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Sample records for forensic medicine due

  1. [The concept of "forensic medicine"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V L

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed.

  2. Tasks of research in forensic medicine - different study types in clinical research and forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Saukko, Pekka; Musshoff, Frank

    2007-01-17

    In the last years the research output of forensic medicine has sometimes been regarded as insufficient and as of poor quality, especially when parameters as impact factors and external funding were taken into account. However, forensic medicine has different tasks compared to clinical medicine. The main difference between basic subjects, clinical and forensic medicine is not a lack of scientific efficiency in forensic medicine but is a result of the questions asked, the available methods and specific aims. In contrast to natural-scientific research, forensic science has furthermore important intersections with arts and socio-scientific disciplines. Etiologic and pathogenetic research is of only limited relevance in forensic medicine. Thus, forensic medicine is excluded from these research fields, which are mainly supported by external funding. In forensic medicine research mainly means applied research regarding findings, the probative value and reconstruction as well as examination at different points of intersection between medicine and law. Clinical types of research such as controlled randomised, prospective cross-sectional, cohort or case-control studies can only rarely be applied in forensic medicine due to the area specific research fields (e.g. thantatology, violent death, vitality, traffic medicine, analytical toxicology, hemogenetics and stain analysis). The types of studies which are successfully established in forensic medicine are comparison of methods, sensitivity studies, validation of methods, kinetic examinations etc. Tasks of research in forensic medicine and study types, which may be applied will be addressed.

  3. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2015-01-01

    Modern diagnostic imagining techniques are gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Denmark has been involved in the development of this use of imaging techniques from the beginning. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark acquired a helical computed tomography (CT...... AND METHODS: This thesis investigated 900 forensic cases that were CT-scanned and autopsied at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, from 2006-2011. The scanner was a Siemens Somatom Spirit dual-slice CT-scanner with a Siemens Syngo MultiModality workstation. Contrast enhancement...

  4. Genomic applications in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    and the quality of the sequences has reached a level where NGS is used in clinical diagnostics of humans. Forensic genetic laboratories have also explored NGS technologies and especially recently, there has been a small explosion in the number of scientific articles and presentations at conferences with forensic...... sequence information may aid mixture interpretation and will increase the statistical weight of the evidence. In this chapter, we provide an overview on conventional DNA diagnostics and the possible applications of single cell sequencing and NGS in forensic medicine....

  5. Forensic science in medicine:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    laboratory in the beginning of the twentieth ... rendering clinical forensic medical and medico-legal ... rates of interpersonal violence, in all its forms, in the world ... the total spectrum of scientific analysis .... fingerprinting) are complex and labour.

  6. Practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka.

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    Balachandra, A Thambirajah; Vadysinghe, Amal N; William, Anita L

    2011-02-01

    The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is based on the British model. Medical students during their third and fourth years receive approximately 50 hours of lectures and tutorials in forensic medicine and pathology and then undergo an examination. After completing an internship, these doctors are sent to various hospitals throughout Sri Lanka where they may be asked to perform medicolegal examinations on victims and suspects in rape cases, persons suspected of being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol, and, injured live patients. As well, they may be asked to perform medicolegal autopsies. Depending upon their experience, some medical officers may be designated as judicial medical officers and appointed full time to do medicolegal work. Up until 1980, judicial medical officers with at least 2 years of work experience were allowed to obtain their postgraduate qualifications in the United Kingdom. However, since 1981 and the establishment of its own Postgraduate Institute of Medicine in Colombo, Sri Lanka, medical officers are offered 2 postgraduate programs in forensic medicine and pathology, a diploma in legal medicine and a doctorate in medicine (forensic medicine). After completing the doctorate in forensic medicine, doctors are allowed to train abroad for a further year in an approved center. Upon return they can then be appointed as consultant judicial medical officers. The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is unique and vibrant. However, due to the country's prevailing civil war, the practice of forensic medicine and pathology is suboptimal.

  7. [Presentation of eponymous terms in forensic medicine].

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    Nečas, P; Hejna, P

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms used in forensic medicine is described in the paper. Their linguistic basis, advantages and disadvantages for specialists or wider circles is discussed. Their spread in various language discourses is mentioned. A list of the most important eponymous terms in forensic medicine is the papers focus.

  8. History of forensic medicine in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

    2009-05-01

    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.

  9. [Commentary on the history of forensic medicine in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carrero, A

    1991-01-01

    The author explains definitions and fields of forensic medicine. Three periods are described: 1) Since colonial times to the foundation of the Caracas forensic medicine (1937); 2) From 1937 to the foundation of the Technical Judiciary Police (1958); 3) From 1958 until now; this period includes the process called "Nationalization of forensic medicine". Then there are remarks, within the historical context, on forensic medicine and teaching, the importance of the Forensic Medicine Society and the importance of postgraduate courses.

  10. [Forensic medicine and the overlap with pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepert, T

    2010-07-01

    Forensic medicine incorporates research, teaching and professional service. In the routine practice this encompasses interdisciplinary cooperation with physicians, natural scientists and the legal profession. Lectures in forensic medicine include the correct performance of an external examination of corpses, which every physician must be capable of, just as medical questions and the evidential documentation of injuries. Clinical forensic medicine encompasses the examination and documentation of living victims of physical and/or sexual violence. For further training to become a specialist for forensic medicine it is mandatory to undertake a 6-month training period in pathology. Fatalities with an unclear or unnatural manner of death must be registered with the police. On suspicion of third party involvement the public prosecutor will request a legal autopsy, which is carried out and documented by two physicians in accordance with the penal code. Imaging procedures are standard for an autopsy. Extensive samples are taken for additional testing, such as toxicological and molecular biological investigations.

  11. Child Protection Centers and Forensic Medicine Approach

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    Huseyin Kafadar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO anyone under the age of 18 is determined as %u201Cchild%u201D. Child abuse is described by Henry Kempe in 1962. Nowadays, neglect definition and prevention for children are most important.Child maltreatment is defined as harmful behaviors on physical, emotional, mental, or sexual health of child. There are two ways of maltreatment; abuse and neglect according to the forensic medicine approach. The aim of this study is to discuss Child Protection Center, the center service delivery and forensic medicine approach.

  12. [Metabonomics and its perspective on forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gao-Qin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Da-Ming; Liu, Yao

    2010-10-01

    Metabolomics is a new study, which use chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques on the cells, organs and other body fluids and metabolites in samples were isolated, purified and testing, re-use bioinformatics tools on the obtained data are analyzed to obtain one or a set of biomarker information. Based on analysis of the literatures in recent years, metabolomics was summarized from history, concept, advantage, methods, application, difficulties and challenges, journals and books, websites, and its application in forensic medicine was forecasted. As a new branch of global system biology, metabonomics developed rapidly, and its perspective on forensic medicine was feasible and very optimistic.

  13. Forensic medicine: a forgotten world of opportunities and challenges for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Santos, Agostinho; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Forensic medicine deals with a wide variety of cases. To accomplish the main objectives, this professional field needs to adopt and apply findings from other sciences, namely, different medical specialties and other forensic sciences. The opposite is not yet entirely true due to the fact that forensic medicine deals with cases that are very far away from other medical and scientific interests. It is obvious that this forgotten world of forensic medicine … is also a new world of opportunities and challenges to research in all scientific areas.

  14. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM

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    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.

  15. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing.

  16. [Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

    2013-12-01

    As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks.

  17. [Professor Kazimierz Jaegermann's scientific contribution to forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiłowski, Władysław

    2005-01-01

    Kazimierz Jaegermann (1921-1988), an eminent professor of the Cracow Department of Forensic medicine carried out considerable significant research and published many papers during his scientific career. As the author of the obligatory principles in medico-legal opinioning, he influenced further progress in forensic medicine, particularly relating to co-operation between law and medicine.

  18. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

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    Kazuhiko Kibayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  19. Teaching forensic medicine in the University of Porto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Santos, Agostinho

    2014-07-01

    The University of Porto (UP) provides education in Forensic Medicine (FM) through the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of studies, post-graduation and continuing education courses. This education is related to forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine (including forensic psychology and psychiatry), forensic chemistry and toxicology, forensic genetics and biology, and criminalistics. With this work we intent to reflect on how we are currently teaching FM in the UP, at all levels of university graduation. We will present our models, regarding the educational objectives, curricular program and teaching/learning methodologies of each cycle of studies as well as in post-graduate and continuing education courses. Historically, and besides related administratively to the Ministry of Justice, the Portuguese Medico-Legal Institutes (since 1918) and more recently the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) also have educational and research responsibilities. Thus, it lends space and cooperates with academic institutions and this contribution, namely regarding teaching forensic sciences in Portugal has been judged as an example for other Countries. This contribution is so important that in UP, the Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine (FMUP) shares, until now, the same physical space with North Branch of the INMLCF, which represents a notorious advantage, since it makes possible the "learning by doing". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting, ASFSFM 2016: Meeting Report

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    Abdulsallam Bakdash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS is to enhance peace, security, and justice in Arab societies through education, research, and advanced professional training in various disciplines of security and forensic sciences. NAUSS strives to improve the academic and professional skills of forensic scientists and security personnel to combat crime and terrorism by utilizing all the available tools of modern technology. NAUSS also realizes the importance of scientific research in the social, economic, and technological development of a society and is, therefore, committed to encouraging and supporting research at every level. NAUSS has given the fields of forensic sciences and forensic medicine a top priority and the attention they deserve. In pursuit of its objectives, and in cooperation with other Arab member organizations, NAUSS launched the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM in 2013. The Society had the honour of being officially launched by His Royal Highness, Prince Mohammed bin Naif bin Abdul Aziz, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior, Honorary President of the Council of Arab Ministers of Interior and Chairman of the Supreme Council of NAUSS. The 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting (ASFSFM Meeting 2016 was yet another part of the efforts and concern of NAUSS to advance the skills and knowledge of Arab specialists and to facilitate cooperation among forensic scientists and institutions engaged in the practice, education and research of forensic sciences and forensic medicine at various levels.

  1. [Criminal law problems in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, V

    1998-10-01

    This paper first goes into cases of medical malpractice proceeding from the definition of the subject (forensic medicine). Among the material examined by the author lapses were to be assumed in 6.9% of the cases. A forensic autopsy can, however, also be of significance in countering false accusations. Forensic autopsies are regulated by Sect. 87 of the German Code of Criminal Procedure. Clinical autopsies are performed in Berlin in conformity with the Autopsy Act of 1996. Therapeutic removal of tissue is, moreover, also regulated by the Autopsy Act. Last year's Grafting Act, on the other hand, is Federal Law. Another act promulgated in 1997 has likewise provoked considerable controversial debate: viz. the Criminal Proceedings Amendment Act--keyword: DNA analysis/genetic fingerprint. And, finally, the paper also goes somewhat deeper into the introduction of breath-alcohol tests as evidence admitted in court. Further points discussed: reports prepared in connection with trials involving shootings along the Berlin wall, reports drawn up in connection with matters involving the abuse of anabolic substances by competitive athletes in the German Democratic Republic, reports on former GDR functionaries pertaining to their fitness to plead in court or to undergo detention. To conclude with, the question, whether evidence obtained by coerced vomiting can be used in court, is also discussed (drug couriers).

  2. A concise history of forensic medicine in Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Miroslav; Strejc, Premysl; Krajsa, Jan; Hejna, Petr; Cisarova, Olga; Dvorak, Miroslav; Hladik, Jiri; Sokol, Milos; Klir, Premysl; Beran, Michal; Fialka, Jiri; Kubista, Pavel; Vorel, Frantisek; Dvoracek, Igor; Machacek, Rudolf; Toupalik, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the most important historical facts about all forensic medicine workplaces in the Czech Republic since the beginning till present day, including a perspective on how to establish a new one. Each of the University Forensic Medicine Institutes or district Departments is covered by at least one author. The oldest institute is in Prague and in Brno, the youngest is in Pardubice.

  3. Origin and development of forensic medicine in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Moulana, Ashraf Abdel Reheem; Elsebaay, Elsebaay Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Egyptians are one of the first civilisations to practice the removal and examination of internal organs of humans. Their practices ranged from embalming to faith healing to surgery and autopsy. Modern radiological studies, together with various forensic techniques, allowed scientists unique glimpses of the state of health in Egypt 4000 years ago and discovered one of the earliest applications of autopsy, the main element of forensic medicine practice today. The Egyptian Forensic Medicine Authority handles a relatively large number of cases annually and depends on different assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology unit, DNA laboratory, forensic chemistry laboratory) as well as the Counterfeiting and Forgery unit. Crime scene investigations are performed mainly through the criminal laboratory related to the Ministry of Interior. Forensic Medicine is studied thoroughly in the faculty of medicine (undergraduates), as well as by forensic medical examiners at postgraduate level (diploma, master's and doctorate). This review recommends more scientific cooperation with universities in the field of forensic medicine and related sciences to solve various crimes with meticulous detail. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. The evaluation of forensic cases reported due to food poisoning

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    Beyza Urazel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study it is aimed to examine forensic food poisoning cases and to evaluate the clinical presentation of food poisoning in people within the context of forensic medicine. Methods: In the study, 215 food poisoning cases are evaluated, which applied to the forensic medicine branch office in our city between 01.01.2007 and 31.12.2011. The forensic reports and forensic investigations of these cases are analyzed retrospectively. The cases are examined in terms of gender, age, the type of food consumed, the treatment applied and the result of the forensic report. Results: It is determined that in 83 cases (38.6% food poisoning was caused by chicken products, and in 178 cases (82.8% the poisoned people were students. In 3 cases (1.4% the poisoning was life threatening. For 75 cases (34.9% no forensic report was prepared in emergency service and among the 140 cases for which a forensic report was prepared, only 3 of the reports were prepared in a correct manner. Conclusions: It is determined that the demographic data of the cases complies with the city where the study was conducted. It is found out that in emergency services the food poisoning cases are usually misevaluated.

  5. The Economic Losses of University Hospitals due to the No Payment System for Forensic Reports

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    Gürcan Altun

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper which reference to Trakya University Hospital draws attention to economic losses of university hospitals due to lack of a system for payment of forensic reports. In this paper, forensic documents of Trakya University Hospital, covering the period January 2003- December 2004, were reviewed. We established the institutions that ask to prepare forensic reports and queries during this period. These institutions were offices of the public prosecutor and court, police, gendarme, and the other institutions (such as management of jails, notary public offices. In 2003 and 2004 Trakya University Hospital forensic reports were 471 and 653, respectively. We established annual rate of increase to the number of prepared forensic reports (39% and unit prices (50-60% between 2003 and 2004. Economic losses of no payment for preparing forensic reports in 2003 and 2004 years have been calculated as 9.647.500.000 TL and 19.420.000.000 TL, respectively. A total economic loss for two years was 29.067.500.000 TL. As a conclusion, the prices of contributing forensic expertise services by university for medicolegal cases must be measured according to price list of Council of Forensic Medicine. Managements of the universities with the help of Council of Higher Education should apply to Ministry of Finance for solving this problem. Key words: Forensic report, cost, university hospital

  6. [Two anniversaries in Czech forensic medicine].

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    Nečas, P; Hejna, P

    2012-10-01

    The authors commemorate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Slavíks textbook Forensic Pathology for Medical and Legal Students and the 125th anniversary of the 1st Czech forensic autopsy. They introduce professor V. Slavík and describe his personal qualities and expertise. The content of the textbook is described. The topicality of Slavíks explanations and the tradition of Czech forensic pathology are discussed. Key words: forensic pathology - history of Czech forensic pathology - textbooks of forensic pathology.

  7. [Costicartilage analysis inspection technology in the application of forensic medicine].

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    Meng, Hang; Xiao, Bi; Yan, Jian-Jun; Ma, Kai-Jun

    2011-10-01

    The traditional costicartilage analysis inspection is limited to morphological inspection. In recent years, with the development of forensic radiology and molecular genetics, the costicartilage analysis inspection technology has been further enriched and developed. At present, the costicartilage analysis inspection technology have been able to be used in the practice of forensic medicine. This paper reviews the research advances about the costicartilage analysis inspection technology in the identification of human gender, age and so on in order to provide the references for forensic appraisers.

  8. Continuing education programme - Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine.

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    Gall, J A; Ranson, D L

    1998-09-01

    With the increasing requirement of the courts for forensic experts to engage in ongoing education, a continuing education programme (CEP) was developed in the field of clinical forensic medicine at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in 1996. This programme has been described and was initially established to provide a means of education for the contracted forensic medical officers who provide forensic services to the police via the Institute throughout the State of Victoria. Owing to the sparsity of the population and the considerable distances between forensic practitioners, the CEP was designed to cater for individuals who are working alone: in effect, a distance education programme. Forensic pathologists expressed interest in the programme and it was subsequently modified to include forensic pathology cases. Currently, the programme caters for both clinicians and pathologists, and takes the form of four to five cases with related questions which are circulated several times per year. The cases include a mixture of both challenging and ordinary procedural types that may present to practitioners working in either clinical forensic medicine or forensic pathology, or both. The areas covered include: * injury interpretation * procedural matters in relation to adult and child sexual and physical assault * pharmacology/toxicology interpretation of findings * medico-legal issues (e.g. confidentiality, consent, etc.) * issues relating to alcohol and drugs * traffic medicine * clinical and legal aspects of sudden natural death * suspicious deaths * suicide * interpretation of findings at autopsy * fitness for interview * fitness to plead * psychiatric issues * general clinical medical issues. The presentation of each case includes relevant and appropriate details/findings and may include photographs. A series of questions follow which are answered in either short answer or multiple-choice format. The answers are returned and are correlated by a review panel of

  9. [Role of forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry in solving the problem of organized crime].

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    Kokavec, M; Dobrotka, G

    2001-01-01

    Term--organized crime is not satisfactorily defined todate neither in forensic sciences, nor in lexical formulations. It is necessary to come to grips with the criminalistic and social pathological meaning of three terms--individual crime, grouped and organized crime as well as participation of forensic sciences including forensic medicine on solving problems of organized crime. Forensic medicine and forensic psychology can help to solve this acute problem of present development of social life. It can help in criminalistic expertize and insider activity in profiliation of perpetrators and victims. Mainly it will be about searching and improving of methodical approaches in solving of incriminated cases and its analysis for investigative organs and courts. Important asset in this problem must be also preventive portion in preclusion of criminality.

  10. Application of DNA Typing Technologies in Forensic Medicine

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    Batool Mutar Mahdi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA markers are widely used for crime investigation and paternity testing. Parentage testing interpretation relies on the fact that Short Tandem Repeats are inherited in a true Mendelian fashion and express a codominant nature of allelic variants. DNA microsatellites or Short Tandem Repeats are short, tandemly repeated sequences of a bi-, tri- or tetranucleotide unit with a random distribution throughout the genome. They have been used extensively in applications as diverse as diagnosis of inherited diseases and forensic medicine for DNA fingerprinting and parentage testing. The success of this last application is due to the fact that Short Tandem Repeats are highly polymorphic and, at the same time, they are sufficiently stable to be inherited unaltered from one generation to the next. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 335-346

  11. Personalized Medicine applied to Forensic Sciences: new advances and perspectives for a tailored forensic approach.

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    Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Anna Maria; Borro, Marina; Gentile, Giovanna; Russa, Raffaele La; Simmaco, Maurizio; Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2017-02-07

    Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy". Emerging fields of interest in forensic pathology are represented by diagnosis and detection of predisposing conditions to fatal thromboembolic and hypertensive events, determination of genetic variants related to sudden death, such as congenital long QT syndromes, demonstration of lesions vitality, identification of biological matrices and species diagnosis of a forensic trace on crime scenes without destruction of the DNA. The aim of this paper is to describe the state-of-art in the application of personalized medicine in forensic sciences, to understand the possibilities of integration in routine investigation of these procedures with classical post-mortem studies and to underline the importance of these new updates in medical examiners' armamentarium in determining cause of death or contributing factors to death.

  12. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology.

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    Pollanen, M S

    2016-09-01

    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions.

  13. Practice of clinical forensic medicine in Sri Lanka: does it need a new era?

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    Kodikara, Sarathchandra

    2012-07-01

    Clinical forensic medicine is a sub-specialty of forensic medicine and is intimately associated with the justice system of a country. Practice of clinical forensic medicine is evolving, but deviates from one jurisdiction to another. Most English-speaking countries practice clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology separately while most non-English-speaking countries practice forensic medicine which includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. Unlike the practice of forensic pathology, several countries have informal arrangements to deal with forensic patients and there are no international standards of practice or training in this discipline. Besides, this is rarely a topic of discussion. In the adversarial justice system in Sri Lanka, the designated Government Medical Officers practice both clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. Practice of clinical forensic medicine, and its teaching and training in Sri Lanka depicts unique features. However, this system has not undergone a significant revision for many decades. In this communication, the existing legal framework, current procedure of practice, examination for drunkenness, investigations, structure of referrals, reports, subsequent legal procedures, undergraduate, in-service, and postgraduate training are discussed with suggestions for reforms.

  14. Mitochondria in anthropology and forensic medicine.

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    Grzybowski, Tomasz; Rogalla, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria's role in crucial metabolic pathways is probably the first answer which comes to our minds for the question: what do these tiny organelles serve for? However, specific features of their DNA made them extremely useful also in the field of anthropology and forensics. MtDNA analyses became a milestone in the complex task of unraveling earliest human migrations. Evidence provided by these experiments left no doubts on modern humans origins pointing to Africa being our cradle. It also contributed to interpretation of putative ways of our dispersal around Asia and Americas thousands years ago. On the other hand, analysis of mtDNA is well established and valuable tool in forensic genetics. When other definitely more popular markers give no answer on identity, it is the time to employ information carried by mitochondria. This chapter summarizes not only current reports on the role of mitochondria in forensics and reconstruction of modern humans phylogeny, but also calls one's attention to a broad range of difficulties and constraints associated with mtDNA analyses.

  15. [Forensic medical examinations and teaching: disagreements and discussions within the Brazilian Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Ede

    2015-01-01

    In order to observe the influence wielded by forensic medicine in the development of the field of psychiatry in Brazil, this research note analyzes the debates that took place from May to July 1918 within the Brazilian Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Forensic Medicine over the use of forensic medical examinations as course material in the study of Public Medicine at the Rio de Janeiro School of Medicine. The focus is on how the controversy unfolded within the Society and how this scientific organization influenced the institution of the theoretical and practical training of medical experts.

  16. [The best corrected presenting distance visual acuity in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Jue

    2011-06-01

    At present the sight impairment evaluation in forensic medicine of China is based on the international classification of disease by WHO in 1973. The main measured indicator is "best corrected visual acuity". It is different from "presenting distance visual acuity" in some situations. In the new blindness and vision loss classification made by WHO in 2003, "presenting distance visual acuity" took the place of the "best corrected visual acuity". In the practice of forensic medicine, "presenting distance visual acuity" can not reflect the real visual acuity duo to the exaggeration or disguise of the wounded. We suggest to use "the best corrected presenting distance visual acuity" instead of "presenting distance visual acuity" in order to avoid the influences of the exaggeration or disguise of the wounded.

  17. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  18. [The application of X-ray imaging in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučerová, Stěpánka; Safr, Miroslav; Ublová, Michaela; Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr

    2014-07-01

    X-ray is the most common, basic and essential imaging method used in forensic medicine. It serves to display and localize the foreign objects in the body and helps to detect various traumatic and pathological changes. X-ray imaging is valuable in anthropological assessment of an individual. X-ray allows non-invasive evaluation of important findings before the autopsy and thus selection of the optimal strategy for dissection. Basic indications for postmortem X-ray imaging in forensic medicine include gunshot and explosive fatalities (identification and localization of projectiles or other components of ammunition, visualization of secondary missiles), sharp force injuries (air embolism, identification of the weapon) and motor vehicle related deaths. The method is also helpful for complex injury evaluation in abused victims or in persons where abuse is suspected. Finally, X-ray imaging still remains the gold standard method for identification of unknown deceased. With time modern imaging methods, especially computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are more and more applied in forensic medicine. Their application extends possibilities of the visualization the bony structures toward a more detailed imaging of soft tissues and internal organs. The application of modern imaging methods in postmortem body investigation is known as digital or virtual autopsy. At present digital postmortem imaging is considered as a bloodless alternative to the conventional autopsy.

  19. An unusual pedestrian road trauma: from forensic pathology to forensic veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Paciello, Orlando; Britti, Domenico; Pepe, Francesca; De Luca, Ester; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents have increased in the last decade, pedestrians being the most affected group. At autopsy, it is evident that the most common cause of pedestrian death is central nervous system injury, followed by skull base fractures, internal bleeding, lower limb haemorrhage, skull vault fractures, cervical spinal cord injury and airway compromise. The attribution of accident responsibility can be realised through reconstruction of road accident dynamics, investigation of the scene, survey of the vehicle involved and examination of the victim(s). A case study concerning a car accident where both humans and pets were involved is reported here. Investigation and reconstruction of the crime scene were conducted by a team consisting of forensic pathologists and forensic veterinarians. At the scene investigation, the pedestrian and his dog were recovered on the side of the road. An autopsy and a necropsy were conducted on the man and the dog, respectively. In addition, a complete inspection of the sports utility vehicle (SUV) implicated in the road accident was conducted. The results of the autopsy and necropsy were compared and the information was used to reconstruct the collision. This unusual case was solved through the collaboration between forensic pathology and veterinary forensic medicine, emphasising the importance of this kind of co-operation to solve a crime scene concerning both humans and animals.

  20. An Immediate Death by Seat Belt Compression; a Forensic Medicine Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Najari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although death is a gradual process, sometimes sudden death occurs in a fraction of a minute or seconds. Here we report a 49-year-old man without any underlying disease, which has instantly died in an accident scene due to compression of neck critical elements by a three-point seat belt. The examination of the body and the results of the autopsy, toxicology and pathology tests are described from the viewpoint of forensic medicine.

  1. Mobile markerless augmented reality and its application in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgus, Thomas; Heim, Eric; Haase, Sven; Prüfer, Sabine; Müller, Michael; Seitel, Alexander; Fangerau, Markus; Wiebe, Tamara; Iszatt, Justin; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Hornegger, Joachim; Yen, Kathrin; Maier-Hein, Lena

    2015-05-01

    During autopsy, forensic pathologists today mostly rely on visible indication, tactile perception and experience to determine the cause of death. Although computed tomography (CT) data is often available for the bodies under examination, these data are rarely used due to the lack of radiological workstations in the pathological suite. The data may prevent the forensic pathologist from damaging evidence by allowing him to associate, for example, external wounds to internal injuries. To facilitate this, we propose a new multimodal approach for intuitive visualization of forensic data and evaluate its feasibility. A range camera is mounted on a tablet computer and positioned in a way such that the camera simultaneously captures depth and color information of the body. A server estimates the camera pose based on surface registration of CT and depth data to allow for augmented reality visualization of the internal anatomy directly on the tablet. Additionally, projection of color information onto the CT surface is implemented. We validated the system in a postmortem pilot study using fiducials attached to the skin for quantification of a mean target registration error of [Formula: see text] mm. The system is mobile, markerless, intuitive and real-time capable with sufficient accuracy. It can support the forensic pathologist during autopsy with augmented reality and textured surfaces. Furthermore, the system enables multimodal documentation for presentation in court. Despite its preliminary prototype status, it has high potential due to its low price and simplicity.

  2. [The history of Polish criminalistics and forensic medicine and their links to Austrian science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widacki, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The institution of the medical expert was already known in the early Polish courts. The first Chair of Forensic Medicine on Polish soil was established in 1805 at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow and has existed until today. Among its most prominent forensic scientists are Prof. Fryderyk Hechell (1795-1851), Prof. Leon Blumenstock (1838-1895), who was the first to give regular lectures on forensic medicine for law students, and Prof. Leon Wachholz (1867-1941), who was a student of both Prof. Blumenstock and Prof. Eduard von Hofmann (1837-1897), under whose supervision he worked in Vienna. Under his guidance and supervision, he started to collect material for his habilitation. At that time, Hofmann was considered the pioneer of experimental research in forensic medicine. In Vienna, Wachholz was a guest scientist not only with Prof. von Hofmann, but also in the Psychiatric Hospital of Prof. Richard von Krafft-Ebing. After his return to Cracow, he was head of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the Jagiellonian University for several decades. Apart from forensic medicine in the strict sense of the word, he also worked in the fields now known as criminalistics, forensic psychiatry and criminology. In these latter fields, the influence of Krafft-Ebing was still noticeable. Three students of Wachholz became professors of forensic medicine: Jan Olbrycht, Stanislaw Horoszkiewicz and Włodzimierz Sieradzki. Their students founded a whole generation of forensic scientists. Today, all Polish forensic scientists are either directly or indirectly students of Professor Wachholz' successors.

  3. [Use of personal computers in forensic medicine facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorel, F

    1995-08-01

    The authors present a brief account of possibilities to use computers, type PC, in departments of forensic medicine and discuss basic technical and programme equipment. In the author's opinion the basic reason for using computers is to create an extensive database of post-mortem findings which would make it possible to process them on a large scale and use them for research and prevention. Introduction of computers depends on the management of the department and it is necessary to persuade workers-future users of computers-of the advantages associated with their use.

  4. [Application of computed tomography (CT) examination for forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanik, Andrzej; Chrzan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a own experiences in usage of post mortem CT examination for forensic medicine. With the help of 16-slice CT scanner 181 corpses were examined. Obtained during acquisition imaging data are later developed with dedicated programmes. Analyzed images were extracted from axial sections, multiplanar reconstructions as well as 3D reconstructions. Gained information helped greatly when classical autopsy was performed by making it more accurate. A CT scan images recorded digitally enable to evaluate corpses at any time, despite processes of putrefaction or cremation. If possible CT examination should precede classical autopsy.

  5. Student's perception about innovative teaching learning practices in Forensic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Parekh, Utsav N; Ganjiwale, Jaishree D

    2017-09-11

    Since decades, Forensic Medicine is mainly taught by didactic methods but in last couple of years some other teachinglearning and assessment methods are also introduced at some places which also lacks uniformity. Feedback from learners is most fundamental aspect to assess effectiveness of applied methods, but is not implemented in practice at most medical schools in India. Unfortunately, medical students are deprived of this practical empowerment and thus may not be efficient enough to contribute potentially to the justice system during their professional life. In order to improve their efficiency in the field, we introduced few innovative teaching-learning methods and documented their perceptions. This pilot study was carried out with students who had completed their second professional year (5th semester) of medical curriculum. Students were exposed to few innovative teaching-learning and assessment approaches in addition to conventional methods during their Forensic Medicine term. These approaches were interactivity in large group lecturing, small group activities, student led objective tutorial, court visit in real scenario, practical records book, surprise tests, structured theory question papers, model answers, objective structured practical examinations and structured oral viva. Their perceptions were documented later through structured questionnaire. Students reported all methods as 'interesting' except 'surprise tests'. Court visits were rated highest for generating interest (98%). Clarity of concept was experienced through all methods (range of 71-95%). Interactive large group lectures reported highest (by 95%students) for clarifying concepts, although this is not a typical characteristic of large group teaching. Enhanced learning experience was reported in 75-92.5% for different methods. Student Led Objective Tutorials seemed to facilitate enhance learning most (92.5%). Innovations in teaching-learning are need of hour especially in subject like Forensic

  6. [Classifications in forensic medicine and their logical basis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the main requirements for the correct construction of classifications used in forensic medicine, with special reference to the errors that occur in the relevant text-books, guidelines, and manuals and the ways to avoid them. This publication continues the series of thematic articles of the authors devoted to the logical errors in the expert conclusions. The preparation of further publications is underway to report the results of the in-depth analysis of the logical errors encountered in expert conclusions, text-books, guidelines, and manuals.

  7. Hyperspectral imaging applied to forensic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoff, Donald B.; Oliver, William R.

    2000-03-01

    Remote sensing techniques now include the use of hyperspectral infrared imaging sensors covering the mid-and- long wave regions of the spectrum. They have found use in military surveillance applications due to their capability for detection and classification of a large variety of both naturally occurring and man-made substances. The images they produce reveal the spatial distributions of spectral patterns that reflect differences in material temperature, texture, and composition. A program is proposed for demonstrating proof-of-concept in using a portable sensor of this type for crime scene investigations. It is anticipated to be useful in discovering and documenting the affects of trauma and/or naturally occurring illnesses, as well as detecting blood spills, tire patterns, toxic chemicals, skin injection sites, blunt traumas to the body, fluid accumulations, congenital biochemical defects, and a host of other conditions and diseases. This approach can significantly enhance capabilities for determining the circumstances of death. Potential users include law enforcement organizations (police, FBI, CIA), medical examiners, hospitals/emergency rooms, and medical laboratories. Many of the image analysis algorithms already in place for hyperspectral remote sensing and crime scene investigations can be applied to the interpretation of data obtained in this program.

  8. [Forensic medicine as the cradle of toxicology in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V L; Grebeniuk, A N; Pigolkin, Iu I; Tolmachev, I A; Bozhchenko, A P; Timoshevskiĭ, A A

    2013-01-01

    Modern toxicology as a science and educational subject originated from forensic medicine in the middle of the XIXth century. In the beginning, selected toxicological problems were taught in the Emperor's Medical Surgical Academy (presently S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, Sankt-Peterburg) and at the Medical Faculty of the Moscow University (presently I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow). The greatest contribution to the development of toxicology was made by such outstanding scientists as professors S.A. Gromov, P.P. Pelekhin, P.P. Zablotsky-Desyatovsky, E.V. Pelikan, Ya.A. Chistovich, G.I. Blosfel'd, I.M. Sorokin, D.P. Kosorotov, A.V. Grigoriev, V.V. Andreev, A.A. Glebovich, A.N. Grigoriev, B.I. Predtechensky, V.M. Rozhkov, S.S. Vail, M.N. Lubotsky, etc. The works of these researchers predetermined the further development of toxicology in this country, its main purpose being provision of medical aid in case of poisoning and diseases of chemical etiology. Another line of toxicological research became industrial and environmental toxicology having the purpose of hygienic rating and prevention of poisoning. Nevertheless, all aspects of the multifaceted science of toxicology are related to forensic medicine as the cradle in which it originated, evolved, and turned into a self-consistent science.

  9. [Differences between immediate and 30-day deaths due to traffic injuries according to forensic sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbería, Eneko; Suelves, Josep M; Xifró, Alexandre; Medallo, Jordi

    2015-09-01

    To study immediate (same day of the collision) and delayed (within 30 days of the collision) deaths due to traffic injuries in Catalonia (Spain) according to forensic sources and to assess the differences between the two kinds of deaths. An observational study was conducted of all the traffic accident deaths registered in the Institute of Legal Medicine of Catalonia between January 1(st) 2005 and December 31(st) 2014. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS v.18.0 statistical package. Comparisons of proportions were based on the χ(2) test. During the study period, 4044 deaths due to traffic injuries were recorded. Deaths within 30 days included more women, minors, elderly people, and pedestrians than immediate deaths. Traffic injury deaths in the 30 days following a crash differ from immediate deaths. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. [Progress on Individual Stature Estimation in Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong-qi; Huang, Li-na; Chen, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature estimation is one of the most important contents of forensic anthropology. Currently, it has been used that the regression equations established by the data collected by direct measurement or radiological techniques in a certain group of limbs, irregular bones, and anatomic landmarks. Due to the impact of population mobility, human physical improvement, racial and geographic differences, estimation of individual stature should be a regular study. This paper reviews the different methods of stature estimation, briefly describes the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and prospects a new research direction.

  11. Stereolithography: a potential new tool in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, M S; Cina, S J; Smith, R

    2000-06-01

    Stereolithography is a computer-mediated method that can be used to quickly create anatomically correct three-dimensional epoxy and acrylic resin models from various types of medical data. Multiple imaging modalities can be exploited, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The technology was first developed and used in 1986 to overcome limitations in previous computer-aided manufacturing/milling techniques. Stereolithography is presently used to accurately reproduce both the external and internal anatomy of body structures. Current medical uses of stereolithography include preoperative planning of orthopedic and maxillofacial surgeries, the fabrication of custom prosthetic devices; and the assessment of the degree of bony and soft-tissue injury caused by trauma. We propose that there is a useful, as yet untapped, potential for this technology in forensic medicine.

  12. The development of forensic medicine in the United Kingdom from the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W

    1992-06-01

    Forensic medicine in the United Kingdom includes both forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine on the living. It began at the end of the 18th century, long after its development in Germany, Italy, France, and other countries in Europe. Initial beginnings were in Scotland, where a program began at the University of Edinburgh with the establishment of a chair in Forensic Medicine by Prof. Andrew Duncan Sr. The development in England began in London's Kings College Medical School with a chair held by Prof. William A. Guy. Later chairs in Forensic Medicine were established in Glasgow, Aberdeen, and in London, where Forensic Medicine was taught at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Guy's Hospital Medical School, London Hospital Medical School, Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, St. Thomas Hospital Medical School, and St. George's Hospital Medical School. In other cities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, departments were founded in Leeds, Manchester, Cardiff, and Belfast. Many textbooks were prepared during this time by professors from these medical schools and by others working in nonacademic areas. The development of coroner activities and those of the police surgeons is also part of the study of forensic medicine.

  13. [Ceroplastics and forensic medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, 1934-1950].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreta, Jorge Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the relationships between ceroplastics and the institutionalization of forensic medicine as a discipline at the Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. The wax models, representing diseases or body parts that were the subject of medical forensic investigation, were produced by Augusto Esteves between 1936 and 1960. It is believed that the ceroplastic production represented the program devised by Flamínio Fávero, full professor of forensic medicine between 1923 and 1955. The comparison between the wax pieces at Museu Técnico-Científico (a science and technology museum) at Instituto Oscar Freire and the treatise on forensic medicine by Fávero, first published in 1938, indicates that such a supposition is plausible.

  14. [Unfavorable outcome of medical service: study of the problem in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, S V; Novoselov, V P

    2008-01-01

    The main tendencies in the development and study of the problem of unfavorable outcome and expert assessment of quality of medical aid were examined. Russian and foreign forensic medicine and juristic practice were compared. A combined approach to improve of forensic medical expertise and to prevent delinquencies of medical stuff was proposed.

  15. [On the history of foundation of the Russian Society of Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, V Iu

    2009-01-01

    This analysis of archive documents has revealed unknown facts from the history of the single professional association of forensic medical examiners that existed in the pre-revolutionary Russia. Special attention is given to the contribution made by specialists based at Sankt-Peterburg to the foundation of the Russian Society of Forensic Medicine.

  16. Origin and development of forensic medicine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madani, Osama Mohamed; Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Al Moghannam, Salah Ali; Moulana, Ashraf Abdul Raheem

    2012-06-01

    The medicolegal death investigation system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unique in the world. It is exclusively derived from Islamic judiciary based on Shari'ah law, which is the definitive Islamic law or doctrine. This law is applied on Saudi citizens as well as foreigners. This is different from other Islamic countries, which have a combination of Islamic and other judiciary systems.The forensic medicine centers in KSA are related administratively to the Ministry of Health (MOH) and its subdivisions in the different governorates. They are concerned with forensic medical examination and autopsy, as well as the clinical forensic medical examination of sexual assault cases, and those injured in civil and criminal cases. The assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology, forensic chemistry) are working independently under the funding of MOH, whereas the DNA laboratory and other departments of forensic sciences, for example, counterfeiting and forgery unit are related administratively to the Ministry of Interior represented by the Administration of Criminal Evidences. Efforts concerning crime scene investigations are shared with Administration of Criminal Evidences' crime scene investigators.Forensic medicine education in KSA developed in the past few years after the foundation of Saudi specialty certificate in forensic medicine. The certificate is a postgraduation qualification equivalent to a doctorate degree in forensic medicine and requires completion of a 4-year training program in both MOH- and Ministry of Interior-related departments, as well as passing annual evaluation and examination.This review is aimed at providing in the next decade the medicolegal centers with national forensic specialists throughout the kingdom and granting skillful headships for the next generations. Moreover, this review suggests more scientific associations with the academic universities in the various fields of forensic sciences through academic

  17. [Biochemical indicators of anaphylactic shock and the application in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Li; Chen, Jie; Gao, Wei-Min; Du, Zhong-Bo; Cao, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Bao-Li

    2014-04-01

    Fatal anaphylactic shock is common in forensic practice. However, it is difficult to diagnose for lacking specific pathological and morphologic changes in forensic autopsy. The application of some biochemical indicators is of great significance. This paper reviews the biological characteristics of some biochemical indicators and detection methods. The forensic application, problems and prospects of these indicators are also introduced in details. The stable biochemical indicators, IgE, tryptase and chymase, show great potential and advantages in the identification of fatal anaphylactic shock in forensic medicine.

  18. El aporte de la medicina forense al derecho costarricense Contributions of Forensic Medicine to Costa Rican Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Edwin Retana Corrales

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La Medicina Legal a través de historia costarricense, ha contribuido en facilitar un apoyo importante a la Administración de Justicia, principalmente en todas las actividades judiciales en que sea requerida, así como al Investigador y Ministerio Público en el esclarecimiento de la verdad real en un caso específico. Para comprender mejor el aporte médico forense en sede judicial, se logra extraer una sinopsis histórica a nivel internacional y nacional, continuando por el Primer dictamen médico legal y el desarrollo que ha logrado crear esta disciplina en Costa Rica. También se tratara sobre los concepto y funciones del Médico Forense como perito y la calidad del Trabajo pericial desde la óptica del respeto a los derechos fundamentales del examinado y la dialéctica forense que se da entre la ética del médico forense y su personalidad.Throughout Costa Rican history, Legal Medicine has contributed providing an important support to the Administration of Justice, especially in all judicial activities in which it is required, and to the Investigator and Public Ministry in the elucidating of real truth in a specific case. To understand better the forensic doctor’s contribution in a judicial court, we extract a historic synopsis in an international and national realm, followed by the first medical legal report and the development that this discipline has achieved in Costa Rica. We will also handle the concept and duties of the Forensic Doctor as an expert, the quality of expertise from the viewpoint concerning fundamental rights of the examined and the forensic duality between the Forensic Doctor’s ethics and his/her personality.

  19. [Use of entomologic findings in forensic medicine and criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, V; Hrasko, P; Snopko, M

    1989-08-01

    The submitted paper reacts to the unsatisfactory state as regards the literary treatment, and in particular the practical application of entomology in forensic medicine and criminology. The authors draw attention to the relatively wide perspectives of the application of entomological findings in the mentioned disciplines and define more accurately some terminological and oecological problems. The core of the work is a review of important species of necrophilous insects focused on Coleoptera. This part is introduced by an outline of oecological groups of necrophilous insects, whereby emphasis is given to their claims on habitat and food and their biotopical claims. The account of species is based on the chronological sequence as the insect invade the corpse in different stages of its destruction. Attention is paid also to abiotic (in particular climatic) factors which influence the rate of destruction. As to more extensive possible applications of entomology in the above disciplines, at least the following should be mentioned: 1. Application on the basis of the trophic relationship of insects and he corpses (time of death, possibly post-mortem transport based on investigation of the entomofauna of the corpse). 2. Information on restricted hygienic habits of the dead (the presence of ectoparasitic insects). 3. Passive intoxications, possibly active intoxications by poisonous insects. 4. Insects incidentally found on clothes, motor vehicles etc. during examination. In the conclusion the authors emphasize methodical problems of collection and processing of material and outline the prerequisites for extending and improving the application of entomological findings and methods in the mentioned disciplines.

  20. [Achievements of the Cracow School of Forensic Medicine--on the 200 the anniversary of the Chair of Forensic Medicine--Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Zdzisław

    2006-01-01

    The Chair of Forensic Medicine was established at the Jagiellonian University in 1804. Initially, the Cracow academic institution developed along the similar lines as other Chairs of those times. Considerable progress was made thanks to Professor W. Hechel, who headed the Chair since 1834 and initiated intensive research and didactic activities. His successors, mostly Professors Antoni Bryk and Stanisław Janikowski, extended the Chair, strengthening its importance at the University and in the judicial system. The golden age commenced in 1882, when Professor Leon Blumenstock became Head of the Chair. Other founders of the Cracow School of Forensic Medicine include Professors Leon Wachholz and Jan Olbrycht (1895-1962). It was these two eminent scientists that wrote important textbooks, discovered new methods and helped the Cracow institution to become a significant research center of forensic medicine. Their important achievements include the test for COHb determination in blood of victims of carbon monoxide poisoning (the Wachholz-Sieradzki test), the explanation of death mechanisms involved in violent death by drawning, the development of protocols for opinionating and event reconstruction in cases of violent death by poisoning and mechanical injuries, and the widely accepted theory and medicolegal assessment of medical errors. Other outstanding achievements focused on investigations of biological trace evidence, serohematology in determinations of fatherhood, and--what may be the most important--identification of responsibilities and role of an expert in legal proceedings, and many others. The work of several generations of Cracow forensic medicine specialist has culminated in training a cadre of specialists who became heads of the majority of Chairs of Forensic Medicine in Poland, writing numerous textbooks for students, monographs, hundreds of research papers and an enormous number of medico-legal opinions, the participation in almost all major court

  1. Electronic Data Discovery: Integrating Due Process into Cyber Forensic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Bagby

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Most organizations and government agencies regularly become engaged in litigation with suppliers, customers, clients, employees, competitors, shareholders, prosecutors or regulatory agencies that nearly assures the need to organize, retain, find and produce business records and correspondence, e-mails, accounting records or other data relevant to disputed issues. This article discusses some high visibility cases that constrain how metadata and content is routinely made available to opposing parties in civil litigation, to prosecutors in criminal prosecutions and to agency staff in regulatory enforcement litigation. Public policy, as implemented in the rules of evidence and pretrial discovery, restrict electronic data discovery (EDD as it becomes a predominant and potentially costly pre-trial activity pivotal to modern litigation. This article discusses these constraints while identifying opportunities for the interdisciplinary activities among litigators, forensic experts and information technology professionals.

  2. [The scoring and rating system for the estimation of the teaching efficiency in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buromskiĭ, I V; Kil'diushov, E M

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed a system of criteria for the evaluation of the results of education of forensic medical students based on the scoring and rating scale. The major requirements for the organization of academic activities are considered. It is emphasized that the compliance with these requirements is an indispensable prerequisite for the introduction of the above system in the training routine at the Department of Forensic Medicine.

  3. A Perspective on Veterinary Forensic Pathology and Medicine in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbery, S G; Cooke, S W; Martineau, H M

    2016-09-01

    Internationally, forensic medicine and pathology are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of work done by veterinary clinicians and veterinary pathologists. In this article, a forensic veterinary clinician, a forensic veterinary pathologist in private practice, and a forensic veterinary pathologist at a veterinary school discuss the interactions among veterinary clinicians, veterinary pathologists, and law enforcement agencies and how future interactions can be improved. The focus is on the United Kingdom, but many of the principles, challenges, and suggestions are applicable to other jurisdictions. Clinicians and pathologists require forensic training to enable them to apply their veterinary knowledge to suspected cases of animal abuse and to subsequently present their findings and conclusions to a court of law in a concise, professional, and unbiased manner, and some opportunities for such advanced training in the United Kingdom are indicated. It is important that forensic veterinary clinicians and pathologists interact in an unbiased and collegial manner to answer the questions posed by courts of law. Opportunities for improved training, communication, and interaction among forensic veterinarians, forensic scientists, and law enforcement are discussed.

  4. [Biological characteristics of calliphoridae and its application in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Boa; Wen, Charn; Qi, Li-Li; Wang, He; Wang, Ji

    2013-12-01

    Diptera Calliphoridae is the first major kind of flies that appears on the decomposed corpses. In forensic entomology, according to the living characteristics of Calliphoridae flies, we could accurately estimate postmortem interval (PMI) in a murder or unidentified case and could provide useful clues to solve the case. This paper introduces the characteristics of the biology and morphology of Diptera Calliphoridae, and reviews the combined application of forensic entomology, molecular biology, mathematical morphology and toxicology.

  5. [90th anniversary of the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine Poznan University of Medical Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, Czesław

    2011-01-01

    The paper outlines the history of the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine Poznan University of Medical Sciences since it was established until today. Changes in the appearance and organization of the seat of the institution were discussed briefly. The profiles of all former heads of the Department, their contribution to the development and improvement of the institution and formation of the new scientific forensic medicine staff were presented. The specification and analysis of the scientific staff achievements was performed, especially taking into account their scientific publications and scope of the research that contributed to the efficient service activities for the prosecution and police, as well as society.

  6. Virtual anthropology: useful radiological tools for age assessment in clinical forensic medicine and thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Savall, Frédéric; Rousseau, Hervé; Crubézy, Eric; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Virtual anthropology consists of the introduction of modern slice imaging to biological and forensic anthropology. Thanks to this non-invasive scientific revolution, some classifications and staging systems, first based on dry bone analysis, can be applied to cadavers with no need for specific preparation, as well as to living persons. Estimation of bone and dental age is one of the possibilities offered by radiology. Biological age can be estimated in clinical forensic medicine as well as in living persons. Virtual anthropology may also help the forensic pathologist to estimate a deceased person's age at death, which together with sex, geographical origin and stature, is one of the important features determining a biological profile used in reconstructive identification. For this forensic purpose, the radiological tools used are multislice computed tomography and, more recently, X-ray free imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound investigations. We present and discuss the value of these investigations for age estimation in anthropology.

  7. Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Carpena, Amalio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

    En este trabajo se examina la contribución del discurso médico-forense español del siglo XIX, a través de su aplicación en los casos de agresión sexual, a la legitimación del orden moral sexual de la época. Con este objetivo se analizan los principales tratados de Medicina Forense editados en nuestro país durante ese siglo.

  8. [Building questions in forensic medicine and their logical basis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The authors characterize in brief the requirements to the correct formulation of the questions posed to forensic medical experts with special reference to the mistakes made in building the questions and the ways to avoid them. This article actually continues the series of publications of the authors concerned with the major logical errors encountered in expert conclusions. Further publications will be dedicated to the results of the in-depth analysis of the logical errors contained in the questions posed to forensic medical experts and encountered in the expert conclusions.

  9. [Mono- and dizygotic twins in forensic paternity testing in practice at the Department of Forensic Medicine (Silesian Academy of Medicine, Katowice) in the years 1996-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczek, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    Giving an opinion on disputable paternity, concerning monozygotic twins in practice at the Department of Forensic Medicine (Silesian Academy of Medicine, Katowice) demonstrated their ideal agreement according to examined genetic markers possible. Even the mutation, which was revealed using the RFLP-VNTR method was the same for both twin sisters. In the case of dizygotic twins a firm differentiation of paternity index and probability of paternity was proved. This was the consequence of independent features segregation in first, reductive meiotic division. While the rare, out-ladder allele 16 at the CSF1PO locus was transmitted to both twins: a daughter and a son by the putative father.

  10. History of foreign clinical forensic medicine%国外法医临床学发展史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天潼; 姜竹青

    2016-01-01

    法医临床学是法医学的重要分支学科,正处于蓬勃发展阶段。研究法医临床学的发展史,对明确其定义和实践范畴,维护司法公正,具有重要意义。本文将从“简介、历史溯源、18世纪之后的法医临床学发展、现代法医临床学、世界法医临床学司法实践现状和结语”六个部分介绍法医临床学在国外,尤其是英国的发展历史,促进我国法医临床学的学科建设和发展。%Clinical forensic medicine is a branch of forensic medical practice. Clinical forensic medicine has evolved into a rapidly growing era. Launching a research on the history of clinical forensic medicine is signiifcant to define the discipline boundary of clinical forensic medicine. To demonstrate the historical development of the foreign clinical forensic medicine, this article mainly contains six parts, including“Introduction, Historical References, Clinical Forensic Medicine in Post-Eighteenth Century, Contemporary Clinical Forensic Medicine, Global Clinical Forensic Medicine, and Conclusion”. The history outlined in this article will assist the construction and development of clinical forensic medicine in China.

  11. [Comments on histopathology examinations in forensic medicine -- the importance, indications and basic principles of preserving the tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Zbigniew; Pieśniak, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    Histopathology examinations and their usefulness in postmortem diagnosis and medico-legal expertise have always been regarded extremely important by the Faculty of the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine at the Medical University of Gdansk. The authors postulate acceptance of indication criteria for histopathology examination in forensic autopsies and propose rules for collecting tissue samples from internal organs and the placenta. They also remind the readers of the principles of proceeding with the preserved material. The present paper may be helpful for doctors other than forensic pathologists, who perform autopsies in institutions other than university departments of forensic medicine.

  12. Training in clinical forensic medicine in the UK--perceptions of current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M; Norfolk, Guy A

    2011-08-01

    As clinical forensic medicine (CFM) is not currently recognised as a speciality in the UK there are no nationally agreed mandatory standards for training forensic physicians in either general forensic (GFM) or sexual offence medicine (SOM). The General Medical Council (GMC), the medical regulator in the UK, has issued clear standards for training in all specialities recommending that "trainees must be supported to acquire the necessary skills and experience through induction, effective educational supervision, an appropriate workload and time to learn". In order to evaluate the current situation in the field of clinical forensic medicine, doctors who have recently (within the last two years) started working in the field "trainees" (n = 38), and trainers (n = 61) with responsibility for clinical and educational supervision of new trainees, were surveyed by questionnaire to gather their perceptions of how the relevant GMC standards are being met in initial on-the-job training. Telephone interviews were performed with eleven doctors working as clinical or medical directors to determine their views. It is clear that currently the quality of training in CFM is sub-standard and inconsistent and that the published standards, as to the minimum requirement for training that must be met by post-graduate medical and training providers at all levels, are not being met. The Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) needs to set explicit minimum standards which will comply with the regulator and work to pilot credentialing for forensic physicians. A number of recommendations are made for urgent FFLM development.

  13. Palaeomicrobiology meets forensic medicine: time as a fourth-dimension for the crime scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The unrelenting progress of laboratory techniques is rapidly unleashing the huge potential of palaeomicrobiology. That bodies are often found in poor condition is common to both palaeomicrobiology and forensic medicine, and this might stimulate them towards a joint quest to extract reproducible data for reliable specimens.

  14. Palaeomicrobiology meets forensic medicine: time as a fourth-dimension for the crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaj, A; Turrina, S; De Leo, D; Cornaglia, G

    2015-03-01

    The unrelenting progress of laboratory techniques is rapidly unleashing the huge potential of palaeomicrobiology. That bodies are often found in poor condition is common to both palaeomicrobiology and forensic medicine, and this might stimulate them towards a joint quest to extract reproducible data for reliable specimens.

  15. One small scan for radiology, one giant leap for forensic medicine - Post-mortem imaging replaces forensic autopsy in a case of traumatic aortic laceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Thomas D; Hatch, Gary M; Thali, Michael J; Fischer, Nadja

    2011-01-01

    The questions of cause and manner of death are the most pressing ones in any forensic investigation. Traditionally, autopsy is the means to provide answers to these questions and despite the increasing use of CT and MR in the post-mortem setting, imaging has usually been an adjunct to forensic autopsy. Here we describe a case where post-mortem CT and MR were performed instead of autopsy, at the request of the responsible public prosecutor. The forensic conclusions derived from imaging, including cause and manner of death were accepted by the legal authorities, thereby setting precedence for future cases. This case represents a landmark in forensic medicine and is another step toward the full realization of minimally invasive forensic autopsy.

  16. [Records of the invisible: Visa reperta in 18th- and 19th-century forensic medicine and their role as promoters of pathological-anatomical knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Irmgard; Fangerau, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Case reports in medicine serve as a tool to collect and to transfer knowledge. A special kind of case report in forensic medicine during the 18th and 19th centuries was the so-called Visum repertum. This format of note-taking and of rendering an expert opinion without presuppositions has rarely investigated in the history of medicine. Analyzing Visa reperta the authors argue that due to their special structure and mode of representation Visa reperta not only shaped the practice of forensic medicine but also the standardized examination and documentation in pathological anatomy. Based on previous studies on medical case reports, medical expert witnesses in court and traditions in pathological anatomy the authors examine two examples from the 18th and 19th centuries in order to show how semiological, classifying methods of presenting forensic examinations were replaced by the material aspect of the observation of examination results itself. The examples are a forensic case report by Michael Alberti (1682-1757) from 1728 and a Visum repertum by Joseph Bernt (1770-1842) from 1827. The authors argue that Visa reperta transcended their original forensic purpose and served as a guideline for pathology leading to an understanding of the origin of diseases in organs. They served as a promoter of scientific medicine, and their persuasiveness was backed by factors such as (a) the extreme conditions of forensic practice, (b) the claim to act as a tool for the sound and precise recording of facts and c) the awareness that they documented objects that were destroyed during the process of documentation.

  17. [Racism of "Blood" and colonial medicine - Blood group anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joon Young

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to explore implications of Colonial medicine's Blood Type Studies, concerning the characteristics and tasks of racism in the Japanese Colonial Empire. Especially, it focuses on the Blood Group Anthropology Studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine. In Colonial Korea, the main stream of Blood Type Studies were Blood Group Anthropology Studies, which place Korean people who was inferior to Japanese people in the geography of the race on the one hand, but on the other, put Koreans as a missing link between the Mongolian and the Japanese for fulfillment of the Japanese colonialism, that is, assimilationist ideology. Then, Compared to the Western medicine and Metropole medicine of Japan, How differentiated was this tendency of Colonial Medicine from them? In this paper, main issues of Blood Group Anthropology Studies and its colonial implications are examined. The Korean Society for the History of Medicine.

  18. [Cooperation between emergency and forensic medicine - retrospective evaluation of pre-hospital emergency measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Claas T; Kleber, Christian; Tsokos, Michael; Püschel, Klaus; Hess, Thorsten; Kerner, Thoralf; Stuhr, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Emergency medical research is subject to special conditions. Emergency patients e.g. are generally considered to be non-capable of giving consent. This results in sparse emergency medical data when compared to clinical observation studies under controlled conditions. After emergency medical treatment, deceased patients are not rarely subject to forensic investigation. The cooperation between emergency and forensic medicine has not only emergency medical training potential in individual cases, but also scientific innovation potential especially with respect to the retrospective evaluation of pre-hospital emergency measures. Such partnerships (like in Berlin at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin between the Institute of Legal Medicine and the Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery or in Hamburg between the Institute for Legal Medicine at the University Hospital and the Municipal Fire Brigade with the Emergency Medical Service) are yet exceptional in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Students Who Wish to Specialize in Forensic Medicine vs. Their Fellow Students: Motivations, Attitudes and Reactions during Autopsy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Iliakis, Roussos G.; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos C.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the particular features of students who express the desire to follow a forensic career. Methods and materials: Three hundred and four 6th-year students attending the compulsory practice in forensic medicine in the academic year 2005-2006 were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire at the end of the course.…

  20. Students Who Wish to Specialize in Forensic Medicine vs. Their Fellow Students: Motivations, Attitudes and Reactions during Autopsy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Iliakis, Roussos G.; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos C.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the particular features of students who express the desire to follow a forensic career. Methods and materials: Three hundred and four 6th-year students attending the compulsory practice in forensic medicine in the academic year 2005-2006 were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire at the end of the course.…

  1. DNA typing in forensic medicine and in criminal investigations: a current survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, Mark

    Since 1985 DNA typing of biological material has become one of the most powerful tools for personal identification in forensic medicine and in criminal investigations [1-6]. Classical DNA 〝fingerprinting'' is increasingly being replaced by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technology which detects very short polymorphic stretches of DNA [7-15]. DNA loci which forensic scientists study do not code for proteins, and they are spread over the whole genome [16, 17]. These loci are neutral, and few provide any information about individuals except for their identity. Minute amounts of biological material are sufficient for DNA typing. Many European countries are beginning to establish databases to store DNA profiles of crime scenes and known offenders. A brief overview is given of past and present DNA typing and the establishment of forensic DNA databases in Europe.

  2. [Prof. Maria Byrdy--Doctor Honoris Causa AMB 1990, the founder of the Chair of Forensic Medicine, the first head of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Bialystok in 1954-1984].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janica, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper portrays the scientific, publicist and teaching activities of Prof. M. Byrdy, with special regard to her residence at the Departments of Forensic Medicine in Cracow (1939-1953) and Bialystok (1954-1984).

  3. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) accreditation of forensic pathology services in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, P; Bonbled, F; Väli, M; Luna, A; Bajanowski, T; Hougen, H P; Ludes, B; Ferrara, D; Cusack, D; Keller, E; Vieira, N

    2015-03-01

    Forensic experts play a major role in the legal process as they offer professional expert opinion and evidence within the criminal justice system adjudicating on the innocence or alleged guilt of an accused person. In this respect, medico-legal examination is an essential part of the investigation process, determining in a scientific way the cause(s) and manner of unexpected and/or unnatural death or bringing clinical evidence in case of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse in living people. From a legal perspective, these types of investigation must meet international standards, i.e., it should be independent, effective, and prompt. Ideally, the investigations should be conducted by board-certified experts in forensic medicine, endowed with a solid experience in this field, without any hierarchical relationship with the prosecuting authorities and having access to appropriate facilities in order to provide forensic reports of high quality. In this respect, there is a need for any private or public national or international authority including non-governmental organizations seeking experts qualified in forensic medicine to have at disposal a list of specialists working in accordance with high standards of professional performance within forensic pathology services that have been successfully submitted to an official accreditation/certification process using valid and acceptable criteria. To reach this goal, the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) has elaborated an accreditation/certification checklist which should be served as decision-making support to assist inspectors appointed to evaluate applicants. In the same spirit than NAME Accreditation Standards, European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) board decided to set up an ad hoc working group with the mission to elaborate an accreditation/certification procedure similar to the NAME's one but taking into account the realities of forensic medicine practices in Europe and restricted to post

  4. [History Of forensic medicine and the coroner system in the town of Bjelovar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, Dubravko

    2013-09-01

    This review analyses historical sources on the development of forensic medicine and the coroner system in the town of Bjelovar over the past two centuries. The development of these two professional fields in the context of public health was regulated through a number of bylaws, such as Normativum Sanitatum from the time of the Habsburg Monarchy. Coroner examinations were performed by physicians, surgeons, and laymen using special instructions such as the famous booklet by nobleman and county medical officer Vilim Peičić from 1914. Forensic autopsy was performed by surgeons, primary or secondary hospital physicians in case of sudden or suspicious in-hospital deaths, whereas outpatient forensic autopsies were performed by county or town medical officers and district physicians at the request of investigating authorities (police, court, or general attorney's office). This historical review should serve as the basis for further historical research into this field in Croatia so as to obtain deeper insight into the development of forensic medicine and the coroner system, two professions that have always been a vital factor in public health.

  5. A NORTHWEST DATABASE MODEL OF SHORT TANDEM REPEAT LOCI IN FORENSIC MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振原; 朱波峰; 刘雅诚; 严江伟; 霍振义; 金天博; 李涛; 樊拴良; 方杰

    2003-01-01

    Objective To establish the northwest database of short tandem repeat(STR) loci in forensic medicine. Methods Bloodstains or whole blood samples were collected from the unrelated prisoners in Xi'an city. Genetic distribution for 13 STR loci and amelogenin locus were determined in prisons based on GeneScan. One primer for each locus was labeled with the fluorescent by 5-FAM, JOE, or NED. The forensic database were generated by using multiple amplification, GeneScan, genotype, and genetic distribution analysis. Results 113 alleles and 302 genotypes were observed, with the corresponding frequency between 0.0050-0.5250 and 0.0100-0.4100. The mean H was 0.7667. The accumulative DP was 0.9999999,. The accumulative EPP was 0.9999999. The scope of PIC was 0.6036-0.8562. PM was less than 10-11. The observed and expected genotype frequencies were evaluated using χ2-test and all were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). Conclusion STR loci is an ideal genetic marker with powerful polymorphism and stable heredity. It can be used for individual identification and paternity in forensic medicine. The forensic DNA database model can be established successfully.

  6. [Pages from the history of the Department of Forensic Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, E N; Romanenko, G Kh; Sidorovich, Iu V

    2012-01-01

    The history of the Department of Forensic Medicine of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University is highlighted based on the results of the studies of the relevant literature data and archival materials. The authors lay special emphasis on the organization of the teaching process and research at different stages of the development of the Department, scientific and forensic medical activities of its leading specialists, materials obtained in the course of research, and the contribution to the development of forensic medicine made by outstanding scientists.

  7. [Advancement in methods of evaluation on bone fracture healing and its application in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-fei

    2011-02-01

    It is frequently encountered to identify the time of bone fracture in forensic medicine. Hence it is important to develop the methods for evaluating the time of bone fracture. This article reviews the applications and values of the methods such as ultrasonic evaluation, impulse measurement, digital imaging technology and bone mineral density testing technology, etc. It is proposed that to use these methods jointly may provide more scientific evidence in determine the time of bone fracture.

  8. Sexual Abuse Directed to Children Admitted to Kocaeli University School of Medicine Department of Forensic Medicine 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başar Çolak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is the abuse of the child, who has not yet completed his/her sexual development, by an adult for sexual arousal. Misdiagnosed sexual abuse is the cause of either suspect’s being punished or harming of unguilt as well as preventing children’s protection. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate child sexual abuse cases with their characteristics and examination periods which are informed to Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine. Between 1998-2006, the reports and files of cases at the registers of Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, examined retrospectively. Fifty cases (3,1%under the heading of sexual abuse are included in the study. It is determined that 62% of cases are females, 38% of them are males and 60 % of the cases are under the age of 12. It is also determined that suspects are mostly the cases’ acquaintances (70% and all of suspects are males. In the 36% (n= 18 of the cases, the questions are asked towards physical diagnosis, in 50% (n = 25 of the cases, the questions were oriented towards mental health, while 14% (n=7 of the cases are examined through both physical and mental evaluations. Impairment of mental health which can be considered as the result of sexual abuse are determined in the 60,5% (n=23 of 38 mental-oriented cases. After recent legal arrangement, a significant increase in sexual abuses is observed and recorded in Department of Forensic Medicine. The organisation and functioning of the units connected to the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Justice are considered unsuitable for the evaluation of sexual abuse. Foundation of Center of Sexual Abuse Evaluation would provide early treatment of present or probable pathologies as well as precise diagnosis. Key words: Child, sexual abuse, mental evaluation, child psychiatry

  9. Polish forensic medicine A.D. 2016 – report of the National Consultant

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    Grzegorz Teresiński

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the current state and basis of functioning of an academic model of forensic expert activities in Poland and perspectives of their further development. The study material included information obtained from a preliminary survey among regional consultants within the ongoing activities of the national consultant team. The recently completed period of research infrastructure support within the policy of coherence of the European Union contributed to significant advances in scientific-educational potential of the majority of university forensic medicine centres. However, the improved educational base and purchases of new diagnostic devices were not associated with a considerable increase in staff resources of individual units, which finally decides about the renown of the entire discipline. It is necessary to undertake initiatives to highlight the importance of forensic medicine as a separate medical field and to increase the number of physicians starting specialist trainings. A highly profiled nature of the speciality necessitates cooperation with other centres and receptiveness to clinical fields. The establishment of various forms of cooperation is a measure of optimal use of equipment and stimulation of multi-centre research.

  10. Role of forensic medicine in evaluating non-fatal physical violence against women by their husbands in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedr-Rahman, Hasan; Salameh, Hafsah Omar; Salameh, Rakiz J; Alabdallat, Laith I; Al-Abdallat, Imad M

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is a major health problem in most nations, but to date, there has been little awareness of the extent or seriousness of this issue in Jordan. Forensic medical practitioners play a significant role in diagnosing, evaluating and reporting these cases. The Jordanian judicial system is dependent on forensic reports. This study aims to assess the role of forensic medicine in evaluating the physical injuries sustained by women who are abused by their husbands. A retrospective review of 158 forensic reports of Jordanian women alleging assault by their husbands and who were seen at Jordan University Hospital over the period 2010-2015. Of the 158 women who presented, 87 had multiple injuries. The majority of injuries were soft tissue injuries, but others included fractures, tympanic membrane perforation, burns and neck contusions. Twelve women were pregnant at the time of the assessment. The period of incapacity caused by these injuries (an important factor for the Jordanian judicial system) was between 1 and 14 days. Intimate partner violence can present with a range of injuries from relatively minor to potentially disabling or life threatening. Forensic medicine has a role in documenting and evaluating these injuries and advising the judicial system in these cases. These are all key elements in increasing the awareness of the nature and extent of this behavior and its impact on women (and men) and the wider society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology of gunshot bodies referred for forensic medicine in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazaher Ghorbani

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Based on results of this study, age of victims is higher than previously ob-served patterns, such as gender of victims, location of shots, type of weapon used is different with international reports due to differences in availability of Iranian weapons and cultural differences. The results of this study can be a base for other investigations’s changes in trends of total firearm death rates, mass fatal shooting incidents, rates of firearm homicide, suicide and unintentional firearm deaths, and of total homicides and suicides.

  12. Clinical and forensic medicine issues in osteoporosis fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfetta, Luigi; Caldo, Davide

    2011-04-01

    Severe osteoporosis is characterized by a densitometry T-score lower than 2.5 associated with one or more fragility fractures. Fragility fractures represent a serious social and economic problem; the diagnosis of osteoporosis is an unachieved target by orthopaedic surgeons, despite the chance to detect it in many clinical assets and the availability of effective treatment tools. It is necessary to stick to scientific society guidelines, thus avoiding legal consequences related to the diagnosis, the therapy, the prescription coherence and the correct information due to patients.

  13. The role of 3DCT for the evaluation of chop injuries in clinical forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittschieber, Daniel; Beck, Laura; Vieth, Volker; Hahnemann, Maria L

    2016-09-01

    As hatchet blows to the human head frequently cause fatal injuries, the forensic examination of survivors with cranial chop injuries is a rare phenomenon in forensic casework. Besides evaluation of clinical records, photographs, and medico-legal physical examination, the analysis and 3-dimensional reconstruction of pre-treatment computed tomography data (3DCT) must be considered an important and indispensable tool for the assessment of those cases because the characteristics of chopping trauma often appear masked or changed by clinical treatment. In the present article, the role of 3DCT for the evaluation of chop wounds in clinical forensic medicine is demonstrated by an illustrative case report of a young man who was attacked with a hatchet. 3DCT provides additional possibilities for supplementing missing information, such as number and direction of blows as well as weapon identification. Furthermore, 3DCT facilitates demonstration in court and understanding of medical lay people. We conclude that 3DCT is of particular value for the evaluation of survivors of life-threatening head and face injury. An increasing significance of this technique may be expected.

  14. Recommendations for teaching upon sensitive topics in forensic and legal medicine in the context of medical education pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kieran M; Scriver, Stacey

    2016-11-01

    Undergraduate medical curricula typically include forensic and legal medicine topics that are of a highly sensitive nature. Examples include suicide, child abuse, domestic and sexual violence. It is likely that some students will have direct or indirect experience of these issues which are prevalent in society. Those students are vulnerable to vicarious harm from partaking in their medical education. Even students with no direct or indirect experience of these issues may be vulnerable to vicarious trauma, particularly students who are especially empathetic to cases presented. Despite these risks, instruction relating to these topics is necessary to ensure the competencies of graduating doctors to respond appropriately to cases they encounter during their professional careers. However, risk can be minimised by a well-designed and thoughtfully delivered educational programme. We provide recommendations for the successful inclusion of sensitive forensic and legal medicine topics in undergraduate medical curricula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. [Toxic hepatitis due to the use of Ruta herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaev, Elena; Zeller, Lior; Biton, Amnon; Barski, Leonid

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, the use of herbal medicine by the general population is increasing. There are many known side effects resulting from these treatments. Despite the known side effects, physicians tend to neglect the anamnesis details regarding this issue and research budgets of these drugs are relatively low compared with conventional medicine, thus causing a lack of updated information. In this case report, we present an example of toxic hepatitis due to use of Ruta herbal medicine, an unfamiliar side effect of the common herbal medicine Ruta.

  16. Efficacy of DNA typing as an accurate method in forensic medicine

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    Namazi H

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA typing is a new method with important applications in forensic medicine. In the present study, we evaluated application of DNA typing in Iran. Loci Hum LPL, Hum Tpox, Hum F13, Hum vw 31A, Hum TH01 and Hum FES/FPS of DNA short tandem repeats were studied. To determine sensitivity of the test, 85 mother-child couples (1020 chromosomes that were referred to DNA section of legal medicine organization of Iran were included and for determination of it's specificity 42 brother-sister couples (1200 chromosomes and 58 non-relative couples were examined. The results show lack of mutations in the studied loci and acceptable sensitivity of the test. Of 12 alleles of siblings, there were 2-6 differences, in contrast with 3-9 differences in non-relatives, so the test has 100% specificity in these loci. Considering polymorphism, power of exclusion of these 6 sites was 99%.

  17. Student's perspectives on objective structured practical examination (OSPE) in Forensic Medicine - a report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod Kumar, G N; Sentitoshi; Nath, Dhritiman; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to know the perceptions of students regarding objective structured practical examination (OSPE) as a tool for assessment in Forensic Medicine. The present study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute (MGMCRI), Pondicherry, India. Undergraduate medical students of the 4th semester were enrolled in the study to know their perceptions regarding OSPE. The students were briefed regarding OSPE with a PowerPoint presentation and interaction. An examination was conducted using OSPE with10 stations and a total of 74 students participated in the study. The feedback was collected using a preformed proforma consisting of 12 items and analyzed. Most of the participants (82.4%) agreed that OSPE is a better method of examination than the conventional/traditional practical examination. The majority of the participants (77.0%) said that the OSPE covered wide range of knowledge than the conventional practical examination. A large number of students (63.5%) were of the opinion that the OSPE may be exhausting and stressful if number of stations are increased. Overall a larger proportion of the participants preferred OSPE over the conventional practical examination considering the various attributes examined in the study.

  18. Forensic medicine in South Africa: associations between medical practice and legal case progression and outcomes in female murders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forensic medicine has been largely by-passed by the tide of health systems research and evidence based medicine. Murder victims form a central part of forensic medical examiners' case load, and women murdered by intimate partners are an important subgroup, representing the most severe form and consequence of intimate partner violence. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of female murder in South Africa (by intimate and non-intimate partners; and to describe and compare autopsy findings, forensic medical management of cases and the contribution of these to legal outcomes. METHODS: We did a retrospective national study in a proportionate random sample of 25 medico-legal laboratories to identify all homicides in 1999 of women aged 14 years and over. Data were abstracted from the mortuary file and autopsy report, and collected from a police interview. FINDINGS: In 21.5% of cases the perpetrator was convicted. Factors associated with a conviction for the female murders included having a history of intimate partner violence 1.18 (95%CI: 0.16-2.20, weapon recovered 1.36 (95% CI:0.58-2.15 and a detective visiting the crime scene 1.57 (95% CI:0.14-3.00. None of the forensic medical activities increased the likelihood of a conviction. CONCLUSION: The findings raise important questions about the role of forensic medicine in these cases.

  19. [The contribution of N.I. Pirogov to the development of forensic medicine (on the occasion of his 200th birthday anniversary)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, V D; Tolmachev, I A; Ozeretskovskiĭ, L B; Tiurin, M V; Belousova, O D

    2011-01-01

    The main facets of professor N.I. Pirogov's professional activity are outlined. Forensic medicine (in the first place its organizational and practical aspects) was an integral component of his scientific and clinical work, along with applied anatomy and surgery. Landmark publications of N.I. Pirogov are listed with special reference to those concerned with forensic medical expertise of medical malpractice cases, postmortem inspection and intravital examination procedures, wound ballistics studies, the atlas of forensic pathology, etc. The surgeon and anatomist N.I. Pirogov can be justly regarded as a founder of forensic medicine in this country.

  20. Forensic science in the context of Islamic law: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Theeb; Aljerian, Khaldoon; Golding, Bartholomew; Alqahtani, Sakher

    2015-08-01

    Even though it is still in its nascent phase, forensic science has already encountered strong resistance in Saudi Arabia due to its incompatibility with their present legal system. What follow is a review on the status of forensic medicine and its future in terms of acceptance and use in legal action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) accreditation of forensic pathology services in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangin, P; Bonbled, F; Väli, M

    2015-01-01

    with high standards of professional performance within forensic pathology services that have been successfully submitted to an official accreditation/certification process using valid and acceptable criteria. To reach this goal, the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) has elaborated...... an accreditation/certification checklist which should be served as decision-making support to assist inspectors appointed to evaluate applicants. In the same spirit than NAME Accreditation Standards, European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) board decided to set up an ad hoc working group with the mission...... process, determining in a scientific way the cause(s) and manner of unexpected and/or unnatural death or bringing clinical evidence in case of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse in living people. From a legal perspective, these types of investigation must meet international standards, i...

  2. [Paternity exclusion tests in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralewska-Kordel, Małgorzata; Kordel, Krzysztof; Przybylski, Zygmunt; Wiśniewski, Sławomir A

    2006-01-01

    The study comprises the analysis of expert's hemogenetic reports carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, in the years 1980-2004 and associated with paternity determination or exclusion. In the analyzed period, the authors established 1064 cases of paternity exclusion in serological tests, 97 paternity exclusions in the HLA examinations, and 129 cases of paternity exclusions processed in DNA testing. On the base of gene frequencies, the theoretical chance of paternity exclusion was determined for every test. The significant usefulness of DNA testing in legal processes did not cause an increase in the percentage of paternity exclusions. Moreover, the authors observed a significant decrease in the number of paternity exclusions in comparison with results of serological tests (from 24.25% to 19.43%). With the drop in the number of births, the number of expert's reports significantly decreased.

  3. Evaluation of physical and mental health of sexual assault cases applied to forensic medicine department

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    Mustafa Korkmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, to assess the sexual assault victims considering sociodemographic and forensic psychiatry who were examined by our Board of Physical and Mental Health was aimed. Methods: The cases who were examined in Board of Physical and Mental Health in Forensic medicine Department of Dicle University, Faculty of Medicine were assessed retrospectively in terms of age, gender, marital status, education level, relation of the victim with the accused, presence of penetration and disruption of physical and mental health. Results: Among 258 cases, who referred to our board, 196 were female and 62 were male. The age range of the victims was 2 to 50 and average age was detected as 13.1 ± 5.9 years. It was determined that 227 (88% cases were under 18 years and 31 cases (12% were above 18 years. Vaginal and anal penetration was claimed in 48 and 61 cases, respectively; oral + anal penetration was claimed in 11 cases; both vaginal and oral penetration was claimed in two cases. Among 258 cases, 144 cases had no physical and mental disruption; 49 cases were diagnosed with mental and physical health disruption and 65 cases were followed by issuing a preliminary report. Conclusion: As a result of our study any significant relation is not found between impairment in psychological health and sex, marital status, educational level of the victim, age groups, the age difference between the victim and the defendant. Therefore, it is understood that either men or women, married or single, educated or uneducated people are affected emotionally as bad as from sexual assault. This supports the idea that, especially in cases that any findings cannot be obtained with genital and physical examination, psychological evaluation may be important.

  4. Exhumation research concerning the victims of political repressions in 1945-1956 in Poland: A new direction in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Lukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Konczewski, Paweł; Kawecki, Jerzy; Swiątek, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland), the bodies of 223 prisoners were exhumed, including the victims of political repressions and prosecutions in the period 1949-1954, during which people fighting for the independence of Poland were executed and buried in unidentified graves in various graveyards. It was the first exhumation conducted in Poland on such a large scale. The aim of the present publication is to describe the new direction in forensic medicine employed in these exhumations, which resulted from the new opportunities created by the opening of the state archives after the political transformation of 1989. The authors describe the difficulties they encountered during their exploration of prisoners' burial grounds. The graveyards included in the investigation bear the marks of an intentional policy of confusion and secret burial methods. First, significant disorder in the logical (based on time of death) sequence of burials was observed. This made identification difficult. A substantial time lapse between death and burial in each case, along with the unavailability of comparative data, limited the use of identification methods widely employed in forensic medicine. For this reason, initial analysis had to be based on observations and confirmations made by forensic medicine about the sequence of burials as compared to cemetery documentation. Situations such as this clearly call for the cooperation of historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and forensic pathologists. Political transformations in Eastern Europe in the 1990s gave rise to hopes of exchanging experiences in this type of research as conducted in other countries of the former Eastern Bloc.

  5. [Development of forensic thanatology through the prism of analysis of postmortem protocols collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    When assessed based on the analysis of postmortem protocols, the successes of forensic thanatology appear to differ from those that might be assumed using as the foundation a review of publications and textbooks. The greatest achievements date back to as early as the 18th and 19th centuries, when the morphological changes observed in the majority of types of deaths resulting from disease-associated and traumatic causes were described. Within the past 130 years, however, or in other words, in the period when autopsy protocols were written that are today collected in the archives of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine, the causes and mechanisms of death became understood even when the said factors were associated with discrete postmortem changes only or no no such changes whatsoever were left. At the end of the 19th century and for a long time afterwards, a difficult problem was posed by sudden deaths, where the postmortem examinations demonstrated solely atherosclerosis and the cause of death was described as "heart palsy". As it turned out, a great portion of such deaths represented individuals with myocardial infarction; in spite of its evident macroscopic presentation, the diagnostic management of the disease was progressing very slowly. Myocardial infarction, known at least since 1912, was associated by forensic medicine with the phenomenon of sudden death only in the forties, and the ability to detect myocardial infarction in practice developed only in the fifties of the last century. The achievement of the present dissertation is the formulation of a theory ascribing such a long delay in macroscopic diagnostics of myocardial infarction to forensic medicine specialists being attached to and fond of employing the "in situ" autopsy technique, which was unfavorable from the viewpoint of heart examination, since the organ was not dissected free and removed from the body in the course of a postmortem examination. When autopsies started to concentrate on

  6. [Common paths of psychiatry and forensic medicine--history and evolution of insanity defense concept from antiquity to modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolechała, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry and psychology were in their beginnings inseparably associated with the forensic medicine, constituting one of its related branches of knowledge. Progress and development of these disciplines, education and the practical application for the purposes of the law were a contribution of a several generations of forensic pathologists in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the major issues of common interest was opinionating on the sanity of offenders. However, the problem of criminal responsibility of the mentally ill perpetrators dates back to much earlier times and has its roots in the distant beginnings of human civilization. In this paper, the history and evolution of the insanity concept (as a circumstance excluding the guilt of the offender) were presented, from the oldest theories to ideas underlying modern codifications.

  7. Clinical forensic medicine and its main fields of activity from the foundation of the German Society of Legal Medicine until today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, S

    2004-09-10

    The fields mainly covered by clinical forensic medicine are subject to time-related changes which are described on the basis of the German literature of the 20th century. Some fields of forensic sexual medicine (diagnosis of virginity, proof of criminal abortion, potentia coeundi, potentia generandi, potentia concipiendi) have become less important in the daily work of medicolegal institutes, whereas victims of rape and sexual abuse continue to form a major part of the forensic examination material in the German-speaking countries. The evaluation of suspected physical child abuse has grown in importance since the 60s, and it is essentially the merit of Elisabeth Trube-Becker that this problem is now dealt with also in scientific medicine. More recently, medicolegal experts are increasingly confronted with further groups of persons: victims of domestic violence, abused/neglected seniors, refugees from countries where torture is used. A new special field, which established itself only in the 90s, is the estimation of age with regard to the criminal responsibility of suspects who have no identity papers or pretend to have none. A phenomenon frequently observed in the last two decades is the non-accidental self-infliction of injuries. Whereas in the first half of the 20th century the motive for self-mutilation was typically to evade military service, this category of injury was later mainly seen in the context of insurance fraud; more recently most forensically relevant self-inflicted injuries refer to simulated offenses (fictitious sexual offenses and robbery, attacks allegedly having a political background). One of the traditional fields of clinical forensic medicine continues to be the evaluation of victims and suspects following bodily harm and attempted homicides. In the field of civil law medicolegal experts are particularly often concerned with controversial consequences of traffic accidents (e.g. alleged whiplash injuries after rear-end collisions at low

  8. Socio-demographic characteristics of transsexuals referred to the forensic medicine center in southwest of Iran

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    A Hedjazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transsexualism or gender identity disorder affects person′s gender identity. Aim: This study was to describe socio-demographic characteristics in a population of transsexuals. Materials and Methods: We studied 44 persons of both sexes with diagnostic criteria of gender identity disorder who were referred to the Legal Medicine Organization of Fars, southwest of Iran during the time period 2005-2010. The general practitioners examined the following socio-demographic characteristics and then recorded them in a semi-structured questionnaire, which was developed by the Forensic Medicine Center in Shiraz: Sex, age, educational level, place of residence, marital status, duration of treatment, and employment status. Results: A total of 44 persons (18 (40.9% males versus 26 (59.1% females were referred for sex change during the study period. The sex ratio was 0.69:1. The mean age was 27.6 ± 2.9 years. The majority of patients were diploma and higher diploma education (77.3%, lived in urban areas (81.8%, were employed (56.9%, were single (93.1%, and were under six months of hormonal treatment (61.4%. Conclusions: It seems that social acceptance is lower for male to female transsexuals, since these patients have lower employment and literacy statuses. Further studies should be designed to evaluate and deeper analyze more socio-demographic, clinical, and psychiatric variables about transsexual patients.

  9. Google Glass for documentation of medical findings: evaluation in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; von Jan, Ute; Kuebler, Joachim; Zoeller, Christoph; Lacher, Martin; Muensterer, Oliver J; Ettinger, Max; Klintschar, Michael; Hagemeier, Lars

    2014-02-12

    Google Glass is a promising premarket device that includes an optical head-mounted display. Several proof of concept reports exist, but there is little scientific evidence regarding its use in a medical setting. The objective of this study was to empirically determine the feasibility of deploying Glass in a forensics setting. Glass was used in combination with a self-developed app that allowed for hands-free operation during autopsy and postmortem examinations of 4 decedents performed by 2 physicians. A digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera was used for image comparison. In addition, 6 forensic examiners (3 male, 3 female; age range 23-48 years, age mean 32.8 years, SD 9.6; mean work experience 6.2 years, SD 8.5) were asked to evaluate 159 images for image quality on a 5-point Likert scale, specifically color discrimination, brightness, sharpness, and their satisfaction with the acquired region of interest. Statistical evaluations were performed to determine how Glass compares with conventionally acquired digital images. All images received good (median 4) and very good ratings (median 5) for all 4 categories. Autopsy images taken by Glass (n=32) received significantly lower ratings than those acquired by DSLR camera (n=17) (region of interest: z=-5.154, Pforensic medicine, but the image quality was inferior compared to a DSLR camera. Images taken with Glass received significantly lower ratings for all 4 categories in an autopsy setting and for region of interest and brightness in postmortem examination. The effort necessary for achieving the objectives was higher when using the device compared to the DSLR camera thus extending the postmortem examination duration. Its relative high power consumption and low battery capacity is also a disadvantage. At the current stage of development, Glass may be an adequate tool for education. For deployment in clinical care, issues such as hygiene, data protection, and privacy need to be addressed and are currently limiting

  10. Age determination of blood spots in forensic medicine by force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Stefan; Zink, Albert; Kada, Gerald; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Peschel, Oliver; Heckl, Wolfgang M; Nerlich, Andreas G; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2007-07-20

    We present a new tool for the estimation of the age of bloodstains, which could probably be used during forensic casework. For this, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) for high-resolution imaging of erythrocytes in a blood sample and the detection of elasticity changes on a nanometer scale. For the analytic procedure we applied a fresh blood spot on a glass slide and started the AFM detection after drying of the blood drop. In a first step, an overview image was generated showing the presence of several red blood cells, which could easily be detected due to their typical "doughnut-like" appearance. The consecutively morphological investigations in a timeframe of 4 weeks could not show any alterations. Secondly, AFM was used to test the elasticity by recording force-distance curves. The measurements were performed immediately after drying, 1.5 h, 30 h and 31 days. The conditions were kept constant at room temperature (20 degrees C) and a humidity of 30%. The obtained elasticity parameters were plotted against a timeline and repeated several times. The elasticity pattern showed a decrease over time, which are most probably influenced by the alteration of the blood spot during the drying and coagulation process. The preliminary data demonstrates the capacity of this method to use it for development of calibration curves, which can be used for estimation of bloodstain ages during forensic investigations.

  11. Analysis of Forensic Medicine questions in the undergraduate medical curriculum of the University of Peradeniya , Sri Lanka

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    DH Edussuriya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Forensic Medicine is a subject in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Sri Lanka. Several evaluations comprising of essay and structured essay types of questions are used for the evaluation of students. Since recent trends in medical education stresses the importance of promoting higher order thinking, such as analyzing and evaluating, rather than just remembering facts it was decided to conduct a study with a view to determining the cognitive level of the essay and structured essay type of questions in Forensic Medicine Method Essay and structured essay types of questions of the first four years of the MBBS program from the year 2006 to 2012 were categorized according to the Bloom’s taxonomy. Results A majority of questions were knowledge based while a considerable number were of the comprehension and application types. The proportion of questions of the synthesis and analysis were less while there was a moderate number of the evaluation type of questions. Observations made between the years revealed that there was a tendency for a decrease in the proportion of knowledge-based questions from the 1st year to the 4th years with an increase in the proportion of synthesis type of questions. Conclusion A majority of questions in Forensic medicine require lower cognitive abilities. However, there is a tendency towards questions, which require higher cognitive abilities with progression in to the senior years of the medical course.

  12. ATTITUDE AND KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS ON PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF FORENSIC MEDICINE

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    Nihal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explored medical students’ knowledge and attitude on the medico - legal autopsy demonstrations which formed part of their training in Forensic Medicine. 300 students of 2010, 2011 and 2012 batch of college were obtained by asking them to answer a questionnaire on the subject. The students were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire which dealt with their views on the autopsy practice, the knowledge of the procedure, attitude and perception towards medico legal autopsy. In present study majority of the students were aware of the situations where medico legal postmortem examination is mandatory as per Indian law and taking out of viscera for chemical analysis and histo - pathological examination for the purpose of medico - legal autopsy. 96% of the students agreed that autopsy is necessary in medical education. 37.95% of the students were very uncomfortable on the first exposure to postmortem examination. This study showed that medical students appreciate the medico - legal autopsy demonstration as a learning experience.

  13. Flexible regression models for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Barús, José Ignacio; Febrero-Bande, Manuel; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen

    2008-10-30

    Correct determination of time of death is an important goal in forensic medicine. Numerous methods have been described for estimating postmortem interval (PMI), but most are imprecise, poorly reproducible and/or have not been validated with real data. In recent years, however, some progress in PMI estimation has been made, notably through the use of new biochemical methods for quantifying relevant indicator compounds in the vitreous humour. The best, but unverified, results have been obtained with [K+] and hypoxanthine [Hx], using simple linear regression (LR) models. The main aim of this paper is to offer more flexible alternatives to LR, such as generalized additive models (GAMs) and support vector machines (SVMs) in order to obtain improved PMI estimates. The present study, based on detailed analysis of [K+] and [Hx] in more than 200 vitreous humour samples from subjects with known PMI, compared classical LR methodology with GAM and SVM methodologies. Both proved better than LR for estimation of PMI. SVM showed somewhat greater precision than GAM, but GAM offers a readily interpretable graphical output, facilitating understanding of findings by legal professionals; there are thus arguments for using both types of models. R code for these methods is available from the authors, permitting accurate prediction of PMI from vitreous humour [K+], [Hx] and [U], with confidence intervals and graphical output provided. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Metallothionein-I/II in brain injury repair mechanism and its application in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Li, Ru-bo; Lin, Ju-li

    2013-10-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a kind of metal binding protein. As an important member in metallothionein family, MT-I/II regulates metabolism and detoxication of brain metal ion and scavenges free radicals. It is capable of anti-inflammatory response and anti-oxidative stress so as to protect the brain tissue. During the repair process of brain injury, the latest study showed that MT-I/II could stimulate brain anti-inflammatory factors, growth factors, neurotrophic factors and the expression of the receptor, and promote the extension of axon of neuron, which makes contribution to the regeneration of neuron and has important effect on the recovery of brain injury. Based on the findings, this article reviews the structure, expression, distribution, adjustion, function, mechanism in the repair of brain injury of MT-I/II and its application prospect in forensic medicine. It could provide a new approach for the design and manufacture of brain injury drugs as well as for age estimation of the brain injury.

  15. Constipation due to Liver Disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine`s Viewpoint

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    R Choopani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Constipation is one of the most common pediatric disorders.In many cases, there is no anatomic endocrineor metabolic cause in explanation of chronic constipation.More than 85% of them called functional or idiopathic.Constipation is one of the serious disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Besides the problem it causes, chronic constipation can be the origin of many disease. That is why, ithas been called Mother of disease.The purpose of this study is to investigate the Constipation in children and the role of other organs such as the liver by view of Iranian Traditional Medicine   Materials and Method: This study is a review through Iranian traditional medicine references. At first, all the main available traditional books were reviewed. All the data about therapies of vaginal discharge in ITM were collected then classified.   Results: In traditional medicine different reasons have been mentioned for constipation especially for childrenwhich most of them are similar to etiology in Modern Medicine.Constipation due to liver disorder is one of the causes of constipation.In Iranian Traditional medicine` viewpoint, one of the mechanism for excretion is existence of secreted bile in intestine.If by any reason,measure or quality of its which secreted in intestine through bile changes or if intestinal mucous secretion becomes barrier for absorbing the food,it will caused disorder in excretion and finally will lead to constipation.Well known Iranian Traditional Medicine scientists, has mentioned all reasons for liver disorders and changing quality& quantity of secreted bile .he has mentioned the solutions as well.   Conclusion: It is hoped that by paying attention to constipation and with advanced clinical research we will be able to explain idiopathic constipation and prepare new ways of treatments for constipation. New researches have approved the effectiveness of these foods and drugs for treating the constipation.   Keywords

  16. Discrete traits of the sternum and ribs: a useful contribution to identification in forensic anthropology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Emeline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Bartoli, Christophe; Leonetti, Georges; Adalian, Pascal

    2013-05-01

    During forensic anthropological investigation, biological profile is determined by age, sex, ancestry, and stature. However, several individuals may share the same profile. Observation of discrete traits can yield useful information and contribute to identification. This research establishes the frequency of discrete traits of the sternum and ribs in a modern population in southern France, using 500 computer tomography (CT) scans of individuals aged 15-60 years. Only discrete traits with a frequency lower than 10% according to the literature were considered, a total of eight traits. All scans examined were three-dimensional (3D) volume renderings from DICOM images. In our population, the frequency of all the discrete traits was lower than 5%. None were associated with sex or age, with the exception of a single trait, the end of the xiphoid process. Our findings can usefully be applied for identification purposes in forensic anthropology and medicine.

  17. Forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results.

  18. [The characteristics of the notions used in forensic medicine and their logical basis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The authors briefly characterize the formerly poorly defined notions used by forensic medical experts for the completion of the conclusions based on the results of primary forensic medical examinations of the corpses. The main errors made in the use of these notions encountered in the materials of primary forensic medical expertises of the corpses, the recommendations to avoid these mistakes are proposed. The present paper continues the series of specialized articles dealing with the main types of logical fallacies encountered in the expert conclusions with a view to further publication of the results of the in-depth analysis of logical mistakes in these documents.

  19. [Views of forensic medicine and criminology on the pathodynamics of homicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokavec, M; Dobrotka, G

    2000-01-01

    Trauma and violence represent the domains of forensic medical expertise. The objective finding on the victim of the homicide makes it possible to reconstruct the way and mechanism of the injury connected with it and thus to determine the cause of death. The traces of violence contain many indices pointing at specific personal characteristics of the culprit, his motivation to the crime and his state of mind at the time of the homicide. To judge the penal responsibility and the guilt of the culprit it is important for the court to have the analysis of the dynamics and of the causal background of the crime, especially the synthetic evaluation of subjective, situation, or eventually psychological factors of violence with the mortal effect. The interdisciplinary forensic-medical, forensic-psychological and psychophytological approach will make it possible to provide the court with a complex forensic expertise.

  20. [The possibility of using a laser stereolithography method in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, S S; Boldyrev, N N; Evseev, A V; Kotsiuba, E V; Novikov, M M; Panchenko, V Ia; Semeshin, N M; Iakunin, V P

    1998-01-01

    The data of computer-aided tomography are proposed to be used in forensic medical diagnostic and identification studies. The technology of making hard copies of objects by laser stereolithography on the basis of tomography data is described.

  1. Buyers beware: lead poisoning due to Ayurvedic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J Matthew R; Estrada, Carlos A; Mathews, Ronnie E

    2012-10-01

    A 29-year-old man, who recently emigrated from India, presented with a 2-week history of abdominal pain, as well as nausea, constipation, and fatigue. He underwent removal of a parathyroid adenoma 6 weeks prior to admission and received a locally made Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for pain control; however, this information was not initially available. He was instructed to take approximately 15 g/day. Initial evaluation revealed a normocytic anemia, but other workup including imaging and endoscopy was unrevealing. Given his recent use of Ayurvedic medicines, we tested for lead poisoning and found a blood lead level of 72 mcg/dl. We sent his medicine for analysis and found it had a high lead concentration of 36,000 mcg/g, which is over 25,000 times the maximum daily dose. He improved with cessation of the medicine and treatment with succimer. Lead poisoning can present with a variety of nonspecific signs and symptoms, including abdominal pain and anemia. Ayurvedic medicines, as well as traditional medicines from other cultures, may be a source of lead or other heavy metals. It is essential for physicians to be aware of adverse effects of Ayurvedic medicines as they are easily available and increasing in popularity.

  2. FORENSIC SCIENCE:: 20 YEARS OF FORENSIC DENTISTRY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB, 1994 - 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-06-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world.

  3. Geographical distribution of torture: An epidemiological study of torture reported by asylum applicants examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Johannes Rødbro; Hansen, Steen Holger; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2015-01-01

    Using reports from 154 examinations of alleged torture victims among asylum applicants to Denmark conducted by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Univer- sity of Copenhagen, between 2001 and 2013, we have categorized the victims into four geographical regions, as well as according to the conflict...

  4. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2010-05-20

    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  5. [Double ritual murder by the Satanist cult members based on the casuistry of the Forensic Medicine Department in Katowice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Jałfoński, Christian; Kabiesz-Neniczka, Stanisława; Kobek, Mariusz; Rygol, Krystian

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, an increased activity of various sects, especially Satanist ones, has been observed in Poland. This is associated with an increase in the number of various crimes, including offences against life and health. The ideology of Satanism came to Poland in the early eighties of the last century, along with heavy metal music and its variants. In 1999, two cases of the murders of a 21-year-old woman and a 19-year-old man committed by Satanist cult members during their ritual mass were reported at the Forensic Medicine Department in Katowice. In the report, the authors present some issues associated with Satanism, the circumstances of these two murders and the results of medico-legal examinations of the victims.

  6. Iatrogenic death: A review of cases from 1990-2000 investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Pia; Pöttinger, Iris; Kordina, Nicole; Schneider, Barbara; Risser, Daniele U

    2011-09-01

    Medical malpractice is a global problem which can have considerable financial and legal consequences for the community as well as personal consequences for those involved. Austria does not record any statistical and epidemiological data concerning medical malpractice cases. Data from 7,211 autopsy cases from the Department of Forensic Medicine in Vienna covering the period from 1990 to 2000 were analyzed. Fifty-five autopsy reports that were filed as suspected medical malpractice were recorded and analyzed. Thirty cases were classified as surgical incidents, 19 cases as negligence, and 6 cases as medication incidents. Out of a total of 40 cases from available court files, 36 cases were dropped, there were 2 acquittals and only two resulted in convictions. The number of instances of medical malpractice leading to iatrogenic deaths in Austria seems to be very low in comparison to other countries. The possibility that many cases go unnoticed needs to be taken into consideration.

  7. 神经心理学在法医学中的应用%Neuro-psychology and forensic medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红星; 庄柏翔; 赵向东

    2003-01-01

    @@ 法医学(forensic medicine)从1985年起已分化为:法医病理学、临床法医学、法医物证学、法医毒物分析、法医生理学、法医神经精神病学等分支学科,其中包括神经心理学.在刑事或民事诉讼中,凡涉及或要解决有关人身伤害、有无生理或精神障碍的案例,司法机关都要求进行司法鉴定,在此类鉴定中运用最广泛的是临床法医学,当然也包括神经心理学.今就有关这方面的应用扼要叙述如下.

  8. [Student tragedy. Forensic-psychiatric and legal medicine aspects of an unusual crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, D; Bratzke, H

    1985-01-01

    The unusual circumstances of the violent killing of an 18-year-old girl by her 18.8-years-old schoolfriend led us to undertake a forensic-psychiatric analysis of the offence action as well as a presentation of legal-medical points of view. The crime, which can be classified as a collective lover crime for which there is no parallel in the literature, was only solved 9 months later when one of the two delinquents confessed a further offence. The killing was planned and prepared, the victim being buried hurriedly in a previously made hole in a wood after she had been strangled.

  9. Methodological development of the Hoeven Outcome Monitor (HOM): A first step towards a more evidence based medicine in forensic mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Lobke H; de Vogel, Vivienne; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-01-01

    To comply with the need for a more evidence based risk assessment and management in forensic mental health, an outcome monitor is being developed in the Dutch forensic psychiatric centre Van der Hoeven Kliniek in Utrecht, the Hoeven Outcome Monitor (HOM). Conform evidence based medicine (EBM) guidelines, the HOM is subdivided into three consecutive stages, (1) the evaluation stage, (2) the aetiology stage and (3) the implementation stage. In this article an account is provided for the design of the evaluation stage. To account for predicaments in previous research that pertain to a lack of uniformity and disregard of specific context- and patient-related characteristics, a macro-, meso- and micro-treatment evaluation instrument is developed. This instrument provides for the first step to build an evidence base for specific interventions and treatments in forensic psychiatry.

  10. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine.

  11. [The analysis of the theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" and related medical disciplines defended during the period from 2010 till 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Kuprina, T A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of research reported in the theses for the degree in "forensic medicine" defended in different dissertation committees during the 5 year period (from 2010 till 2014) and to summarize and compartmentalize the main research areas in which the authors carried out their study and thereby make the data obtained more readily available for the wide circles of readers. A total of 55 theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" (14.03.05) were defended during the period from 2010 till 2014 including 18 (32.7%) ones for the degree in two disciplines, the second being either "pathological anatomy" (n=6) or "stomatology" (n=4). Despite the great variety of the problems resolved in the studies conducted during the five year period, the subject matter of most research was on the whole consistent with the main lines of activities of the institutions with which the degree-seeking workers were affiliated. The same refers to the choice of the tutors and scientific advisers. the authors emphasize the necessity of centralized planning of research in compliance with the list of priority investigations having practical significance and coordination of cooperative studies carried out based on the state bureau of forensic medical expertise (SBFME) and departments of forensic medical expertise of medical universities.

  12. Post-mortem histopathological investigations of the bone marrow in forensic medicine: an important issue for both the forensic and clinical pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, P; Beham, A; Beham-Schmid, Ch

    2009-04-15

    In the forensic literature only a few scientific reports are dealing with series of histopathological bone marrow (BM) investigations, mainly concerning changes after drug abuse and alcoholic consumption. In a period of 13 years (1995-2008) we routinely investigated 225 BM specimens from anterior iliac crests taken at forensic autopsies if the cause of death was unclear or vague, septicaemia was suspected or known, in cases of presumed haemorrhagic diathesis or bleeding tendencies, spleens were found to be enlarged or intoxications were suspected or proofed. In 78 cases (34.66%) abnormal histopathologic changes were found. Forty of those revealed neoplastic, mainly haematological diseases, which were unknown during lifetime. Referring to our findings, extraction of post-mortem BM specimens for histopathological investigations should become an essential issue for both the forensic and clinical pathologist.

  13. Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair

    2013-07-10

    Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice.

  14. Organ retention and communication of research use following medico-legal autopsy: a pilot survey of university forensic medicine departments in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the circumstances and problems that departments of forensic medicine encounter with bereaved families regarding samples obtained from medico-legal autopsies. A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medico-legal autopsies in Japan, and responses were received from 48 (63.2%). Of the respondents, 12.8% had approached and communicated with bereaved families about collecting samples from the deceased person during an autopsy and the storage of the samples. In addition, 23.4% of these had informed families that samples might be used in research. Eighteen departments had received enquiries and requests from families about the samples, with most requests concerning their return. The response to such requests varied according to the department. Few departments interacted with the bereaved families regarding the procedure for obtaining autopsy samples, and their methods for handling family concerns differed depending on the person within the department authorised to contact the family. Moreover, the procedures for engaging in such communication have long been unclear, and no legal or ethical consensus or agreement with the general public has been established. It is important for researchers to further discuss the correct way for forensic medicine departments to communicate with bereaved families.

  15. Forensic medical examinations conducted on complainants of sexual assault in the Forensic Medicine Institute, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, between 2006 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelgardt, P; Cychowska, M; Bloch-Bogusławska, E

    2014-01-01

    A total of 46 cases of alleged sexual assault were analysed from the years 2006-2013 where forensic medical examinations were conducted. The material was compared with data from literature. All the victims were female. In 9 cases (20%) a sexual assault by sexual touching was alleged, 67% of complainants (31 cases) had alleged non-consensual sexual intercourse, 6 complainants (13%) had no recollection of events. Genital area injuries were reported in 26% of sexual assault victims. Injuries of other parts of the body were found in 73% of victims. None of the subjects were positive for severe injuries such as fractures, wounds, and head trauma with loss of consciousness. The majority of complainants (29 cases, 63%) were examined within 24 hours after the incident and 6 examinees (13%) were assessed between 24 and 48 hours after the alleged sexual assault. Eleven forensic medical examinations (24%) were conducted after the lapse of more than 48 hours since the alleged incident. Twenty nine complainants admitted that they had washed their genital area after the sexual assault. Forensic swabs were taken during all forensic medical examinations.

  16. Medicine, madness and murderers: the context of English forensic psychiatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth; Furtado, Vivek; Völlm, Birgit

    2017-08-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to add to the understanding of context by shedding light on the relationship between context and organisational actors' abilities to resolve ongoing challenges. Design/methodology/approach The authors used qualitative data collection (interviews and focus groups with staff and site visits to English forensic psychiatry hospitals) and the analysis was informed by Lefebvre's writings on space. Findings Responses to ongoing challenges were both constrained and facilitated by the context, which was negotiated and co-produced by the actors involved. Various (i.e. societal and professional) dimensions of context interacted to create tensions, which resulted in changes in service configuration. These changes were reconciled, to some extent, via discourse. Despite some resolution, the co-production of context preserved contradictions which mean that ongoing challenges were modified, but not resolved entirely. Originality/value The paper highlights the importance of viewing context as co-produced in a continuous manner. This helps us to delineate and understand its dynamic nature and its relationship with the everyday actions and beliefs of the organisational actors concerned.

  17. Forensic DNA barcoding and bio-response studies of animal horn products used in traditional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal horns (AHs have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens. Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli. We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance

  18. [Medico-legal opinions in penal cases provided by clinicians and forensic medicine specialists--comparative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Nowak, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    From the practice of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice it appears that in criminal cases the level of medico-legal opinions provided by experts appointed by the district court or 'ad hoc' is very low. The analysis of the chosen files shoved a divergence of opinions given to the adopted motions as well as numerous offences to regulations in the nature of a consultative error. In the paper the authors have made an attempt to appraise causes of the above mentioned problems such as: 1. the lack of medico-legal knowledge and experience in court experts. 2. excessive ease of registration to the panel of court experts and the lack of processes which verify the qualifications of experts. 3. the lack of judicial control over expert's opinions and common acceptance of their work. 4. ignorance of the obligatory penal law. 5. ignorance of the basic rules for giving medico-legal opinions (legal consequences, casual nexus). 6. excessive but groundless self-confidence in experts. 7. the lack of a correct way of thinking and conclusion making. The aim of the paper was to pay close attention to the absolute need of verification of court experts' qualifications and work.

  19. Analysis of microsatellite markers D18S70 and d20S116 in DNA isolated from dentin: Use in forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Short tandem repeats and more specifically microsatellites represent a powerful tool in forensic medicine. In the past years, they have been extensively used in human identification and paternity testing. Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze two microsatellite markers in the Serbian population, i.e. to determine the number of alleles and the relevant forensic parameters. Methods. DNA was isolated from teeth samples using standard proteinase K digestion and phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction. PCR products were analyzed on polyacrilamide gels and visualized by AgNO3 staining. Forensic parameters were calculated using the Cervus software. Results. The loci D18S70 and D20S116 were analyzed on a sample of 70 unrelated, healthy adult individuals from Serbia. The number of alleles was determined and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for both loci. D18S70 and D20S116 demonstrated 6 and 8 alleles, respectively. The power of discrimination (PD and the power of exclusion (PE for the tested STR loci, D18S70 and D20S116 were 0.92 (PD, 0.41 (PE and 0.95 (PD, 0.480 (PE, respectively. Conclusion. According to the presented data, D18S70 and D20S116 are most informative markers. Based on allelic frequencies and statistical parameters for forensic testing, it may be suggested that these two microsatellites represent useful markers for individual identification and parentage analysis in the Serbian population.

  20. FORENSIC AND PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH OF ORGANIZATION OF AVAILABILITY OF THE MEDICINES FOR PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANCIES IN THE UNITED STATES

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    Shapovalov VV (Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of cancer in recent years has increased significantly. It is therefore particularly important today is the issue of provision for patients with malignancies with drugs. It is important to research the level of organization of availability of the anesthetic therapy to ensure the availability of pharmacotherapy for cancer patients worldwide. Material and methods. For the purpose of the study analyzed legislation, regulations of some states in the US that provide availability of narcotic analgesic drugs for patients with malignant neoplasms. The paper used the following methods: comparative, documentary, legal, medical, pharmaceutical and graphical analysis. Results and discussion. Noted the increase in expenditure on pharmaceutical provision for patients with malignancies on an outpatient basis in the US. During the study of the legislative and regulatory acts of the USA found that payments for treatment possible by insurance companies as part of the agreement, which in turn depend on the patient’s age, number of family members, their total income and so on. Coupons can be used to pay for the cost of medicines, but not all pharmacies accept coupons. There are charities with funds which are partially covered for the cost of chemotherapy and adjuvant therapy (analgesics, antiemetic, antipsychotics, drugs. Found, that in New York doctor may prescribe analgesic medication to the patient without limitation in the frequency and dose. It is not therapeutic use of analgesics, their improper accounting, drug addiction patient has contraindications to the prescription of narcotic analgesic drugs with malignant neoplasms. Reviewed examples from forensic and pharmaceutical practice, pharmaceutical violation of the US laws that regulate the accessibility of patients with malignancies to narcotic analgesic drugs. So, there have been cases of fake prescriptions for narcotic drugs, selling drugs, the shelf life has expired. Police of

  1. Women's rights in Pakistan: a forensic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Sibte

    2003-04-01

    Pakistan is a large and an important West Asian country which came into being in the name of Islam and therefore Islamic tenets remain the core of its constitution. The laws of the state have to conform to Islamic law so that they can have a positive impact on the society. Unfortunately, in Pakistan today not all men enjoy the rights and facilities to which they are entitled and women are doubly disadvantaged by poverty and gender. With their own political agendas, various governments have promulgated laws which affect the society in various ways. The laws which directly influence women's rights merit mention, as women comprise more than 50% of the population of Pakistan and are still kept on the sidelines by the male dominant society. The Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961, and the Hudood Ordinance, 1979 were both promulgated by military dictators with different visions. The former codified the rights of women bestowed by Islamic law; the latter repealed laws for sexual offences according to the injunctions of Islam and had a negative impact. Both laws need the assistance of forensic medicine as age estimation and medical examinations are necessary if they are to be followed in the right perspective. However, a legal need for an examination by an expert in forensic medicine is sadly lacking in both laws. This has happened due to lack of training of forensic physicians and therefore a lack of research in important areas of forensic medicine in the country. This paper examines these laws and the interaction they have with forensic medicine and proposes that the laws need revision in accordance with modern science, incorporating forensic sciences as well as the injunctions of Islam.

  2. Electroencephalogram and evoked potential parameters examined in Chinese mild head injury patients for forensic medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Ping CHEN; Lu-Yang TAO; Andrew CN CHEN

    2006-01-01

    postconcussion symptoms (PCS). Follow-up study associated with persistent PCS may be consistent with the postulate of substantial biological, rather than psychological origin. The study suggests that combination of EEG and EP parameters can contribute to the evaluation of brain function as a whole for clinical and forensic applications.

  3. Molecular Imprinting Applications in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Garipcan, Bora; Patra, Hirak K; Uzun, Lokman

    2017-03-28

    Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences. Forensic science is a demanding area and there is a growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in this field. In this review, recent molecular imprinting applications in the related areas of forensic sciences are discussed while considering the literature of last two decades. Not only direct forensic applications but also studies of possible forensic value were taken into account like illicit drugs, banned sport drugs, effective toxins and chemical warfare agents in a review of over 100 articles. The literature was classified according to targets, material shapes, production strategies, detection method, and instrumentation. We aimed to summarize the current applications of MIPs in forensic science and put forth a projection of their potential uses as promising alternatives for benchmark competitors.

  4. Shells and Bones: A Forensic Medicine Study of the Association of Terrestrial Snail Allopeas micra with Buried Human Remains in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Malthus Fonseca; Pujol-Luz, José Roberto; de Assis Pujol-Luz, Cristiane Vieira; de Rosa, Cássio Thyone Almeida; Simone, Luiz Ricardo L; Báo, Sônia Nair; Barros-Cordeiro, Karine Brenda; Pessoa, Larissa; Bissacot, Giovanna

    2015-09-01

    Little is known regarding the scavenger fauna associated with buried human corpses, particularly in clandestine burials. We report the presence of 20 shells of the terrestrial snail Allopeas micra, within hollow bones of human remains buried for 5 years, during the process of collecting DNA material. The fact that a large number of shells of A. micra had been found in the corpse and in the crime scene supports the assumption that there was no attempt to remove the corpse from the area where the crime occurred. Despite this, our observations cannot be used to estimate the postmortem interval because there is no precise knowledge about the development of this species. This is the first record of a terrestrial snail associated with a human corpse and its role in this forensic medicine case. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  6. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  7. Voluntary termination of pregnancy (medical or surgical abortion: forensic medicine issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piras Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, Law 194 of 22 May 1978 provides for and regulates the voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTP. Medical abortion became popular nationwide after Mifepristone (RU-486 was authorized for the market by AIFA (Italian Drug Agency in July 2009. We searched articles in medical literature database with these terms: “medical abortion”, “RU486”, “surgical abortion”. We also searched laws and judgments concerning abortion in national legal databases. Ministerial guidelines were searched on official website of Italian Ministry of Health. We found many medical studies about medical and surgical abortion. We found also ministerial and regional guidelines, which were analyzed. From the point of view of legal medicine, the issues related to abortion with the pharmacological method consist in verifying compatibility and consistency with the safety principles and the parameters imposed by Law n. 194 of 1978, using off-label Misoprostol, what inpatient care should be used and informed consent. The doctor’s job is to provide the patient with comprehensive and clear information about how the procedure will be performed, any complications and the time period needed for both procedures.

  8. "Assessment of spontaneous healing rate of traumatic tympanic membrane perforations and three months follow up; Yazd Forensic Medicine"

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    Mirvakili S.A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic tympanic membrane (TM perforation is a common injury of the ear with a high rate of spontaneous healing if the patients strictly adhere to water precautions. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors involved in the spontaneous healing of traumatic TM perforations in order to ascertain the best treatment plan including observation, paper patch and finally surgery. Methods: In this correlative–descriptive study, we recorded the outcome of each patient with three-month follow up. Included in this study were a total of 202 forensic medicine patients from the Dept. of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery at the Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. All patients included in this study had traumatic TM perforation. Based on otoscopic examination, the perforations were classified as pinpoint or large. All patients received an audiometry exam and were followed for three months. The data was collected using a special form and analyzed by chi-square test, Fisher exact test and ANOVA. Results: This study consisted of 118 male and 84 female patients with a mean age of 23.6 years (6-48 years. The types of trauma included compression injury (104 patients, instrumental injury (59 patients, burn–slag injury (2 patients and blast injury (1 patient. One hundred and eighty patients had pinpoint TM perforations, 99.4% of which healed spontaneously by the second month, and 32 patients had large TM perforations, 50% of which healed spontaneously by the second month. During the first month, 87.3% of the patients observing water precautions had healed, however the healing rate was only 5.6% in patients not adhering to water precautions, who suffered from otorrhea. Therefore, during this study, 185 (91.58% patients had spontaneous healing by two months and only 6 patients of remaining 17 patients healed with paper patch. The mean hearing loss at 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz was 10.55 dB (5-30 dB. Conclusion: In our experience

  9. Forensic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the role forensic psychotherapy has in the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offender patients, and its role in the supervision of individual therapists, staff groups or whole organisations which contain and manage this patient population. Forensic psychotherapy has a valuable role to play in the management of mentally disordered forensic patients. As forensic services continue to develop in Australia and New Zealand and interest in this field continues to grow, then the future of forensic psychotherapy looks bright.

  10. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  11. Paternity analysis based on NGM SElect system in the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lodz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Markiewicz-Knyziak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the NGM SElect multiplex kit for paternity testing in the population of central Poland, and compare it with the IDENTIFILER system. The study material consisted of buccal swabs taken from individuals who reported to the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory in Lodz. Samples from 450 trio cases of disputed paternity carried out in 2010–2014 were investigated. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swabs collected from 1,350 individuals using the Swab kit (A&A Biotechnology according to the manufacturer’s protocol. DNA amplification was performed using the AmpFℓSTR ® NGM Select TM PCR Amplification Kit (Life Technologies. PCR products were separated by capillary electrophoresis using HID 3500 Genetic Analyzer. In the analyzed cases with paternity confirmation in the NGM SElect system, the maximum value of PI was 3.9 × 10 12 , which corresponds to the probability of paternity W = 99.9999999999%. It was thus significantly higher than analogical parameters obtained in the IDENTIFILER system (PI = 6.0 × 10 10 , W = 99.99999999%. The NGM SElect kit was unable to resolve just one case out of 450, which represents only 0.2% of all analyzed disputed paternity cases. The study showed the SE33 (ACTBP2 locus to have the highest evidence value in paternity analysis out of all investigated autosomal STRs.

  12. Paternity analysis based on NGM SElect system in the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lodz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz-Knyziak, B; Jędrzejczyk, M; Bąbol-Pokora, K; Wojtkiewicz, R; Jacewicz, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the NGM SElect multiplex kit for paternity testing in the population of central Poland, and compare it with the IDENTIFILER system. The study material consisted of buccal swabs taken from individuals who reported to the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory in Lodz. Samples from 450 trio cases of disputed paternity carried out in 2010-2014 were investigated. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swabs collected from 1,350 individuals using the Swab kit (A and A Biotechnology) according to the manufacturer's protocol. DNA amplification was performed using the AmpFℓSTR® NGM SelectTM PCR Amplification Kit (Life Technologies). PCR products were separated by capillary electrophoresis using HID 3500 Genetic Analyzer. In the analyzed cases with paternity confirmation in the NGM SElect system, the maximum value of PI was 3.9 × 1012, which corresponds to the probability of paternity W = 99.9999999999%. It was thus significantly higher than analogical parameters obtained in the IDENTIFILER system (PI = 6.0 × 1010, W = 99.99999999%). The NGM SElect kit was unable to resolve just one case out of 450, which represents only 0.2% of all analyzed disputed paternity cases. The study showed the SE33 (ACTBP2) locus to have the highest evidence value in paternity analysis out of all investigated autosomal STRs.

  13. Statistical aspects of forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    This PhD thesis deals with statistical models intended for forensic genetics, which is the part of forensic medicine concerned with analysis of DNA evidence from criminal cases together with calculation of alleged paternity and affinity in family reunification cases. The main focus of the thesis...

  14. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) principles for on-site forensic and medico-legal scene and corpse investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, D; Ferrara, S D; Keller, E; Ludes, B; Mangin, P; Väli, M; Vieira, N

    2017-07-01

    Forensic medical practitioners need to define the general principles governing procedures to be used for the on-site examination of a body where the death has occurred in unnatural, violent or suspicious circumstances. These principles should be followed whenever a medical expert is required to perform an on-site corpse inspection and should be utilised as a set of general guidelines to be adapted to the specific situation in hand and interpreted using common sense and scientific knowledge of the relevant procedures and facts of the case. The aim of these principles is to ensure that forensic evidence at the scene of a death is properly observed and assessed and all necessary relevant evidence gathered in order to ensure that a comprehensive report is available to the judicial authority (investigating judge or coroner) in the justice system. The on-site corpse inspection by a forensic practitioner is a mandatory and essential stage of the forensic and medico-legal autopsy, as it may provide important information for subsequent investigation stages.

  15. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL), can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT....

  16. The use of interpreters in medical settings and forensic medical examinations in Australia: the relationship between medicine and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jason R; Odell, Morris S

    2014-07-01

    Medical examinations are dependent on combining communication with professional competence. In the development of a global multicultural community with the use of multiple languages, doctors have become increasingly dependent on language facilitation such as interpreting and translation. Despite professional studies, the use of language facilitation with its associated problems has not been fully explored in graduate and post-graduate medical and forensic medical training. There may still be some lack of reciprocal understanding between the medical and linguistic fields, their ethics, obligations and limits although both fields and their ethical frameworks are closer related than might be expected. This article is a discussion that aims at providing a basic understanding of guidelines as to the origin and appropriate use of language interpretation in medical and forensic medical examinations.

  17. Forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-04-01

    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  18. Exploring trends in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Gowhar, Owais; Ain, Tasneem S; Sultan, Saima

    2014-12-01

    Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. RESULTS showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology.

  19. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations.

  20. [Hangings in the material of Department of Forensic Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, in the years 2000-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumińska-Ziemann, Barbara; Bloch-Bogusławska, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of suicides based on autopsy protocols from the years 2000-2010. Out of all autopsies conducted at Department of Forensic Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, 477 cases resulted from hanging. During this period the majority of hangings were recorded in 2010 (61 cases). The parameters assessed in this study included age, sex, post-mortem blood ethanol concentration and place of death of the victims. The age range of the deceased was similar in the group of men and women. Males represented the majority of victims of hanging (89%); only 11% of all the victims were females. The authors observed differences in blood alcohol level of the victims in association with their sex. Not present ethanol was noted in approx. 42% of men and 71% of women. More than 65% cases of suicide hangings were encountered in urban areas, in living quarters and outbuildings.

  1. [Medico-legal and victimology aspects of homicides in the material of Bialystok Institute of Forensic Medicine in the years 1982-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Janica, Jerzy; Rydzewska-Dudek, Maria; Załuski, Janusz; Dopierała, Tomasz; Wardaszka, Zofia; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Okłota, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    The authors presented an analysis of homicides based on autopsy material collected at Institute of Forensic Medicine in Bialystok in the years 1982-2003. Of 8,780 postmortem examinations, this type of death accounted for 7,4 % of cases, including 31,2 % women and 68,8 % men. Married individuals predominated among females, whereas the majority of male victims were single. Fifty-seven percent of victims died on the crime scene, 5,3 % within 48 hours. In conflicts of long-standing, immediate conflicts and fights, the perpetrators most commonly employed hard, blunt or blunt-edged crime weapons. In cases of murder with robbery and sexual homicides, strangulation was the most frequently used method. No seasonal character in homicide prevalence was observed.

  2. [Induction of hospital indebtedness due to medicine purchases under monopoly conditions: the case of imatinib mesylate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopel, Carolinne Thays; Chaves, Gabriela Costa

    2015-03-01

    Medicine expenditures consume a large share of the health budget, so knowledge on the use of these funds is essential for decision-making in public health and improvement of pharmaceutical care. This study analyzed the indebtedness of a high-complexity university hospital due to increased spending on imatinib mesylate. The descriptive study was based on analysis of documents and records in the Hospital Information System (SIH) from 2002 to 2010. Starting with inclusion of the medicine in the budget, the study mapped strategies by the pharmaceutical industry and government, as well as government responses to reduce the product's price. The systematization and publication of information stored in files and electronic databases can help monitor the results of programs funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

  3. Forensic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  4. Application and Prospect of CBCT in Forensic Medicine%锥形束CT在法医学中的应用与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坚; 张家鑫; 吕途

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Cone beam computed tomography was a precise 3D imaging device designed for oral-maxillo-facial medicine. It permitted multiplane reconstructions, including coronal, sagittal and axial planes, definitely capable of improving the diagnosis and treatment of oral medicine. Compared with the traditional multi-slice computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography has the advantages of high image resolution, rapid scan, low radiation and small size. In forensic personal identification, 3D images of human tissues and organs acquired by cone beam computed tomography were valuable. Individual differences of the teeth were observed through cone beam computed tomography scanning, as well as the age related changes of dental pulp cavity. Mandibular canal images obtained by cone beam computed tomography could distinguish sexual dimorphism. Besides, the 3D reconstructions of the frontal sinus and craniofacial tissues supply a new method in anthropometry and facial reconstruction. In trauma analysis, cone beam computed tomography was an improved tool for the evaluation of bite marks, gunshot injuries, causes of fractures and stab wounds. Cone beam computed tomography could identify structural damages of hard tissues and detect the precise location of a projectile in the body. Virtual autopsy based on computed tomography has become a routine technology in the forensic practice of certain kinds of death. Cone beam computed tomography could supply higher quality images of the maxillofacial hard tissues. Progress in the research of cone beam computed tomography may improve the development of forensic odontology. In this article, some papers published in recent years were reviewed to show the present applications of cone beam computed tomography in forensic medicine, with purpose to provide new ideas for related research and practice.%锥形束CT是口腔颌面医学领域中具有划时代意义的三维成像设备,相对于传统螺旋CT,其具有成像分辨率高

  5. [Advances of forensic entomology in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng

    2006-12-01

    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  6. An introduction to computer forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  7. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  8. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT. However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL, can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis.

  9. [Medico-legal assessment in civil lawsuits in patients with neurological disorders in the case material of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Białystok, in the years 2004-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Okłota, Magdalena; Wardaszka, Zofia; Sackiewicz, Adam; Szeremeta, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Opinionating in civil proceeding is difficult and carries much responsibility, especially in the period of increasing claiming for damages. The authors analyzed civil opinions issued by the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Białystok, in the years 2004-2008. The above-mentioned opinions addressed neurologic diseases and symptoms. The victims were invited to the Department for examinations which were performed by a forensic medicine expert and a neurologist, alternatively also by other specialists depending on the reported ailments. The paper presents an analysis of the victims' age and sex, type of the event, injuries and ailments, duration of physical and mental suffering, percentage of health impairment. The study comprised 126 civil opinions issued. Occupationally active persons were predominantly subject to injuries. The most common symptoms reported were headache, vertigo and pain in the C, L-S spine.

  10. [A role of Russian psychiatrists in the formation of forensic psychiatry in Russia in the beginning of XIX century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchasniy, K V

    2016-01-01

    The formation of forensic psychiatry knowledge as a special area of concern was due to fundamental changes in the social, economic and political life of Russia society. It reflected public awareness of the urgent need in solving the problem of support, preserve and maintain the mental health of the people. Forensic psychiatry was based on the development of psychiatry, public health and community medicine. Author describes of the role of Russian psychiatrists in the formation of forensic psychiatry, their active particitpation in internation professional meetings and in the development of the problem of responsibility.

  11. Parricide: a forensic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  13. Forensic Phonetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Examines, with skepticism, the history and development of forensic phonetics in response to the publication of "Forensic Phonetics" by J. Baldwin and P. French (1990). Three issues are specifically explored: (1) whether voices are unique, (2) whether a purely auditory approach is adequate, and (3) whether legally sufficient conclusions…

  14. 伦理学在法医实践中的应用初探%Ethics in the Forensic Medicine Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤家全; 陈德京

    2013-01-01

    伦理学思想在法医学发展过程中的具体体现为:从事法医工作应了解我国丧葬文化,伦理学思想在古代法医学和现代法医学中均有体现.了解法医伦理学的发展历史,有助于更好的研究法医伦理学这一课题,也有助于指导法医实践,尤其是指导公安法医工作.在此基础上,探讨了法医伦理学的研究进展,并提出研究法医伦理学的实践意义在于:它是衡量法医工作是否合格的标准,其思想在活体检验和尸体检验中均有一定指导意义.%In the development process of forensic science,the concrete manifestation of ethics thoughts are:forensic ethics and funeral culture in China.Ethics thoughts have been embodied in ancient and in modern forensic science.Understanding of the historical development of forensic ethics would help to better research forensic ethics,also help to guide forensic practice,especially to guide public security forensic work.Based on this point,this paper explored the forensic research progress of ethics,and put forward the practical significance of research on forensic ethics:measuring whether the forensic work qualified,forensic ethics thoughts in biopsy,the application of forensic ethics thoughts in postmortem examination.

  15. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today.

  16. [Surgical errors in archives of the forensic medicine department, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, and in Archives of the District Chamber of Physicians in Szczecin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboa, Danuta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study medico-legal opinions passed by experts of the Forensic Medicine Department in Szczecin cases involving suspected surgical malpractice in the years 2001-2005. Among 97 opinions originating from the West Pomeranian and other provinces, malpractice was recognized in 30 cases. In the majority of instances, surgical errors consisted in inobservance of appropriate care in perioperative management. In some cases, such negligence-associated errors were committed in the course of diagnostic management, and in others - while performing the surgery itself. In isolated instances, surgical lack of competence was raised, e.g. when a general surgeon undertook a complex plastic surgery procedure. In the analyzed period of 2001-2005, the District Chamber of Physicians in Szczecin received 471 complaints, all of them originating from the West-Pomeranian region. Of this number, 33 complaints were carried over from the previous term Malpractice was confirmed in 34 instances and these cases were referred to the Board of Professional Medical Conduct. In 15 complains, since proceedings were in progress in various legal agencies, the cases were suspended until resolution in the prosecuting office or in court. Four cases analyzed by the District Board for Professional Medical Conduct involved surgical errors.

  17. Forensic pharmacology: An important and evolving subspecialty needs recognition in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Onkarrao Malve

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With training in pharmacology, a pharmacologist has an expert knowledge as well as working experience in the subjects of therapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology along with exposure to subjects such as forensic medicine during the medical education. All these knowledge domains can be applied and act as an interface to the forensic situations. The skills and expertise of a forensic pharmacologist can be useful in a large and diverse number of legal cases. With an ever increasing incidence of criminal and civil cases in India, the development and inclusion of forensic pharmacologist in the judicial system of India are the need of the hour. The research in pharmacology has witnessed great technological advancement that allows it to expand its scope beyond the domain of therapeutics, thus enabling Indian pharmacologists to explore the niche area of Forensic Pharmacology. Differing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in living and dead, drug interactions, abuse of drugs, personal injury or death due to drug exposure leading to medico-legal issues, environmental exposure to chemicals, and doping and forensic pharmacovigilance are the diverse aspects of Forensic Pharmacology.

  18. Forensic pharmacology: An important and evolving subspecialty needs recognition in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malve, Harshad Onkarrao

    2016-01-01

    With training in pharmacology, a pharmacologist has an expert knowledge as well as working experience in the subjects of therapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology along with exposure to subjects such as forensic medicine during the medical education. All these knowledge domains can be applied and act as an interface to the forensic situations. The skills and expertise of a forensic pharmacologist can be useful in a large and diverse number of legal cases. With an ever increasing incidence of criminal and civil cases in India, the development and inclusion of forensic pharmacologist in the judicial system of India are the need of the hour. The research in pharmacology has witnessed great technological advancement that allows it to expand its scope beyond the domain of therapeutics, thus enabling Indian pharmacologists to explore the niche area of Forensic Pharmacology. Differing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in living and dead, drug interactions, abuse of drugs, personal injury or death due to drug exposure leading to medico-legal issues, environmental exposure to chemicals, and doping and forensic pharmacovigilance are the diverse aspects of Forensic Pharmacology. PMID:27134459

  19. Forensics Investigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... science, and several more offer degrees in chemistry, biochemistry, or genetic engineering with an emphasis on forensic ... Related Videos If you like this career, checkout these videos: Dr. Lois Tully NIST: Explanation of DNA ...

  20. Digital Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Ψευτέλης, Αθανάσιος Δημήτρης

    2013-01-01

    A reprint from American Scientist the magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Since the 1980s, computers have had increasing roles in all aspects of human life—including an involvement in criminal acts. This development has led to the rise of digital forensics, the uncovering and examination of evidence located on all things electronic with digital storage, including computers, cell phones, and networks. Digital forensics researchers and practitione...

  1. Forensic psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.

  2. [The Austrian penal code and the Codex Ur-nammu--a comparison from the forensic medicine viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, O; Roll, P; Seybold, I

    1991-01-01

    A comparison between the Mesopotamian Law (Codex Ur-nammu) and the Austrian Penal Code reveals the long-sightedness of the founder of the 3rd dynasty from Ur, called Ur-nammu. It seems extremely remarkable that at those remote times (3rd Millenium B. C.) body injuries were satisfied by simple money-penalties. The Codex Ur-nammu therefore not only represents on exceedingly piece of work from the historical point of view but also from the point of view from Legal Medicine.

  3. Forensic importance of jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzinić, Lana; Goreta, Miroslav; Jukić, Vlado; Dordević, Veljko; Koić, Elvira; Herceg, Miroslav

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the investigation is to define as clearly as possible specific forensic psychiatric characteristics of persons who committed homicide and or attempted due to jealousy (the nature and severity of psychopathology, the level of responsibility, danger for the community, intensity and nature of aggression, the victimologic dimension, the relation of alcohol and jealousy). A retrospective method based on forensic psychiatric expertises in the period 1975-1999 was used. They encompassed 200 examinees that committed murder or attempted it. The results show the connection of psychotic jealousy with the highest degree of danger in diagnostic categories of paranoid psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. The time span from the first manifestations of jealousy until the actual commitment of a crime is the longest in personality disorders and the shortest in schizophrenia. Exogenous provoking situations were dominant for committing homicide due to jealousy in personality disorders. Acute alcohol intoxication has a specific significance in crime due to jealousy in the same diagnostic category. Clear criteria were designed for forensic psychiatric evaluation of murder and attempts of homicide caused by jealousy, which will be of help in everyday practice in the field forensic work and treatment.

  4. Discrepancies between diagnoses of methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication based on determinations performed in the regional clinical toxicology centre and in the department of forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Cywka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The situations in which autopsy blood toxicology results do not confirm methanol and/or ethylene glycol intoxications diagnosed during patients` hospitalizations are frequently observed in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin. Material and methods: In order to verify inconsistent findings, serum samples of 18 individuals, routinely stored in the regional clinical toxicology centre after testing, were re-examined using the specific method of gas chromatography (GC. Results: None of the fatal methanol intoxications was confirmed; toxic concentration of glycol was detected only in one case whereas the remaining determinations were negative or revealed “congeneric” concentrations. In cases of negative results of chromatographic re-analyses, the difference between hospital analysis and GC results were on average 29.6 mg% (max. 127.7 mg% for glycol and 31.8 mg% (max. 80.0 mg% for methanol. Severe metabolic acidosis was found in all hospitalized patients. In the hospital setting, “intoxications” were diagnosed even when low concentrations of methanol or glycol (below the cut-off values were detected with spectrophotometry, which is the method still used in the hospital laboratory. The diagnosis of methanol intoxication in a car accident victim was particularly bizarre; as were the methanol intoxication diagnoses established in cases of acute diabetes-associated complications (4, pancreatitis (1, pneumonia (2 and peritonitis (1, gastrointestinal haemorrhage (1, and decompensated hepatic cirrhosis (1. The therapeutic management based on those diagnoses was incorrectly targeted at the non-existing intoxication that was considered the cause of patient’s deteriorating condition. Conclusions : Our findings indicate inadequate knowledge of physicians to interpret and critically verify toxicological results. Moreover, low cost and speed of spectrophotometric analysis should not veil its significant limitations: mainly low specificity and

  5. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered.

  6. 法庭科学的真谛——重温林几教授《二十年来法医学之进步》%The True Meaning of Forensic Science — A Retrospective Study of a Dissertation Developments of Forensic Medicine in The Past Twenty Years written by professor Lin Ji(1897-1951)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞亭

    2012-01-01

    The Dissertation,,Developments of Forensic Medicine in The Past Twenty Years(Lin,1946),was written based on a combinational research results with regards to forensic history,connotation,definition,education,academic,legislation,humanity and personality.This dissertation is a sample representation of Lin Ji's overall educational methods and academic theories.Moreover,the article revealed the truth of forensic science,which is of historic and practical importance.%《二十年来法医学之进步》一文,是林几对法庭科学史、法庭科学内涵、范围、管理、教育、学术、立法及法庭科学人文、人格等的研究成果,是林几的教育思想及学术思想的集中体现。文章揭示了法庭科学的真谛,对今天仍有十分重要的历史和现实意义。

  7. Radiation exposure and dosimetry in transplant patients due to Nuclear Medicine studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Maghraby, T. A. F. [Leiden Univ., Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine; Cairo Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine; Camps, J. A. J.; Geleyns, J.; Pauwels, E. K. J. [Leiden Univ., Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine

    2000-12-01

    Organ transplantation is now an accepted method of therapy for treating patients with end stage failure of kidneys, liver, heart or lung. Nuclear Medicine may provide functional data and semi-quantitative parameters. However, one serious factor that hampers the use of nuclear medicine procedures in transplant patients is the general clinical concern about radiation exposure to the patient. This lead the researcher to discuss the effective doses and radiation dosimetry associated with radionuclide procedures used in the management and follow-up of transplant patients. A simple way to place the risk associated with Nuclear Medicine studies in an appropriate context is to compare the dose with that received from more familiar source of exposure such as from a diagnostic X-ray procedure. The radiation dose for the different radiopharmaceuticals used to study transplant organ function ranges between 0.1 and 5.3 mSv which is comparable to X-ray procedures with the exception of {sup 201}Tl and {sup 111}In-antimyosin. Thus Nuclear Medicine studies do not bear a higher radiation risk than the often used X-ray studies in transplant patients.

  8. 溺死诊断中浮游生物检验方法的研究现状及进展%The Applications of the Detection of Diatom in Forensic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白英杰; 张海东

    2011-01-01

    Judging whether the exact cause of death is drowning or not is an important and difficult work of forensic postmortem examination and identification. The biology and forensic chemistry evidence related to the diagnosis of drowning have not been scientifically confirmed in the present practice of forensic medicine. The detection of plankton is a common method in the forensic diagnosis of drowning. The plankton discovered in the tis- sues and organs of drowning corpse is still considered as one of the most important evidences for the death caused by drowning among domestic forensic experts although controversies concerning the reliability of the detection exist. In order to provide a clearer understanding of the applications of detection of plankton for the forensic diagnosis of the drowning, we review the present study of the detection of plankton in this paper, such as the detection method, the inspection standard and the determination of test results.%法医学实践中,判断是否为“生前溺死”是法医学尸检及鉴定工作中的一个重点和难点,目前尚无能明确诊断溺死的生物学和法庭化学指标。在溺死案件的诊断中,浮游生物检验是常见的方法。尽管目前还存在一些争议,但国内法医工作者认为,器官组织中浮游生物的存在仍然是判断生前溺死的重要证据之一。本文就国内外有关浮游生物的检验方法、检验标准及检验结果的判定等研究现状作一综述。旨在使人们更加清晰地认识浮游生物检验在溺死诊断中的作用。

  9. Forensic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases.

  10. [Forensic entomology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  11. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  12. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  13. Digital Forensics to Intelligent Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Irons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.

  14. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  15. Lead, mercury, and arsenic poisoning due to topical use of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Ling; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lin, Kon-Ping; Tsai, Wei-Jen

    2013-05-01

    Metal poisonings through a mucocutaneous route are reported rarely in the literature. We report 2 cases of heavy metal intoxication from inappropriate use of Chinese mineral medicines confirmed by toxicologic investigations. A 51-year-old man developed perianal gangrene and a high fever after a 2-week anal use of hong-dan herbal mixtures for anal fistula. He presented gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms, followed by skin rash, anemia, hair loss, peripheral neuropathy, and muscle atrophy. Elevated urine arsenic and mercury confirmed the heavy metal poisonings. The hong-dan mixture contained lead tetraoxide, arsenic, and mercury. He was treated with 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid, with partial improvement, but peripheral neuropathy persists 4 years later. A 75-year-old man developed anorexia, weight loss, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, weakness, and anemia after a 3-month use of an herbal patch for chronic leg ulcer. His blood lead concentration was 226 μg/dL, and the lead content of the herbal patch was 517 mg/g. Chelation with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and dimercaptosuccinic acid was followed by clinical recovery. These cases documented serious systemic poisoning after the short-term use of traditional Chinese medicines containing heavy metals in damaged or infected tissue. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. History of scientific cooperation between Department of Clinical Toxicology and the Chair of Forensic Medicine Jagielionian University Medical College in the period of last four decades as a document of clinical and forensic toxicology integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłys, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    An integration of clinical and forensic toxicologist society enjoys its 40-year tradition. A practice in this field proves that the cooperation can be fruitful in both the scientific and preventative and organizational areas provided the concentration of the participants' efforts is focused. The article shows the examples of such collaboration, the illustration of which are the presented works. The articles constitute the original papers and casuistic works as well concerning problems of contemporary toxicology such as: epidemiology of poisoning, complex evaluation of ethanol, carbon monoxide, pesticides, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and other poisonings.

  17. FORENSIC AUDIT

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Flores, Alan Errol; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The forensic audit is an audit specialist in obtaining evidence to turn them into tests, which are presented in the forum that is in the courts of justice, in order to check crime or settle legal disputes. Currently, major efforts are being carried out by compliance audits and comprehensive audits need to be retrofitted with legal research, to minimize the impunity that comes before economic and financial crimes, such as administrative corruption, corporate fraud and money laundering assets. ...

  18. Gait analysis in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter K; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Recordings from video surveillance systems are used as evidence from crime scenes. It would be useful to perform comparisons between disguised perpetrators and suspects based on their gait. We applied functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge to analyze the gait of perpetrators, as recorded...... than the other. Based on these characteristic features, we are able to state with reasonable certainty whether the suspect could be the perpetrator, but it is not possible to identify the perpetrator positively. Nevertheless, we have been involved in several cases where the court has found...

  19. Neonatal asphyxia and forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aloja, E; Müller, M; Paribello, F; Demontis, R; Faa, A

    2009-01-01

    In the last decades, the scientific literature addressing neonatal encephalopathy has grown in a logarithmic way and malpractice claims in obstetrics and neonatology have become a major threat to the health service. At the moment, scientific evidence are insufficient to clearly identify in each single case whether the hypoxic insult has developed in the course of labor or in the first few hours after the birth or, otherwise, whether the damage has to recognize a remote and long-lasting cause acting during pregnancy. Several authors feel that this scientific uncertainty leads to a higher percentage of civil suit decisions prone to recognizing a guilty medical behavior, and they wish a more in-depth analysis of all these cases to clearly identify all the data either in favor or in contrary to the assumption of the existence of a causal correlation between neonatal encephalopathy and medical misbehavior. This article will focus on the medico-legal approach to a hypoxic-ischemic event in the perinatal period, addressing the relevant data to be collected in order to establish the medical and juridical cause of the neonatal damage.

  20. Evaluation of Expert System at Forensic Document Examinations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Alkan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forensic document examination is one of the most important fields of Forensic Sciences. Purpose of our study is to analyse how. with whom and with which agencies and principles of expert applications related with forensic document examinations are made in our country. With this purpose, it is discussed by examining law paragraphs including expertise, legal expert organizations that work in this subject, forensic document examination laboratories occupied in these organizations, work responsibilities, technical and worker capacities and principles applied to choose their workers, private expert applications in forensic document examination and codes of The Society of Forensic Medicine Specialists and The Society of Forensic Sciences. The data we obtained showed that new legal arrengements are necessary for forensic document examinations in our country. In this way, certain work standards and educational rules will be formulated in application and sufficient controls will be ensured to avoid exploitation. Besides legal arrangements this will be possible with internal arrangements of the professional societies. Keywords: Forensic Medicine, Forensic Sciences. Forensic Document Examination, Graphology, Calligraphy

  1. Forensic geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  2. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  3. Forensic pharmacovigilance and substandard or counterfeit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Identification of harm in the form of adverse drug reactions that are caused by counterfeit or other substandard medicinal products by application of standard pharmacovigillance methods of registration, analysis and investigation could be forensic pharmacovigillance. As recent example of this type of forensic pharmacovigilance is the discovery and investigation into the adverse drug reactions caused by contaminated heparin in the USA in 2008 is discussed.

  4. How evidence-based medicine is failing due to biased trials and selective publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Howick, Jeremy

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) was announced in the early 1990s as a 'new paradigm' for improving patient care. Yet there is currently little evidence that EBM has achieved its aim. Since its introduction, health care costs have increased while there remains a lack of high-quality evidence suggesting EBM has resulted in substantial population-level health gains. In this paper we suggest that EBM's potential for improving patients' health care has been thwarted by bias in the choice of hypotheses tested, manipulation of study design and selective publication. Evidence for these flaws is clearest in industry-funded studies. We argue EBM's indiscriminate acceptance of industry-generated 'evidence' is akin to letting politicians count their own votes. Given that most intervention studies are industry funded, this is a serious problem for the overall evidence base. Clinical decisions based on such evidence are likely to be misinformed, with patients given less effective, harmful or more expensive treatments. More investment in independent research is urgently required. Independent bodies, informed democratically, need to set research priorities. We also propose that evidence rating schemes are formally modified so research with conflict of interest bias is explicitly downgraded in value. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan

    2009-10-01

    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  6. [Polish forensic entomology--the past, present and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Forensic medicine increasingly more often benefits from the achievements of other biological sciences, which may be used in post mortem investigation. One of them is forensic entomology--the science based on the knowledge about biology of insects preying on cadavers. The objective of this article is to present the history of Polish forensic entomology, its present state and possibilities and directions of further development.

  7. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. [Characteristic of fatal thrombotic complications based on the materials from the Thanatology Department of Forensic Medicine Bureau of the Rostov region, for 2004-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovskiĭ, D P; Kolkutin, V V; Kovtunov, V V; Kornienko, I V

    2009-01-01

    The authors report statistical data on the spectrum and frequency of fatal thrombotic complications based on the analysis of materials available from the regional bureau of forensic medical examination collected in the period from 2004 to 2007. All lethal cases are categorized in terms of the patients' age, gender, time and clinical characteristics of the injury, time of surgical intervention. Results of the analysis indicate the necessity of examination of fatal cases of thrombotic complications following a standardized protocol.

  9. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  10. Dental Forensics: Bitemark Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forensic odontology (dental forensics can provide useful evidence in both criminal and civil cases, and therefore remains a part of the wider discipline of forensic science. As an example from the toolbox of forensic odontology, the practice and experience on bitemark analysis is reviewed here in brief. The principle of using visible bitemarks in crime victims or in other objects as evidence is fundamentally based on the observation that the detailed pattern of dental imprints tend to be practically unique for each individual. Therefore, finding such an imprint as a bitemark can bear a strong testimony that it was produced by the individual that has the matching dental pattern. However, the comparison of the observed bitemark and the suspected set of teeth will necessarily require human interpretation, and this is not infallible. Both technical challenges in the bitemarks and human errors in the interpretation are possible. To minimise such errors and to maximise the value of bitemark analysis, dedicated procedures and protocols have been developed, and the personnel taking care of the analysis need to be properly trained. In principle the action within the discipline should be conducted as in evidence-based dentristy, i.e. accepted procedures should have known error rates. Because of the involvement of human interpretation, even personal performance statistics may be required from legal expert statements. The requirements have been introduced largely due to cases where false convictions based on bitemark analysishave been overturned after DNA analysis.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.76

  11. Forensic entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  12. The Best Corrected Presenting Distance Visual Acuity in Forensic Medicine%"最好矫正日常生活视力"在司法鉴定中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞珏

    2011-01-01

    目前我国法医学鉴定实践中有关视力障碍的评价主要是以WHO防盲研究小组于1973年制定的疾病分级标准为依据,所考察的是"最好矫正视力".有时最好矫正视力与日常生活中实际使用的视力可能不一致.WHO于2003年新制定的盲及视力损害分类标准,提出用"日常生活视力"取代"最好矫正视力".在司法鉴定实践中由于伤者的夸大或伪装,"日常生活视力"往往不能反映伤者的真实视力.笔者提出,由鉴定人在"日常生活视力"的基础上评估其"最好矫正日常生活视力",可有助于更公正地进行视功能评定.%At present the sight impairment evaluation in forensic medicine of China is based on the inter national classification of disease by WHO in 1973. The main measured indicator is "best corrected visual acuity". It is different from "presenting distance visual acuity" in some situations. In the new blindness and vision loss classification made by WHO in 2003, "presenting distance visual acuity" took the place of the "best corrected visual acuity". In the practice of forensic medicine, "presenting distance visual acuity" can not reflect the real visual acuity duo to the exaggeration or disguise of the wounded. We suggest to use "the best corrected presenting distance visual acuity" instead of "presenting distance visual acuity" in order to avoid the influences of the exaggeration or disguise of the wounded.

  13. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... College & University Listings FEPAC Accredited Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What ... Legislative Corner Forensic Sciences Foundation American Society of Forensic Odontology Research Grants Academy Standards Board (ASB) Account Portal ...

  14. Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2012-06-01

    The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine.

  15. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  16. Limitations in forensic odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kavitha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of using dental evidence in forensic investigation has kindled so much interest in the recent past that forensic odontology is even suggested as the single positive identification method to solve certain forensic cases. In this process, the shortcomings in forensic odontology though few are overlooked. These discrepancies associated with various methods are to be weighed cautiously to make forensic odontology a more accurate, reliable, and reproducible investigatory science. In this paper, we present our understanding of the limitations in various methods employed in forensic odontology.

  17. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence.

  18. [Professor Kazimierz Jaegermann--forensic pathologist--scientist--thinker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiłowski, Władysław

    2009-01-01

    Professor Kazimierz Jaegermann, a founder of the theory of medico-legal opinionating, passed away 20 years ago. Numerous specialists in forensic medicine and an ever increasing number of lawyers substantiate the importance and value of the creative thought and the entire research work of Professor Jaegermann that have been an inspiration of progress in forensic medicine and in the science of applied law. His unique ability to perform a scientific synthesis leading to recognizing forensic medicine as an applied bridging knowledge points to the eminently creative role played by Professor Jaegermann in development of forensic medicine. There is an urgent need to recall his research activities and to publish a complete collection of his articles and publications. With this idea in mind, I present below an article based on the text published in No. 1 of the Zeszyty Naukowe Katedry Medycyny Sadowej Slaskiej Akademii Medycznej in 1995.

  19. THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF LEGAL MEDICINE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a borderline science, forensic medicine has had a closely connected evolution, over the ages, with the evolution of law and medical sciences. The progress of law sciences determined the evolution of social relations and extended the application field of forensic medicine, whereas the new and modern techniques of investigation influenced considerably the development and accuracy of forensic investigation.

  20. Learning Android forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.

  1. Integrating Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  2. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2009-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  3. Integrating Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  4. Forensic DNA and bioinformatics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bianchi, Lucia; Liò, Pietro

    The field of forensic science is increasingly based on biomolecular data and many European countries are establishing forensic databases to store DNA profiles of crime scenes of known offenders and apply DNA testing...

  5. Course constructions: A case-base of forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Yeda; Su, Terry; Zhang, Liyong; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jingjing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuping; Cheng, Jianding

    2017-08-01

    Forensic toxicology education in China is limited by insufficient teaching methods and resources, resulting in students with adequate theoretical principles but lacking practice experience. Typical cases used as teaching materials vividly represent intoxication and provide students with an opportunity to practice and hone resolving skills. In 2013, the Department of Forensic Pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine began to construct top-quality courses in forensic toxicology, with its first step, creating a base containing typical cases of intoxication. This essay reviews the construction process of said cases-base, which is intended to set an example of forensic toxicology education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-11-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory.

  7. Cloud Forensics Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Cloud Computing , Forensics , IT Security, Standards, Monitoring, Virtualization. I. INTRODUCTION LOUD computing has come to mean many different...an efficient re-allocation of resources. VI. ACCOUNTABILITY, MONITORING AND FORENSICS The goal of computer forensics is to perform a structured...away from the concept of cloud computing [12 - 14]. We believe, however, that a precise statement of the high assurance and forensics requirements

  8. XIRAF: Ultimate Forensic Querying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, W.; Bhoedjang, R.; Vries, A.P. de; Boncz, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a novel, XML-based approach towards managing and querying forensic traces extracted from digital evidence. This approach has been implemented in XIRAF, a prototype system for forensic analysis. XIRAF systematically applies forensic analysis tools to evidence files (e.g., hard di

  9. Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

    Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes

  10. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way.

  11. Eight years of psychiatric examination of detainees by forensic physicians in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hondel, Karen E; Saaltink, Anne Linde; Bender, Peter Paul M

    2016-11-01

    Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital. The forensic physician consults the second-line Public Mental Health Care (PMHC). This study aims to give an overview of the outcomes of psychiatric assessments of apparent mentally ill detainees in police stations. These assessments were done by forensic physicians over a period of eight years (2005-2013). A distinction is made between mental disorders, social problems, and alcohol/drugs abuse. All psychiatric assessments were registered in a medical database. When a secondary public mental health care assessment was performed, the conclusions and/or written feedback were received and included in the medical database. This information was used for this retrospective observational study. Of all the apparent mentally ill individuals brought by the police into the police station, the forensic physician sent home or referred 51.8% to their own respective caretakers or the individuals were voluntarily admitted to addiction care or other care facilities. When the forensic physician referred a detainee to PMHC, a compulsory admission to a psychiatric hospital was indicated by PMHC in 62.8% of the cases. Ultimately, of the total apparent mentally ill individuals brought in by the police 30.0% was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. Many apparent mentally ill individuals brought to the police station are sent home by the forensic physician. Before the

  12. Plethora of Cyber Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sridhar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called “cyber forensics.” Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. Cyber forensics tools must increase its toughness and counteract these advanced persistent threats. This paper focuses on briefing of Cyber forensics, various phases of cyber forensics, handy tools and new research trends and issues in this fascinated area.

  13. Evaluation of the Opinions of the People Concerning the Forensic Medical Services in Samsun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Süer

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Public society’s interest increases to institutions and organisation that provides Forensic Medicine services every day. The major tasks undertaken and followed up with a high expectation of these institutions and organizations should be discarded and the necessary steps should be taken to resolve existing problems. Keywords: Forensic medicine, Awareness, Reliability.

  14. Organ procurement in forensic deaths: French developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Yann; Jousset, Nathalie; Averland, Benoit; Hedouin, Valéry; Ludes, Bertrand; Gosset, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Organ procurement and transplantation have grown steadily, and the need for organs will only rise in the future. Increasing the number of potential donors is therefore paramount. However, transplant coordination teams face refusals that can be linked to the contexts of the deaths, especially when they involve legal issues. In France, deaths involving legal proceedings are not uncommon (7-10%). In these cases, the prosecutor is immediately contacted, and makes the decision of whether to remove the involved organs. Refusals of this type represent 4% (approximately 30 cases per year) of obstacles to organ removals, and are governed by specific legislation. Thus, the prosecutor must arrange contact with a forensic pathologist and with the organ transplant teams to assemble all of the necessary elements for him to take the decision. To assist prosecutors in their decision making and to ensure them scientific rigour, the French Society of Forensic Medicine sought to develop a national recommendation to harmonise practices; it emerged in early 2013. The guideline makes practical recommendations, including among others: nominating local referents; writing regional protocols between judicial authorities, forensic pathologists and transplant teams; establishing terms for the forensic pathologist's intervention on the donor's body before and after a procurement. This recommendation by the French Society of Forensic Medicine aimed to combine two interests: addressing the shortage of organs, and fulfilling the requisites of a criminal investigation by standardising practices and encouraging communication.

  15. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public.

  16. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach Between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ayodele Gbadebo-Goyea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We look at the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences and similarities. Furthermore, we compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for the two professions. We present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Finally, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, number and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public

  17. Characterization of victims of aggression and transportation accidents treated at the Forensic Medicine and Dentistry Institute - Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil - 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avila, Sergio; Campos, Ana Cristina; Cavalcante, Gigliana Maria Sobral; Silva, Carlos Jose de Paula; da Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; Ferreira, Efigenia Ferreira E

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional census study was to characterize agression and land-based transport accidents in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. Data was analyzed from live victims who were treated at a forensic service (N = 2.379). In the descriptive analysis, the majority of events were represented by aggression (71.6%); which occurred on weekdays (65%), with 35.1% at night. Trauma occurred to the whole body (63.6%) and to soft tissue (74.2%). On the basis of multiple correspondence analysis, two dimensions were formed: the first dimension (internal reliability = 0.654) was formed by the cause of the event, the trauma and the age group and the second dimension (reliability = 0.514), by age group, occupation and civil status. Three groups with distinct profiles were formed for accidents and aggression: young women who suffered aggression, with trauma to the face and soft tissues during the evening and at weekends; adult men who suffered car accidents, in the morning and on work days; and retired elderly widowers, who were run over.

  18. Characterization of victims of aggression and transportation accidents treated at the Forensic Medicine and Dentistry Institute - Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio d'Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional census study was to characterize agression and land-based transport accidents in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. Data was analyzed from live victims who were treated at a forensic service (N = 2.379. In the descriptive analysis, the majority of events were represented by aggression (71.6%; which occurred on weekdays (65%, with 35.1% at night. Trauma occurred to the whole body (63.6% and to soft tissue (74.2%. On the basis of multiple correspondence analysis, two dimensions were formed: the first dimension (internal reliability = 0.654 was formed by the cause of the event, the trauma and the age group and the second dimension (reliability = 0.514, by age group, occupation and civil status. Three groups with distinct profiles were formed for accidents and aggression: young women who suffered aggression, with trauma to the face and soft tissues during the evening and at weekends; adult men who suffered car accidents, in the morning and on work days; and retired elderly widowers, who were run over.

  19. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  20. 骨折愈合评估方法的研究进展及其法医学意义%Advancement in Methods of Evaluation on Bone Fracture Healing and Its Application in Forensic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎宇飞

    2011-01-01

    在法医学鉴定中经常需要对骨折形成时间进行鉴定,因此,研究和探讨骨折形成时间的评定方法有着重要的临床及法医学意义.本文综述了超声测量、脉冲测定、数字影像学技术和骨密度检测技术等在评估骨折愈合程度中的应用及其价值.认为综合利用多种评定手段,能为骨折形成时间的法医学鉴定提供科学依据.%It is frequently encountered to identify the time of bone fracture in forensic medicine. Hence it is important to develop the methods for evaluating the time of bone fracture. This article reviews the applications and values of the methods such as ultrasonic evaluation, impulse measurement, digital imaging technology and bone mineral density testing technology, etc. It is proposed that to use these methods jointly may provide more scientific evidence in determine the time of bone fracture.

  1. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  2. Internationalizing forensic assessments of criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynen, Gerben; Oei, Karel

    2011-12-01

    One of the important characteristics of current medicine is that it is an international endeavor. The fact that medicine is a global undertaking might even be one of its core strengths. However, the universal nature of medicine can be compromised when local issues become significant factors in medical practice. In this paper we identify criminal law as a relevant factor complicating the process of internationalizing a particular medical practice: the assessment of a defendant within the context of the question of criminal responsibility. Since criminal law--especially the laws relevant to assessments of criminal responsibility--may differ from country to country, or rather from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, forensic psychiatrists face the challenge of finding common ground and a common framework to advance these forensic psychiatric assessments. We describe the current situation and argue for internationalizing the discussion about this assessment, pointing to the example provided by assessments of competence.

  3. Windows Memory Forensic Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-12

    captures from Windows machines and the methodology for extracting digital artifacts from forensic memory captures. The two types of malware implemented on...proposed to improve upon the design implemented in the D3 JavaScript Visualization Tool. 7 II. Literature Review Due to the recent rise...18. Resource Slice Selected – Associated Process Nodes Highlighted. ... vice\\Nam~~~~~~~~ffi~~ iFr ~)~~~ ... vice\\NamedPipe\

  4. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  5. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  6. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics....

  7. Forensic odontology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Duane E

    2014-06-01

    This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements.

  8. Forensic Chemistry Training

    OpenAIRE

    GERÇEK, Zuhal

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analy...

  9. [Auguste Ambroise Tardiue--the pre-eminent forensic medical scientist and children's rights advocate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeneva, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to the outstanding forensic medical expert whose activities exerted the great influence on the development of forensic medicine in France and all over the world. The paper present the biographical facts concerning A A Tardiue and characterizes the contribution he made to different field of forensic medicine in the middle of the XIX century including various forms of child abuse and neglect. A brief summary of the circumstances of some court trials in which A A Tardiue participated in the capacity of a forensic medical expert is presented in conjunction with the overview of his three most important written works.

  10. Clinical criminology: a bridge between forensic professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfen, P; Ben-David, S

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades a new profession has developed--clinical criminology. The purpose of this article is to highlight its development. Criminology is defined as a interdisciplinary super-profession. We tend to view criminology as a basic profession with a number of specializations. Clinical criminology is one of these specializations. Forensic psychiatry and clinical criminology have common roots in psychiatry, law and behavioural sciences. They overlap in some fields. Members of both professions work in the same setting and share some of the tasks, but the formal and professional responsibilities differ significantly. We perceive clinical criminology and forensic psychiatry as complementary professions belonging to medicine. The multidisciplinary educated clinical criminologist is the only professional in the forensic system who is qualified to moderate between the mental health and legal expert.

  11. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  12. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab Mission Establish and maintain a Digital...

  13. Forensic anthropology in Europe: an assessment of current status and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranioti, Elena; Paine, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Forensic anthropology is the discipline that traditionally deals with the examination of human remains for legal purposes and it derives from the fields of anatomy, physical anthropology and forensic medicine. For more than a century, forensic anthropologists in the United States have been offering their services in the court of law complementing the medico-legal investigation of other forensic professionals. The current status in European countries is presented here. The development of forensic anthropology varies significantly among the countries of Europe. Whereas some countries show a long history of research activity in the forensic sciences, including forensic anthropology (i.e. France, Germany and Spain), others are exhibiting a recent, rapid development (i.e. United Kingdom). In some cases, forensic anthropologists are employed within the academic realm (i.e. U.K., Denmark, Portugal, Turkey), forensic institutions (Netherlands) or government organizations (Spain, Hungary), although the vast majority of them remain limited to freelance activities on a sporadic basis. Often, European scientists that deal with skeletal remains come from nonphysical anthropology disciplines such as archaeology, forensic medicine and biology. In many cases they do not have adequate training equivalent to the forensic anthropologists in the USA. Naturally, without common training and a common legal system, an accreditation system for Europe will be difficult to implement.

  14. Study of medicine 2.0 due to Web 2.0?! -- risks and opportunities for the curriculum in Leipzig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Gunther; Neef, Martin; Rotzoll, Daisy; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 is changing the study of medicine by opening up totally new ways of learning and teaching in an ongoing process. Global social networking services like Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Google Drive and Xing already play an important part in communication both among students and between students and teaching staff. Moreover, local portals (such as the platform [http://www.leipzig-medizin.de] established in 2003) have also caught on and in some cases eclipsed the use of the well-known location-independent social media. The many possibilities and rapid changes brought about by social networks need to be publicized within medical faculties. Therefore, an E-learning and New Media Working Group was set up at the Faculty of Medicine of Universität Leipzig in order to harness the opportunities of Web 2.0, analyse the resulting processes of change in the study of medicine, and curb the risks of the Internet. With Web 2.0 and the social web already influencing the study of medicine, the opportunities of the Internet now need to be utilized to improve the teaching of medicine.

  15. Car Accident Due to Horse Crossing the Motorway: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbülent Kılıç

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic Commercial Court in Ankara wanted a report from our department of forensic medicine about two injury cases due to animal vehicle collision. The reports should include the disability rate and the duration of unfunctionality. After the examination we prepared the reports. Both vehicle collisions happened due to free ranging horse crossing the motorway. Both cases had different types of injury due to trauma. Vehicle collision due to horse crossing the motorway is rarely met in Turkey. Our first case is a man that had upper extremity and facial injury. He uses prothesis due to ear amputation. He has a scar tissue on the right side of his face and left forearm. The other case is three-years-old boy that had cranial bone fracture and cranial hematoma. He has also hemiparesis of the right side of body. Both cases have neurologic sequels but they have no psychiatric sequels.  In literature, animal vehicle collisions involve lots of animal species such as kangaroo, deer, camel and moose. Animal vehicle collision involving the horses is rarely met. Forensic medicine specialists should state the causal link between traumatic events and disabilities in order to help justice. Our aim to present the current two cases is investigation of injuries of animal related collision and makes forensic medicine specialists pay attention to the subject of preparing reports about such cases. Key words: Animal vehicle collision; death; disability; horse; injury; motorway.

  16. Cadáveres quemados: Estudio antropológico-forense Burned corpses: Forensic anthropological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La acción del fuego sobre el cuerpo puede producir afectación de la piel determinando quemaduras de diversos grados o carbonización llegando a afectar al hueso, e incluso a calcinarlo. Cuando el grado de afectación es intenso deben aplicarse los protocolos de antropología forense, teniendo en cuenta las particularidades del caso. Presentamos cuatro casos estudiados en el Laboratorio de Antropología Forense de la Escuela de Medicina Legal de Madrid, en los que se han seguido técnicas diferentes a fin de poder establecer la identificación del cadáver y el diagnóstico de la muerte así como otras cuestiones de interés en la investigación antropológico forense.The action of fire on the body can affect the skin determining diverse degree of burns or may affect the bone, even cremate it. When the degree of burn is intense, protocols of forensic anthropology should be used, taking into account the details of each case. We present four cases studied in the Laboratory of Forensic Anthropology at the School of Legal Medicine in Madrid, in which different techniques have been used in order to establish the identification of the cadaver and the cause of death as well as other questions of interest in the forensic anthropological investigation.

  17. Development and validation of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for forensic Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vagner; Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Queiroz; de Siqueira, Adriana; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Ciscato, Claudia Helena Pastor; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; de Souza Spinosa, Helenice

    2017-09-14

    Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species. The following parameters of analytical validation were evaluated: linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, recovery and matrix effect. The method was linear at the range of 6.25-100μg/mL and the correlation coefficient (r(2)) values were >0.9811 for all matrices. The precision and accuracy of the method was determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and the relative standard deviation error (RSE), and both were less than 15%. Recovery ranged from 74.29 to 100.1% for carbofuran and from 64.72 to 100.61% for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. There were no significant interfering peaks or matrix effects. This method was suitable for detecting 25 positive cases for carbofuran amongst a total of 64 animal samples suspected of poisoning brought to the Toxicology Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Sao Paulo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of inpatient aggression in forensic mental health nursing : the application of the Early Recognition Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluttert, F.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Management of Inpatient Aggression in Forensic Mental Health Nursing. The application of the Early Recognition Method. Forensic mental health nurses take care of forensic patients convicted for an offense for which they were assessed not to be fully accountable due to their psychiatric disorder. For

  19. [Development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Srdjan; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava; Ilanković, Nikola; Dunjić, Dusan; Lakić, Aneta; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Nenadović, Milutin; Randjelović, Dragisa; Milovanović, Dimitrije

    2013-01-01

    The development of legislation in the field of mental health in our region is linked with the emergence and development of the oldest psychiatric hospitals in Serbia.The principle that the mentally ill who committed a criminal offense need to be placed in a psychiatric hospital instead of a prison was introduced at the same time as in the most developed European countries. The founders of the Serbian forensic psychiatry, Dr. Jovan Danić, Dr.Vojislav Subotić Jr. and Dr. Dusan Subotić, were all trained at the first Serbian Psychiatric Hospital ("Home for the Unsound of Mind") that was founded in 1861 in the part of Belgrade called Guberevac. Their successors were psychiatric enthusiasts Prof. Dr.Vladimir F.Vujić and Prof. Dr. Laza Stanojević. A formal establishment of the School of Medicine of Belgrade, with acquirement of new experience and positive shifts within this field, based on the general act of the University in 1932, led to the formation of the Council of the School of Medicine, which, as a collective body passed expert opinions. Thus, the first Forensic Medicine Committee of the School of Medicine was formed and started its activities in 1931 when Forensic Medicine Committee Regulations were accepted. After the World War II prominent educators in the field of mental health, and who particularly contributed to further development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia were Prof. Dr. Uros Jekić, Prof Dr. Dusan Jevtić, Dr. Stevan Jovanović, Prof. Dr. Borislav Kapamadzija, Prof. Dr. Maksim Sternić, Prof. Dr. Josif Vesel and Prof. Dr. Dimitrije Milovanović.

  20. Forensic Science Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  1. Forensic Science Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  2. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  3. A Novel Forensic Computing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yunfeng; LU Yansheng

    2006-01-01

    According to the requirement of computer forensic and network forensic, a novel forensic computing model is presented, which exploits XML/OEM/RM data model, Data fusion technology, forensic knowledgebase, inference mechanism of expert system and evidence mining engine. This model takes advantage of flexility and openness, so it can be widely used in mining evidence.

  4. Forensic pharmacology: An important and evolving subspecialty needs recognition in India

    OpenAIRE

    Harshad Onkarrao Malve

    2016-01-01

    With training in pharmacology, a pharmacologist has an expert knowledge as well as working experience in the subjects of therapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology along with exposure to subjects such as forensic medicine during the medical education. All these knowledge domains can be applied and act as an interface to the forensic situations. The skills and expertise of a forensic pharmacologist can be useful in a large and diverse number of legal cases. With an ever increasing incidenc...

  5. [Today and tomorrow of forensic thanatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszeja, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The essence of post-mortem examination and its special place among other disciplines of forensic medicine were presented. Attention was drawn to the role of better understanding of phenomena occurring during and directly after death in the development of forensic medicine. Progress in determination of the time of death and in estimation of the intravital character of injuries found on the corpse was discussed. The need for a wider application of results of bio- and thanatochemical analyses in determination of the cause of death and its mechanism was emphasized. Examples of progress in this domain were presented, based on a number of papers published in this field, especially in Poland. Finally, the author pointed to the necessity of upgrading training of medical doctors in the field of thanatology.

  6. FORENSIC COMPUTING MODELS: TECHNICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Shrivastava

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with introducing a technique of digital forensics for reconstruction of events or evidences after the commitment of a crime through any of the digital devices. It shows a clear transparency between Computer Forensics and Digital Forensics and gives a brief description about the classification of Digital Forensics. It has also been described that how the emergences of various digital forensic models help digital forensic practitioners and examiners in doing digital forensics. Further, discussed Merits and Demerits of the required models and review of every major model.

  7. Forensic evaluation of medical liability cases in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, H; Magalhães, T; Dinis-Oliveira, Rj; Taveira-Gomes, A

    2014-10-01

    Although medical liability (disciplinary, civil and criminal) is increasingly becoming an issue, few studies exist, particularly from the perspective of forensic science, which demonstrate the extent to which medical malpractice occurs, or when it does, the reasons for it. Our aims were to evaluate the current situation concerning medical liability in general surgery (GS) in Portugal, the reasons for claims, and the forensic evaluations and conclusions, as well as the association between these issues and the judicial outcomes. We analysed the Medico-Legal Council (CML) reports of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal related to GS during 2001-2010. The judicial outcomes of each case were requested from the Public Prosecutor Office (PPO) and the court. Alleged cases of medical liability in GS represented 11.2% of the total cases analysed by the CML. We estimated that in Portugal, 4:100,000 surgeries are subject to litigation. The majority of complaints were due to the patient's death (75.4%), with laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgeries representing 55.2% of cases. In 76.1% of the cases, the CML believed that there was no violation of legesartis and in 55.2% of cases, no causal nexus was found between the medical practice and the alleged harm. The PPO prosecuted physicians in 6.4% of the cases and resulted in one conviction. Finally, the importance of the CML reports as a relevant technical-scientific tool for judicial decision was evident because these reports significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the prosecutor's decision, whether to prosecute or not.

  8. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  9. [Evaluation of "life-threatening" definition and negligence in children treated in the emergency surgery service burn unit (from the viewpoint of forensic medicine)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliustaoğlu, Süheyla; Ince, Haluk; Ince, Nurhan; Yazici, Yüksel; Berber, Gürol; Güloğlu, Recep

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to outline the sociodemographic and traumatic characteristics of children who were referred to the Burn Unit of Emergency Service with burn injuries, to discuss the doctors' approach to these cases, and to compare the prognosis of patient groups with and without life-threat. This epidemiological study was carried out between 14 October 2004 and 31 December 2006 and included a total of 134 pediatric patients aged between 0-18 years. A semi-structured questionnaire form was designed to obtain the information from the study population. The obtained data were statistically evaluated. 66.2% (n=90) of the cases were male and 33.8% (n=46) were female. The mean age of the study population was 3.9+/-4.1 years and the mean percentage of burned body area was 22.47+/-17.37. The main cause of burn was scalding with hot water, with a frequency of 77.2% (n=105). When the percentage of burn area of the body was lower than 20%, the mortality was 6.3% (n=6), whereas it was 61% (n=25) when the burn area exceeded 20% of the body (p=0.0001). While the mortality was 21.0% (n=25) among the cases with first-degree burns, it was 35.3% (n=6) among those with second- and third-degree burns (p=0.189). Mortality ratio among the cases with life-threat was higher than those without life-threat, and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.033). Extent of burn is a determinative factor for prognosis in children. Evaluation of all burn cases in children should be approached as cases of neglect/abuse; protection of these children in this manner will serve as an important practice of preventive medicine.

  10. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  11. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  12. Forensic odontology, historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansare, K

    1995-01-01

    According to the old testament Adam was convinced by eve to put a "Bite Mark" on the apple. Interest in Forensic Odontology was heightened in the latter part of 19th Century. The first formal instructional programme was given at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, U.S. Since then the number of cases reported has played a significant role in expanding the role of Forensic Odontology. The earliest reported case was of Lollia Paulina in the year 49 A. D. One of the early reported case is also found in India in the year 1193. In the last few decades, the basic pattern of Forensic Odontology has changed quite a lot. Advances in dental material and laboratory techniques, with improvements in scientific and photographic technology, have made the proof of presentation much to forensic science.

  13. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  14. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-01-01

    Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and ph...

  15. Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-01-03

    Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  16. Children's developmental characteristics in the forensic interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children can be credible witnesses in court procedures given an adequately conducted forensic interview with them. This paper presents the most important features of a child's development (the cognitive and socioemotional development and the development of language and communication and from these features derives the specific guidelines for forensic interviews of children. Due to the frequent belief that children can be led to false witnessing and that they do not differentiate between reality and fantasy the topics of lying and suggestibility are also discussed. At the end some practical suggestions are given with recommendations for trainings of all professionals working with children that are potential witnesses.

  17. Internet and forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  18. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  19. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology.

  20. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences.This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites.There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids.This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology.

  1. Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry from a single image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego; Gomez-Lahoz, Javier

    2009-11-01

    Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most valuable and low-cost resources of spatial data available today. Due to the ephemeral crime scene characteristics, these photographs can often capture information that is never to be seen again. This paper presents a novelty approach for the documentation, analysis, and visualization of crime scenes for which only a single perspective image is available. The photogrammetric process consists of a few well-known steps in close-range photogrammetry: features extraction, vanishing points computation, camera self-calibration, 3D metric reconstruction, dimensional analysis, and interactive visualization. Likewise, the method incorporates a quality control of the different steps accomplished sequentially. As a result, several cases of study are presented in the experimental results section in order to test their viability. The full approach can be applied easily through the free software, sv3DVision, which has been evaluated by a number of police officers, forensic scientists, and forensic educators satisfactorily.

  2. Computational intelligence in digital forensics forensic investigation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choo, Yun-Huoy; Abraham, Ajith; Srihari, Sargur

    2014-01-01

    Computational Intelligence techniques have been widely explored in various domains including forensics. Analysis in forensic encompasses the study of pattern analysis that answer the question of interest in security, medical, legal, genetic studies and etc. However, forensic analysis is usually performed through experiments in lab which is expensive both in cost and time. Therefore, this book seeks to explore the progress and advancement of computational intelligence technique in different focus areas of forensic studies. This aims to build stronger connection between computer scientists and forensic field experts.   This book, Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, is the first volume in the Intelligent Systems Reference Library series. The book presents original research results and innovative applications of computational intelligence in digital forensics. This edited volume contains seventeen chapters and presents the latest state-of-the-art advancement ...

  3. Optimization of short tandem repeats (STR) typing method and allele frequency of 8 STR markers in referring to forensic medicine of Semnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarion, M; Najafi, M; Akbari Eidgahi, M; Alipour Tabrizi, A; Golmohamadi, T

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Short Tandem Repeats (STR) show considerable differences among individuals in the population from which they used for identification. There are various methods for analysis of these STR loci, and capillary electrophoresis method already used as an international standard. Due to the high costs of this process, this study aimed to set up a Multiplex PCR method in some standard STR loci so that we can use its PCR product in STR analysis with different methods of HPLC, GC-Mass, and Capillary Electrophoresis. Materials and Methods: 8 typical STR loci in the identification selected according to their size in the two groups of four (CSF1PO, VWA, D18S51, PentaD and TPOX, Amelogenin, FGA, SE33) from NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). The above SSR primers prepared from Genbank and Monoplex PCR was designed based on their size. Then, with the changes in temperature conditions, magnesium ion, primers concentration, and setting-up, Hot Start Multiplex PCR of four markers was carried out. PCR product investigated on the agarose gel electrophoresis (3%) and the results of genotyping analyzed by Genetic Analyzer. Results: The Results showed that all STR loci under study are detectable as Monoplex PCR at a temperature of 62°-66° and 1.5 mM magnesium ion. Moreover, Multiplex PCR results showed that when the concentration of primer and temperature measured by the fixed concentration of magnesium, CSF1PO, and D18S51 loci bands are weaker than desired. Using a standard buffer and set Magnesium conditions against changes in the primer concentration and temperature, when Taq polymerase enzyme is added to test tubes at a temperature of 94°, Multiplex PCR bands are visible desirably. Capillary electrophoresis genotyping results obtained in all eight loci and the Locus FGA had the most allelic diversity and the loci TPOX and CSF1PO had the lowest allelic diversity. TPOX and CSF1PO loci had the lowest allelic frequencies, and FGA locus had

  4. An acute hemolytic transfusion reaction due to the "anti-c" rhesus antibody: A case report emphasizing the role of transfusion medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Sachan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhesus (Rh mediated hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR are usually immunoglobulin G mediated and delayed onset. Rh antibodies being the cause of acute HTR (AHTR and intravascular hemolysis are still under debate. We report here a case of a 53-year-old male who developed AHTR due to "anti-c" antibodies within 3 h of blood transfusion, precipitating fatal acute liver failure in a patient with hepatitis C related chronic liver disease. This case emphasizes the need of inclusion of antibody screening in routine pretransfusion testing as well as a critical role of transfusion medicine specialists for early diagnosis and minimizing transfusion-related morbidity and mortality.

  5. From Computer Forensics to Forensic Computing: Investigators Investigate, Scientists Associate

    OpenAIRE

    Dewald, Andreas; Freiling, Felix C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws a comparison of fundamental theories in traditional forensic science and the state of the art in current computer forensics, thereby identifying a certain disproportion between the perception of central aspects in common theory and the digital forensics reality. We propose a separation of what is currently demanded of practitioners in digital forensics into a rigorous scientific part on the one hand, and a more general methodology of searching and seizing digital evidence an...

  6. Oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine during gestation period for preventing hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO incompatibility: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Wu, Ruohan; Han, Mei; Caldwell, Patrina Ha Yuen

    2017-01-01

    Background About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended “best” therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. Objectives To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. Methods The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637).Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR) and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available. Results Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30).After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14) and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups. Conclusions This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition. PMID:28719639

  7. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  8. World of Forensic Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? The World of Forensic Laboratory Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... made-for-television lab scenario, real-life forensic laboratories' analyses of evidence are much slower. For example, ...

  9. The relevance of the Goudge inquiry to the practice of child protection/forensic paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skellern, Catherine; Donald, Terence

    2014-10-01

    In 2008 Ontario, Canada the Goudge Inquiry arose following increasing concerns about practices surrounding forensic pathology and the investigation of paediatric deaths. Some of the considerations and recommendations have relevance to child protection/forensic paediatricians, particularly in relation to their responsibilities in opinion formulation and as expert witnesses. By examining the Inquiry recommendations, this paper applies them in relation to child protection/forensic paediatrics by discussing forensic medicine and its legal context, how interpretation of published reports and data should be used in opinion formulation; issues of 'diagnosis' versus 'opinion'; issues specific to child protection paediatrics; quality control; aspects of report writing and terminological considerations. It concludes with an adaptation of key recommendations directly from those of Goudge, applied to the context of paediatric forensic medicine undertaken in child protection assessments.

  10. Eponyms in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečas, Pavel; Hejna, Petr

    2012-12-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith's Sign, Casper's Rule, Krönlein's Shot, Lichtenberg's Figures, Nysten's Law, Paltauf's Spots, Puppe's Rule, Sehrt's Sign, Simon's Sign, Sveshnikov's Sign, Tardieu's Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler's Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks.

  11. Brain death: neuropathological findings and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M

    1994-12-16

    'Brain death' is defined pathophysiologically as intracranial circulatory arrest. The morphological features of brain death include cerebral edema, absence of reactive changes, and--after an interval of 15-36 h--the morphological hallmarks of respirator brain: edema, global softening of the brain, dusky discoloration of the gray matter, and often necrotic and sloughing tonsillar herniations. The following implications of brain death for forensic medicine are discussed: discriminating between respirator and autolytic brain, declaration of death, determining the time of brain death versus the time of the traumatic event leading to brain death, and neuropathological control of the clinical diagnosis of brain death. These issues are elucidated and their bearing on forensic practice is illustrated by several real-life situations. Thus, neuropathological examination in the case of clinically diagnosed brain death is--without doubt--necessary in order to answer several questions often or regularly expected.

  12. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  13. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  14. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  15. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  16. Expansion of Microbial Forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  18. Effects of Ramadan on Forensic Cases Presenting to Emergency Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sarı Doğan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term "forensic case" is defined as disruption of physical and/or mental health of an individual due to external factors. Forensic cases are most frequently encountered in emergency services. Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic calendar, is a month of fasting throughout which Muslims from all around the world worship by observing fasting. There are many studies focusing on the effects of fasting on health. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Ramadan on forensic cases presenting to emergency service.

  19. Music and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship.Keywords: history of medicine, medical humanities, healing music

  20. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy.

  1. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali.AbstractIn the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings. 

  2. Awareness of Forensic Odontology among Legal Professionals, Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvajothi, Packiaraj; Lavanya, Chandra; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, Kannan

    2014-11-01

    The forensic discipline of law is a multidisciplinary team comprising of specialists in forensic medicine, forensic odontology, security and law. The study was to find the awareness level of scope and utility of forensic odontology among lawyers in Chennai, South India. A cross-sectional study using a self administered structured questionnaire was conducted in 200 lawyers between August and September of 2013. The data was analyzed depending on age, gender, type and years of practice. Lawyers above 40 years of experience were more aware of palatal rugae analysis (P = 0.02), and those with more than 20 years were aware of lip print (P = 0.001) and bite mark analysis (P = 0.001). Males were more aware of forensic odontology with respect to criminal identification (P = 0.001). The knowledge of bite mark analysis was higher among male lawyers (P = 0.001), civil and criminal practicing lawyers (P = 0.004). All participants were aware that loss or fracture of tooth constitutes a grievous injury under Indian Penal Code (IPC) 320 clause 7(5). This study highlighted the knowledge of forensic odontology among legal professionals and also identified the areas in which they need further appraisal.

  3. Awareness of forensic odontology among legal professionals, Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packiaraj Selvajothi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The forensic discipline of law is a multidisciplinary team comprising of specialists in forensic medicine, forensic odontology, security and law. Aim: The study was to find the awareness level of scope and utility of forensic odontology among lawyers in Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self administered structured questionnaire was conducted in 200 lawyers between August and September of 2013. The data was analyzed depending on age, gender, type and years of practice. Results: Lawyers above 40 years of experience were more aware of palatal rugae analysis (P = 0.02, and those with more than 20 years were aware of lip print (P = 0.001 and bite mark analysis (P = 0.001. Males were more aware of forensic odontology with respect to criminal identification (P = 0.001. The knowledge of bite mark analysis was higher among male lawyers (P = 0.001, civil and criminal practicing lawyers (P = 0.004. All participants were aware that loss or fracture of tooth constitutes a grievous injury under Indian Penal Code (IPC 320 clause 7(5. Conclusion: This study highlighted the knowledge of forensic odontology among legal professionals and also identified the areas in which they need further appraisal.

  4. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the

  5. Forensic DNA typing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y P

    2009-04-01

    In the field of forensic genetics, essential developmental impulses come from the advances of the molecular biology and human genome projects. This paper overviews existing technologies for forensic genetics in China and gives a perspective of forensic DNA analysis. In China, work has been done in the development of blood group serology of the conventional markers. Forensic scientists in China also contributed to the progress of DNA analysis by the validation of numerous test methods and by optimization of these methods. During these years, forensic DNA analysis in China has experienced tremendous progress towards development of robust, efficient and precise protocols, including the development of short tandem repeat analysis, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome analysis. Forensic scientists are constantly looking for new methods to further improve DNA typing. Therefore, this paper also focuses on emerging new technologies in China, which represent an interest for forensic genetics.

  6. Three-year follow-up study on hepatic fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis Btreated by interferon-α1b and traditional medicine preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Liang Cheng; Yin Ying Lu; Jun Wu; Tian Ying Luo; Ke Fu Huang; Yi Sheng Ding; Ran Cai Liu; Jia Li; Zhong Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the short-term and long-term therapeutic effect of traditional medicine preparation andIFN-α1 b on hepatic fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis B.METHODS Fifty-two patients with hepatic fibrosis of hepatitis B were treated by IFN-alb and traditionalmedicine preparation, then observed the change of serum indexes of hepatic fibrosis, liver biopsy,ultrasonography and fibergastroscopy.RESULTS The serum indexes of hepatic fibrosis decreased significantly after 3-month treatment(P<0.05). The improvement of liver fibrosis was confirmed by liver biopsy, ultrasonography andfibergastroscopy. After 3-year continuous follow-up, the conditions of patients were got better. Symptomsand signs were disappeared. The pathohistologic change of liver, serum index of hepatic fibrosis and liverfunction were continuously improved.CONCLUSION The good short-term and long-term effects were obtained by using IFN-α1b to suppressduplication of hepatitis B virus and traditional medicine preparation to reverse hepatic fibrosis.

  7. Public participation in genetic databases: crossing the boundaries between biobanks and forensic DNA databases through the principle of solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana

    2015-10-01

    The ethical aspects of biobanks and forensic DNA databases are often treated as separate issues. As a reflection of this, public participation, or the involvement of citizens in genetic databases, has been approached differently in the fields of forensics and medicine. This paper aims to cross the boundaries between medicine and forensics by exploring the flows between the ethical issues presented in the two domains and the subsequent conceptualisation of public trust and legitimisation. We propose to introduce the concept of 'solidarity', traditionally applied only to medical and research biobanks, into a consideration of public engagement in medicine and forensics. Inclusion of a solidarity-based framework, in both medical biobanks and forensic DNA databases, raises new questions that should be included in the ethical debate, in relation to both health services/medical research and activities associated with the criminal justice system.

  8. Public participation in genetic databases: crossing the boundaries between biobanks and forensic DNA databases through the principle of solidarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The ethical aspects of biobanks and forensic DNA databases are often treated as separate issues. As a reflection of this, public participation, or the involvement of citizens in genetic databases, has been approached differently in the fields of forensics and medicine. This paper aims to cross the boundaries between medicine and forensics by exploring the flows between the ethical issues presented in the two domains and the subsequent conceptualisation of public trust and legitimisation. We propose to introduce the concept of ‘solidarity’, traditionally applied only to medical and research biobanks, into a consideration of public engagement in medicine and forensics. Inclusion of a solidarity-based framework, in both medical biobanks and forensic DNA databases, raises new questions that should be included in the ethical debate, in relation to both health services/medical research and activities associated with the criminal justice system. PMID:26139851

  9. Discussion on the Challenges and Opportunities of Cloud Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Poisel, Rainer; Tjoa, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Part 2: Workshop; International audience; Cloud Forensics refers to digital forensics investigations performed in Cloud Computing Environments. Nowadays digital investigators face various technical, legal, and organizational challenges to keep up with current developments in the field of Cloud Computing. But, due to its dynamic nature, Cloud Computing also offers several opportunities to improve digital investigations in Cloud Environments. Digital investigators may utilize Cloud Computing se...

  10. Reliability of repeated forensic evaluations of legal sanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacperska, Iwona; Heitzman, Janusz; Bąk, Tomasz; Leśko, Anna Walczyna; Opio, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Criminal responsibility evaluation is a very complex and controversial issue due to the gravity of its consequences. Polish legislation allows courts to request multiple sanity evaluations. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of agreement on sanity evaluations in written evidence provided by experts of criminal cases in Poland. A total of 381 forensic evaluation reports addressing 117 criminal defendants were analysed. In sixty eight cases, there was more than one forensic evaluation report containing an assessment of legal sanity, including forty one cases containing two assessments of criminal responsibility, seventeen containing three assessments, eight containing four assessments and two containing five assessments. We found that in 47% of the cases containing more than one sanity assessment, the initial criminal responsibility assessment was changed after a subsequent forensic evaluation. The agreement between repeated criminal responsibility evaluations was found to be fair. This study found a strong correlation between the number of forensic reports and the number of contradictory sanity assessments. There were fewer forensic opinions involved in the cases in which the same conclusion regarding criminal responsibility was reached in subsequent forensic evaluation reports compared to the cases in which more forensic opinions were involved. There is a clear need for further research in this area, and it is necessary to standardise criminal responsibility evaluations in order to improve their reliability and to shorten the legal proceedings.

  11. Forensic postmortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    differences. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly...

  12. Forensic radiology in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, T; Sumathy, C; Elumalai, M; Sathasivasubramanian, S; Kannan, A

    2015-04-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  13. Traumatic brain injuries: Forensic and expertise aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuleković Petar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Traumatic brain injuries have major socio-economic importance due to their frequency, high mortality and serious consequences. According to their nature the consequences of these injuries may be classified as neurological, psychiatric and esthetic. Various lesions of brain structures cause neurological consequences such as disturbance of motor functions, sensibility, coordination or involuntary movements, speech disturbances and other deviations, as well as epilepsy. Psychiatric consequences include cognitive deficit, emotional disturbances and behavior disturbances. Criminal-legal aspect of traumatic brain injuries and litigation. Criminal-legal aspect of traumatic brain injuries expertise understands the qualification of these injuries as mild, serious and qualified serious body injuries as well as the expertise about the mechanisms of their occurrence. Litigation expertise includes the estimation of pain, fear, diminished, i.e. lost vital activity and disability, esthetic marring, and psychological suffer based on the diminished general vital activity and esthetic marring. Competence and timing of expertise. Evaluation of consequences of traumatic brain injuries should be performed only when it can be positively confirmed that they are permanent, i.e. at least one year after the injury. Expertise of these injuries is interdisciplinary. Among clinical doctors the most competent medical expert is the one who is in charge for diagnostics and injury treatment, with the recommendation to avoid, if possible, the doctor who conducted treatment. For the estimation of general vital activity, the neurological consequences, pain and esthetic marring expertise, the most competent doctors are neurosurgeon and neurologist. Psychological psychiatric consequences and fear expertise have to be performed by the psychiatrist. Specialists of forensic medicine contribute with knowledge of criminal low and legal expertise.

  14. Challenges and Proposed Solutions for Cloud Forensic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puraj Desai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a heavily evolving topic in information technology (IT. Rather than creating, deploying and managing a physical IT infrastructure to host their software applications, organizations are increasingly deploying their infrastructure into remote, virtualized environments, often hosted and managed by third parties. Due to this large scale, in case an attack over the network of cloud, it’s a great challenge to investigate to cloud. There is a very low research done to develop the theory and practice of cloud forensic. The investigator has huge challenge of getting the IP address of the culprit as there is dynamic IP in cloud computing. Also one among many problems is that the customer is only concerned of security and threat of unknown. The cloud service provider never lets customer see what is behind "virtual curtain" which leads customer more doubting for the security and threat issue. In cloud forensics, the lack of physical access leads to big challenge for investigator. In this paper we are presenting few common challenges which arise in cloud forensic and proposed solution to it. We will also discuss the in brief about cloud computing and cloud forensic.

  15. Developing Forensic Mental Healthcare in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Lavikainen, Juha; Seppänen, Allan; Gjocaj, Milazim

    2014-01-01

    In many economically struggling societies, forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article, we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo – a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e., the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines, and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations. PMID:24779004

  16. Forensic accounting in the fraud auditing case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Simeunović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real case of digital forensic analysis in organizational fraud auditing process investigated using two different forensic tools, namely Tableau TD3 Touch Screen Forensic Imager and Access Data FTK Imager. Fraud auditing is more of a mindset than a methodology and has different approaches from financial auditing. Fraud auditors are mostly focused on exceptions, accounting irregularities, and patterns of their conduct. Financial auditors place special emphasis on the audit trail and material misstatements. A fraud case investigation of non-cash misappropriations committed by an employee, the warehouseman, will be presented herein in order to highlight the usefulness of fraud auditing, which can reveal many forms of financial crime and can be used in both private and public sector companies. Due to the computerized accounting environment, fraud investigation requires a combination of auditing, computer crime and digital forensic investigation skills, which can be achieved through joint efforts and cooperation of both digital investigator and fraud auditor as proposed herein.

  17. Developing forensic mental healthcare in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Joachim Salize

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many economically struggling societies forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo- a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e. the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations.

  18. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  19. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  20. The Implementation and Growth of an International Online Forensic Science Graduate Program at the University of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Oliver; Wielbo, Donna; Tebbett, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science education has evolved as an interdisciplinary science that includes medicine, chemistry, biology, and criminal justice. Therefore, multiple paths can lead to a career in forensic science. A formal education usually requires the student to attend a college or university to obtain a bachelor's or master's degree. In many cases,…

  1. The Implementation and Growth of an International Online Forensic Science Graduate Program at the University of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Oliver; Wielbo, Donna; Tebbett, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science education has evolved as an interdisciplinary science that includes medicine, chemistry, biology, and criminal justice. Therefore, multiple paths can lead to a career in forensic science. A formal education usually requires the student to attend a college or university to obtain a bachelor's or master's degree. In many cases,…

  2. Death due to Occupational Accident a Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal Bütün

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Today's rapid technological developments increase, also the risks to worker's health and work safety. Occupational accidents occurred with reasons such as necessary safety measures in work environment, incorrect behavior, inability on personal skills, technical failures result in bodily injury, loss of labor, disability or death. In this study; two male death cases aged 27 and 39 occured as a result of work accident in the area at the chrome mines were discussed. On the cases, physical examination, forensic autopsy and post-mortem examinations were performed. Event-related findings are similar; the cases were evaluated, together. It was determined that, respectively, cyanotic appearance on facial area and the front of the neck, the hyperemia on the sclera during external body examinations; in places punctuated hemorrhages under the skin and on the visceral organs' surfaces during the autopsies; hemorrhage in subarachoidal area of the brain, hemorrhage on pleural areas of the lungs, sub-mucosal bleeding and congestion in the stomach during the post-mortem histopathology. Finally, the death cause of cases was due to lack of oxygen. In this study; also taking into account of work accident related injuries and deaths seen hight rates in our country, the determination of personal, socio-economic and enviromental factors and, the importance of taking the necessary measures for prevention of occupational accident were emphasized. Also, it aimed to be discussed forensic medical approach to occupational injuriy cases in the literature. Key Word: Forensic medicine, Work accident, Asphyxia, Death, Autopsy.

  3. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: The Final Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonia; Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Tyagi, Nutan

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial reconstruction can be used to identify unknown human remains when other techniques fail. Through this article, we attempt to review the different methods of facial reconstruction reported in literature. There are several techniques of doing facial reconstruction, which vary from two dimensional drawings to three dimensional clay models. With the advancement in 3D technology, a rapid, efficient and cost effective computerized 3D forensic facial reconstruction method has been developed which has brought down the degree of error previously encountered. There are several methods of manual facial reconstruction but the combination Manchester method has been reported to be the best and most accurate method for the positive recognition of an individual. Recognition allows the involved government agencies to make a list of suspected victims'. This list can then be narrowed down and a positive identification may be given by the more conventional method of forensic medicine. Facial reconstruction allows visual identification by the individual's family and associates to become easy and more definite.

  4. The forensic radiographer: a new member in the medicolegal team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin; Chevallier, Christine; Dominguez, Alejandro; Bruguier, Christine; Elandoy, Cristèle; Mangin, Patrice; Grabherr, Silke

    2012-03-01

    Multidetector computed tomography is becoming more widespread in forensic medicine. In most services, autopsy assistants perform the radiological examination. We introduced professional radiographers into the legal medicine service and hypothesized they would also be able to take over duties currently reserved for other specialists. The aims of this study were to evaluate if radiographers could be trained as "forensic radiographers" by (1) integrating graduated medical radiographers into the legal medicine service, (2) investigating the advantages of this collaboration, and (3) defining the duties of the forensic radiographers.The study was performed prospectively on a group of 8 recruited radiographers who underwent a testing period with special training. They learned the basics of medicolegal case treatment, the autonomous execution of postmortem computed tomography angiography, and postprocessing of data. Seven of 8 radiographers finished the training and were integrated into our service. Although all radiographers were able to fulfill the duties demanded after the training period, some radiographers could not enter or complete the program because they were unable to work with dead bodies.Our study presents the advantages of integrating radiographers into the medicolegal team and proposes how to train the forensic radiographers. In addition, the duties and responsibilities of these new specialists are defined.

  5. Social and ethical aspects of forensic genetics: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R; Wienroth, M

    2017-07-01

    This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns. The paper concludes with a discussion of the concept of "proportionality" as a resource for balancing the social and ethical risks and benefits of the use of forensic genetics in support of criminal justice. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.

  6. Role of deoxyribonucleic acid technology in forensic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pankaj; Datta, Sonia Sood

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) analysis methods have been applied to forensic cases. Forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, that is, after fire exposure or mass disaster. Teeth play an important role in identification and criminology, due to their unique characteristics and relatively high degree of physical and chemical resistance. The use of a DNA profile test in forensic dentistry offers a new perspective in human identification. The DNA is responsible for storing all the genetic material and is unique to each individual. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article gives an overview of the evolution of DNA technology in the last few years, highlighting its importance in cases of forensic investigation.

  7. Role of deoxyribonucleic acid technology in forensic dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Datta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA analysis methods have been applied to forensic cases. Forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, that is, after fire exposure or mass disaster. Teeth play an important role in identification and criminology, due to their unique characteristics and relatively high degree of physical and chemical resistance. The use of a DNA profile test in forensic dentistry offers a new perspective in human identification. The DNA is responsible for storing all the genetic material and is unique to each individual. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article gives an overview of the evolution of DNA technology in the last few years, highlighting its importance in cases of forensic investigation.

  8. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  9. Molecular Advancements in Forensic Odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu Rs, A; Rose, D

    2015-05-11

    Forensic odontology explores the field of human identification through dental tissues in cases where there is destruction of body tissues in criminal investigations and mass disasters. Forensic odontology involves dentists participating in legal and criminal issues. Parameters such as age and gender identification are important in identifying the person or persons. Over the last two decades, the molecular aspect of forensic sciences has increased, and these molecular techniques now provide a novel approach to forensic odontology. Molecular advancements in science like DNA analysis has extended the range of forensic dentistry as teeth possess the character of resistance toward physical or chemical aggressions. Teeth provide the abundant space for DNA, and hence teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The present paper focusses on molecular advancements in the field of forensic odontology.

  10. Research Progress of Carrion-breeding Phorid Flies for Post-mortem Interval Es-timation in Forensic Medicine%利用尸食性蚤蝇推断死亡时间的法医学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李论; 冯典兴; 吴静

    2016-01-01

    死亡时间的准确推断一直是法医学的难题。昆虫学方法已被认为是死亡时间推断的有效方法。尸食性蝇类发育生物学在死亡时间推断中有着重要地位。蚤蝇体形微小,在相对密闭的空间,可成为尸体上主要的甚至是唯一的昆虫证据。本文从尸食性蚤蝇的作用、种属鉴定以及日龄推断方面,综述了利用尸食性蚤蝇推断死亡时间的法医学研究进展。%It is a difficult problem of forensic medicine to accurately estimate the post-mortem interval. Entomological approach has been regarded as an effective way to estimate the post-mortem interval. The developmental biology of carrion-breeding flies has an important position at the post-mortem inter-val estimation. Phorid flies are tiny and occur as the main or even the only insect evidence in relatively enclosed environments. This paper reviews the research progress of carrion-breeding phorid flies for esti-mating post-mortem interval in forensic medicine which includes their roles, species identification and age determination of immatures.

  11. Identical twins in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where...... published results accounting for close familial relationships. However, we revisit the discussion to increase the awareness among forensic genetic practitioners and include new information on medical and societal factors to assess the risk of not considering a monozygotic twin as the true perpetrator...

  12. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL

    2016-01-01

    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  13. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Computer networks forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratomir Đ. Đokić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Digital forensics is a set of scientific methods and procedures for collection, analysis and presentation of evidence that can be found on the computers, servers, computer networks, databases, mobile devices, as well as all other devices on which can store (save data. Digital forensics, computer networks is an examination of digital evidence that can be found on servers and user devices, which are exchanged internal or external communication through local or public networks. Also there is a need for identifying sites and modes of origin messages, establish user identification, and detection types of manipulation by logging in to your account. This paper presents the basic elements of computer networks, software used to communicate and describe the methods of collecting digital evidence and their analysis.

  15. Investigating forensic nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, S

    1995-01-01

    Forensic nurses are making a positive impact in our society today. They are reaching out to aid victims of violence by not only attending to their injuries and emotional distress, but also by identifying, collecting, and preserving vital evidence that will be needed to assist their patients to seek justice through the legal system. Misinterpretation or failure to properly obtain evidence may result in a miscarriage of justice. Helping victims obtain validation of their injustice is crucial to their healing process and may be of critical importance in the effort to avoid further victimization. Forensic nurses work with victims of child abuse, elder abuse, domestic violence, sexual assault, and persons involved with violence or imminent death. This area includes psychiatric specialists who intervene not only with victims but also with perpetrators of violent and/or sexual acts.

  16. [Forensic entomology and globalisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little

  17. SSL based Webmail Forensic Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manesh T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this era of information technology, email applications are the foremost and extensively used electronic communication technology. Emails are profusely used to exchange data and information using several frontend applications from various service providers by its users. Currently most of the email clients and service providers now moved to secured data communications using SSL or TLS security for their data exchanged. Cyber criminals and terrorists have started by means of this mode for exchanging their malicious information in their transactions. Forensic experts have to face greater difficulty and multiple challenges in tracing crucial forensic information from network packets as the communication is secured. These challenges might affect the digital forensic experts in procuring substantial evidences against such criminals from their working environments. This research work revels working background of SSL based webmail forensic engine, which decrypt respective communication or network session and also reconstruct the actual message contents of webmail applications. This digital forensic engine is compatible to work with in proxy servers and other computing environments and enables forensic reconstruction followed by analysis of webmail clients. Proposed forensic engine employs is a high-speed packet capturing hardware module, a sophisticated packet reformation algorithm; restores email header and messages from encrypted stream of SMTP and POP3 network sessions. Proposed forensic engine also support cyber investigation team with generated forensic report and prosecution of culprits by judiciary system of the specific country.

  18. About forensic phonetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hollien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the goals and content of Forensic Phonetics and its major elements. Considered are 1 the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, 2 enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings, 3 authentication of recordings, 4 speaker identification, and 5 detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech, and the psychological stress evaluation systems that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors also will be considered.

  19. Microbes as forensic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, G; Sarah, J P

    2012-09-01

    The forensic potential of microorganisms is becoming increasingly apparent as a consequence of advances in molecular sciences and genomics. This review discusses instances in which microbes, and in particular bacteria, can impact upon forensic investigations. There is increasing evidence that humans have an extremely diverse 'microbiome' that may prove useful in determining ethnicity, country of origin, and even personal identity. The human microbiome differs between regions of the body and may prove useful for determining the nature of stains such as those caused by saliva and vaginal fluid: it may even be possible to link the stains to the person responsible for them. Similarly, the composition of the microbiome present in a soil sample may prove a useful indicator of geographic origin or as a means of linking people, animals, or objects together or to a specific location. Microorganisms are important in the decay process and also influence the presence and concentration of alcohol, drugs, and other chemicals of forensic relevance. There is also a possibility that the entry of microorganisms into the body during the agonal period may prove useful for the diagnosis of drowning. The transmission of infectious diseases, and in particular sexually-transmitted diseases, can provide evidence linking a victim and a suspect. Microorganisms that cause fatal infections are not always identified at the time of death and may lead to the death being considered 'suspicious'. If a fatal infection can be linked to a hospital or medical procedure it can lead to prosecutions and therefore it is important to determine when and where an infection was acquired. Similarly, naturally acquired infections need to be distinguished from those that result from malicious transmission. Microorganisms can therefore provide evidence in many different forensic scenarios but most of the work is still at the experimental stage and there are therefore many opportunities for further research.

  20. Research in Computer Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    from many other sorts of systems. It includes viewgraphs covering a wide range of topics in digital forensic, audio recordings and examples from real...graphics files, video files and audio files; PDF format files; executable files or binary data files; files housing email archives and/or active... Steganography , combines encryption and data hiding to create a file system that makes digital evidence recovery and reconstruction very difficult. 24 139

  1. Forensic Multimedia File Carving

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Ashraf, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Distribution of video contents over the Internet has increased drastically over the past few years. With technological advancements and emergence of social media services, video content sharing has grown exponentially. An increased number of cyber crimes today belong to possession or distribution of illegal video contents over the Internet. Therefore, it is crucial for forensic examiners to have the capability of recovering and analyzing illegal video contents from seized storage devices. Fil...

  2. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manigandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  3. Smartphone forensics & data acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Παχύγιαννης, Παναγιώτης

    2015-01-01

    This study, both on a theoretical and a practical level, addresses the field of Digital Forensics as far as mobile devices are concerned and specifically the safety of Smartphone devices, which use the operating system of Androids (Mobile Android OS). Smartphone devices are evolving rapidly and their technology and usability outweigh their predecessors. However their main weakness is security. For the operation of Smartphone devices the activation of defense mechanisms is required in order...

  4. Forensic Data Carving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  5. DNS in Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Fowler Wright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Domain Name Service (DNS is a critical core component of the global Internet and integral to the majority of corporate intranets. It provides resolution services between the human-readable name-based system addresses and the machine operable Internet Protocol (IP based addresses required for creating network level connections. Whilst structured as a globally dispersed resilient tree data structure, from the Global and Country Code Top Level Domains (gTLD/ccTLD down to the individual site and system leaf nodes, it is highly resilient although vulnerable to various attacks, exploits and systematic failures. This paper examines the history along with the rapid growth of DNS up to its current critical status. It then explores the often overlooked value of DNS query data; from packet traces, DNS cache data, and DNS logs, with its use in System Forensics and more frequently in Network Forensics, extrapolating examples and experiments that enhance knowledge.Continuing on, it details the common attacks that can be used directly against the DNS systems and services, before following on with the malicious uses of DNS in direct system attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, traditional Denial of Service (DOS attacks and malware. It explores both cyber-criminal activities and cyber-warfare based attacks, and also extrapolates from a number of more recent attacks the possible methods for data exfiltration. It explores some of the potential analytical methodologies including; common uses in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, as well as infection and activity tracking in malware traffic analysis, and covers some of the associated methods around technology designed to defend against, mitigate, and/or manage these and other risks, plus the effect that ISP and nation states can have by direct manipulation of DNS queries and return traffic.This paper also investigates potential behavioural analysis and time-lining, which can then be used for the

  6. Case study of Oriental Medicine Treatment with Mae-sun therapy of the spinal cord injury due to lumbar burst fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Gi-sun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Traumatic lumbar burst fracture causes significant spinal cord injury. This report is intended to estimate the efficacy using oriental treatment on a patient with lumbar burst fracture and spinal cord injury. Methods : From 21th December, 2009 to 5th February, 2010, 1 female inpatient diagnosed with lumbar burst fracture and spinal cord injury was treated with general oriental medicine therapy : mae-sun therapy ; acupuncture ; moxibustion ; pharmacopuncture ; physical therapy and herbal medication. TUG, SCIMⅡ and VAS were used for evaluation of gait disturbance and pain in both feet. Measurement of self voiding amount and remaining amount through CIC was used for evaluation of neurogenic vesical dysfunction. Results : The patient showed a certain degree of improvement in gait disturbance, pain in both feet and neurogenic vesical dysfunction through above evaluation methods. Conclusion : Oriental treatments such as mae-sun therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion therapy, pharmacopuncture therapy and herbal medication can be effective for spinal cord injury due to traumatic lumbar burst fracture.

  7. [Characteristics of forensic patients assigned to forensic outpatient treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Jan; Ross, T; Hoffmann, K; Querengässer, J

    2015-01-01

    In the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg an administrative regulation specifies which patients should be assigned to forensic outpatient treatment. Empirically, little is known about the clinical and criminological factors supporting these decisions. A complete survey of forensic inpatients in Baden-Württemberg was undertaken. From 476 patients released from unlimited detention (§ 63 StGB) 235 (45.6 %) received a court order for forensic aftercare between 2009 and 2012. Social, forensic, and psychiatric history differed only slightly compared with patients not assigned. Schizophrenia as diagnosis was overrepresented, personality disorder and paraphilia underrepresented. Both groups differed most with respect to the duration of detention. The decision for forensic outpatient treatment seems to be determined by process variables of inpatient treatment but not by criminological risk factors. This contradicts the R-N-R principles by Andrews and Bonta. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Estimation of the collective ionizing dose in the Portuguese population for the years 2011 and 2012, due to nuclear medicine exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F; Teles, P; Nogueira, A; Barreto, A; Santos, A I; Carvalho, A; Martins, B; Oliveira, C; Gaspar, C; Barros, C; Neves, D; Costa, D; Rodrigues, E; Godinho, F; Alves, F; Cardoso, G; Cantinho, G; Conde, I; Vale, J; Santos, J; Isidoro, J; Pereira, J; Salgado, L; Rézio, M; Vieira, M; Simãozinho, P; Almeida, P; Castro, R; Parafita, R; Pintão, S; Lúcio, T; Reis, T; Vaz, P

    2015-01-01

    In 2009-2010 a Portuguese consortium was created to implement the methodologies proposed by the Dose Datamed II (DDM2) project, aiming to collect data from diagnostic X-ray and nuclear medicine (NM) procedures, in order to determine the most frequently prescribed exams and the associated ionizing radiation doses for the Portuguese population. The current study is the continuation of this work, although it focuses only on NM exams for the years 2011 and 2012. The annual frequency of each of the 28 selected NM exams and the average administered activity per procedure was obtained by means of a nationwide survey sent to the 35 NM centres in Portugal. The results show a reduction of the number of cardiac exams performed in the last two years compared with 2010, leading to a reduction of the annual average effective dose of Portuguese population due to NM exams from 0.08 mSv ± 0.017 mSv/caput to 0.059 ± 0.011 mSv/caput in 2011 and 0.054 ± 0.011 mSv/caput in 2012. Portuguese total annual average collective effective dose due to medical procedures was estimated to be 625.6 ± 110.9 manSv in 2011 and 565.1 ± 117.3 manSv in 2012, a reduction in comparison with 2010 (840.3 ± 183.8 manSv). The most frequent exams and the ones that contributed the most for total population dose were the cardiac and bone exams, although a decrease observed in 2011 and in 2012 was verified. The authors intend to perform this study periodically to identify trends in the annual Portuguese average effective dose and to help to raise awareness about the potential dose optimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. [Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

    2013-12-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun.

  10. El test del Árbol, su aplicación en la exploración de la personalidad en la clínica médico-forense Application of the Koch Tree test in the exploration of personality in Forensic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cid Rodriguez

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se propone el Test del Árbol como un instrumento muy útil para la exploración médico-forense en casos de violencia familiar, agresiones sexuales y en los casos de víctimas infantiles. Para la interpretación de la prueba se indica la metodología a seguir y la bibliografia necesaria. Como aplicación práctica se expone una pericia sobre una niña víctima de abusos sexuales y los dos adultos denunciados; en el informe se comparan los resultados obtenidos en el Cuestionario Factorial de Personalidad 16-PF de Catell y el análisis del Test del Árbol dibujado por las personas exploradas.In a case of infant sexual abuse a number of psycho-diagnostic tests were performed both in the victim and two men arrested as possible perpetrators. After collecting and analyzing all results, the authors formally propose the "Koch Tree test" as a projective test of forensic utility.

  11. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

  12. Imaging techniques in digital forensic investigation: a study using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Godfried

    2006-09-01

    Imaging techniques have been applied to a number of applications, such as translation and classification problems in medicine and defence. This paper examines the application of imaging techniques in digital forensics investigation using neural networks. A review of applications of digital image processing is presented, whiles a Pedagogical analysis of computer forensics is also highlighted. A data set describing selected images in different forms are used in the simulation and experimentation.

  13. [An activity of forensic services during the Great Patriotic War: events, facts, people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchuk, P V; Fokin, A A

    2015-05-01

    This article was prepared for the 70th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. Provides information about the historical aspects of the formation of a military forensics in the early years of the war, the creation in 1943 and in the subsequent operation of the war years forensics as an independent service in the system of military medicine.

  14. Searching for evidence: Knowledge and search strategies used by forensic scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Leijenhorst, H.

    2001-01-01

    The Forensic Science Laboratory of The Netherlands is suffering from a growing backlog due to an increasing number of cases, which results in long delivery times of research reports within a number of departments. The project, "Strategies for Searching Trace Evidence," was started by the Forensic Sc

  15. A sensitive issue: Pyrosequencing as a valuable forensic SNP typing platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, C.; Musgrave-Brown, E.; Bender, K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysing minute amounts of DNA is a routine challenge in forensics in part due to the poor sensitivity of an instrument and its inability to detect results from forensic samples. In this study, the sensitivity of the Pyrosequencing method is investigated using varying concentrations of DNA and f...

  16. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is t

  17. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  18. Digital Forensics in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    traditional computer forensics, investigators have full control over the evidence (e.g., router logs, process logs, and hard disks). Unfortunately, in a cloud...forensics: computer crime scene investigation. Delmar Thomson Learning, 2005, vol. 1. 8. S. Zawoad and R. Hasan, “Towards building proofs of past

  19. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  20. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  1. Computer forensics with FTK

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial contains detailed instructions with useful integrated examples that help you understand the main features of FTK and how you can use it to analyze evidence. This book has clear and concise guidance in an easily accessible format.This tutorial-based guide is great for you if you want to conduct digital investigations with an integrated platform. Whether you are new to Computer Forensics or have some experience, this book will help you get started with FTK so you can analyze evidence effectively and efficiently. If you are a law enforcement official, corporate security, or IT profe

  2. Bio-forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J. (Jill)

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  3. Forensics mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of possibilities of digitized mobile(portable devices, and methods of research data with them.Emphasis is placed on the forensic investigation of mobilephones, but are covered by other media and research for digitalprocessing, transmission and storage of information.A special emphasis was made on the software tools in carrying out the acquisition of digital data, with the aim of sending the reader on ways and methods to protect data but also knowledgewhich is the same all be found and how they can be misused for criminal purposes

  4. Defining a Forensic Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson G. Smith

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.  As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.  At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.  The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.

  5. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Physical abuse of older people reported at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil A violência física contra a pessoa idosa revelada em serviço médico-legal, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Brito Abath

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the profile of physical abuse against older people who underwent forensic examination at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The cases, with data from 1,027 forensic reports, were described according to characteristics of the incident, victim, and aggressor. Most cases of violence were produced by mechanical energy, either with blunt objects or by empty-handed attack; the most common day of the week was Sunday, most frequently in the evening, and in the victim's home; typical cases involved mild injuries on more than one part of the victim's body. The majority of the victims were men, 60 to 69 years of age, brown (mixed-race, married or living with a partner, and retirees/pensioners. The majority of the aggressors were men, known to the victim, and attacking alone. The social transcendence of violence against older people clearly calls for investment in programs to deal with the problem in order to ensure better quality of life for the elderly.Conduziu-se um estudo transversal com o objetivo de determinar o perfil da violência física em idosos submetidos à perícia traumatológica, entre 2004 e 2007, no Instituto de Medicina Legal do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Os casos, cujas informações procederam de 1.027 laudos, foram descritos segundo características do evento, da vítima e do agressor. Com maior freqüência, a violência foi produzida por energia mecânica, instrumento contundente e arma natural; ocorreu num domingo, turno noturno e residência da vítima; acometeu mais de uma parte do corpo e a lesão foi leve. Prevaleceram como vítimas os homens, com idade entre 60 e 69 anos, pardos, casados/união consensual e aposentados/pensionistas. A maioria dos agressores era homem, conhecido da vítima e a agrediu desacompanhado. A transcendência social do problema torna imperativo o investimento em programas para seu enfrentamento, possibilitando uma melhor

  7. Live forensic acquisition as alternative to traditional forensic processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available . Available from: http://www.cftt.nist.gov/HWB- posted.pdf (Accessed 26 February 2008). [Ni03b] NIST. 2003b. Software Write Block Tool Specification & Test Plan. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available from: http...Bcustody%2522%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN (Accessed 25 February 2008). [Us05] US-CERT. 2005. Computer Forensics. Available from: http://www.us-cert.gov/ reading_room/forensics.pdf (Accessed 20 March 2008). [Vi06] Vidas, T. 2006. Forensic Analysis...

  8. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  9. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  10. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  11. Applications of forensic odontology in pediatric dentistry: A brief communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya J Dongre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic odontology is the application of dentistry to law and delineates the overlap between dental and legal professions. Pedodontist plays an important role in forensic odontology by applying his expertise in various fields such as accidental or nonaccidental oral trauma, child abuse and neglect, age determination, dental records, and mass disasters by examination of the teeth and jaws structure for clues. These dental findings/records may be helpful in forensic identification wherein an unidentified individual can be identified using dentition. Information of teeth record remains throughout life and beyond, due to their physiologic variations, pathology, and effects of therapy. Lip prints and palatal rugae patterns can also lead us to important information and help in person's identification. Teeth can also help in determining gender of the skeletonized remains using dental DNA. Forensic odontology also plays role in crime investigation caused by dentition, such as bite marks. Odontologist can help physician in evaluation of bite marks due to abuse. The aim of this article is to discuss the role of pedodontist in various aspects of forensic odontology and procedures needed for examination, identification, and investigations of bite marks.

  12. A novel microsatellite (STR) marker for forensic identification of big cats in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Gaur, Ajay; Shailaja, K; Satyare Bala, B; Singh, Lalji

    2004-05-10

    India is the home to five of the eight majestic big cats of the world. The three major big cats namely, lion, tiger, and leopard are listed in the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Apart from the severe loss of the habitat, these are continuously facing the danger of extinction mainly due to poaching and hunting for their body parts, which are being greatly valued by apothecaries marketing traditional Chinese medicines. With the advent of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA-based markers have emerged as major tools in the arena of wildlife forensics. Microsatellites (short tandem repeats, STRs) are markers of choice because of their polymorphic and co-dominant nature. These strictly follow the Mendelian inheritance and are highly reproducible. We have identified a new microsatellite (STR) locus Ple 46, which shows amplification in a species-specific manner (size of STR) in all the members of the family felidae studied here. This PCR-based, non-invasive method opens a new avenue to forensic identification of big cats.

  13. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computer Forensics JumpStart

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Michael G; Tittel, Ed; Broom, Neil; Barrett, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Essential reading for launching a career in computer forensicsInternet crime is on the rise, catapulting the need for computer forensics specialists. This new edition presents you with a completely updated overview of the basic skills that are required as a computer forensics professional. The author team of technology security veterans introduces the latest software and tools that exist and they review the available certifications in this growing segment of IT that can help take your career to a new level. A variety of real-world practices take you behind the scenes to look at the root causes

  15. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  16. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  17. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  18. Evaluation of forensic medical history taking from the child in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rachel; Gall, John A M

    2017-02-01

    Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation. This study examines the value derived by the medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history rather than relying on hearsay evidence when a child presents for an assessment. A retrospective review of paediatric cases seen by the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) between 2014 and 2015 was undertaken. 274 forensic case reports were reviewed and the data was entered into an Excel spread sheet and analysed using chi squared tests within STATA(®). With increasing age of the child, a forensic medical history is significantly more likely to be taken. Additional information is made available to the medical practitioner what would otherwise have been provided if the medical practitioner relied only on the interview conducted by the police. Discrepancies observed between the official third parties (police or child protection) report of what a child has said and what the child says to the medical practitioner decrease with age, as do discrepancies observed between the child's version of events and a third party's (eg. parents, caregivers, friends) version of events. The study showed that by taking a forensic medical history from the child additional information can be obtained. Further, that there is a value in the examining medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history from children in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  20. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles.

  1. Technological Innovations in Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology expectati......This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...... expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage...... the participation of scientific actors in the development of anticipatory governance deliberations concerning the widening application of forensic genetics in an increasing number of criminal and civil jurisdictions....

  2. Professional convergence in forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  3. Computer forensics a pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This pocket guide illustrates the technical complexities involved in computer forensics, and shows managers what makes the discipline relevant to their organisation. For technical staff, the book offers an invaluable insight into the key processes and procedures that are required

  4. Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

  5. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  6. Biosensors in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickx, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to detect and monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by law enforcement agencies and rescue teams typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, and parasitic wasps for detecting explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. Insects have several advantages unshared by mammals. Insects are sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences.

  7. Forensic Memories: After Testimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøndergaard, Johanne Helbo

    2014-01-01

    of writing that might in fact come “after” testimony. In this paper I attempt to describe a mode of writing in contemporary literature on memory and history, which allows later generations to address historical events to which they did not bear witness, challenging the testimonial mode while bearing its...... strategies and strengths in mind - “after” in both senses of the word. The central argument is that just as the legal concept of testimony was introduced into the cultural sphere to describe a particular genre or mode of writing, the legal concept of forensics will serve as a useful term for describing...... a number of contemporary literary works that take up the responsibility of addressing past events after testimony....

  8. Characteristics Analysis on Clinical Forensic Medicine of Maxillofacial Injury in Road Traffic Accidents%道路交通事故颌面部损伤特征的法医临床学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艳霞; 刘为青; 熊豫麟; 杨军

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research the characteristics on forensic clinical injury of maxillofacial injury in road traffic accidents.to identify characteristics on disability evaluation.To provide reference for forensic identification practice.Method 154 cases of maxillo-facial injury caused by traffic accidents in kunming from 2013 to 2014 were collected for systemic analysis study.Results In the disa-bility evaluation 154 cases with maxillofacial injury,89 persons were disable (57.8%),among which one case was Ⅴ grade.Most of the cases of the overall grade distribution for the disabled were Ⅸ andⅩ grade.The main characteristics of injuries were scar and pig-mentation,followed by tooth loss.Conclusion in traffic accidents,disability occurrence of this group is very high.Minor disability mainly found in the disable cases.%目的:研究道路交通事故颌面部损伤的法医临床学损伤特征,分析颌面部损伤的伤残评定特点,为法医学鉴定实践提供参考。方法:对昆明医科大学司法鉴定中心鉴定的2013年和2014年昆明地区道路交通事故颌面部损伤154例伤残评定案例进行分析研究。结果:本组154例道路交通事故颌面部损伤的案例中,构成伤残89例(57.8%),最高等级Ⅴ级,总体分布以Ⅸ级、Ⅹ级轻度伤残为主。损伤特征主要为瘢痕及色素沉着,其次为牙齿脱落。结论:道路交通事故受伤人群致伤致残率高,伤残程度以轻度伤残为主。

  9. Plant genetics for forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, David N; Ashley, Mary V

    2012-01-01

    An emerging application for plant DNA fingerprinting and barcoding involves forensic investigations. Examples of DNA analysis of botanical evidence include crime scene analysis, identifying the source of commercial plant products, and investigation of trade in illicit drugs. Here, we review real and potential applications of DNA-based forensic botany and provide a protocol for microsatellite genotyping of leaf material, a protocol that could be used to link a suspect to a victim or to a crime scene.

  10. Principles-Driven Forensic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peisert, Sean; Bishop, Matt; Karin, Sidney; Marzullo, Keith

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to enhance our understanding of what has happened on a computer system by using forensic techniques that do not require prediction of the nature of the attack, the skill of the attacker, or the details of the system resources or objects affected. These techniques address five fundamental principles of computer forensics. These principles include recording data about the entire operating system, particularly user space events and environments, and interpreting events at differen...

  11. El sistema de apoyo internacional para la gestión forense de cadáveres en situaciones de desastre: La experiencia de Haití, 2010 The system of international support for the forensic management of corpses in mass disasters situations: The Haiti experience, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Pachar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la experiencia de un grupo de expertos del Instituto de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses de Panamá que acudió a la capital de Haití para ofrecer su apoyo en el manejo de cadáveres del gran terremoto ocurrido el 12 de enero de 2010. Al sistema forense del país afectado le corresponde el primer nivel de coordinación, del cual dependerá la aplicación de los principios forenses desarrollados a nivel internacional para este tipo de situaciones. Se plantea la necesidad de fortalecer las estructuras forenses nacionales y la implementación de las resoluciones aprobadas en el seno de la Red Iberoamericana de Institutos Nacionales de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses.In this paper, we present the experience of a group of experts from the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Panama, who went to Haiti to offer theirs support in the management of corpses of the great earthquake occurred in January 12th 2010. The forensic system of the country affected is the first level of coordination being responsible for the application of forensic principles developed internationally for such situations. The need to strengthen national forensic structures and the implementation of the resolutions adopted at the Latin American Network of National Institutes of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences are discussed.

  12. Forensic botany: using plant evidence to aid in forensic death investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Coyle, Heather; Lee, Cheng-Lung; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lee, Henry C; Palmbach, Timothy M

    2005-08-01

    Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of species, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all dependent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of plant evidence is careful collection, documentation, and preservation for later scientific analysis. This article reviews proper procedures and recent cases where botanical evidence played a role in establishing either manner or time of death. Plant evidence can be useful for determining if a death was due to an accident, suicide, or homicide, or what time of year burial may have taken place. In addition, plant evidence can be used to determine if a crime scene is a primary or secondary scene and to locate missing bodies.

  13. Logical Framework of Forensic Identification: Ability to Resist Fabricated DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Hu, Zhen; Zhu, Ruxin; Lu, Daru; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 30 years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science and has become the most useful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Today, DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat markers is widely employed and accepted in the courts due to its high discriminating power and reliability. However, an artificial bloodstain purposefully created using molecular biology techniques succeeded in tricking a leading forensic DNA laboratory. The disturbing possibility that a forensic DNA profile can be faked shocked the general public and the mass media, and generated serious discussion about the credibility of DNA evidence. Herein, we present two exemplary assays based on tissue-specific methylation patterns and cell-specific mRNA expression, respectively. These two assays can be integrated into the DNA analysis pipelines without consumption of additional samples. We show that the two assays can not only distinguish between artificial and genuine samples, but also provide information on tissue origin. The two assays were tested on natural and artificial bloodstains (generated by polymerase chain reaction and whole genome amplification technique) and the results illustrated that the logical framework of forensic identification is still useful for forensic identification with the high credibility.

  14. Reverse engineering--rapid prototyping of the skull in forensic trauma analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, Mattias; Schmidt, Peter; Potente, Stefan; Ramsthaler, Frank; Schrodt, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) comprises a variety of automated manufacturing techniques such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, and three-dimensional printing (3DP), which use virtual 3D data sets to fabricate solid forms in a layer-by-layer technique. Despite a growing demand for (virtual) reconstruction models in daily forensic casework, maceration of the skull is frequently assigned to ensure haptic evidence presentation in the courtroom. Owing to the progress in the field of forensic radiology, 3D data sets of relevant cases are usually available to the forensic expert. Here, we present a first application of RP in forensic medicine using computed tomography scans for the fabrication of an SLS skull model in a case of fatal hammer impacts to the head. The report is intended to show that this method fully respects the dignity of the deceased and is consistent with medical ethics but nevertheless provides an excellent 3D impression of anatomical structures and injuries.

  15. A Review on Impacts of Cloud Computing on Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Daryabar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, digital storage of computer data is moving toward cloud computing which is a set of infrastructure provides data storage for organizations and individuals. Due to this large scale, in case an attack occurs in the network of a cloud it would be a big challenge to investigate the cloud. Therefore, digital forensics in cloud computing is a new discipline related to the increasing use of computers, networks and digital storage devices in numerous criminal activities in both traditional and Hi-Tech. This study reviews the literature on some challenges in cloud computing forensic investigation, and it is followed by evaluation and analysis of all types of information on cloud computing and its impacts on computer forensic investigations in publishing alliances with the survey was carried out in the field.

  16. The relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic odonto-stomatology from 2005 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology. This study aimed to find the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology from 2005 to 2012 over an 8-year period. Bibliometric analysis was performed using web-based search during December 2013. Out of the total 97 published articles, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (20) and community dentistry (20), followed by orthodontics (18), prosthodontics (15), and oral pathology and microbiology (8), pedodontics (7), oral and maxillofacial surgery (4) and conservative dentistry and endodontics (3). Among the articles published in Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology, mass disasters (10) and bite mark analysis (10), followed by sexual dimorphism (8) and dental fraud and malpractice (8), followed by craniofacial superimposition (6) and identification (6) form the major attraction of the contributors. This paper has tried to evaluate the new working classification proposed for forensic odontology based on its relationship with other dental specialties.

  17. Evaluation of Cases Consulted to Forensic Toxicology Laboratory between 2008 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ethem Goren

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, we aimed to determine annual and seasonal distribution of cases and affecting factors of the distribution in Cukurova University Hospital, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory. Method: Five-year (up to 2012 from 2008 archives of cases consulted to our forensic toxicology laboratory was investigated and classified according to gender, situation of case, type of poisoning, seasonal distribution, findings were statistically evaluated by SPSS v20.0 software Results: After screening five-year archives using laboratory registration book, we determined that of 608 cases 49.5 % were from emergency medicine, 19.6 % from pediatric, 7.4 % from psychiatry, 4.4 % 4.4 from neurology, 2.3 % from other units of the hospital, 7.9 % from judicial authorities, 4.8 % from special requests and 6.1 % from circumjacent hospitals. 57.9 % of the cases are male and 42.1 % are female. 87.3 % of 608 cases were clinical cases, 7.9 % were forensic cases, 4.8 % special requests. 95.8 % of judicial cases were male and 85.4 % were drugs of abuse cases. 28.1 % of clinical cases were the carbon monoxide poisoning and 64.3 % of the carbon monoxide poisoning cases were female. Conclusion: When five-year data were evaluated, we determine that numbers of case are increasing every year. Males are more than in females. Forensic cases which were mostly drugs of abuse were most commonly have seen in male. When our data were investigated together with TUBIM’s data belong to 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 (Turkey Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drugs Addiction, the use of drug abuse were seen most commonly in male. Also carbon monoxide poisoning in clinical cases were evaluated and we see that Carbon monoxide intoxication in winter was more than in summer due to heating. Women who exposed to carbon monoxide were more than men to be much more at home according to men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 675-680

  18. Forensic seismology revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  19. Case study of Oriental Medicine Treatment with Mae-sun therapy of the spinal cord injury due to lumbar burst fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon Gi-sun; Park Jung-ah; Noh Ju-hwan; Kim Cheol-hong

    2010-01-01

    Objective : Traumatic lumbar burst fracture causes significant spinal cord injury. This report is intended to estimate the efficacy using oriental treatment on a patient with lumbar burst fracture and spinal cord injury. Methods : From 21th December, 2009 to 5th February, 2010, 1 female inpatient diagnosed with lumbar burst fracture and spinal cord injury was treated with general oriental medicine therapy : mae-sun therapy ; acupuncture ; moxibustion ; pharmacopuncture ; physical therapy a...

  20. The handbook of forensic psychopathology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Handbook of Forensic Psychopathology and Treatment explores the relationship between psychopathology and criminal behaviour in juveniles and adults. It provides a detailed explanation of the developmental pathway from the process of increasing criminal behaviour and becoming a forensic patient,

  1. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  2. Liforac - A Model For Live Forensic Acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The candidate's research investigated the development of a model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a wide-ranging model that presents many of the most important aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition, suggesting...

  3. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-12-01

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE ROLE OF FORENSIC DENTIST FOLLOWING MASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other information on socio-economic status includes occupation, dietary habits, and .... In the United States of America, the decision on identity is the responsibility of .... EDS and XRF: Databases for Forensic Purposes. J Forensic Sci. 2008 ...

  5. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating

  6. Methodology of Implementation of Computer Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Gelev, Saso; Golubovski, Roman; Hristov, Risto; Nikolov, Elenior

    2013-01-01

    Compared to other sciences, computer forensics (digital forensics) is a relatively young discipline. It was established in 1999 and it has been an irreplaceable tool in sanctioning cybercrime ever since. Good knowledge of computer forensics can be really helpful in uncovering a committed crime. Not adhering to the methodology of computer forensics, however, makes the obtained evidence invalid/irrelevant and as such it cannot be used in legal proceedings. This paper is to explain the methodolo...

  7. Development of domestic and international computer forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Y; Chow, KP; Xu, R

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing of computer crime, instant emergence of new digital product, new computer technology and computer forensics technology is promoted, developed constantly. This paper described basic information/content of computer forensics, and elaborated the development of current computer forensics at domestic and overseas market. The trends of computer forensics are pointed out and recent hot topics of research are introduced. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Balachander, N.; N Aravindha babu; Sudha Jimson; Priyadharsini, C.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists′ participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identif...

  9. DESIDERATUM OF NEW REALITY: FORENSIC AUTHORSHIP ATTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The overarching premise in this discussion is to reiterate the cross-disciplinary intersection between law and language. Correspondingly, the application of language studies to legal issues generates a separate domain, referred to as forensic linguistics. The paper looks into one aspect of forensic linguistics, namely forensic authorship attribution that entails the process of identifying the author of an anonymous text by employing methods and features of forensic linguistics. This concept i...

  10. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis.

  11. Comparative Microbial Genomics and Forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Steven E

    2016-08-01

    Forensic science concerns the application of scientific techniques to questions of a legal nature and may also be used to address questions of historical importance. Forensic techniques are often used in legal cases that involve crimes against persons or property, and they increasingly may involve cases of bioterrorism, crimes against nature, medical negligence, or tracing the origin of food- and crop-borne disease. Given the rapid advance of genome sequencing and comparative genomics techniques, we ask how these might be used to address cases of a forensic nature, focusing on the use of microbial genome sequence analysis. Such analyses rely on the increasingly large numbers of microbial genomes present in public databases, the ability of individual investigators to rapidly sequence whole microbial genomes, and an increasing depth of understanding of their evolution and function. Suggestions are made as to how comparative microbial genomics might be applied forensically and may represent possibilities for the future development of forensic techniques. A particular emphasis is on the nascent field of genomic epidemiology, which utilizes rapid whole-genome sequencing to identify the source and spread of infectious outbreaks. Also discussed is the application of comparative microbial genomics to the study of historical epidemics and deaths and how the approaches developed may also be applicable to more recent and actionable cases.

  12. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  13. Best practice approach to live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Live Forensic discipline instigates the development of a method that allows forensically sound acquisition to stand fast in a court of law. The study presents the development of a comprehensive model for forensically sound...

  14. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  15. Digital forensic readiness in a cloud environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available of hosted data that belongs to multi-tenants. In this paper we present a forensic readiness model that makes use of a Forensic Service hosted in the cloud. The model is aimed at minimizing costs associated with conducting a digital forensic investigation...

  16. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  17. [The University Institute of Legal Medicine in Berlin 1833-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, Gunther; Vendura, Klaus; Wirth, Ingo

    2008-11-01

    The university institute of legal medicine of the Charité in Berlin was founded on February 11th, 1833 as a "Praktische Unterrichtsanstalt für die Staatsarzneikunde (Practice-oriented School of Public Health and Medicine)" at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität (founded in 1810). In 1886 the oldest faculty in Germany obtained its own building in Berlin-Mitte. Starting with Wilhelm Wagner, Johann Ludwig Casper, Fritz Strassmann, Otto Prokop and their successors established the Berlin School of Legal Medicine, which has been playing an important role for the subject's progress in the German-speaking area until today. Since the visit of Kuniyoshi Katayama to Berlin in 1884 there have been productive relationships with Japanese forensic pathologists to this day. Regardless of the accepted scientific achievements the institute fell victim to the Berlin policy of austerity after 2003 leading to staff reduction and the closure of the historical location. Due to the new appointment to the chair in 2007 and the planned junction of the subject in Berlin-Moabit there is now the chance for a new impetus of forensic medicine in the German capital.

  18. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence.

  19. La medicatura forense y el O. I. J. en el imaginario social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abarca Barrantes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuando nació el Organismo Médico Forense en 1965, ya la Medicatura Forense estaba en el Ministerio de Salud desde 1949. El trabajo del Dr. Solón Núñez, era redireccionado por el del Dr. Acosta Guzmán, hacia la Corte Suprema de Justicia. El paradigma ingles del Dr. Núñez por la Medicatura Forense, se enfrentaba al paradigma alemán del Dr. Acosta por el Organismo Médico Forense, este paradigma superó al de 1949. Hubo que hacer arreglos y convenios, lo nuevo no era completo, ni perfecto, ni absoluto, pero obedecía a un imaginario social instituyente. La cooperación entre ambas instituciones se creó en los sitios donde no habían Médicos Forenses del Poder Judicial. Cuando la Medicina Legal se separe del Organismo de Investigación Judicial (O.I.J los puentes de cooperación y amistad se sobre pondrán a las dificultades con el nuevo paradigma permitiendo avizorar los nuevos horizontes kuhnianos, en los que se recrean y refrescan las ciencias forenses.When the Forensic Medic Organism was created in 1965, Forensic Medicature was all ready part of the Health Ministry since 1949. The work of Dr. Solon Nuñez was redirected by Dr. Acosta Guzman, to the Supreme Court of Justice. The English paradigm for Forensic Medicature, was confronted against the German paradigm of Dr. Acosta for the Forensic Medic Organism, this paradigm surpassed that of 1949. There were arrangements and agreements which had to be made, the new was not complete, nor perfect, nor absolute, but it obeyed to a social imaginary institution. The cooperation between both institutes was created in the places were Forensic Doctors from the Judicial Power were not available. When the Legal Medicine separates from the Judicial Investigative Organism (O. I. J the bridges of cooperation and friendship will over pass the difficulties with the new paradigm permitting to visualize the new kuhnian horizons, where the forensic sciences will be recreated and refreshed.

  20. Offering a Forensic Science Camp to Introduce and Engage High School Students in Interdisciplinary Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, "Criminal Camp". We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics, and medicine or biology. The main goal of the…

  1. Offering a Forensic Science Camp to Introduce and Engage High School Students in Interdisciplinary Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, "Criminal Camp". We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics, and medicine or biology. The main goal of the…

  2. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  3. Novel First Responder Script as a Tool for Computer Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Stoilkovski, Marjan; Bogdanoski, Mitko; Risteski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    The computer forensics as a branch of digital forensic pertaining to legal evidence found in computers and digital storage media. In order forensic acquisition to be more reliable it must be performed on computers that have been powered off. This type of forensics is known as ‘traditional’ or 'dead' forensic acquisition. However, this type of forensic cannot be used to collect and analyze the information which is not on the hard disk, or encrypted data. The disadvantages of the dead forensics...

  4. Digital forensics for handheld devices

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Eamon P

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o

  5. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int.

  6. Malware Analysis & its Application to Digital Forensic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursimran Kaur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present study about how to analyze the malware on the system for digital investigation and also give the superficial knowledge and comparison about forensic model. This paper proposes a plan for achieving a dramatic improvement in research and operational efficiency through the adoption of systematic approaches for representing forensic data and performing forensic computation. This paper describes the nature of Forensic Science. Here we introduce malware analysis tools. Furthermore we also described malware analysis for digital forensic investigation.

  7. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Xie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathave forensic values. This paper also discusses how the Windows Registry forensic keys can be applied in intrusion detection.

  8. Students' physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection: Are there risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Papadodima, Stavroula A; Evaggelakos, Christos I; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G; Goutas, Nikolaos D; Spiliopoulou, Chara A

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine in the 2005-2006 academic year were asked to complete a questionnaire at the conclusion of the five-day course. The questionnaire surveyed physical and psychological reactions (outcomes) and 47 student traits, beliefs, and behaviors (risk factors) that might predispose to adverse reactions. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression yielded five independent risk factors for negative psychological reactions: female gender, stereotypic beliefs about forensic pathologists, a less cognitive and more emotional frame of mind relative to forensic dissection, more passive coping strategies, and greater fear of death. The sole independent risk factor for physical symptoms was a less cognitive/more emotional approach to dissection. Students' reactions to forensic dissection integrate a host of inherent and dissection-related risk factors, and future interventions to improve this aspect of medical education will need to take into account the complexities underlying students' experiences with dissection.

  9. Procedures for a harmonised digital forensic process in live forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a novel computing paradigm that presents new research opportunities in the field of digital forensics. Cloud computing is based on the following principles: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid...

  10. Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD): Automatically generated, permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Christophe; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to predict if and when massively parallel sequencing of forensic STR loci will replace capillary electrophoresis as the new standard technology in forensic genetics. The main benefits of sequencing are increased multiplexing scales and SNP detection. There is not yet a consensus on how sequenced profiles should be reported. We present the Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD) service, made freely available on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/. It offers permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles (STR or SNP) and their microvariants for use in forensic allele nomenclature. Analogous to Genbank, its aim is to provide permanent identifiers for forensically relevant allele sequences. Researchers that are developing forensic sequencing kits or are performing population studies, can register on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/ and add loci and allele sequences with a short and simple application interface (API).

  11. [The CSI effect and its impact on the perceptions of forensic science experts' work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojer, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The issue that has been analyzed in this work is the potential effect of crime films and TV series on people's perceptions of forensic medicine and science, and especially on the forming of expectations towards forensic science experts. This syndrome is being called the "CSI effect" after the popular franchise Crime Scene Investigation (CSI). Questionnaire surveys that have been conducted included "experts": 50 experts in various specialities, 77 prosecutors, 119 judges, 64 lay judges, 161 police staff and 80 members of general public. In-depth interviews have been conducted with 20 police staff, and also a focus group has been carried out with 15 law students. In the opinion of the respondents, people's perceptions and expectations of forensic science--as it can be observed during criminal trials--are largely inflated by the entertainment media. Among the surveyed persons, the category that declares watching crime series most rarely, is forensic science experts. Around half of the surveyed experts pointed out to excessive expectations towards they work instigated by TV crime series. The most common expectations towards forensic medicine experts are: immediate conclusiveness of post mortem examinations (going as far as indicating the cause of death at the crime scene), precision of death time estimation and a routine use of sophisticated methods known from TV.

  12. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science.

  13. Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chris

    2006-10-16

    Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness.

  14. Research in forensic radiology and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalders, M. C.; Adolphi, N. L.; Daly, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of the first international forensic radiology and imaging research summit, organized by the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging, the International Association of Forensic Radiographers, the National Institute of Justice of the United States...... of America, and the Netherlands Forensic Institute. During this meeting, an international and multidisciplinary panel of forensic scientists discussed the current state of science in forensic radiology, and drafted a research agenda to further advance the field. Four groups for further research focus were...... identified: big data and statistics, identification and biological profiling, multimodal imaging, and visualization and presentation. This paper describes each of these research topics and thereby hopes to contribute to the development of this exciting new field of forensic medical science....

  15. On the Development of Digital Forensics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital forensics curriculum design and existing education programs.  Both digital forensics educators and practitioners were surveyed and the results are analyzed to determine what industry and law enforcement need. Based on the survey results and what the industry certificate programs cover, we identified topics that are desired to be covered in digital forensics courses. Finally, we propose six digital forensics courses and their topics that can be offered in both undergraduate and graduate digital forensics programs.

  16. Holographic interferometry for security and forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambadiyil, Sajan; R. C., Sreelekshmi; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna

    2016-10-01

    Security holograms having unique 3D images are one of the tools for enhancing the security for product and personnel authentication and anti-counterfeiting. Apart from the high technology that is required, the uniqueness of a 3D object presents a significant additional threshold for the counterfeiting of such security holograms. But, due to the development of 3D printing technology, the hurdles are disabled and allow the chances of counterfeiting. In order to overcome this, holographic interferometry is effectively utilized and the object is recorded twice before and after the state of random object change. At the time of reconstruction, two signal waves generated simultaneously interfere each other, resulting in a fringe modulation. This fringe modulation in 3D image hologram with respect to the random object change is exploited to generate a rigid and unique anticounterfeit feature. Though holographic interferometry techniques are being widely used for the non-destructive evaluation, the applicability of this technology for the security and forensic activity is less exploited. This paper describes our efforts to introduce holographic interferometry in 3D image holograms for security and forensic applications.

  17. The distribution of forensic journals, reflections on authorship practices, peer-review and role of the impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan Wayne

    2007-01-17

    This article presents information about journals specializing in the forensic sciences and legal medicine, their development and distribution and their current status as reflected in the journal impact factor. The first scientific journal devoted to spreading information and reporting new developments in social and legal medicine seemingly originated in Germany about 150 years ago. The official journal of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (Journal of Forensic Sciences, JFS) was founded in 1956 and has enjoyed 50 years of scholarly publishing. The two leading European journals specializing in forensics are Forensic Science International (FSI) and International Journal of Legal Medicine (IJLM). Besides the size of the circulation, the readership numbers, the quality of the editorial staff and the peer-reviewers, the number of submitted and accepted manuscripts, considerable interest has focused on the journal's impact factor as a measure of prestige. The 2006 impact factor of a certain journal is derived by counting the number of citations in 2006 to all material published in the journal in the previous 2 years (2004 and 2005) and dividing this total by the number of citable items (articles and reviews) published in the same 2 years. Impact factors for several thousand scientific journals are compiled and published by a company called Thomson Institute for Scientific Information (Thomson ISI) and are available on-line via the database Journal Citation Reports. Forensic journals are grouped within the subject category Medicine, Legal, which currently comprises nine journals a few of which are seemingly unrelated to mainstream forensics. The top-ranked forensic journal in terms of its impact factor was IJLM with a score of just over 2.0 in 2004. This means that the average article published in 2003 and 2002 was cited twice per year in the 2-year window after publication. Impact factors of forensic journals are fairly low in comparison with many other

  18. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library.

  19. Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory--Part 1: Spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

    2014-12-01

    In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of trace evidence examination in forensic science. However, in Australia, the apparent need for soil examinations has diminished and with it the capability of forensic science laboratories to carry out soil examination has been eroded. In recent years, due to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations, interest in soil examinations has been renewed. Routine soil examinations conducted in a forensic science laboratory by trace evidence scientists can be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Spectroscopic techniques such as visible microspectrophotometry (MSP) and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are routinely used by trace evidence analysts for the colour and compositional analysis, respectively, of forensic items, including paints, fibres, inks and toners, tapes, adhesives and other miscellaneous examinations. This article presents an examination of the feasibility of using MSP and ATR-FTIR as a first step in the forensic comparison of soils with particular reference to Australian soil samples. This initial study demonstrates MSP and ATR-FTIR can effectively be used as a screening test for the discrimination of "forensic-sized" soil samples prior to submission for more detailed analyses by a soil expert.

  20. Forensic Analysis of Parachute Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael Philip; Chitty, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Deaths associated with parachuting are very uncommon. However, these deaths do tend to be "high profile" in the traditional and social media. When forensic pathologists examine the deceased after a fatal parachuting incident, the anatomical cause of death is usually not in question. For most forensic pathologists, it is usually the case that we will have very limited knowledge of parachuting equipment or the mechanics of a typical successful parachute jump. As such, the investigation of the death should involve a multidisciplinary approach with an appropriate expert providing the formal forensic examination of the parachuting equipment. We have endeavored to describe, in simple terms, the usual components of a typical parachute rig, a précis of the sequence of events in a routine skydive and BASE jump, and the various types of malfunctions that may occur. Last, we present a case report of a BASE jump fatality to illustrate how an expert examination of the BASE jumper's gear aided the medicolegal investigation of the death with some important aspects in the forensic examination of the jumper's equipment.

  1. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  2. Forensic trace DNA: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.H. van Oorschot (Roland ); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); R.J. Mitchell (R. John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so

  3. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  4. Learning iOS forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    If you are a digital forensics examiner daily involved in the acquisition and analysis of mobile devices and want to have a complete overview of how to perform your work on iOS devices, this book is definitely for you.

  5. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  6. Curriculum Guidelines on Forensic Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…

  7. Forensic DNA phenotyping : Regulatory issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, E.J.; Schellekens, M.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Forensic DNA phenotyping is an interesting new investigation method: crime-scene DNA is analyzed to compose a description of the unknown suspect, including external and behavioral features, geographic origin and perhaps surname. This method is allowed in some countries but prohibited in a few

  8. Peer review in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  10. VoIP Forensic Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohemmed Sha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People have been utilizing Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP in most of the conventional communication facilities which has been of assistance in the enormous attenuation of operating costs, as well as the promotion of next- generation communication services-based IP. As an intimidating upshot, cyber criminals have correspondingly started interjecting the environment and creating new challenges for the law enforcement system in any Country. This paper presents an idea of a framework for the forensic analysis of the VoIP traffic over the network. This forensic activity includes spotting and scrutinizing the network patterns of VoIP-SIP stream, which is used to initiate a session for the communication, and regenerate the content from VoIP-RTP stream, which is employed to convey the data. Proposed network forensic investigation framework also accentuates on developing an efficient packet restructuring algorithm for tracing the depraved users involved in a conversation. Network forensics is the basis of proposed work, and performs packet level surveillance of VoIP followed by reconstruction of original malicious content or network session between users for their prosecution in the court.

  11. Forensic DNA phenotyping : Regulatory issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, E.J.; Schellekens, M.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Forensic DNA phenotyping is an interesting new investigation method: crime-scene DNA is analyzed to compose a description of the unknown suspect, including external and behavioral features, geographic origin and perhaps surname. This method is allowed in some countries but prohibited in a few others

  12. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  13. Forensic anthropology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E

    2000-03-13

    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  14. Network Forensics Method Based on Evidence Graph and Vulnerability Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of computer and network forensics has emerged. The general purpose of network forensics is to find malicious users or activities by gathering and dissecting firm evidences about computer crimes, e.g., hacking. However, due to the large volume of Internet traffic, not all the traffic captured and analyzed is valuable for investigation or confirmation. After analyzing some existing network forensics methods to identify common shortcomings, we propose in this paper a new network forensics method that uses a combination of network vulnerability and network evidence graph. In our proposed method, we use vulnerability evidence and reasoning algorithm to reconstruct attack scenarios and then backtrack the network packets to find the original evidences. Our proposed method can reconstruct attack scenarios effectively and then identify multi-staged attacks through evidential reasoning. Results of experiments show that the evidence graph constructed using our method is more complete and credible while possessing the reasoning capability.

  15. Diagnosis of anaphylactic death in forensics: Review and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Rossana

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis of anaphylaxis in a pre- or post-mortal phase involves the formulation of problems not yet solved by the international scientific literature, due to the complexity of pathogenic factors and pathophysiological processes that characterizes it. For forensic autopsies, further problems of differential diagnosis arise and often leave the forensic pathologist unable to express an opinion of certainty, as a result of lack of case history, circumstantial and autoptical-histopathological data. Nevertheless, in routine cases the postmortem diagnosis of anaphylactic death continues to be based on exclusion and circumstantial evidence. The author, after an extensive review of the literature relating to deaths from anaphylaxis of forensic pathological interest, and a discussion of the microscopical and biochemical findings, proposes a diagnostic protocol for forensic purposes and evaluates the diagnostic perspectives enabled by the newly available analytic techniques and markers. Maybe, the application of omics methodologies could help in the future for anaphylaxis diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyber-Forensic Research Experimentation and Test Environment (CREATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    and fiber analysis, serology (DNA..); • pathology, anthropology, odontology , toxicology ; structural engineering, and questioned documents...courts of law or public discussion and debate.” Most traditional forensic disciplines (e.g., forensic pathology, forensic toxicology , forensic...may never 24 have been brought. While the types of forensic evidence (e.g., entomology evidence, toxicology evidence) can differ greatly, all

  17. A patient with minimal change disease and acute focal tubulointerstitial nephritis due to traditional medicine: a case report and small literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Hyeun; Jeong, Han-Sol; Rhee, Harin

    2014-01-01

    Gongjin-dan (GJD) is a traditional formula that is widely used in Korea and China, and it has been used from 1345 AD in China to improve the circulation between the kidneys and the heart and to prevent all diseases. However, its adverse effects have not yet been reported. We present a patient with minimal change disease and focal tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with GJD. A 72-year-old man visited the clinic for generalized edema 20 days after starting GJD. His serum albumin level was low and nephrotic-range proteinuria was detected. A kidney biopsy showed minimal change disease and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. After stopping GJD, a spontaneous complete remission was achieved. We discuss the possible pathogenesis of GJD-induced minimal change disease and review the adverse effects of GJD's ingredients and traditional Chinese medicines that can induce proteinuria. We report a new adverse effect of GJD, which might induce increased IL-13 production and an allergic response, leading to minimal change disease and focal tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  18. Forensic study of sex determination using PCR on teeth samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami H; Yamamoto Y; Yoshitome K; Ono T; Okamoto O; Shigeta Y; Doi Y; Miyaishi S; Ishizu H

    2000-01-01

    In this study, sex determination using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on tooth material was evaluated from the viewpoint of forensic medicine. The sensitivity of PCR for detection of the Y chromosome-specific alphoid repeat sequence and the X chromosome-specific alphoid repeat sequence was 0.5 pg of genomic DNA. Sex could be determined by PCR of DNA extracted from the pulp of 16 freshly extracted permanent teeth and dentine including the surface of the pulp cavity of 6 freshly extracted milk...

  19. Discrepancy between information reported by the victims of sexual assaults and clinical forensic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports made at the Department of Forensic Medicine, the University of Copenhagen, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), information about the assault, including both violence and the perpetrator's line of sexual...... by slight, blunt force. Information on line of sexual action was present in 148 cases. A total of 123 victims reported penetration: 94% vaginal, 16% anal and 20% oral. Three were exposed to anal penetration only. Eleven perpetrators used a condom. 50% of the cases with vaginal and/or anal penetration had...

  20. Primer design for PCR reactions in forensic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a popular method to copy DNA in vitro. Its invention revolutionized fields ranging from clinical medicine to anthropology, molecular biology, and forensic biology. The method employs one of many available heat-stable DNA polymerases in a reaction that is repeated many times in situ. The DNA polymerase reads a template DNA strand and using the components of the reaction mix, catalyzes the addition of free 2'-deoxynucleotide triphosphate nitrogenous bases to short segment of DNA that forms a complement with the template via Watson-Crick base pairing. This short segment of DNA is referred to as a PCR primer and it is essential to the success of the reaction. The most widely used application of PCR in forensic labs is the amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) loci used in DNA typing. The STRs are routinely evaluated in concert with 16 or more reactions, a multiplex, run in one test tube simultaneously. In a multiplex, it is essential that the primers work specifically and accurately on the intended reactions without hindering the other reactions. The primers, which are very specific, also can be used to probe single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a DNA sequence of interest by single base extension. Primers are often designed using one of many available automated software packages. Here the process of manually designing PCR primers for forensic biology using no-cost software is described.

  1. Antoni Christian Bryk (1820-1881) - professor of forensic medicine at Jagiellonian University (1852-1860), and director of the surgical clinic of Jagiellonian University in Cracow (1860-1881).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajączkowski, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    scientific discipline. In the 19th century two milestones revolutionised surgery: the development of narcosis, which enabled painless surgery, and the introduction of antisepsis and asepsis. The author presents the beginnings of academic surgery in Cracow. Its pioneer surgeons are presented. Extensive research was undertaken to collect the literature and documents in Polish, Austrian and German archives and libraries in order to prepare this study. Biographical details of the director of the Surgical Clinic, Prof. Antoni Bryk, are provided. He was the first person in Poland to introduce antisepsis and galvanocautery as routine procedures in the Cracow Clinic. The introduction of antisepsis contributed to a reduction in infection during surgery, and a reduction in postoperative mortality in Cracow Surgical Clinic. In this way Professor Bryk became the first Polish surgeon to apply Lister's antiseptic method in the treatment of wounds. Thus enlarged, the scope of surgery for intracranial, bone and other procedures became routine. Surgery is the oldest discipline in medicine. Poland's first university chair of surgery was established in the 18th century. Surgery, which until then had been the domain of barbers and bath house attendants, became a clinical,

  2. [How to make regional medicine revive from the medical crisis or collapse due to the severe paucity of medical doctors: a plan with "the magnet hospital"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tsunetoshi

    2009-01-01

    In 2002-2003, the practice of doctors lending their names to appear as "staff" of hospitals became known. Problems regarding funds from public hospitals were also revealed. Tohoku University asked regional societies how to improve the medical situation, and redefined its responsibilities. The Educational Development Center for Local Medicine and Department of Local Medical Service System were set up (2005-2008). A severe shortage of medical doctors prevails in Japan: the number of doctors per population is at the 4th lowest among OECD countries, and the number per hospital bed is the lowest. We have no nursing homes whose beds are not counted as hospital beds. The number of faculty staff in Japanese medical schools is 1/3 to those of Western countries. The reported number of doctors working in hospitals and offices surpasses that by census for medical doctors by >40,000. Japanese doctors work for >60 hours per week. I propose essential plans to improve Japanese situation for medical service: 1. Immediately increase the number of doctors by at least 50%. Based on our calculation, we need 450,000 doctors. 2. When the shortage of doctors is severe, establish a magnet hospital with c.a. 500 beds for every 200,000 population, capable of treating highly emergency patients and attracting doctors who need medical training. Hospitals should not belong to each city or town. 3. Establish a comprehensive organization to nurture doctors on a long-term basis. It should consist of a medical school, hospitals, and the prefectural government. It should help doctors to move between hospitals, and be responsible both for designing doctors' career paths and for allocating them appropriately.

  3. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    , soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for

  4. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating

  5. Digital forensics in the cloud: The state of the art

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of cloud computing has brought new challenges to digital forensics. To address these challenges, new approaches in conducting digital forensic are required. In this paper, challenges that are faced by digital forensic investigator when...

  6. Emergency radiology without the radiologist: the forensic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Di Paolo, M.; Guidi, B.; Picano, Eugenio; Caramella, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this paper is to describe two cases from the authors' forensic archive database in which teleradiology was related to unfavourable outcomes. Material and methods. Two patients underwent autopsy after unexpected death following road accidents. In one case, death was caused by multiple cervical fractures following minor neck injury in the presence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. In the other case, death was due to delayed isthmic aortic rupture occurring after t...

  7. The Visualisation of Cognitive Structures in Forensic Statements

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Forensic statements are often unstructured, intricate, and thus difficult to interpret and assess. This is due to the varied nature and format of how interviews with victims, witnesses, or suspects are conducted. It is even more difficult for police investigators, lawyers or other legal practitioners to grasp intuitively and accurately the key information pertaining within the varied statements. This research investigates the opportunities in the convergence of linguistic approaches to extrac...

  8. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  9. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: joanne.ball@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  10. [False forensic expertise--analysis of occurrences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzman, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    Main problems that await the modern Polish forensic psychiatry are presented. The most common mistakes made in forensic expertise are discussed and their causes are shown. The need for a change in the manner of teaching forensic psychiatry at an academic, as well as post graduate level to medical students/doctors as well as law officials, has been stressed. The criteria for calling on experts, system of control and evaluation of the expertise formulated and rules of payment to the experts--all need changing. The altered criminal structure and possibilities of putting pressure on experts through corruption, threatening or blackmail were noted. The clearly defined status of the forensic psychiatric expert gives him a guarantee of legal defence and through this an unbiased position. Giving forensic expertise is not only part of the diagnostics in forensic psychiatry. An even layout of protection, treatment and rehabilitation of psychiatrically ill criminals has to be present in this system.

  11. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1-based human RNA quantification to enhance mRNA profiling in forensic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA analysis offers many potential applications in forensic science, and molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific RNA markers represents a new technique for use in forensic cases. However, due to the nature of forensic materials that often admixed with nonhuman cellular components, human-specific RNA quantification is required for the forensic RNA assays. Quantification assay for human RNA has been developed in the present study with respect to body fluid samples in forensic biology. The quantitative assay is based on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of mitochondrial RNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and capable of RNA quantification with high reproducibility and a wide dynamic range. The human RNA quantification improves the quality of mRNA profiling in the identification of body fluids of saliva and semen because the quantification assay can exclude the influence of nonhuman components and reduce the adverse affection from degraded RNA fragments.

  12. Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: veterans treatment court as diversion in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, Daniel E; McGuire, James; Garrick, Thomas; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The veteran-forensic interface is an emerging area of relevance to forensic clinicians assessing or treating returning Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans facing criminal sanctions. Veterans' Treatment Court (VTC) represents a recent diversion mechanism for low-level offenses that is based on a collaborative justice model. Thirty-nine percent of veterans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan and receiving VA services reside in rural areas. Rural veterans facing criminal justice charges may be at a disadvantage due to limited access to forensic psychiatrists with relevant expertise in providing veterans services for diversion. Therefore, widening the pool of forensic clinicians who have such expertise, as well as knowledge of the signature wounds of the wars as related to aggression and reckless behavior is necessary. This article presents an overview of VTCs and discusses the role of forensic clinicians as stakeholders in this process.

  13. Forensic accounting in the fraud auditing case

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a real case of digital forensic analysis in organizational fraud auditing process investigated using two different forensic tools, namely Tableau TD3 Touch Screen Forensic Imager and Access Data FTK Imager. Fraud auditing is more of a mindset than a methodology and has different approaches from financial auditing. Fraud auditors are mostly focused on exceptions, accounting irregularities, and patterns of their conduct. Financial auditors place special emphasis on the audit...

  14. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  15. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Nasso; Francesco Saverio Romolo

    2007-01-01

    The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of...

  16. Modeling Forensic Evidence Systems Using Design Science

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Colin; Armstrong, Helen

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents an overview of the application of design science research to the tactical management of forensic evidence processing. The opening discussion addresses the application of design science techniques to specific socio-technical information systems research in regard to processing forensic evidence. The discussion then presents the current problems faced by those dealing with evidence and a conceptual meta-model for a unified approach to forensic evidenc...

  17. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, K; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C; Pratima, D Bhavani; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination.

  18. Guidelines in forensic odontology: legal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermylen, Y

    2006-05-15

    The task of the forensic dentist is ruled by an obligation to be diligent and prudent. If guidelines should exist which are recognised by the dental forensic community, they will probably be used to judge his work, even if guidelines are only considered as recommendations. The questions to be answered are: who issued these guidelines and are they conform to evidence-based forensic odontology.

  19. Forensic Pathology Education in Pathology Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne K.; Domen, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Forensic pathology is a fundamental part of anatomic pathology training during pathology residency. However, the lack of information on forensic teaching suggests the highly variable nature of forensic education. A survey of pathology residency program directors was performed to determine key aspects of their respective forensic rotations and curriculum. A total of 38.3% of programs from across the country responded, and the survey results show 5.6% don’t require a forensic pathology rotation. In those that do, most forensic pathology rotations are 4 weeks long, are done at a medical examiner’s office, and require set prerequisites. A total of 21.1% of responding programs have residents who are not receiving documented evaluations for this rotation. While 39.6% of programs have a defined forensics curriculum, as many as 15% do not. Furthermore, nearly 43% of programs place no limit on counting forensic autopsies when applying for pathology board examinations. Our survey confirmed the inconsistent nature of forensic pathology training in resident education. Additionally, our curriculum was reorganized to create a more robust educational experience. A pre- and post-forensic lecture quiz and Resident In-Service Examination scores were analyzed to determine our curriculum’s impact and effectiveness. Analysis of our pre- and post-lecture quiz showed an improved overall average as well as an increase in Resident In-Service Examination scores, indicating improved general forensic pathology knowledge. Using this knowledge, along with changes in our curriculum, we generated a number of recommendations for improving forensic pathology education in pathology residency. PMID:28913415

  20. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C.; Pratima, D. Bhavani; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  1. Collective dose estimation in Portuguese population due to medical exams of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine; Estimativa da dose coletiva na populacao portuguesa devido a exames medicos de radiologia de diagnostico e de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico; Sousa, M. Carmen de [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Coimbra (Portugal); Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana [Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saude de Coimbra (Portugal); Pascoal, Ana [Kings College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Kings Health Partners; Cardoso, Gabriela; Santos, Ana isabel [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada (Portugal); Lanca, Isabel [Administracao Regional de Saude, Coimbra (Portugal); Matela, Nuno [Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Fac. de Ciencias. Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica; Janeiro, Luis [Escola superior de Saude da Cruz Vermelha Portuguesa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Patrick [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui [Medical Consult, SA, Lisboa (Portugal); Simaozinho, Paula [Administracao Regional de Saude, Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation due to medical examinations of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, a working group, consisting of 40 institutions, public and private, was created to evaluation the coletive dose in the Portuguese population in 2010. This work was conducted in collaboration with the Dose Datamed European consortium, which aims to assess the exposure of the European population to ionizing radiation due to 20 diagnostic radiology examinations most frequent in Europe (the 'TOP 20') and nuclear medicine examinations. We obtained an average value of collective dose of Almost-Equal-To 1 mSv/caput, which puts Portugal in the category of countries medium to high exposure to Europe. We hope that this work can be a starting point to bridge the persistent lack of studies in the areas referred to in Portugal, and to enable the characterization periodic exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation in the context of medical applications.

  2. El sistema médico-legal y forense portugués The Portuguese medico-legal and forensic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nuno Vieira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros textos legales que contienen algunas normas relacionadas con las pericias médico-legales en Portugal se remontan al siglo XVI, pero no sería hasta el siglo XIX cuando aparecen los primeros servicios públicos y cuando surge la enseñanza de la medicina legal en la universidad como disciplina autónoma. Se crearon los primeros servicios médico-legales oficiales (morgues que existieron hasta 1918 cuando fueron suprimidas pasando a denominarse Institutos de Medicina Legal de Coimbra, Oporto y Lisboa. Posteriormente se unificaron en un único Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal que tiene su sede en Coimbra e integra las tres delegaciones de él dependientes, localizadas en Oporto, Coimbra y Lisboa. En las Delegaciones existen 4 servicios técnicos periciales: Patología Forense, Clínica Forense, Toxicología Forense y Genética y Biología Forense. Así mismo existe una red de 31 Gabinetes Médico-Legales dispersos por el país con dependencia orgánica de los anteriores. En el aspecto formativo e investigador cabe mencionar que las Delegaciones funcionan íntimamente articuladas con las Facultades de Medicina del país. La disciplina de Medicina Legal es obligatoria en todas las licenciaturas de medicina y también en las Facultades de Derecho de todas las universidades públicas. En este ámbito de la enseñanza debe destacarse finalmente la existencia, desde 1918, de un postgrado específico en el ámbito de la medicina legal. Portugal dispone también del llamado Laboratorio de Policía Científica (LPC, en el ámbito de la policía judicial, perteneciendo a ésta y teniendo competencias solo en el ámbito de la investigación criminal.In Portugal, the first regulatory texts referring to medico- legal practice date back to the sixteenth century, but it was not until much later, in the nineteenth century, with the development of legal medicine as an independent university discipline, that the first medico-legal public services

  3. [Research Progress of circRNA and Its Significance in Forensic Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-qi; Shao, Cheng-chen; Li, Cheng-tao; Zhao, Zi-qin; Xie, Jian-hui

    2016-04-01

    RNA has received more attention in the field of forensic medicine and the development of the new biological markers based on RNA shows great significance in the analysis of complex cases. circular RNA (circRNA) is a kind of non-coding RNA which is widely reported recently. Although the regulatory mechanisms of generation and expression are not fully clear, the existing research indicates that circRNA has important biological functions. CircRNA has a cell-type-specific expression with great stability and a high expression level, which makes it meaningful in forensic applications potentially. In this paper, the research progress, the generation and regulation of circRNA as well as its biological characteristics and functions are summarized, which will provide references for related studies and forensic applications.

  4. An historical skull collection and its use in forensic odontology and anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrsen, B; Lynnerup, N; Hejmadi, M

    2005-01-01

    The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Copenhagen, houses a collection of historical skulls of unclear origin, marked with a general geographic or "racial descriptor". Would these historical skulls be of any value for the forensic odontologist and anthropologist concerned with teaching and casework....... The FORDISC programme computed a discriminatory analysis for each skull and thereby assigned the skull to the most probable ethnic category. The results for the non-metric traits showed that the traits generally followed the expected frequencies in 80% of the cases. The FORDISC programme correctly assigned...... ethnicity based on skull measurements in overall 70% of the cases. It was found that this historical collection does show expected dental non-metric and craniometric traits and the collection may be of value in forensic casework in terms of comparison and for teaching purposes....

  5. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark

    2014-11-01

    External-beam radiation therapy mostly uses high-energy photons (x-rays) produced by medical accelerators, but many facilities now use proton beams, and a few use fast-neutron beams. High-energy photons offer several advantages over lower-energy photons in terms of better dose distributions for deep-seated tumors, lower skin dose, less sensitivity to tissue heterogeneities, etc. However, for beams operating at or above 10 MV, some of the materials in the accelerator room and the radiotherapy patient become radioactive due primarily to photonuclear reactions and neutron capture, exposing therapy staff and patients to unwanted radiation dose. Some recent advances in radiotherapy technology require treatments using a higher number of monitor units and monitor-unit rates for the same delivered dose, and compared to the conventional treatment techniques and fractionation schemes, the activation dose to personnel can be substantially higher. Radiotherapy treatments with proton and neutron beams all result in activated materials in the treatment room. In this report, the authors review critically the published literature on radiation exposures from induced radioactivity in radiotherapy. They conclude that the additional exposure to the patient due to induced radioactivity is negligible compared to the overall radiation exposure as a part of the treatment. The additional exposure to the staff due to induced activity from photon beams is small at an estimated level of about 1 to 2 mSv y. This is well below the allowed occupational exposure limits. Therefore, the potential hazard to staff from induced radioactivity in the use of high-energy x-rays is considered to be low, and no specific actions are considered necessary or mandatory. However, in the spirit of the "As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)" program, some reasonable steps are recommended that can be taken to reduce this small exposure to an even lower level. The dose reduction strategies suggested should be

  6. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2017-09-01

    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Body fluid identification in forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of amolecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling orDNA methylation detection has been recently proposed tosupplant conventional body fluid identification methods.Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentiallymethylated regions which are specific to forensically relevantbody fluids have been identified, and their specificities andsensitivities have been tested using various samples. In thisreview, we provide an overview of the present knowledge andthe most recent developments in forensic body fluididentification and discuss its possible practical application toforensic casework.

  8. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  9. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-01-01

    .... The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge...

  10. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, N; Babu, N Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C; Masthan, K M K

    2015-04-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists' participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations.

  11. Use of DNA technology in forensic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences.

  12. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Balachander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists′ participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations.

  13. The forensic aspects of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed.

  14. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists’ participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  15. Forensics Investigation of Web Application Security Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor Lazzez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, web applications are popular targets for security attackers. Using specific security mechanisms, we can prevent or detect a security attack on a web application, but we cannot find out the criminal who has carried out the security attack. Being unable to trace back an attack, encourages hackers to launch new attacks on the same system. Web application forensics aims to trace back and attribute a web application security attack to its originator. This may significantly reduce the security attacks targeting a web application every day, and hence improve its security. The aim of this paper is to carry out a detailed overview about the web application forensics. First, we define the web applications forensics, and we present a taxonomic structure of the digital forensics. Then, we present the methodology of a web application forensics investigation. After that, we illustrate the forensics supportive tools for a web application forensics investigation. After that, we present a detailed presentation of a set of the main considered web application forensics tools. Finally, we provide a comparison of the main considered web application forensics tools.

  16. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  17. Forensic child abuse evaluation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque, Danielle; DeMattia, Amy; Low, Christine

    2006-12-01

    This review discusses the forensic medical and psychological assessments of children and adolescents suspected of being victims of sexual or physical abuse/neglect. Evaluation of the whole child and the need to minimize trauma during the investigative and assessment processes are stressed. The forensic medical examination is reviewed, including the specifics of the pediatric anogenital examination. The key components of the forensic medical examination in sexual assault cases are also reviewed, with particular attention to maintaining the integrity of the process. Special emphasis is placed on the forensic interview in child sexual abuse cases, the best evidence available and areas in need of further research.

  18. Forensic odontological observations in the victims of DANA air crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Ogunbanjo, Victor Olabode; Ogunbanjo, Ogunbiyi Babatunde; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology or forensic dentistry is that aspect of forensic science that uses the application of dental science for the identification of unknown human remains and bite marks. Deaths resulting from mass disasters such as plane crash or fire incidence have always been given mass burial in Nigeria. This was obviously due to the fact that Forensic Pathologists whose roles involve disaster victim identification were not available at that time. However, in the DANA air crash in Lagos in 2012, the Forensic pathologist and dental teams were invited for the first time to identify the victims. The objectives of this paper are to identify the extent of victims' identification using Forensic odontology alone and its combination with DNA analysis. It also presents the pattern of fractures seen in the mandible and maxilla of the victims. The bodies were dissected using following the standard protocol dissection. Prior to this all the victims had Dental Radiological Examination. The oral cavities were exposed after which the Odontology team was invited for photographing first, followed by dental charting. Fractures of the mandible, maxilla including the anatomical regions were all recorded and photographed. Dental prosthesis, restorations, crowns and bridge and other findings were also noted, recorded and compared with ante mortem records where available. A total of 152 bodies were recovered from the crash site while 148 victims were eventually identified through a combination of DNA analysis and forensic odontology. This represented 97.4%. Forensic odontology was the primary identifier in 10%. There were no fingerprinting information in this country at present therefore, it could not be used. A total of 89 (60%) were males while females accounted for 59(40%). This gives a ratio of 1.5:1. Most of the victims were in the age group 30-49 years; this represented 52% of the victims while the least involved age groups were victims above 60 years of age which accounted for

  19. Forensic DNA profiling and database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerchelvam, S; Norazmi, M N

    2003-07-01

    The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection.

  20. Forensic DNA Profiling and Database

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerchelvam, S.; Norazmi, M. N.

    2003-01-01

    The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection.