vegetation cover and soil characteristics are repeatedly observed. Combining information on soil development and easily to distinguish forest zones along elevational gradients, creates an added value for forest management decisions especially in less studied mountain regions. For this purpose, soil profiles along elevational gradients in the temperate conifer forests of Western and Central Bhutan, ranging from 2600-4000m asl were investigated. Thereby, 82 soil profiles were recorded and classified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Based on 19 representative profiles, genetic horizons were sampled and analysed. We aim to provide fundamental information on forest soil characteristics along these elevational transects. The results are presented with regard to ecological forest zones. The elevational distribution of the reference soil groups showed distinct distribution ranges for most of the soils. Cambisols were the most frequently recorded reference soil group with 58% of the sampled profiles, followed by Podzols in higher elevations, and Stagnosols, at intermediate elevations. Fluvisols occurred only at the lower end of the elevational transects and Phaeozems only at drier site conditions in the cool conifer dry forest zone. The humus layer thickness differs between forest zones and show a shift towards increased organic layer (O-layer) with increasing elevation. The reduced biomass productivity with increasing elevation and subsequently lower litter input compensates for the slow decomposition rates. The increasing O-layer thickness is an indicator of restrained intermixing of organic and mineral components by soil organisms at higher elevation. Overall, the soil types and soil characteristics along the elevational gradient showed a continuous and consistent change, instead

  13. Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity.

  14. The Cultural Ecology Protection and Management of Urban Forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; ZHANG; Weiming; SONG; Ke; CHEN; Chunjing; GOU

    2013-01-01

    Forests have economic,ecological,social and cultural functions.Forests Cultural ecology,the counterpart of forest ecology,is the integration of human spirit formed on the basis of natural forest and living systems.In recent years,China’s urbanization rate has increased from 28%in 1993 to 45.68%in 2008,and ecological protection of urban forest has made great progress,but insufficient attention was paid to the forest cultural ecology protection and the relevant regulatory was not well performed.In order to strengthen the protection of forest cultural ecology and the management,the study showed that the social economic development of China has become mature and entered the consumption phase,besides,cultural ecology protection of forest will be the essence of urban forestry development in the future,so more and more attention will be paid to the protection of urban forest cultural ecology,especially with the enhancement of urbanization in China.The study suggests that protection of urban forest cultural ecology should be included into the forest legislation and management.The development planning of urban forest development should be strengthened to highlight the organic combination of material wealth production and spiritual wealth production,and finally promote protection of urban forest culture and the development of green culture.

  15. [Dynamic changes of soil ecological factors in Ziwuling secondary forest area under human disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengchao; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2005-09-01

    As a widespread natural phenomenon, disturbance is considered as a discrete event occurred in natural ecosystems at various spatial and temporal scales. The occurrence of disturbance directly affects the structure, function and dynamics of ecosystems. Forest logging and forestland assart, the common human disturbances in forest area, have caused the dynamic changes of forest soil ecological factors in a relatively consistent environment. A study on the dynamics of soil bulk density, soil organic matter, soil microbes and other soil ecological factors under different human disturbance (logging and assart, logging but without assart, control) were conducted in the Ziwuling secondary forest area. The results indicated that human disturbance had a deep impact on the soil ecological factors, with soil physical and chemical properties become bad, soil organic matter decreased from 2.2% to 0.8%, and soil stable aggregates dropped more than 30%. The quantity of soil microbes decreased sharply with enhanced human disturbance. Soil organic matter and soil microbes decreased more than 50% and 90%, respectively, and soil bulk density increased from 0.9 to 1.21 g x cm(-3) with increasing soil depth. Ditch edge level also affected the dynamics of soil factors under the same disturbance, with a better soil ecological condition at low-than at high ditch edge level.

  16. The Past and Future of Colorado's Forests: Connecting People and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Binkley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The future composition, structure, and dynamics of forests in Colorado will develop in response to both ecological and social factors. Key ecological factors that shaped forests in the past included a great diversity of climatic conditions that results from complex topography and a broad range of elevations, as well as legacies of long-term climate changes and responses of plant and animal species. The influence of direct and indirect human impacts has steadily increased over the past two centuries, changing most forests. A workshop examined how goals of sustaining ecosystems and biodiversity will depend on a confluence of ecological and social changes. Key themes from the workshop included an acknowledgment that the sheer complexity of factors and interactions will limit our ability to shape the future, and that effective combinations of ecology and societies will depend in large part on the use of creative narratives that allow us to communicate productively among people with incredibly different knowledge and perspectives. These insights from Colorado's forest landscapes and communities will likely resonate with other regions.

  17. Optimization of Land Use Structure Based on Ecological GREEN Equivalent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of land use structure consists of economic and social and ecological optimization.Applying the minds of system engineering and principles of ecology,this paper presents such thoughts:the optimal forest-coverage rate calculated according to the reality of a district is set as main standard of ecological rationality in the district;through considering the value of ecosystem services of the land with GREEN equivalent (mainly cultivated land and grassland)and based on the rule,GREEN equivalent,this paper introduces the area conversion between woodland and cultivated land,also between woodland and grassland;this paper establishes a multi-dimension controlling model of optimization of land use structure.In addition,a multi-objective linear programming model for optimization of land use structure is designed.In the end,this paper tests and verifies this theory of ecological optimization,taking Qionghai city in Hainan Province as an example.

  18. [Structural recovering in Andean successional forests from Porce (Antioquia, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Adriana P; del Valle, Jorge I; Jaramillo, Sandra L; Orrego, Sergio A

    2010-03-01

    Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests). A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20 x 50 m) in primary forests and sixteen (20 x 25 m) in secondary forests. All trees with diameter > or =1.0 cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests' age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years). In total, 1,143 and 1,766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4 m2 ha(-1)), above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1,011.5 t ha(-1)) and species richness (4 to 69) directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3,180 to 590). Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.).

  19. Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Ovidiu; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Silaghi, Diana; Neagu, Stefan; Barbu, Ion; Iacoban, Carmen; Iacob, Corneliu; Guiman, Gheorghe; Preda, Elena; Seceleanu, Ioan; Oneata, Marian; Dumitru, Ion; Huber, Viorela; Iuncu, Horia; Dinca, Lucian; Leca, Stefan; Taut, Ioan

    2012-12-01

    Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006-2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O(3)) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH(3)) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to deposition of nutritional nitrogen (N) and could affect biodiversity changes. Higher that 50% contribution of acidic rain (pH Carpathian region levels. The observed nutritional imbalance could have negative effects on forest trees. Health of forests was moderately affected, with damaged trees (crown defoliation >25%) higher than 30%. The observed crown damage was accompanied by the annual volume losses for the entire research forest area up to 25.4%. High diversity and evenness specific to the stand type's structures and local climate conditions were observed within the herbaceous layer, indicating that biodiversity of the vascular plant communities was not compromised.

  20. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  1. Regional forest resource assessment in an ecological framework: the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis

    1998-01-01

    Information about forest resources grouped by ecologically homogeneous area can be used to discern relationships between those resources and ecological processes. The author used forest resource data from 0.4-ha plots, and data on population and land area (by county), together with a global-to-local hierarchical framework of land areas with similar ecological potential...

  2. Thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis (Sauria: Tropiduridae) in the Plain Dry Forest of Tumbes, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C. Jordán A.; José Pérez Z.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis Peters 1871 in the plain dry forests of Tumbes (northewestern Peru) was studied. Mean body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.8 ºC, similar to body temperatures exposed by Microlophus peruvianus in northern Peru. There were no differences between body temperature and degree of thermoregulation of males and females, due to a possible association to their social structure and microhabitat use. Air and substrate temperature affects the body temperature of Mic...

  3. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Maria O.; Michael Keller; Douglas Morton; Bruce Cook; Michael Lefsky; Mark Ducey; Scott Saleska; Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Juliana Schietti

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered...

  4. The structure of tropical forests and sphere packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Franziska; Jahn, Markus Wilhelm; Dobner, Hans-Jürgen; Wiegand, Thorsten; Huth, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The search for simple principles underlying the complex architecture of ecological communities such as forests still challenges ecological theorists. We use tree diameter distributions--fundamental for deriving other forest attributes--to describe the structure of tropical forests. Here we argue that tree diameter distributions of natural tropical forests can be explained by stochastic packing of tree crowns representing a forest crown packing system: a method usually used in physics or chemistry. We demonstrate that tree diameter distributions emerge accurately from a surprisingly simple set of principles that include site-specific tree allometries, random placement of trees, competition for space, and mortality. The simple static model also successfully predicted the canopy structure, revealing that most trees in our two studied forests grow up to 30-50 m in height and that the highest packing density of about 60% is reached between the 25- and 40-m height layer. Our approach is an important step toward identifying a minimal set of processes responsible for generating the spatial structure of tropical forests.

  5. Suggestions on Forest Ecological Compensation-Taking Mudanjiang City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Zhang Zheng; Cui Li-juan; Siji K-Maunel; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    The forest ecological compensation is an important factor to balance the interests of different areas for sustainable development and environment protection. Mudanjiang City in Heilongjiang Province of China is rich of forest resources. The forestry coverage rate reached 62.3% in 2014, after forestry conservation program from 2002. The authors explored the factors impacted on forest ecological compensation in Mudanjiang City, which was a demonstration as a case study, through experts' evaluation scores and AHP methodology to analyze the forest ecological compensation factors and lay the foundation for the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism. At the same time, we provided an example to explore the effective way and speed up the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism. The study found that the main factors that determined forest ecological compensation in Mudanjiang City were ecology and natural resources. Based on the analyses, some suggestions were put forward to promote the mechanism in a sustainable way.

  6. Day-time feeding ecology of Eulemur cinereiceps in the Agnalazaha Forest, Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Reza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Agnalazaha Forest, a degraded fragment of littoral forest in southeast Madagascar, contains a small population of the endangered Eulemur cinereiceps. To better conserve this species its feeding ecology was described by habituating two groups and recording their activities, the food types and species exploited, and the location of food trees by focal animal sampling. The lemurs’ environment was also described by measuring forest structure, and monitoring climate and phenology. In total, the groups were observed for 498 hours over 11 months. Monthly time spent feeding averaged 9.6 % of total observation time. The species was highly frugivorous (93 % of total time spent feeding. 55 different plant species were exploited for food. Time spent feeding and diet were not simply related to rainfall and temperature nor to food type availability. The two groups’ homeranges were 54.9 ha and 58.4 ha and showed a 40 % overlap. The overlap occurred in the swamp forest, which is rich in food plants. To improve the conservation of E. cinereiceps at the Agnalazaha Forest, it is recommended that: The swamp forest be included within the zone of strict conservation; important lemur food plants used for restoration; and alternative sources of timber and fuel wood provided for the local population, thereby allowing greater forest regeneration.

  7. Ecological and biogeographical analyses of Mediterranean forests of northern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbilou, Redouan; Marañón, Teodoro; Arroyo, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Mediterranean forests in northern Morocco have been studied. Tree species composition and abundance were investigated in 84 forest sites, distributed throughout the sandstone formation of the Tangier region. The relative abundance of 15 tree and arborescent shrub species was related, by ordination analysis, to altitude, disturbance by fire, and soil fertility. High-elevation forests were dominated by Cedrus atlantica, Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster. Sacred forests (protected as holy burial places) had a distinct stand structure, and were considered as refuges, for maintaining biodiversity at landscape scale. The evergreen oak Quercus suber and the semideciduous Quercus canariensis co-dominated the lowland forests. The mean basal area of the studied forests was 34 m 2 ha -1. The mean trunk size (dbh) for Q. suber was 24 cm and for Q. canariensis 36.5 cm; in both cases there were indications of declining regeneration at population level. A comparative biogeographical analysis with the equivalent region in southern Spain (separated by the Strait of Gibraltar; 14 km wide), indicated a possible biodiversity loss in the Moroccan forests.

  8. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  9. Forest Productivity and Diversity: Using Ecological Theory and Landscape Models to Guide Sustainable Forest Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huston, M.A.

    1998-11-01

    Sustainable forest management requires maintaining or increasing ecosystem productivity, while preserving or restoring natural levels of biodiversity. Application of general concepts from ecological theory, along with use of mechanistic, landscape-based computer models, can contribute to the successful achievement of both of these objectives. Ecological theories based on the energetics and dynamics of populations can be used to predict the general distribution of individual species, the diversity of different types of species, ecosystem process rates and pool sizes, and patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity over a broad range of environmental conditions. This approach requires subdivision of total biodiversity into functional types of organisms, primarily because different types of organisms respond very differently to the spatial and temporal variation of environmental conditions on landscapes. The diversity of species of the same functional type (particularly among plants) tends to be highest at relatively low levels of net primary productivity, while the total number of different functional types (particularly among animals) tends to be highest at high levels of productivity (e.g., site index or potential net primary productivity). In general, the diversity of animals at higher trophic levels (e.g., predators) reaches its maximum at much higher levels of productivity than the diversity of lower trophic levels (e.g., plants). This means that a single environment cannot support high diversity of all types of organisms. Within the framework of the general patterns described above, the distributions, population dynamics, and diversity of organisms in specific regions can be predicted more precisely using a combination of computer simulation models and GIS data based on satellite information and ground surveys. Biophysical models that use information on soil properties, climate, and hydrology have been developed to predict how the abundance and spatial

  10. Assessment of landscape ecology of agricultural protection forest system at Beizang Town, Daxing County, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIChun-ping; GUANWen-bin; FANXiu-zhen; ZHAOTing-ning; CHENJian-gang; SUNBao-pina

    2003-01-01

    Based on theories of protective forests and landscape ecology, the reasonableness of structures and patterns of shelterbelt system at Beizang Town, Daxing County, Beijing were analyzed and assessed from the two scales of forest belts and networks, by integrating uses of field investigation, GIS and RS techniques. Results showed that the existent main belt (3-12 m in width) was too narrow, while the assistant belt (3-27.1 m in width) was too wide; the species composition of the existent shelterbelts was single, and the structures and patterns of the shelterbelt system were unreasonable. It is suggested that the structure of the main and the assistant belts should be changed, such as increasing the width of main belts, decreasing the width of assistant belt, and planting more mixed species, and the pattern with arbores in the middle and shrubs in the sides of belts could be taken into account. For the landscape structure of forest network after regenerating or reconstruction, the grid number of closed network should be 13 per km2 and the minimum number of belts should be 34 per km2, This study also testified that integrating GIS and remote technique with landscape ecology could provide an effective method for reasonable reconstruction of the structures and patterns of shelterbelts system.

  11. [Ecological benefit evaluation of urban forests in Shenyang City based on QuickBird image and CITYgreen model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Fu; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Gui-Ling; Li, Ling; Xu, Wen-Duo

    2008-09-01

    Based on the urban forest coverage data interpreted from QuickBird image (2006) and the CITYgreen model, the benefits of Shenyang urban forest types with different canopy closure in carbon fixation and pollutant removal were investigated by means of sampling strategy. The results showed that the total amount of carbon storage, annual carbon sequestration, annual air pollutant removal, and their corresponding values were 0.51 Tg, 6858.20 Mg x a-1), 556.04 Mg x a(-1) 1.26 x 10(8) Yuan, 1.72 x 10(6) Yuan, and 0.22 x 10(8) Yuan, respectively. Among the urban forest types in Shenyang City, ecological and public welfare forest (E) contributed most to the carbon fixation and air pollutant removal. The carbon density decreased in the order of S (subordinated forest) > L (landscape and relaxation forest) > P (production and management forest) > E > R (road forest), annual carbon sequestration was in the order of P > L > E > S > R, and annual air pollutant removal was in the order of P > L > S > E > R. The carbon density of different urban forest types was closely related to their structural complexity. For the forests with high canopy closure, both the annual carbon sequestration and the annual pollutant removal were high; while for those with lower canopy closure, these two characteristics were dependent on the structural complexity of the forests.

  12. Forest owner representation of forest management and perception of resource efficiency: a structural equation modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ficko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Underuse of nonindustrial private forests in developed countries has been interpreted mostly as a consequence of the prevailing noncommodity objectives of their owners. Recent empirical studies have indicated a correlation between the harvesting behavior of forest owners and the specific conceptualization of appropriate forest management described as "nonintervention" or "hands-off" management. We aimed to fill the huge gap in knowledge of social representations of forest management in Europe and are the first to be so rigorous in eliciting forest owner representations in Europe. We conducted 3099 telephone interviews with randomly selected forest owners in Slovenia, asking them whether they thought they managed their forest efficiently, what the possible reasons for underuse were, and what they understood by forest management. Building on social representations theory and applying a series of structural equation models, we tested the existence of three latent constructs of forest management and estimated whether and how much these constructs correlated to the perception of resource efficiency. Forest owners conceptualized forest management as a mixture of maintenance and ecosystem-centered and economics-centered management. None of the representations had a strong association with the perception of resource efficiency, nor could it be considered a factor preventing forest owners from cutting more. The underuse of wood resources was mostly because of biophysical constraints in the environment and not a deep-seated philosophical objection to harvesting. The difference between our findings and other empirical studies is primarily explained by historical differences in forestland ownership in different parts of Europe and the United States, the rising number of nonresidential owners, alternative lifestyle, and environmental protectionism, but also as a consequence of our high methodological rigor in testing the relationships between the constructs

  13. Forest Typification to Characterize the Structure and Composition of Old-growth Evergreen Forests on Chiloe Island, North Patagonia (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Bannister

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Evergreen forest type develops along the Valdivian and North-Patagonian phytogeographical regions of the south-central part of Chile (38° S–46° S. These evergreen forests have been scarcely studied south of 43° S, where there is still a large area made up of old-growth forests. Silvicultural proposals for the Evergreen forest type have been based on northern Evergreen forests, so that the characterization of the structure and composition of southern Evergreen forests, e.g., their typification, would aid in the development of appropriate silvicultural proposals for these forests. Based on the tree composition of 46 sampled plots in old-growth forests in an area of >1000 ha in southern Chiloé Island (43° S, we used multivariate analyses to define forest groups and to compare these forests with other evergreen forests throughout the Archipelago of North-Patagonia. We determined that evergreen forests of southern Chiloé correspond to the North-Patagonian temperate rainforests that are characterized by few tree species of different shade tolerance growing on fragile soils. We discuss the convenience of developing continuous cover forest management for these forests, rather than selective cuts or even-aged management that is proposed in the current legislation. This study is a contribution to forest classification for both ecologically- and forestry-oriented purposes.

  14. Ecological consequences of anthropogenic pressure in Wari-Maro Forest Reserve (Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubin Guénolé Amagnide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed ecological consequences of anthropogenic pressure on Wari-Maro Forest Reserve (WMFR. The dynamics of forest cover has been assessed using a diachronic analysis of land cover maps from the Landsat satellite images of 1986, 1995 and 2006. Structural patterns of the forest has been described using forest inventory data with twenty five 1ha plots having two 50 m x 30 m plots set up inside and positioned at the opposite corners of the leading diagonal within each 1 ha plot. Established plots allowed identifying the most targeted species in illegal logging. Plots of 0.15 ha established inside each 1 ha plot helped assessing the volume of trees from which we derived carbon stock and carbon loss using conversion and expansion factors. For the two periods 1986 to 1995 and 1995 to 2006, there was a decline in forest cover which slowed down in the second decade (0.196 %.year-1 and 0.083 %.year-1 respectively. The two vegetation types of the WMFR were mainly distinguished by Lorey's mean height (12.81 m in woodland and 12.44 m in tree-savannah. Top five targeted species in illegal logging activities were: Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir., Afzelia africana Sm., Isoberlinia spp., Anogeissus leiocarpa Guill. and Daniellia oliveri (Rolfe Hutch. & Dalziel. Results also showed mean values of carbon stock and carbon losses for the whole forest of 147.84 tons C.ha-1 and 17.57 tons C.ha-1 respectively and did not depend on vegetation type. Results from this study suggest that management strategies should focus on selectively logged species. Monitoring should also be enhanced to ensure conservation of resources of the reserve which are at high risks of extinction due to selective logging rates. Keywords: anthropogenic pressure, forest cover, structure, carbon stock, Wari-Maro forest reserve, Benin.

  15. Short-term ecological consequences of collaborative restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Fornwalt, Paula J.; Feinstein, Jonas A.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration treatments are being implemented at an increasing rate in ponderosa pine and other dry conifer forests across the western United States, via the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) program. In this program, collaborative stakeholder groups work with National Forests (NFs) to adaptively implement and monitor ecological restoration treatments intended to offset the effects of many decades of anthropogenic stressors. We initiated a novel study to expand the scope of treatment effectiveness monitoring efforts in one of the first CFLR landscapes, Colorado’s Front Range. We used a Before/After/Control/Impact framework to evaluate the short-term consequences of treatments on numerous ecological properties. We collected pre-treatment and one year post-treatment data on NF and partner agencies’ lands, in 66 plots distributed across seven treatment units and nearby untreated areas. Our results reflected progress toward several treatment objectives: treated areas had lower tree density and basal area, greater openness, no increase in exotic understory plants, no decrease in native understory plants, and no decrease in use by tree squirrels and ungulates. However, some findings suggested the need for adaptive modification of both treatment prescriptions and monitoring protocols: treatments did not promote heterogeneity of stand structure, and monitoring methods may not have been robust enough to detect changes in surface fuels. Our study highlights both the effective aspects of these restoration treatments, and the importance of initiating and continuing collaborative science-based monitoring to improve the outcomes of broad-scale forest restoration efforts.

  16. Conversion of Mountain Beech Coppices into High Forest: An Example for Ecological Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Walter; Ferrari, Barbara; Giuliarelli, Diego; Mancini, Leone Davide; Portoghesi, Luigi; Corona, Piermaria

    2015-11-01

    Converting beech coppices into high forest stands has been promoted in the last decades as a management goal to attenuate the negative effects that frequent clearcutting may have on soil, landscape, and biodiversity conservation. The silvicultural tool usually adopted is the gradual thinning of shoots during the long span of time required to complete the conversion, that also allows the owner to keep harvesting some wood. This research reports and discusses, in the light of the ecological intensification approach, the results achieved from an experimental test started more than 25 years ago in a 42-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) coppice with standards in central Italy. The effects of various thinning intensities (three treatments plus a control) on the stand growth and structure are assessed by successive forest inventories. Analyses are integrated by spatial indices to assess stem density and canopy cover. Converting beech coppices into high forest through gradual thinning of shoots proves to be an effective step down the road to silvicultural systems characterized by continuous forest cover, as a tool of ecological intensification suitable to guarantee both public and private interests. Thinning has led to stands with fewer but larger stems, thus accelerating the long conversion process while maintaining both wood harvesting capability and environmental services.

  17. Conversion of Mountain Beech Coppices into High Forest: An Example for Ecological Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Walter; Ferrari, Barbara; Giuliarelli, Diego; Mancini, Leone Davide; Portoghesi, Luigi; Corona, Piermaria

    2015-11-01

    Converting beech coppices into high forest stands has been promoted in the last decades as a management goal to attenuate the negative effects that frequent clearcutting may have on soil, landscape, and biodiversity conservation. The silvicultural tool usually adopted is the gradual thinning of shoots during the long span of time required to complete the conversion, that also allows the owner to keep harvesting some wood. This research reports and discusses, in the light of the ecological intensification approach, the results achieved from an experimental test started more than 25 years ago in a 42-year-old beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) coppice with standards in central Italy. The effects of various thinning intensities (three treatments plus a control) on the stand growth and structure are assessed by successive forest inventories. Analyses are integrated by spatial indices to assess stem density and canopy cover. Converting beech coppices into high forest through gradual thinning of shoots proves to be an effective step down the road to silvicultural systems characterized by continuous forest cover, as a tool of ecological intensification suitable to guarantee both public and private interests. Thinning has led to stands with fewer but larger stems, thus accelerating the long conversion process while maintaining both wood harvesting capability and environmental services.

  18. Ecological Hidden Troubles and Countermeasures under Reform of Collective Forest Tenure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Three stages of reform of collective forest tenure after reform and opening up are reviewed.The reform of forest tenure brings sharp increase of economic benefit.However,due to forest farmers’ subjective pursuit for economic benefit and objective lack of necessary economic,financial and technical support,ecological hidden troubles are created.Based on these,we put forward countermeasures,including strengthening forest farmers’ awareness of ecological protection and solving ecological problems in accordance with actual conditions of the region.

  19. Study on Network System Construction of Forest Ecological in Huaining New Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGQingfeng; WUZemin; WANGJianan; HUANGChenglin; LIBao; QIANNimiao

    2004-01-01

    Urban forest is an important composition and the window and soul of modern cities, which has a close relationship with ecological environment and investing environment. So urban forest has been constructed in China. Huaining County could hold of the historical opportunity and come up with the great blueprint of forest ecological network system construction for the new town. This paper mainly introduces the guiding ideas, principles, goals and overall layouts of the construction in the new town, and hope that it will be a model for other county-level forest ecological network system construction in China.

  20. Emerging themes in the ecology and management of North American forests

    OpenAIRE

    Sharik, Terry L.; William Adair; Fred A. Baker; Michael Battaglia; Emily J. Comfort; Anthony W. D'Amato; Craig Delong; R. Justin DeRose; Ducey, Mark J; Mark Harmon; Louise Levy; Jesse A. Logan; Joseph O'Brien; Brian J. Palik; Roberts, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    The 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, consisting of 149 presentations in 16 oral sessions and a poster session, reflected a broad range of topical areas currently under investigation in forest ecology and management. There was an overarching emphasis on the role of disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic, in the dynamics of forest ecosystems, and the recognition that legacies from past disturbances strongly influence future trajectories. Climate was invoked as a major driver of ...

  1. Exploring the Connectivity of Ecological Corridors Between Low Elevation Mountains and Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park of Taiwan by Least-Cost Path Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. L.; Liu, H. F.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was explored the variation of landscape process and its impact on the possibility of ecological corridors on Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park. Developing the landscape change process in year 2002, 2005, 2012 and 2014 via the land-use definition of IPCC (forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other land). In the landscape structure analysis, the cropland was gradually changed to forest land in this area. Moreover, the variation of gravity model showed that the interaction between Linhousilin Forest Park and low elevation mountains were gradually increased which means the function of ecological corridors has increased.

  2. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  3. Satellite images as primers to target priority areas for field surveys of indicators of ecological sustainability in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Naikoa

    Sustainable management of tropical forests has been identified as one of the main objectives for global conservation of carbon stocks. In order to achieve this, managers need tools to establish whether or not their management practices are sustainable. Several tool development initiatives have undertaken the creation of sets of criteria and indicators to aid managers to target, if not achieve, sustainability. The question of how to assess these indicators remains to be answered from an operational viewpoint, where logistical constraints become critical and priorization becomes necessary. The present dissertation sought to determine whether satellite imagery can be used, in conjunction with standard forest management data, to identify priority areas for field surveys of indicators of ecological sustainability of managed tropical forests. It presents a novel approach to the assessment of CIFOR indicator I.2.1.2: "The change in diversity of habitats as a result of human interventions is maintained within critical limits as defined by natural variation and/or regional conservation objectives" by means of semivariography of remote sensing data. It shows the Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI) is a good alternative for the detection and quantification of tropical forests structural heterogeneity and its dynamic change. The differences observed between forest management units and natural areas forest structural heterogeneity were used to identify priority areas for field survey of ecological sustainability indicators and evaluate how these priorities were reflected in dung beetles community structure and composition. The link between forest structural heterogeneity dynamic change, forest logging intensity and dung beetle community structure and composition is established. A logging intensity threshold of 4 trees per hectare is identified as the limit between significant or not significant differences in forest structure dynamic changes and dung beetles community

  4. A preliminary test of an ecological classification system for the Oconee National Forest using forest inventory and analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; Ronald B. Stephens; Richard D. Rightmyer; Erika M. Mavity; Samuel G. Lambert

    2012-01-01

    An ecological classification system (ECS) has been developed for use in evaluating management, conservation and restoration options for forest and wildlife resources on the Oconee National Forest. Our study was the initial evaluation of the ECS to determine if the units at each level differed in potential productivity. We used loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  5. Forest fuel piles as ecological traps for saproxylic beetles in oak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Jonas (County Administration of Kronoberg, Vaexjoe (Sweden)); Isacsson, Gunnar (Swedish Forest Agency, Haessleholm (Sweden)); Jonsell, Mats; Komonen, Atte (Dept. of Ecology, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    Biodiversity management in broadleaved forests includes partial cutting to improve conditions for species that benefit from semi-open stand structure. The harvested wood is usually used as fuel and, therefore, it is stockpiled in situ for months before further processing. If such forest fuel piles attract saproxylic insects, they are likely to be ecological traps, because the settling cost for insects is death as the wood is chipped and used for energy. This study investigated beetle species composition in piles of oak wood in southern Sweden. Species density and frequency of occurrence were compared in wood with different diameters and at the top, middle and bottom parts of piles. A total of 39 species (six red-listed) and 3528 individual beetles emerged. The highest density of both individuals and species was in the top layer. No species was significantly more frequent in the middle or bottom layers. Diameter had only a limited effect on species density and individual species reproduced in both coarse and fine wood. In conclusion, forest fuel piles can be ecological traps for several uncommon and red-listed saproxylic beetles. The negative effects can be mitigated by removing the piles before the insects colonize them. If this is not possible, then the top layer should be retained

  6. Tropical forest transitions: structural changes in forest area, composition and landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on tropical forest dynamics focus on the processes of deforestation and forest degradation and its associated ecological impacts; comparatively little attention is given to the emergence of forest transitions. This review gives an overview of forest transitions in the tropics as

  7. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Faria, Deborah; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists) and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores) to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%). At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  8. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Morante-Filho

    Full Text Available Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%. At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  9. Sustainability assessment for Yanbian forest region, Jilin Province, Northeast China, based on ecological footprint model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaofei; CHEN Fusheng; HU Anfeng; DAI Limin

    2007-01-01

    Ecological footprint(EF)is one of the most important indicators in assessing the status and capacity of sustainable development.In this paper,the EF of Yanbian forest region,Jilin Province,Northeast China,was calculated and analyzed by statistical yearbooks and forest yearbooks from 1996 to 2002.Results showed that the EF per capita decreased,ecological carrying capacity(ECC)per capita almost kept a static status,and ecological surplus per capita increased year after year.The EF per 10 thousand Yuan GDP per capita in Yanbian decreased from 1996 to 2002.This trend was similar to that in western China,and distinctly higher than that in eastern China.The forest EF per capita kept a steady status,while the forest production footprint (FPF)and forest export footprint(FEF)decreased.Comparing the two years before and after the implementation of Natural Forest Protection Program(NFPP)with the five years,the mean value of FPF and FEF reduced by 0.341 (46.32%)and 0.327 hm2 per capita(54.94%),respectively.In conclusion,the regional and forest development in Yanbian was sustainable,and the implementation of NFPP was favorable to improving sustainable development of forest region.However,the sustainability capacity was still lower than those in forest developed countries.Therefore,it is very necessary to improve forest productivity,resource use efficiency and management of forest ecosystems scientifically.

  10. Monitoring the condition of the Canadian forest environment: The relevance of the concept of 'ecological indicators'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmins, J P

    1990-11-01

    instantaneous assessment of any particular condition. The concept of 'ecological rotation' (the time for a given ecosystem to recover from a given disturbance back to some defined successional condition) is useful in the definition of these 'temporal fingerprints'. This requires information on the intensity of disturbance, the frequency of disturbance, and the rate of successional recovery. Only when all three of these are known or estimated can statements be made as to whether the ecosystem is in a longterm sustainable condition or not.The somewhat overwhelming complexity of this task has led forest ecologists to use ecosystem-level computer simulation models. Appropriately structured and calibrated models of this type can provide predictions of the overall temporal patterns of ecosystem structure and functions that can be expected to accompany a given frequency and character of episodic disturbance. Such models can also be used to examine the long-term consequences of chronic disturbances such as acid rain and climatic change. Predictive ecosystem-level models should be used in conjunction with some method of stratifying the inherent spatial biophysical variability of the forest environment, such as the biogeoclimatic classification system of British Columbia.

  11. BIRD COMMUNITIES AND HABITAT AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF FOREST CONDITION IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological indicators for long-term monitoring programs are needed to detect and assess changing environmental conditions, We developed and tested community-level environmental indicators for monitoring forest bird populations and associated habitat. We surveyed 197 sampling plo...

  12. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Rice Lake NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Rice Lake National...

  13. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Horicon NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Horicon National...

  14. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Ottawa NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Ottawa National...

  15. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Shiawassee NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Shiawassee National...

  16. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Tamarac NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Tamarac National...

  17. Ecological and geochemical impacts of exotic earthworm dispersal in forest ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Melanie; Fugere, Martine; Lapointe, Line; Vellend, Mark; Bradley, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    In Eastern Canada, native earthworm species did not survive the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended over 11,000 years ago. Accordingly, the 17 known Lumbricidae species in the province of Québec were introduced in recent centuries by European settlers. Given that natural migration rates are no more than 5-10 m yr-1, exotic earthworm dispersal across the landscape is presumed to be mediated by human activities, although this assertion needs further validation. In agroecosystems, earthworms have traditionally been considered beneficial soil organisms that facilitate litter decomposition, increase nutrient availability and improve soil structure. However, earthworm activities could also increase soil nutrient leaching and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, in natural forest ecosystems, exotic earthworms may reduce organic forest floors provoking changes in watershed hydrology and loss of habitat for some faunal species. Over the past decade, studies have also suggested a negative effect of exotic earthworms on understory plant diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Finally, there are no studies to our knowledge that have tested the effects of Lumbricidae species on the production of N2O (an important greenhouse gas) in forest ecosystems. We report on a series of field, greenhouse and laboratory studies on the human activities responsible for the dispersal of exotic earthworms, and on their ecological / geochemical impacts in natural forest ecosystems. Our results show: (1) Car tire treads and bait discarded by fishermen are important human vectors driving the dispersal of earthworms into northern temperate forests; (2) Exotic earthworms significantly modify soil physicochemical properties, nutrient cycling, microbial community structure and biomass; (3) Earthworm abundances in the field correlate with a decrease in understory plant diversity; (4) Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic earthworm species and favorite bait of fishermen, reduces seed germination and

  18. Accounting for a Diverse Forest Ownership Structure in Projections of Forest Sustainability Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Eggers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the effect of a diverse ownership structure with different management strategies within and between owner categories in long-term projections of economic, ecological and social forest sustainability indicators, representing important ecosystem services, for two contrasting Swedish municipalities. This was done by comparing two scenarios: one where the diversity of management strategies was accounted for (Diverse and one where it was not (Simple. The Diverse scenario resulted in a 14% lower total harvested volume for the 100 year period compared to the Simple scenario, which resulted in a higher growing stock and a more favorable development of the ecological indicators. The higher proportion of sparse forests and the lower proportion of clear-felled sites made the Diverse scenario more appropriate for delivering access to common outdoor recreation activities, while the Simple scenario projected more job opportunities. Differences between the scenarios were considerable already in the medium term (after 20 years of simulation. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for the variety of management strategies employed by forest owners in medium- to long-term projections of the development of forest sustainability indicators.

  19. Chemical ecology and management of bark beetles in western coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2013-01-01

    The future looks bright for the development and use of semiochemical-based tools in forests, particularly in remote and sensitive areas where other management techniques (e.g., the use of insecticides) may not be appropriate. This editorial provides an concise overview of chemical ecology and management of bark beetles in western coniferous forests.

  20. Ecology and management of morels harvested from the forests of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilz; Rebecca McLain; Susan Alexander; Luis Villarreal-Ruiz; Shannon Berch; Tricia L. Wurtz; Catherine G. Parks; Erika McFarlane; Blaze Baker; Randy Molina; Jane E. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Morels are prized edible mushrooms that fruit, sometimes prolifically, in many forest types throughout western North America. They are collected for personal consumption and commercially harvested as valuable special (nontimber) forest products. Large gaps remain, however, in our knowledge about their taxonomy, biology, ecology, cultivation, safety, and how to manage...

  1. Composition and ecological distribution of forest soil animal in Confucian graveyard of Qufu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Soil animal communities of Secondary forest, Platycladus forest and Quercus acutissima forest in Confucian graveyard of Qufu were investigated. 3583 specimens were collected, belonging separately to 5 Phylums, 11 Classes and 23 Orders. Two dominant groups and 9 common groups account for 94.45% of the total numbers. The soil animals in these three forest habitats differ in composition, ecological distribution and important indices. The dominant groups of soil animals in the three forests were the same, but other groups differ more greatly. Diversity index (H') and evenness index (E) of soil animal in Secondary forest are the highest, and yet dominance index (C) in Quercus acutissima foerst is the highest. Most soil animals in each forest habitats congregate to the surface soil layer. Their sorts and individual numbers are all layer Ⅰ>Ⅱ>Ⅲ. It is very similar for composition of soil animals in the three forests.

  2. Estimating tropical forest structure using discrete return lidar data and a locally trained synthetic forest algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F. B.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Forests are complex ecosystems with diverse species assemblages, crown structures, size class distributions, and historical disturbances. This complexity makes monitoring, understanding and forecasting carbon dynamics difficult. Still, this complexity is also central in carbon cycling of terrestrial vegetation. Lidar data often is used solely to associate plot level biomass measurements with canopy height models. There is much more that may be gleaned from examining the full profile from lidar data. Using discrete return airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected in 2009 by the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network (TEAM), we compared synthetic vegetation profiles to lidar-derived relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) in La Selva, Costa Rica. To accomplish this, we developed RVPs to describe the vertical distribution of plant material on 20 plots at La Selva by transforming cumulative lidar observations to account for obscured plant material. Hundreds of synthetic profiles were developed for forests containing approximately 200,000 trees with random diameter at breast height (DBH), assuming a Weibull distribution with a shape of 1.0, and mean DBH ranging from 0cm to 500cm. For each tree in the synthetic forests, crown shape (width, depth) and total height were estimated using previously developed allometric equations for tropical forests. Profiles for each synthetic forest were generated and compared to TEAM lidar data to determine the best fitting synthetic profile to lidar profiles for each of 20 field plots at La Selva. After determining the best fit synthetic profile using the minimum sum of squared differences, we are able to estimate forest structure (diameter distribution, height, and biomass) and to compare our estimates to field data for each of the twenty field plots. Our preliminary results show promise for estimating forest structure and biomass using lidar data and computer modeling.

  3. Historical, ecological, and governance aspects of intensive forest biomass harvesting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, Inge; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Intensive forest harvesting has increased in Fennoscandia over the last few decades. Similar developments may follow throughout Europe as renewable energy replaces fossil fuels. The international literature suggests that intensive harvesting could increase ecological risks to yield, carbon stores...... forest management impacts and conservation of light-demanding biodiversity associated with historic coppicing and grazing than on intensive harvesting. The energy sector drives the development of new governance to verify forest biomass sustainability, but the national knowledge base for such verification...

  4. Historical ecology and the conservation of large, hermaphroditic fishes in Pacific Coast kelp forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braje, Todd J.; Rick, Torben C.; Szpak, Paul; Newsome, Seth D.; McCain, Joseph M.; Elliott Smith, Emma A.; Glassow, Michael; Hamilton, Scott L.

    2017-01-01

    The intensive commercial exploitation of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has become a complex, multimillion-dollar industry. The fishery is of concern because of high harvest levels and potential indirect impacts of sheephead removals on the structure and function of kelp forest ecosystems. California sheephead are protogynous hermaphrodites that, as predators of sea urchins and other invertebrates, are critical components of kelp forest ecosystems in the northeast Pacific. Overfishing can trigger trophic cascades and widespread ecological dysfunction when other urchin predators are also lost from the system. Little is known about the ecology and abundance of sheephead before commercial exploitation. Lack of a historical perspective creates a gap for evaluating fisheries management measures and marine reserves that seek to rebuild sheephead populations to historical baseline conditions. We use population abundance and size structure data from the zooarchaeological record, in concert with isotopic data, to evaluate the long-term health and viability of sheephead fisheries in southern California. Our results indicate that the importance of sheephead to the diet of native Chumash people varied spatially across the Channel Islands, reflecting modern biogeographic patterns. Comparing ancient (~10,000 calibrated years before the present to 1825 CE) and modern samples, we observed variability and significant declines in the relative abundance of sheephead, reductions in size frequency distributions, and shifts in the dietary niche between ancient and modern collections. These results highlight how size-selective fishing can alter the ecological role of key predators and how zooarchaeological data can inform fisheries management by establishing historical baselines that aid future conservation. PMID:28164155

  5. tree structural and species diversities in okwangwo forest, cross river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    For sound forest management decisions, appraisal of flora species and forest structure is crucial for any meaningful conservation work. We assessed tree species distribution in Okwangwo Forest, Nigeria. ...... Structures and Yield Models.

  6. Impact of road network on the structure of a multifunctional forest landscape unit in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Mehmet; Coban, Huseyin Oguz

    2010-01-01

    Forest roads have many kinds of direct and indirect effects such as physical, ecological, and socio-economic effects in landscape scale. In this study the relationship between forest road network and the structure of a multifunctionally planned forest landscape, in the south of Turkey was examined. The aim of the study was to determine whether or not the correlation between road network and landscape structure across a gradient of road density categorical road/no road approach and landscape pattern data from the managed forest landscapes existed. It was concerned with three type polygons that were forest functioning patches, compartments, and stand patches and were associated with higher road density or existing of road network. To quantify the case, it was analyzed whether the spatial structure of forest patches adjacent to roads differs from the spatial structure of forest patches away from roads. GIS was used to integrate quantitative indices of landscape structure. There was little negatively significant relationship between road density and patch area/size, patch perimeter and shape index of patton index (PI) and no correlation with patch number and Fractal Dimension (FD). The forest road network modified spatial pattern of patch shape through PI values. The road network increased the number of patch and decreased mean patch size. The existence of road network was more effective than topography index appearing of PI and FD in the roaded areas. It was indicated to potential reverse impacts of road network on spatial structure of forest compartments in terms of shape index (FD). Highest proportions of harvestable forest areas fall into roaded areas. The results define that road networks are effective on the spatial structure of forest landscape. The forest road network of study area has all probable ecological impacts of forest roads mentioned in context.

  7. Modeling Forest Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Piedmont Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2014-12-01

    When the interacting stressors of climate change and land cover/land use change (LCLUC) overwhelm ecosystem resilience to environmental and climatic variability, forest ecosystems are at increased risk of regime shifts and hyperdynamism in process rates. To meet the growing range of novel biotic and environmental stressors on human-impacted ecosystems, the maintenance of taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy in metacommunities has been proposed as a risk spreading measure ensuring that species critical to landscape ecosystem functioning are available for recruitment as local systems respond to novel conditions. This research is the first in a multi-part study to establish a dynamic, predictive model of the spatio-temporal dynamics of vascular plant diversity in North Carolina Piedmont mixed forests using remotely sensed data inputs. While remote sensing technologies are optimally suited to monitor LCLUC over large areas, direct approaches to the remote measurement of plant diversity remain a challenge. This study tests the efficacy of predicting indices of vascular plant diversity using remotely derived measures of forest structural heterogeneity from aerial LiDAR and high spatial resolution broadband optical imagery in addition to derived topo-environmental variables. Diversity distribution modelling of this sort is predicated upon the idea that environmental filtering of dispersing species help define fine-scale (permeable) environmental envelopes within which biotic structural and compositional factors drive competitive interactions that, in addition to background stochasticity, determine fine-scale alpha diversity. Results reveal that over a range of Piedmont forest communities, increasing structural complexity is positively correlated with measures of plant diversity, though the nature of this relationship varies by environmental conditions and community type. The diversity distribution model is parameterized and cross-validated using three high

  8. Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes: new insights from forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Melo, Felipe P L; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans; Chazdon, Robin L; Meave, Jorge A; Norden, Natalia; Santos, Bráulio A; Leal, Inara R; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    Old-growth tropical forests are being extensively deforested and fragmented worldwide. Yet forest recovery through succession has led to an expansion of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTLs). Secondary forests thus emerge as a potential repository for tropical biodiversity, and also as a source of essential ecosystem functions and services in HMTLs. Such critical roles are controversial, however, as they depend on successional, landscape and socio-economic dynamics, which can vary widely within and across landscapes and regions. Understanding the main drivers of successional pathways of disturbed tropical forests is critically needed for improving management, conservation, and restoration strategies. Here, we combine emerging knowledge from tropical forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research to identify the main driving forces shaping successional pathways at different spatial scales. We also explore causal connections between land-use dynamics and the level of predictability of successional pathways, and examine potential implications of such connections to determine the importance of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation in HMTLs. We show that secondary succession (SS) in tropical landscapes is a multifactorial phenomenon affected by a myriad of forces operating at multiple spatio-temporal scales. SS is relatively fast and more predictable in recently modified landscapes and where well-preserved biodiversity-rich native forests are still present in the landscape. Yet the increasing variation in landscape spatial configuration and matrix heterogeneity in landscapes with intermediate levels of disturbance increases the uncertainty of successional pathways. In landscapes that have suffered extensive and intensive human disturbances, however, succession can be slow or arrested, with impoverished assemblages and reduced potential to deliver ecosystem functions and services. We conclude that: (i

  9. Ecological variability and rule-making processes for forest management institutions: a social-ecological case study in the Jalisco coast, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Monroy-Sais

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of social-ecological systems is becoming increasingly used since the framework provides a valuable set of variables for understanding relationships between people and ecosystems. This interaction focuses on the use and management of natural resources that, in many cases, are common-pool resources. In Mexico, common-pool resources have long been explored since at least 60% of the forested lands in the country are held under the legal figure of ‘ejidos’ and indigenous communities, which aimed at driving the collective use of lands and resources. However, few studies incorporate ecological processes for an integrated understanding of social-ecological systems. In this study, we seek to understand how ecological variability influences the creation and functioning of different rules and, consequently, institutions for forests management. Our case study was conducted in an ejido with high ecological variability located in Jalisco on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The research approach was interdisciplinary and combined qualitative and quantitative methods. We conducted participant observation and 23 semi-structured interviews; botanical collections were also carried out. We found that there is strong influence between ecological variables and the emergence of rules and collective action. The most important variables influencing these processes were the economic value of resource units, ecosystem services perceived by local people and location and size of the resource system (including area and number of species. Historical processes also play a part that generates knowledge of resource systems and the current social, economic and political settings at a larger scale. The establishment of relationships with variables that produce certain outcomes for the framework of the social-ecological system is an important challenge to be met in order to move forward in both theory and practice.

  10. Quantifying the influences of various ecological factors on land surface temperature of urban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yin; Deng, Lu-Ying; Zuo, Shu-Di; Song, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Yi-Lan; Xu, Cheng-Dong; Chen, Qi; Hua, Li-Zhong; Li, Zheng-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Identifying factors that influence the land surface temperature (LST) of urban forests can help improve simulations and predictions of spatial patterns of urban cool islands. This requires a quantitative analytical method that combines spatial statistical analysis with multi-source observational data. The purpose of this study was to reveal how human activities and ecological factors jointly influence LST in clustering regions (hot or cool spots) of urban forests. Using Xiamen City, China from 1996 to 2006 as a case study, we explored the interactions between human activities and ecological factors, as well as their influences on urban forest LST. Population density was selected as a proxy for human activity. We integrated multi-source data (forest inventory, digital elevation models (DEM), population, and remote sensing imagery) to develop a database on a unified urban scale. The driving mechanism of urban forest LST was revealed through a combination of multi-source spatial data and spatial statistical analysis of clustering regions. The results showed that the main factors contributing to urban forest LST were dominant tree species and elevation. The interactions between human activity and specific ecological factors linearly or nonlinearly increased LST in urban forests. Strong interactions between elevation and dominant species were generally observed and were prevalent in either hot or cold spots areas in different years. In conclusion, quantitative studies based on spatial statistics and GeogDetector models should be conducted in urban areas to reveal interactions between human activities, ecological factors, and LST.

  11. Ecological review of some problems in the sphere of forest use within the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, P.A. [State Environment Protection Committee of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The forests of the Russian Federation play some very important roles even in global level: they are an important element of our environment and they are a valuable renewable resource. Forest ecosystems are very effective in preventing erosion, in protecting water ecosystems, and in maintaining their balance. They are also a very important element of biodiversity protection and they are a significant buffer of coal. The state of the forests has a great impact on the ecological environment within the Russian Federation as a whole, as well as in certain regions, especially in forest regions. Taking into consideration the multifunctional character of forests, the interests of different groups, different levels of authority, Ministries and Committees, forest policy and practice do not always coincide, and conflicting situations appear. Forest policy should take into account these interests, find the ways for solving problems, and the management system should take all necessary steps to successfully apply the forest policy. The state of the forests within the Russian Federation is proof of the Federation`s forest policy and management practice having come to a crisis with their negative ecological impacts. (orig.)

  12. Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Chauhan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study of the microfungi occurring in the various forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India has been carried-out by the soil plate technique. Soil samples from 5 different forest communities viz., moist deciduous forest dominated by tree ferns, Diospyros forest, Terminalia forest, Shorea forest and scrub forest dominated by Acacia and Dalbergia sp. were collected during October, 1983. Some physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were analysed and their role in distribution of fungi in 5 soil types was studied and discussed. 43 fungal species were isolated, of which Asperigillus niger I and Penicillium janthinellum occurred in all the 5 soil types. Statistically, none of the edaphic factors showed positive significant correlation with the number of fungi.

  13. Distribution and ecology of lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, in Tanzanian coastal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuni, Christopher A; Sluydts, Vincent; Mulungu, Loth S; Maganga, Samwel L S; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-11-01

    The lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, is a small rodent that is patchily distributed in the Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests in East Africa. The ecology of this species and its current distribution in coastal forests is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study in selected coastal forests to assess the current distribution of the species and to investigate the population ecology in terms of abundance fluctuations and demographic patterns. Assessments of the species distribution were conducted in 5 forests through trapping with Sherman live traps. Data on ecology were obtained from monthly capture-mark-recapture studies conducted for 5 consecutive nights per month in two 1 ha grids set in Zaraninge Forest over a 2-year period. The results indicate the presence of B. hindei in 3 forests where it was not previously recorded. The population abundance estimates ranged from 1 to 40 animals per month, with high numbers recorded during rainy seasons. Reproduction patterns and sex ratios did not differ between months. Survival estimates were not influenced by season, and recruitment was low, with growth rate estimates of 1 animal per month. These estimates suggest a stable population of B. hindei in Zaraninge Forest. Further studies are recommended to establish the home range, diet and burrowing behavior of the species in coastal forests in East Africa.

  14. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W. N.; Millward, Andrew A.; Nowak, David J.; Robinson, Pamela J.; Ellis, Alexis

    2017-03-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function. Nine scenarios were simulated for 45 years and model output was analyzed at the ecosystem and municipal scale. Substantial mismatches in ecological processes between spatial scales were found, which can translate into unanticipated loss of function and social inequities if not accounted for in planning and management. At the municipal scale, the effects of Asian longhorned beetle and ice storm disturbance were far less influential on structure and function than changes in management actions. The strategic goals of removing invasive species and increasing tree planting resulted in a decline in carbon storage and leaf biomass. Introducing vulnerability parameters in the modeling increased the spatial heterogeneity in structure and function while expanding the disparities of resident access to ecosystem services. There was often a variable and uncertain relationship between vulnerability and ecosystem structure and function. Vulnerability assessment and analysis can provide strategic planning initiatives with valuable insight into the processes of structural and functional change resulting from management intervention.

  15. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J; Ellis, Alexis

    2017-03-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function. Nine scenarios were simulated for 45 years and model output was analyzed at the ecosystem and municipal scale. Substantial mismatches in ecological processes between spatial scales were found, which can translate into unanticipated loss of function and social inequities if not accounted for in planning and management. At the municipal scale, the effects of Asian longhorned beetle and ice storm disturbance were far less influential on structure and function than changes in management actions. The strategic goals of removing invasive species and increasing tree planting resulted in a decline in carbon storage and leaf biomass. Introducing vulnerability parameters in the modeling increased the spatial heterogeneity in structure and function while expanding the disparities of resident access to ecosystem services. There was often a variable and uncertain relationship between vulnerability and ecosystem structure and function. Vulnerability assessment and analysis can provide strategic planning initiatives with valuable insight into the processes of structural and functional change resulting from management intervention.

  16. A mixed-methods analysis of social-ecological feedbacks between urbanization and forest persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd BenDor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined how social-ecological factors in the land-change decision-making process influenced neighboring decisions and trajectories of alternative landscape ecologies. We decomposed individual landowner decisions to conserve or develop forests in the rapidly growing Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S. region, exposing and quantifying the effects of forest quality, and social and cultural dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic value of forest resources, e.g., cultural attachment to land, influence woodland owners' propensity to sell. Data were collected from a sample of urban, nonindustrial private forest (U-NIPF owners using an individualized survey design that spatially matched land-owner responses to the ecological and timber values of their forest stands. Cluster analysis (n = 126 revealed four woodland owner typologies with widely ranging views on the ecosystem, cultural, and historical values of their forests. Classification tree analysis revealed woodland owners' willingness to sell was characterized by nonlinear, interactive factors, including sense of place values regarding the retention of native vegetation, the size of forest holdings, their connectedness to nature, 'pressure' from surrounding development, and behavioral patterns, such as how often landowners visit their land. Several ecological values and economic factors were not found to figure in the decision to retain forests. Our study design is unique in that we address metropolitan forest persistence across urban-rural and population gradients using a unique individualized survey design that richly contextualizes survey responses. Understanding the interplay between policies and landowner behavior can also help resource managers to better manage and promote forest persistence. Given the region's paucity of policy tools to manage the type and amount of development, the mosaic of land cover the region currently enjoys is far from stable.

  17. CARBON BALANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS UNDER GLOBAL WARMING: LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL PREDICTIVE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erland Kolomyts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of application of landscape-ecological methods for evaluation of biotic regulation of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. Methods for constructing analytical and cartographic empirical-statistical models for identification of forest associations and zonal/regional types of forest formations capable of stabilizing the continental biosphere under changing climate are described. Possible biotic regulation of the carbon cycle under known scenarios of future greenhouse warming is suggested. The maps on the carbon content and its changes in the forests of the Oka river basin are presented.

  18. Monocular Road Detection Using Structured Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Road detection is a key task for autonomous land vehicles. Monocular vision-based road detection algorithms are mostly based on machine learning approaches and are usually cast as classification problems. However, the pixel-wise classifiers are faced with the ambiguity caused by changes in road appearance, illumination and weather. An effective way to reduce the ambiguity is to model the contextual information with structured learning and prediction. Currently, the widely used structured prediction model in road detection is the Markov random field or conditional random field. However, the random field-based methods require additional complex optimization after pixel-wise classification, making them unsuitable for real-time applications. In this paper, we present a structured random forest-based road-detection algorithm which is capable of modelling the contextual information efficiently. By mapping the structured label space to a discrete label space, the test function of each split node can be trained in a similar way to that of the classical random forests. Structured random forests make use of the contextual information of image patches as well as the structural information of the labels to get more consistent results. Besides this benefit, by predicting a batch of pixels in a single classification, the structured random forest-based road detection can be much more efficient than the conventional pixel-wise random forest. Experimental results tested on the KITTI-ROAD dataset and data collected in typical unstructured environments show that structured random forest-based road detection outperforms the classical pixel-wise random forest both in accuracy and efficiency.

  19. Community stand structure of rehabilitated forest at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, N. A. H.; Wan Juliana, W. A.; Shaharuddin, M. I.; Wickneswari, R.

    2016-11-01

    A descriptive study of species composition, community structure and biomass was conducted in compartment 107, which is a rehabilitated area at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan. The objective is to determine the forest structure and species composition in a rehabilitated area of Kenaboi FR since enrichment planting had done. A sample plot of 1 hectare was censused and a total of 395 trees with diameter ≥ 5 cm DBH were recorded. A total of 285 individual trees were identified belonging to 20 families and the commonest family was Dipterocarpaceae with 193 individuals. The highest tree density per ha was Shorea acuminata at 33% followed by S. parvifolia, 10% and S. leprosula, 6%. The biggest tree was Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume with a diameter of 101 cm. The total basal area was 34.48 m2/ha, whereby the highest basal area was between 45 - 54.9 cm DBH class that contributed 10.21 m2/ha (30%). The total biomass estimation (above ground and below ground) was 792.57 t/ha. Dipterocarpaceae contributed the highest total biomass at 545.14 t/ha with S. acuminata contributed the highest total biomass of 330.45 t/ha. This study will contribute to the knowledge of regeneration forest especially on how the ecological process restoring the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in rehabilitated forest by practicing the enrichment planting of native species.

  20. POTENTIAL AREAS FOR THE FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL CORRIDORS BETWEEN REMNANTS OF ATLANTIC FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Flávio Costa dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, the remaining areas of Atlantic Forest are intensely fragmented. The connection of forest fragments through ecological corridors is an important step in biodiversity conservation. Certain areas are more resilient, and in those areas, natural forest regeneration, for example, can be encouraged. The aim of this study was to identify areas of greater resilience in order to support the connection of Atlantic Forest fragments with ecological corridors. Forest fragments in the municipality of Paraíba do Sul, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, were mapped using the supervised maximum likelihood classification of an Operational Land Imager (OLI/Landsat-8 sensor image. Next, we analyzed the influence of terrain attributes (aspect, incident solar radiation, slope, and curvature profile on natural regeneration. The areas with the greatest potential to achieve natural regeneration and to form ecological corridors were indicated through fuzzy membership functions. Within Paraíba do Sul, 31% of the territory is covered by vegetation in different stages of regeneration. Recordings were made of 1,251 forest fragments in a middle or advanced stage of regeneration. These fragments are usually situated in the southeast, south, and southwest aspects, in areas that receive the least amount of global solar radiation (Wh·m-2 per year, and on slopes with an angle of inclination greater than 20%. The adjustment of fuzzy functions identified 17,327.5 ha with a tendency to recover, and which are therefore strategic areas in the development of ecological corridors.

  1. The Forest of Our Lives: In and Out of Political Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt G Karlsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I seek to bring together a number of environmental histories to think about the place of forest in our lives. It is partly autobiographical in the sense that it concerns forest issues that I, for various reasons, have been entangled with recently. These are the making of carbon (REDD+ forests in Northeast India, preservation of the urban forests and planting of indigenous trees in Karura forests in Nairobi, Kenya, and the transformation of Swedish forests into vast industrial plantations. I come to these issues with little knowledge about the forest ecology or the flora and fauna, as such, but rather as a scholar with earlier experience of analysis of the social and political dynamics involved in conflicts over forests, that is, how differently powered actors seek to appropriate, stake claims to or control the forest. Hence, my point of departure and analytical framework is largely that of political ecology. In a conversation about the work of the anthropologist Brian Morris, I will point to the thinness of such an approach and open up aspects that are critical to Morris' way of engaging with the interactions of people, plants, insects, and animals. This, I will argue, is a truly grounded environmental anthropology.

  2. Using the Viability Theory to Assess the Flexibility of Forest Managers Under Ecological Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Bonté, Bruno; Cordonnier, Thomas; de Morogues, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Greater demand for wood material has converged with greater demand for biodiversity conservation to make balancing forest ecosystem services a key societal issue. Forest managers, owners, or policymakers need new approaches and methods to evaluate their ability to adapt to this dual objective. We analyze the ability of forest owners to define sustainable forest management options based on viability theory and a new flexibility index. This new indicator gauges the adaptive capacity of forest owners based on the number of sustainable actions available to them at a given time. Here we study a public forest owner who regulates harvest intensity and frequency in order to meet demand for timber wood at forest scale and to meet a biodiversity recommendation via a minimum permanently maintained volume of deadwood per hectare at stand scale. Dynamical systems theory was used to model uneven-aged forest dynamics-including deadwood dynamics-and the dynamics of timber wood demand and tree removals. Uneven-aged silver fir forest management in the "Quatre Montagnes region" (Vercors, France) is used as an illustrative example. The results explain situations where a joint increase in wood production and deadwood retention does not reduce the flexibility index more than increasing either one dimension alone, thus opening up ecological intensification options. To conclude, we discuss the value of the new flexibility index for addressing environmental management and ecological intensification issues.

  3. Ecological Function Value of Tropical Forests in the Central Mountainous Areas of Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Zuguang; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    The integrated value of the ecological function of tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island was 33.064 8 billion yuan/a in 2010(soil improvement,soil consolidation,soil nutrient maintenance,water storage and moisture regulation,water purification,carbon sequestration,oxygen releasing,air purification,biodiversity conservation,eco-tourism),equivalent to 16.1%of GDP in Hainan Province this year(205.212 billion yuan).The tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island make great contribution to Hainan Island’s ecology,and play an important role in maintaining the stability of the ecological environment in Hainan Island.Through the understanding of major ecological function value of tropical forests,it is necessary to make people cherish the tropical forests in the central ecological function conservation areas of Hainan Province,and spontaneously throw themselves into the ecological environment protection and construction,to promote the rapid and sustainable development of construction in Hainan Province as an international tourism island.

  4. Repelling invaders: Hawaiian foresters use ecology to counter invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Kling; Julie Featured: Denslow; Tracy Johnson; Susan Cordell

    2008-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are one of the United States' most treasured natural resources. Their natural beauty attracts legions of visitors every year, and they represent a unique set of ecosystems. Despite their limited geographic size, Hawai‘i hosts a remarkable range of habitats. On some islands, dry tropical forest, wet rain forest, and alpine ecosystems are found...

  5. Ecology of beech forests in the northern hemisphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.

    1992-01-01

    Beech forests are dominated or codominated by at least one Fagus species. The beeches are a homogeneous group of 11 deciduous tree species growing in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 1.1). They often dominate forest ecosystems throughout their ranges. The optimum for beech is on acidic and mesic loam

  6. Thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis (Sauria: Tropiduridae in the Plain Dry Forest of Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Jordán A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis Peters 1871 in the plain dry forests of Tumbes (northewestern Peru was studied. Mean body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.8 ºC, similar to body temperatures exposed by Microlophus peruvianus in northern Peru. There were no differences between body temperature and degree of thermoregulation of males and females, due to a possible association to their social structure and microhabitat use. Air and substrate temperature affects the body temperature of Microlophus occipitalis, where air temperature accounts for a significant proportion of body temperature variation. We suggest more detailed studies on this lizard species, especially under climate change scenarios in northwestern Peru.

  7. Fragmentation of Araucaria Forests in the Chapecó Ecological Corridor, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Garcia Alarcon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, only 2% of the Araucaria forest remains, and less than 1% of this forest is protected (as conservation units. In Santa Catarina, the Chapecó River sub-basin was evaluated for the creation of a state ecological corridor. Studies were developed within the Microbacias 2 Project between 2007 and 2009. Landscape metrics provided important data for evaluating the conservation status of the forest remnants for the zoning of the corridor. The Chapecó Ecological Corridor encompasses around 5,000km²; 50.5% of this area comprises remnants of natural ecosystems and 42.7% is used by agricultural activities. Fifteen fragments, which are each larger than 500ha, are Araucaria forests that contain elements of Floresta Estacional Decidual. Of the 83 watersheds studied in permanent preservation areas, 20.5% has more than 60% vegetation cover and 57.5% has between 10% and 30% vegetation cover. It is estimated that the sub-basin has 111,000km2 of forest on private properties, along with remnants in three conservation units and three indigenous areas. The forests of the Chapecó Ecological Corridor represent the last fragments of continuous Araucaria forest in western Santa Catarina.

  8. Fire catalyzed rapid ecological change in lowland coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest over the past 14,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crausbay, Shelley D; Higuera, Philip E; Sprugel, Douglas G; Brubaker, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    Disturbance can catalyze rapid ecological change by causing widespread mortality and initiating successional pathways, and during times of climate change, disturbance may contribute to ecosystem state changes by initiating a new successional pathway. In the Pacific Northwest of North America (PNW), disturbance by wildfires strongly shapes the composition and structure of lowland forests, but understanding the role of fire over periods of climate change is challenging, because fire-return intervals are long (e.g., millennia) and the coniferous trees dominating these forests can live for many centuries. We developed stand-scale paleorecords of vegetation and fire that span nearly the past 14,000 yr to study how fire was associated with state changes and rapid dynamics in forest vegetation at the stand scale (1-3 ha). We studied forest history with sediment cores from small hollow sites in the Marckworth State Forest, located ~1 km apart in the Tsuga heterophylla Zone in the Puget Lowland ecoregion of western Washington, USA. The median rate of change in pollen/spore assemblages was similar between sites (0.12 and 0.14% per year), but at both sites, rates of change increased significantly following fire events (ranging up to 1% per year, with a median of 0.28 and 0.38%, P < 0.003). During times of low climate velocity, forest composition was resilient to fires, which initiated successional pathways leading back to the dominant vegetation type. In contrast, during times of high climate variability and velocity (e.g., the early Holocene) forests were not resilient to fires, which triggered large-scale state changes. These records provide clear evidence that disturbance, in the form of an individual fire event, can be an important catalyst for rapid state changes, accelerating vegetation shifts in response to large-scale climate change. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Soil phosphorus and the ecology of lowland tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ben

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation I will explore the extent to which phosphorus influences the productivity, diversity, and distribution of plant species in tropical forests. I will highlight the range of soils that occur in tropical forests and will argue that pedogenesis and associated phosphorus depletion is a primary driver of forest diversity over long timescales. I will draw on data from a regional-scale network of forest dynamics plots in Panama to show that tree species distributions are determined predominantly as a function of dry season intensity and soil phosphorus availability, and will suggest potential mechanistic explanations for this pattern in relation to phosphorus acquisition. Finally, I will present observational and experimental evidence from Panama to show how phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium, limit plant productivity and microbial communities on strongly-weathered soils in the lowland tropics.

  10. Annotated bibliography of South African indigenous evergreen forest ecology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Annotated references to 519 publications are presented, together with keyword listings and keyword, regional, place name and taxonomic indices. This bibliography forms part of the first phase of the activities of the Forest Biome Task Group....

  11. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8 %) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0 %). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10 % of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6 % at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13 % and 10 %, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23

  12. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O Hunter

    Full Text Available Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up, and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012 at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8% as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0%. On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1. Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10% of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6% at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13% and 10%, respectively. At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal

  13. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Maria O; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8%) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0%). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10% of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6% at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13% and 10%, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23% versus 6

  14. Felling-system and regeneration of pine forests on ecological-genetic-geographical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the adaptation of Scots pine populations to the natural regeneration on open sites with the mosaic retained stand and mineralized soil surface on the basis of the ecological-genetic-geographical investigations in the forests of the Russia and the theory of petropsammofitness-pyrofitness (Sannikov S. N., 1983 has been substantiated. The methods of clear cuts with the seeding from surrounding forest, seed curtains and sufficiently extent of the substrate preparation for the pine selfsown have been selected and elaborated as a main organization principle of the system «felling-regeneration» in the plains pine forests of the forest zone. High regeneration efficiency of this system with the application of original aggregate for the optimal mineralization of the soil substrate (with its synchronous loosing has been shown on the example of dominating pine forest types in the subzone for-forest-steppe of the Western Siberia. The silvicultural-ecological and reproductive-genetic advantages of retaining seed curtains instead of separate seed trees have been substantiated. The basic parameters of the system «felling-regeneration», which guarantee a sufficient success of the following pine regeneration in the for-forest-steppe subzone, have been determined with the help of the methods of the mathematical imitation modeling of the pine selfsown density depending on the area and localization of seed curtains, surrounding forest and the extent of the substrate mineralization. The zonal differentiated system of the fellings and measures for the regeneration optimization in the climatically substituting pine forest types in the Western Siberia has been elaborated according to the parameters, studied earlier, on the ecological-genetic-geographical basis. The principles of this system in forest zone come to the clear strip-fellings with insemination of cuts from the seed curtains and forest walls, and to the hollow-fellings with the

  15. Ecological structure of oribatei associates (Acariformes, Oribatei in recultivated territories of Zhovti Vody, Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. D. Shtirts

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomical composition and ecological structure of Oribatei associates in recultivated territories  located near Zhovti Vody town are investigated. The artificial arboreal planting causes increase of oribatida number in comparison with recultivated areas without arbors. Planting of trees and presence of the leaf litter promote to redistribution of oribatida life-form and change of structure in their complexes. The positive influence of artificial forest ecosystems in technogenic landscapes of different stages of technical remediation on forming of Oribatei ecological structure is shown.

  16. GPS and GIS Methods in an African Rain Forest: Applications to Tropical Ecology and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brean Duncan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the completion of the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS in 1995, the integration of GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS technology has expanded to a great number of ecological and conservation applications. In tropical rain forest ecology, however, the technology has remained relatively neglected, despite its great potential. Notwithstanding cost, this is principally due to (1 the difficulty of quality satellite reception beneath a dense forest canopy, and (2 a degree of spatial error unacceptable to fine-scale vegetation mapping. Here, we report on the technical use of GPS/GIS in the rain forest of Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the methodology necessary to acquire high-accuracy spatial measurements. We conclude that the stringent operating parameters necessary for high accuracy were rarely obtained while standing beneath the rain forest canopy. Raising the GPS antenna to heights of 25–30 m resolved this problem, allowing swift data collection on the spatial dispersion of individual rain forest trees. We discuss the impact of the 1996 Presidential Decision Directive that suspended U.S. military-induced GPS error on 1 May 2000, and comment on the potential applications of GPS/GIS technology to the ecological study and conservation of tropical rain forests.

  17. Comparison between abiotic parameters and the forest structure of a forest fragment and an eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna Smith abandoned reforestation in the ecological park of Klabin, Telemaco Borba/PR Comparação entre parâmetros abióticos e a estrutura florestal de um fragmento de floresta e um reflorestamento abandonado de eucalipto (Eucalyptus saligna Smith no parque ecológico da Klabin, Telêmaco Borba/PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Pimenta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The forest structure causes a direct impact on the microclimate, being important for the continuity of the successional processes as well as for the restoration of ecosystem processes. Studies on forest structure are important to help determine ecological restoration actions, improving its implementation. In order to compare two forest formations, being one of them a secondary forest fragment and the other one an abandoned area of eucalyptus reforestation, some abiotic parameters were evaluated in this study, as well as the forest structure of the areas. Amongst the abiotic factors studied, there are: temperature and relative air humidity, soil compaction, moisture and soil pH and thickness of the litter. In order to analyze the forest structure, the following items were evaluated: herbaceous cover on the soil, rate of canopy cover, the diameter at breast height (DBH, basal area (BA and height of trees of all species. Among the parameters analyzed, comparing the areas, it was observed that: soil compaction was higher in the secondary forest (0.57 MPa than in the eucalyptus reforestation (0.43 MPa; the presence of herbaceous plants on the soil occurred less in the eucalyptus reforestation (17.96% than in the secondary forest (59.4%; the canopy cover index was of 45.99% for the eucalyptus reforestation, while in the secondary forest it was of 61.02%, being therefore higher for the latter. Nevertheless, according to Kolmogorov Smirnov test, the forest structure is not different between the areas, since the DBH and height values were not different between what was calculated and what was observed. A estrutura florestal tem impacto direto sobre o microclima, e é importante para a continuidade dos processos sucessionais e para o restabelecimento dos processos do ecossistema. Estudos acerca da estrutura florestal são importantes para auxiliar as ações de restauração ecológica, melhorando a sua aplicação. Visando comparar duas forma

  18. Ecology of lichens in boreal coniferous forests with reference to spatial and temporal patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Esseen, Per-Anders

    1983-01-01

    The thesis deals with the ecology of lichens in two contrasting types of forest, epiphytic lichens in old Picea abies forest of the fi re-refugia type and epigeic as well as epixylic lichens in a successional sequence of fire- susceptible Pinus sylvestris forests. Results in five separate papers form the basis for a discussion of general patterns of dispersal, succession and life strategies in lichens. The study sites were located in Medelpad and Väs­terbotten, in the central and northern par...

  19. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  20. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  1. Ecological constraints increase the climatic debt in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Romain; Riofrío-Dillon, Gabriela; Lenoir, Jonathan; Drapier, Jacques; de Ruffray, Patrice; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Loreau, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity changes are lagging behind current climate warming. The underlying determinants of this climatic debt are unknown and yet critical to understand the impacts of climate change on the present biota and improve forecasts of biodiversity changes. Here we assess determinants of climatic debt accumulated in French forest herbaceous plant communities between 1987 and 2008 (that is, a 1.05 °C mean difference between the observed and bioindicated temperatures). We show that warmer baseline conditions predispose plant communities to larger climatic debts, and that climate warming exacerbates this response. Forest plant communities, however, are absorbing part of the temperature increase mainly through the species' ability to tolerate changing climate. As climate warming is expected to accelerate during the twenty-first century, plant migration and tolerance to climatic stresses probably will be insufficient to absorb this impact posing threats to the sustainability of forest plant communities. PMID:27561410

  2. Ecological constraints increase the climatic debt in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Romain; Riofrío-Dillon, Gabriela; Lenoir, Jonathan; Drapier, Jacques; de Ruffray, Patrice; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Loreau, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Biodiversity changes are lagging behind current climate warming. The underlying determinants of this climatic debt are unknown and yet critical to understand the impacts of climate change on the present biota and improve forecasts of biodiversity changes. Here we assess determinants of climatic debt accumulated in French forest herbaceous plant communities between 1987 and 2008 (that is, a 1.05 °C mean difference between the observed and bioindicated temperatures). We show that warmer baseline conditions predispose plant communities to larger climatic debts, and that climate warming exacerbates this response. Forest plant communities, however, are absorbing part of the temperature increase mainly through the species' ability to tolerate changing climate. As climate warming is expected to accelerate during the twenty-first century, plant migration and tolerance to climatic stresses probably will be insufficient to absorb this impact posing threats to the sustainability of forest plant communities.

  3. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    OpenAIRE

    Roberson, Elizabeth J.; Chips, Michael J.; Walter P. Carson; Thomas P. Rooney

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau re...

  4. Caatinga Revisited: Ecology and Conservation of an Important Seasonal Dry Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Lima Araújo, Elcida; El-Deir, Ana Carla Asfora; de Lima, André Luiz Alves; Souto, Antonio; Bezerra, Bruna Martins; Ferraz, Elba Maria Nogueira; Maria Xavier Freire, Eliza; Sampaio, Everardo Valadares de Sá Barreto; Las-Casas, Flor Maria Guedes; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa; Pereira, Glauco Alves; de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Alves Ramos, Marcelo; Rodal, Maria Jesus Nogueira; Schiel, Nicola; de Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; de Azevedo-Júnior, Severino Mendes; Telino Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Severi, William

    2012-01-01

    Besides its extreme climate conditions, the Caatinga (a type of tropical seasonal forest) hosts an impressive faunal and floristic biodiversity. In the last 50 years there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies in the area. Here we aimed to present a review of these studies, focusing on four main fields: vertebrate ecology, plant ecology, human ecology, and ethnobiology. Furthermore, we identify directions for future research. We hope that the present paper will help defining actions and strategies for the conservation of the biological diversity of the Caatinga. PMID:22919296

  5. Caatinga revisited: ecology and conservation of an important seasonal dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Lima Araújo, Elcida; El-Deir, Ana Carla Asfora; de Lima, André Luiz Alves; Souto, Antonio; Bezerra, Bruna Martins; Ferraz, Elba Maria Nogueira; Maria Xavier Freire, Eliza; Sampaio, Everardo Valadares de Sá Barreto; Las-Casas, Flor Maria Guedes; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa; Pereira, Glauco Alves; de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Alves Ramos, Marcelo; Rodal, Maria Jesus Nogueira; Schiel, Nicola; de Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; de Azevedo-Júnior, Severino Mendes; Telino Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Severi, William

    2012-01-01

    Besides its extreme climate conditions, the Caatinga (a type of tropical seasonal forest) hosts an impressive faunal and floristic biodiversity. In the last 50 years there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies in the area. Here we aimed to present a review of these studies, focusing on four main fields: vertebrate ecology, plant ecology, human ecology, and ethnobiology. Furthermore, we identify directions for future research. We hope that the present paper will help defining actions and strategies for the conservation of the biological diversity of the Caatinga.

  6. Caatinga Revisited: Ecology and Conservation of an Important Seasonal Dry Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides its extreme climate conditions, the Caatinga (a type of tropical seasonal forest hosts an impressive faunal and floristic biodiversity. In the last 50 years there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies in the area. Here we aimed to present a review of these studies, focusing on four main fields: vertebrate ecology, plant ecology, human ecology, and ethnobiology. Furthermore, we identify directions for future research. We hope that the present paper will help defining actions and strategies for the conservation of the biological diversity of the Caatinga.

  7. Ecological and Socio-Economic Contribution of Mt. Elgon Forest Park, Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyinza Mukadasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ecological and socio-economic contribution of Mt. Elgon forest park, eastern Uganda. An effort was taken to evaluate the importance of Mt. Elgon forest park resources to the local people by using the local plant knowledge to value the forest park resources. An integrated approach of participatory rural appraisal (PRA, Participatory Resource Valuation (PRV, household survey, group discussions and forest walks were conducted during the months of June to December, 2008 in Mutushet and Kortek Parishes, Kapchorwa District. Using random sampling methods, 120 respondents were selected and interviewed. Ten forest uses were identified with the highest dependence being in the supply of timber for income and domestic building poles, the latter having the highest average annual household value of UGx. 67919 (US$37. The forest use most valued in both Mutushet and Koterk was medicine with an average annual household value of UGx. 60,371 (US$ 33 and UGx. 75,464 (US$ 42 respectively. The forest provision of medicine, domestic building materials, soil conservation, bush meat, charcoal and timber was more valued in Koterk, while provision of firewood, honey and pasture were more valued in Mutushet. The forest’s provision of food was valued equally in the two areas with an average annual value of UGx. 30,186 per household. Forest park resources accounted for 55% of the household income. Participatory valuation approaches are ecommended for estimation of forest park resources’ value in a non-cash economy.

  8. Aesthetic dimension about tropical forest in ecology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Seniciato

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzes the aesthetic dimension on teaching about natural environment on Ecology disciplines. The semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce guided data analysis, regarding to suggested values on the answers of interviewees. The analysis has revealed that, in terms of methodological approaches, Ecology instructors tend to valorize scientific and objective criteria, demonstrating a certain embarrassment on including aesthetic dimension in their teaching, although they recognize the relevance of aesthetic dimension for ethic implications on teaching and for the conservation of natural environment.

  9. Structure of a forested urban park: implications for strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Andrew A; Sabir, Senna

    2010-11-01

    Informed management of urban parks can provide optimal conditions for tree establishment and growth and thus maximize the ecological and aesthetic benefits that trees provide. This study assesses the structure, and its implications for function, of the urban forest in Allan Gardens, a 6.1 ha downtown park in the City of Toronto, Canada, using the Street Tree Resource Analysis Tool for Urban Forest Managers (STRATUM). Our goal is to present a framework for collection and analysis of baseline data that can inform a management strategy that would serve to protect and enhance this significant natural asset. We found that Allan Garden's tree population, while species rich (43), is dominated by maple (Acer spp.) (48% of all park trees), making it reliant on very few species for the majority of its ecological and aesthetic benefits and raising disease and pest-related concerns. Age profiles (using size as a proxy) showed a dominance of older trees with an inadequate number of individuals in the young to early middle age cohort necessary for short- to medium-term replacement. Because leaf area represents the single-most important contributor to urban tree benefits modelling, we calculated it separately for every park tree, using hemispheric photography, to document current canopy condition. These empirical measurements were lower than estimates produced by STRATUM, especially when trees were in decline and lacked full canopies, highlighting the importance of individual tree condition in determining leaf area and hence overall forest benefits. Stewardship of natural spaces within cities demands access to accurate and timely resource-specific data. Our work provides an uncomplicated approach to the acquisition and interpretation of these data in the context of a forested urban park.

  10. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D; Liang, Shuang; Martin, Katherine L; North, Malcolm P; Koch, George W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-03-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and any potential carbon benefits from treatment may depend on the occurrence of wildfire. We sought to determine how forest treatments alter the effects of stochastic wildfire events on the forest carbon balance. We modeled three treatments (control, thin-only, and thin and burn) with and without the occurrence of wildfire. We evaluated how two different probabilities of wildfire occurrence, 1% and 2% per year, might alter the carbon balance of treatments. In the absence of wildfire, we found that thinning and burning treatments initially reduced total ecosystem carbon (TEC) and increased net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB). In the presence of wildfire, the thin and burn treatment TEC surpassed that of the control in year 40 at 2%/yr wildfire probability, and in year 51 at 1%/yr wildfire probability. NECB in the presence of wildfire showed a similar response to the no-wildfire scenarios: both thin-only and thin and burn treatments increased the C sink. Treatments increased TEC by reducing both mean wildfire severity and its variability. While the carbon balance of treatments may differ in more productive forest types, the carbon balance benefits from restoring forest structure and fire in southwestern ponderosa pine forests are clear.

  11. Missing data in forest ecology and management: advances in quantitative methods [Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Barrett; Matti. Maltomo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, substantial progress has been made for handling missing data issues for applications in forest ecology and management, particularly in the area of imputation techniques. A session on this topic was held at the XXlll IUFRO World Congress in Seoul, South Korea, on August 23-28, 2010, resulting in this special issue of six papers that address recent...

  12. Spatial Ecology of Puerto Rican Boas (Epicrates inornatus) in a Hurricane Impacted Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.; Javier E. Mercado Bernard Parresol Esteban Terranova 2

    2004-01-01

    Spatial ecology of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus, Boidae) was studied with radiotelemetry in a subtropical wet forest recovering from a major hurricane (7–9 yr previous) when Hurricane Georges struck. Different boas were studied during three periods relative to Hurricane Georges: before only; before and after; and after only. Mean daily movement per month...

  13. Ecological consequences of changing hydrological conditions in wetland forests of coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Keim; Jim L. Chambers; Melinda S. Hughes; J. Andrew Nyman; Craig A. Miller; Blake J. Amos; William H. Conner; John W. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Emile S. Gardiner; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Gary P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale and localized alterations of processes affecting deltaic coastal wetlands have caused the complete loss of some coastal wetland forests and reduced the productivity and vigor of many areas in coastal Louisiana. This loss and degradation threatens ecosystem functions and the services they provide. This paper summarizes ecological relationships controlled by...

  14. Dipterocarps and Mycorrhiza. An ecological adaptation and a factor in forest regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, W.Th.M.

    1983-01-01

    Each dipterocarp has its own species of fungus, forming an ectomycorrhiza. From literature and experiments (in East Kalimantan and in vitro) ecological consequences are explored. These help explain the clumping of dipterocarp trees in the forest, the lack of hybrids, the poor dispersal, and speciati

  15. Small mammal populations and ecology in the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Jr. Laudenslayer; Roberta J. Fargo

    2002-01-01

    Small mammals are important components of woodlands and forests. Since 1992, we have been studying several aspects of small mammal ecology in oak woodlands in western foothills of the southern Sierra Nevada. Assemblages of small, nocturnal mammal species are dominated by the brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii), California mouse (P. californicus...

  16. Spatially explicit measurements of forest structure and fire behavior following restoration treatments in dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Paul Ziegler; Chad Hoffman; Michael Battaglia; William Mell

    2017-01-01

    Restoration treatments in dry forests of the western US often attempt silvicultural practices to restore the historical characteristics of forest structure and fire behavior. However, it is suggested that a reliance on non-spatial metrics of forest stand structure, along with the use of wildland fire behavior models that lack the ability to handle complex structures,...

  17. 林窗生态学研究进展%Advances in Studies of Forest Gap Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管云云; 费菲; 关庆伟; 陈斌

    2016-01-01

    Forest gap,though an interference at local scale,is an important driving force forest reqeneration nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning of forests. By thoroughly reviewing the literature of forest gap studies,this paper was intended to advance the knowledge for both scientific research and forest management. Traditionally,forest gap ecology focuses on the formation and characteristics of gaps,and the consequent impacts on above-ground ecological processes( e. g. microclimate and plant community characteristics ) . Nowadays,a growing body of the research shifts sights to the effects of forest gap on under ground ecological processes ( e. g. fine roots and litter decomposition,soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics,soil enzyme activities) and ecophysiological traits of animals and soil microorganism. However,current knowledge of these new spots is limited by the small spatial and temporal research scales. With the purposes of improving stand structures,ecological services function and process of forests,future work should focus more on the effects of forest gap on under ground ecological processes( e. g. fine roots decomposition and rhizosphere effect,distribution,cycling and immobilization of soil carbon and nitrogen) and ecophysiological traits of organisms. Furthermore,future studies should enlarge their research scales,and should also integrate above-and under ground ecological ecosystem,biotic and abiotic factors,as well as micro-and macro-scales.%林窗是森林生态系统中的一种中小尺度干扰,是促进森林更新、养分循环、功能提高的重要推动力。本文阐述林窗生态学的研究进展与展望,以期为今后的林窗理论研究和森林经营实践提供参考。林窗生态学研究集中于林窗的形成、基本特征以及林窗对森林小气候和植物群落特征等地上结构与过程的影响;近年来,林窗对细根与枯落物分解、土壤碳氮动态及酶活性以及对森林动物和土壤微生物

  18. Fuzzy logic merger of spectral and ecological information for improved montane forest mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D.; Running, Steven W.; Ryan, Kevin C.; Key, Carl H.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental data are often utilized to guide interpretation of spectral information based on context, however, these are also important in deriving vegetation maps themselves, especially where ecological information can be mapped spatially. A vegetation classification procedure is presented which combines a classification of spectral data from Landsat‐5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and environmental data based on topography and fire history. These data were combined utilizing fuzzy logic where assignment of each pixel to a single vegetation category was derived comparing the partial membership of each vegetation category within spectral and environmental classes. Partial membership was assigned from canopy cover for forest types measured from field sampling. Initial classification of spectral and ecological data produced map accuracies of less than 50% due to overlap between spectrally similar vegetation and limited spatial precision for predicting local vegetation types solely from the ecological information. Combination of environmental data through fuzzy logic increased overall mapping accuracy (70%) in coniferous forest communities of northwestern Montana, USA.

  19. Ecology of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Carlos Brisola; Santos-Neto Luiz Gonzaga; Lozovei Ana Leuch

    2001-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State) was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influence...

  20. Pastoral and woodcutting activities drive Cedrus atlantica Mediterranean forest structure in the Moroccan Middle Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudel, Marc; Aubert, Pierre-Marie; Aderghal, Mohammed; Hély, Christelle

    2016-03-01

    Human activities are historical ecological drivers, and we need to better understand their effects on ecosystems. In particular, they have been very important in the shaping of the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. Researchers and managers nonetheless lack knowledge concerning the impacts of their combinations and their current intensity on the structure of forest ecosystems of the southern part of the Mediterranean basin. In this study, we have develped a new methodology in order to understand the impacts of combined pastoral and woodcutting activities on the forest structure of the still ill-described but ecologically and economically important Moroccan Middle Atlas cedar forests. In a 40 000 ha forest, we chose 103 sites and sampled human activities through proxies and forest structures through circumference and vertical structures. A typology of sites yielded four human activity types: dominant pastoral activities, dominant oak cutting or cedar cutting activities, and an intermediate mid-disturbance type. This typology did not depend on altitude or substrate, confirming that the ecosystem structures linked to the different types depend more on human activities than on main environmental parameters. Pastoral activities modified forests the most, converting them to parklands with reduced canopies and low dynamics but high tree maturation. Woodcutting activities induced gap dynamics, favoring Cedrus atlantica in favorable environmental conditions and Quercus ilex otherwise, while they affected vertical structure depending on the local environment and competition for light and soil resources. Moderately disturbed stands showed forest maturation with low competition for light. Unlike previous studies, we found no evidence of a general degradation of cedar forests due to local human activities. However, cedar logging has reduced standing basal area regionally and one third of the sites may have vulnerable cedar populations due to pastoral activities and to

  1. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  2. The contrasting nature of woody plant species in different neotropical forest biomes reflects differences in ecological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental premise of this review is that distinctive phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns in clades endemic to different major biomes illuminate the evolutionary process. In seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), phylogenies are geographically structured and multiple individuals representing single species coalesce. This pattern of monophyletic species, coupled with their old species stem ages, is indicative of maintenance of small effective population sizes over evolutionary timescales, which suggests that SDTF is difficult to immigrate into because of persistent resident lineages adapted to a stable, seasonally dry ecology. By contrast, lack of coalescence in conspecific accessions of abundant and often widespread species is more frequent in rain forests and is likely to reflect large effective population sizes maintained over huge areas by effective seed and pollen flow. Species nonmonophyly, young species stem ages and lack of geographical structure in rain forest phylogenies may reflect more widespread disturbance by drought and landscape evolution causing resident mortality that opens up greater opportunities for immigration and speciation. We recommend full species sampling and inclusion of multiple accessions representing individual species in phylogenies to highlight nonmonophyletic species, which we predict will be frequent in rain forest and savanna, and which represent excellent case studies of incipient speciation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Ecological and Economic Advantages of Using Polypropylene Tree Shelters in Lowland Oak Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Liović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The process of joining the market competition by the company “Croatian Forests”, managing state forests in Croatia, is related to the transformation of the company into a trading company. This means that beside the biological and ecological goals in managing forests, the special attention is to be paid to business operations with the highest economic outputs, reduced costs and increased income. In order to enhance the regeneration of pedunculate oak forests in present day changing ecological and challenging economic conditions, as our proposal, is implementation of one of the artificial methods of regeneration pedunculate oak forests by planting seedlings protected with polypropylene tree shelters. Materials and Methods: The paper deal with existing knowledge about the conditions and characteristics of two methods of oak stand regeneration and analyzed data of current norms, standards and prices for each of these methods. The analysis compared the two methods: method of regeneration with unprotected seedlings, and seedlings protected with polypropylene tree shelters. Results and Conslusions: The research results showed that in comparison to the common seedling planting method, this method of pedunculate oak stand regeneration on difficult terrains with complex stand conditions is ecologically and economically more beneficial.

  4. Ecological Knowledge Among Communities, Managers and Scientists: Bridging Divergent Perspectives to Improve Forest Management Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F Stuart; Gowda, C Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R Uma

    2016-04-01

    Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management.

  5. Ecological Knowledge Among Communities, Managers and Scientists: Bridging Divergent Perspectives to Improve Forest Management Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F. Stuart; Gowda, C. Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R. Uma

    2016-04-01

    Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management.

  6. [Characteristics of soil macrofaunal community structure in secondary forest and forest plantations in western Qinling Mountains of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Liang; Cao, Jing; Li, Shi-Jie; Pan, Chun-Lin; Pan, Cheng-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Long-term disturbance of human beings on secondary forest ecosystem would have profound impacts on belowground ecological processes, whereas the community structure and functional diversity of soil fauna would be sensitive to the changes of belowground ecological processes, with significance as an indicator of the changes. In this study, the method of hand-sorting was adopted to investigate the density of soil macrofaunal community in a secondary forest and the Pinus tabulaeformis, Larix kaempferi, Picea abie, and Picea asperata plantations of nearly 30 years old in Xiaolongshan forest area of western Qinling Mountains, and the PCA ordination and one-way ANOVA analysis were applied to analyze the community structure and trophic group composition of soil macrofauna in the five forest types. In the P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations, the density of soil macrofaunal community was 3.0 and 2.1 times of that in the secondary forest, respectively, and the consumers/decomposers ratio of the community was obviously higher than that in the secondary forest. Among the plantations, P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations had a significantly higher consumers/decomposers ratio of soil macrofaunal community than P. abies and P. asperata plantations. There was an obvious difference in community structure of soil macrofauna among the four plantations. The density of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations was 3.5 and 2.1 times higher than that in P. asperata plantation, respectively, whereas the group richness of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis plantation was 1.5 times of that in P. abies and P. asperata plantations.

  7. Ecological Restoration and Reforestation of Fragmented Forests in Kianjavato, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Manjaribe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reforestation effort in Kianjavato Commune in southeast Madagascar is presented that combines native diversity with rapidly growing introduced and native pioneer trees. This work utilizes a three-tiered corridor design that capitalizes on the region’s mountainous terrain. The process of seed selection, transplantation, and survival rate of seedlings over a 16 month period is reported. The uppermost 50% of each mountain is planted with 38 woody species and most closely approximates native forest. This tier was divided into two categories, pioneer and secondary species. Most of the pioneer species were not native; however, results showed that four fast-growing, environmentally-tolerant native species could be suitable alternatives: Streblus mauritianus, Syzygium bernieri, Treculia madagascariensis and Uapaca thouarsii. More than 70,000 seeds of secondary species were extracted from fecal samples from wild, free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs; the majority of which germinated significantly better after gut passage. The most effective pretreatment that enhanced germination was to scarify unwashed seeds. Commercially valuable trees, belonging to the community members, were grown on the lower half of each mountain. Lastly, the various contributions of the community are described along with agroforestry development plans designed to reduce pressure on forest resources and generate supplemental income.

  8. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Palace; Sullivan, Franklin B; Mark Ducey; Christina Herrick

    2016-01-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is...

  9. Emerging themes in the ecology and management of North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharik, Terry L.; Adair, William; Baker, Fred A.; Battaglia, Michael; Comfort, Emily J.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Delong, Craig; DeRose, R. Justin; Ducey, Mark J.; Harmon, Mark; Levy, Louise; Logan, Jesse A.; O'Brien, Joseph; Palik, Brian J.; Roberts, Scott D.; Rogers, Paul C.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Spies, Thomas; Taylor, Sarah L.; Woodall, Christopher; Youngblood, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, consisting of 149 presentations in 16 oral sessions and a poster session, reflected a broad range of topical areas currently under investigation in forest ecology and management. There was an overarching emphasis on the role of disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic, in the dynamics of forest ecosystems, and the recognition that legacies from past disturbances strongly influence future trajectories. Climate was invoked as a major driver of ecosystem change. An emphasis was placed on application of research findings for predicting system responses to changing forest management initiatives. Several “needs” emerged from the discussions regarding approaches to the study of forest ecosystems, including (1) consideration of variable spatial and temporal scales, (2) long-term monitoring, (3) development of universal databases more encompassing of time and space to facilitate meta-analyses, (4) combining field studies and modeling approaches, (5) standardizing methods of measurement and assessment, (6) guarding against oversimplification or overgeneralization from limited site-specific results, (7) greater emphasis on plant-animal interactions, and (8) better alignment of needs and communication of results between researchers and managers.

  10. Emerging Themes in the Ecology and Management of North American Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Sharik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, consisting of 149 presentations in 16 oral sessions and a poster session, reflected a broad range of topical areas currently under investigation in forest ecology and management. There was an overarching emphasis on the role of disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic, in the dynamics of forest ecosystems, and the recognition that legacies from past disturbances strongly influence future trajectories. Climate was invoked as a major driver of ecosystem change. An emphasis was placed on application of research findings for predicting system responses to changing forest management initiatives. Several “needs” emerged from the discussions regarding approaches to the study of forest ecosystems, including (1 consideration of variable spatial and temporal scales, (2 long-term monitoring, (3 development of universal databases more encompassing of time and space to facilitate meta-analyses, (4 combining field studies and modeling approaches, (5 standardizing methods of measurement and assessment, (6 guarding against oversimplification or overgeneralization from limited site-specific results, (7 greater emphasis on plant-animal interactions, and (8 better alignment of needs and communication of results between researchers and managers.

  11. Morphology and ecology of sibon snakes (Squamata: Dipsadidae from two forests in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical measurements, abundance, and ecological observations were recorded for Sibon annulatus,S. argus, S. longifrens, and S. nebulatus at two Neotropical habitats: a lowland swamp forest in Costa Rica and a montane cloud forest in Panama. Fourty-four and 58 adult snakes were recorded from Costa Rica and Panama, respectively. Differences in morphology and body condition showed minimal significant differences among species from both geographical locations. Observations of feeding, reproduction, abundance, distribution and a new size record for S. annulatus are discussed.

  12. The Structures of Perception: An Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Braund

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available James J. Gibson is one of the best known and perhaps most controversial visual theorists of the twentieth century. Writing in the vein of the American functionalists, and immersed in their profound sense of pragmatism, Gibson sought to establish a more rigorous foundation for the study of vision by reworking its most fundamental concepts. Over the five decades of his distinguished career, Gibson brought new clarity to the old problems of the tradition. He offered an alternative theory of perception - one that could accommodate the experimental insights of contemporary research programs. He characterized this new theory as a version of direct perception in order to distinguish it from the traditional indirect approach of Rene Descartes. On Descartes' account, our perceptual awareness of reality comes through the representations we have formed of it within ourselves. In contrast, Gibson's theory of direct perception states that the environment contains all of the information needed to specify its properties. Hence, perceiving these properties is a matter of detecting the information available in the environment. This theory avoids the difficulty of explaining how the mind organizes holistic perceptions from atomic sensations. In what follows, I will attempt to make good these claims by situating the concept of "structure" at the heart of the ecological program. I will argue that this concept is significant precisely because it allows Gibson to locate the moving, perceiving body at the heart of meaningful perceptual experience; an experience which emerges in the dynamical structures that cross the body and the world.

  13. Development of ecological restoration experiments in fire adapted forests at Grand Canyon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington; Peter Z. Fule; Margaret H. Moore; Hiram B. Smith

    2000-01-01

    The management of national park and wilderness areas dominated by forest ecosystems adapted to frequent, low-intensity fires, continues to be a tremendous challenge. Throughout the inland West and particularly in the Southwest, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed conifer forests have become dense and structurally homogeneous after periods of...

  14. Methods to assess tropical rain forest canopy structure: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.

    2001-01-01

    Forest canopy structure (sensu latu) is the combination of forest texture (the qualitative and quantitative composition of the vegetation as to different morphological elements), and forest structure (sensu strictu, the spatial arrangement of these elements). Scale is an aspect of major importance.

  15. Mapping site index and volume increment from forest inventory, Landsat, and ecological variables in Tahoe National Forest, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Ramirez, Carlos; Conway, Scott; Kennedy, Kama; Kohler, Tanya; Liu, Jinxun

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution site index (SI) and mean annual increment (MAI) maps are desired for local forest management. We integrated field inventory, Landsat, and ecological variables to produce 30 m SI and MAI maps for the Tahoe National Forest (TNF) where different tree species coexist. We converted species-specific SI using adjustment factors. Then, the SI map was produced by (i) intensifying plots to expand the training sets to more climatic, topographic, soil, and forest reflective classes, (ii) using results from a stepwise regression to enable a weighted imputation that minimized the effects of outlier plots within classes, and (iii) local interpolation and strata median filling to assign values to pixels without direct imputations. The SI (reference age is 50 years) map had an R2 of 0.7637, a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 3.60, and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 3.07 m. The MAI map was similarly produced with an R2 of 0.6882, an RMSE of 1.73, and a MAE of 1.20 m3·ha−1·year−1. Spatial patterns and trends of SI and MAI were analyzed to be related to elevation, aspect, slope, soil productivity, and forest type. The 30 m SI and MAI maps can be used to support decisions on fire, plantation, biodiversity, and carbon.

  16. Implication of Forest-Savanna Dynamics on Biomass and Carbon Stock: Effectiveness of an Amazonian Ecological Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Santos, F. R.; Luizao, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The forests-savanna advancement/retraction process seems to play an important role in the global carbon cycle and in the climate-vegetation balance maintenance in the Amazon. To contribute with long term carbon dynamics and assess effectiveness of a protected area in reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon transitional areas, variations in forest-savanna mosaics biomass and carbon stock within Maraca Ecological Station (MES), Roraima/Brazil, and its outskirts non-protected areas were compared. Composite surface soil samples and indirect methods based on regression models were used to estimate aboveground tree biomass accumulation and assess vegetation and soil carbon stock along eleven 0.6 ha transects perpendicular to the forest-savanna limits. Aboveground biomass and carbon accumulation were influenced by vegetation structure, showing higher values within protected area, with great contribution of trees above 40 cm in diameter. In the savanna environments of protected areas, a higher tree density and carbon stock up to 30 m from the border confirmed a forest encroachment. This pointed that MES acts as carbon sink, even under variations in soil fertility gradient, with a potential increase of the total carbon stock from 9 to 150 Mg C ha-1. Under 20 years of fire and disturbance management, the results indicated the effectiveness of this protected area to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate greenhouse and climate change effects in a forest-savanna transitional area in Brazilian Northern Amazon. The contribution of this study in understanding rates and reasons for biomass and carbon variation, under different management strategies, should be considered the first approximation to assist policies of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) from underresearched Amazonian ecotone; despite further efforts in this direction are still needed. FINANCIAL SUPPORT: Boticário Group Foundation (Fundação Grupo Boticário); National Council for

  17. Gainesville's urban forest structure and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    The urban forest provides a community numerous benefits. The urban forest is composed of a mix of native and non-native species introduced by people managing this forest and by residents. Because they usually contain non-native species, many urban forests often have greater species diversity than forests in the surrounding natural...

  18. Spatial pattern and compositive structure of forests in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Remote-sensing and field data of Guizhou forest resources in 2000 are processed usingArcGIS, with the production of forest resource distribution map, forest age class structure map, andforest canopy distribution map. Analysis of these data shows that: (1) though there are multiple typesof forest resources, forest coverage is low (only 25.27%, excluding sparse woodland, shrub andunderage-forest); (2) the geographical distribution of forests is quite uneven, mainly in the southeastof the province and in Zunyi prefecture; (3) the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forests have beenseriously destroyed, with striking secondary features, i.e., coniferous forest and shrubbery account forthe greatest proportion of Guizhou forests; (4) the timber-forest is much larger in area thanshelter-forest and economic forest; (5) young-and-middle aged forests are more widely distributed thannear-and-over matured forest; and (6) the forest of Guizhou is not enough to effectively protect theenvironment of karst mountain areas of the province.

  19. Ecology of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae in Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Carlos Brisola

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influenced the numbers of Lu. ayrozai while the two first factors influenced the numbers of Lu. geniculata, besides the collected quantities of females of the two species. The influence of the factors on Lu. ayrozai numbers was more immediate than in those of Lu. geniculata. Numbers of both species and of the females of Lu. geniculata collected in different seasons, but not at the different heights, varied significantly. Differences between the behaviour of Lu. ayrozai in Morretes and in other regions could be attributed to environmental differences and/or to regional variations in the species, which could constitute species complexes. Hourly variations of collections were different in the species and seasons.

  20. Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, C B; Santos-Neto, L G; Lozovei, A L

    2001-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State) was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influenced the numbers of Lu. ayrozai while the two first factors influenced the numbers of Lu. geniculata, besides the collected quantities of females of the two species. The influence of the factors on Lu. ayrozai numbers was more immediate than in those of Lu. geniculata. Numbers of both species and of the females of Lu. geniculata collected in different seasons, but not at the different heights, varied significantly. Differences between the behaviour of Lu. ayrozai in Morretes and in other regions could be attributed to environmental differences and/or to regional variations in the species, which could constitute species complexes. Hourly variations of collections were different in the species and seasons.

  1. Soil Effects on Forest Structure and Diversity in a Moist and a Dry Tropical Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Poorter, L.; Alarcon, A.; Blate, G.; Choque, U.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Justiniano, J.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Pariona, W.; Putz, F.E.; Quevedo, L.; Toledo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil characteristics are important drivers of variation in wet tropical forest structure and diversity, but few studies have evaluated these relationships in drier forest types. Using tree and soil data from 48 and 32 1 ha plots, respectively, in a Bolivian moist and dry forest, we asked how soil co

  2. Fragmentation increases wind disturbance impacts on forest structure and carbon stocks in a western Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Naomi B; Uriarte, María; DeFries, Ruth; Bedka, Kristopher M; Fernandes, Katia; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel A

    2017-09-01

    Tropical second-growth forests could help mitigate climate change, but the degree to which their carbon potential is achieved will depend on exposure to disturbance. Wind disturbance is common in tropical forests, shaping structure, composition, and function, and influencing successional trajectories. However, little is known about the impacts of extreme winds on second-growth forests in fragmented landscapes, though these ecosystems are often located in mosaics of forest, pasture, cropland, and other land cover types. Indirect evidence suggests that fragmentation increases risk of wind damage in tropical forests, but no studies have found such impacts following severe storms. In this study, we ask whether fragmentation and forest type (old vs. second growth) were associated with variation in wind damage after a severe convective storm in a fragmented production landscape in western Amazonia. We applied linear spectral unmixing to Landsat 8 imagery from before and after the storm, and combined it with field observations of damage to map wind effects on forest structure and biomass. We also used Landsat 8 imagery to map land cover with the goals of identifying old- and second-growth forest and characterizing fragmentation. We used these data to assess variation in wind disturbance across 95,596 ha of forest, distributed over 6,110 patches. We find that fragmentation is significantly associated with wind damage, with damage severity higher at forest edges and in edgier, more isolated patches. Damage was also more severe in old-growth than in second-growth forests, but this effect was weaker than that of fragmentation. These results illustrate the importance of considering landscape context in planning tropical forest restoration and natural regeneration projects. Assessments of long-term carbon sequestration potential need to consider spatial variation in disturbance exposure. Where risk of extreme winds is high, minimizing fragmentation and isolation could increase

  3. Seasonal feeding ecology of ring-tailed lemurs: a comparison of spiny and gallery forest habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Marni; Sauther, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Although Lemur catta persists in many habitat types in southern Madagascar, its ecology has been primarily studied within gallery forests. We compare plant food selection and properties for ring-tailed lemurs in the spiny and gallery forests over the synchronized lactation period (September to March) that includes both the dry and wet seasons. We found no significant habitat-specific differences in the type of plant part consumed per month (i.e. flower, fruit, leaf) or between the intake of soluble carbohydrates. However, the presence and use of Tamarindus indica plants appear to elevate protein and fiber intake in the gallery forest lemurs' diets. Protein is especially important for reproductive females who incur the added metabolic costs associated with lactation; however, fiber can disrupt protein digestion. Future work should continue to investigate how variations of protein and fiber affect ring-tailed lemur dietary choice and nutrient acquisition.

  4. Advances in ecological genomics in forest trees and applications to genetic resources conservation and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N; Cooke, Janice E K; Fady, Bruno; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Heuertz, Myriam; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Lexer, Christian; Staton, Margaret; Whetten, Ross W; Plomion, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Forest trees are an unparalleled group of organisms in their combined ecological, economic and societal importance. With widespread distributions, predominantly random mating systems and large population sizes, most tree species harbour extensive genetic variation both within and among populations. At the same time, demographic processes associated with Pleistocene climate oscillations and land-use change have affected contemporary range-wide diversity and may impinge on the potential for future adaptation. Understanding how these adaptive and neutral processes have shaped the genomes of trees species is therefore central to their management and conservation. As for many other taxa, the advent of high-throughput sequencing methods is expected to yield an understanding of the interplay between the genome and environment at a level of detail and depth not possible only a few years ago. An international conference entitled 'Genomics and Forest Tree Genetics' was held in May 2016, in Arcachon (France), and brought together forest geneticists with a wide range of research interests to disseminate recent efforts that leverage contemporary genomic tools to probe the population, quantitative and evolutionary genomics of trees. An important goal of the conference was to discuss how such data can be applied to both genome-enabled breeding and the conservation of forest genetic resources under land use and climate change. Here, we report discoveries presented at the meeting and discuss how the ecological genomic toolkit can be used to address both basic and applied questions in tree biology.

  5. Simulating Changes in Fires and Ecology of the 21st Century Eurasian Boreal Forests of Siberia

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    Ksenia Brazhnik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires release the greatest amount of carbon into the atmosphere compared to other forest disturbances. To understand how current and potential future fire regimes may affect the role of the Eurasian boreal forest in the global carbon cycle, we employed a new, spatially-explicit fire module DISTURB-F (DISTURBance-Fire in tandem with a spatially-explicit, individually-based gap dynamics model SIBBORK (SIBerian BOReal forest simulator calibrated to Krasnoyarsk Region. DISTURB-F simulates the effect of forest fire on the boreal ecosystem, namely the mortality of all or only the susceptible trees (loss of biomass, i.e., carbon within the forested landscape. The fire module captures some important feedbacks between climate, fire and vegetation structure. We investigated the potential climate-driven changes in the fire regime and vegetation in middle and south taiga in central Siberia, a region with extensive boreal forest and rapidly changing climate. The output from this coupled simulation can be used to estimate carbon losses from the ecosystem as a result of fires of different sizes and intensities over the course of secondary succession (decades to centuries. Furthermore, it may be used to assess the post-fire carbon storage capacity of potential future forests, the structure and composition of which may differ significantly from current Eurasian boreal forests due to regeneration under a different climate.

  6. Woody species composition, diversity and structure of riparian forests of four watercourses types in Burkina Faso

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oumarou Sambaré; Fidèle Bognounou; Rüdiger Wittig; Adjima Thiombiano

    2011-01-01

    Riparian forests are classified as endangered ecosystems in general, particularly in sahelian countries like Burkina Faso because of human-induced alterations and civil engineering works. The modification of this important habitat is continuing, with little attention being paid to the ecological or human consequences of these changes. The objective of this study is to describe the variation of woody species diversity and dynamic in riparian forests on different type of watercourse banks along phytogeographical gradient in Burkina Faso. All woody species were systematically measured in 90 sample plots with sides of 50 m × 20 m.Density, dominance, frequency and species and family importance values were computed to characterize the species composition. Different diversity indices were calculated to examine the heterogeneity of riparian forests. A total of 196 species representing 139 genera and 51 families were recorded in the overall riparian forests. The species richness of individuals with dbh ≥ 5cm increased significantly from the North to the South along the phytogeographical gradient and varied significantly between the different types of riparian forests. Similarity in tree species composition between riparian forests was low, which indicates high beta diversity and reflects differences in habitat conditions and topography.The structural characteristics varied significantly along the phytogeographical gradient and between the different types of riparian forests.The diameter class distribution of trees in all riparian forests showed a reverse “J” shaped curve except riparian forest of stream indicating vegetation dominated by juvenile individuals. Considering the ecological importance of riparian forest, there is a need to delineate and classify them along watercourses throughout the country.

  7. Ecological and biological considerations for sustainable management of non-timber forest products in northern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc C. Duchesne; John C. Zasada; Iain. Davidson-Hunt

    2001-01-01

    With a current output of over $241 million per year, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) contribute significantly to the welfare of rural and First Nations communities in Canada. Maple sap products, wild mushrooms, and wild fruits are the most important NTFPs for consumption both in Canada and abroad. However, because of increased access to international markets by...

  8. Forests, savannas and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

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    M. Baudena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future, due to global climate change. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs are very useful to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modelling. Model outcomes, obtained including different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna occurrences in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings, and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant savanna trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant forest trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate

  9. Ecological characterization of a tropical myxomycete assemblage--Maquipucuna Cloud Forest Reserve, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Steven L; Schnittler, Martin; Lado, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The assemblage of myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds) associated with cloud forests of the Maquipucuna Cloud Forest Reserve in the western Andes was investigated. Within three study sites located along a gradient extending from 1200 to 2700 m above sea level, a clear pattern of decreasing myxomycete diversity and productivity with elevation was apparent. As such, these data conform to the pattern of "reverse diversity" for myxomycetes in the neotropics, with higher diversity for less mesic forest types than for more mesic forest types. Canonical correspondence analysis of myxomycete abundances in relation to microhabitat parameters revealed three major ecological assemblages: wood-, litter- and inflorescence-inhabiting species. All three assemblages include a number of specialized species, with the assemblage associated with litter being the most diverse and the one associated with inflorescences being the most distinctive. In addition, samples from the microhabitat represented by the cover of epiphyllic liverworts on living leaves regularly produce myxomycetes in moist chamber culture but with few sporocarps and no evidence of any specialized species. At least near ground level, bark-inhabiting (corticolous) myxomycetes are uncommon in the cloud forests sampled in the present study.

  10. Distribution and Conservation of Davilla (Dilleniaceae in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Using Ecological Niche Modeling

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    Ismael Martins Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have modeled the ecological niche for 12 plant species belonging to the genus Davilla (Dilleniaceae which occur in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. This group includes endemic species lianas threatened by extinction and is therefore a useful indicator for forest areas requiring conservation. The aims are to compare the distribution and richness of species within the protected areas, assessing the degree of protection and gap analysis of reserves for this group. We used the Maxent algorithm with environmental and occurrence data, and produced geographic distribution maps. The results show that high species richness occurs in forest and coastal forest of Espírito Santo to Bahia states. The endemic species comprise D. flexuosa, D. macrocarpa, D. flexuosa, D. grandifolia, and D. sessilifolia. In the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, the following endemic species occur: D. tintinnabulata and D. glaziovii, with this latter species being included in the “red list” due habitat loss and predatory extractivism. The indicators of species richness in the coastal region of Bahia correspond with floristic inventories that point to this area having a high biodiversity. Although this region has several protected areas, there are gaps in reserves, which, combined with anthropogenic threats and fragmentation, have caused several problems for biodiversity.

  11. Emerging Relationships Between Structure and Ecological Function in the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brown

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of landscape ecology are theoretically applicable to landscapes anywhere in the world. Much information has been generated relating sizes, shapes, and composition of patches and corridors in the landscape to their ecological function. Many patterns related to ecological processes are emerging that can be applied with increasing confidence in landscape planning and design. In this context, we developed a comprehensive approach that makes use of three-dimensional (3-D models to describe visually the structural properties of landscape elements. This approach may be used by landscape architects so that the patterns they create also have an appropriate ecological function.

  12. Quantifying Forest Ecosystem Services Tradeoff—Coupled Ecological and Economic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.; Ling, P. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of the effect of carbon-related forestland management activities on ecosystem services is difficult, because knowledge about the dynamics of coupled social-ecological systems is lacking. Different forestland management activities, such as various amount, timing, and methods of harvesting, and natural disturbances events, such as wind and fires, create shocks and uncertainties to the forest carbon dynamics. A spatially explicit model, Landis-ii, was used to model the forest succession for different harvest management scenarios at the Grandfather District, North Carolina. In addition to harvest, the model takes into account of the impact of natural disturbances, such as fire and insects, and species competition. The result shows the storage of carbon in standing biomass and in wood product for each species for each scenario. In this study, optimization is used to analyze the maximum profit and the number of tree species that each forest landowner can gain at different prices of carbon, roundwood, and interest rates for different harvest management scenarios. Time series of roundwood production of different types were estimated using remote sensing data. Econometric analysis is done to understand the possible interaction and relations between the production of different types of roundwood and roundwood prices, which can indicate the possible planting scheme that a forest owner may make. This study quantifies the tradeoffs between carbon sequestration, roundwood production, and forest species diversity not only from an economic perspective, but also takes into account of the forest succession mechanism in a species-diverse region. The resulting economic impact on the forest landowners is likely to influence their future planting decision, which in turn, will influence the species composition and future revenue of the landowners.

  13. Atmospheric deposition of mercury in Atlantic Forest and ecological risk to soil fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristhy Buch, Andressa; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere nowadays has a great contribution from anthropogenic sources and has been a great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. Certainly, the petroleum refineries have significant contribution, seen that 100 million m3 of crude oil are annually processed. These refineries contribute with low generation of solid waste; however, a large fraction of Hg can be emitted to the atmosphere. There are sixteen refineries in Brazil, three of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Hg is a toxic and hazardous trace element, naturally found in the earth crust. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of great importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transfer to the soil through litterfall, which play an important role as Hg sink. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil is the greater contributor of fauna and flora biodiversity in the world and, according to recent studies, this biome has the highest concentrations of mercury in litter in the world, as well as in China, at Subtropical Forest. Ecotoxicological assessments can predict the potential ecological risk of Hg toxicity in the soil can lead to impact the soil fauna and indirectly other trophic levels of the food chain within one or more ecosystems. This study aims to determine mercury levels that represent risks to diversity and functioning of soil fauna in tropical forest soils. The study is conducted in two forest areas inserted into conservation units of Rio de Janeiro state. One area is located next to an important petroleum refinery in activity since fifty-two years ago, whereas the other one is located next to other refinery under construction (beginning activities in 2015), which will

  14. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yu-lin; Wang Yu-kuan; Peng Pei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  15. Assessment of ecological passages along road networks within the Mediterranean forest using GIS-based multi criteria evaluation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülci, Sercan; Akay, Abdullah Emin

    2015-12-01

    Major roads cause barrier effect and fragmentation on wildlife habitats that are suitable places for feeding, mating, socializing, and hiding. Due to wildlife collisions (Wc), human-wildlife conflicts result in lost lives and loss of biodiversity. Geographical information system (GIS)-based multi criteria evaluation (MCE) methods have been successfully used in short-term planning of road networks considering wild animals. Recently, wildlife passages have been effectively utilized as road engineering structures provide quick and certain solutions for traffic safety and wildlife conservation problems. GIS-based MCE methods provide decision makers with optimum location for ecological passages based on habitat suitability models (HSMs) that classify the areas based on ecological requirements of target species. In this study, ecological passages along Motorway 52 within forested areas in Mediterranean city of Osmaniye in Turkey were evaluated. Firstly, HSM coupled with nine eco-geographic decision variables were developed based on ecological requirements of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) that were chosen as target species. Then specified decision variables were evaluated using GIS-based weighted linear combination (WLC) method to estimate movement corridors and mitigation points along the motorway. In the solution process, two linkage nodes were evaluated for eco-passages which were determined based on the least-cost movement corridor intersecting with the motorway. One of the passages was identified as a natural wildlife overpass while the other was suggested as underpass construction. The results indicated that computer-based models provide accurate and quick solutions for positioning ecological passages to reduce environmental effects of road networks on wild animals.

  16. Reconstructing the Climate and Ecology of an Arctic Pliocene Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, N.; Ballantyne, A.; Csank, A.; Matheus, P.

    2006-12-01

    Instrumental records reveal that the current rate of arctic warming greatly exceeds mean global warming. However, arctic temperatures during the Pliocene were considerably warmer than present, making it an excellent time period for investigating potential consequences of current warming trends. Pliocene-aged (4 to 5 Ma) peat deposits from Ellesmere Island are characterized by a remarkable fossil assemblage including 15 vertebrate taxa, 90 plant taxa and 101 invertebrate taxa. Among the fossils are well-preserved samples of an extinct larch (Larix groenlandii), which have been exploited as an archive of paleoclimatic information. Analysis of annual ring widths and oxygen isotopes suggest that Pliocene temperatures were 14.2 ° C warmer than today (-5.5 \\mp 1.9 ° C). Furthermore, temporal patterns in isotopic variability suggest that modes of variability that dominate modern arctic climates, such as the NAO, were also operating during the Pliocene. Isotopic analysis of fossil bone material may provide insight into the structure of past arctic ecosystems. Preliminary data suggest that carbon and nitrogen isotopes extracted from the collagen of fossil bone may provide a powerful new tool for investigating the response of arctic ecosystems to previously warm intervals in Earth's History.

  17. Ecological indicator values of forest communities in Çitdere Region (Yenice-Karabük

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Çoban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species system, which has been used widely in Europe, has many advantages in vegetation analysis. It allows quick interpretation of ecological conditions using floristic data without doing any measurements about site conditions. Considering the amount of phytosociological studies carried out in Turkey, this system may provide important information about plants or plant communities if required modifications are done. In this study, Pignatti-Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs modified for the check list of Flora Europea were used to analyse and compare forest communities of Çitdere region in terms of light (radiation, temperature, moisture, continentality, soil reaction and soil nutrient in order to test how effectively mean EIVs indicate ecological conditions. Main differences were found between communities which occur on sunny and shady exposures in terms of moisture, soil nutrient, light and temperature indicator values. When normal and original permutation tests were used, all of six indicator values were significant. With the modified permutation test, only mean temperature and light indicator values showed significant differences among 8 forest communities of the region. Pinus sylvestris and Quercus petraea forest communities which have relatively narrow distribution area showed higher correlation with temperature and continentality indicator values when weighted average by species cover was used.

  18. Empirical test of the influence of global warming and forest disturbance on ant fauna at the Gwangneung Forest Long Term Ecological Research site, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of forest disturbance and climate change on the ant fauna at the Long Term Ecological Research site in Gwangneung Forest, Korea in 2003 and 2012. After forest disturbance, the occurrence and abundance of ants belonging to the functional groups of forest ground forager and soil and litter dweller are predicted to decrease, while the occurrence and abundance of ants belonging to the open land forager and forest vegetation forager functional groups are predicted to increase. In terms of the effects of climate change, if the optimum temperature of the ants is lower than the annual average temperature in the survey area, the occurrence and abundance of the ants are predicted to decrease and vice versa. Ant surveys were carried out using pitfall traps. Changes in the dominant species, occurrence, and abundance mostly corresponded to the predictions for forest disturbance, but did not match the prediction for an increase in temperature.

  19. Insights on Forest Structure and Composition from Long-Term Research in the Luquillo Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The science of ecology fundamentally aims to understand species and their relation to the environment. At sites where hurricane disturbance is part of the environmental context, permanent forest plots are critical to understand ecological vegetation dynamics through time. An overview of forest structure and species composition from two of the longest continuously measured tropical forest plots is presented. Long-term measurements, 72 years at the leeward site, and 25 years at windward site, of stem density are similar to initial and pre-hurricane values at both sites. For 10 years post-hurricane Hugo (1989, stem density increased at both sites. Following that increase period, stem density has remained at 1400 to 1600 stems/ha in the leeward site, and at 1200 stems/ha in the windward site. The forests had similar basal area values before hurricane Hugo in 1989, but these sites are following different patterns of basal area accumulation. The leeward forest site continues to accumulate and increase basal area with each successive measurement, currently above 50 m2/ha. The windward forest site maintains its basal area values close to an asymptote of 35 m2/ha. Currently, the most abundant species at both sites is the sierra palm. Ordinations to explore variation in tree species composition through time present the leeward site with a trajectory of directional change, while at the windward site, the composition of species seems to be converging to pre-hurricane conditions. The observed differences in forest structure and composition from sites differently affected by hurricane disturbance provide insight into how particular forest characteristics respond at shorter or longer time scales in relation to previous site conditions and intensity of disturbance effects.

  20. Conservation success as a function of good alignment of social and ecological structures and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Orjan; Crona, Beatrice; Thyresson, Matilda; Golz, Anna-Lea; Tengö, Maria

    2014-10-01

    How to create and adjust governing institutions so that they align (fit) with complex ecosystem processes and structures across scales is an issue of increasing concern in conservation. It is argued that lack of such social-ecological fit makes governance and conservation difficult, yet progress in explicitly defining and rigorously testing what constitutes a good fit has been limited. We used a novel modeling approach and data from case studies of fishery and forest conservation to empirically test presumed relationships between conservation outcomes and certain patterns of alignment of social-ecological interdependences. Our approach made it possible to analyze conservation outcome on a systems level while also providing information on how individual actors are positioned in the complex web of social-ecological interdependencies. We found that when actors who shared resources were also socially linked, conservation at the level of the whole social-ecological system was positively affected. When the scales at which individual actors used resources and the scale at which ecological resources were interconnected to other ecological resources were aligned through tightened feedback loops, conservation outcome was better than when they were not aligned. The analysis of individual actors' positions in the web of social-ecological interdependencies was helpful in understanding why a system has a certain level of social-ecological fit. Results of analysis of positions showed that different actors contributed in very different ways to achieve a certain fit and revealed some underlying difference between the actors, for example in terms of actors' varying rights to access and use different ecological resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Structure and management of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Italy

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    Nocentini S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Beech forests characterise the landscape of many mountain areas in Italy, from the Alps to the southern regions. This paper analyses the relationship between stand structure and the management history of beech in Italy. The aim is to outline possible strategies for the sustainable management of these forest formations. The present structure of beech forests in Italy is the result of many interacting factors. According to the National Forest Inventory, more than half the total area covered by beech has a long history of coppicing. High forests cover 34% of the total beech area and 13% have complex structures which have not been classified in regular types. Coppices are very widespread mainly because of the past, but also present importance of firewood and charcoal for mountain populations. A particular type of beech coppice, the selection coppice (or uneven aged coppice, was traditional in Tuscany and in some alpine areas. Starting from the fifties, following the widespread use of other low cost energy sources and the depopulation of mountain areas, many beech coppices have been progressively abandoned. Forest policies have been increasingly directed to favouring beech coppice conversion to high forests, which are considered more productive and ecologically more functional. Beech high forests have a very interesting management history which is a very good example of the separation between classical forest management, i.e., forest management systems defined by “scientific forestry”, described in text books and usually prescribed in forest regulation plans, and real life forest management, i.e., how forests have been, and mostly still are, actually managed. The analysis of the management history of beech high forests in Italy shows that management systems which favour simplified stand structure and composition according to rigid, predetermined models have been rarely applied. However, the traditional silviculture of beech stands in Southern

  2. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Hurteau; Shuang Liang; Katherine L. Martin; Malcolm P. North; George W. Koch; Bruce A. Hungate

    2016-01-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and...

  3. Ecology of Nitrogen Fixing, Nitrifying, and Denitrifying Microorganisms in Tropical Forest Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Silvia; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play important roles in nitrogen cycling within forest ecosystems. Current research has revealed that a wider variety of microorganisms, with unexpected diversity in their functions and phylogenies, are involved in the nitrogen cycle than previously thought, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, heterotrophic nitrifying microorganisms, and anammox bacteria, as well as denitrifying bacteria, archaea, and fungi. However, the vast majority of this research has been focused in temperate regions, and relatively little is known regarding the ecology of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms within tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Tropical forests are characterized by relatively high precipitation, low annual temperature fluctuation, high heterogeneity in plant diversity, large amounts of plant litter, and unique soil chemistry. For these reasons, regulation of the nitrogen cycle in tropical forests may be very different from that of temperate ecosystems. This is of great importance because of growing concerns regarding the effect of land use change and chronic-elevated nitrogen deposition on nitrogen-cycling processes in tropical forests. In the context of global change, it is crucial to understand how environmental factors and land use changes in tropical ecosystems influence the composition, abundance and activity of key players in the nitrogen cycle. In this review, we synthesize the limited currently available information regarding the microbial communities involved in nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification, to provide deeper insight into the mechanisms regulating nitrogen cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. We also highlight the large gaps in our understanding of microbially mediated nitrogen processes in tropical forest soils and identify important areas for future research.

  4. Ecology of Nitrogen Fixing, Nitrifying, and Denitrifying Microorganisms in Tropical Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Silvia; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play important roles in nitrogen cycling within forest ecosystems. Current research has revealed that a wider variety of microorganisms, with unexpected diversity in their functions and phylogenies, are involved in the nitrogen cycle than previously thought, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, heterotrophic nitrifying microorganisms, and anammox bacteria, as well as denitrifying bacteria, archaea, and fungi. However, the vast majority of this research has been focused in temperate regions, and relatively little is known regarding the ecology of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms within tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Tropical forests are characterized by relatively high precipitation, low annual temperature fluctuation, high heterogeneity in plant diversity, large amounts of plant litter, and unique soil chemistry. For these reasons, regulation of the nitrogen cycle in tropical forests may be very different from that of temperate ecosystems. This is of great importance because of growing concerns regarding the effect of land use change and chronic-elevated nitrogen deposition on nitrogen-cycling processes in tropical forests. In the context of global change, it is crucial to understand how environmental factors and land use changes in tropical ecosystems influence the composition, abundance and activity of key players in the nitrogen cycle. In this review, we synthesize the limited currently available information regarding the microbial communities involved in nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification, to provide deeper insight into the mechanisms regulating nitrogen cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. We also highlight the large gaps in our understanding of microbially mediated nitrogen processes in tropical forest soils and identify important areas for future research. PMID:27468277

  5. Assessment of traditional ecological knowledge and beliefs in the utilisation of important plant species: The case of Buhanga sacred forest, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runyambo Irakiza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional ecological knowledge is an integrated part of the African people and indeed the Rwandese for cultural purpose. Buhanga sacred forest is a relict forest of tremendous ecological importance to Rwandan society located in Musanze District. The aim of this study was to assess the traditional ecological knowledge and belief in the utilisation of some important plant species for the conservation of Buhanga sacred forest. Ecological information about ethnomedicinal and traditional practices were collected following structured questionnaire through interview involving eight traditional healers and three focus group discussions. Data were collected from the natural habitats, home gardens, farmlands and roadsides of Buhanga sacred forest. A total of 45 botanical taxa belonging to 28 families were reported to be used by the local community. Species such as Brillantaisia cicatricosa and Senna septemtrionalis were the popular species cited by traditional healers to treat human and animal diseases and ailments, respectively. The results of the study indicated that because of the cultural norms and values associated with the sacred forest, this has led to non-exploitation. The study presents key sites and plant species in which their use and belief can lead to their conservation. However, not only is it imperative to conserve traditional local knowledge for biocultural conservation motives but there is also need to train traditional healers on how to domesticate indigenous species as conservation measure because some species have become susceptible to extinction.Conservation implications: Highlighting indigenous species investigated in this research will provide a powerful tool for ensuring biodiversity conservation through community participation in a country of high population density in Africa. Some plant species that provided satisfactory Local Health Traditions among communities surrounding Buhanga can contribute as good material for further

  6. Áreas prioritárias ao restabelecimento da conectividade estrutural entre fragmentos florestais da Zona de Amortecimento da Estação Ecológica de Ribeirão Preto. Priority areas to restoration of structural connectivity between forest fragments of Buffer Zone of Ribeirão Preto Ecological Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Mouro VARANDA

    2015-06-01

    . In order to subsidize the forest restoration actions, a map of priority areas was generated for the reestablishment of the connectivity between the fragments of BF. The considered criteria for the production of the map were: the structure and configuration of the landscape, the conservation status of the remnant and the Brazilian legislation. The results demonstrate the urgency to achieve actions to restore the connectivity of Buffer Zone in EERP, demonstrating the high degree of fragmentation and degradation of this area. The methodology used to determine the areas of priority for the connectivity was comprehensive and resulted in a reliable and realistic map. The generated map indicates that the actions of forest restoration in BZ of Ribeirão Preto Ecological Station should be focused on two strategies: forest corridors and enrichment of the fragments, prioritizing the restoration of riparian forests. These procedures would act as facilitators for the structural connectivity between the green areas nearby the streams present in BF and so minimizing the impact of the edge effects. The generated result has the approval of all those directly or indirectly involved with the management of the protected area and its BF, it is also an excellent tool to assist management and should be used in future projects of restoration in partnership with the landowners.

  7. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective......, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future.......Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current...

  8. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

  9. Ecological Characteristics That Enhance Broussonetia papyrifera’s Invasion in a Semideciduous Forest in Ghana

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    B. Kyereh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Broussonetia papyrifera (L. Vent. (Moraceae was introduced to Ghana in 1969 and has since become second only to Chromolaena odorata as an invasive species in Ghanaian forests. This study determined its ecological traits that enhance its invasion of plant communities. Fruiting and viability patterns were studied through monthly monitoring of 985 trees (≥6 cm gbh in one forest site. The effect of light on its seed germination was tested in light-proof boxes. Means of propagation were determined by tracking the origin of newly regenerated plants on a newly cleared plot of land that B. papyrifera had occupied. It fruited twice a year with one season (January–March producing more fruits than the other (July-August. Fruiting occurred in trees as small as 9 cm gbh but the percentage of individuals fruiting in each size class increased with tree size. There was a clear pattern of seed viability during the January–March fruiting period. The species did not appear to have a naturally high seed viability with germination always below 50% of each weekly collection. Seed germination was depressed in dark. These results suggest that the species may be competitive in disturbed forest sites and therefore its spread may be aided by forest degradation.

  10. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I; Grace, James B

    2010-11-09

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951-2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500-1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500-2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

  11. [Comprehensive management patterns of economic fruit forest in Dashan Village and their ecological and economic benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie; Li, Hongkai; Zhu, Yougang; Yang, Xiaofei

    2005-07-01

    With the theories of economy and ecology, this paper analyzed the main management patterns of economic fruit forest in the Dashan Village, Huoqiu County, Anhui Province. The results showed that 9-year-old mandarin-tea, 5-year-old persimmon-potato-watermelon, 7-year-old pear-potato-soybean, and 7-year-old pear-balloonflower had obvious social, economic and ecological benefits. Their net economic benefits were 8 700.00, 12 351.00, 12 337.50 and 22 500.00 yuan x hm(-2), respectively, higher than that of single crop planting. In these patterns, the crown density between rows could reach 0.3 - 0.4, and the light utilization rate increased by 20% - 30%.

  12. An ecological basis for Nothofagus pumilio Forest management in Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Laura; Frangi, Jorge Luis

    1992-01-01

    Tradicionalmente en la Argentina, la ecología forestal y la silvicultura han marchado en general por caminos separados. La información ecológica apropiada puede ser aprovechada para un mejor manejo del bosque. La especie nativa Nothofagus pumilio (n.v. lenga) y los bosques que forma en la Tierra del Fuego poseen características biológicas y ecológicas favorables y desfavorables para la producción de madera que pueden diferir si son otros los objetivos del manejo. Estas características estruct...

  13. Carbon concentration in species of the araucaria forest and effect of the ecological group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Boa Ventura do São Roque, Paraná State, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the carbon concentration in components of 12 arboreal species from the Araucaria Forest, as well as the performance of the 0.5 conversion factor and the influence of trees ecological groups in their carbon concentration. Carbon concentration averages were obtained from the tree components, and compared among them, among the species and the conversion factor, to assess the interspecific differences and the reliability of the conversion factor. To analyze the influence of ecological groups over the carbon concentration of the species, cluster analyzes were performed. It was not found significant difference among the carbon concentration in the components of the trees. However, comparing the 12 species, Luehea divaricata, Albizia polycephala and Cestrum sp. differed significantly, presenting lower carbon concentration. Comparison between carbon concentration average of the species and the 0.5 conversion factor indicated that the latter overestimates the carbon concentration in the trees at an average rate of 14.27%. No correlation was found between the ecological groups of the species and their carbon concentration, since groups were formed by species with distinct ecological traits.

  14. PM2.5 Concentration Differences between Various Forest Types and Its Correlation with Forest Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhui Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Plain Forestation Project is an important measure designed to alleviate air pollution in Beijing, the capital of China. Ten commonly cultivated forest types of the Plain Forestation Project were studied at three growth stages of leaves. The particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations and forest structures were surveyed to analyze the PM2.5 concentration differences between different forest types, and establish a linear relationship between forest structures and PM2.5 concentration differences. The results suggested that forest ecosystems can block and capture PM2.5 from the air. Forests with luxuriant foliage are most effective in removing PM2.5 from the air. The average PM2.5 mass concentration in the Leaf-on Period (LOP was the lowest when compared with other periods. The PM2.5 concentrations in the forest usually were higher than the control. Correspondingly, PM2.5 concentration indexes were negative values during daytime, but this results were reversed at night. Forests can reduce the diffusion rate of PM2.5 leading to PM2.5 were detained in the forest during daytime, and play an important role in the adsorption or deposition of particulate matter at night. Forest structure was primary reason of the PM2.5 concentration difference between different forests. The PM2.5 concentration index was positively correlated to canopy density, leaf area index (LAI, and mean diameter at breast height (DBH, and negatively correlated to the average tree height (height, forestland area, grass coverage and height.

  15. Landscape structure and ecological function of protection forests in Guansi river watershed%官司河流域防护林景观结构及生态功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊华; 龚固堂; 朱志芳; 慕长龙

    2010-01-01

    利用2005年度的IKONOS4卫片解译数据和2007年度小班调查资料,结合样地调查资料以及四川省林业科学研究院森林生态效益定位站(四川绵阳新桥)径流场的有关数据,对绵阳官司河流域的防护林体系景观结构及生态功能进行了分析.结果表明:该区域防护林景观中,以松柏混交林(Mixed Alnus-Cupressus forest)面积最大,占27.37%,其次是马尾松纯林(Pinusmassoniana forest),占25.41%.栎柏混交林(Mixed Quercus-Cupressus forest)最少,只占0.96%0纯林面积明显大于混交林,前者比后者大45.31%.栎柏混交林、松柏栎混交林(Mixed Pinus-Cupressus-Quercus forest)最大斑块指数(LPI)、边缘密度(ED)和斑块密度(PD)较小,分布较为破碎.而马尾松纯林、松柏混交林和柏木纯林(Cupressus forest)分布较为集中.桤柏混交林(Mixed Alnus-Cupressus forest)和松柏混交林的散布与并列指数(IJI)较大,其空间关系较为复杂.栎柏混交林、柏木纯林的聚集度(AI)较小,斑块分散度大,连接性较差;而桤柏混交林、松柏混交林的分散度较大,连接性较好.桤柏混交林、松柏混交林的形状指数(LSI)较小,形状分布较规则,而马尾松纯林、柏木纯林的形状指数较大,形状较复杂.从不同景观类型林下灌草层的生物多样性指数可知,松柏混交林、栎柏混交林的灌草多样性指数均较大,而马尾松纯林、柏木纯林则较小.从保持水土功能来看:桤柏混交林、松柏混交林的水土保持效果优于柏木纯林、马尾松纯林,桤柏混交林的水土保持效果优于松柏混交林.因此,对长江防护林进行空间结构调整,应多采用混交林模式,针阔混交林代替针针混交,乔灌草结合,调整合理的密度,使防护林景观的生态功能更好地发挥.

  16. Ecological and evolutionary effects of stickleback on community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Des Roches

    Full Text Available Species' ecology and evolution can have strong effects on communities. Both may change concurrently when species colonize a new ecosystem. We know little, however, about the combined effects of ecological and evolutionary change on community structure. We simultaneously examined the effects of top-predator ecology and evolution on freshwater community parameters using recently evolved generalist and specialist ecotypes of three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. We used a mesocosm experiment to directly examine the effects of ecological (fish presence and density and evolutionary (phenotypic diversity and specialization factors on community structure at lower trophic levels. We evaluated zooplankton biomass and composition, periphyton and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentration, and net primary production among treatments containing different densities and diversities of stickleback. Our results showed that both ecological and evolutionary differences in the top-predator affect different aspects of community structure and composition. Community structure, specifically the abundance of organisms at each trophic level, was affected by stickleback presence and density, whereas composition of zooplankton was influenced by stickleback diversity and specialization. Primary productivity, in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration and net primary production was affected by ecological but not evolutionary factors. Our results stress the importance of concurrently evaluating both changes in density and phenotypic diversity on the structure and composition of communities.

  17. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL PATTERN OF TROPICAL AGRO-FORESTRY EFFORTS AT EDUCATIONAL FOREST LANDSCAPE OF MOUNT WALAT, SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imawan Wahyu Hidayat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization has changed the face of the landscape, not only in urban environments, but it also has expanded the areas around it. The changes in land use are increasing not only occurs in areas formerly categorized a semi-intensive, such as agricultural lands, but also in extensive and protection areas. However, in some periphery still characterizes the function of a good environment; especially in rural areas the changes that occurred were limited to their own needs (subsistence, as in Mount Walat, Sukabumi. This study aims to identify and analyze the tropical agro-forestry efforts and to provide landscape ecological pattern in order to preserve the environment and social culture. The method used in this study was a site survey method with focusing on the biophysical condition of the site and analysis of reports or other sources regarding the management processes undertaken. Mount Walat ± 359 Ha area of forest is guided by land use pattern that is divided into four characters, i.e., forest ecosystem, opened forest, ownership land, and countrified. Its area of ± 70 Ha was managed as agro-forestry land. The form of tropical agro-forestry in the country side around the site consists of yard and mixture garden, while in the arable land is a mixture garden. In order to prevent of destruction, then the manager invites Hegarmanah villagers to cooperate in maintaining its sustainability by allowing land to cultivated in Mount Walat agro-forestry, with the terms agreed by both parties, without damaging the forest ecosystem. The study was suggested that the community structures and developmental pathways which arised across a gradient of disturbance frequencies can provide models for alternative agro-forestry solutions. Addressing multiple objectives and sustainability in a complex biophysical and socioeconomic system ought to be a challenging and exciting enterprises.

  18. The Future of Eurasian Boreal Forests: Ecological Modeling Projections in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D.; Shugart, H.

    2008-12-01

    Ecological modeling is one of the primary methodologies for making predictions on future changes in forested ecosystems such as those occurring in Northern Eurasia and Siberia. In particular, combining ecological modeling with global circulation model simulation outputs is a method in which scientists can forecast the impact of climate change on biodiversity (Thuiller, 2007) as well as the forested landscape. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have been designed for specifically this purpose, however, these vegetation models run at large spatial scales and as a result make predictions that are highly uncertain (Purves and Pacala, 2008). In previous papers, we discussed the FAREAST forest gap model and its ability to accurately predict boreal forest dynamics at smaller scales and higher resolution than DGVMs. This presentation investigates the use of the FAREAST gap model, modified for spatial expansion to cover the entire country of Russia, to predict future land cover trends under different warming scenarios. The poster provides the initial framework for the project, as well as some initial results. The collection of input variables needed by FAREAST to model the Russian continent will involve collaboration with the Russian Academy of Sciences (CEPF). Together we have developed a framework in which to amalgamate both original (temperature, precipitation, soil values) parameters as well as new parameters (fire probability, logging probability) into a GIS database that can be integrated with the FAREAST model. This framework will be capable of providing visual and graphical output for interpretation of large model runs. In order to ensure accuracy in FAREAST's ability to simulate the current environment, a run of the model under current-day conditions will be compared to recent remote sensing land cover maps. The GLC2000 land cover classification project (EU JRC) will be the primary validation method with additional validation through other biophysical

  19. Soil and water related forest ecosystem services and resilience of social ecological system in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekalign, Meron; Muys, Bart; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In the central highlands of Ethiopia, deforestation and forest degradation are occurring and accelerating during the last century. The high population pressure is the most repeatedly mentioned reason. However, in the past 30 years researchers agreed that the absence of institutions, which could define the access rights to particular forest resources, is another underlying cause of forest depletion and loss. Changing forest areas into different land use types is affecting the biodiversity, which is manifested through not proper functioning of ecosystem services. Menagesha Suba forest, the focus of this study has been explored from various perspectives. However the social dimension and its interaction with the ecology have been addressed rarely. This research uses a combined theoretical framework of Ecosystem Services and that of Resilience thinking for understanding the complex social-ecological interactions in the forest and its influence on ecosystem services. For understanding the history and extent of land use land cover changes, in-depth literature review and a GIS and remote sensing analysis will be made. The effect of forest conversion into plantation and agricultural lands on soil and above ground carbon sequestration, fuel wood and timber products delivery will be analyzed with the accounting of the services on five land use types. The four ecosystem services to be considered are Supporting, Provisioning, Regulating, and Cultural services as set by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. A resilience based participatory framework approach will be used to analyze how the social and ecological systems responded towards the drivers of change that occurred in the past. The framework also will be applied to predict future uncertainties. Finally this study will focus on the possible interventions that could contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the forest. An ecosystem services trade-off analysis and an environmental valuation of the water

  20. Spatio-Temporal Changes in Structure for a Mediterranean Urban Forest: Santiago, Chile 2002 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Escobedo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on how urban forest ecosystems in South America and Mediterranean climates change across both space and time. This study statistically and spatially analyzed the spatio-temporal dynamics of Santiago, Chile’s urban forest using tree and plot-level data from permanent plots from 2002 to 2014. We found mortality, ingrowth, and tree cover remained stable over the analysis period and similar patterns were observed for basal area (BA and biomass. However, tree cover increased, and was greater in the highest socioeconomic stratum neighborhoods while it dropped in the medium and low strata. Growth rates for the five most common tree species averaged from 0.12 to 0.36 cm·year−1. Spatially, tree biomass and BA were greater in the affluent, northeastern sections of the city and in southwest peri-urban areas. Conversely, less affluent central, northwest, and southern areas showed temporal losses in BA and biomass. Overall, we found that Santiago’s urban forest follows similar patterns as in other parts of the world; affluent areas tend to have more and better managed urban forests than poorer areas, and changes are primarily influenced by social and ecological drivers. Nonetheless, care is warranted when comparing urban forest structural metrics measured with similar sampling-monitoring approaches across ecologically disparate regions and biomes.

  1. Association of extinction risk of saproxylic beetles with ecological degradation of forests in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Sebastian; Brandl, Roland; Buse, Jörn; Hothorn, Torsten; Schmidl, Jürgen; Thorn, Simon; Müller, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    To reduce future loss of biodiversity and to allocate conservation funds effectively, the major drivers behind large-scale extinction processes must be identified. A promising approach is to link the red-list status of species and specific traits that connect species of functionally important taxa or guilds to resources they rely on. Such traits can be used to detect the influence of anthropogenic ecosystem changes and conservation efforts on species, which allows for practical recommendations for conservation. We modeled the German Red List categories as an ordinal index of extinction risk of 1025 saproxylic beetles with a proportional-odds linear mixed-effects model for ordered categorical responses. In this model, we estimated fixed effects for intrinsic traits characterizing species biology, required resources, and distribution with phylogenetically correlated random intercepts. The model also allowed predictions of extinction risk for species with no red-list category. Our model revealed a higher extinction risk for lowland and large species as well as for species that rely on wood of large diameter, broad-leaved trees, or open canopy. These results mirror well the ecological degradation of European forests over the last centuries caused by modern forestry, that is the conversion of natural broad-leaved forests to dense conifer-dominated forests and the loss of old growth and dead wood. Therefore, conservation activities aimed at saproxylic beetles in all types of forests in Central and Western Europe should focus on lowlands, and habitat management of forest stands should aim at increasing the amount of dead wood of large diameter, dead wood of broad-leaved trees, and dead wood in sunny areas.

  2. 环境再生产与森林生态效益补偿%THE ENVIRONMENTAL REPRODUCTION AND COMPENSATION FOR ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF FOREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄选瑞; 张玉珍; 藤起和; 赵连清; 陈占稳

    2002-01-01

    To set up compensation system for ecological benefits of forest is important safeguard that can coordinate the benefit relationship between forest manager and person who benefit from environmental services function of forest,ensure funds for forest protection and management be firmly invested.By analyzing the problems confronted with study and practice in compensation system for ecological benefits of forest,author put forward that environmental reproduction is one of theoretical base of compensation system for ecological benefits of forest.The paper make systematic discussion about why compensation system for ecological benefits of forest should be made,how much funds should be compensated,who should supply with compensation funds and how to compensate.Meanwhile,the contents about how to use compensation funds,who should use funds and how to monitor the use of funds are also discussed.Finally,the overall train of though for directing study and practices be put forward.

  3. Age structure and disturbance legacy of North American forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most forests of the world are recovering from a past disturbance. It is well known that forest disturbances profoundly affect carbon stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems, yet it has been a great challenge to assess disturbance impacts in estimates of forest carbon budgets. Net sequestration or loss of CO2 by forests after disturbance follows a predictable pattern with forest recovery. Forest age, which is related to time since disturbance, is a useful surrogate variable for analyses of the impact of disturbance on forest carbon. In this study, we compiled the first continental forest age map of North America by combining forest inventory data, historical fire data, optical satellite data and the dataset from NASA's Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS project. A companion map of the standard deviations for age estimates was developed for quantifying uncertainty. We discuss the significance of the disturbance legacy from the past, as represented by current forest age structure in different regions of the US and Canada, by analyzing the causes of disturbances from land management and nature over centuries and at various scales. We also show how such information can be used with inventory data for analyzing carbon management opportunities. By combining geographic information about forest age with estimated C dynamics by forest type, it is possible to conduct a simple but powerful analysis of the net CO2 uptake by forests, and the potential for increasing (or decreasing this rate as a result of direct human intervention in the disturbance/age status. Finally, we describe how the forest age data can be used in large-scale carbon modeling, both for land-based biogeochemistry models and atmosphere-based inversion models, in order to improve the spatial accuracy of carbon cycle simulations.

  4. Ecology of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Kleber S; Pinto, Israel De S; Leite, Gustavo R; Das Virgens, Thieres M; Dos Santos, Claudiney B; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the fauna composition of anopheline mosquitoes, their ecological aspects and behavior, and influence of climatic variables on their population dynamics can help in understanding the transmission of Plasmodium parasites and thus develop more efficient strategies for the control of malaria. In the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil, foci of introduced malaria have been reported among people returning from the Amazon region, north Brazil. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the anopheline fauna from a preserved environment and an adjacent peridomiciliary modified environment at the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor. We collected anopheline mosquitoes on a monthly basis from June 2004 to May 2006 from both these environments to understand the ecological aspects and their association with the occurrence of malaria. We captured 5,491 anopheline mosquitoes belonging to two subgenera and 11 species and studied the correlations between anopheline mosquito species and climatic variables. We considered Anopheles darlingi (Root) as the principal malaria vector and Anopheles albitarsis s. l. (Arribalzaga) as the secondary vector.

  5. Urban forests and green spaces of Tbilisi and ecological problems of the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Patarkalashvili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in urbanization is the most dramatic factor in today's world and it did not passed round Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, too. Since the sixties of the 20th century the population of the city nearly doubled and today is about 1.3–1.4 million. Many problems that may not have been so evident in the past, became obvious and dramatic today. These problems concern urban forests and green spaces of the city because they shrank considerably and as the result, deteriorated ecological situation. Today, their role in improvement of city climate is little. In the Soviet period the main polluters of the air considered factories and plants, but today, after breaking of the Soviet Union and closing or destruction of all factories and plants, the increasing number of light vehicles, especially outdated once, manufactured before 1999(67% are the main source of pollution(80%. The article highlights the historical development of Tbilisi urban forests and green spaces and outlines some challenges and prospects of ecological condition of the city.

  6. An Ecologically Based System for Sustainable Agroforestry in Sub-Tropical and Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests in tropical and sub-tropical countries face severe pressures due to a combination of poverty and environment degradation. To be effective, measures to protect these forests must therefore consider both economic and ecological dimensions synergistically. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize our long-term work (1994–2015 on a Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. agroforestry system and demonstrate its potential for achieving both goals, and discuss its wider application in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The performance of various ecological, economic, and social indicators was compared among five Ginkgo agroforestry systems. Two additional indicators, Harmony Degree (HD and Development Degree (DD, were also used to show the integrated performance of these indicators. Ginkgo-Wheat-Peanut (G+W+P and Ginkgo-Rapeseed-Peanut (G+R+P are the best systems when compared to pure and mixed Ginkgo plantations, or pure agricultural crops. Results demonstrate that it is possible to achieve both economic development and environmental protection through implementation of sustainable agroforestry systems in sub-tropical regions.

  7. Tropical rain-forest matrix quality affects bat assemblage structure in secondary forest patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, I.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.; Boer, de W.F.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.

    2012-01-01

    We studied Phyllostomidae bat assemblage structure in patches of secondary forest dominated by the pioneer tree Ochroma pyramidale, largely (.85%) or partially (,35%) surrounded by a matrix of tropical rain forest, to test 3 hypotheses: the highest bat diversity and richness is observed in the matri

  8. Tropical rain-forest matrix quality affects bat assemblage structure in secondary forest patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, I.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.; Boer, de W.F.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.

    2012-01-01

    We studied Phyllostomidae bat assemblage structure in patches of secondary forest dominated by the pioneer tree Ochroma pyramidale, largely (.85%) or partially (,35%) surrounded by a matrix of tropical rain forest, to test 3 hypotheses: the highest bat diversity and richness is observed in the matri

  9. Ecological restoration of peatlands in steppe and forest-steppe areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayeva, Tatiana; Sirin, Andrey; Dugarjav, Chultem

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands in the arid and semi-arid regions of steppe and forest steppe belt of Eurasia have some specific features. That demands the special approach to their management and restoration. The distribution of peatlands under conditions of dry climate is very limited and they are extremely vulnerable. Peatlands in those regions are found in the highlands where temperate conditions still present, in floodplains where they can get water from floods and springs, or in karst areas. Peatlands on watersheds present mainly remains from the more humid climate periods. Water and carbon storage as well as maintenance of the specific biodiversity are the key ecosystem natural functions of peatlands in the steppe and forest steppe. The performance of those functions has strong implications for people wellness and livelihood. Anyhow, peatlands are usually overlooked and poorly represented in the systems of natural protected areas. Land management plans, mitigation and restoration measures for ecosystems under use do not usually include special measures for peatlands. Peatlands'use depends on the traditional practices. Peat extraction is rather limited in subhumid regions but still act as one of the threats to peatlands. The most of peatlands are used as pastures and grasslands. In densely populated areas large part of peatlands are transformed to the arable lands. In many cases peatlands of piedmonts and highlands are affected by industrial developments: road construction, mining of subsoil resources (gold, etc.). Until now, the most of peatlands of steppe and forest steppe region are irreversibly lost, what also effects water regime, lands productivity, biodiversity status. To prevent further dramatic changes the ecological restoration approach should be introduced in the subhumid regions. The feasibility study to assess the potential for introducing ecological restoration techniques for peatlands in the arid and semi-arid conditions had been undertaken in steppe and forest

  10. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  11. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  12. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Michael; Sullivan, Franklin B; Ducey, Mark; Herrick, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in a predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using a series of multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.88, p lidar metrics (r2 = 0.75, p forest structure.

  13. Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Baker, T. R.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schwarz, M.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2012-02-01

    Many plant traits covary in a non-random manner reflecting interdependencies associated with "ecological strategy" dimensions. To understand how plants integrate their structural and physiological investments, data on leaf and leaflet size and the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (ΦLS) obtained for 1020 individual trees (encompassing 661 species) located in 52 tropical forest plots across the Amazon Basin were incorporated into an analysis utilising existing data on species maximum height (Hmax), seed size, leaf mass per unit area (MA), foliar nutrients and δ13C, and branch xylem density (ρx). Utilising a common principal components approach allowing eigenvalues to vary between two soil fertility dependent species groups, five taxonomically controlled trait dimensions were identified. The first involves primarily cations, foliar carbon and MA and is associated with differences in foliar construction costs. The second relates to some components of the classic "leaf economic spectrum", but with increased individual leaf areas and a higher ΦLS newly identified components for tropical tree species. The third relates primarily to increasing Hmax and hence variations in light acquisition strategy involving greater MA, reductions in ΦLS and less negative δ13C. Although these first three dimensions were more important for species from high fertility sites the final two dimensions were more important for low fertility species and were associated with variations linked to reproductive and shade tolerance strategies. Environmental conditions influenced structural traits with ρx of individual species decreasing with increased soil fertility and higher temperatures. This soil fertility response appears to be synchronised with increases in foliar nutrient concentrations and reductions in foliar [C]. Leaf and leaflet area and ΦLS were less responsive to the environment than ρx. Thus, although genetically determined foliar traits such as those associated with leaf

  14. Structure and productivity of mixed spruce and fir forests on Mt. Kopaonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljukić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research are mixed forests of spruce and fir in the area of NP Kopaonik, which belong to the community of spruce and fir - Abieti-Piceetum abietis Mišić et Popović, 1978. The basis for the study of the structural development and production potential of these forests are data from 12 sample plots, with the average size of 0.18 ha. In terms of coenoecological affiliation all the sample plots belong to the group of ecological units - forests of spruce and fir (Abieti-Piceetum abietis, Mišić et Popović, 1978 on acid brown and brown podzolic soils, which are differentiated into 5 ecological units: Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on acid brown soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis vaccinietosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis typicum on brown podzolic soil and Abieti-Piceetum abietis Dr.ymetosum on brown pozolic soil. In structural terms, these forests are characterized by very diverse structural forms, ranging from the structure of even-aged stands to typical multi-storey, unevenaged-aged stands. The form of cumulative curves of tree distribution is in most cases determined by spruce as the dominant species. At the same time, thin and medium-thick trees dominate, while the presence of stems with large dimensions is minimal. The average volume of these forestse is 777 m3•ha-1, with a mixture ratio of 0.7: 0.3 in favor of spruce. The average value of the current volume increment is 14 m3•ha-1, with a 68% share of spruce and 32% of fir. The percentage of increment ranges from 1.6% to 2.5% in all sample plots and is somewhat higher for fir. The site potential, stand characteristics and relations among the tree species have resulted in structural complexity, high productivity and ecological stability of these forests. Therefore, future forest management should avoid radical measures and procedures that would violate the established relationships and

  15. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  16. Stable Solution of Nonlinear Age-structuredForest Evolution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDing-jiang; ZHAOTing-fang

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamical behavior of a class of total area dependent nonlinear age-structured forest evolution model. We give the problem of equal value for the forest system, and discuss the stable solution of system. We obtained the necessary and sufficient conditions for there exists the stable solution.

  17. Volcano ecology at Chaiten, Chile: geophysical processes interact with forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.; Crisafulli, C.; Jones, J. A.; Lara, A.

    2010-12-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaiten Volcano (Chile) offers many insights into volcano ecology -ecological responses to volcanic and associated hydrologic processes and ecosystem development in post-eruption landscapes. Varied intensities of pyroclastic density currents (PDC) and thickness of tephra fall deposits (to 50+ cm) created strong gradients of disturbance in several hundred square kilometers of native forest in a sector north to southeast from the volcano. A gradient from tree removal to toppled forest to standing, scorched forest extends 1.5 km northward from the caldera rim along the trajectory of a PDC. Close to the vent (e.g., 2 km NE from rim) a rain of ca. 10 cm of gravel tephra stripped foliage and twigs from tree canopies; farther away (23 km SE) 10 cm of fine tephra loaded the canopy, causing extensive fall of limbs >8 cm diameter. Even in the severely disturbed, north-flank PDC zone, surviving bamboo, ferns, and other herbs sprouted from pre-eruption soil and other refugia; sprouts of new foliage appeared on the boles and major limbs of several species of toppled and scorched, standing trees; animals including vertebrates (rodents and amphibians) and terrestrial invertebrates (e.g., insects and arachnids) either survived or quickly recolonized; and a diverse fungal community began decomposing the vast dead wood resource. During the second growing season we documented the presence of some plant species that had colonized by seed. Within two years after the eruption secondary ecological disturbances resulting from channel change and overbank deposition of fluvially transported tephra created new patches of damaged forest in riparian zones of streams draining the north flank and along the Rio Rayas and Rio Chaiten. These features parallel observations in the intensively-studied, post-1980-eruption landscape of Mount St. Helens over a similar time period. However, several aspects of ecological response to the two eruptions differ because of differences

  18. Alteration of Forest Structure Modifies the Distribution of Scale Insect, Stigmacoccus garmilleri, in Mexican Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Gamper, Heather A.; Koptur, Suzanne; García-Franco, Jose; Stapper, Andres Plata

    2011-01-01

    Stigmacoccus garmilleri Foldi (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is an ecologically important honeydew-producing scale insect associated with oak trees (Quercus spp.) in highland forests of Veracruz, Mexico. The honeydew exudates of S. garmilleri serve as a significant nutrient source to many species of birds, insects, and sooty molds. Oak trees found in the forest interior, forest edge, and those scattered in pasture areas support scale insect colonies, though the pattern of insect infestations on tr...

  19. Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Bernard, C.S.; Beek, van M.; Breman, F.C.; Eichhorn, K.A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions. In recent

  20. Using structured decision making with landowners to address private forest management and parcelization: balancing multiple objectives and incorporating uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige F. B. Ferguson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parcelization and forest fragmentation are of concern for ecological, economic, and social reasons. Efforts to keep large, private forests intact may be supported by a decision-making process that incorporates landowners' objectives and uncertainty. We used structured decision making (SDM with owners of large, private forests in Macon County, North Carolina. Macon County has little land use regulation and a history of discordant, ineffective attempts to address land use and development. We worked with landowners to define their objectives, identify decision options for forest management, build a Bayesian decision network to predict the outcomes of decisions, and determine the optimal and least-desirable decision options. The optimal forest management options for an average, large, forested property (30 ha property with 22 ha of forest in Macon County was crown-thinning timber harvest under the Present-Use Value program, in which enrolled property is taxed at the present-use value (growing timber for commercial harvest rather than full market value. The least-desirable forest management actions were selling 1 ha and personal use of the forest (e.g., trails, firewood with or without a conservation easement. Landowners reported that they enjoyed participating in the project (85% and would reconsider what they are currently doing to manage their forest (69%. The decision that landowners initially thought would best meet their objectives did not match results from the decision network. This highlights the usefulness of SDM, which typically has been applied to decision problems involving public resources.

  1. Detecting forest canopy layering: applying lidar remote sensing to further understand the role of vertical structure in species habitat preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, A. S.; Dubayah, R.; Swatantran, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full waveform lidar reflects off all forest canopy elements, showing not only height, but also the structure within the canopy from the top to the forest floor, making it an ideal remote sensing technology for research in forest ecosystem dynamics. Vertical stratification or canopy layering has long been noted as an essential element in the forest ecosystem and of importance for species habitat. This project explores the utility of lidar for characterizing forest canopy layering and applying canopy layering information to better understand species habitat preference. Canopy layering will be mapped across the landscape using full-waveform lidar remote sensing data from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). Two methods for quantifying layering have been developed from LVIS data collected during the summer of 2009 for Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. The two layering datasets (one categorical, one continuous) describe how vertical stratification varies across the forest with canopy height and elevation. The relationships between of canopy layering and avian species habitat preference will also be assessed for bird species within Hubbard Brook Experimental forest. These results will provide ecologically meaningful information and a relevant method for quantifying canopy layering at the landscape scale, which will aid in a better understanding of forest ecosystem dynamics for forest management and species habitat research.

  2. Different season, different strategies: Feeding ecology of two syntopic forest-dwelling salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiano, Salvidio; Antonio, Romano; Fabrizio, Oneto; Dario, Ottonello; Roberta, Michelon

    2012-08-01

    Trophic niche may be the most important ecological dimension for some vertebrate groups and in particular for terrestrial amphibians, that are important predators of soil invertebrates. In general, resource partitioning occurs between syntopic species with similar ecological niches, and coexistence patterns seem to be regulated by temporal resource variability. However most of the generalization on foraging strategies of terrestrial salamanders are extrapolated from studies on New World temperate species, thus we investigated the seasonal effect of resource variation in an European forest ecosystem, in which two ecologically similar but phylogenetically distinct salamander species are found. The diet of adult and juvenile cave salamanders (Speleomantes strinati), and of adult spectacled salamander (Salamandrina perspicillata) was obtained by stomach flushing, and results showed large seasonal changes both in prey availability and in salamander realised trophic niche. Values of trophic diversity were similar and niche overlaps were large among all salamander groups in spring, during high prey availability. Conversely in autumn, when a two-fold reduction in prey biomass was observed, there was a clear niche partitioning as the smaller S. perspicillata shifted from a generalist to a specialized trophic strategy. Juvenile Speleomantes strinatii, that largely overlapped in size with S. perspicillata, did not show any change in diet, suggesting that the feeding strategies were species-specific and not size-mediated. The observed patterns of variation in feeding ecology indicate that similar predators may react differently to changing prey availability to enhance niche partitioning. We also observed an increased energy intake during autumn for S perspicillata and S. strinatii juveniles, possibly related to differences in microhabitat use and activity patterns.

  3. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  4. Structural and productivity characteristics of montane beech forests in the area of Radava mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golić Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a typological study of the ecological unit of mountain beech forests in the area of Radava mountain. The aim of this research is to present the basic characteristics of these forests ecosystems through the process of defining forest types. The results will help in defining the forest type and according to the results of this research will create conditions for a more realistic definition of goals in planning the management of these and other forest ecosystems.

  5. An ecological perspective of the energy basis of sustainable Bolivian natural resources: Forests and natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izursa, Jose-Luis

    Bolivia, traditionally known for being a country rich in natural resources, has suffered from a constant exploitation of its natural resources benefiting only small groups in and outside the country. The devastation of natural resources that occurred for many years was of concern to the latest government, rural communities and indigenous groups. As a result, Bolivia has a more sustainability-oriented forest law that has a strong orientation towards the utilization of natural resources at a national level and encompasses a fast-growing forestry industry than in previous years. In this dissertation, the wealth of Bolivia's national system was evaluated using solar emergy. Emergy (spelled with "m") is the sum of all energy of one form needed to develop a flow of energy of another form, over a period of time. The basic idea is that solar energy is our ultimate energy source and by expressing the value of products in solar emergy units, it becomes possible to compare different kinds of energy, allowing to express the value for the natural resources in Emergy Dollars. It was found out that Bolivia relies heavily in its natural resources and that its emergy exchange ratio with its international trading partners changed from 12.2 to 1 in 2001 to 6.2 to 1 in 2005. This means that Bolivia went from export 12.2 emdollars of goods for each 1 it received in 2001 to export 6.2 emdollars of products for each 1 it received in 2005. The study also showed that under forest certification practices less emergy is removed from forests (1.49E+19 sej/yr) compared to the amount of emergy removed (2.36E+19 sej/yr) under traditional uncertified practices, reflecting that forest ecology does better under certification. The "Ecologically-based Development for the Bolivian Industrial Forestry System" (DEBBIF) simulation model constructed during this study, compared four different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Increased Export Scenario, the Increased Domestic Use Scenario and the

  6. Examination of Tropical Forest Structure Using Field Data and High Spatial Resolution Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M.; Keller, M.; Hunter, M.; Braswell, B.; Hagen, S.; Lefsky, M.

    2007-12-01

    Structural properties of tropical forests are an important component in ecological studies, yet they are difficult to quantify. Remote sensing of forest canopy structure estimation has greatly advanced to due the aid of high resolution satellite images. Field based methods of canopy structure have also improved due to the involvement of handheld laser range finders, which aid in gauging height, width, and depth of tree canopies. Using a handheld laser rangefinder we estimated canopy depth and generated canopy profiles from this data. Previously, we developed a crown characterization algorithm that uses high resolution satellite image data and have applied this algorithm in undisturbed tropical forests with good results. In this work we have further developed the algorithm to examine canopy depth using two allometric equations, developed from field data, that relate crown width to the top of the canopy and bottom of the canopy. Modification of our original algorithm also involved the incorporation of site specific allometric equations developed from field based measurements. Automated analysis of IKONOS imagery was used to estimate the distribution of canopy elements at various heights and their spatial locations. A comparison between the field based data and the estimates derived from remotely sensed images was conducted at four sites throughout Amazonia. We further compared our estimates of canopy structure with results from large footprint LIDAR data from GLAS. Ability to estimate canopy profiles and forest structural properties in vast areas of the Brazilian Amazon using high resolution imagery will help us to understand the regional carbon balance.

  7. Developing a Forest Health Index for public engagement and decision support using local climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Cundiff, J.

    2013-12-01

    Forest health is an oft-used term without a generally accepted definition. Nonetheless, the concept of forest health continues to permeate scientific, resource management, and public discourse, and it is viewed as a helpful communication device for engagement on issues of concern to forests and their surrounding communities. Notwithstanding the challenges associated with defining the concept of 'forest health,' we present a model for assessing forest health at a watershed scale. Utilizing the Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado--a mountain watershed of 640,000 forested acres--as a case study, we have created a Forest Health Index that integrates a range of climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data into an assessment organized along a series of public goals including, 1) Ecosystem Services, 2) Public Health & Safety, 3) Sustainable Use & Management, and 4) Ecological Integrity. Methods for this index were adopted from an earlier effort called the Ocean Health Index by Halpern et al, 2012. Indicators that represent drivers of change, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as effects of change, such as primary productivity and phenology, were selected. Each indicator is assessed by comparing a current status of that indicator to a reference scenario obtained through one of the following methods: a) statistical analysis of baseline data from the indicator record, b) commonly accepted normals, thresholds, limits, concentrations, etc., and c) subjective expert judgment. The result of this assessment is a presentation of graphical data and accompanying ratings that combine to form an index of health for the watershed forest ecosystem. We find this product to have potential merit for communities working to assess the range of conditions affecting forest health as well as making sense of the outcomes of those affects. Here, we present a description of the index methodology, data results from engagement with forest watershed stakeholders, example results of data

  8. Interpreting participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as complex networks in the social-ecological systems of the Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Consuelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Estebe, Paloma; Toledo, Marisol; Martorano, Lucieta

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological systems are linked complex systems that represent interconnected human and biophysical processes evolving and adapting across temporal and spatial scales. In the real world, social-ecological systems pose substantial challenges for modeling. In this regard, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have proven to be a useful method for capturing the functioning of this type of systems. FCMs are a semi-quantitative type of cognitive map that represent a system composed of relevant factors and weighted links showing the strength and direction of cause-effects relationships among factors. Therefore, FCMs can be interpreted as complex system structures or complex networks. In this sense, recent research has applied complex network concepts for the analysis of FCMs that represent social-ecological systems. Key to FCM the tool is its potential to allow feedback loops and to include stakeholder knowledge in the construction of the tool. Also, previous research has demonstrated their potential to represent system dynamics and simulate the effects of changes in the system, such as policy interventions. For illustrating this analysis, we have developed a series of participatory FCM for the study of the ecological and human systems related to biodiversity conservation in two case studies of the Amazonian region, the Bolivia lowlands of Guarayos and the Brazil Tapajos National forest. The research is carried out in the context of the EU project ROBIN1 and it is based on the development of a series of stakeholder workshops to analyze the current state of the socio-ecological environment in the Amazonian forest, reflecting conflicts and challenges for biodiversity conservation and human development. Stakeholders included all relevant actors in the local case studies, namely farmers, environmental groups, producer organizations, local and provincial authorities and scientists. In both case studies we illustrate the use of complex networks concepts, such as the adjacency

  9. Image fusion for enhanced forest structural assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, JW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available referenced forest inventory data were also collected during this time, with 122 plots enumerated in 38 plantation compartments. Empirical relationships (ordinary and multiple regression) were used to test whether fused data sources produced superior...

  10. Linking sediment-charcoal records and ecological modeling to understand causes of fire-regime change in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda B. Brubaker; Philip E. Higuera; T. Scott Rupp; Mark A. Olson; Patricia M. Anderson; Feng Sheng. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between vegetation and fire have the potential to overshadow direct effects of climate change on fire regimes in boreal forests of North America. We develop methods to compare sediment-charcoal records with fire regimes simulated by an ecological model, ALFRESCO (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) and apply these methods to evaluate potential causes of a...

  11. Using the forest, people, fire agent-based social network model to investigate interactions in social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige Fischer; Adam Korejwa; Jennifer Koch; Thomas Spies; Christine Olsen; Eric White; Derric Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire links social and ecological systems in dry-forest landscapes of the United States. The management of these landscapes, however, is bifurcated by two institutional cultures that have different sets of beliefs about wildfire, motivations for managing wildfire risk, and approaches to administering policy. Fire protection, preparedness, and response agencies often...

  12. Hurricane Impacts on Ecological Services and Economic Values of Coastal Urban Forest: A Case Study of Pensacola, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...

  13. Hurricane Impacts on Ecological Services and Economic Values of Coastal Urban Forest: A Case Study of Pensacola, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...

  14. Age structure and disturbance legacy of North American forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Most forests of the world are recovering from a past disturbance. It is well known that forest disturbances profoundly affect carbon stock and fluxes in forest ecosystems, yet it has been a great challenge to assess disturbance impacts in estimates of forest carbon budgets. Net sequestration or loss of CO2 by forests after disturbance follows a predictable pattern with forest recovery. Forest age, which is related to time since disturbance, is the most available surrogate variable for various forest carbon analyses that concern the impact of disturbance. In this study, we compiled the first continental forest age map of North America by combining forest inventory data, historical fire data, optical satellite data and the dataset from NASA's LEDAPS project. Mexico and interior Alaska are excluded from this initial map due to unavailability of all required data sets, but work is underway to develop some different methodology for these areas. We discuss the significance of disturbance legacy from the past, as represented by current forest age structure in different regions of the US and Canada, tracking back disturbances caused by human and nature over centuries and at various scales. We also show how such information can be used with inventory data for analyzing carbon management opportunities, and other modeling applications. By combining geographic information about forest age with estimated C dynamics by forest type, it is possible to conduct a simple but powerful analysis of the net CO2 uptake by forests, and the potential for increasing (or decreasing this rate as a result of direct human intervention in the disturbance/age status. The forest age map may also help address the recent concern that the terrestrial C sink from forest regrowth in North America may saturate in the next few decades. Finally, we describe how the forest age data can be used in large-scale carbon modeling, both for land-based biogeochemistry

  15. The Use of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Forest Management: an Example from India

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    Lucy Rist

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many forest communities possess considerable knowledge of the natural resources they use. Such knowledge can potentially inform scientific approaches to management, either as a source of baseline data to fill information gaps that cannot otherwise be addressed or to provide alternative management approaches from which scientists and managers might learn. In general, however, little attention has been given to the relevance of quantitative forms of such knowledge for resource management. Much discussion has focused on the integration of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK into management, but less attention has been paid to identifying specific areas where it is most useful and where it may be most problematic. We contrasted scientific data with information from TEK in the context of a threat to the sustainable harvesting of a nontimber forest product (NTFP of livelihood importance in southern India, specifically, a fruit tree infected by mistletoe. The efficiency of deriving information from NTFP harvesters compared to scientific field studies was assessed. We further evaluated the potential of TEK to provide novel solutions to the management problem in question, the degree to which TEK could provide quantitative information, and the biases that might be associated with information derived from TEK. TEK complemented previously gathered ecological data by providing concordant and additional information, but also contradicted some results obtained using a scientific approach. TEK also gave a longer-term perspective with regard to NTFP harvesting patterns. Combining information on historical and current harvesting trends for the NTFP with official data suggests that current assessments of sustainability may be inaccurate and that the use of diverse information sources may provide an effective approach to assessing the status of harvested resources.

  16. Ecological variability and rule-making processes for forest management institutions: a social-ecological case study in the Jalisco coast, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Monroy-Sais; Alicia Castillo; Eduardo García-Frapolli; Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of social-ecological systems is becoming increasingly used since the framework provides a valuable set of variables for understanding relationships between people and ecosystems. This interaction focuses on the use and management of natural resources that, in many cases, are common-pool resources. In Mexico, common-pool resources have long been explored since at least 60% of the forested lands in the country are held under the legal figure of ‘ejidos’ and indigenous communities, whic...

  17. Ecological consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreaks for wildlife in western North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Victoria A.; Latif, Quresh S.; Rowland, Mary M.; Johnson, Tracey N.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Heyward, Joslin E.; Dresser, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreaks are increasingly prevalent in western North America, causing considerable ecological change in pine (Pinus spp.) forests with important implications for wildlife. We reviewed studies examining wildlife responses to MPB outbreaks and postoutbreak salvage logging to inform forest management and guide future research. Our review included 16 studies describing MPB outbreak relationships with 89 bird species and 6 studies describing relationships with 11 mammalian species, but no studies of reptiles or amphibians. We included studies that compared wildlife response metrics temporally (before versus after the outbreak) and spatially (across sites that varied in severity of outbreak) in relation to beetle outbreaks. Outbreaks ranged in size from 20,600 to ≥107 ha and studies occurred 1‐30 years after the peak MPB outbreak, but most studies were conducted over the short-term (i.e., ≤6 years after the peak of MPB-induced tree mortality). Birds were the only taxa studied frequently; however, high variability existed among those studies to allow many inferences, although some patterns were evident. Avian studies concluded that cavity-nesting species responded more favorably to beetle-killed forests than species with open-cup nests, and species nesting in the shrub layer favored outbreak forests compared with ground and open-cup canopy nesters that generally showed mixed relationships. Bark-drilling species as a group clearly demonstrated a positive short-term association with MPB epidemics compared with that of other foraging assemblages. Cavity-nesting birds that do not consume bark beetles (i.e., secondary cavity-nesting species and nonbark-drilling woodpeckers) also exhibited some positive responses to MPB outbreaks, although not as pronounced or consistent as those of bark-drilling woodpeckers. Mammalian responses to MPB outbreaks were mixed. Studies consistently reported negative effects of MPB

  18. Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest.

  19. On the specification of structural equation models for ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Olff, Han; Scheiner, Samuel M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of structural equation modeling (SEM) is often motivated by its utility for investigating complex networks of relationships, but also because of its promise as a means of representing theoretical Concepts using latent variables. In this paper, we discuss characteristics of ecological theory

  20. Effects of fire disturbance on the forest structure and succession in the natural broad-leaved/Korean pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIULi-juan; GEJian-ping

    2003-01-01

    Investigations on charcoal in the soil, fire-scarred trees, stand composition, forest structure as well as regeneration status were carried out in the natural broad-leaved/Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest after fire disturbance at Liangshui Nature Reserve on the mid-north of Xiaoxing'an Mountains from 1990 to 1992, and the ecological effects of fire disturbance on the formation and succession of this kind of forest were analyzed according to the survey results. The average depth of charcoal in the soil was related to the timing of the fire. According to the characteristic of fire-scarred trees, the dynamic map of the fire behavior was drawn onto the topographic map. It showed that the dimension and extent of the fire disturbance was closely related with site conditions. Fire disturbance only led to a significant difference in stand composition and diameter class structurefor the stands at different locations, rather than completely destroying the forest. After fire disturbance, the horizontal community structure was a mosaic of different patches, which were made up of different deciduous species or different sizes of Korean pines, and the succession trend of each patch was also different. In the sites with the heavy fire disturbance, the intolerant hardwood species were dominant, and there were a large number of regenerative Korean pine saplings under the canopy. In the moderate -disturbed sites, the tolerant hardwood species were dominant, and a small number of large size Korean pines still survived. In the light-disturbed sites, large size Korean pines were dominant.

  1. Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanni Ribeiro Loiola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly. The intensity of the inter and intra-sexual selection can affect male behavioral traits as territorial fidelity and aggressiveness allowing the existence of different strategies. However, its differential success could be affected by environmental - as the diel variation in temperature - and physiological constrains - as the variation in thermoregulatory abilities. In this context, we present a behavioral analysis of Heteragrion consors (Zygoptera, Megapodagrionidae trying to characterize its mating system, diel activity pattern, temporal budget, territoriality and reproductive biology. These data were obtained based on field observations using the focal individual method and mark-recapture techniques in 120 m of a shaded Atlantic Forest stream in Brazil. The males of this species were territorial, varying in its local fidelity, while the females appear sporadically. Males were perched in the majority of the time, but were also observed in cleaning movements, longitudinal abdominal flexion, wing flexion and sperm transfer during perch. The males presented a perched thermoregulatory behavior related to an exothermic regulation. Foraging and agonistic interactions were rare, but dominate the other behavioral activities. Abdominal movements associated to long lasting copula pointed to the existence of sperm competition in this species. Males performed contact post-copulatory guarding of the females. These observations pointed to a non-resource mating system for this species.

  2. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network: An early warning system for tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovero, Francesco; Ahumada, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    While there are well established early warning systems for a number of natural phenomena (e.g. earthquakes, catastrophic fires, tsunamis), we do not have an early warning system for biodiversity. Yet, we are losing species at an unprecedented rate, and this especially occurs in tropical rainforests, the biologically richest but most eroded biome on earth. Unfortunately, there is a chronic gap in standardized and pan-tropical data in tropical forests, affecting our capacity to monitor changes and anticipate future scenarios. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network was established to contribute addressing this issue, as it generates real time data to monitor long-term trends in tropical biodiversity and guide conservation practice. We present the Network and focus primarily on the Terrestrial Vertebrates protocol, that uses systematic camera trapping to detect forest mammals and birds, and secondarily on the Zone of Interaction protocol, that measures changes in the anthroposphere around the core monitoring area. With over 3 million images so far recorded, and managed using advanced information technology, TEAM has created the most important data set on tropical forest mammals globally. We provide examples of site-specific and global analyses that, combined with data on anthropogenic disturbance collected in the larger ecosystem where monitoring sites are, allowed us to understand the drivers of changes of target species and communities in space and time. We discuss the potential of this system as a candidate model towards setting up an early warning system that can effectively anticipate changes in coupled human-natural system, trigger management actions, and hence decrease the gap between research and management responses. In turn, TEAM produces robust biodiversity indicators that meet the requirements set by global policies such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Standardization in data collection and public sharing of data in near real time

  3. Ecological and economical significance of homestead forest to the household of the offshore island in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazi Mohammad Masum; Mohammed Shafiul Alam; M. M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2008-01-01

    An explanatory survey was conducted to assess the contribution of plant diversity to the ecological and socio-economic condition of the rural household in the offshore island of Bangladesh.Assessment was done by means of multistage random sampling.The homestead sizes of the study area were classified into 3 groups viz,large (>0.25 ha),medium (0.05-0.25 ha) and small (<0.05 ha) based on the result obtained from a preliminary survey,and a total of 45 homesteads,15 from each group,were selected randomly for the study.The average annual income from homestead's plant diversity varied from Tk 5730.00 (US$95.5) to Tk 17500.00 (US$291.67).The rural people were mainly dependent on their homegarden for woodfuel and nutritional requirement as forest was unavailable in the island.The rural people here also cultivated the plant species as a safety measure from frequent cyclone.Constraints hindering the development of homestead plantation were identified and suggestions were given such as the adequate supply of seedlings of fast growing native species and conservation of endangered species to meet the demand of the household as well as to keep ecological balance.

  4. KNOWLEDGE OF THE SOIL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN AREAS OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION FOREST FIR (Abies guatemalensis REHDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chemical composition ( pH , elements major and minor , % S.B., CIC , % M.O. and N.T on soils in open areas and forest fir (Abies guatemalensis Rehder in a successional gradient was studied. These results were related to vegetation through correlation analysis and Canonical Correspondence analysis. The aim was to show the relationships present between vegetation and soil chemistry through ecological succession in areas of cold climate. The results indicate that the vegetation is composed of 82 species of which 20 are the lower herbaceous layer, 34 the herbaceous layer of the upper, 21 shrubs and seven trees. The chemical characteristics of the soil through five successional stages have only few significant differences and not show a clear tendency to increase according to the degree of ecosystem development. A low percentage of correlations between vegetation and soil chemical characteristics are presented. The correspondence canonical analysis shows that the features that correlate with sites through vegetation are the K, and % S.B. and CIC. One can conclude that the approach of the study of the chemical composition of soils in areas of ecological sequence is complex, especially in high regions where, besides other factors, the temperature and humidity play an important role on the soil-vegetation dynamic.

  5. Identification of a system of ecologically homogeneous areas and of priority intervention levels for forest plantation planning in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzurro GM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation activities in Sicily have been widespreaded in the last century. The results of forestation activities indicate the need to adopt a operational tools to promote the extension of forest surface at regional and sub-regional levels. In this view, with the aim to produce useful tools for forest plantation planning, the entire regional area was analysed and ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified to join and target arboriculture and/or forestation plantation activities, to choose tree and shrub species for different environments and to identify priority areas of intervention. The map of Rivas-Martinez bioclimate and the map of litological types were used as basic information layers to map pedo-climatic homogeneous areas. In order to mitigate disruptive hydrogeological effects and to reduce desertification risk and forest fragmentation, the Corine Land Cover map (CLC2000, the hydrogeological bond map and the desertification risk map were used to identify areas characterized by urgent need of forest activities at high priority level. A total of 23 ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified in Sicily, while more than a quarter of the regional surface has been characterized as highest priority intervention level. At sub-regional level, the target of the analysis was carried out at administrative province and at hydrographic basin level.

  6. Structural Dynamics of Romanian Forests after 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Eugen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian forest area in 2010 was 6,515 million ha, which represents approx. 27.3 % of the national territory. At European level, Romania is ranked 13 in the areas occupied by forests, but below the average forest coverage of 32 %. After a decline in forested areas recorded between 1990 and 2000 there was a slight rebound in the last decade, with an FAO estimated growth of over 30 000 ha per year between 2005 and 2011. This growth is primarily attributed to natural regenerations. If the production function is intrinsically provided in different proportions by all the functional categories, the protective function has a special attention, having clear typological distinctions, based on well-established natural or social components. Only maintenance work is allowed in protection forests. The total volume of timber harvested in Romania in 2010 was about 17 million m3, according to NFA upon reading the regeneration cuts of an area of over 99 hectares, 5000 ha of which by cuttings Compared to 2000, when they harvested less than 14 million m3, one can see a substantial increase of approx. 20 %. In the same period, in 2010, the total area of artificial regenerations was about 10 000 ha, which represents a tenth of the cutting surface, the remaining land being regenerated naturally.

  7. Assessment of variations in taxonomic diversity, forest structure, and aboveground biomass using remote sensing along an altitudinal gradient in tropical montane forest of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Clark, D.; Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J.; Gillespie, T. W.; Rovzar, C. M.; Andelman, S.

    2012-12-01

    This research sought to understand how alpha and beta diversity of plants vary and relate to the three-dimensional vegetation structure and aboveground biomass along environmental gradients in the tropical montane forests of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. There is growing evidence that ecosystem structure plays an important role in defining patterns of species diversity and along with abiotic factors (climate and edaphic) control the phenotypic and functional variations across landscapes. It is well documented that strong subdivisions at local and regional scales are found mainly on geologic or climate gradients. These general determinants of biodiversity are best demonstrated in regions with natural gradients such as tropical montane forests. Altitudinal gradients provide a landscape scale changes through variations in topography, climate, and edaphic conditions on which we tested several theoretical and biological hypotheses regarding drivers of biodiversity. The study was performed by using forest inventory and botanical data from nine 1-ha plots ranging from 100 m to 2800 m above sea level and remote sensing data from airborne lidar and radar sensors to quantify variations in forest structure. In this study we report on the effectiveness of relating patterns of tree taxonomic alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure of a tropical montane forest using lidar and radar observations of forest structure and biomass. We assessed alpha and beta diversity at the species, genus, and family levels utilizing datasets provided by the Terrestrial Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network. Through the comparison to active remote sensing imagery, our results show that there is a strong relationship between forest 3D-structure, and alpha and beta diversity controlled by variations in abiotic factors along the altitudinal gradient. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we find distinct patterns along the environmental gradients

  8. Anthropogenic landforms of warfare origin and their ecological significance: the Verdun Forest, NE France

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matos Machado, Rémi; Amat, Jean-Paul; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Bétard, François; Bilodeau, Clélia; Jacquemot, Stéphanie; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    By its unprecedented industrial character, the First World War marked landscapes like no other conflict in the world. As a result of artillery bombardment and building facilities, the relief suffered major disturbances giving rise to millions anthropogenic landforms of warfare origin on the Western front: shell craters, trenches, shelters and gun sites. This landscape made of bumps and holes that dominated the lands of West Flanders and North-eastern France during the four years of war took chaotic aspects on the great battle sites. In some areas, substrate crushing by repeated bombings resulted in a field lowering of several metres. Although these geomorphological legacies of war are still present on these scarred lands, their effects on local environment and on present-day biodiversity patterns are not fully understood. On the battlefield of Verdun, where a huge number and range of conflict-induced landforms may be observed, special attention is being paid to the ecological significance of these anthropogenic landforms in a current landscape matrix dominated by forest. In 2013, an airborne LiDAR mission conducted over the battlefield has brought to light the relief inherited from the fighting that was until now concealed by the Verdun forest planted in the 1930's. Through a digital terrain model (DTM) with centimetre level accuracy, it is now possible to observe the smallest traces of the fighting. A first programmatic mapping work allowed to inventory and to locate these reliefs on the whole 10,000 hectares covered by the DTM. Also, the calculation of their geometry enabled us to quantify the erosion rate due to the military activities on the battlefield. On the basis of these morphometric measurements, a typology was developed to better appreciate the morphological diversity of conflict-induced landforms. The results show that these anthropogenic landforms are generally hollow. Because of this particular morphology, the conflict-induced landforms provide

  9. Globalization and structural change in the U.S. forest sector: an evolving context for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Ince; Albert Schuler; Henry Spelter; William Luppold

    2007-01-01

    This report examines economic implications for sustainable forest management of globalization and related structural changes in the forest sector of the United States. Globalization has accelerated structural change in the U.S. forest sector, favored survival of larger and more capital-intensive enterprises, and altered historical patterns of resource use.

  10. Effects of Forest Disturbances on Forest Structural Parameters Retrieval from Lidar Waveform Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, K, Lon; Sun, G.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of forest disturbance on the lidar waveform and the forest biomass estimation was demonstrated by model simulation. The results show that the correlation between stand biomass and the lidar waveform indices changes when the stand spatial structure changes due to disturbances rather than the natural succession. This has to be considered in developing algorithms for regional or global mapping of biomass from lidar waveform data.

  11. Estimation of Alpine Forest Structural Variables from Imaging Spectrometer Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Fatehi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information of forest structural variables is crucial for sustainable forest management planning, forest monitoring, and the assessment of forest ecosystem productivity. We investigate a complex alpine forest ecosystem located in the Swiss National Park (SNP and apply empirical models to retrieve the structural variables canopy closure, basal area, and timber volume at plot scale. We used imaging spectrometer (IS data from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX in combination with in-situ measurements of forest structural variables to develop empirical models. These models are based on simple and stepwise multiple regressions, while all potential two narrow-band combinations of the Simple Ratio (SR, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the perpendicular vegetation index (PVI, the second soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI2, and band depth indices were tested. The accuracy of the estimated structural attributes was evaluated using a leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Using stepwise multiple regression models, we obtained a moderate to good accuracy when estimating canopy closure (R2 = 0.81, rRMSE = 10%, basal area (R2 = 0.68, rRMSE = 20%, and timber volume (R2 = 0.73, rRMSE = 22%. We discuss the reliability of empirical approaches for estimates of canopy structural parameters considering the causality of light interaction and surface information.

  12. Forest in My Neighborhood: An Exercise Using Aerial Photos to Engage Students in Forest Ecology & Land Use History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Glenn R.; McEwan, Ryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Human activity has profoundly altered the deciduous forest of the eastern United States. Modern forest is a patchwork of stands of varying ages, sizes, and shapes reflecting a complex history of land use. Much modern forest is nestled in and around human communities, and faces the threat of imminent clearance for residential and commercial…

  13. Forest in My Neighborhood: An Exercise Using Aerial Photos to Engage Students in Forest Ecology & Land Use History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Glenn R.; McEwan, Ryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Human activity has profoundly altered the deciduous forest of the eastern United States. Modern forest is a patchwork of stands of varying ages, sizes, and shapes reflecting a complex history of land use. Much modern forest is nestled in and around human communities, and faces the threat of imminent clearance for residential and commercial…

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities from tropical Africa reveal strong ecological structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Teixeira, Helena; Correia, Marta; Timóteo, Sérgio; Heleno, Ruben; Öpik, Maarja; Moora, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the distribution and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the rules that govern AMF assemblages has been hampered by a lack of data from natural ecosystems. In addition, the current knowledge on AMF diversity is biased towards temperate ecosystems, whereas little is known about other habitats such as dry tropical ecosystems. We explored the diversity and structure of AMF communities in grasslands, savannas, dry forests and miombo in a protected area under dry tropical climate (Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique) using 454 pyrosequencing. In total, 147 AMF virtual taxa (VT) were detected, including 22 VT new to science. We found a high turnover of AMF with ˂ 12% of VT present in all vegetation types. Forested areas supported more diverse AMF communities than savannas and grassland. Miombo woodlands had the highest AMF richness, number of novel VT, and number of exclusive and indicator taxa. Our data reveal a sharp differentiation of AMF communities between forested areas and periodically flooded savannas and grasslands. This marked ecological structure of AMF communities provides the first comprehensive landscape-scale evidence that, at the background of globally low endemism of AMF, local communities are shaped by regional processes including environmental filtering by edaphic properties and natural disturbance.

  15. Waveform- and Terrestrial Lidar Assessment of the Usual (Structural) Suspects in a Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aardt, J. A.; Romanczyk, P.; Kelbe, D.; van Leeuwen, M.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; Gough, C. M.; Kampe, T. U.

    2015-12-01

    Forest inventory has evolved from standard stem diameter-height relationships, to coarse canopy metrics, to more involved ecologically-meaningful variables, such as leaf area index (LAI) and even canopy radiative transfer as a function of canopy gaps, leaf clumping, and leaf angle distributions. Accurate and precise measurement of the latter set of variables presents a challenge to the ecological and modeling communities; however, relatively novel remote sensing modalities, e.g., waveform lidar (wlidar) and terrestrial lidar systems (TLS), have the potential to adress this challenge. Research teams at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) have been collaborating with the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON) to assess vegetation canopy structure and variation at the University of Michigan Biological Research Station and the NEON Northeast domain (Harvard Forest, MA). Airborne small-footprint wlidar data, in-situ TLS data, and first-principles, physics-based simulation tools are being used to study (i) the impact of vegetation canopy geometric elements on wlidar signals (twigs and petioles have been deemed negligible), (ii) the analysis of airborne wlidar data for top-down assessment of canopy metrics such as LAI, and (iii) our ability to extract "bottom-up" canopy structure from TLS using scans registered to each other using a novel marker-free registration approach (e.g., basal area: R2=0.82, RMSE=7.43 m2/ha). Such studies indicate that we can potentially assess radiative transfer through vegetation canopies remotely using a vertically-stratified approach with wlidar, and augment such an approach via rapid-scan TLS technology to gain a better understanding of fine-scale variation in canopy structure. This in turn is key to quantifying and modeling radiative transfer based on understanding of forest canopy structural change as a function of ecosystem development, climate, and anthropogenic drivers.

  16. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  17. Modeling Mediterranean forest structure using airborne laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Francesca; Chirici, Gherardo; Giannini, Raffaello; Mele, Salvatore; Mura, Matteo; Puxeddu, Michele; McRoberts, Ronald E.; Valbuena, Ruben; Travaglini, Davide

    2017-05-01

    The conservation of biological diversity is recognized as a fundamental component of sustainable development, and forests contribute greatly to its preservation. Structural complexity increases the potential biological diversity of a forest by creating multiple niches that can host a wide variety of species. To facilitate greater understanding of the contributions of forest structure to forest biological diversity, we modeled relationships between 14 forest structure variables and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data for two Italian study areas representing two common Mediterranean forests, conifer plantations and coppice oaks subjected to irregular intervals of unplanned and non-standard silvicultural interventions. The objectives were twofold: (i) to compare model prediction accuracies when using two types of ALS metrics, echo-based metrics and canopy height model (CHM)-based metrics, and (ii) to construct inferences in the form of confidence intervals for large area structural complexity parameters. Our results showed that the effects of the two study areas on accuracies were greater than the effects of the two types of ALS metrics. In particular, accuracies were less for the more complex study area in terms of species composition and forest structure. However, accuracies achieved using the echo-based metrics were only slightly greater than when using the CHM-based metrics, thus demonstrating that both options yield reliable and comparable results. Accuracies were greatest for dominant height (Hd) (R2 = 0.91; RMSE% = 8.2%) and mean height weighted by basal area (R2 = 0.83; RMSE% = 10.5%) when using the echo-based metrics, 99th percentile of the echo height distribution and interquantile distance. For the forested area, the generalized regression (GREG) estimate of mean Hd was similar to the simple random sampling (SRS) estimate, 15.5 m for GREG and 16.2 m SRS. Further, the GREG estimator with standard error of 0.10 m was considerable more precise than the SRS

  18. Scale-dependent variation in forest structures in naturally dynamic boreal forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulha, Niko; Pasanen, Leena; De Grandpré, Louis; Kuuluvainen, Timo; Aakala, Tuomas

    2017-04-01

    Natural forest structures vary at multiple spatial scales. This variation reflects the occurrence of driving factors, such as disturbances and variation in soil or topography. To explore and understand the linkages of forest structural characteristics and factors driving their variation, we need to recognize how the structural characteristics vary in relation to spatial scale. This can be achieved by identifying scale-dependent features in forest structure within unmanaged forest landscapes. By identifying these features and examining their relationship with potential driving factors, we can better understand the dynamics of forest structural development. Here, we examine the spatial variation in forest structures at multiple spatial scales, utilizing data from old-growth boreal forests in two regions with contrasting disturbance regimes: northern Finland and north-eastern Québec, Canada ( 67° 45'N, 29° 36'E, 49° 39'N, 67° 55'W, respectively). The three landscapes (4 km2 each) in Finland are dominated by Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies, whereas the two landscapes in Québec are dominated by Abies balsamea and Picea mariana. Québec's forests are a subject to cyclic outbreaks of the eastern spruce budworm, causing extensive mortality especially in A. balsamea-dominated stands. In the Finnish landscapes, gap- to patch-scale disturbances due to tree senescence, fungi and wind, as well as infrequent surface fires in areas dominated by P. sylvestris, prevail. Owing to the differences in the species compositions and the disturbance regimes, we expect differing scales of variation between the landscapes. To quantify patterns of variation, we visually interpret stereopairs of recent aerial photographs. From the photographs, we collect information on forest canopy coverage, species composition and dead wood. For the interpretation, each 4 km2 plot is divided into 0.1ha square cells (4096 per plot). Interpretations are validated against field observations and compiled

  19. Sustainability and economics: The Adirondack Park experience, a forest economic-ecological model, and solar energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jon David

    The long-term sustainability of human communities will depend on our relationship with regional environments, our maintenance of renewable resources, and our successful disengagement from nonrenewable energy dependence. This dissertation investigates sustainability at these three levels, following a critical analysis of sustainability and economics. At the regional environment level, the Adirondack Park of New York State is analyzed as a potential model of sustainable development. A set of initial and ongoing conditions are presented that both emerge from and support a model of sustainability in the Adirondacks. From these conditions, a clearer picture emerges of the definition of regional sustainability, consequences of its adoption, and lessons from its application. Next, an economic-ecological model of the northern hardwood forest ecosystem is developed. The model integrates economic theory and intertemporal ecological concepts, linking current harvest decisions with future forest growth, financial value, and ecosystem stability. The results indicate very different economic and ecological outcomes by varying opportunity cost and ecosystem recovery assumptions, and suggest a positive benefit to ecological recovery in the forest rotation decision of the profit maximizing manager. The last section investigates the motives, economics, and international development implications of renewable energy (specifically photovoltaic technology) in rural electrification and technology transfer, drawing on research in the Dominican Republic. The implications of subsidizing a photovoltaic market versus investing in basic research are explored.

  20. Evaluation of forest structure, biomass and carbon sequestration in subtropical pristine forests of SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Yiping, Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Zhiyun, Lu; Guoping, Yang; Liqing, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Very old natural forests comprising the species of Fagaceae (Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus hancei) have been prevailing since years in the Ailaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve (AMNR) SW China. Within these forest trees, density is quite variable. We studied the forest structure, stand dynamics and carbon density at two different sites to know the main factors which drives carbon sequestration process in old forests by considering the following questions: How much is the carbon density in these forest trees of different DBH (diameter at breast height)? How much carbon potential possessed by dominant species of these forests? How vegetation carbon is distributed in these forests? Which species shows high carbon sequestration? What are the physiochemical properties of soil in these forests? Five-year (2005-2010) tree growth data from permanently established plots in the AMNR was analysed for species composition, density, stem diameter (DBH), height and carbon (C) density both in aboveground and belowground vegetation biomass. Our study indicated that among two comparative sites, overall 54 species of 16 different families were present. The stem density, height, C density and soil properties varied significantly with time among the sites showing uneven distribution across the forests. Among the dominant species, L. xylocarpus represents 30% of the total carbon on site 1 while C. wattii represents 50% of the total carbon on site 2. The average C density ranged from 176.35 to 243.97 t C ha(-1). The study emphasized that there is generous degree to expand the carbon stocking in this AMNR through scientific management gearing towards conservation of old trees and planting of potentially high carbon sequestering species on good site quality areas.

  1. Geotechnology and landscape ecology applied to the selection of potential forest fragments for seed harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandre Rosa Dos; Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro, Carlos; de Oliveira Peluzio, Telma Machado; Esteves Peluzio, João Batista; de Queiroz, Vagner Tebaldi; Figueira Branco, Elvis Ricardo; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Domingues, Getulio Fonseca; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Santos Mota, Pedro Henrique; Ferreira da Silva, Samuel; Vargas, Rozimelia; de Carvalho, José Romário; Macedo, Leandro Levate; da Silva Araújo, Cintia; de Almeida, Samira Luns Hatum

    2016-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest biome is recognized for its biodiversity and is one of the most threatened biomes on the planet, with forest fragmentation increasing due to uncontrolled land use, land occupation, and population growth. The most serious aspect of the forest fragmentation process is the edge effect and the loss of biodiversity. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of forest fragmentation and select potential forest fragments with a higher degree of conservation for seed harvesting in the Itapemirim river basin, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Image classification techniques, forest landscape ecology, and multi-criteria analysis were used to evaluate the evolution of forest fragmentation to develop the landscape metric indexes, and to select potential forest fragments for seed harvesting for the years 1985 and 2013. According to the results, there was a reduction of 2.55% of the occupancy of the fragments in the basin between the years 1985 and 2013. For the years 1985 and 2013, forest fragment units 2 and 3 were spatialized with a high potential for seed harvesting, representing 6.99% and 16.01% of the total fragments, respectively. The methodology used in this study has the potential to be used to support decisions for the selection of potential fragments for seed harvesting because selecting fragments in different environments by their spatial attributes provides a greater degree of conservation, contributing to the protection and conscious management of the forests. The proposed methodology can be adapted to other areas and different biomes of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Nardi

    Full Text Available This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier's Scopus database over the period 1980-2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17 during the period 1980-1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69 in the time slice 1990-1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476 during the period 2010-2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178 of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482 and France (12%, N = 336. These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980-1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995-1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014 was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses

  3. Effect of selective logging on floristic and structural composition in a forest fragment from Amazon Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Janones da Rocha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in one region of a Seasonal Semideciduous Forest located in Tapurah (Mato Grosso State, Brazil with the aim of studying its floristic and structural composition. The fixed area method was applied to 10 × 250 m clusters, allocating and measuring five clusters with five subunits of 500 m² each. Species with a diameter at breast height greater than or equal to 10 cm were considered, and the sample sufficiency of the floristic survey was verified by a species accumulation curve. The similarities between the sample subunits were calculated by the Jaccard Similarity Index, and the species diversity with the Shannon Diversity Index and Pielou Evenness Index. The horizontal vegetation structure was characterized by density, frequency, dominance and the values of ecological importance, and diametric distribution were assessed by the Spiegel procedure. The families Vochysiaceae, Fabaceae and Sapindaceae were highly represented, and Qualea paraensis, Aspidosperma discolor and Matayba arborescens were the most important species. A high diversity and low ecological dominance were found, and the diametric structure of the trees presented a negative exponential distribution. In general, the structure, floristic composition and richness of vegetation correspond to a forest with stable and autoregenerative community after selective logging.

  4. Structure and regeneration status of Komto Afromontane moist forest,East Wollega Zone, west Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fekadu Gurmessa; Teshome Soromessa; Ensermu Kelbessa

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study in Komto Forest in East Wollega Zone,Oromia National Regional State,West Ethiopia for determining vegetation structure and regeneration status in this forest.We systematically sampled 53 quadrats (20 m × 20 m) along line transects radiating from the peak of Komto Mountain in eight directions.Vegetation parameters such as DBH,height,seedling and sapling density of woody species,and location and altitude of each quadrat were recorded.In total,103 woody plant species of 87 genera and 45 families were identified.Analysis of selected tree species revealed different population structures.Generally,the forest was dominated by small trees and shrubs characteristic of secondary regeneration.Observations on the regeneration of the forest indicated that there are woody species that require urgent conservation measures.Based on the results of this study,we recommend detailed ecological studies of various environmental factors such as soil type and properties,and ethnobotanical studies to explore indigenous knowledge on uses of plants.

  5. Ecology and phytosociology of the tropical dry deciduous forests of Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Narasimha Murthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the species composition, abundance, density and community structure of the tropical dry deciduous forests of Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary.  Phytosociological analysis was based on the data generated from the 81 sample plots laid at random covering the entire sanctuary area. A total of 177 Angiosperms of species were enumerated from the sampled quadrats.  The species present as per preponderance are herbs 71, trees 55, climbers 33, and shrubs 18.  The species diversity indices indicate the following facts: Shannon-Weiner index as 4.15, Simpson index value as 0.91, Margalef’s species richness index as 5.20, density of trees above 10 cm GBH class as 470 individuals per hectare.  The total basal area of the tree species was 17.7m² ha-1.  These statistics along with the composition of the forest, and information on the diversity of the communities as a whole provided a better insight into the state of the forests in the Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary.  

  6. From the litter up and the sky down: Perspectives on urban forest structure and eco-hydrological processes (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of the urban forest represents the complex product of local biophysical conditions, socio-economic milieu, people preferences and management with rare counterparts in rural forests. However, urban forest structure, as similarly observed in rural forests, affects key...

  7. Forest Typification to Characterize the Structure and Composition of Old-growth Evergreen Forests on Chiloe Island, North Patagonia (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan R. Bannister; Pablo J. Donoso

    2013-01-01

    The Evergreen forest type develops along the Valdivian and North-Patagonian phytogeographical regions of the south-central part of Chile (38° S–46° S). These evergreen forests have been scarcely studied south of 43° S, where there is still a large area made up of old-growth forests. Silvicultural proposals for the Evergreen forest type have been based on northern Evergreen forests, so that the characterization of the structure and composition of southern Evergreen forests, e.g., their typific...

  8. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  9. Plant traits demonstrate that temperate and tropical giant eucalypt forests are ecologically convergent with rainforest not savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, David Y P; Jordan, Greg J; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal) vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the world's tallest flowering plants. We therefore created predictions of patterns in plant functional traits that would test the alternative stable states model of these systems. We measured functional traits of 128 trees and shrubs across tropical and temperate rainforest - open vegetation transitions in Australia, with giant eucalypt forests situated between these vegetation types. We analysed a set of functional traits: leaf carbon isotopes, leaf area, leaf mass per area, leaf slenderness, wood density, maximum height and bark thickness, using univariate and multivariate methods. For most traits, giant eucalypt forest was similar to rainforest, while rainforest, particularly tropical rainforest, was significantly different from the open vegetation. In multivariate analyses, tropical and temperate rainforest diverged functionally, and both segregated from open vegetation. Furthermore, the giant eucalypt forests overlapped in function with their respective rainforests. The two types of giant eucalypt forests also exhibited greater overall functional similarity to each other than to any of the open vegetation types. We conclude that tropical and temperate giant eucalypt forests are ecologically and functionally convergent. The lack of clear functional differentiation from rainforest suggests that giant eucalypt forests are unstable states within the basin of attraction of rainforest. Our results have important implications for giant eucalypt forest management.

  10. Predictive models of forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Drew; Pacala, Stephen

    2008-06-13

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have shown that forest dynamics could dramatically alter the response of the global climate system to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next century. But there is little agreement between different DGVMs, making forest dynamics one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in predicting future climate. DGVM predictions could be strengthened by integrating the ecological realities of biodiversity and height-structured competition for light, facilitated by recent advances in the mathematics of forest modeling, ecological understanding of diverse forest communities, and the availability of forest inventory data.

  11. Ficus insipida subsp. insipida (Moraceae) reveals the role of ecology in the phylogeography of widespread Neotropical rain forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N; Dexter, Kyle G; Poelchau, Monica F; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Phillips, Oliver L; Pennington, R Toby; Carine, Mark

    2014-09-01

    To examine the phylogeography of Ficus insipida subsp. insipida in order to investigate patterns of spatial genetic structure across the Neotropics and within Amazonia. Neotropics. Plastid DNA (trnH-psbA; 410 individuals from 54 populations) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS; 85 individuals from 27 populations) sequences were sampled from Mexico to Bolivia, representing the full extent of the taxon's distribution. Divergence of plastid lineages was dated using a Bayesian coalescent approach. Genetic diversity was assessed with indices of haplotype and nucleotide diversities, and genetic structure was examined using spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) and haplotype networks. Population expansion within Amazonia was tested using neutrality and mismatch distribution tests. trnH-psbA sequences yielded 19 haplotypes restricted to either Mesoamerica or Amazonia; six haplotypes were found among ITS sequences. Diversification of the plastid DNA haplotypes began c. 14.6 Ma. Haplotype diversity for trnH-psbA was higher in Amazonia. Seven genetically differentiated SAMOVA groups were described for trnH-psbA, of which two were also supported by the presence of unique ITS sequences. Population expansion was suggested for both markers for the SAMOVA group that contains most Amazonian populations. Our results show marked population genetic structure in F. insipida between Mesoamerica and Amazonia, implying that the Andes and seasonally dry areas of northern South America are eco-climatic barriers to its migration. This pattern is shared with other widespread pioneer species affiliated to wet habitats, indicating that the ecological characteristics of species may impact upon large-scale phylogeography. Ficus insipida also shows genetic structure in north-western Amazonia potentially related to pre-Pleistocene historical events. In contrast, evident population expansion elsewhere in Amazonia, in particular the presence of genetically uniform

  12. Forests, food, and fuel in the tropics: the uneven social and ecological consequences of the emerging political economy of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Peter; Neville, Kate J

    2010-01-01

    The global political economy of biofuels emerging since 2007 appears set to intensify inequalities among the countries and rural peoples of the global South. Looking through a global political economy lens, this paper analyses the consequences of proliferating biofuel alliances among multinational corporations, governments, and domestic producers. Since many major biofuel feedstocks - such as sugar, oil palm, and soy - are already entrenched in industrial agricultural and forestry production systems, the authors extrapolate from patterns of production for these crops to bolster their argument that state capacities, the timing of market entry, existing institutions, and historical state-society land tenure relations will particularly affect the potential consequences of further biofuel development. Although the impacts of biofuels vary by region and feedstock, and although some agrarian communities in some countries of the global South are poised to benefit, the analysis suggests that already-vulnerable people and communities will bear a disproportionate share of the costs of biofuel development, particularly for biofuels from crops already embedded in industrial production systems. A core reason, this paper argues, is that the emerging biofuel alliances are reinforcing processes and structures that increase pressures on the ecological integrity of tropical forests and further wrest control of resources from subsistence farmers, indigenous peoples, and people with insecure land rights. Even the development of so-called 'sustainable' biofuels looks set to displace livelihoods and reinforce and extend previous waves of hardship for such marginalised peoples.

  13. Measuring ecological impacts from logging in natural forests of the eastern Amazonia as a tool to assess forest degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco W Lentini; Johan C Zweede; Thomas P Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Sound forest management practices have been seen as an interesting strategy to ally forest conservation and rural economic development in Amazônia. However, the implementation of Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) techniques in the field has been incipient, while most of the Amazonian timber production is generated through predatory and illegal logging. Despite several...

  14. Pyrogenic Impact on Gray Humus Soils of Pine Forests in the Central Ecological Zone of the Baikal Lake Natural Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Krasnoshchekov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The data of experimental research on the dynamics of post pirogenic gray humus soils of pine forests in the central ecological zone of the Baikal natural territory are analysed. Ground litter-humus fires transforms type diagnostic surface organic soil horizons, lead to the formation of new organogenic pyrogenic horizons (Opir. Negative impact of surface fires of varying intensity on stock change, quality of fractional composition of soil organic horizons, and their chemical composition is shown.

  15. Morphological characteristic of ecological areals of the oak forest on the territory of “Stryginsky Bor”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Nevidomova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It was ascertained that ecological areals of the oak forests located on the natural conservation territory “Stryginsky Bor” near Nizhny Novgorod city are changed under anthropogenic pressure. It is resulted on the value of dominants of herb-shrub’s layer, as well on increasing of the number of meadow and ruderal species like Chelidonium majus L. and Veronica chamaedrys L.

  16. Tropical forest structure characterization using airborne lidar data: an individual tree level approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, A.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Fine scale tropical forest structure characterization has been performed by means of field measurements techniques that record both the specie and the diameter at the breast height (dbh) for every tree within a given area. Due to dense and complex vegetation, additional important ecological variables (e.g. the tree height and crown size) are usually not measured because they are hardly recognized from the ground. The poor knowledge on the 3D tropical forest structure has been a major limitation for the understanding of different ecological issues such as the spatial distribution of carbon stocks, regeneration and competition dynamics and light penetration gradient assessments. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an active remote sensing technique that provides georeferenced distance measurements between the aircraft and the surface. It provides an unstructured 3D point cloud that is a high-resolution model of the forest. This study presents the first approach for tropical forest characterization at a fine scale using remote sensing data. The multi-modal lidar point cloud is decomposed into 3D clusters that correspond to single trees by means of a technique called Adaptive Mean Shift Segmentation (AMS3D). The ability of the corresponding individual tree metrics (tree height, crown area and crown volume) for the estimation of above ground biomass (agb) over the 50 ha CTFS plot in Barro Colorado Island is here assessed. We conclude that our approach is able to map the agb spatial distribution with an error of nearly 12% (RMSE=28 Mg ha-1) compared with field-based estimates over 1ha plots.

  17. Forest structure analysis combining laser scanning with digital airborne photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissak, Candide; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2017-04-01

    The interest of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) for vegetation structure analysis has been demonstrated in several research context. Indeed, airborne or ground Lidar surveys can provide detailed three-dimensional data of the forest structure from understorey forest to the canopy. To characterize at different timescale the vegetation components in dense cedar forests we can combine several sources point clouds from Lidar survey and photogrammetry data. For our study, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS-Leica ScanStation C10 processed with Cyclone software) have been lead in three forest areas (≈ 200m2 each zone) mainly composed of japanese cedar (Japonica cryptomeria), in the region of Fukushima (Japan). The study areas are characterized by various vegetation densities. For the 3 areas, Terrestrial laser scanning has been performed from several location points and several heights. Various floors shootings (ground, 4m, 6m and 18m high) were able with the use of a several meters high tower implanted to study the canopy evolution following the Fukushima Daiishi nuclear power plant accident. The combination of all scanners provides a very dense 3D point cloud of ground and canopy structure (average 300 000 000 points). For the Tochigi forest area, a first test of a low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry has been lead and calibrated by ground GPS measurements to determine the coordinates of points. TLS combined to UAV photogrammetry make it possible to obtain information on vertical and horizontal structure of the Tochigi forest. This combination of technologies will allow the forest structure mapping, morphometry analysis and the assessment of biomass volume evolution from multi-temporal point clouds. In our research, we used a low-cost UAV 3 Advanced (200 m2 cover, 1300 pictures...). Data processing were performed using PotoScan Pro software to obtain a very dense point clouds to combine to TLS data set. This low-cost UAV photogrammetry data has been

  18. Biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa in a cloud forest of the Bolivian Yungas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico-Bazoberry, Daniel; Caceres-Sanchez, Liliana; Saavedra-Ulloa, Daniela; Flores-Prado, Luis; Niemeyer, Hermann M; Pinto, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    Treehoppers (Membracidae) exhibit different levels of sociality, from solitary to presocial. Although they are one of the best biological systems to study the evolution of maternal care in insects, information on the biology of species in this group is scarce. This work describes the biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa (Fairmaire) (Hemiptera: Membracidae) in a rain cloud forest of Bolivia. This subsocial membracid utilizes two host-plant species, Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Wild) Bercht. & J.Presl and Solanum ursinum (Rusby) (both Solanaceae), the first one being used during the whole year and the second one almost exclusively during the wet season. The development of A. grossa from egg to adult occurred on the plant where eggs were laid. Maternal care was observed during the complete nymphal development, and involved behavioral traits such as food facilitation and antidepredatory defense. Life cycle was longer on B. suaveolens during the dry season and shorter on S. ursinum during the wet season. Mortality was similar on both host plants during the wet season but was lower on B. suaveolens during the dry season. The presence of a secondary female companion to the egg-guarding female individual and occasional iteropary is also reported. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. Extant forest plantations as a potential bridge between social needs and ecological management: a comparative case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson Priebe, M E; Müller, J G

    2013-11-15

    In the face of global deforestation, there is a challenge to balance the management of areas of high conservation concern and social interests. As a response to the growing human-environment interface and the use of forests for subsistence, plantations became a management tool to provide for wood harvesting during the 1970s. Some plantations were subsequently protected from harvest as conservation of all forests increased. Plantations that are now illegal to harvest can cause local animosities toward forest protection to increase and may also result in concentrated harvesting impacts on surrounding natural forests. In this article, we analyzed case studies of plantations from El Salvador and Niger. By utilizing distinctly disparate case studies, commonalities between the two can illuminate possible management lessons. In the comparison of El Salvador and Niger forest plantations we found the following commonalities: utilizing plantations for sustainable harvest has the to potential to reduce animosity between managers and stakeholders; plantations can serve as a risk-averse testing ground for novel managerial practices; and the sustainable harvest of plantations can reduce deforestation and impacts on biodiversity in natural remnant forests. We argue that extant plantations currently under illegal harvesting legislation could become the epicenters of social and ecological conservation through a management shift to sustainable harvesting. By focusing on these relics, managers could work with stakeholders to change unduly burdening restrictions and promote cooperation between conservationists and local populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests in the Laurentian Mixed Forest-Great Lakes Coastal Biological Network, Midwest Region, National Wildlife Refuge System, US Fish & Wildlife Service: Summary Tables & Figures: Seney NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following are summary tables and figures associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Seney...

  1. Structural Equation Modeling: Applications in ecological and evolutionary biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugesek, Bruce H.; von Eye, Alexander; Tomer, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to the methodology of structural equation modeling, illustrates its use, and goes on to argue that it has revolutionary implications for the study of natural systems. A major theme of this book is that we have, up to this point, attempted to study systems primarily using methods (such as the univariate model) that were designed only for considering individual processes. Understanding systems requires the capacity to examine simultaneous influences and responses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has such capabilities. It also possesses many other traits that add strength to its utility as a means of making scientific progress. In light of the capabilities of SEM, it can be argued that much of ecological theory is currently locked in an immature state that impairs its relevance. It is further argued that the principles of SEM are capable of leading to the development and evaluation of multivariate theories of the sort vitally needed for the conservation of natural systems. Supplementary information can be found at the authors website, http://www.jamesbgrace.com/. • Details why multivariate analyses should be used to study ecological systems • Exposes unappreciated weakness in many current popular analyses • Emphasizes the future methodological developments needed to advance our understanding of ecological systems.

  2. Distribution, fraction, and ecological risk assesment of heavy metals in sediment-plant system in mangrove forest, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, R.; Shen, X.; Li, Y. H.; Chai, M. W.; Qiu, G. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. The RAC values of heavy metals indicated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk to the biota, especially for Cd. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest.

  3. Structural diversity of forest communities on Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The structural diversity of forests on Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing,was surveyed by a plotless method combined with branch and leaf coverage estimation in the different layers.New structural indices were constructed,calculated and compared among different communities.On the basis of previous work,structural diversity of forest communities at the stand level was described by a vertical complexity index and a horizontal heterogeneity index.From a correlational analysis among the new indices and other commonly used biodiversity indices,we concluded that the new indices are closely related to a tree height inequality index and the Shannon-Wiener index of the tree and shrub layer,which indicated that the new indices were good at indicating structural diversity in the different forests on Baihuashan Mountain.The results show that,in natural forests,structural diversity of pioneer communities is much lower than in late successive communities.In plantations,structural diversity is determined by the stage of development and tree species.Tending would increase horizontal heterogeneity and decrease vertical complexity.

  4. Using thermal infrared imagery produced by unmanned air vehicles to evaluate locations of ecological road structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercan Gülci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aerial photos and satellite images are widely used and cost efficient data for monitoring and analysis of large areas in forestry activities. Nowadays, accurate and high resolution remote sensing data can be generated for large areas by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV integrated with sensors working in various spectral bands. Besides, the UAV systems (UAVs have been used in interdisciplinary studies to produce data of large scale forested areas for desired time periods (i.e. in different seasons or different times of a day. In recent years, it has become more important to conduct studies on determination of wildlife corridors for controlling and planning of habitat fragmentation of wild animals that need vast living areas. The wildlife corridors are a very important base for the determination of a road network planning and placement of ecological road structures (passages, as well as for the assessment of special and sensitive areas such as riparian zones within the forest. It is possible to evaluate wildlife corridors for large areas within a shorter time by using data produced by ground measurements, and remote sensing and viewer systems (i.e. photo-trap, radar and etc., as well as by using remote sensing data generated by UAVs. Ecological behaviors and activities (i.e. sheltering, feeding, mating, etc. of wild animals vary spatially and temporally. Some species are active in their habitats at day time, while some species are active during the night time. One of the most effective methods for evaluation of night time animals is utilizing heat sensitive thermal cameras that can be used to collect thermal infrared images with the night vision feature. When the weather conditions are suitable for a flight, UAVs assist for determining location of corridors effectively and accurately for moving wild animals at any time of the day. Then, the most suitable locations for ecological road structures can be determined based on wildlife corridor

  5. The Ecology of Seamounts: Structure, Function, and Human Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Schlacher, Thomas; Williams, Alan; Consalvey, Mireille; Stocks, Karen I.; Rogers, Alex D.; O'Hara, Timothy D.; White, Martin; Shank, Timothy M.; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    In this review of seamount ecology, we address a number of key scientific issues concerning the structure and function of benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation. We consider whether community composition and diversity differ between seamounts and continental slopes, how important dispersal capabilities are in seamount connectivity, what environmental factors drive species composition and diversity, whether seamounts are centers of enhanced biological productivity, and whether they have unique trophic architecture. We discuss how vulnerable seamount communities are to fishing and mining, and how we can balance exploitation of resources and conservation of habitat. Despite considerable advances in recent years, there remain many questions about seamount ecosystems that need closer integration of molecular, oceanographic, and ecological research.

  6. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Palace

    Full Text Available Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar. This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in a predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using a series of multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001, RMSE = 1.04 m. Tree density was found to have the poorest significant relationship (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.01, RMSE = 153.28 n ha-1. We found a significant relationship between basal area and lidar metrics (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.76 number ha-1. Parameters selected in our models varied, thus indicating the potential relevance of multiple features in canopy profiles and geometry that are related to field-measured structure. Models for biomass estimation included

  7. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Michael; Sullivan, Franklin B; Ducey, Mark; Herrick, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in a predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using a series of multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001, RMSE = 1.04 m). Tree density was found to have the poorest significant relationship (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.01, RMSE = 153.28 n ha-1). We found a significant relationship between basal area and lidar metrics (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.76 number ha-1). Parameters selected in our models varied, thus indicating the potential relevance of multiple features in canopy profiles and geometry that are related to field-measured structure. Models for biomass estimation included structural canopy

  8. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chips, Michael J.; Carson, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread. PMID:27703868

  9. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Elizabeth J; Chips, Michael J; Carson, Walter P; Rooney, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7-12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  10. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Roberson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  11. PHYTOSSOCIOLOGY AND DIAMETRIC ESTRUCTURE IN THE GALLERY FOREST OF PITOCO, IN THE ECOLOGICAL RESERVE OF IBGE, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Cláudio da Silva Júnior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The gallery forest, in the cerrado region, has a very important function on the environmental and social equilibrium.Despite been protected by law, gallery forests have been systematically replaced by agriculture and other regional uses. One thousandtrees (DAP 5cm were sampled using point centered-quarter (PCQ method. Sampling lines were established, from the head to themouth of the stream and from the stream margins to the forest-cerrado border, of the Pitoco gallery forest, in the IBGE EcologicalReserve, in Federal District, Brazil. Results showed 99 species of 46 families in the area. The most important families were:Leguminosae, Vochysiaceae, Rubiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Burseraceae, Moraceae, Annonaceae eSymplocaceae, while the most important species were: Callisthene major, Tapirira guianensis, Protium almecega, Copaifera langsdorffii,Sclerolobium paniculatum var. rubiginosum, Pseudolmedia guaranítica, Faramea cyanea, Emmotum nitens, Lamanonia ternata,Maprounea guianensis, excluding the group of dead trees which was ranked in the 5th position. Density and basal area were estimatedas 1971 trees.ha-1 and 38,8 m².ha-1 ,respectively. Diameter distribution showed a tendency to an inverted J curve revealing low levelsof disturbance in this gallery forest. A floristic comparison carried out with 21 gallery forests in the Federal District indicated Pitocogallery forest as a rich site including 99 (26,2% of the total of 378 species recorded, a Shannon & Weaver diversity index estimatedas 3,86 nats.ind-1 and Sørensen similarities ranging from 0,29 to 0,80 with DF gallery forests.

  12. Ecological structure of recent and last glacial mammalian faunas in northern Eurasia: the case of Altai-Sayan refugium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Pavelková Řičánková

    Full Text Available Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts.

  13. Global change and landscape structure in Ukraine: Ecological and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Lakyda, Petro; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Marchuk, Yuiry

    2013-04-01

    The current land cover of Ukraine is very heterogeneous. While on average forest covers 15.9% of its land, substantial part of the country is basically forestless. The agricultural potential of Ukraine is high. However, in spite of the fact that 68% of the arable land in Ukraine consists of the famous Ukrainian black soils (chernozems), the quality of the country's arable land (69.5% of the total land) is not satisfactory. The country has the highest over the globe share of the tilled land (~80% of the agricultural land in the country) and processes of soil erosion impact about one third of arable land. Air pollution, soil and water contamination are widespread. Substantial problems are generated by the Chernobyl disaster. Overall, about half of the country is in the critical and pre-critical ecological situation. Climatic predictions suppose that the country will live in much warmer and drier climate by end of this century. Taking into account that major pat of Ukraine lies in the xeric belt, the expected climatic change generates divers risks for both environment and vegetation ecosystems of the country, particularly for forests and agriculture. The presentation considers the role of forests and trees outside of forests in transition to integrated ecosystem management and sustainable structure of landscapes within two scenarios of socio-economic development for the next 20 yeas. The "business-as-usual" scenario prolongs tendencies of dynamics of the land-use and forest sectors during the last 20 years. This scenario leads to further deterioration of quality of land and environment in Ukraine. The "progressive" scenario is considered as a crucial initial step of adaptation to climatic change and includes a system of pressing measures which are needed to decrease destructive processes that are observed at the landscape level. It is shown that it would require development of 1.62 M ha of protective forests including 0.62 M ha on unstable elements of landscapes

  14. Effects of harvest of nontimber forest products and ecological differences between sites on the demography of African mahogany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoue, Orou G; Ticktin, Tamara

    2010-04-01

    The demographic impacts of harvesting nontimber forest products (NTFP) have been increasingly studied because of reports of potentially unsustainable harvest. Nevertheless, our understanding of how plant demographic response to harvest is altered by variation in ecological conditions, which is critical for developing realistic sustainable-use plans, is limited. We built matrix population models to test whether and how variation in ecological conditions affects population responses to harvest. In particular, we examined the effect of bark and foliage harvest on the demography of populations of African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) in two contrasting ecological regions of Benin, West Africa. K. senegalensis bark and foliage harvest significantly reduced its stochastic population growth rates, but ecological differences between regions had a greater effect on population growth rates than did harvest. The effect of harvest on population growth rates (Deltalambda) was slightly stronger in the moist than in the drier region. Life-table response experiments revealed that the mechanism by which harvesting reduced lambda differed between ecological regions. Lowered stasis (persistence) of larger life stages lead to a reduction in lambda in the drier region, whereas lowered growth of all life stages lowered lambda in moist region. Potential strategies to increase population growth rates should include decreasing the proportion of individuals harvested, promoting harvester-owned plantations of African mahogany, and increasing survival and growth by promoting no-fire zones in gallery forests. Our results show how population responses to harvest of NTFP may be altered by ecological differences across sites and emphasize the importance of monitoring populations over the climatic range in which they occur to develop more realistic recommendations for conservation.

  15. Characterizing Stand Structure and Growth of Natural Beech Forests for the Development of Sustainable Forest Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalandarayeshi, Shaaban

    forests in northern Iran lack such scientific foundation. The objective of the present study is to assist in this process by characterizing growth and stand structure of oriental beech for a range of growing conditions in northern Iran and to provide useful insight for application in sustainable......, no attempt was made to quantify the observed patterns. As a reference, stand structure was characterized for mixed species European beech woodlands in Suserup Skov in Denmark....

  16. Hurricane Katrina-induced forest damage in relation to ecological factors at landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y Jun

    2009-09-01

    Forest stand stability to strong winds such as hurricanes has been found to be associated with a number of forest, soil and topography factors. In this study, through applying geographic information system (GIS) and logit regression, we assessed effects of forest characteristics and site conditions on pattern, severity and probability of Hurricane Katrina disturbance to forests in the Lower Pearl River Valley, USA. The factors included forest type, forest coverage, stand density, soil great group, elevation, slope, aspect, and stream buffer zone. Results showed that Hurricane Katrina damaged 60% of the total forested land in the region. The distribution and intensity of the hurricane disturbance varied across the landscape, with the bottomland hardwood forests on river floodplains most severely affected. All these factors had a variety of effects on vulnerability of the forests to the hurricane disturbance and thereby spatial patterns of the disturbance. Soil groups and stand factors including forest types, forest coverage and stand density contributed to 85% of accuracy in modeling the probability of the hurricane disturbance to forests in this region. Besides assessment of Katrina's damage, this study elucidates the great usefulness of remote sensing and GIS techniques combined with statistics modeling in assessment of large-scale risks of hurricane damage to coastal forests.

  17. 广东省公益林补偿标准的能值研究%Emergy Synthesis on the Compensation Rate of Ecological Beneficial Forest in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪殿蓓; 陈飞鹏; 涂佳才; 暨淑仪

    2006-01-01

    To find out the feasible compensation rate for ecological beneficial forest, the ecological benefits such as fixation of solar energy, absorption of carbon dioxide, release of oxygen, and maintaining the global atmosphere balance, were evaluated with the employment of emergy synthesis for the ecological beneficial forest in Guangdong Province. The result showed that ecological benefit of the ecological beneficial forest in Guangdong Province was significant, and the emergy output value was 0.285 billion ($) per year. The emergy investment ratio (EIR) and environmental loading ratio (ELR) of ecological beneficial forest system were on a low level. More emergy should be input to the system in order to improve the utilization efficiency of resources. It was suggested that 136 ($)·hm-2 a-1 , i.e., 99 ($)·hm-2 a-1 for ecological benefit and 37 ($)·hm-2 a-1 for management expenditure, should be compensated at average level in Guangdong Province for the ecological beneficial forest.

  18. Forest structure, diversity and soil properties in a dry tropical forest in Rajasthan, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Nirmal Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Structure, species composition, and soil properties of a dry tropical forest in Rajasthan Western India, were examined by establishment of 25 plots. The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees. Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 995 stems ha-1 (= 3.0 cm DBH; 52% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH. The total basal area was 46.35 m2ha-1, of which Tectona grandis L. contributed 48%. The forest showed high species diversity of trees. 50 tree species (= 3.0 cm DBH from 29 families were identified in the 25 sampling plots. T. grandis (20.81% and Butea monosperma (9% were the dominant and subdominant species in terms of importance value. The mean tree species diversity indices for the plots were 1.08 for Shannon diversity index (H´, 0.71 for equitability index (J´ and 5.57 for species richness index (S´, all of which strongly declined with the increase of importance value of the dominant, T. grandis. Measures of soil nutrients indicated low fertility, extreme heterogeneity. Regression analysis showed that stem density and the dominant tree height were significantly correlated with soil pH. There was a significant positive relationship between species diversity index and soil available P, exchangeable K+, Ca2+ (all p values < 0.001 and a negative relationship with N, C, C:N and C:P ratio. The results suggest that soil properties are major factors influencing forest composition and structure within the dry tropical forest in Rajasthan.

  19. Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slik, J W Ferry; Bernard, Caroline S; Van Beek, Marloes; Breman, Floris C; Eichhorn, Karl A O

    2008-12-01

    Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions. In recent decades, however, tropical forest fires occur more frequently and at larger spatial scales than they used to. We studied forest structure, tree species diversity, tree species composition, and aboveground biomass during the first 7 years since fire in unburned, once burned and twice burned forest of eastern Borneo to determine the rate of recovery of these forests. We paid special attention to changes in the tree species composition during burned forest regeneration because we expect the long-term recovery of aboveground biomass and ecosystem functions in burned forests to largely depend on the successful regeneration of the pre-fire, heavy-wood, species composition. We found that forest structure (canopy openness, leaf area index, herb cover, and stem density) is strongly affected by fire but shows quick recovery. However, species composition shows no or limited recovery and aboveground biomass, which is greatly reduced by fire, continues to be low or decline up to 7 years after fire. Consequently, large amounts of the C released to the atmosphere by fire will not be recaptured by the burned forest ecosystem in the near future. We also observed that repeated fire, with an inter-fire interval of 15 years, does not necessarily lead to a huge deterioration in the regeneration potential of tropical forest. We conclude that burned forests are valuable and should be conserved and that long-term monitoring programs in secondary forests are necessary to determine their recovery rates, especially in relation to aboveground biomass accumulation.

  20. The ecological structure of the bryoflora of Wroclaw's parks and cemeteries in relation to their localization and origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Fudali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological structure of the flora of 81 bryophytes found in 22 town parks and 6 cemeteries situated within the borders of the Wrocław town has been analyzed in relation to the localization of objects (within the center of the town and its suburbs and their origin (parks set up in the place of ruins, those built on the site of old cemeteries, objects established within former forests, and parks set up in open, previously rural areas, often as gardens of mansions. In general estimation, the bryoflora of parks and cemeteries appears to be rather ecologically highly specializated - more than 50% of species occurred only on one type of substratum. Epiphytes s.s. occurred rarely. More often bryophytes were noted at the bases and on the trunks of trees, up to 30 cm. Some of the mosses, described in literature as epiphytes, have adapted to terrestrial-epiphytic sites and have been found only at the base of trees. In parks, epigeits were found in abundance on the ground around the base of trees and in shaded lawns. The presence of specialized epixylics was insignificant, although some of the typical forest epixylics were noted, namely Aulacomnium androgynum, Herzogiella seligeri and Dicranum scoparium. However, only parks situated in the suburbs show a high ecological variety of bryoflora, while objects established within the center of the town do not differ in species composition of bryophytes from surrounding built-up areas, despite their origin. Only in the parks situated in the suburbs there was a pronounced presence of forest and meadow species. The factor of park's origin seems to influence the bryoflora's ecological structure and the species richness on objects situated in the suburbs. In the cemeteries a positive correlation between the high number of species, age of monuments and the dimensions of object areas was stated.

  1. Structure and development of old-growth, unmanaged second-growth, and extended rotation Pinus resinosa forests in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Emily J.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Fraver, Shawn; Palik, Brian J.; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    The structure and developmental dynamics of old-growth forests often serve as important baselines for restoration prescriptions aimed at promoting more complex structural conditions in managed forest landscapes. Nonetheless, long-term information on natural patterns of development is rare for many commercially important and ecologically widespread forest types. Moreover, the effectiveness of approaches recommended for restoring old-growth structural conditions to managed forests, such as the application of extended rotation forestry, has been little studied. This study uses several long-term datasets from old growth, extended rotation, and unmanaged second growth Pinus resinosa (red pine) forests in northern Minnesota, USA, to quantify the range of variation in structural conditions for this forest type and to evaluate the effectiveness of extended rotation forestry at promoting the development of late-successional structural conditions. Long-term tree population data from permanent plots for one of the old-growth stands and the extended rotation stands (87 and 61 years, respectively) also allowed for an examination of the long-term structural dynamics of these systems. Old-growth forests were more structurally complex than unmanaged second-growth and extended rotation red pine stands, due in large part to the significantly higher volumes of coarse woody debris (70.7 vs. 11.5 and 4.7 m3/ha, respectively) and higher snag basal area (6.9 vs. 2.9 and 0.5 m2/ha, respectively). In addition, old-growth forests, although red pine-dominated, contained a greater abundance of other species, including Pinus strobus, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca relative to the other stand types examined. These differences between stand types largely reflect historic gap-scale disturbances within the old-growth systems and their corresponding structural and compositional legacies. Nonetheless, extended rotation thinning treatments, by accelerating advancement to larger tree diameter

  2. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the quality of the soil through its chemical, physical and microbiological attributes, using additive pondered model, as well as studying the characteristics of the linear method of combination of data, figures of merit (FoMs), the process of assigning weights and standard score functions, using measurements collected in three areas (two riparian forests and a commercial crop of sugarcane) in two soil types (Oxisol and Podzol) located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4m, and was determined some of its chemical attributes (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, etc.), physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological (microbial biomass and basal respiration). Two models were built, one containing two hierarchical levels of FoMs (Mod1), and another containing three levels (Mod2), in order to try to isolate FoMs highly correlated from each other within a top-level FoM. At FoMs of Mod1 were assigned various combinations of weights, and those of Mod2 were assigned weights from three methods, distribution from fixed value, classification and pair-wise comparison. In the Mod1, in virtually all combinations of weights used, values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) were superior in older forests, while the most recent forest presented the lowest SQI, for both types of soil. The variation of SQI values obtained from the sets of weights used also differed between the combinations tested, with the set of values of the ancient forest showing smaller amplitude. It could also be observed that the sets of values of Oxisol showed higher SQI and lower amplitude in relation to that of Podzol. It was observed that these facts are due mainly to the soil organic matter content (MO), which differs between the vegetations and soil types, and influences many parameters used in the model. Thus, in the structures where MO had

  3. Water balance and topography predict fire and forest structure patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van R. Kane; James A. Lutz; C. Alina Cansler; Nicholas A. Povak; Derek J. Churchill; Douglas F. Smith; Jonathan T. Kane; Malcolm P. North

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous topography creates fine-scale environmental mosaics that vary in precipitation, temperature, insolation, and slope position. This mosaic in turn influences fuel accumulation and moisture and forest structure. We studied these the effects of varying environmental conditions across a 27,104 ha landscape within Yosemite National Park, California, USA, on the...

  4. The influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Data from ~1500 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson) stands in the western United States were used to examine the potential influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity. Relative density, height and site quality were combined in a conceptually sound expression of the relationship between growth and growing stock for ponderosa pine-...

  5. Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Pingarroni, Aline; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Toledo-Chelala, Lilibeth; Zermeño-Hernández, Isela; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In human-modified tropical landscapes (HMLs) the conservation of biodiversity, functions and services of forest ecosystems depends on persistence of old growth forest remnants, forest regeneration in abandoned agricultural fields, and restoration of degraded lands. Understanding the impacts of agric

  6. Socio-ecological analysis of multiple-use forest management in the Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano Candia, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Community families throughout tropical regions derive an important share of their income from multiple forest products, with generally positive outcomes on their livelihoods. The production of these products in a multiple-use forest management scheme (MFM, the production of multiple forest products

  7. Aspects of the ecology of Penelope superciliaris temminck, 1815 (Aves: Cracidae in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Thel

    Full Text Available Abstract Guans are large frugivorous birds that inhabit Neotropical forests and play a fundamental role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Despite their ecological importance, the natural populations of these birds are increasingly threatened by deforestation and hunting pressure. The present study was conducted in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará (Brazil, with the objective of estimating population parameters (density and total population size in the Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris and the White-browed Guan (Penelope jacucaca, as well as providing data on their feeding ecology, including seasonal variation and fruit morphology. The study was based on the monthly collection of data between November, 2011, and October, 2012. Population parameters were estimated using line transect surveys, while feeding ecology was studied by direct observation, and the collection of plant and fecal samples. The estimated population density of P. superciliaris was 19.17 individuals/km2 (CV=13.98%, with a mean of 0.13 sightings per 10 km walked. Penelope jacucaca was not encountered during the surveys. A total of 14 plant species were recorded in the diet of P. superciliaris, 12 by direct observation, and two from fecal samples. Fruit diameter varied from 6.3±1.35 mm (Miconia albicans to 29.9±1.7 mm (Psidium sp.. Yellow was the most frequent fruit color (41.6%, n=5, with two species each (16.6% providing black, green, and red fruits. Fleshy fruits of the baccate (50.0%, n=6 and drupe (33.3%, n=4 types were the most consumed. The data on population parameters and feeding ecology collected in the present study provide an important database for the development of effective management strategies by environmental agencies for the conservation of the populations of the two guan species.

  8. Using ecological memory as an indicator to monitor the ecological restoration of four forest plantations in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongyu Sun; Hai Ren; Val Schaefer; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    A large area of plantations has been established worldwide and especially in China. Evaluating the restoration status of these plantations is essential for their longterm management. Based on our previous work, we used an ecological memory (EM) approach to evaluate four 26-year-old plantations that represent four common kinds of plantations in subtropical China, i.e.,...

  9. Ecological shifts in Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages related to gorgonian forest loss.

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    Massimo Ponti

    Full Text Available Mediterranean gorgonian forests are threatened by several human activities and are affected by climatic anomalies that have led to mass mortality events in recent decades. The ecological role of these habitats and the possible consequence of their loss are poorly understood. Effects of gorgonians on the recruitment of epibenthic organisms were investigated by manipulating presence of gorgonians on experimental panels at 24 m depth, for Eunicella cavolinii, and at 40 m depth, for Paramuricea clavata, at two sites: Tavolara Island (Tyrrhenian Sea and Portofino Promontory (Ligurian Sea. After 4 months, the most abundant taxa on the panels were encrusting green algae, erect red algae and crustose coralline algae at 24 m depth and encrusting brown algae and erect red algae at 40 m depth. Assemblages on the panels were significantly affected by the presence of the gorgonians, although effects varied across sites and between gorgonian species. Species diversity and evenness were lower on panels with gorgonian branches. Growth of erect algae and recruitment of serpulid polychaetes were also affected by the presence of the gorgonians, primarily at Tavolara. Crustose coralline algae and erect sponges were more abundant on E. cavolinii panels at 24 m depth, while encrusting bryozoans were more abundant on P. clavata panels at 40 m depth. Effects of gorgonians on recruited assemblages could be due to microscale modification of hydrodynamics and sediment deposition rate, or by a shading effect reducing light intensity. Gorgonians may also intercept settling propagules, compete for food with the filter-feeders and/or for space by producing allelochemicals. Presence of gorgonians mainly limits the growth of erect algae and enhances the abundance of encrusting algae and sessile invertebrates. Therefore, the gorgonian disappearances may cause a shift from assemblages characterised by crustose coralline algae to filamentous algae assemblages, decreasing

  10. Potency and Ecological Habitat of Tabat Barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack in Natural Forest, South Kalimantan

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    yudi firmanul arifin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is rich of medicinal plants, one of which is Tabat Barito (Ficusdeltoidea Jack. The utilization of tabat barito is mainly  for women's health and until now its use continues to increase, especially for traditional medicines, but efforts for cultivation have not been much done. The first step for cultivation is to understand the potential and ecological habitat of this plant. This research was conducted in South Kalimantan, with three villages as the object based on a survey conducted earlier, i.e. the Village of Hamak in Hulu Sungai Selatan District and the Village of Auh and Sungsum in Balangan District. Data was collected using a survey method to create a transect in the areas where Tabat Barito isfound. The results showed Tabat Barito potential  in the two districts is quite rare, between 35 -50 clumps/ha. Tabat Barito was found in open areas in natural forest with elevation of 200-350 m above sea level, humidity of 36-54%, air temperature of 38-43 °C, soil temperature of 25 oC. vegetation found to be associated with Tabat Barito in Hamak Village is sasirihan (Ficussp. and beringin (Ficusbenyamina, while in Auh and Sangsum Village is mali-mali (Leeaindica, beringin (F. benyamina, and jambun (Eugenia sp.. The genus of Ficus is the dominant vegetation and significant association with Tabat Barito. The diversity of vegetation, in the Hamak Village is 1.63 higher than Auh and Sungsum Village of 1.16. The common species found in the two districts that have Tabat Barito of 28.57%.

  11. Ecological shifts in Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages related to gorgonian forest loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Massimo; Perlini, Rossella Angela; Ventra, Vincenzo; Grech, Daniele; Abbiati, Marco; Cerrano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean gorgonian forests are threatened by several human activities and are affected by climatic anomalies that have led to mass mortality events in recent decades. The ecological role of these habitats and the possible consequence of their loss are poorly understood. Effects of gorgonians on the recruitment of epibenthic organisms were investigated by manipulating presence of gorgonians on experimental panels at 24 m depth, for Eunicella cavolinii, and at 40 m depth, for Paramuricea clavata, at two sites: Tavolara Island (Tyrrhenian Sea) and Portofino Promontory (Ligurian Sea). After 4 months, the most abundant taxa on the panels were encrusting green algae, erect red algae and crustose coralline algae at 24 m depth and encrusting brown algae and erect red algae at 40 m depth. Assemblages on the panels were significantly affected by the presence of the gorgonians, although effects varied across sites and between gorgonian species. Species diversity and evenness were lower on panels with gorgonian branches. Growth of erect algae and recruitment of serpulid polychaetes were also affected by the presence of the gorgonians, primarily at Tavolara. Crustose coralline algae and erect sponges were more abundant on E. cavolinii panels at 24 m depth, while encrusting bryozoans were more abundant on P. clavata panels at 40 m depth. Effects of gorgonians on recruited assemblages could be due to microscale modification of hydrodynamics and sediment deposition rate, or by a shading effect reducing light intensity. Gorgonians may also intercept settling propagules, compete for food with the filter-feeders and/or for space by producing allelochemicals. Presence of gorgonians mainly limits the growth of erect algae and enhances the abundance of encrusting algae and sessile invertebrates. Therefore, the gorgonian disappearances may cause a shift from assemblages characterised by crustose coralline algae to filamentous algae assemblages, decreasing complexity and resilience

  12. Nutrients and water-forest interactions in an Amazon floodplain lake: an ecological approach

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    Fabio Aprile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Catalão Lake was surveyed between 2002 and 2011 with the aim of studying seasonality of the flow of nutrients between water, sediment and aquatic macrophytes. The role of the flood pulse and the ecological mechanisms influencing the forest-water interactions in the Amazon floodplain were discussed; METHODS: Catalão Lake is located in the Amazon floodplain (03º 08'-03º 14' S and 59º 53'-59º 58' W, near the confluence of the Solimões and Negro rivers, approximately 3000 m from the port of CEASA, near the city of Manaus. It is considered to be a mixed water lake because it receives white waters rich in sediments from the Solimões River and black waters with humic substances from the Negro River. Physical and chemical parameters including C, N and P levels were studied in the diverse compartments, and a flux model was developed; RESULTS: There is a strong nutritional (C, N and P and ionic (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3(2- and SO4(2- flow from the rivers to the lake. The highest C:N:P ratio was found in Paspalum repens which, during periods of drought, played an important role in releaseing nutrients into the water. The connectivity of the lake with the rivers ensured a high variation of transparency and nutrient content, fundamental for biological processes. A model of the nutrient flow, interaction and connectivity between ecosystems, and the influence of the hydrological cycle has been developed.

  13. Assessment of Different Remote Sensing Data for Forest Structural Attributes Estimation in the Hyrcanian forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourian, N.; Shataee-Joibary, S.; Mohammadi, J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The objective of the study was the comparative assessment of various spatial resolutions of optical satellite imagery including Landsat-TM, ASTER, and Quickbird data to estimate the forest structure attributes of Hyrcanian forests, Golestan province, northernIran. Material and methods: The 112 square plots with area of0.09 ha were measured using a random cluster sampling method and then stand volume, basal area, and tree stem density were computed using measured data. After geometric and atmospheric corrections of images, the spectral attributes from original and different synthetic bands were extracted for modelling. The statistical modelling was performed using CART algorithm. Performance assessment of models was examined using the unused validation plots by RMSE and bias measures. Main Results: The results showed that model of Quickbird data for stand volume, basal area, and tree stem density had a better performance compared to ASTER and TM data. However, estimations by ASTER and TM imagery had slightly similar results for all three parameters. Research highlights: This study exposed that the high-resolution satellite data are more useful for forest structure attributes estimation in the Hyrcanian broadleaves forests compared with medium resolution images without consideration of images costs. However, regarding to be free of the most medium resolution data such as ASTER and TM,ETM+ or OLI images, these data can be used with slightly similar results. (Author)

  14. Changes in structure and composition of evergreen forests on an altitudinal gradient in the Venezuelan Guayana shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Lionel; Dezzeo, Nelda; Sanoja, Elio; Salazar, Leandro; Castellanos, Hernán

    2012-03-01

    There have been several ecological studies in forests of the Guayana Shield, but so far none had examined the changes in structure and composition of evergreen forests with altitude. This study describes and analyzes the structure, species composition and soil characteristics of forest stands at different altitudinal zones in Southeastern Venezuelan Guayana, in order to explain the patterns and the main factors that determine the structure and composition of evergreen forests along the altitudinal gradient. Inventories of 3 948 big (>10cm DBH) and 1 328 small (5-10cm DBH) woody stems were carried out in eleven plots, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0ha, along a 188km long transect with elevations between 290 and 1 395masl. It has been found that 1) hemiepihytes become more dominant and lianas reduce their dominance with increasing altitude and 2) the forest structure in the study area is size-dependent. Five families and 12 genera represented only 9% of the total number of families and genera, respectively, recorded troughout the gradient, but the two groups of taxa comprised more than 50% of the Importance Value (the sum of the relative density and the relative dominance) of all measured stems. Moreover, the results suggest that low species richness seems to be associated with the dominance of one or few species. Stand-level wood density (WD) of trees decreased significantly with increasing elevation. WD is an indicator of trees'life history strategy. Its decline suggests a change in the functional composition of the forest with increasing altitude. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated a distinction of the studied forests on the basis of their altitudinal levels and geographic location, and revealed different ecological responses by the forests, to environmental variables along the altitudinal gradient. The variation in species composition, in terms of basal area among stands, was controlled primarily by elevation and secondarily by rainfall and soil

  15. 新乡城市森林生态建设规划%A Development Plan for Urban Forest and Modern Forestry Ecology in Xinxiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑吾; 张玲玲; 张利军; 张宏松; 刘保玲

    2009-01-01

    The industrial development and population expansion have resulted in deterioration of urban environment,and increasing attention has been paid to the quality of living conditions. Thus urban forest drew much attention because it could improve the quality of urban environment. This paper explains the concept and overall goal of urban forest ecological planning and describes the model of urban ecological plan in Xinxiang city. Problems existing in construction of coo-city were identified and suggestions were made to solve the problems. This paper is intended to provide a scientific basis for the ecological construction and sustainable development of Xinxiang city.

  16. Precision of Nest Method in Estimating Orangutan Population and Determination of Important Ecological Factors for Management of Conservation Forest

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    Yanto Santosa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Orangutan as an umbrella species is closely interlinked with sustainable forest management meaning that the protection of this species has implications on the protection of other species and maintain ecosystem stability.  The total natural habitat required to support orangutan’s population could only be determined by the appropriate population size. It is associated with the carrying capacity to accommodate or fulfill the habitat requirements of a wildlife population. Selection and delineation of core and wilderness zones as habitat preference should be based on the results of preference test shown by the spatial distribution of orangutan population. Value of the coefficient  of  variation (CV was used to observe the precision of the population estimation and to identify important ecological factors in selection of nesting trees.  The study resulted in varied CV spatial values for various habitat types: 22.60%,  11.20%, and 13.30% for heath, lowland dipterocarp, and peat swamp forest, respectively. In the other side, CV temporal values for various habitat types were 5.35%, 22.60%, and 17.60% for heath, lowland dipterocarp, and peat swamp forest, respectively. This indicated that the population density in each type of forest ecosystems had a variation based on location and did not varied according to time of survey.  The use of  nest survey technique showed good reliable results in estimating orangutan population density.  Efforts to improve the precision of estimation can be done by formulating r value as the harmonic average of nest production rates and t as the average of nest decay time per nest category. Selection of habitat preference and nest trees were influenced by food availability thus should form important consideration in conducting nest survey to avoid bias in estimating orangutan populations.Keywords: conservation forest management, nest survey, orangutan, population size, ecological factors

  17. Evaluating the use of local ecological knowledge to monitor hunted tropical-forest wildlife over large spatial scales

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    Luke Parry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the distribution and abundance of hunted wildlife is critical to achieving sustainable resource use, yet adequate data are sparse for most tropical regions. Conventional methods for monitoring hunted forest-vertebrate species require intensive in situ survey effort, which severely constrains spatial and temporal replication. Integrating local ecological knowledge (LEK into monitoring and management is appealing because it can be cost-effective, enhance community participation, and provide novel insights into sustainable resource use. We develop a technique to monitor population depletion of hunted forest wildlife in the Brazilian Amazon, based on the local ecological knowledge of rural hunters. We performed rapid interview surveys to estimate the landscape-scale depletion of ten large-bodied vertebrate species around 161 Amazonian riverine settlements. We assessed the explanatory and predictive power of settlement and landscape characteristics and were able to develop robust estimates of local faunal depletion. By identifying species-specific drivers of depletion and using secondary data on human population density, land form, and physical accessibility, we then estimated landscape- and regional-scale depletion. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, for example, were estimated to be absent from 17% of their putative range in Brazil's largest state (Amazonas, despite 98% of the original forest cover remaining intact. We found evidence that bushmeat consumption in small urban centers has far-reaching impacts on some forest species, including severe depletion well over 100 km from urban centers. We conclude that LEK-based approaches require further field validation, but have significant potential for community-based participatory monitoring as well as cost-effective, large-scale monitoring of threatened forest species.

  18. Does the edge effect influence plant community structure in a tropical dry forest?

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    Diogo Gallo Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Edge effects are considered a key factor in regulating the structure of plant communities in different ecosystems. However, regardless to few studies, edge influence does not seem to be decisive in semiarid regions such as the Brazilian tropical dry forest known as Caatinga but this issue remains inconclusive. The present study tests the null hypothesis that the plant community of shrubs and trees does not change in its structure due to edge effects. Twenty-four plots (20 x 20 m were set up in a fragment of Caatinga, in which 12 plots were in the forest edges and 12 plots were inside the fragment. Tree richness, abundance and species composition did not differ between edge and interior plots. The results of this study are in agreement with the pattern previously found for semiarid environments and contrasts with previous results obtained in different environments such as Rainforests, Savanna and Forest of Araucaria, which indicate abrupt differences between the border and interior of the plant communities in these ecosystems, and suggest that the community of woody plants of the Caatinga is not ecologically affected by the presence of edges.

  19. Detecting Changes in Forest Structure over Time with Bi-Temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

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    Timo Melkas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes to stems caused by natural forces and timber harvesting constitute an essential input for many forestry-related applications and ecological studies, especially forestry inventories based on the use of permanent sample plots. Conventional field measurement is widely acknowledged as being time-consuming and labor-intensive. More automated and efficient alternatives or supportive methods are needed. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has been demonstrated to be a promising method in forestry field inventories. Nevertheless, the applicability of TLS in recording changes in the structure of forest plots has not been studied in detail. This paper presents a fully automated method for detecting changes in forest structure over time using bi-temporal TLS data. The developed method was tested on five densely populated forest plots including 137 trees and 50 harvested trees in point clouds. The present study demonstrated that 90 percent of tree stem changes could be automatically located from single-scan TLS data. These changes accounted for 92 percent of the changed basal area. The results indicate that the processing of TLS data collected at different times to detect tree stem changes can be fully automated.

  20. Forecasting forest development through modeling based on the legacy of forest structure over the past 43 years

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    E.Z. Baskent

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Sustainable management of forest ecosystems requires comprehensive coverage of data to reflect both the historical legacy and the future development of forests.  This study focuses on analyzing the spatio-temporal dynamics of forests over the past 43 years to help better forecast the future development of forest under various management strategies.Area of study: The area is situated in Karaisalı district of Adana city in the southeastern corner of Turkey.Material and methods: The historical pattern from 1969 to 2012 was assessed with digital forest cover type maps, produced with high resolution aerial photo interpretation using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The forest development over the next 120 years was forecasted using ecosystem-based multiple use forest management model (ETÇAP to understand the cause-effect relationships under various management strategies.Main results: The result showed that over the past 43 years while total forest areas decreased about 1194 ha (4%, the productive forest areas increased about 5397 ha (18% with a decrease of degraded forest (5824 ha, 20% and increase of maquis areas (2212 ha, 7%.The forecast of forest development under traditional management strategy resulted in an unsustainable forest due to broken initial age class structure, yet generated more total harvest (11% due to 88% relaxing of even timber flow constraint. While more volume could be harvested under traditional management conditions, the sustainability of future forest is significantly jeopardized.Research highlights: This result trongly implies that it is essential adopting modeling techniques to understand forest dynamics and forecast the future development comprehensively.Keywords: Forest management; simulation; optimization; forest dynamics; land use change.

  1. Structural Equation Modeling: Theory and Applications in Forest Management

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    Tzeng Yih Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystem dynamics are driven by a complex array of simultaneous cause-and-effect relationships. Understanding this complex web requires specialized analytical techniques such as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The SEM framework and implementation steps are outlined in this study, and we then demonstrate the technique by application to overstory-understory relationships in mature Douglas-fir forests in the northwestern USA. A SEM model was formulated with (1 a path model representing the effects of successively higher layers of vegetation on late-seral herbs through processes such as light attenuation and (2 a measurement model accounting for measurement errors. The fitted SEM model suggested a direct negative effect of light attenuation on late-seral herbs cover but a direct positive effect of northern aspect. Moreover, many processes have indirect effects mediated through midstory vegetation. SEM is recommended as a forest management tool for designing silvicultural treatments and systems for attaining complex arrays of management objectives.

  2. Ecological importance of large-diameter trees in a temperate mixed-conifer forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, James A; Larson, Andrew J; Swanson, Mark E; Freund, James A

    2012-01-01

    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. Although both scaling theory and competition theory make predictions about the relative composition and spatial patterns of large-diameter trees compared to smaller diameter trees, these predictions are rarely tested. We established a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all trees ≥1 cm dbh, all snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m(2). We sampled downed woody debris, litter, and duff with line intercept transects. Aboveground live biomass of the 23 woody species was 507.9 Mg/ha, of which 503.8 Mg/ha was trees (SD = 114.3 Mg/ha) and 4.1 Mg/ha was shrubs. Aboveground live and dead biomass was 652.0 Mg/ha. Large-diameter trees comprised 1.4% of individuals but 49.4% of biomass, with biomass dominated by Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana (93.0% of tree biomass). The large-diameter component dominated the biomass of snags (59.5%) and contributed significantly to that of woody debris (36.6%). Traditional scaling theory was not a good model for either the relationship between tree radii and tree abundance or tree biomass. Spatial patterning of large-diameter trees of the three most abundant species differed from that of small-diameter conspecifics. For A. concolor and P. lambertiana, as well as all trees pooled, large-diameter and small-diameter trees were spatially segregated through inter-tree distances trees and spatial relationships between large-diameter and small-diameter trees. Long-term observations may reveal regulation of forest biomass and spatial structure by fire, wind, pathogens, and insects in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Sustaining ecosystem functions such as carbon storage or provision of specialist species habitat will likely require different management strategies when the functions are performed primarily by a few large trees as opposed to many smaller trees.

  3. Correlated percolation models of structured habitat in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Géraldine; Lesne, Annick; Munoz, François; Pitard, Estelle

    2014-12-01

    Percolation offers acknowledged models of random media when the relevant medium characteristics can be described as a binary feature. However, when considering habitat modeling in ecology, a natural constraint comes from nearest-neighbor correlations between the suitable/unsuitable states of the spatial units forming the habitat. Such constraints are also relevant in the physics of aggregation where underlying processes may lead to a form of correlated percolation. However, in ecology, the processes leading to habitat correlations are in general not known or very complex. As proposed by Hiebeler (2000), these correlations can be captured in a lattice model by an observable aggregation parameter q, supplementing the density p of suitable sites. We investigate this model as an instance of correlated percolation. We analyze the phase diagram of the percolation transition and compute the cluster size distribution, the pair-connectedness function C(r) and the correlation function g(r). We find that while g(r) displays a power-law decrease associated with long-range correlations in a wide domain of parameter values, critical properties are compatible with the universality class of uncorrelated percolation. We contrast the correlation structures obtained respectively for the correlated percolation model and for the Ising model, and show that the diversity of habitat configurations generated by the Hiebeler model is richer than the archetypal Ising model. We also find that emergent structural properties are peculiar to the implemented algorithm, leading to questioning the notion of a well-defined model of aggregated habitat. We conclude that the choice of model and algorithm has strong consequences on what insights ecological studies can get using such models of species habitat.

  4. Setting Priorities for Urban Forest Planning. A Comprehensive Response to Ecological and Social Needs for the Metropolitan Area of Rome (Italy

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    Giulia Capotorti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban forests represent key elements of green infrastructure and provide essential ecosystem services in both the ecological and social spheres. Therefore, forestation planning plays a decisive role in the sustainable development strategies of metropolitan areas and addresses the challenge of maintaining biodiversity while improving human health and well-being. The aim of this work is to present a methodological approach that can be used to identify priorities in urban forest planning and can provide comprehensive responses to ecological and social needs in any metropolitan context. The approach, which is based on interdisciplinary principles of landscape ecology, ecosystem geography and dynamic plant sociology, has been adopted in the Municipality of Rome (Italy. The first step entails defining an ecological framework for forestation plans by means of the ecological land classification and assessment of landscape conservation status. The second step entails setting forestation priorities according to both ecological and social criteria. The application of the method proved to effectively select limited areas requiring intervention within an extensive metropolitan area. Furthermore, it provided responses to sustainability issues such as long-term maintenance of restored habitats, landscape perspective of planning, greening of urban agriculture, improvement in urban resilience, and cost-effective improvement in ecosystem services provision.

  5. Study on ecological structures of coastal lakes in Antarctic continent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Coastal region on the Antarctic continent, where it is under the influences both of ocean and ice sheet, as well as frequent human activities, could be considered as a fragile zone in Antarctic ecological environment. There are many lakes in coastal region, showing much differences from each other in physical-chemical features because of individual evolutionary history in their geographical environments, and suffering from different outside factors, such as climate changes and precipitation. Thus, it results in respective biological distribution and ecological structure in lakes. The present paper reports the results from the studies of chemical components, species distributions and community structures, which mainly consisted of planktons in lakes in the Vestfold Hills (68°38'S, 78°06'E), and the Larsemann Hills (69°30'S, 76°20'E), East Antarctica. It also treats the biological diversities and nutrient relationships of these different types of lakes. So as to provide more scientific basis for monitoring of climate changes and environmental protection in Antarctica.

  6. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN POURBABAEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haghgooy T. 2012. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 7-12. Forest vegetation indicates conditions and productivity potential of forest habitat, because it reflects the interaction of climate, soil and topography. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between vegetation and topography factors. In order to do this research, type, number and percentage cover of trees, shrubs (sample plot with 1000 m2 area and type and percentage cover of herbaceous species (sample plot with 64 m2 area investigated and recorded. The coverage percent of species were estimated on the basis of Domin scale. Vegetation classified using Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN. The results revealed that there were 6 ecosystem units (ecological groups in the region. The comparison of diversity indices and topographic factors between groups were performed with ANOVA test. Results also indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of biodiversity indices and topographic factors. The formation of a particular group is affected by a combination of environment variables. The aspect was the most important variable of topographic factors in this study.

  7. Characterizing forest structure variations across an intact tropical peat dome using field samplings and airborne LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Hutyra, Lucy R; Hardiman, Brady S; Raciti, Steve M

    2016-03-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) are one of the most carbon dense ecosystems on the globe and are experiencing substantial natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we combined direct field sampling and airborne LiDAR to empirically quantify forest structure and aboveground live biomass (AGB) across a large, intact tropical peat dome in Northwestern Borneo. Moving up a 4 m elevational gradient, we observed increasing stem density but decreasing canopy height, crown area, and crown roughness. These findings were consistent with hypotheses that nutrient and hydrological dynamics co-influence forest structure and stature of the canopy individuals, leading to reduced productivity towards the dome interior. Gap frequency as a function of gap size followed a power law distribution with a shape factor (λ) of 1.76 ± 0.06. Ground-based and dome-wide estimates of AGB were 217.7 ± 28.3 Mg C/ha and 222.4 ± 24.4 Mg C/ha, respectively, which were higher than previously reported AGB for PSF and tropical forests in general. However, dome-wide AGB estimates were based on height statistics, and we found the coefficient of variation on canopy height was only 0.08, three times less than stem diameter measurements, suggesting LiDAR height metrics may not be a robust predictor of AGB in tall tropical forests with dense canopies. Our structural characterization of this ecosystem advances the understanding of the ecology of intact tropical peat domes and factors that influence biomass density and landscape-scale spatial variation. This ecological understanding is essential to improve estimates of forest carbon density and its spatial distribution in PSF and to effectively model the effects of disturbance and deforestation in these carbon dense ecosystems.

  8. Landscape structure in a managed forest mosaic of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and its influence on songbirds and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimgruber, Peter

    Forests in the Appalachian Mountains have been severely affected by logging in the past and little old-growth is left. The remaining forests form a heterogeneous mosaic of different forest successions. A concern for conservation is how additional logging will alter the mosaic and its fauna. I studied the effects of logging on the landscape mosaic and how changes in the landscape structure influence small mammals and birds in the George Washington National Forest, Virginia. My dissertation also included research on how to improve techniques for landscape ecological studies, such as roadside monitoring of birds and mapping of forest resources using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Because of the scale dependency of landscape-ecological relationships, I investigated how landscape structure in the forest mosaic changes with increasing scales. I determined threshold scales at which structure changed markedly. After establishing a baseline, I examined how logging affected the intensity and location of such thresholds. I found thresholds in landscape structure exist at 400-, 500-, and 800-m intervals from the outer edge of the cut. While logging did not change threshold location and intensity for global landscape indices, such as dominance and contagion, thresholds for focal indices, such as mean patch size and percent cover for early-successional forest, changed markedly. Using GIS, I determined how logging affected small mammals and birds at the landscape scale. I divided the landscape into three zones (zone 1, inside logged areas; zone 2, 20--400 m from logged areas; zone 3, 1000--1500 m from logged areas). Logging changed species presence and richness more drastically in close proximity of cuts than on the landscape and influenced birds more strongly than mammals. In the cuts, edge-adapted birds, such as the indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), replaced forest interior species, such as the Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens). Most

  9. Forest restoration as ecological succession: should we speed it up or slow it down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, P.B.; Twedt, D.J.; Nuttle, T.J.; Woodson, C.A.; Broerman, F.; Wahome, J.M.; Holland, Marjorie M.; Warren, Melvin L.; Stanturf, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent assessments of afforestation of agricultural lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley imply the importance of quickly developing vertical forest structure to benefit 'wildlife.' We examine this assumption and find that animal species of interest as targets of proactive management, as well as targets of control, occur through the full successional sere. Different species of mammals and birds respond positively to the structure available at different times during succession. Thus, managers must decide on the species and communities they wish to favor. Early successional species, particularly those avian communities occurring during winter, have been heretofore considered only in passing. However, because they occur in areas where herbaceous plants dominate vegetation structure, these communities include species otherwise rare or absent from the landscape. Extensive afforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley provides ephemeral habitat for birds that winter in herbaceous areas. Managers may wish to consider maintaining large tracts in herbaceous vegetation similar to that occurring 3-7 years after cessation of farming activities, as habitat for such birds.

  10. On the specification of structural equation models for ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Michael, Anderson T.; Han, O.; Scheiner, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of structural equation modeling (SEM) is often motivated by its utility for investigating complex networks of relationships, but also because of its promise as a means of representing theoretical concepts using latent variables. In this paper, we discuss characteristics of ecological theory and some of the challenges for proper specification of theoretical ideas in structural equation models (SE models). In our presentation, we describe some of the requirements for classical latent variable models in which observed variables (indicators) are interpreted as the effects of underlying causes. We also describe alternative model specifications in which indicators are interpreted as having causal influences on the theoretical concepts. We suggest that this latter nonclassical specification (which involves another variable type-the composite) will often be appropriate for ecological studies because of the multifaceted nature of our theoretical concepts. In this paper, we employ the use of meta-models to aid the translation of theory into SE models and also to facilitate our ability to relate results back to our theories. We demonstrate our approach by showing how a synthetic theory of grassland biodiversity can be evaluated using SEM and data from a coastal grassland. In this example, the theory focuses on the responses of species richness to abiotic stress and disturbance, both directly and through intervening effects on community biomass. Models examined include both those based on classical forms (where each concept is represented using a single latent variable) and also ones in which the concepts are recognized to be multifaceted and modeled as such. To address the challenge of matching SE models with the conceptual level of our theory, two approaches are illustrated, compositing and aggregation. Both approaches are shown to have merits, with the former being preferable for cases where the multiple facets of a concept have widely differing effects in the

  11. Can global navigation satellite system signals reveal the ecological attributes of forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbin; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Liang, Xinlian; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Zhu, Lingli; Wang, Yunsheng; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2016-08-01

    Forests have important impacts on the global carbon cycle and climate, and they are also related to a wide range of industrial sectors. Currently, one of the biggest challenges in forestry research is effectively and accurately measuring and monitoring forest variables, as the exploitation potential of forest inventory products largely depends on the accuracy of estimates and on the cost of data collection. A low-cost crowdsourcing solution is needed for forest inventory to collect forest variables. Here, we propose global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals as a novel type of observables for predicting forest attributes and show the feasibility of utilizing GNSS signals for estimating important attributes of forest plots, including mean tree height, mean diameter at breast height, basal area, stem volume and tree biomass. The prediction accuracies of the proposed technique were better in boreal forest conditions than those of the conventional techniques of 2D remote sensing. More importantly, this technique provides a novel, cost-effective way of collecting large-scale forest measurements in the crowdsourcing context. This technique can be applied by, for example, harvesters or persons hiking or working in forests because GNSS devices are widely used, and the field operation of this technique is simple and does not require professional forestry skills.

  12. Flying Under the LiDAR: Relating Forest Structure to Bat Community Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, A. C.; Weishampel, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Bats are important to many ecological processes such as pollination, insect (and by proxy, disease) control, and seed dispersal and can be used to monitor ecosystem health. However, they are facing unprecedented extinction risks from habitat degradation as well as pressures from pathogens (e.g., white-nose syndrome) and wind turbines. LiDAR allows ecologists to measure structural variables of forested landscapes with increased precision and accuracy at broader spatial scales than previously possible. This study used airborne LiDAR to classify forest habitat/canopy structure at the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS) in north central Florida. LiDAR data were acquired by the NEON airborne observation platform in summer 2014. OSBS consists of open-canopy pine savannas, closed-canopy hardwood hammocks, and seasonally wet prairies. Multiple forest structural parameters (e.g., mean, maximum, and standard deviation of height returns) were derived from LiDAR point clouds using the USDA software program FUSION. K-means clustering was used to segregate each 5x5 m raster across the ~3765 ha OSBS area into six different clusters based on the derived canopy metrics. Cluster averages for maximum, mean, and standard deviation of return heights ranged from 0 to 19.4 m, 0 to 15.3 m, and 0 to 3.0 m, respectively. To determine the relationships among these landscape-canopy features and bat species diversity and abundances, AnaBat II bat detectors were deployed from May to September in 2015 stratified by these distinct clusters. Bat calls were recorded from sunset to sunrise during each sampling period. Species were identified using AnalookW. A statistical regression model selection approach was performed in order to evaluate how forest attributes such as understory clutter, open regions, open and closed canopy, etc. influence bat communities. This knowledge provides a deeper understanding of habitat-species interactions to better manage survival of these species.

  13. An evaluation of selected ecological benefits of forest stands under acid stress based on biogeochemical processes in a catchment in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Based on nutrient biogeochemical cycles between soil, plants and the atmosphere, four ecological functions and values of forest stands under acid stress in a small catchment in Southwestern China are evaluated in this work: nutrient retaining, carbon sequestration, erosion control and water conservation. Integrated remote sensing Landsat-5 TM spectral data and field measurements of acid deposition are applied to simulate the temporal and spatial distributions of soil acidification and nutrient cycling for a small catchment with various types of vegetations in Southwestern China, using the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC) coupled with a soil water balance module and a vegetation growth model. The major cations in the soil solution, the net primary productivity, the soil conservation and the rainfall intercept are considered in the evaluation of the four selected ecological benefits of forest stands in the study area. Biogeochemical processes including deposition, nitrification, weathering, mineralization, uptake, allocation and litterfall are considered in the simulation. The simulation results show that the average amounts of nutrient retaining, carbon sequestration, and soil and water conservation were 1.67 t/hm2, 2.96 t/hm2, 913 t/hm2 and 10000 t/hm2 respectively for the catchment during the period from April 2007 to April 2008. The ecological functions also vary with the vegetation types. The nutrient retaining amount is the highest in grassland and the mixed forest came next. The mixed forest has higher carbon sequestration amount than coniferous forest, shrubs and the grass. The coniferous forest and the shrubs have the highest soil conservation and water conservation amounts respectively. The forest ecological values for the selected four functions are also estimated by the prices of substitutes and found to be 20 times that of timber economic benefit. The forest ecological functions will change under different scenarios of acid

  14. Forest urbanism - the structuring role of forests: the case of Pinhal de Leiria

    OpenAIRE

    Wambecq, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the structural role of forests in territories that are distinctively different than the compact city, often called the territory of dispersion. Dispersion and its design interventions are often associated with the American suburbia developed in postwar period1 while in fact there are several types of dispersion with different economic origin. In Europe, the first wave of suburbanization goes back to Middle Ages, e.g. in Belgium, where the fertile grounds of the lo...

  15. Leaf size indices and structure of the peat swamp forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Aribal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size indices of the tree species in the peatland of Agusan del Sur in Mindanao in Philippines was examined to deduce the variation of forest structure and observed forest zonation.  Using raunkiaer and webb’s leaf size classification, the leaf morphometrics of seven tree species consistently found on the established sampling plots were determined.  The species includes Ternstroemia philippinensis Merr., Polyscias aherniana Merr. Lowry and G.M. Plunkett, Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque, Fagraea racemosa Jack, Ilex cymosa Blume, Syzygium tenuirame (Miq. Merr. and Tristaniopsis micrantha Merr. Peter G.Wilson and J.T.Waterh.The LSI were correlated against the variables of the peat physico-chemical properties (such as bulk density, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, pH; water (pH, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate; and leaf tissue elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.  Result showed a decreasing leaf size indices and a three leaf size category consisting of mesophyllous, mesophyllous-notophyllous and microphyllous were observed which corresponds to the structure of vegetation i.e., from the tall-pole forest having the biggest average leaf area of 6,142.29 mm2 to the pygmy forest with average leaf area of 1,670.10 mm2.  Such decreased leaf size indices were strongly correlated to soil nitrogen, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, phosphate in water, nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant tissue.

  16. Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannicci, Stefano; Burrows, Damien; Fratini, Sara; Smith, Thomas J.; Offenberg, Joachim; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2008-01-01

    The last 20 years witnessed a real paradigm shift concerning the impact of biotic factors on ecosystem functions as well as on vegetation structure of mangrove forests. Before this small scientific revolution took place, structural aspects of mangrove forests were viewed to be the result of abiotic processes acting from the bottom-up, while, at ecosystem level, the outwelling hypothesis stated that mangroves primary production was removed via tidal action and carried to adjacent nearshore ecosystems where it fuelled detrital based food-webs. The sesarmid crabs were the first macrofaunal taxon to be considered a main actor in mangrove structuring processes, thanks to a number of studies carried out in the Indo-Pacific forests in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Following these classical papers, a number of studies on Sesarmidae feeding and burrowing ecology were carried out, which leave no doubts about the great importance of these herbivorous crabs in structuring and functioning Old world ecosystems. Although Sesarmidae are still considered very important in shaping mangrove structure and functioning, recent literature emphasizes the significance of other invertebrates. The Ocypodidae have now been shown to have the same role as Sesarmidae in terms of retention of forest products and organic matter processing in New world mangroves. In both New and Old world mangroves, crabs process large amounts of algal primary production, contribute consistently to retention of mangrove production and as ecosystem engineers, change particle size distribution and enhance soil aeration. Our understanding of the strong impact of gastropods, by means of high intake rates of mangrove products and differential consumption of propagules, has changed only recently. The role of insects must also be stressed. It is now clear that older techniques used to assess herbivory rates by insects strongly underestimate their impact, both in case of leaf eating and wood boring species and that

  17. The historical disturbance regime of mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians and its influence on current forest structure and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Pavel; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Mikoláš, Martin; Bače, Radek; Nagel, Thomas A; Seidl, Rupert; Seedre, Meelis; Morrissey, Robert C; Kucbel, Stanislav; Jaloviar, Peter; Jasík, Marián; Vysoký, Juraj; Šamonil, Pavel; Čada, Vojtěch; Mrhalová, Hana; Lábusová, Jana; Nováková, Markéta H; Rydval, Miloš; Matějů, Lenka; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2017-03-15

    In order to gauge ongoing and future changes to disturbance regimes, it is necessary to establish a solid baseline of historic disturbance patterns against which to evaluate these changes. Further, understanding how forest structure and composition respond to variation in past disturbances may provide insight into future resilience to climate-driven alterations of disturbance regimes. We established 184 plots (mostly 1000 m(2)) in 14 primary mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians. On each plot we surveyed live and dead trees and regeneration, and cored around 25 canopy trees. Disturbance history was reconstructed by examining individual tree growth trends. The study plots were further aggregated into five groups based on disturbance history (severity and timing) to evaluate and explain its influence on forest structure. These ecosystems are characterized by a mixed severity disturbance regime with high spatiotemporal variability in severity and frequency. However, periods of synchrony in disturbance activity were also found. Specifically, a peak of canopy disturbance was found for the mid-19th century across the region (about 60% of trees established), with the most important periods of disturbance in the 1820s and from the 1840s to the 1870s. Current stand size and age structure were strongly influenced by past disturbance activity. In contrast, past disturbances did not have a significant effect on current tree density, the amount of coarse woody debris, and regeneration. High mean densities of regeneration with height >50 cm (about 1400 individuals per ha) were observed. Extensive high severity disturbances have recently affected Central European forests, spurring a discussion about the causes and consequences. We found some evidence that forests in the Western Carpathians were predisposed to recent severe disturbance events as a result of synchronized past disturbance activity, which partly homogenized size and age structure and made recent

  18. Community structure and regeneration types of Betula dahurica forest in Badaling forest center of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yong; Zheng Zhi-hua; Zhang Zhi-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Using plant community analysis methods, we analyzed the floristic characteristics, species composition, community structure, population structure, and spatial distribution patterns of a Betula dahurica forest on the "1238" mountain of Badaling in Beijing, China. The results show that: 1) There are 33 plant species in the B. dahurica community, including 18 woody plant species. The B. dahurica forest is a monodominant community with 75.9% dominance. 2) Based on diameter at breast height (DBH)size class distribution, the population structure of B. dahurica and Acer mono-two heliophyllous and pioneer tree species is cascade-type, with both in an increasing stage. The population structure of Tilia mandshurica and T. mongolica, two shade-tolerant tree species, is inverse-J type, and they have more young seedling individuals and regenerate more stably. They are associated species of the pioneer tree species. The population structure of Quercus mongolica, as the associated species of climax species in the community, is sporadic, and its regeneration is fluctuating and random. Fraxinus rhynchophylla is a shade-tolerant tree species which has a unibar population structure and climax characteristics of pioneer tree species. The relative frequency of young seedlings reached 0.4.3) The dominant species B. dahurica is still in an increasing stage, and the regeneration of other species is steady or partly influences the community, putting the community in the pioneer species stage. From the population structure and distribution frequency ofF. rhynchophylla, the B. dahurica forest will approach to a climax state in the future.

  19. STUDY CONCERNING FOREST ECOLOGIC RECONSTRUCTIUON ON DEGRADED LAND IN RANGE OCOLUL SILVIC “VALEA CIBINULUI”, SALISTE, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert BLAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the stationary conditions, determine solutions to improve degraded land, assessing the cost of ecological restoration work needed in the area of improving degraded lands at Rapa - Copăcel, estimated benefits of the project and its viability. Objectives of the paper: need to introduce in the circuit of productive forest lands within the improvement of the area "La Rapa - Copăcel" danger zone where activation of the phenomena of degradation (erosion , landslides predominate. Out of 102.33 ha as area for improvement, the effective area of 101.6 ha is forested, representing a difference of 0.73 ha, 1.2 m wide strip that is to be the place for hedges. Viability of the project results from the ratio calculated benefit/cost = 2.3 which justifies the need and opportunity for investment. Opportunity project results in immediate and potential beneficial effects of the a forestation namely stabilization by stopping land erosion and landslides with positive influences on human settlements, infrastructure and communication lines, reducing the intensity of land degradation processes and the gradual improvement their production capacity as the direct effect of forest cultures, the role of forests in improving the main factors of environmental water, air, climate, reducing extreme values of climatic factors (temperature, evapotranspiration, wind speed, humidity and air purification by the ozoning phyithoncide releasing the destructive effect of microbes; regulating rainfall, ensuring constant and permanent water flow, reducing the effects of drought and floods, improving stationary conditions for the maintenance and development of herbaceous vegetation and forest. It specifies the role and sanogene functions of the forest – ambient of the forest, an constructive and necessary factor for the ecosystems and human health, and its other roles: aesthetic role "attribute of all forests" - contemplating a sylvan landscape with positive effects

  20. Analysis of existing agroforestry practices in Madhupur Sal forest: an assessment based on ecological and economic perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Golam Kibria; Narayan Saha

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in Madhupur sal forest of Tangail,Bangladesh to identify the suitable agroforestry practices of the area.Considering the ecological aspects of different agroforestry practices 10 sample plots (10 m × 10 m) from each land uses were taken,including natural forest to get a comparative scenario.The study showed that among the different agroforestry practices,Margalef and ShannonWeiner index values are the maximum for pineapple agroforestry and lower for banana agroforestry,and Evenness index value is the maximum for lemon agroforestry.Determination of tree biomass in different land uses revealed that it is highest (3078.6 kg/100 m2) in natural forest followed by pineapple agroforestry,lemon agroforestry and banana agroforestry.Soil pH,moisture content,organic matter,organic carbon,phosphorus and total nitrogen showed statistically significant variation while bulk density,particle density,sulphur and potassium did not show any statistically significant variation among the land uses.Soil fertility status showed that pineapple agroforestry is more fertile than rest of other land uses.The Net Present Value (NPV) indicated that banana agroforestry is financially more profitable than other two systems,while the BenefitCost ratio (BCR) is higher in pineapple agroforestry (4.21 in participatory agroforestry and 3.35 in privately managed land).Even though banana agroforestry gives higher NPV,capital required for this practice is much higher.The findings suggest that pineapple agroforestry has a tendency towards becoming ecologically and economically more sound than other two practices as it has better ecological attributes and required comparatively low investment.

  1. Leaf structural diversity is related to hydraulic capacity in tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Lawren; Frole, Kristen

    2006-02-01

    The hydraulic resistance of the leaf (R1) is a major bottleneck in the whole plant water transport pathway and may thus be linked with the enormous variation in leaf structure and function among tropical rain forest trees. A previous study found that R1 varied by an order of magnitude across 10 tree species of Panamanian tropical lowland rain forest. Here, correlations were tested between R1 and 24 traits relating to leaf venation and mesophyll structure, and to gross leaf form. Across species, R1 was related to both venation architecture and mesophyll structure. R1 was positively related to the theoretical axial resistivity of the midrib, determined from xylem conduit numbers and dimensions, and R1 was negatively related to venation density in nine of 10 species. R1 was also negatively related to both palisade mesophyll thickness and to the ratio of palisade to spongy mesophyll. By contrast, numerous leaf traits were independent of R1, including area, shape, thickness, and density, demonstrating that leaves can be diverse in gross structure without intrinsic trade-offs in hydraulic capacity. Variation in both R1-linked and R1-independent traits related strongly to regeneration irradiance, indicating the potential importance of both types of traits in establishment ecology.

  2. Assessment of water-recharging based on ecological features of riparian forest in the lower reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhenyong; WANG Ranghui; SUN Hongbo; ZHANG Huizhi

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and development of riparian forests which are mainly dominated by mesophytes species relate closely with surface water.Since there is no water discharge to the lower reaches of Tarim River in past 5 decade years, the riparian forests degrade severely. Based on the analyses of the monitored data of Yingsu, Argan and Luobuzhuang in 2002 and 2003, the effect of water-recharging is discussed. The water-recharging project neglects the fact that that it is flooding that controls the process of Populus euphratica colonizing on the bare surface, but focuses on groundwater influence on vegetation. The flooding control deviates inherent laws of riparian forests development, so the natural regeneration of riparian forests is checked.The responsescope of riparian plants on groundwater uplift is extremely narrow, and most riparian communities have not been optimized. No seedlings of dominant species are found in flooding areas because their physio-ecological characteristics are ignored. The vegetation changes in vicinities of stream only reflect the demand of mesophytes species on the shallow groundwater, however, the water-recharging fails to provide suitable habitats for the seedlings establishment of riparian plants. The present water-recharging scheme is difficult to realize vegetation restoration.

  3. Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanni Ribeiro Loiola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly. The intensity of the inter and intra-sexual selection can affect male behavioral traits as territorial fidelity and aggressiveness allowing the existence of different strategies. However, its differential success could be affected by environmental - as the diel variation in temperature - and physiological constrains - as the variation in thermoregulatory abilities. In this context, we present a behavioral analysis of Heteragrion consors (Zygoptera, Megapodagrionidae trying to characterize its mating system, diel activity pattern, temporal budget, territoriality and reproductive biology. These data were obtained based on field observations using the focal individual method and mark-recapture techniques in 120 m of a shaded Atlantic Forest stream in Brazil. The males of this species were territorial, varying in its local fidelity, while the females appear sporadically. Males were perched in the majority of the time, but were also observed in cleaning movements, longitudinal abdominal flexion, wing flexion and sperm transfer during perch. The males presented a perched thermoregulatory behavior related to an exothermic regulation. Foraging and agonistic interactions were rare, but dominate the other behavioral activities. Abdominal movements associated to long lasting copula pointed to the existence of sperm competition in this species. Males performed contact post-copulatory guarding of the females. These observations pointed to a non-resource mating system for this species.Ecologia comportamental de Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: uma libélula de áreas sombreadas da Floresta Atlântica. A intensidade de seleção inter e intra-sexual deve afetar características comportamentais dos machos como fidelidade a territórios e agressividade possibilitando a existência de diferentes estratégias. No entanto, seu

  4. Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Timber Production in Mixed Uneven-Aged Mountain Forests: Identification of Ecological Intensification Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Valentine; Cordonnier, Thomas; Courbaud, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Mixed uneven-aged forests are considered favorable to the provision of multiple ecosystem services and to the conciliation of timber production and biodiversity conservation. However, some forest managers now plan to increase the intensity of thinning and harvesting operations in these forests. Retention measures or gap creation are considered to compensate potential negative impacts on biodiversity. Our objectives were to assess the effect of these management practices on timber production and biodiversity conservation and identify potential compensating effects between these practices, using the concept of ecological intensification as a framework. We performed a simulation study coupling Samsara2, a simulation model designed for spruce-fir uneven-aged mountain forests, an uneven-aged silviculture algorithm, and biodiversity models. We analyzed the effect of parameters related to uneven-aged management practices on timber production, biodiversity, and sustainability indicators. Our study confirmed that the indicators responded differently to management practices, leading to trade-offs situations. Increasing management intensity had negative impacts on several biodiversity indicators, which could be partly compensated by the positive effect of retention measures targeting large trees, non-dominant species, and deadwood. The impact of gap creation was more mitigated, with a positive effect on the diversity of tree sizes and deadwood but a negative impact on the spruce-fir mixing balance and on the diversity of the understory layer. Through the analysis of compensating effects, we finally revealed the existence of possible ecological intensification pathways, i.e., the possibility to increase management intensity while maintaining biodiversity through the promotion of nature-based management principles (gap creation and retention measures).

  5. Structural and functional changes with depth in microbial communities in a tropical Malaysian peat swamp forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Colin R; Liew, Kong Cheng; Yule, Catherine M

    2009-04-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests are important and endangered ecosystems, although little is known of their microbial diversity and ecology. We used molecular and enzymatic techniques to examine patterns in prokaryotic community structure and overall microbial activity at 0-, 10-, 20-, and 50-cm depths in sediments in a peat swamp forest in Malaysia. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of amplified 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene fragments showed that different depths harbored different bacterial assemblages and that Archaea appeared to be limited to the deeper samples. Cloning and sequencing of longer 16S rRNA gene fragments suggested reduced microbial diversity in the deeper samples compared to the surface. Bacterial clone libraries were largely dominated by ribotypes affiliated with the Acidobacteria, which accounted for at least 27-54% of the sequences obtained. All of the sequenced representatives from the archaeal clone libraries were Crenarchaeota. Activities of microbial extracellular enzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling declined appreciably with depth, the only exception being peroxidase. These results show that tropical peat swamp forests are unusual systems with microbial assemblages dominated by members of the Acidobacteria and Crenarchaeota. Microbial communities show clear changes with depth, and most microbial activity is likely confined to populations in the upper few centimeters, the site of new leaf litter fall, rather than the deeper, older, peat layers.

  6. Effects of climate and forest structure on palms, bromeliads and bamboos in Atlantic Forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Hilário

    Full Text Available Abstract Palms, bromeliads and bamboos are key elements of tropical forests and understanding the effects of climate, anthropogenic pressure and forest structure on these groups is crucial to forecast structural changes in tropical forests. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these factors on the abundance of these groups in 22 Atlantic forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil. Abundance of bromeliads and bamboos were assessed through indexes. Palms were counted within a radius of 20 m. We also obtained measures of vegetation structure, fragment size, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and human population density. We tested the effects of these predictors on plant groups using path analysis. Palm abundance was higher in taller forests with larger trees, closed canopy and sparse understory, which may be a result of the presence of seed dispersers and specific attributes of local palm species. Bromeliads were negatively affected by both annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, what may reflect adaptations of these plants to use water efficiently, but also the need to capture water in a regular basis. Bamboos were not related to any predictor variable. As climate and forest structure affected the abundance of bromeliads and palms, human-induced climatic changes and disturbances in forest structure may modify the abundance of these groups. In addition, soil properties and direct measurements of human disturbance should be used in future studies in order to improve the predictability of models about plant groups in Northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  7. Constructing Virtual Forest Scenes for Assessment of Sub-pixel Vegetation Structure From Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerace, A. D.; Yao, W.; van Aardt, J. A.; Romanczyk, P.; Kelbe, D.; van Leeuwen, M.; Kampe, T. U.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of vegetation structure via remote sensing modalities has a long history for a range of sensor platforms. Imaging spectroscopy, while often used for biochemical measurements, also applies to structural assessment in that the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI), for instance, will provide an opportunity to monitor the global ecosystem. Establishing the linkage between HyspIRI data and sub-pixel vegetation structural variation therefore is of keen interest to the remote sensing and ecology communities. NASA's AVIRIS-C was used to collect airborne data during the 2013-2015 time frame, while ground truth data were limited to 2013 due to time-consuming and labor-intensive nature of field data collection. We augmented the available field data with a first-principles, physics-based simulation approach to refine our field efforts and to maintain larger control over within-pixel variation and associated assessments. Three virtual scenes were constructed for the study, corresponding to the actual vegetation structure of the NEON's Pacific Southwest site (Fresno, CA). They presented three typical forest types: oak savanna, dense coniferous forest, and conifer manzanita mixed forest. Airborne spectrometer and a field leaf area index sensor were simulated over these scenes using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) Model, a synthetic image generation model. After verifying the geometrical parameters and physical model with those replicative senses, more scenes could be constructed by changing one or more vegetation structural parameters, such as forest density, tree species, size, location, and within-pixel distribution. We constructed regression models of leaf area index (LAI, R2=0.92) and forest density(R2=0.97) with narrow-band vegetation indices through simulation. Those models can be used to improve the HyspIRI's suitability for consistent global vegetation structural assessments. The virtual scene and model can also be used in

  8. Structure damage detection based on random forest recursive feature elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifeng; Zhou, Hao; Zhou, Qingqing; Yang, Fan; Luo, Linkai

    2014-05-01

    Feature extraction is a key former step in structural damage detection. In this paper, a structural damage detection method based on wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) and random forest recursive feature elimination (RF-RFE) is proposed. In order to gain the most effective feature subset and to improve the identification accuracy a two-stage feature selection method is adopted after WPD. First, the damage features are sorted according to original random forest variable importance analysis. Second, using RF-RFE to eliminate the least important feature and reorder the feature list each time, then get the new feature importance sequence. Finally, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm, as a benchmark classifier, is used to evaluate the extracted feature subset. A four-storey steel shear building model is chosen as an example in method verification. The experimental results show that using the fewer features got from proposed method can achieve higher identification accuracy and reduce the detection time cost.

  9. Advance on Research Methods of Ecology of Forest Fire%林火生态研究方法进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋华; 舒立福; 李世友

    2009-01-01

    回顾了林火生态的发展历史,从火历史、火生态模型、火状况与生态系统特性、生态过程及景观研究等方面概述了林火生态学研究方法的演变与实践,指出应用景观生态学原理和方法,运用先进技术手段和数学方法,对火干扰后的森林群落动态进行研究是当前的重要内容.%Fire ecology is a branch of ecology. In the world, there are many forestry ecological systems which need fire disturbance to maintain their development. Reviews were made on history of fire ecology, its concepts and research contents. Suggestions were put forwarded to further study on forest community dynamics after fire with advanced technology and mathematic method.

  10. 生态公益林林木收购计价方法研究%Valuation Method of Acquisition Price for Ecological Forest Ownership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建国; 蔡敏; 林力

    2012-01-01

    Based on practical investigation and taken the acquisition price of public products as theory basis, four kinds of valuation method for ecological forest ownership including historical cost valuation, forest asset assessment valuation, willingness acquisition price valuation, land compensation standard valuation also were analyzed. The results showed that standards of country acquisition price for ecological forest should take historical cost valuation as the lower limit, and take forest asset assessment valuation as the upper limit, and consult with the owner of ecological forest, and then established the standard of acquisition price for ecological forest scientifically.%通过实践调研,基于公共产品收购计价理论依据,对历史成本计价法、林木资产评估计价法、意愿收购计价法、征用林地补偿标准计价法等4种林木收购计价方法进行了分析.认为国家收购生态公益林林木计价标准应以历史成本计价法测算值为下限,以林木资产评估计价法测算值为上限,与生态公益林所有者充分协商后确定.

  11. Illinois Natural Heritage Conservation/Education Kit II. Special Theme: Forest Ecology and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Sally F.

    This instructional guide contains 16 activities designed to help teachers familiarize their students with the forest resources of Illinois. Each activity is ready to be copied and given to students. Topics of the activities, which vary in format, include: an overview of past and present Illinois forests; organization and mechanics of a forest…

  12. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko;

    2016-01-01

    standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed...

  13. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones

    1994-01-01

    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  14. Long-term socio-ecological forest research in southeast France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teissier du Cros, E.; Bariteau, M.; Kramer, K.

    2004-01-01

    France concentrates its research involving Mediterranean forests and related land-use on a series of long-term study sites meant to assess the effect of historical land-use on the current distribution of forest tree species and on the adaptability of these ecosystems to natural and anthropogenic pre

  15. Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Barrios, J.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs, harvesting regime

  16. Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Barrios, J.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.

    2015-01-01

    1. Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs harvesting regimes

  17. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated...... to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in palisades often...... identified as Actinomyces, covered by a more loosely structured bacterial layer consisting of diverse genera, similar to supra-gingival biofilm. Biofilm within the fissure proper seemed less metabolically active, as judged by the low fluorescence signal intensity and the presence of material of non...

  18. Tree species distribution and forest structure along environmental gradients in the dwarf forest of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    2010-01-01

    Eleven groups of three plots stratified by aspect (windward vs. leeward) and topography (ridge, slope, and ravine) and varying in elevation from 880 to about 1,000 metres were used to sample forest structure and species composition within the dwarf forest of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Stem density to windward was significantly greater on slopes, andf or all...

  19. Simulating historical disturbance regimes and stand structures in old-forest ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Hillis; Vick Applegate; Steve Slaughter; Michael G. Harrington; Helen Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forest Service land managers, with the collaborative assistance from research, applied a disturbance based restoration strategy to rehabilitate a greatly-altered, high risk Northern Rocky Mountain old-forest ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir stand. Age-class structure and fire history for the site have been documented in two research papers (Arno and others 1995, 1997)....

  20. Changes in forest structure and composition after fire in tropical montane cloud forests near the Andean treeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Malhi, Y.; Salinas, N.; Huaman, V.; Urquiaga-Flores, E.; Kala-Mamani, J.; Quintano-Loaiza, J.A.; Cuba-Torres, I.; Lizarraga-Morales, N.; Roman-Cuesta, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) fires can be a frequent source of disturbance near the treeline. Aims: To identify how forest structure and tree species composition change in response to fire and to identify fire-tolerant species, and determine which traits or characteristics a

  1. Changes in forest structure and composition after fire in tropical montane cloud forests near the Andean treeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Malhi, Y.; Salinas, N.; Huaman, V.; Urquiaga-Flores, E.; Kala-Mamani, J.; Quintano-Loaiza, J.A.; Cuba-Torres, I.; Lizarraga-Morales, N.; Roman-Cuesta, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) fires can be a frequent source of disturbance near the treeline. Aims: To identify how forest structure and tree species composition change in response to fire and to identify fire-tolerant species, and determine which traits or characteristics

  2. Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  3. Instream wood recruitment, channel complexity, and their relationship to stream ecology in forested headwater streams under alternative stable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livers, B.; Wohl, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human alteration to forests has had lasting effects on stream channels worldwide. Such land use changes affect how wood enters and is stored in streams as individual pieces and as logjams. Changes in wood recruitment affect the complexity and benefits wood can provide to the stream environment, such as zones of flow separation that store fine sediment and organic matter, increased nutrient processing, and greater habitat potential, which can enhance biota and cascade through stream-riparian ecosystems. Previous research in our study area shows that modern headwater streams flowing through old-growth, unmanaged forests have more wood than streams in young, managed forests, but does not explicitly evaluate how wood affects channel complexity or local ecology. 'Managed' refers to forests previously or currently exposed to human alteration. Alteration has long since ceased in some areas, but reduced wood loads in managed streams persist. Our primary objective was to quantify stream complexity metrics, with instream wood as a mediator, on streams across a gradient of management and disturbance histories in order to examine legacy effects of human alteration to forests. Data collected in the Southern Rocky Mountains include 24 2nd to 3rd order subalpine streams categorized into: old-growth unmanaged; younger, naturally disturbed unmanaged; and younger managed. We assessed instream wood loads and logjams and evaluated how they relate to channel complexity using a number of metrics, such as standard deviation of bed and banks, volume of pools, ratios of stream to valley lengths and stream to valley area, and diversity of substrate, gradient, and morphology. Preliminary results show that channel complexity is directly related to instream wood loads and is greatest in streams in old-growth. Related research in the field area indicates that streams with greater wood loads also have increased nutrient processing and greater abundance and diversity of aquatic insect predators.

  4. Not seeing the forest for the points: Novel LiDAR metrics elucidate forest structure and increase LiDAR usability by managers

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Heather Anuhea

    2016-01-01

    Forest and fire ecology have long utilized remote sensing datasets to learn more about landscapes. Advances in gps spatial accuracy, GIS software capabilities, computing power, and remote sensing technology and software, as well as increases in the spatial and temporal resolution of remote sensing products, have made remote sensing a critical component of forest and fire ecology. Aerial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is a fast-growing active remote-sensing technology that can be mined fo...

  5. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground

  6. Soil bacterial community structure responses to precipitation reduction and forest management in forest ecosystems across Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruelheide, Helge; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season.

  7. A dataset of forest biomass structure for Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Usoltsev, Vladimir; Lakyda, Petro; Luo, Yunjian; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Lakyda, Ivan; Myklush, Yuriy; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Fritz, Steffen; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The most comprehensive dataset of in situ destructive sampling measurements of forest biomass in Eurasia have been compiled from a combination of experiments undertaken by the authors and from scientific publications. Biomass is reported as four components: live trees (stem, bark, branches, foliage, roots); understory (above- and below ground); green forest floor (above- and below ground); and coarse woody debris (snags, logs, dead branches of living trees and dead roots), consisting of 10,351 unique records of sample plots and 9,613 sample trees from ca 1,200 experiments for the period 1930-2014 where there is overlap between these two datasets. The dataset also contains other forest stand parameters such as tree species composition, average age, tree height, growing stock volume, etc., when available. Such a dataset can be used for the development of models of biomass structure, biomass extension factors, change detection in biomass structure, investigations into biodiversity and species distribution and the biodiversity-productivity relationship, as well as the assessment of the carbon pool and its dynamics, among many others.

  8. Effects of soil water repellency on microbial community structure and functions in Mediterranean pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Elena; Grayston, Sue J.; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Jimenez-Pinilla, Patricia; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a property commonly observed in forest areas showing wettable and water repellent patches with high spatial variability. SWR can greatly influence the hydrology and the ecology of forest soils. The capacity of soil microorganisms to degrade different organic compounds depends upon species composition, so this may affect changes in SWR on the microsite scale (such as the presence of soil water repellent patches; Mülleret al., 2010). In the Mediterranean forest context, SWR has been found to be related to microbial community composition. The accumulation of different hydrophobic compounds might be causing the shifts in microbial community structure (Lozano et al., 2014). In this study we investigated the effects of SWR persistence on soil microbial community structure and enzyme activity under Pinus halepensis forest in three different sites: Petrer, Gorga and Jávea (Alicante, E Spain). Soil samples were classified into three different water repellency classes (wettable, slight or strongly water repellent samples) depending on the SWR persistence. The soil microbial community was determined through phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Enzyme activities chosen for this study were cellulase, β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminide (NAG). The relationships between microbiological community structure and some soil properties such as pH, Glomalin Related Soil Protein, soil organic matter content and soil respiration were also studied. Redundancy analyses and decomposition of the variances were performed to clarify how microbial community composition and enzyme activities are affected by SWR and soil properties. The effect of SWR on microbial community composition differed between locations. This effect was clearer in the Petrer site. Enzyme activity varied considerably depending on SWR persistence. The highest activities were found in slightly SWR samples and the lowest mostly in the strongly water repellent ones. These preliminary

  9. Construction of Near-natural Forests as Ecological Restoration of Urban Ecosystem in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DALiangjun

    2004-01-01

    A model stand of near-natural forest with an area of 3 000 m2 was established as a case study in Pudong New District, Shanghai City in 2000. Eleven species were planted in model stand. As the dominant species of community, 4 evergreen broad-leaved tree species, namely: Machilus thunbergii, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, C.mylsinafolia and Castanopsis sclerophylla were chosen, accompanying with evergreen broadleaved shrub species like Pittosporum tobira, Ligustrum quihoui and Dis~'lium racemosum, etc. as well as deciduous tree species, Liquidambarformosana, etc. After three-year growth, the community physiognomy had changed to be a shrub stage, and the highest tree reached to 4.6 m. A forest physiognomy would be formed in about 10 years estimated. The method of construction of near-natural forest that had been worldwidely applied would also play a key role in the construction of urban forest in China.

  10. Ecological impact of Prosopis species invasion in Turkwel riverine forest, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, G.M.; Poorter, L.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Kigomo, B.N.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Prosopis species invasion in the Turkwel riverine forest in Kenya was investigated under three contrasting: Acacia, Prosopis and Mixed species (Acacia and Prosopis) canopies. Variation amongst canopies was assessed through soil nutrients and physical properties, tree characteristics

  11. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  12. Phylogeography and evolutionary history of the Crocidura olivieri complex (Mammalia, Soricomorpha): from a forest origin to broad ecological expansion across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, François; Denys, Christiane; Verheyen, Erik; Bryja, Josef; Hutterer, Rainer; Kerbis Peterhans, Julian C; Stanley, William T; Goodman, Steven M; Couloux, Arnaud; Colyn, Marc; Nicolas, Violaine

    2015-04-23

    This study aims to reconstruct the evolutionary history of African shrews referred to the Crocidura olivieri complex. We tested the respective role of forest retraction/expansion during the Pleistocene, rivers (allopatric models), ecological gradients (parapatric model) and anthropogenic factors in explaining the distribution and diversification within this species complex. We sequenced three mitochondrial and four nuclear markers from 565 specimens encompassing the known distribution of the complex, i.e. from Morocco to Egypt and south to Mozambique. We used Bayesian phylogenetic inference, genetic structure analyses and divergence time estimates to assess the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of these animals. The C. olivieri complex (currently composed of C. olivieri, C. fulvastra, C. viaria and C. goliath) can be segregated into eight principal geographical clades, most exhibiting parapatric distributions. A decrease in genetic diversity was observed between central and western African clades and a marked signal of population expansion was detected for a broadly distributed clade occurring across central and eastern Africa and portions of Egypt (clade IV). The main cladogenesis events occurred within the complex between 1.37 and 0.48 Ma. Crocidura olivieri sensu stricto appears polyphyletic and C. viaria and C. fulvastra were not found to be monophyletic. Climatic oscillations over the Pleistocene probably played a major role in shaping the genetic diversity within this species complex. Different factors can explain their diversification, including Pleistocene forest refuges, riverine barriers and differentiation along environmental gradients. The earliest postulated members of the complex originated in central/eastern Africa and the first radiations took place in rain forests of the Congo Basin. A dramatic shift in the ecological requirements in early members of the complex, in association with changing environments, took place sometime after

  13. Coastal Upwelling Drives Intertidal Assemblage Structure and Trophic Ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Reddin

    Full Text Available Similar environmental driving forces can produce similarity among geographically distant ecosystems. Coastal oceanic upwelling, for example, has been associated with elevated biomass and abundance patterns of certain functional groups, e.g., corticated macroalgae. In the upwelling system of Northern Chile, we examined measures of intertidal macrobenthic composition, structure and trophic ecology across eighteen shores varying in their proximity to two coastal upwelling centres, in a hierarchical sampling design (spatial scales of >1 and >10 km. The influence of coastal upwelling on intertidal communities was confirmed by the stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N of consumers, including a dominant suspension feeder, grazers, and their putative resources of POM, epilithic biofilm, and macroalgae. We highlight the utility of muscle δ15N from the suspension feeding mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, as a proxy for upwelling, supported by satellite data and previous studies. Where possible, we used corrections for broader-scale trends, spatial autocorrelation, ontogenetic dietary shifts and spatial baseline isotopic variation prior to analysis. Our results showed macroalgal assemblage composition, and benthic consumer assemblage structure, varied significantly with the intertidal influence of coastal upwelling, especially contrasting bays and coastal headlands. Coastal topography also separated differences in consumer resource use. This suggested that coastal upwelling, itself driven by coastline topography, influences intertidal communities by advecting nearshore phytoplankton populations offshore and cooling coastal water temperatures. We recommend the isotopic values of benthic organisms, specifically long-lived suspension feeders, as in situ alternatives to offshore measurements of upwelling influence.

  14. Study on the planning principles of urban forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xing'an; Zhang Qingfei

    2006-01-01

    The urban forest is the main body for the urban forestry management. There are not unified rules and standards for the planning of the urban forest yet in China. This paper discusses the planning principles of the urban forest: the priority of the ecological function, the adaptation to local conditions, the optimization in the whole system, the mutual dependence of forest and city, the culture continuance and recreation satisfaction, sustainable development and operability, etc. This paper takes Changsha as an example to elaborate the planning principles of the urban forest.Firstly, Changsha urban forest ecosphere is composed of the eco-garden, the round-the-city forest belt, the ecological isolation belt, the green channel, the landscape of the rivers and streams, the forest park, the biodiversity reserve and the eco-forest in suburb area. It aims to make every kind of ecological essential factors organically merge into the complex city ecosystem to build an eco-city, to strengthen the connection of wide-open space with various habitats spots, to protnote resident's accessibility, to perfect landscape ecology, and to make full use of the ecological function of urban forest. When we construct the urban forest, we must optimize the comprehensive benefit and make the urban forest structure and the layout in the best condition in order to build the harmonious green city for both man and nature to realize the whole optimization of the city system by the complex functions of the urban forest in ecology, environmental protection, landscape, recreation, etc.

  15. Ecological costs for total use of forest resources for energetic purposes; Custo ecologico do uso integral de recursos florestais para fins energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Josimar Ribeiro de; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Coelho, Maria Carolina Crisci [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Almeida, Marina Basilio de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Aguiar, Lais Alencar de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-04-15

    The search for maximum productivity from forest biomass lies mainly in two points: space reduction and smaller exploration periods. These procedures obviously promote a significant improvement in the biomass production, maintaining the economically viable standards, and might eventually lead to limitations in hydrological and productivity maintenance problems; inevitably, severe implications concerning ecological instability, not yet observed with such amplitude, will be experimented in the implanted forests. (author)

  16. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  17. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

  18. Changes of the Ecological Conditions in the Báb Forest on the Basis of a Bioindication Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilková Ivana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the changes of ecological conditions in the Báb forest on the basis of a bioindication method. The comparison is made between the phytocenological records from the years 1968-1969 and 2013 where permanent research plots (PRPs were established in the forest coppi-ce and on clearcuts. In 2013, the amount of photophilous and thermophilic species increased mainly on the clearcut PRP and the amount of suboceanic taxa on PRP in the forest coppice. Moreover, there is also an increase of taxa like nitrogen-rich posts. On the other hand, the share of fresh soils indicators and acidophilous species significantly decreased. The change in the ratio of the econumbers of the observed ecofactors between the records from 1968-1969 and 2013 is caused mainly by a diversified management. It is the formation of clearcuts due to which synanthropic, clearcut and invasive species occupy the free space. The given species are mainly thermophilic, photophilous representatives and representatives of nitrogen-rich soils and they have a significant influence on the change in the percentual ratios of the econumbers of the six observed ecofactors.

  19. Sleeping site ecology in a rain-forest dwelling nocturnal lemur (Lepilemur mustelinus): implications for sociality and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoloharijaona, Solofonirina; Randrianambinina, Blanchard; Zimmermann, Elke

    2008-03-01

    Suitable sleeping sites as potentially restricted resources are suggested to shape sociality in primates. We investigated sleeping site ecology of a rain-forest dwelling sportive lemur in eastern Madagascar for the first time. Using radiotelemetry, we characterized the type, quality and usage of sleeping sites as well as social sleeping habits of 11 focal individuals of the weasel sportive lemur (Lepilemur mustelinus) during the dry and the onset of the rainy season. Morphometric measurements provided additional information. The sexes showed an unusual sexual dimorphism for primates. Males and females did not differ in body length, but females surpassed males in body mass suggesting female dominance. Both sexes used dense vegetation and holes in hollow trees high above the ground as shelters for sleeping during the day. No sex difference in the quality of tree holes was found, but focal individuals used tree holes more often than open sleeping sites in dense vegetation. Both sexes showed high sleeping site fidelity limited to two to six different sites that they used primarily solitarily. The results imply that suitable sleeping sites are limited and survival of this species will strongly depend on the availability of mature rain forests with suitable hollow trees. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence of a solitary sleeping and ranging system in this rain-forest dwelling sportive lemur with suitable sleeping sites as defendable resources.

  20. Resilience of Sweet Chestnut and Truffle Holm-Oak Rural Forests in Languedoc-Roussillon, France: Roles of Social-Ecological Legacies, Domestication, and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cévennes sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. forest-orchards and the holm-oak (Quercus ilex L. black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad. associations of the garrigue in Languedoc-Roussillon have suffered a century of decline because of great reductions of rural populations and lack of understanding of the ecological and social dimensions of these rural forests by sectorial public agencies. Levels of tree and forest domestication alternated during historical periods in parallel with statuses of disorganization and reorganization of local social groups. Social-ecological legacies intrinsically linked to trees, forests, and landscape domestication, as well as knowledge, social, and technical practices have been mobilized and provided a basis for knowledge innovations, new domestications, uses, and new institutional networks related to changes in social set-ups. Collective actions emerging from local needs to revive territories in a modern context, cross-scale and reciprocal exchanges of rural and scientific knowledge, as well as institutional changes are interrelated variables that have enabled innovations and have increased resilience of these rural forests. This paper opens new avenues for future research on the interplay between the effects of social-ecological legacies and innovations on the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  1. Thinning and prescribed fire effects on overstory tree and snag structure in dry coniferous forests of the interior Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richy J. Harrod; David W. Peterson; Nicholas A. Povak; Erich Kyle Dodson

    2009-01-01

    Forest thinning and prescribed fires are practices used by managers to address concerns over ecosystem degradation and severe wildland fire potential in dry forests. There is some debate, however, about treatment effectiveness in meeting management objectives as well as their ecological consequences. The purpose of this study was to assess changes to forest stand...

  2. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects.

  3. Effects of Habitat Structure and Fragmentation on Diversity and Abundance of Primates in Tropical Deciduous Forests in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyritz, Lennart W; Büntge, Anna B S; Herzog, Sebastian K; Kessler, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Habitat structure and anthropogenic disturbance are known to affect primate diversity and abundance. However, researchers have focused on lowland rain forests, whereas endangered deciduous forests have been neglected. We aimed to investigate the relationships between primate diversity and abundance and habitat parameters in 10 deciduous forest fragments southeast of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. We obtained primate data via line-transect surveys and visual and acoustic observations. In addition, we assessed the vegetation structure (canopy height, understory density), size, isolation time, and surrounding forest area of the fragments. We interpreted our results in the context of the historical distribution data for primates in the area before fragmentation and interviews with local people. We detected 5 of the 8 historically observed primate species: Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae boliviensis, Callithrix melanura, Callicebus donacophilus, and Cebus libidinosus juruanus. Total species number and detection rates decreased with understory density. Detection rates also negatively correlated with forest areas in the surroundings of a fragment, which may be due to variables not assessed, i.e., fragment shape, distance to nearest town. Observations for Alouatta and Aotus were too few to conduct further statistics. Cebus and Callicebus were present in 90% and 70% of the sites, respectively, and their density did not correlate with any of the habitat variables assessed, signaling high ecological plasticity and adaptability to anthropogenic impact in these species. Detections of Callithrix were higher in areas with low forest strata. Our study provides baseline data for future fragmentation studies in Neotropical dry deciduous forests and sets a base for specific conservation measures.

  4. Large-scale determinants of diversity across Spanish forest habitats: accounting for model uncertainty in compositional and structural indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Quller, E.; Torras, O.; Alberdi, I.; Solana, J.; Saura, S.

    2011-07-01

    An integral understanding of forest biodiversity requires the exploration of the many aspects it comprises and of the numerous potential determinants of their distribution. The landscape ecological approach provides a necessary complement to conventional local studies that focus on individual plots or forest ownerships. However, most previous landscape studies used equally-sized cells as units of analysis to identify the factors affecting forest biodiversity distribution. Stratification of the analysis by habitats with a relatively homogeneous forest composition might be more adequate to capture the underlying patterns associated to the formation and development of a particular ensemble of interacting forest species. Here we used a landscape perspective in order to improve our understanding on the influence of large-scale explanatory factors on forest biodiversity indicators in Spanish habitats, covering a wide latitudinal and attitudinal range. We considered six forest biodiversity indicators estimated from more than 30,000 field plots in the Spanish national forest inventory, distributed in 213 forest habitats over 16 Spanish provinces. We explored biodiversity response to various environmental (climate and topography) and landscape configuration (fragmentation and shape complexity) variables through multiple linear regression models (built and assessed through the Akaike Information Criterion). In particular, we took into account the inherent model uncertainty when dealing with a complex and large set of variables, and considered different plausible models and their probability of being the best candidate for the observed data. Our results showed that compositional indicators (species richness and diversity) were mostly explained by environmental factors. Models for structural indicators (standing deadwood and stand complexity) had the worst fits and selection uncertainties, but did show significant associations with some configuration metrics. In general

  5. Assessing relationships between forest structure and soil erosion in mountainous forest using a Cesium-137 tracer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwanghun; Reineking, Björn

    2016-04-01

    The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) particularly Cesium-137 are known as a quantitatively reliable means of estimating sediment redistribution rates within agricultural landscapes and forested area. However, fewer studies have done using FRNs in forested areas even though understanding soil redistribution patterns in mountainous forest areas is one of the important issues for forest management. The objective of this study is to figure out key forest structures affecting soil redistribution rate. In this study, we estimated soil loss and gain rate at 50 points with various forest types and topography in steep mountainous forest area in the Experimental Forest of Kangwon National University in Kangwon Province, South Korea by the Cesium-137 tracing technique. The results show the factors related to the topography such as slope and water accumulation have little effect on soil redistribution rate. The shrub and small tree layer affect more on soil redistribution rate. Additionally, the data shows relatively higher erosion rate in Korean Pine tree plantation area (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) than semi-natural deciduous and Quercus forests where shrubs and small trees are more prevalent.

  6. Plant functional traits suggest a change in novel ecological strategies for dominant species in the stages of forest succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yongfu; Yue, Ming; Wang, Mao; Xu, Jinshi; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Ruichang; Wan, Pengcheng

    2016-03-01

    In forest succession, the ecological strategies of the dominant species that are based on functional traits are important in the determination of both the mechanisms and the potential directions of succession. Thirty-one plots were established in the Loess Plateau region of northern Shaanxi in China. Fifteen leaf traits were measured for the 31 dominant species that represented the six stages of succession, and the traits included four that were related to morphology, seven to stoichiometry and four to physiological ecology. The species from the different successional stages had different patterns of distribution of the traits, and different key traits predicted the turnover of the species during succession. The ash and the cellulose contents were key regulatory factors of species turnover in the early successional communities, and the trait niche forces in sugar and leaf dry mass content might become more important with the progression of succession. When only the three herb stages were considered, a progressive replacement of the ruderal by the competitive-ruderal species occurred in the intermediate stages of succession, which was followed by the stress-tolerant-competitive or the competitive-stress tolerant-ruderal strategists late in the succession. Thus, the different species that occurred in the different stages of succession shared different trait-based ecological strategies. Additionally, these differences occurred concomitantly with a shift toward competitive-stress tolerant-ruderal strategies.

  7. Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  8. Vegetation landscape structure and dynamics in sandy forest-steppe ecotone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUChun-jing; HANShi-jie; XUWen-duo; LIDao-tang

    2003-01-01

    Sandy forest-steppe ecotone in Baiyinaobao Natural Reserve of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China is one of the special landscape types in forest-steppe vegetation zone in China. Vegetation landscape types, landscape patches and patch size were measured by the field investigation, forest photograph, and airscape. The structure of landscape patches in sandy forest-steppe ecotone, including composition structure, and size structure, was studied and the dynamics and transformation of landscape patches were analyzed. The data obtained in this study could provide theoretical basis for the research on vegetation landscape in forest-steppe ecotones and other vegetation types.

  9. Contrasting total carbon and nitrogen stocks between ecological site types in a Sub-Boreal research forest in central British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, C.H.; Janzen, D.T. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program; Sanborn, P.T.; Fredeen, A.L. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program]|[Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration and carbon stocks within managed and natural forests have become topical issues since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. A multi-year study was conducted to evaluate the total C stocks present in a 10 km{sup 2} area of University of British Columbia's Aleza Lake Research Forest located 60 km east of Prince George in the Sub-Boreal Spruce biogeoclimatic zone of east-central British Columbia. The purpose was to address gaps in knowledge about forest C budgets, total pool sizes, dynamics of forest floor and mineral soil carbon by studying the effects of forest management. Sampling plots were chosen randomly within strata composed of the dominant ecological site classes, soil textures and management histories. The study involved the creation of 137 plots, of which 108 and 29 were located on fine and coarse textured soils, respectively. Sampling was reduced in these strata due to a shortage of middle-aged stands and the near lack of coarse textured soils. Data collection and sampling methodology were adapted from the National Forest Inventory Ground Sampling Guidelines of the Canadian Forest Service. Carbon stocks were measured in forest floor and mineral soil to a depth of 1 metre. The Dumas-combustion method was used to determine C and nitrogen (N) concentrations. It was determined that stand age did not decidedly change the forest floor or mineral soil total C and N in either fine or coarse textured soil plots. However, forest floor C and N were considerably higher in coarse textured soils compared to C and N measured in fine soil plots. Mineral soil C concentration decreased methodically with depth from 4.6 per cent C at 0 cm to 0.2 per cent at 100 cm. The paper also addressed the breakdown of forest floor and mineral soil C and N pools according to ecological site series.

  10. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  11. Competition for space and the structure of ecological communities

    CERN Document Server

    Yodzis, Peter

    1978-01-01

    This volume is an investigation of interspecific competition for space, particularly among sessile organisms, both plant and animal, and its consequences for community structure. While my own contribu­ tion ----and the bulk of this volume --- lies in mathematical analysis of the phenomenon, I have also tried to summarize the most important natural historical aspects of these communities, and have devoted much effort to relating the mathematical results to observations of the natural world. Thus, the volume has both a synthetic and an analytic aspect. On the one hand, I have been struck by certain similarities among many communities, from forests to mussel beds, in which spatial com­ petition is important. On the other hand, I have analyzed this pheno­ menon by means of reaction-dispersal models. Finally, the mathematical analysis has suggested a conceptual framework for these communities which, I believe, further unifies and illuminates the field data. A focal perception of this work is that, just as niche...

  12. Massive structural and compositional changes over two decades in forest fragments near Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulafu, C; Baranga, D; Mucunguzi, P; Telford, R J; Vandvik, V

    2013-10-01

    Private forests harbor considerable biodiversity, however, they are under greater threat than reserved areas, particularly from urbanization, agriculture, and intense exploitation for timber and fuel wood. The extent to which they may act as habitats for biodiversity and how level of protection impacts trends in biodiversity and forest structure over time remain underresearched. We contribute to filling this research gap by resampling a unique data set, a detailed survey from 1990 of 22 forests fragments of different ownership status and level of protection near Kampala, Uganda. Eleven of the 22 fragments were lost over 20 years, and six of the remnants reduced in size. Forest structure and composition also showed dramatic changes, with six of the remnant fragments showing high temporal species turnover. Species richness increased in four of the remaining forests over the resample period. Forest ownership affected the fate of the forests, with higher loss in privately owned forests. Our study demonstrates that ownership affects the fate of forest fragments, with private forests having both higher rates of area loss, and of structural and compositional change within the remaining fragments. Still, the private forests contribute to the total forest area, and they harbor biodiversity including IUCN "vulnerable" and "endangered" species. This indicates the conservation value of the fragments and suggests that they should be taken into account in forest conservation and restoration.

  13. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Rieske, Lynne K

    2010-06-01

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants that house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). An improved understanding of the interactions among D. kuriphilus, its host, and its natural enemies is critical for the development of effective management strategies against this pest. The objective of our study was to evaluate the D. kuriphilus community interactions, and relate these interactions to variations among gall traits. Galls were collected from four locations throughout the eastern United States from May (gall initiation) through August (after gall wasp emergence), and January. Gall characteristics (volume, weight, and schlerenchyma layer thickness), gall inhabitants (D. kuriphilus, parasitoids, and chamber fungi), and other community associates (insect herbivores and lesions thought to be caused by endophytes) were evaluated and correlated using canonical correlation analyses. The primary mortality factors for D. kuriphilus were parasitism, gall chamber-invading fungi, and failure of adult gall wasps to emerge. Larger gall size and thicker schlerenchyma layers surrounding the larval chambers were negatively correlated with parasitoids and chamber fungi, indicating these gall traits are important defenses. External fungal lesions and insect herbivory were positively correlated with the absence of D. kuriphilus within galls. This study provides support for the protective role of cynipid galls for the gall inducer, identifies specific gall traits that influence gall wasp mortality, and improves our knowledge of D. kuriphilus ecology in North America.

  14. Species and structural diversity of church forests in a fragmented Ethiopian Highland landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, Alemayehu; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Thousands of small isolated forest fragments remain around churches (“church forests”) in the almost completely deforested Ethiopian Highlands. We questioned how the forest structure and composition varied with altitude, forest area and human influence. Location: South Gondar, Amhara Natio

  15. Species and structural diversity of church forests in a fragmented Ethiopian Highland landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, Alemayehu; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Thousands of small isolated forest fragments remain around churches (“church forests”) in the almost completely deforested Ethiopian Highlands. We questioned how the forest structure and composition varied with altitude, forest area and human influence. Location: South Gondar, Amhara Natio

  16. Object-oriented classification of forest structure from light detection and ranging data for stand mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia A. Sullivan; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Peter. Schiess

    2009-01-01

    Stand delineation is an important step in the process of establishing a forest inventory and provides the spatial framework for many forest management decisions. Many methods for extracting forest structure characteristics for stand delineation and other purposes have been researched in the past, primarily focusing on high-resolution imagery and satellite data. High-...

  17. Structure and composition of moist coastal forests in Dorado, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio C. Figueroa; Luis Totti; Ariel E. Lugo; Roy O. Woodbury

    1984-01-01

    Changes in forest structure and area over a 44-year period in coastal moist forests in Puerto Rico show succession toward a single climax on white sands. A Pterocarpus forest has not changed and is considered a climax on flooded soils.

  18. 3D Forest structure analysis from optical and LIDAR data / Análise 3D da estrutura da floresta com dados ópticos e da LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lang

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In Austria about half of the entire area (46 % is covered by forests. The majority of these forests are highly managed and controlled in growth. Besides timber production, forest ecosystems play a multifunctional role including climate control, habitat provision and, especially in Austria, protection of settlements. The interrelationships among climatic, ecological, social and economic dimensions of forests require technologies for monitoring both the state and the development of forests. This comprises forest structure, species and age composition and, forest integrity in general. Assessing forest structure for example enables forest managers and natural risk engineers to evaluate whether a forest can fulfill its protective function or not. Traditional methods for assessing forest structure like field inventories and aerial photo interpretation are intrinsically limited in providing spatially continuous information over a large area. The Centre for Geoinformatics (Z_GIS in collaboration with the National Park Bayerischer Wald, Germany and the Stand Montafon, Austria, has tested and applied advanced approaches of integrating multispectral optical data and airborne laser scanning (ALS data for (1 forest stand delineation, (2 single tree detection and (3 forest structure analysis. As optical data we used RGBI line scanner data and CIR air-photos. ALS data were raw point data (10 pulses per sqm and normalized crown models (nCM at 0.5 m and 1 m resolution. (1 Automated stand delineation was done by (a translating a key for manual mapping of forest development phases into a rule-based system via object-relationship modeling (ORM; and (b by performing multi-resolution segmentation and GIS analysis. (2 Strategies for single tree detection using raw ALS data included (a GIS modelling based on a region-growth local maxima algorithm and (b object-based image analysis using super class information class-specific rule sets. (3 Vertical forest structure has

  19. Alteration of forest structure modifies the distribution of scale insect, Stigmacoccus garmilleri, in Mexican tropical montane cloud forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamper, Heather A; Koptur, Suzanne; García-Franco, Jose; Stapper, Andres Plata

    2011-01-01

    Stigmacoccus garmilleri Foldi (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is an ecologically important honeydew-producing scale insect associated with oak trees (Quercus spp.) in highland forests of Veracruz, Mexico. The honeydew exudates of S. garmilleri serve as a significant nutrient source to many species of birds, insects, and sooty molds. Oak trees found in the forest interior, forest edge, and those scattered in pasture areas support scale insect colonies, though the pattern of insect infestations on trees within these varying landscape types has not been elucidated. This study aims to describe the distribution of scale insect infestation and any distinctions in honeydew production based on tree location. Scale insect density, honeydew volume, and sugar concentration were surveyed throughout a continuous landscape that included both patches of forest and scattered pasture trees. In addition, the anal filament through which the honeydew drop is secreted was also measured and was experimentally removed to test and measure regrowth. Scale insect densities on tree trunks were greatest on pasture trees, while intermediate densities were found on trees at the forest edge, and low densities on interior forest trees, suggesting that trees in disturbed areas are more susceptible to scale insect infestation. Trees with small diameters at breast height had significantly higher insect densities than trees with medium to large diameters. Trunk aspect (North, South, East, and West) was not a significant determinant of scale insect density. In forested areas higher densities of scale insects were found at three meters height in comparison to lower heights. Sugar concentrations and drop volumes of honeydew in forest and pasture areas were not significantly different. However, scale-insect anal tubes/filaments were significantly longer in pasture than they were in forests. Sugar concentrations of honeydew appeared to be positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with

  20. From forest fires to fisheries management: anthropology, conservation biology, and historical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braje, Todd J; Rick, Torben C

    2013-01-01

    Human-environmental relationships have long been of interest to a variety of scientists, including ecologists, biologists, anthropologists, and many others. In anthropology, this interest was especially prevalent among cultural ecologists of the 1970s and earlier, who tended to explain culture as the result of techno-environmental constraints. More recently researchers have used historical ecology, an approach that focuses on the long-term dialectical relationship between humans and their environments, as well as long-term prehuman ecological datasets. An important contribution of anthropology to historical ecology is that anthropological datasets dealing with ethnohistory, traditional ecological knowledge, and human skeletal analysis, as well as archeological datasets on faunal and floral remains, artifacts, geochemistry, and stratigraphic analysis, provide a deep time perspective (across decades, centuries, and millennia) on the evolution of ecosystems and the place of people in those larger systems. Historical ecological data also have an applied component that can provide important information on the relative abundances of flora and fauna, changes in biogeography, alternations in food webs, landscape evolution, and much more.

  1. Using Remote Sensing Technologies to Quantify the Effects of Beech Bark Disease on the Structure, Composition, and Function of a Late-Successional Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Haëntjens, E. J.; Ricart, R. D.; Fahey, R. T.; Fotis, A. T.; Gough, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecological theory maintains that as forests age, the rate at which carbon (C) is stored declines because C released through organic matter decomposition offsets declining C sequestration in new vegetative growth. Recent observational studies are challenging this long-held hypothesis, with limited evidence suggesting higher-than-expected rates in late-successional forests could be, counterintuitively, tied to canopy structural changes associated with low intensity tree mortality. As forests age, canopy structural complexity may increase when old trees die and form upper canopy gaps that release subcanopy vegetation. This provides one explanation for observations of sustained high production in old forests. Recent studies have found that this increased structural complexity and resource-use efficiency maintain C storage in mid-successional deciduous forests; whether a similar mechanism extends to late-successional forests is unknown. We will present how a slow, moderate disturbance affects the structure and C sequestration of late-successional forests. Our study site is a forest recently infected by Beech Bark Disease (BBD), which will result in the eventual mortality of American beech trees in this late successional forest in Northern Michigan, at the University of Michigan Biological Station. American Beech, Hemlock, Sugar Maple, and White Pine dominate the landscape, with American Beech making up 30% of the canopy trees on average. At the plot scale American Beech is distributed heterogeneously, comprising 1% to 60% of total plot basal area, making it possible to examine the interplay between disturbance severity, canopy structural change, and primary production resilience in this forest. Within each of the 13 plots, species and stem diameter were collected in 1992, 1994, 2014, and 2016, with future remeasurements planned. We will discuss how ground-based lidar coupled with airborne spectral (IR and RGB) imagery are being used to track canopy BBD

  2. 18 Years of Recovery: Spatial Variation and Structure of a Secondary Forest Analyzed with Airborne Lidar Data in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos-Santos, M. N.; Keller, M. M.; Scaranello, M. A., Sr.; Longo, M.; Daniel, P.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing forest fragmentation in the tropics severely reduces the ability of remaining forests to store carbon and provide ecosystem services, however, secondary regeneration could offset the impacts of forest degradation. Previous plot-based forest inventory studies have shown that secondary regeneration is promoted at remnant forest edges. However, this process has not been studied at landscape scale. We used over 450 ha of lidar data to study the forest structure and spatial variation of secondary growth forest 18 years after swidden cultivation abandonment in Serra do Conduro State Park. Lidar data was acquired in December 2015 with a density of 93 points per square meter using an airborne scanning laser system (Optech Orion M-300). Serra do Conduru, a 10 000 ha State Park in Bahia was created in 1997 as part of a network of forest reserves with both old-growth forest and secondary forest aiming at establishing a central corridor of the Atlantic forest. The Brazilian Atlantic forest is a highly human modified and fragmented forest landscape reduced to 12.5% of its original extent. Prior to the establishment of the State Park, the area was a mosaic of forest and agricultural area. We created 10m wide buffers from the edge of the remnant forest into the secondary forest and generated lidar metrics for each strip in order to ask: does the distance from the remnant forest create a gradient effect on the secondary forest structure? We cross-compared the lidar metrics of the samples. Results demonstrate that distance from old-growth forest promotes spatial variation in forest recovery and forest structure.

  3. Geographical Distribution, Ecological Position, and Formation Causes of Temperate Zone Sparse Forest in China%中国温带疏林的地理分布、生态地位及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于顺利

    2011-01-01

    temperate zone of China, there are many types of sparse forests, such as Ulmus pumila sparse forest, Picea schrekiana sparse forest, Platycladus orientalis sparse forest, Junipents rigida sparse forest, Pinus sylveslnis var. Mongolica sparse forest, Larix tibetica sparse forest, Abies densa sparse forest, Cupressus gigantean sparse forest, Sabina tibetica sparse forest, Sabina wallichiana sparse forest, Sabina saltuaria sparse forest, Larix potaninii var. Macrocarpa sparse forest, Cupressus torulosa sparse forest, Sabina convallium sparse forest, Pinus roxburghii sparse forest, Pinus yunnanensis sparse forest, Picea lihiangensis var. Balfouriana sparse forest, Ulmus macrocarpa sparse forest, and Ailanihus altissima sparse forest, etc. Sparse forest ecosystem is a transition between forest and grassland or shrub ecosystem. It belongs to a zonal vegetation type. Comprehensive ecological factors have determined its geographical distribution; however, the key factor is water (local rainfall amount). In the mainland of China from south to north, there are rain forests, season rain forests, evergreen broad leaf forests, summer green broad leaf forests, sparse forests, and grassland or shrubs along altitudinal gradient. From east to west, there are forests, sparse forest, shrubs, and grassland or meadow along longitudinal gradient. Compared with the distribution area of forests and grassland,China possesses various types of sparse forests. Except sparse forests in tropic regions of China, other two types of sparse forests are classified, namely, temperate zone spare forests and temperate zone mountain spare forests. In temperate zone of China, there are many types of sparse forests, such as Ulmus pumila sparse forest, Picea schrekiana sparse forest, Platycladus orientalis sparse forest, Junipents rigida sparse forest, Pinus sylveslnis var. Mongolica sparse forest, Larix tibetica sparse forest, Abies densa sparse forest, Cupressus gigantean sparse forest, Sabina tibetica sparse

  4. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Ecological Investigation of a Greentree Reservoir in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    mature, dominant forest trees such as oaks (Quercus spp.), bitter pecan (Carya aquatica), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata ), and green ash (Fraxinus...Water hickory Celtis laevigata Sugarberry Cephalanthus occidentalis Common buttonbush Cocculus carolin, Carolina snailseed Commelina diffusa Dayflower 0...Cornus foemina Southern swamp dogwood Crataegus viridus Green hawthorn Diodia virginiana Buttonweed Diospyros virginiana Common persimmon Eupatorium

  6. Ecological benefits and risks arising from liming sugar maple dominated forests in northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-David Moore; Rock Ouimet; Robert P. Long; Paul. A. Bukaveckas

    2015-01-01

    Liming, the application of carbonate materials (e.g., CaCO3, CaMg(CO3)2) to soils and surface waters, has been used extensively in Europe, and to a lesser extent in Canada and the United States, to mitigate the effects of acid deposition on forest and aquatic ecosystems. This literature review was...

  7. Long-term ecological research on Italian forest ecosystems: perspectives and conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo MARCHETTO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the contents of the present volume devoted to forest research in Italy, within the National Programme for Forest Ecosystem Monitoring (CONECOFOR, part of the Level II forest monitoring, and other linked regional and provincial monitoring activities. The coordination of the project, through a National Focal Centre and a Task Force for the Integrated and Combined Evaluation of results, made up of the foremost Italian experts working in the field, is outlined. No clear signals of strong negative impacts emerge from the papers, although the results of several studies indicate nitrogen and ozone as possible causes of disturbances in a number of plots. The effects of the deposition of acidity are largely buffered by the nature of the soils, while nitrate is leached from the plots where runoff is analysed, indicating N saturation of soils. This paper describes the main activities of the Task Force as regards data validation and elaboration, aimed at providing reliable information leading to sustainable forest management in Italy as well as making a useful contribution to international activities in a Pan-European context.

  8. Modification of mixed-conifer forests by ruminant herbivores in the Blue Mountains ecological province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Riggs; Arthur R. Tiedemann; John G. Cook; et al.

    2000-01-01

    Secondary plant succession and the accumulation of biomass and nutrients were documented at seven ruminant exclosures in Abies and Pseudotsuga forests variously disturbed by logging, burning, and grass seeding. Long-term (25 or more years) foraging by Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus...

  9. Ecological impact of Prosopis species invasion in Turkwel riverine forest, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, G.M.; Poorter, L.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Kigomo, B.N.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Prosopis species invasion in the Turkwel riverine forest in Kenya was investigated under three contrasting: Acacia, Prosopis and Mixed species (Acacia and Prosopis) canopies. Variation amongst canopies was assessed through soil nutrients and physical properties, tree characteristics an

  10. Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Randy Molina; Daniel L. Luoma; Efren Cázares; David Pilz; Jane E. Smith; Michael A. Castellano; Steven L. Miller; Matthew J. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Forests of the Pacific Northwest have been an epicenter for the evolution of truffle fungi with over 350 truffle species and 55 genera currently identified. Truffle fungi develop their reproductive fruit-bodies typically belowground, so they are harder to find and study than mushrooms that fruit aboveground. Nevertheless, over the last five decades, the Corvallis...

  11. 5 Floristics and structure of a Mixed Rain Forest remnant on the Catarinense Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Klauberg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the floristics and the structure of tree species in the Parque Municipal Natural of Lages, SC, a remnant of mixed rain forest located in southern Brazil. For this, we allocated four plots (40 x 40m and each plot was divided into 16 sub-plots of 10 x 10m. Trees with dbh ≥ 5cm and height ≥ 1.3m were mapped, tagged and measured. The individuals were identified and voucher material was deposited in the herbarium. A total of 46 species were sampled, distributed in 39 genera and 27 families. The richest families in number of species were Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Salicaceae and Sapindaceae. Seven species represented more than 60% of the total of individuals. The specific diversity was H’ = 3.05 nats.ind-1 (J’ = 0.81. The similarity among plots was 32 at 44%, indicating low similarity among plots. The spatial distribution of most of the species is classified as clumped, according to the Morisita index. This forest remains with a considerable richness and diversity with some endangered tree species such as Araucaria angustifolia and Dicksonia sellowiana. Due to its ecological importance for the local flora and fauna and the fragmentation process in the region, this remnant should be considered as a priority area for conservation.

  12. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  13. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  14. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  15. Temperate mountain forest biodiversity under climate change: compensating negative effects by increasing structural complexity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braunisch, Veronika; Coppes, Joy; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Suchant, Rudi; Zellweger, Florian; Bollmann, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    .... In mountain forests, where vertebrate species largely depend on vegetation composition and structure, deteriorating habitat suitability may thus be mitigated or even compensated by habitat management...

  16. Temperate Mountain Forest Biodiversity under Climate Change: Compensating Negative Effects by Increasing Structural Complexity: e97718

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronika Braunisch; Joy Coppes; Raphaël Arlettaz; Rudi Suchant; Florian Zellweger; Kurt Bollmann

    2014-01-01

    .... In mountain forests, where vertebrate species largely depend on vegetation composition and structure, deteriorating habitat suitability may thus be mitigated or even compensated by habitat management...

  17. Biodiversity and Ecological Structure of Mangrove Mature in Coastal Area of Dumai District - Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKO PRIANTO

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This research in coastal area of Dumai has been completed in September untill Desember 2003. The aim of this research was to collect basic data of mangrove ecosystem which covered inventory of biodiversity and ecology structure by using primary and secondary data. Primary data of mangrove forest ecosystem has been collected by line transect method while secondary data was collected by study literature and previous study report. The result showed that there were 17 types of primary mangrove and 18 types of secondary mangrove. The main value indeks in every study area indicated that in the study area I and IV, Xylocarpus granatum had high value as 104,53 and 104,22 subsequently. In the study area II, III and V, Rhizophora apiculata had the high value which subsequently were 114,39, 108,81 and 110,19. There were two main extinct spesies of mangrove, which are Scyphiphora hydrophyllaceae (Cingam/Perepat Lanang and Sonneratia ovata (Kedabu, in which exceptional management is needed for sustainability of these species.

  18. Beyond edge effects: landscape controls on forest structure in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, M. E.; Morton, D. C.; Cook, B.; Masek, J. G.; Zhao, F. A.; Nelson, R.; Huang, C.

    2016-12-01

    The structure of forest canopies (i.e., their height and complexity) is known to be influenced by a variety of factors, including forest age, species composition, disturbance, edaphic and topographical conditions, and exposure to edge environments. The combined impact of each of these factors on canopy structure is not well characterized for most forest ecosystems, however, which limits our ability to predict the regional impacts of forest fragmentation. The objective of this study was to elucidate the main biophysical drivers of canopy structure across two dominant ecosystems in the southeastern U.S: natural mixed deciduous forests, and industrial conifer plantations. We analyzed spatial changes in canopy structure along aerial transects of LiDAR data ( 3,000 km in all). High-resolution (1 m) LiDAR data from Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral, and Thermal Airborne Imager (G-LiHT) were combined with time series of Landsat imagery to quantify forest type, age, composition, and fragmentation. Forest structural metrics (height, gap fraction, and canopy roughness) were examined across forest types, ages, topography, and decreasing edge exposure. We hypothesized that 1) structural edge effects would be weak in both natural and plantation forest types, and 2) age, composition, and topography would be the dominant influences on natural forest structure. We analyzed all large (>4 ha) fragments from the 8562 distinct forests measured during G-LiHT data collections in 2011 across the southeastern U.S. In general, the relationship between forest structural metrics and edge exposure was highly variable in both natural forests and plantations. However, variability in all structural metrics decreased with distance from an edge. Forest age and topography were strong predictors of canopy structure in natural forests. However plantations tended to be located in sites with limited topographical variation, and thinning disturbances of conifer plantations decreased the strength of the age-structure

  19. Changing resource management paradigms, traditional ecological knowledge, and non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iain J. Davidson-Hunt; Fikret. Berkes

    2001-01-01

    We begin this paper by exploring the shift now occurring in the science that provides the theoretical basis for resource management practice. The concepts of traditional ecological knowledge and traditional management systems are presented next to provide the background for an examination of resilient landscapes that emerge through the work and play of humans. These...

  20. Ecological Resilience and Resistance in the Hyper Diverse Forests on the Eastern Andean Flank (Mera, Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, H. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Montoya, E.; Sherlock, S.; Mothes, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Today the Neotropics contain some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened ecosystems. Sediments obtained from two radiocarbon infinite (>48,000 years) stratigraphic sections on the eastern Andean flank, provide new insight into the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance during the Pleistocene (~200,000 years). Pollen analysis of modern and fossil material indicates that hyper diverse forest vegetation has been a feature of the Andean flank landscape for 100,000 years (pollen richness: modern = 44, fossil = 48). Correlation of past vegetation with disturbance events (volcanic and fluvial) indicates the response of hyper-diverse forest to past landscape scale change. Pollen records from near Mera (01°27 S, 78°06 W; 1117 m asl) indicate two major changes in the pollen assemblage, with forest communities dominated by: i) Hedyosmum-Alnus-Ilex, and ii) Combretaceae-Melastomataceae-Myrtaceae. These two pollen assemblages most closely resemble modern vegetation cloud forest (2500-3400m asl) and lower montane rain forest (700-2499 m asl) respectively. Sedimentary evidence suggests that at least 21 volcanic events and three changes in the local fluvial regime perturbed the regional landscape during the period of deposition. However, there is no evidence for volcanic or fluvial disturbance events causing a persistent change in vegetation community. Volcanic events (tephra deposits) are associated with increased fire (charcoal particles), and changes in vegetation (pollen grains); however, within ~50cm of sediment accumulation above each tephra, pollen assemblages revert to pre-deposition compositions. Increased fluvial influence (gravel deposits) is associated with elevated input of pollen from taxa today found at higher elevations (Podocarpus-Celtis). The input of high elevation taxa concomitant with fluvial deposits is most likely indicative of an increase in long-distance transport of pollen along water courses originating in the Andes. Our data indicate

  1. Ecological Security and Overall Development of Forest and Grassland Resources%林草资源统筹发展与生态安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍文

    2009-01-01

    Scarcity of forest resources and degradation of rangeland resources resulted in frequently natural disasters and alsothreatenedthe ecological security in China. Overall development of forest resources met the objective requirement of the construction of ecological civilization in China, andalso was one of the important assurances in maintaining the ecological security.%阐述森林资源匮乏与草地资源退化严重是导致我国自然灾害频发的重要原因,威胁着国家的生态安全.林草资源的统筹发展,是在全国范围内进行生态文明建设的客观要求,也是维护生态安全的重要保证之一.

  2. Forest Structure, Composition and Above Ground Biomass of Tree Community in Tropical Dry Forests of Eastern Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudam Charan SAHU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomass, structure and composition of tropical forests implies also the investigation of forest productivity, protection of biodiversity and removal of CO2 from the atmosphere via C-stocks. The hereby study aimed at understanding the forest structure, composition and above ground biomass (AGB of tropical dry deciduous forests of Eastern Ghats, India, where as a total of 128 sample plots (20 x 20 meters were laid. The study showed the presence of 71 tree species belonging to 57 genera and 30 families. Dominant tree species was Shorea robusta with an importance value index (IVI of 40.72, while Combretaceae had the highest family importance value (FIV of 39.01. Mean stand density was 479 trees ha-1 and a basal area of 15.20 m2 ha-1. Shannon’s diversity index was 2.01 ± 0.22 and Simpson’s index was 0.85 ± 0.03. About 54% individuals were in the size between 10 and 20 cm DBH, indicating growing forests. Mean above ground biomass value was 98.87 ± 68.8 Mg ha-1. Some of the dominant species that contributed to above ground biomass were Shorea robusta (17.2%, Madhuca indica (7.9%, Mangifera indica (6.9%, Terminalia alata (6.9% and Diospyros melanoxylon (4.4%, warranting extra efforts for their conservation. The results suggested that C-stocks of tropical dry forests can be enhanced by in-situ conserving the high C-density species and also by selecting these species for afforestation and stand improvement programs. Correlations were computed to understand the relationship between above ground biomass, diversity indices, density and basal area, which may be helpful for implementation of REDD+ (reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and foster conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks scheme.

  3. Location and description of transects for ecological studies in floodplain forests of the lower Suwannee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.J.; Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve transects were established in floodplain forests along the lower Suwannee River, Florida, as the principal data collection sites for a comprehensive study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 2001. Data collected along the 12 transects included hydrologic conditions, land-surface elevations, soils, and vegetation of floodplain forests in relation to river flow. Transect locations are marked in the field with permanent markers at approximately 30 meter intervals. Detailed descriptions of the 12 transects and their locations are provided so that they can be used for future ecological studies. Descriptions of the transects include contact information necessary for access to the property on which the transects are located, maps showing transect locations and routes from the nearest city or major road, small scale maps of each transect showing marker locations, latitude and longitude of each marker, compass bearings of each transect line and graphs showing land-surface elevations of the transect with marker locations.

  4. LANDSCAPE VALUATION BASED ON THE ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS OF TAYASSU PECARI AND TAPIRUS TERRESTRIS – FOREST WITH ARAUCARIA, PARANÁ STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisley Paula Vidolin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the landscape of ‘Lageado Grande’ farm (LGF, an area of 3,136.32 ha, located in General Carneiro, Palmas, and Bituruna, in Paraná state. The assessment was based on an integral analysis of the ecological requirements of Tayassu pecari and Tapirus terrestris and the functional aspects of the landscape in ‘Lajeado Grande’. Land use and land cover were mapped, and the map was divided into 335 grids of 10 ha each, which were scored with pre-defined criteria. The scores of each aspect were integrated by multiplying the values and calculating the standard deviation and the mean to establish the classification intervals of the general quality of the landscape. The class gradient for the survival and preservation of the analyzed species generated was: extremely important, very important, important, and of little importance. It was observed that 61.2% of the farm has relevant environments for the preservation of the species, composed of forest with the predominance of pine, broadleaves, lowlands, and some riparian forest patches on ‘Iratim’ river. The results show that LGF comprises a mosaic of environments suitable for the occurrence and maintenance of these ungulates.

  5. Reflection on Compensation of Ecological Non-commercial Forest in Guangxi%对广西生态公益林补偿问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨文珍; 农胜奇

    2011-01-01

    The present ecological compensation mechanism is facing many problems and difficulties. For examples, low compensation standards, inaptitude management, singular method, lack of corresponding policies and laws etc. This paper provided the measures to solve the problems of the ecological public forest compensation in Guangxi. Based on the existed problems in current, the author innovatively designed the ecological compensation mechanism and indicated the classification method in different region. It will effectively improve the using efficiency of ecological non-commercial forest compensation funds. The author advised the measure for establishing the compatible non-commercial forest compensation rules in Guangxi. These advices and measures are very significant for realizing the public forest protection in different region of Guangxi, and further promoting the ecological, social and economic function of non-commercial forest.%分析认为,我国现行的生态公益林补偿制度仍存在补偿标准偏低、规划管理不当、补偿方式单一、缺乏配套的政策法规体系等问题.结合当前广西区生态公益林补偿制度及其存在的问题,提出创新公益林补偿标准的形成机制,实施分地区分类别补偿的措施,有效提高生态公益林补偿资金的使用效率,尽快出台适合全区实际情况的生态公益林补偿实施条例,不断完善公益林补偿制度等时策与建议.

  6. Foreign Forest Ecological Benefit Compensation System and Reference%国外森林生态效益补偿制度及其借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世进; 焦艳

    2011-01-01

    森林生态效益补偿制度是通过运用经济、法律等手段来调整森林生态保护利益相关者间的权利义务关系的制度设计,美国、德国、日本、哥斯达黎加和巴西的森林生态效益补偿制度在补偿主体、补偿对象、补偿标准、补偿资金的筹集等方面都有许多先进的成功经验.我国应该借鉴国外成功经验,构建森林生态效益市场补偿机制,扩大补偿对象的范围,合理确定补偿标准,拓展补偿资金的来源渠道,引进激励机制,完善我国森林生态效益补偿制度.%By applying economic and legal means, forest ecological benefit compensation system adjusts the right and obligation relations between the forest ecological protect stakeholders. In many countries such as America, German,Japan, Costa Rica and Brazil, their forest ecological benefit compensation system has a lot of successful experience in compensation subject, compensation object, compensation standards and compensation fund raising channels. By learning from foreign success experience, we should establish forest ecological benefit compensation market mechanism, expand the scope of object of compensation, determine the compensation standards, expand the compensation fund sources and channels, introduce incentive mechanism, so as to perfect our forest ecological benefit compensation system.

  7. Status and Countermeasures of Deqin County Ecological Non-commercial Forest Management%德钦县生态公益林管理现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贤

    2013-01-01

    Status of organization, management and protection, management and protection measures of ecological non-commercial forest management in Deqin County was introduced. Problems such as decreased usable forest resources, unreasonable ecological benefits compensation, lack of reasonable compensation standard, short of publicity and education , lag behind of file build, low quality of forest stand, poor protection effect still existed. Thus, countermeasures and suggestions of ecological forest management, i. e. practise new non-commercial forest management mechanisms focused on performance management , step up publicity efforts, improve quality of forest stand, and enhance effectiveness of ecological protection, improve management mechanism and team building, strict protection and dynamic monitoring were proposed.%介绍德钦县生态公益林管理的组织机构、管护形式、管护办法等现状,目前公益林管理中尚存在着可利用森林资源减少,生态效益补偿缺乏合理性,补偿标准单一,宣传教育欠缺,档案建立滞后,林分质量低下,防护效益差等问题.藉此,提出推行以绩效管理为重点的公益林管理新机制,加大宣传力度,提高林分质量,增强生态防护效益,完善管理机制和队伍建设,严格保护,动态监测等生态公益林管理对策与建议.

  8. Lidar Altimeter Measurements of Canopy Structure: Methods and Validation for Closed Canopy, Broadleaf Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, D. J.; Lefsky, M. A.; Parker, G. G.; Blair, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    documents differences that are statistically significant. The differences are discussed in terms of measurement properties that define the smoothness of the resulting CHPs and Lidar Altimeter Measurements of Canopy Structure - Harding et al. canopy properties that may vertically bias the CHP representations of canopy structure. The statistical differences are most likely due to the more noisy character of the ground-based CHPs, especially high in the canopy where ground-based sightings are rare resulting in an underestimate of canopy surface area and height, and to departures from the assumption of horizontal randomness which bias the CHPs toward the observer (upward for SLICER and downward for ground-based CHPs). The results demonstrate that the SLICER observations reliably provide a measure of canopy structure that reveals ecologically interesting structural variations such as those characterizing a successional sequence of closed-canopy, broadleaf forest stands.

  9. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farine, D.R.; Firth, J.A.; Aplin, L.M.; Crates, R.A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a fra

  10. Forest response to CO{sub 2} enrichment: Physiology and ecology of loblolly pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, B.R.; Thomas, R.B.

    1997-03-10

    This report covers the results of a long-term project with the primary objective of developing and testing hypotheses on the environmental and physiological controls of loblolly pine response to atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment. Earlier research under DOE funding had provided information from loblolly pine and other plant species which allowed the development of specific hypotheses. Phase 1 of this research was a two year pot study of loblolly seedlings to determine the interaction of CO{sub 2} enrichment with soil nutrition. Phase 2 began with the enrichment of loblolly seedlings being grown in the ground, rather than pots, and continued through December 1995. Phase 3 began in April 1994 with the enrichment of undisturbed Piedmont North Carolina old field undergoing succession, including herbaceous annual plants, perennial grasses, and loblolly pine tree seedlings. Phase 3 was designed to gather preliminary information on a regenerating loblolly forest to be used for the development of hypotheses and measurement techniques for a long-term Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) study of regenerating forest in Duke Forest.

  11. Using historical ecology to reassess the conservation status of coniferous forests in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter; Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Švarcová, Markéta Gabriela; Křížová, Lucie; Suchánková, Silvie; Müllerová, Jana; Hédl, Radim

    2017-02-01

    Forests cover approximately one-third of Central Europe. Oak (Quercus) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) are considered the natural dominants at low and middle elevations, respectively. Many coniferous forests (especially of Picea abies) occur primarily at midelevations, but these are thought to have resulted from forestry plantations planted over the past 200 years. Nature conservation and forestry policy seek to promote broadleaved trees over conifers. However, there are discrepancies between conservation guidelines (included in Natura 2000) and historical and palaeoecological data with regard to the distribution of conifers. Our aim was to bring new evidence to the debate on the conservation of conifers versus broadleaved trees at midelevations in Central Europe. We created a vegetation and land-cover model based on pollen data for a highland area of 11,300 km(2) in the Czech Republic and assessed tree species composition in the forests before the onset of modern forestry based on 18th-century archival sources. Conifers dominated the study region throughout the entire Holocene (approximately 40-60% of the area). Broadleaved trees were present in a much smaller area than envisaged by current ideas of natural vegetation. Rather than casting doubt on the principles of Central European nature conservation in general, our results highlight the necessity of detailed regional investigations and the importance of historical data in challenging established notions on the natural distribution of tree species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. The Forest Fire Problem of Degrading Tain II Forest Reserve in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 068

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... result, the rich biodiversity of tropical and sub-tropical savannas, .... This has veiled complex historical, ecological and socio-cultural ...... indicated both a 30% change in the structure and composition of semi-deciduous forest.

  13. Invasive sequence and ecological niche of main insect borers of Larix gmelinii forest in Aershan, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; Kari KELI(O)SVAARA; QI Guo-xin; LI Xiang-jun; HAN Yong-shi; CHEN Chao

    2008-01-01

    After the outbreak of Dendrolimus superans Buret in 2002, many insect borers quickly invaded larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) forests in the Aershan of Inner Mongolia. Methods involved included setting sample plots, collecting adults in iron traps and measuring areas of galleries to study the invasive sequence, their ecological niche and the extent of the different effects by the main insect borers to their hosts. The results showed that the damage of D. superans weakened L. gmelinii, first Ips subelongatus Motschulsky invaded, followed by Acanthocinus carinulatus Gebler, Monochamus urussovi Fisher and M. sutor L. After the outbreak of D. superans, the average density of longhorn beetles per L. gmelinii tree increased. The ecological niche of Ips subelongatus stretches almost from the base to the top of the trunk. The number of insects in older stands of L. gmelinii is larger than those in middle aged stands. They do not damage healthy trees of L. gmelinii. The ecological niche of A. carinulatus is higher in dead L. gmelinii trees than in weak ones. The degree of damage is directly proportional with age and depth of bark. M. urussovi mainly damages trunks below 4 m in weak trees; in dead trees they can do damage up to 6 m in height. M. sutor mainly damages trunks below 5 m in weak L.gmelinii trees; in dead trees they cause damage up to 7 m. Again, the degree of damage is directly proportional with age. None of the three species of longhorn beetles damage healthy L. gmelinii and younger trees. Among the main insect borers, the degree of damage caused by L subelongatus is more serious than that of other insects.

  14. Composition, structure and diversity characterization of dry tropical forest of Chhattisgarh using satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarun Thakur; S.L. Swamy; Ajit Singh Nain

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the land use, vegetation structure, and diversity in the Barnowpara Sanctuary, Raipur district, Chhattisgarh, India through the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS. Land cover and vegetation were spatially analyzed by digitally classifying IRS 1D LISS III satellite data using a maximum likelihood algorithm. Later, the variations in structure and diversity in different forest types and classes were quantified by adopting quadratic sampling proce-dures. Nine land-cover types were delineated: teak forest, dense mixed forest, degraded mixed forest, Sal mixed forest, open mixed forest, young teak plantation, grasslands, agriculture, habitation, and water bodies. The classification accuracy for different land-use classes ranged from 71.23%to 100%. The highest accuracy was observed in water bodies and grass-land, followed by habitation and agriculture, teak forest, degraded mixed forest, and dense mixed forest. The accuracy was lower in open mixed forest, and sal mixed forest. Results revealed that density of different forest types varied from 324 to 733 trees ha-1, basal area from 8.13 to 28.87 m2·ha-1 and number of species from 20 to 40. Similarly, the diversity ranged from 1.36 to 2.98, concentration of dominance from 0.06 to 0.49, species richness from 3.88 to 6.86, and beta diversity from 1.29 to 2.21. The sal mixed forest type recorded the highest basal area, diversity was highest in the dense mixed forest, and the teak forest recorded maximum density, which was poor in degraded mixed forests. The study also showed that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was strongly cor-related to with the Shannon Index and species richness.

  15. Structure changes and succession dynamic of the natural secondary forest after severe fire interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin-fan; LIU Guang-ju; WANG Zhi-cheng

    2009-01-01

    The structure and dynamic succession law of natural secondary forest after severe fire interference in recent 20 years were studied by adopting the method of deducing time series from the spatial sequence of vegetation in Heihe region, Heilongjiang, China. Two typical and widely distributed forest types in the study area, namely forest type A and forest type B, were selected as study subjects. Forest type A is pure broadleaf forest or broadleaf mixed forest mainly composing of superior Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana in the area with gradient 25°. Species richness, vegetation coverage, important value, and similarity index of community in different layers (Herb, shrub, small tree, and arbor layers) were investigated and analyzed for the two typical forests. The results show that after fire interference, the species richness and coverage in each layer in forest type A were higher than that in forest type B. Both for forest type A and B, with elapse of post-fire years, the species richness and coverage of herbs and shrubs showed a decline tendency, while those of arbor layer present a rising tendency. Through comparison of the important values of species in each layer and analysis of community structure changes, the dynamic process of post-fire vegetation succession for forest type A and B was separately determined. Post-fire 80 years' succession tendency of forest type A is B. platyphylla and Larix gmelinii mixed forest. Its shrub layer is mainly composed of Corylus heterophylla and Vaccinium uliginosum, and herb layer is dominated by Carex tristachya, Athyrium multidentatum, and Pyrola incarnate; whereas, the post-fire 80 years' succession of forest type B is Q. mongolica and B. davurica mixed forest. Its shrub layer is mainly composed of lespedeza bicolar and corylus heterophylla and herb layer is dominated by Carex tristachya, Asparagus densiflorus, and Hemerocallis minor.

  16. Major characteristics of mixed fir and beech virgin forests in the National park Biogradska Gora in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čurović Milić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage forest ecosystems at a sufficiently high biodiversity level it is necessary to study the ecological, structural and production characteristics of virgin forests. The research was directed towards identifying the characteristics of mixed fir and beech forests (Abieti-Fagetum s. lat. in the area of the strict reserve of the National Park Biogradska Gora in Montenegro. Basic characteristics of these forests were researched in the process of definition of forest types. In this manner, it is for the first time that a realistic base for typological management of forests and forest ecosystems with similar ecological and structural characteristics was provided for the specific sites.

  17. Analysis on sensitivity and landscape ecological spatial structure of site resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This article establishes a set of indicators and standards for landscape ecological sensitivity analysis of site resources by using thetheories and approaches of landscape ecology.It uses landscape diversity index( H), evenness(E), natural degree(N), contrast degree(C)to study spatial structure and landscape heterogeneity of site resources and thus provides a qualitative-quantitative evaluation method for landplanning and management of small, medium scale areas.The analysis of Yantian District, Shenzhen of China showed that Wutong Mountainbelonged to high landscape ecological sensitivity area, Sanzhoutian Reservoir and Shangping Reservoir were medium landscape sensitivity areaand high ecological sensitivity area; Dameisha and Xiaomeisha belonged to medium sensitivity area caused by the decline of natural ecologicalareas.Shatoujiao, Yantian Pier belonged to low sensitivity area but urban landscape ecological development had reshaped and influenced theirlandscape ecological roles in a great extent.Suggestions on planning, protection goals and development intensity of each site or district wereraised.

  18. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane la...

  19. Vegetation structure determination using LIDAR data and the forest growth parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybansky, M.; Brenova, M.; Cermak, J.; van Genderen, J.; Sivertun, Å.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify the main vegetation factors in the terrain, which are important for the analysis of forest structure. Such an analysis is important for forestry, rescue operations management during crises situations and disasters such as fires, storms, earthquakes and military analysis (transportation, cover, concealment, etc.). For the forest structure determination, both LIDAR and the forest growth prediction analysis were used. As main results, the vegetation height, tree spacing and stem diameters were determined

  20. Status and Structure of the Forest Industry in Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Obersteiner, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work presented in this paper deals with the cornerstone Forest Industry and Markets. More specifically it describes the system of the forest industry statistics in Russia and a rough description of the Siberian forest industry based on this data system.

  1. Ecology of a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the natural history and the ecology of the species that constitute a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Rainforest, at Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main aspects studied were: richness, relative abundance, daily and seasonal activity, and substrate use. We also provide additional information on natural history of the snakes. A total of 282 snakes, distributed over 24 species, belonging to 16 genera and four families, has been found within the area of the Núcleo Picinguaba. Species sampled more frequently were Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu. The methods that yielded the best results were time constrained search and opportunistic encounters. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, minimum temperature, followed by the mean temperature and the rainfall are apparently the most important in determining snake abundance. Most species presented a diet concentrated on one prey category or restricted to a few kinds of food items. The large number of species that feed on frogs points out the importance of this kind of prey as an important food resource for snakes in the Atlantic Rainforest. Our results indicate that the structure of the Picinguaba snake assemblage reflects mainly the phylogenetic constraints of each of its lineages.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi obter informações sobre a história natural e a ecologia das espécies que compõem uma taxocenoses de serpentes da Mata Atlântica, no Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, localizado no litoral norte do estado no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os principais aspectos estudados foram: riqueza, abundância relativa de espécies, padrões de atividade diária e sazonal, utilização do ambiente e dieta. Um total de 282 serpentes, distribuídas em 24 espécies, pertencentes a 16 gêneros e quatro famílias, foi

  2. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC. Silva

    Full Text Available In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh, total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  3. [The effect of forest exploitation on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of palmito-dominated Atlantic forests at Misiones, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chediack, Sandra E

    2008-06-01

    The effect of forest exploitation--timber and palmito (Euterpe edulis, Palmae) extraction--on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of forests known as palmitals of the Atlantic Forest of Argentina was analyzed. These palmitals are located in Misiones (54 degrees 13' W and 25 degrees 41' S). Three 1 ha permanent plots were established: two in the "intangible" zone of the Iguazu National Park (PNI), and another in an exploited forest site bordering the PNI. Three 0.2 ha non-permanent plots were also measured. One was located in the PNI reserve zone where illegal palmito extraction occurs. The other two were in logged forest. All trees and palmitos with DBH >10 cm were identified and DBH and height were measured. For each of the six sites, richness and diversity of tree species, floristic composition, number of endemic species, and density of harvestable tree species were estimated. The harvest of E. edulis increases density of other tree species, diminishing palmito density. Forest explotation (logging and palmito harvest) is accompanied by an increase in diversity and density of heliophilic species, which have greater timber value in the region. However, this explotation also diminishes the density of palmito, of endemic species which normally grow in low densities, and of species found on the IUCN Red List. Results suggest that forest structure may be managed for timber and palmito production. The "intangible" zone of the PNI has the greatest conservation value in the Atlantic Forest, since a greater number of endemisms and endangered species are found here.

  4. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D Rittenhouse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years. Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary

  5. STRUCTURE SUSTAINABILITY EVALUATION OF ARGISSOLS IN FOREST SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir de Souza Dias Junior

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the limitations to reach sustainable forest development is related to mechanical harvest operations which may cause soil structure degradation. The objectives of this study were: to propose a structure sustainability model of soils cultivated with Eucalyptus spp. and to determine the effect of harvest operations on soil structure. This study was conducted in a Yellow Argisols (PA cul-tivated with Eucalyptus. The depth 0,125-0,175 m of the PA texture loam/clay presented σp values larger than those of the 0,05-0,10 m depth, for any moisture content (U. In the depth 0,05-0,10 m the equations were statically different and the PA texture sand/loam presented σp values larger than the PA texture loam/clay for larger values of moisture content of 9 kg kg-1. Thus, it is expected thatthe superficial layer of the PA texture sand/loam supports larger pressures than the one of the PA texture loam/clay. The traffic made using the cart with two axes caused structure degradation in some sampled places.

  6. Diversity, structure and regeneration of the seasonally dry tropical forest of Yucatán Península, Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Ramírez, Angélica María; García-Méndez, Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests are considered as the most endangered ecosystem in lowland tropics. The aim of this study was to characterize the floristic composition, richness, diversity, structure and regeneration of a seasonally dry tropical forest landscape constituted by mature forest, secondary forest and seasonally inundated forest located in the Northeastern part of the Yucatán Península, Mexico. We used the Gentry’s standard inventory plot methodology (0.1 ha per forest type in 2007...

  7. GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF SEED DISPERSAL IN THREE SYMPATRIC FOREST HERBS. I. HIERARCHICAL POPULATION-GENETIC STRUCTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F; Guries, Raymond P

    1994-06-01

    To examine the effects of seed dispersal on spatial genetic structure, we compare three sympatric species of forest herbs in the family Apiaceae whose fruits differ widely in morphological adaptations for animal-attached dispersal. Cryptotaenia canadensis has smooth fruits that are gravity dispersed, whereas Osmorhiza claytonii and Sanicula odorata fruits have appendages that facilitate their attachment to animals. The relative seed-dispersal ability among species, measured as their ability to remain attached to mammal fur, is ranked Sanicula > Osmorhiza > Cryptotaenia. We use a nested hierarchical sampling design to analyze genetic structure at spatial scales ranging from a few meters to hundreds of kilometers. Genetic differentiation among population subdivisions, estimated by average genetic distance and hierarchical F-statistics, has an inverse relationship with dispersal ability such that Cryptotaenia > Osmorhiza > Sanicula. In each species, genetic differentiation increases with distance among population subdivisions. Stochastic variation in gene flow, arising from seed dispersal by attachment to animals, may partly explain the weak relationship between pairwise spatial and genetic distance among populations and heterogeneity in estimates of single locus F-statistics. A hierarchical island model of gene flow is invoked to describe the effects of seed dispersal on population genetic structure. Seed dispersal is the predominant factor affecting variation in gene flow among these ecologically similar, taxonomically related species. © 1994 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  9. Characterizing Structure, Microclimate and Decomposition of Peatland, Beachfront, and Newly Logged Forest Edges in Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, Julie Ann

    In this study, I examined the forest structure, composition, microclimate, and decomposition of three common edge types in southeastern Alaska including; peatland, beachfront, and new clearcuts adjacent to productive western hemlock-Sitka spruce forests. Sites were located on 4 larger islands of the Alexander Archipelago in southeastern Alaska. The study was focussed on transects extending from the open area, through the forest boundary to 200 m into the forest. Twenty-two edges were examined during 1990 and 1991. Forest structure was unique for each edge type. Peatland -forest edges exhibit feathered transition of short and sparse tree growth to large dense old-growth western hemlock -Sitka spruce forests. Beachfront-forest edges were sealed at the boundary by a multi-layering of shrubs, small trees, mid-canopy trees, and some emergents. The transition to large productive old-growth was abrupt. Clearcut-forest edges were essentially old-growth forests opened up by logging. Average size of trees at the boundary was large but stand size and productivity decreased moving into the forest. Productive western hemlock-Sitka spruce associations were not apparent for a long distance into the forest. Herbaceous cover appeared to be directly linked to light levels along the forest transects. Because structure was so inherently different for each edge type, microclimatic gradients from open area to the forest interior environment varied with edge type. The strongest gradients were observed on sunny and extremely windy days. An edge index value (EIV) was calculated to differentiate edge-affected microclimate from interior environments. Edge type influenced forest microclimate such that; (1) Peatlands affected interior radiation and air temperature range for 120 m into the forest until interior environments were encountered. (2) Beachfront-forests were penetrated by ocean winds for up to 120 m however, other variables such as interior air temperature and relative humidity were

  10. Mapping beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Sobhan, I.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters includ

  11. Forest Composition and Structure Under Various Disturbance Regimes in the Alaknanda River Basin, Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma Manral

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the resilience of mountain forests in a protected area in Alaknanda River basin, Western Himalaya, to various disturbance scenarios. The resource dependency of village communities in the Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary Landscape was studied through a questionnaire survey in 10 villages situated along an elevational gradient. Vegetation sampling was done in government-owned sanctuary forests and community-owned forests, both visited by villagers. Forest community composition, regeneration status, and tree population structure were studied to understand the impact of disturbance on forests and their resistance to anthropogenic alterations. Results indicated a reduction in both fuelwood and fodder consumption with decreasing elevation, with villages at higher elevations and located inside the sanctuary depending more on forest resources. Forests showed evidence of disturbance in the form of lower basal cover, mean canopy cover, regeneration, and disturbance-influenced distribution of shrubs. However, despite the signs of secondary succession, Quercus leucotrichophora forest has retained the original tree species composition. Vegetation recovery on 3 landslide sites at varying successional stages was also studied. The old successional site had higher species richness than early successional sites. The only tree species with adult individuals recorded in early successional sites was Alnus nepalensis, an early successional nitrogen-fixing species. The community composition of the old successional site, at Bandwara, included young individuals of Q. leucotrichophora, the climax species of forests in that elevational range. The current forest structure of both disturbed forest and vegetation recovery on the old succession site indicate the resilient dynamism of native Himalayan forests. Considering the role of mountain