WorldWideScience

Sample records for foreland-based regionalization integrating

  1. Crisis and Regional Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    ‘Crisis’ has been a word frequently heard of over the last couple of years, both in a global meaning (e.g. the environmental crisis, the financial crisis) and also in a more regional or national meaning, many times related to Africa (Horn of Africa, Ivory Coast, DR Congo, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast...... at the processes of regional integration in relation to ‘crisis’ in Africa and Europe. First, this paper will look at the concept of ‘crisis’, before it moves on to discuss ‘regional integration’ and the correlation between the two, emphasizing the approaches of neo-functionalism and federal theory...

  2. Spearheading Regional Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shortly after the ASEAN Regional Forum in Kuala Lumpur, Thai Ambassador and rotating Chairman of the ASEAN Beijing Committee, Jullapong Nonsrichai, answered questions from Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei on ASEAN's role and the China-ASEAN relationship.

  3. [Health in Andean regional integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    Despite their shared history, the Andean countries are socially and politically diverse, with heterogeneous health realities and complex integration processes. General developments such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Latin American Integration Association have existed for decades, along with others of a regional scope, like the Andean Community of Nations, Caribbean Community, and Central American Common Market. The health field has a specific instrument in the Andean Region called the Hipólito Unánue Agreement, created in 1971. Integration processes have concentrated on economic aspects, based on preferential customs agreements that have led to an important long-term increase in trade. Less progress has been made in the field of health in terms of sharing national experiences, knowledge, and capabilities. Analysis of experiences in health has shown that integration depends on the countries' respective strengths and to a major extent on national political processes.

  4. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  5. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2011-01-01

    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  6. Economic Growth and Regional Integration in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D Shepherd; R Muñoz Torres; M A Mendoza

    2017-01-01

      In this paper we examine the regional structure of output growth, volatility and prosperity in Mexico, focusing in particular on the degree of integration between both the regions and the individual...

  7. Regional integration and national social policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madeira, Mary Anne

    2014-01-01

    How does regionalization affect national social policies? Although there is an extensive literature on the effects of globalization on social protection, the literature on the impact of regional integration is much less developed...

  8. Regional integration and national social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Madeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available How does regionalization affect national social policies? Although there is an extensive literature on the effects of globalization on social protection, the literature on the impact of regional integration is much less developed. I argue that the distinctive nature of regionalization processes calls for rigorous empirical testing of the domestic policy effects of regional integration. To this end, using an innovative dataset that measures the degree to which countries are integrated into regional economic and political organizations, this article uses statistical analysis to consider the influence of regional integration on government social spending. The results are surprising: regionalization has a significant and positive relationship with government social spending, controlling for other factors, even when the European Union countries are excluded from the analysis. In fact, in the EU countries increasing regionalization is associated with lower social spending levels. These results suggest that regional economic and political integration does not necessarily lead to a “race to the bottom” of social spending. Instead, regionalization appears to accommodate wide divergence in national social policy commitments.

  9. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies; Integracion Regional de energias Renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J. [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs.

  10. The New Wave of Regional Economic Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1990s, various regional economic integration organizations have been mushrooming in the world, forming an unprecedentedly forceful and extensive new wave. The broad-ranged contents, flexible regimes, diverse forms and bright prospects of cooperation are all unparalleled in history.

  11. EME banking systems and regional financial integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2014-01-01

    This report - prepared by a Study Group chaired by Andrew Khoo (Monetary Authority of Singapore) - develops a central bank perspective on the regional integration of EME banking systems and financial markets, assesses the drivers of these developments, and draws broad conclusions for policymakers. The findings are based on data from the BIS international banking statistics (IBS) and various other public sources, interviews with the private sector, inputs from central banks from non-CGFS juris...

  12. Integration Research for Shaping Sustainable Regional Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Brunckhorst

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and social systems are complex and entwined. Complex social-ecological systems interact in a multitude of ways at many spatial scales across time. Their interactions can contribute both positive and negative consequences in terms of sustainability and the context in which they exist affecting future landscape change. Non-metropolitan landscapes are the major theatre of interactions where large-scale alteration occurs precipitated by local to global forces of economic, social, and environmental change. Such regional landscape effects are critical also to local natural resource and social sustainability. The institutions contributing pressures and responses consequently shape future landscapes and in turn influence how social systems, resource users, governments, and policy makers perceive those landscapes and their future. Science and policy for “sustainable” futures need to be integrated at the applied “on-ground” level where products and effects of system interactions are fully included, even if unobserved. Government agencies and funding bodies often consider such research as “high-risk.” This paper provides some examples of interdisciplinary research that has provided a level of holistic integration through close engagement with landholders and communities or through deliberately implementing integrative and innovative on-ground experimental models. In retrospect, such projects have to some degree integrated through spatial (if not temporal synthesis, policy analysis, and (new or changed institutional arrangements that are relevant locally and acceptable in business, as well as at broader levels of government and geography. This has provided transferable outcomes that can contribute real options and adaptive capacity for suitable positive futures.

  13. Indicators to Monitor Deeper Regional Trade Integration in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Stronger regional integration has been a policy priority in Africa for several decades. Countries in Africa have committed to a process of deeper integration, but have made little progress in implementing commitments and removing barriers. This report looks at the monitoring of regional integration in Africa and argues that more effective monitoring processes for existing integration arran...

  14. Regional Logistics Information Resources Integration Patterns and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Shangguan, Xu-ming

    Effective integration of regional logistics information resources can provide collaborative services in information flow, business flow and logistics for regional logistics enterprises, which also can reduce operating costs and improve market responsiveness. First, this paper analyzes the realistic significance on the integration of regional logistics information. Second, this paper brings forward three feasible patterns on the integration of regional logistics information resources, These three models have their own strengths and the scope of application and implementation, which model is selected will depend on the specific business and the regional distribution of enterprises. Last, this paper discusses the related countermeasures on the integration of regional logistics information resources, because the integration of regional logistics information is a systems engineering, when the integration is advancing, the countermeasures should pay close attention to the current needs and long-term development of regional enterprises.

  15. Regional Integration and Conflict Management in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    embrace the concepts of good governance, sound civil-military relations and commitment to .... regional arrangements or by regional agencies for the maintenance of .... According to Olson “thus the world works better when there is a ...

  16. Mainstreaming road safety in the regional integration of the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Road safety, road traffic injuries, regional integration, East African ... regions having the lowest rates of the registered motorised vehicles which were ..... passengers are found to be the most vulnerable groups at risk of RTIs in the ...

  17. Regional economic integration in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.; Meilink, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of regional integration has acquired a new relevance and urgency in Africa due to wide-reaching national and global changes. African leaders' commitment to regional economic integration was clearly expressed during the June 1991 OAU summit meeting in Abuja, Nigeria. On that occasion, they

  18. Regional Energy Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The regional study has been conducted by the WEC Latin American Member Committees. Having identified that the weak link between existing national energy infrastructures remains a major stumbling block to strengthening regional economic integration, this study aims to propose alternative views -- primarily on the integration of electricity and natural gas markets.

  19. Regional Inflation, Financial Integration and Dollarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, R.; Brown, M.; Sokolov, V.

    2015-01-01

    We exploit variation in consumer price inflation across 71 Russian regions to examine the relationship between the perceived stability of the domestic currency and financial dollarization. Our results show that regions with higher inflation experience an increase in the dollarization of household de

  20. Regional Inflation, Financial Integration and Dollarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, R.; Brown, M.; Sokolov, V.

    2015-01-01

    We exploit variation in consumer price inflation across 71 Russian regions to examine the relationship between the perceived stability of the domestic currency and financial dollarization. Our results show that regions with higher inflation experience an increase in the dollarization of household

  1. The Integration of Regions and Quality of Economic Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altynay Sultakhanovna Adzhikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the role of integrative interaction of regions in their socioeconomic development and preconditions the development of integration processes. The authors reveal the interdependence of economic space quality and the intensity of integration processes. The quality of economic space is seen as a factor of regions’ readiness for integration interaction. In this regard, an attempt is made to assess the available opportunities for interregional cooperation and the intensity of integration processes in the subjects of the North Caucasus Federal district. Chronological period for assessment of analytical indicators is the period from 2008 to 2013. The authors conducted a ranking of subjects of the North Caucasus Federal district by the main characteristics of the economic space and assessment of the level of integration. On the basis of calculations the authors make conclusions about the degree of realization of integration potential of regions. The analysis revealed the discrepancy between the average level of integration activity with the average level of assessment of economic space quality in many subjects of the district. A number of regions of the North Caucasus Federal district are being outsiders by coefficient of integration, despite the favorable conditions for interregional cooperation. Most regions of the district are not fulfilling their potential for integration. On the other hand, some regions, despite the generalized low score for integration in the current conditions, became the leaders of the district on integration cooperation. Taking into account that integration processes contribute to the improvement of the characteristics of the economic space and increase the competitiveness of regional economy, the issues of intensification of interregional economic cooperation are brought up to date. Stimulation of the integration activity is possible on the basis of improving the quality of economic space by improving the

  2. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...... a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced...... to strengthen the Oresund integration index. This was compiled from patent, publication and collaborative R&D project data. The findings show that this index performs reasonably well in depicting STI integration, while at the same time remaining simple and straightforward enough to be adopted in other cross...

  3. Regional integration in the Asia Pacific: issues and prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Barrie; Holden, Randall; Ho, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    ... and opportunities that lie ahead. REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN THE ASIA PACIFIC: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS - ISBN-92-64-00916-7 FOREWORDFOREWORD - 5 FOREWORD For many observers of the world economy, the 21 century will belong to the Asia Pacific region. The sheer dynamism of its peoples and its huge economic and technological potential do indeed bode well ...

  4. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  5. Defining Scenarios: Linking Integrated Models, Regional Concerns, and Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, H. C.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Mahmoud, M.

    2007-05-01

    Scenarios are important tools for long-term planning, and there is great interest in using integrated models in scenario studies. However, scenario definition and assessment are creative, as well as scientific, efforts. Using facilitated creative processes, we have worked with stakeholders to define regionally significant scenarios that encompass a broad range of hydroclimatic, socioeconomic, and institutional dimensions. The regional scenarios subsequently inform the definition of local scenarios that work with context-specific integrated models that, individually, can address only a subset of overall regional complexity. Based on concerns of stakeholders in the semi-arid US Southwest, we prioritized three dimensions that are especially important, yet highly uncertain, for long-term planning: hydroclimatic conditions (increased variability, persistent drought), development patterns (urban consolidation, distributed rural development), and the nature of public institutions (stressed, proactive). Linking across real-world decision contexts and integrated modeling efforts poses challenges of creatively connecting the conceptual models held by both the research and stakeholder communities.

  6. The Right for Regional Integration Organisations to Protect Democracy: Legitimacy at the Regional Level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman-Metcalf Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been several examples of different regional integration systems intervening to prevent unconstitutional events. The interventions can be based on explicit powers or be developed in response to events. This happens despite most regional integration systems having economic cooperation rather than explicit democratisation aims. Organs that issue laws or take constraining decisions must have a clear right to do this and a basis for exercising power-in other words, be legitimate. Where legitimacy comes from is debated, but as most countries today are democracies or purport to be, it somehow emanates from the people. National governments have a higher degree of legitimacy than regional integration organisations, possibly except the European Union. Regional integration organisations have to prove their legitimacy. The article examines if, to what extent, and on what basis regional integration systems have the right to exercise an independent role on the global stage. Legitimacy is a precondition for effective application of decisions of the organisation. Given the frequent lack of strong enforcement mechanisms, the question of legitimacy becomes even more important. With strong legitimacy, decisions taken by the regional integration organisation will be followed to a large extent even despite absence of effective enforcement mechanisms.

  7. Numerical integration of massive two-loop Mellin-Barnes integrals in Minkowskian regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovyk, Ievgen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Gluza, Janusz [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Riemann, Tord [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Usovitsch, Johann [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Mellin-Barnes (MB) techniques applied to integrals emerging in particle physics perturbative calculations are summarized. New versions of AMBRE packages which construct planar and nonplanar MB representations are shortly discussed. The numerical package MBnumerics.m is presented for the first time which is able to calculate with a high precision multidimensional MB integrals in Minkowskian regions. Examples are given for massive vertex integrals which include threshold effects and several scale parameters.

  8. 18Regional integration and social cohesion: Perspectives from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between social cohesion and regional integration in the developing world. Candice ... of public policy, and the EU even prioritises the EU Social Cohesion Funds in its .... networks of ethnic entrepreneurs and grassroots non-state actors. ... definitions and issues', Paper SRA-309, Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate,.

  9. Market, Country and World Effects on Regional Equity Market Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wooi Hooy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the fundamental driving forces of regional equity market integration in a trading bloc. The determinant factors are categorized into market attribute, economic fundamentals and world information. Our sample consists of 26 equity markets of ive regional trading blocs, namely AFTA, CER, EFTA, EU and NAFTA over the period of January 1999 to  August  2005.  We  measure  market  integration  based  on  pricing  errors  as  proposed  by Korajczyk (1996 and Levine and Zervos (1998. Using panel regressions, our results show that  equity  integration  in  these  trading  blocs  is  driven  internally,  where  only  individual-market  volatility  and  economic  fundamentals  play  a  signiicant  role  in  the  process.  Intra-bloc  trade  is  found  to  enhance  regional  equity  market  integration,  supporting  the  notion that  regional  convergence  extends  beyond  the  trade  sector  that  is  promoted  in  the  trade agreements.  We  also  document  regime  shifting  effects  during  stock  market  crises,  where most  of  these  markets  became  strongly  integrated  after  a  regional  crisis,  but  integration was signiicantly weakened during a crisis that affected the world markets. Also, the level of equity market integration differs across trading blocs, where the blocs with a smaller number of country members are relatively more integrated. ";} // -->activate javascript

  10. Regional powers as leaders or Rambos? The ambivalent behaviour of Brazil and South Africa in regional economic integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.; Meissner, K.L.; Muntschick, J.

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of regional powers towards their own regions is often volatile in the developing world, which leads to unstable integration processes. This article argues that this volatility is due to limited intra-regional gains from regional integration in developing regions, which implies that the

  11. Regional powers as leaders or Rambos? The ambivalent behaviour of Brazil and South Africa in regional economic integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.; Meissner, K.L.; Muntschick, J.

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of regional powers towards their own regions is often volatile in the developing world, which leads to unstable integration processes. This article argues that this volatility is due to limited intra-regional gains from regional integration in developing regions, which implies that the

  12. Cross-border regional innovation system integration: An analytical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system....... However, little attention has been given to the empirical analysis of the concept. This paper suggests a framework for empirically validating the concept by examining the levels of integration between cross-border regions. The outcome is a proposed framework can be operationalized by measurable indicators...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  13. Asia-Pacific Regional Economic Integration: Coopetition vs. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuJane Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of economic globalization, promoting regional trade agreements or regional cooperation has become a plausible strategy to attract foreign direct investment and to promote national competitiveness at a global level. Nonetheless, facing the differential national economic interests and the needs of protection of domestic industries, as well as the diverse levels of economic liberalization domestically, the involvement of FTA negotiation in every country is universally in the situation of struggling between securing economic sovereignty and national economic development. Countries in the Asia-Pacific region are in the same situation. This article analyzes how countries balance between securing economic sovereignty and promoting national economic development when they are involved in TPP and RCEP negotiations. By confirming the appropriate linkage between each participating countries’ decision for balancing between domestic economic sovereignty and further integrating into regional economic cooperation institutions the validity of the proposition for this research project can be verified.

  14. Great Lakes Offshore Wind Project: Utility and Regional Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.; Sajadi, Amir; D' Aquila, Robert; Clark, Kara; Waligorski, Joseph; Baker, Scott

    2016-06-30

    This project aims to identify transmission system upgrades needed to facilitate offshore wind projects as well as operational impacts of offshore generation on operation of the regional transmission system in the Great Lakes region. A simulation model of the US Eastern Interconnection was used as the test system as a case study for investigating the impact of the integration of a 1000MW offshore wind farm operating in Lake Erie into FirstEnergy/PJM service territory. The findings of this research provide recommendations on offshore wind integration scenarios, the locations of points of interconnection, wind profile modeling and simulation, and computational methods to quantify performance, along with operating changes and equipment upgrades needed to mitigate system performance issues introduced by an offshore wind project.

  15. INTEGRAL survey of the Cassiopeia region in hard X rays

    CERN Document Server

    Den Hartog, P R; Hermsen, W; Kuiper, L; Vink, J; in 't Zand, J J M

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of a deep 1.6 Ms INTEGRAL observation of the Cassiopeia region performed from December 2003 to February 2004. Eleven sources were detected with the imager IBIS-ISGRI at energies above 20 keV, including three new hard X-ray sources. Most remarkable is the discovery of hard X-ray emission from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61, which shows emission up to \\~150 keV with a very hard power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 0.73 +/- 0.17. We derived flux upper limits for energies between 0.75 MeV and 30 MeV using archival data from the Compton telescope COMPTEL. In order to reconcile the very hard spectrum of 4U 0142+61 measured by INTEGRAL with the COMPTEL upper limits, the spectrum has to bend or break between ~75 keV and ~750 keV. 1E 2259+586, another anomalous X-ray pulsar in this region, was not detected. INTEGRAL and COMPTEL upper limits are provided. The new INTEGRAL sources are IGR J00370+6122 and IGR J00234+6144. IGR J00370+6122 is a new supergiant X-ray binary with an orb...

  16. Integration of Regional Mitigation Assessment and Conservation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Thorne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies that develop infrastructure such as roads, waterworks, and energy delivery often impact natural ecosystems, but they also have unique opportunities to contribute to the conservation of regional natural resources through compensatory mitigation. Infrastructure development requires a planning, funding, and implementation cycle that can frequently take a decade or longer, but biological mitigation is often planned and implemented late in this process, in a project-by-project piecemeal manner. By adopting early regional mitigation needs assessment and planning for habitat-level impacts from multiple infrastructure projects, agencies could secure time needed to proactively integrate these obligations into regional conservation objectives. Such practice can be financially and ecologically beneficial due to economies of scale, and because earlier mitigation implementation means potentially developable critical parcels may still be available for conservation. Here, we compare the integration of regional conservation designs, termed greenprints, with early multi-project mitigation assessment for two areas in California, USA. The expected spatial extent of habitat impacts and associated mitigation requirements from multiple projects were identified for each area. We used the reserve-selection algorithm MARXAN to identify a regional greenprint for each site and to seek mitigation solutions through parcel acquisition that would contribute to the greenprint, as well as meet agency obligations. The two areas differed in the amount of input data available, the types of conservation objectives identified, and local land-management capacity. They are representative of the range of conditions that conservation practitioners may encounter, so contrasting the two illustrates how regional advanced mitigation can be generalized for use in a wide variety of settings. Environmental organizations can benefit from this approach because it provides a

  17. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.

  18. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  19. Integral field spectroscopy of HII regions in M33

    CERN Document Server

    López-Hernández, Jesús; Terlevich, Roberto; Rosa-González, Daniel; Díaz, Ángeles; Benito, Rubén García; Vílchez, José; Hägele, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Integral field spectroscopy (IFS) is presented for star forming regions in M33. A central area of 300 x 500 pc^2 and the external HII region IC 132, at a galactocentric distance {\\sim} 19arcmin (4.69 kpc) were observed with the Potsdam Multi Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) instrument at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Hispano- Alem\\'an observatory (CAHA). The spectral coverage goes from 3600 A to 1{\\mu}m to include from [OII]{\\lambda}3727 A to the near infrared lines required for deriving sulphur electron temperature and abundance diagnostics. Local conditions within individual HII regions are presented in the form of emission line fluxes and physical conditions for each spatial resolution element (spaxel) and for segments with similar H{\\alpha} surface brightness. A clear dichotomy is observed when comparing the central to outer disc HII regions. While the external HII region has higher electron temperature plus larger H{\\beta} equivalent width, size and excitation, the central region has higher exti...

  20. Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: approaches, first results and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a NEESPI megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Needs for SIRS are caused by accelerated warming occurring in Siberia, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence, and lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The SIRS approaches include coordination of different scale national and international projects, capacity building targeted to early career researchers thematic education and training, and development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required in support of multidisciplinary teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for sharing of data, models and knowledge. Coordination within SIRS projects is devoted to major regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes and currently is concentrated on three interrelated problems, whose solution has strong regional environmental and socio-economical impacts and is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics: Permafrost border shift, which seriously threatens the oil and gas transporting infrastructure and leads to additional carbon release; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems changes, which might vary region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime changes, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus causing significant carbon release from the region under study. Some

  1. SPI/INTEGRAL observation of the Cygnus region

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchet, L.; Jourdain, E; Roques, JP; Mandrou, P.; von Ballmoos, P.; Boggs, S; Caraveo, P.; Casse, M.; Cordier, B.; Diehl, R.; Durouchoux, P.; von Kienlin, A.; Knodlseder, J.; Jean, P.; Leleux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    We present the analysis of the first observations of the Cygnus region by the SPI spectrometer onboard the Integral Gamma Ray Observatory, encompassing similar to600 ks of data. Three sources namely Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3 and EXO 2030+375 were clearly detected. Our data illustrate the temporal variability of Cyg X-1 in the energy range from 20 keV to 300 keV. The spectral analysis shows a remarkable stability of the Cyg X-1 spectra when averaged over one day timescale. The other goal of these obser...

  2. Monitoring diseases across borders: African regional integrative information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbini, Tungamirirai; Foster, Rosemary; Nesara, Paul; Hullin Lucay Cossio, Carola

    2010-01-01

    In African countries, communicable diseases remain the chief cause of a heavy disease burden. Regional economic, political and social integration bring new challenges in the management of these diseases, many of which are treatable. Information Communication Technology (ICT) applied through electronic health systems has the potential to strengthen healthcare service delivery and disease surveillance within these countries. This paper discusses the importance of well-defined e-Health strategies within countries and, in addition, proposes that countries within regions collaborate in planning for health information exchange across borders. It is suggested that particular attention be paid to technical and data standards enabling interoperability, and also to issues of security, patient privacy and governance.

  3. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewailly Eric

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Caribbean region to respond in integrative and innovative ways to on-going and emerging environmental health challenges by means of multi-sectoral interventions. Methods Core parts of the CEHP’s mission are to (1 conduct collaborative research in areas that the region has identified as critical; (2 build and strengthening integrated approaches to research; and (3 develop and enhance basic research capacity within the Caribbean region. Fundamental to the success of the CEHP’s human and resource development mission has been its use of the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory (AML. The AML has allowed the CEHP program to move throughout the Caribbean and be able to respond to calls for specific research and capacity building opportunities. Results The CEHP’s five main research projects have generated the following results: (1 the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs study has evaluated human exposures to POPs, heavy metals, pesticides, and zoonotic infections; (2 the Burden of Illness (BOI studies have developed protocols for the testing of foodborne microorganisms, strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities, and determined the prevalence and incidence of food-borne illness; (3 the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH study has evaluated the microbial and chemical quality of rainwater harvesting systems; (4 the Ecotoxicology Water (ETW studies have provided much needed data on the quality of recreational and drinking water supplies, and (5 the Food Safety Training Program has

  4. Environmental law in the regional integration of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Lorena González Celis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental law has two main features: the regulation and control of the activities of raw material extraction and conservation of endemic ecosystems and special care. The harmonization of national environmental rights becomes an urgent task in the context of regional integration processes experienced by South America, as the ecosystems in the territory are of great importance and are vulnerable according to the type of development that poses. Currently, the Environmental Law is a subject that has not been intensively discussed between countries, but at international summits, countries have established this subject as a focus of global concern. Therefore, it is essential that this issue is placed on the political agenda to define what are the environmental guidelines in the context of regional integration in South America. This document provides the reader an approach to some of the challenges and difficulties faced by countries, when dealing in the South American political agenda, the issue of harmonization of environmental regulatory frameworks.

  5. Effective pipeline integrity management in the Magallanes region of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, E; Munoz, A. [Empresa Nacional del Petroleo, Punta Arenas (Chile); Wilde, A.; Healy, J. [MACAW Engineering Ltd., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Bakayeva, M. [ROSEN Europe, Oldenzaal (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    The pipelines of the Magallanes region are operated by Empresa Nacional del Petroleo (ENAP), a Chilean government company. Most of these pipelines were constructed in the 1960s and 1970s and are over 30 years of age. A pipeline integrity management program was initiated in the 1990s. Its first phase consisted in data gathering and high-level risk assessment. In-line inspections were then performed in the pipelines that were considered to be most at risk. Each inspection was followed with an integrity assessment designed to identify features that would require further investigation or repair. This included a pipeline-specific risk assessment, a defect assessment, and an estimation of corrosion growth rates. Most inspections were performed with MFL technology; a case study is shown where a pipeline was inspected three times with the same technology (in 2002, 2006 and 2009). The major threat in the Magallanes region is external corrosion, while some other risks such as third-party activities or ground instability are low.

  6. FISCAL EFFECTIVENESS UNDER REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: INDONESIAN AGRICULTURAL PERFORMANCE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrudin Nasrudin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper investigates the effectiveness of fiscal policy in boosting agricultural sector performance and seeks the most effective policy in the presence of regional economic integration. It predicts the effectiveness of fiscal policy on the agricultural sector performance in four periods; the new order regime, the economic crisis, and pre and post China Free Trade Area (CAFTA. It also predicts the impact of fiscal policy on agricultural sector performance when CAFTA is fully implemented. It finds that fiscal policy is more effective in the optimum allocation of expenditures. It also finds that the agricultural sector can grow faster when the portion of capital expenditure increases.Keywords: Fiscal effectiveness, economic integration, agricultureJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17AbstrakMakalah ini menyelidiki efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam mendorong kinerja sektor pertanian dan mencari kebijakan yang paling efektif dengan adanya integrasi ekonomi regional. Makalah ini memprediksi efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam meningkatkan kinerja sektor pertanian dalam empat periode; rezim orde baru, krisis ekonomi, sebelum pelaksanaan China Free Trade Area (CAFTA, dan setelah pelaksanaan CAFTA. Makalah ini juga memprediksi dampak kebijakan fiskal terhadap kinerja sektor pertanian saat CAFTA sepenuhnya dilaksanakan. Hasil analisis menemukan bahwa kebijakan fiskal lebih efektif dalam alokasi optimal dari pengeluaran. Analisis juga menemukan bahwa sektor pertanian dapat tumbuh lebih cepat ketika porsi peningkatan belanja modal meningkat.Keywords: Efektivitas fiskal, integrasi ekonomi, pertanianJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17

  7. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  8. A Data Driven Framework for Integrating Regional Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, C.; Kleese van Dam, K.; Liu, Y.; Elsethagen, T.; Guillen, Z.; Stephan, E.; Critchlow, T.; Gorton, I.

    2012-12-01

    There are increasing needs for research addressing complex climate sensitive issues of concern to decision-makers and policy planners at a regional level. Decisions about allocating scarce water across competing municipal, agricultural, and ecosystem demands is just one of the challenges ahead, along with decisions regarding competing land use priorities such as biofuels, food, and species habitat. Being able to predict the extent of future climate change in the context of introducing alternative energy production strategies requires a new generation of modeling capabilities. We will also need more complete representations of human systems at regional scales, incorporating the influences of population centers, land use, agriculture and existing and planned electrical demand and generation infrastructure. At PNNL we are working towards creating a first-of-a-kind capability known as the Integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM). The fundamental goal of the iRESM initiative is the critical analyses of the tradeoffs and consequences of decision and policy making for integrated human and environmental systems. This necessarily combines different scientific processes, bridging different temporal and geographic scales and resolving the semantic differences between them. To achieve this goal, iRESM is developing a modeling framework and supporting infrastructure that enable the scientific team to evaluate different scenarios in light of specific stakeholder questions such as "How do regional changes in mean climate states and climate extremes affect water storage and energy consumption and how do such decisions influence possible mitigation and carbon management schemes?" The resulting capability will give analysts a toolset to gain insights into how regional economies can respond to climate change mitigation policies and accelerated deployment of alternative energy technologies. The iRESM framework consists of a collection of coupled models working with high

  9. RF performances of inductors integrated on localized p+-type porous silicon regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Capelle, Marie; Billoué, Jérôme; Poveda, Patrick; Gautier, Gaël

    2012-01-01

    To study the influence of localized porous silicon regions on radiofrequency performances of passive devices, inductors were integrated on localized porous silicon regions, full porous silicon sheet...

  10. RF performances of inductors integrated on localized p.sup.+-type porous silicon regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Capelle, Marie; Billoue, Jerome; Poveda, Patrick; Gautier, GaA<

    2012-01-01

    To study the influence of localized porous silicon regions on radiofrequency performances of passive devices, inductors were integrated on localized porous silicon regions, full porous silicon sheet...

  11. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  12. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gonzales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  13. SPI/INTEGRAL observation of the Cygnus region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, L.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.; Mandrou, P.; von Ballmoos, P.; Boggs, S.; Caraveo, P.; Cassé, M.; Cordier, B.; Diehl, R.; Durouchoux, P.; von Kienlin, A.; Knodlseder, J.; Jean, P.; Leleux, P.; Lichti, G. G.; Matteson, J.; Sanchez, F.; Schanne, S.; Schoenfelder, V.; Skinner, G.; Strong, A.; Teegarden, B.; Vedrenne, G.; Wunderer, C.

    2003-11-01

    We present the analysis of the first observations of the Cygnus region by the SPI spectrometer onboard the Integral Gamma Ray Observatory, encompassing ~600 ks of data. Three sources namely Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3 and EXO 2030+375 were clearly detected. Our data illustrate the temporal variability of Cyg X-1 in the energy range from 20 keV to 300 keV. The spectral analysis shows a remarkable stability of the Cyg X-1 spectra when averaged over one day timescale. The other goal of these observations is SPI inflight calibration and performance verification. The latest objective has been achieved as demonstrated by the results presented in this paper.

  14. Regional Dynamic Simulation Modeling and Analysis of Integrated Energy Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MALCZYNSKI, LEONARD A.; BEYELER, WALTER E.; CONRAD, STEPHEN H.; HARRIS, DAVID B; REXROTH, PAUL E.; BAKER, ARNOLD B.

    2002-11-01

    The Global Energy Futures Model (GEFM) is a demand-based, gross domestic product (GDP)-driven, dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of energy, nuclear-materials storage and disposition, environmental effluents from fossil and non fossil energy and global nuclear-materials management. Based entirely on public source data, it links oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and renewable energy dynamically to greenhouse-gas emissions and 12 other measures of environmental impact. It includes historical data from 1990 to 2000, is benchmarked to the DOE/EIA/IEO 2001 [5] Reference Case for 2000 to 2020, and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. The GEFM is globally integrated, and breaks out five regions of the world: United States of America (USA), the Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations excluding the USA (other industrialized countries), and the rest of the world (ROW) (essentially the developing world). The GEFM allows the user to examine a very wide range of ''what if'' scenarios through 2050 and to view the potential effects across widely dispersed, but interrelated areas. The authors believe that this high-level learning tool will help to stimulate public policy debate on energy, environment, economic and national security issues.

  15. [Problems of evaluating regional integrated care using the example of "Gesundes Kinzigtal Integrated Care"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Achim; Stössel, Ulrich; Schubert, Ingrid; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    "Gesundes Kinzigtal Integrated Care" (GKIC) is one of the few population-based integrated care systems in Germany. The external evaluation of GKIC has a modular design and is coordinated by the Department of Medical Sociology of Freiburg University. In this article we will outline the different evaluation modules and address typical problems arising in the evaluation of regional integrated health care systems. One of these problems is the small size of the intervention population in a recently established pilot care system which makes the use of epidemiologic measures (such as incidence figures) difficult. Total population surveys could alleviate this problem, but when the same intervention population is questioned repeatedly for different evaluation modules, the danger of 'over-surveying' arises. This may lead to decreasing participation in further studies. These problems may be managed by using short survey instruments, by conducting surveys successively (not simultaneously) using time shifts, and by analysing claims data from health insurers. Another problem in the evaluation of comparably small systems of care is how to attribute outcomes (effects) to certain health promotion or disease management programmes: Since participants usually take part in more than one programme, the intervention effect is contaminated by multiple programme effects. These will have to be adjusted for in the final evaluation of the data. Finally, randomised controlled study (RCT) designs frequently cannot be used in the evaluation of a region-wide pilot intervention, so the evidence generated by such a (non-randomised) study is weaker than the evidence generated by an RCT.

  16. Integrated marketing sphere of physical culture and sports in terms of European integration Regional Center Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Popov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: exposure of conceptual and strategic positions of the complex marketing of sphere of physical culture and sport in the conditions of European integration of regional center. Material and Methods: analysis of literary sources, analysis of documents of legislative, normatively-legal and programmatic maintenance, analysis of the systems, questioning as a questionnaire. Results: the analysis of the systems of terms of development of sphere of physical culture and sport is carried out by the study of modern tendencies, interests of young people and habitants of regional center; complex description of conceptual and strategic positions of the relatively complex marketing of sphere of physical culture and sport is presented in the conditions of European integration of regional center. Conclusions: it is set that the decision of tasks in relation to conditioning for development of sphere of physical culture and sport must come true with the observance of certain principles; got founding in relation to development of marketing plan of forming of sporting image Kharkiv.

  17. ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL INTEGRATION PROCESSES: SOUTH AFRICA, ASIA-PACIFIC REGION AND RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Victorovna Kuznetsova, Natalia Alexandrovna Vorobeva

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the problem of global integration processes in regions of Africa, Asia and Russia. Based on migration flows, estimation of integration indexes, we investigate the historical integration development of these regions and identify the important features for future international cooperation and integration. This article presents the preliminary results of the gravity model that we constructed using the features of Asia-Pacific region. We concluded that differences and similarit...

  18. Integración regional andina en salud Health in Andean regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Agudelo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar su historia compartida, los países de la Región Andina presentan una diversidad social y política que genera realidades sanitarias heterogéneas y procesos de integración complejos. Se han dado por décadas procesos generales, como la Asociación Latinoamericana de Libre Comercio y la Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración, o de alcance regional como la Comunidad Andina de Naciones, la Comunidad del Caribe y el Mercado Común Centroamericano. En el campo específico de la salud se cuenta con un instrumento en la Región Andina, el Convenio Hipólito Unánue, creado en 1971. Estos procesos de integración se han concentrado en los aspectos económicos, con base en acuerdos de preferencias arancelarias, los cuales han generado, en el largo plazo, un intercambio comercial apreciable. En el campo de la salud se ha avanzado menos, en términos de procesos que ponen en común experiencias nacionales, conocimientos y capacidades. El análisis de las experiencias de integración en salud muestra que esta depende de las fortalezas de cada país y, en gran parte, de los procesos políticos nacionales.Despite their shared history, the Andean countries are socially and politically diverse, with heterogeneous health realities and complex integration processes. General developments such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Latin American Integration Association have existed for decades, along with others of a regional scope, like the Andean Community of Nations, Caribbean Community, and Central American Common Market. The health field has a specific instrument in the Andean Region called the Hipólito Unánue Agreement, created in 1971. Integration processes have concentrated on economic aspects, based on preferential customs agreements that have led to an important long-term increase in trade. Less progress has been made in the field of health in terms of sharing national experiences, knowledge, and capabilities. Analysis of

  19. Incorporating water resources in integrated urban and regional planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Claudia; Jeffrey, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the relationships between water and the landscapes, communities, and jurisdictions through which it flows has become an increasingly urgent task for science over recent years. The vital role played by water in both urban and rural economies, its function in supporting ecosystem services, the consequences of excess or deficit, and our increasing awareness of the aquatic environment's influence on quality of life all evidence the importance of refining our knowledge of the inter-dependencies between hydrological processes and social systems. At this resolution (catchments, regions, etc.), the importance of integrating land and water planning and the need for collaboration of multiple stakeholders are a genuinely holistic and interdisciplinary undertaking; providing opportunities for researchers from the natural and social sciences to generate insights which utilise understandings of fundamental processes and phenomena to inform and shape policy, planning, design and interventions. This is a relatively young but fast-growing area of science with theory and normative prescription in areas such as catchment management and water sensitive urban design driving a burgeoning science agenda. This Special Issue of the Journal of Hydrology showcases a suite of contributions from primarily developed countries around the globe which revel in this agenda. Our authors report work which tackles head-on the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the problems and witnesses a growing confidence amongst the research community in crossing disciplinary and professional boundaries.

  20. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  1. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  2. Economic integration, poverty and regional inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the issue of how trade integration can affect poverty and income distribution in Brazil. The analysis is conducted through a static General Equilibrium and Microsimulation Model of Brazil, calibrated with the PNAD 2001 data. The model comprises 112,055 Brazilian households and 263,938 adults, distinguishing 42 activities, 52 commodities, and 27 regions. The FTAA formation is simulated, and its impacts upon poverty and income distribution in Brazil analyzed. Results point to the fact that even a large shock like the one simulated wouldn't have a strong impact on poverty reduction in Brazil, although the results are concentrated on the poorest households.Este trabalho analisa os efeitos potenciais da formação da ALCA sobre os níveis de pobreza e distribuição de renda no Brasil. A análise é conduzida através de um Modelo Aplicado de Equilíbrio Geral e de Micro-simulação estático, calibrado com os dados da PNAD 2001. O modelo distingue na sua estrutura 112.055 domicílios e 263.938 adultos, 42 atividades produtivas, 52 produtos, e 27 regiões. Os resultados apontam para o fato de que mesmo mudanças tarifárias grandes como as aqui simuladas não trariam um forte impacto sobre a pobreza no Brasil, embora os resultados estejam concentrados nos domicílios mais pobres.

  3. Integrated protection from prevalent wheat parasites in semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Zoran J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting contemporary knowledge in the field of integral wheat protection against parasites, i.e. the use of cultural measures and genetic analyses directed at adequate use of breeding results, monitoring and forecasting of prevalent parasite growth and development with the aim of rational fungicide application. In addition, the paper suggests the proper use of biological measures through artificial infection with Pyrenophora tritici repentis (Ptr in years not favourable for facultative parasite development. Growing of the varieties not lower than 85 cm with optimal stem growth ratio in regions with 550-650 mm precipitation, deep and complete soil cultivation plus nutrition before sowing in late October reduced the risk of facultative parasite appearance on lower and middle leaves by over 15%, which was considered useful because of the antagonism to obligate parasites. Severity of Puccinia triticina on last two leaves when facultative parasites were absent was increased at 60-70% as maximal level according to suggested SAGR. Nevertheless, we suggest growing of varieties with prolonged latency period resistant to Puccinia triticina. The aim is to avoid overaccumulation of resistance genes consequential through the decrease of wheat grain yielding potential. Genes facilitating toxin from Ptr spreading have to be excluded because of necessary antagonistic effect from the middle leaves. This implies gene for the obligate parasite specific resistance diversity of varieties in order to reduce the probability of simultaneous overcoming of resistance and avoid insurmountable changes in seed production. The final result of the proposed system should be the last two leaves with mostly minimal parasite appearance and the possibility of economical and efficient single curative treatment application once in ten years when facultative parasites are absent in spring or after the resistance of variety is overcome in standard conditions

  4. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences; L'integration energetique regionale: les experiences latino-americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  5. Regional Economic Integration in Africa (Ph.D. Thesis, full text)

    OpenAIRE

    Marinov, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation is dedicated to specific processes of regional economic integration in Africa. The main goal is to assess systematically the development and potential of regional economic communities in Africa through: - systematization of factors that influence the motivation of developing countries to participate in integration, as well as its specific impact on them; - laying out the possibilities and challenges in the processes of regional economic integration in Africa through an analys...

  6. THE INCREASE OF NORTHEAST ASIAN REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION AND ITS IMPACT ON REGIONAL INTEGRATION INDEX: FOCUS ON THE PETROLEUM SECTOR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sang-Hee Jeong; Ki-Sik Hwang; Hyun-Jung Kim

    2009-01-01

    ... stages of cooperation if energy security cooperation occurs in Northeast Asia. It analyzes the fluctuations in the regional integration index during the progress of the early stages of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia...

  7. Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizer, James; Goddard, Lisa; Guido, Zackry

    2015-04-01

    An integrated multi-disciplinary team of researchers from the University of Arizona and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society at Columbia University have joined forces with communities and institutions in the Caribbean, South Asia and West Africa to develop relevant, usable climate information and connect it to real decisions and development challenges. The overall objective of the "Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience" program is to build community resilience to negative impacts of climate variability and change. We produce and provide science-based climate tools and information to vulnerable peoples and the public, private, and civil society organizations that serve them. We face significant institutional challenges because of the geographical and cultural distance between the locale of climate tool-makers and the locale of climate tool-users and because of the complicated, often-inefficient networks that link them. To use an accepted metaphor, there is great institutional difficulty in coordinating the supply of and the demand for useful climate products that can be put to the task of building local resilience and reducing climate vulnerability. Our program is designed to reduce the information constraint and to initiate a linkage that is more demand driven, and which provides a set of priorities for further climate tool generation. A demand-driven approach to the co-production of appropriate and relevant climate tools seeks to meet the direct needs of vulnerable peoples as these needs have been canvassed empirically and as the benefits of application have been adequately evaluated. We first investigate how climate variability and climate change affect the livelihoods of vulnerable peoples. In so doing we assess the complex institutional web within which these peoples live -- the public agencies that serve them, their forms of access to necessary information, the structural constraints

  8. Cluster formation integrated agro-industrial: strategic direction of agricultural enterprises Kharkov region

    OpenAIRE

    Tolstova, A.; Kosenko, N.

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the state of the agricultural economy of Kharkiv region, its businesses, allowing to determine the strategic direction of their further development. Expediency ensure the competitiveness of the agricultural economy of the region, diversifying their production exercise by creating an integrated structure, namely agribusiness cluster Kharkiv region, which ensures the formation and development of integration ties farms of the region and combines such disparate currently li...

  9. Economic Community of West African States Regional Integration Process: A Study of the New Regionalism Phenomenon in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gavua, Innocent Komla

    2007-01-01

    Regional cooperation and integration in the international system has taken new dimensions especially following the end of the Cold War and the example of the successful story of the European Union integration process. This new dynamism in the intra-regional cooperation, which started to emerge in the 1980’s, has been described by some scholars as ‘new regionalism’, with a view to differentiate it from the ‘old’ type of regional cooperation which was prominent from the 1950’s till the late 197...

  10. INTRODUCING A NEW INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM: MONSOON ASIA INTEGRATED REGIONAL STUDY (MAIRS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congbin Fu; Ailikun; Renjian Zhang; Xiaodong Yan

    2006-01-01

    The Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) is a new Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP)program aimed at the integrated study of environmental changes over monsoon Asian region. This paper briefly introduces MAIRS, its background and concept, scientific themes and objectives, data requirements and its information system, intensive observation experiment, and its linkage with ongoing international projects.

  11. The Influence of Nationalism in Mercosur and in South America - can the regional integration project survive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America......The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America...

  12. African regional integration and European involvement: external agents in the East African Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, V.; Sidaway, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    The EU's role as a model for regional integration is widely discussed in scholarship and policy circles. The promotion of regional integration is central to the EU's external relations and is frequently expected by the EU's partners. This paper examines European involvement with the East African

  13. The Influence of Nationalism in Mercosur and in South America - can the regional integration project survive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America......The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America...

  14. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration, Volume 2. Technical Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  15. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration (Vol. 1 of 2)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  16. The Impact of Organizational Structure on Internal and External Integration: An empirical, cross-regional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenophon Koufteros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of organizational structure on cross-functional integration, supplier integration, and customer integration and assess whether such effects vary by geographical region. Specifically, we investigate the impact of centralization, formalization, and complexity on both internal (cross-functional and external (supplier, customer integration. Relationships are examined across Western and East Asian environments using data collected from 238 manufacturing plants in eight countries. We find that structural features have differing impacts on cross-functional, supplier, and customer integration, and these effects vary across geographical regions.

  17. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and of a nearly chronic nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member-states announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015....... The readiness is to be tested at a continental field exercise, Amani Africa 11 to take place in South Africa October 2015. (Defence Web, 2015) The article will start by mapping out the security dynamics and architecture in East Africa, including its membership circles and priorities. The article...

  18. Regional Economic Integration in Africa: Challenges and Prospects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    continental wide free trade area (FTA) does not seem timely; and the focus should rather be redirected at ... Free Trade Area, Intra Africa Trade, Regional Economic Communities ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  19. Building "Nuestra América:" national sovereignty and regional integration in the americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Keller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the history of regional integration in the Americas, drawing lessons from the diverse ways that people have sought to unite the hemisphere. It begins at the point when most of the modern nation-states of Latin America came into being: the nineteenth-century wars for independence. From there, it traces various attempts at regional integration, keeping in mind three fundamental questions: How does regional integration compromise sovereignty? Does it have to? Is it worth sacrificing sovereignty to increase integration? The article concludes that while every attempt at regional integration in the Americas has required the participants to voluntarily sacrifice some measure of their sovereignty, the most successful efforts have been those that either kept the sacrifice to a minimum or offered significant enough rewards to offset the loss of sovereignty.

  20. Macroeconomic effects of international regional economic integration: global practice and challenges for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Fedirko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the causes and macroeconomic peculiarities of the formation and operation of international regional economic associations of various forms have been studied. A hierarchical classification of modern international regional economic integration groups is presented. The contribution of the world’s largest integration groups to the global GDP has been analyzed. The main macroeconomic results of countries’ participation in integration associations of different forms on the pre-establishment and post-establishment stages have been described, the positive effects obtained by countries in the result of introduction of certain common economic activity conditions have been determined. Potential risks for Ukraine related to European Integration and prospective positive effects of integration into the world economy have been determined. Conceptual principles of state policy of blocking of the potential risks of international regional economic integration for Ukraine have been substantiated.

  1. Scalable Integrated Region-Based Image Retrieval Using IRM and Statistical Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James Z.; Du, Yanping

    Statistical clustering is critical in designing scalable image retrieval systems. This paper presents a scalable algorithm for indexing and retrieving images based on region segmentation. The method uses statistical clustering on region features and IRM (Integrated Region Matching), a measure developed to evaluate overall similarity between images…

  2. The Cygnus X region a nucleosynthesis laboratory for INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Knödlseder, J; Schärer, D; Von Ballmoos, P; Meynet, G

    2000-01-01

    The detection of 1.809 MeV gamma-ray line emission from the Cygnus X complex by the COMPTEL telescope is one of the most convincing proves of massive star nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. The Cygnus X complex is an extremely active nearby region, containing several star forming regions, OB associations and young open star clusters. It houses some of the most massive stars known in our Galaxy and concentrates a large number of Wolf-Rayet stars. Thermal radio continuum emission and intense [C II] line emission reveals widespread ionisation, and at least 60 individual H II regions have been identified. In order to understand the 1.809 MeV gamma-ray line emission from the Cygnus X complex, and to compare the observations to theoretical nucleosynthesis calculations, we modelled the multi-wavelength spectrum of the region by means of an evolutionary synthesis model. Our investigation leads us to the following conclusions: 1. Stellar wind ejection is the dominant mechanism for the observed 26Al enrichment in the Cygnu...

  3. Regional economic integrations and capital movement – measuring the level of capital mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Bilas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuing process of globalization has resulted in new trends of economic relations among countries. The modern regional integration goes beyond the traditional removal of barriers and includes free movement of factors of production which brings larger benefits than merely those from the liberalization of trade. In this paper the analysis of the level of capital mobility in the four regional integrations(EU-15, ASEAN, MERCOSUR and NAFTA has been conducted in order to examine the level of capital mobility in the mentioned integrations as well as to analyze the effect that the formation of the integration had on its capital mobility.

  4. Resource integration of regional economic development in northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Northwestern area is the most arid and underdeveloped area in China. Lots of researches have been done to find the approaches to alleviate poverty. But there are some problems, for example, how to invest, how to use capital,and why the utilization rate is ambiguous. Water, capital and human resources are analyzed in this paper to be compared with their Utilization rates. As a result, according to the dependences of economic growth on those resources, a new approach has been selected to organize the integration ways among these resources for economic development in northwestern China. The efficient ways to develop northwestern China are: firstly, use the wanting resources most effectively to make an efficient integration model of multiple resources. For example, enhance the utilization rate of water to raise the value of other resources. Secondly, invest more in basic factors for economic development to upgrade the competitiveness in the western China. For example, invest more in primary education and sustainable development of basic natural resources in order to have more power for sustainable development.

  5. The Integration of Regional Tourism%区域旅游整合发展探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽君

    2012-01-01

    区域旅游资源整合是旅游业发展到一定阶段的必然需要,是实现资源共享、市场互动的合作化发展的必走之路。区域旅游整合需要一定的资源条件、市场条件、区位条件和发展环境。实施区域旅游整合战略的核心是,资源整合,可为旅游大整合奠定基础;市场整合,可形成区域旅游大市场;形象整合,可为区域旅游整合指明方向;产品整合,可提升区域旅游的竞争力;交通整合,可形成区域旅游整合骨架;管理整合,可为区域旅游整合提供保障。%Regional tourism resource integration is the necessity of certain developmental stages of tourist industry and the inevitable way for the cooperative development of shared resources and interactive markets. The integration requires conditions in terms of re-- source, market, location, and development environment. The strategic target of regional tourism integration is to integrate the resources, laying the foundation for the total tourism integration; integrate scattered markets into a big regional tourist market; create a unified im- age to orient the direction for regional tourism integration; integrate the products, enhancing the regional competitiveness; integrate the traffic resources, forming the structure of regional tourism; and integrate the management to safeguard the overall integration.

  6. Crisis and Regional Integration:Africa and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2011-01-01

    ‘Crisis’ has been a word frequently heard of over the last couple of years, both in a global meaning (e.g. the environmental crisis, the financial crisis) and also in a more regional or national meaning, many times related to Africa (Horn of Africa, Ivory Coast, DR Congo, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast, Tunisia, Egypt …. ), where the crisis referred to could be humanitarian, environmental, economic, political … Europe, too, has also according to mass media, been a victim of a crisis, the financial one...

  7. China's Changing Economic Structure and Implications for Regional Patterns of Trade, Production and Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Song Tan; Hoe Ee Khor

    2006-01-01

    Without intending to do so, China has in recent years played a major role in East Asia's economic integration. It has done so mainly through the production and supply chain networks it has spun across the region. This paper argues that given the developmental trends in the Chinese economy, the Chinese government should pursue a more active strategy towards a broader and more balanced economic integration with the region. The emergence of a multi-track production structure, increased importance of domestic consumption and the services sector, together with faster integration of the domestic economy,will fundamentally change China's trade and investment relationships with the rest of East Asia and necessitate a review of China's economic integration strategy. The paper also argues that ASEAN can play a useful role in facilitating the region-wide integration process.

  8. Montana Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions: 2014 Field Implementation Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2014 the Avian Science Center (ASC) at the University of Montana (UM) participated in the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program for a...

  9. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation to coopera...

  10. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation...

  11. International trade, regional integration and food security in the Middle East:

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Against the background of increasing interest in closer economic relations in the Middle East, the contribution that greater integration of markets might make to improving food security in the region is investigated, using a quantitative framework for gauging the reduction in instability of market supplies for cereal, meat, and dairy commodities under regional cooperation schemes versus more general policies to increase the integration of Middle East markets with markets in Western Europe and...

  12. Latin American integration and sub-regionalization: political and ideological dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regionalism and regionalization in modern Latin America paying special attention to political and ideological factors, which have already shifted political and economic landscape of Latin America and encouraged sub-regional differentiation, with each of the sub-regional integration association following its own (and sometimes competing development pattern. At the same time the region witnesses the consolidation of UNASUR that assumes a leading role trying to converge the sub-regional alternative patterns and to strengthen political and economic ties, based on regional leadership of Brazil, civilizational unity and imminent security threats. The author also uses comparative method to speculate on the model of Latin American integration

  13. Integrating Surface Water Management in Urban and Regional Planning, Case Study of Wuhan in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the study is to examine and develop a spatial planning methodology that would enhance the sustainability of urban development by integrating the surface water system in the urban and regional planning process. Theoretically, this study proposes that proactive-integrated policy and a

  14. Integrating Surface Water Management in Urban and Regional Planning, Case Study of Wuhan in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484098X

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the study is to examine and develop a spatial planning methodology that would enhance the sustainability of urban development by integrating the surface water system in the urban and regional planning process. Theoretically, this study proposes that proactive-integrated policy and

  15. Deepening Vietnam's Integration with the Regional Economy:Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tien Dung

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze the growing trade and investment relationships between Vietnam and East Asian countries as well as the opportunities and challenges of East Asian economic integration in a post Global-crisis period.Our analysis shows that,together with rapid changes in economic structures,the trade complementarities between Vietnam and East Asian trading partners have substantially increased, further enhancing the benefit of regional integration.Integration with dynamic Asian ec...

  16. Integrated multi-regional energy and interindustry model of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettle, IV, Richard J.; Cherniavsky, Ellen A.; Tessmer, Jr, Raymond G.

    1977-05-01

    The energy sector of the proposed formulation is represented in a detailed multi-regional linear programming model. This model optimally allocates regionally produced energy resources and selects the optimal regional mix of energy supply, conversiion, and demand technologies according to least cost or other important criteria (e.g. an aggregate environmental index or foreign energy imports) to meet projected regional energy demands. Regions are linked by both imports and exports of natural resources and converted fuels or products, including electricity. Resources are characterized by region-specific supply functions, and regional energy demands are specified in terms of functional end use. The energy sector model is integrated with a multi-regional Leontief interindustry model of the economic system. Here, regions are linked not only by inter-regional energy flows but also by inter-regional industrial flows. The traditional components of final demand result from macroeconomic projections of regional product and its composition and may be derived from a typical multi-regional econometric model. The advantages of this integrated formulation are (1) the LP formulation allows for intraregional interfuel substitution and variable inter-regional energy trade patterns; these are precluded in a standard multi-regional interindustry model; and (2) the interindustry formulation, though accepting structural overrides from the LP in regional energy production, conversion, and consumption activities, preserves the conceptual dependency of the energy sector on the larger regional economic system in which it is embedded. Two solution methodologies are outlined. The first is an iterative technique that has been successfully employed in a national version of this integrated model. The second is a reduced system LP formulation of the combined model.

  17. Integrated multi-regional energy and interindustry model of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettle, IV, Richard J.; Cherniavsky, Ellen A.; Tessmer, Jr, Raymond G.

    1977-05-01

    The energy sector of the proposed formulation is represented in a detailed multi-regional linear programming model. This model optimally allocates regionally produced energy resources and selects the optimal regional mix of energy supply, conversiion, and demand technologies according to least cost or other important criteria (e.g. an aggregate environmental index or foreign energy imports) to meet projected regional energy demands. Regions are linked by both imports and exports of natural resources and converted fuels or products, including electricity. Resources are characterized by region-specific supply functions, and regional energy demands are specified in terms of functional end use. The energy sector model is integrated with a multi-regional Leontief interindustry model of the economic system. Here, regions are linked not only by inter-regional energy flows but also by inter-regional industrial flows. The traditional components of final demand result from macroeconomic projections of regional product and its composition and may be derived from a typical multi-regional econometric model. The advantages of this integrated formulation are (1) the LP formulation allows for intraregional interfuel substitution and variable inter-regional energy trade patterns; these are precluded in a standard multi-regional interindustry model; and (2) the interindustry formulation, though accepting structural overrides from the LP in regional energy production, conversion, and consumption activities, preserves the conceptual dependency of the energy sector on the larger regional economic system in which it is embedded. Two solution methodologies are outlined. The first is an iterative technique that has been successfully employed in a national version of this integrated model. The second is a reduced system LP formulation of the combined model.

  18. Brazil and regional integration in South America: lessons from the EU's crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lazarou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the idea of the EU as a 'model' of regional integration, linking it to the literature on Europe as a normative power. The second part discusses the influence of the EU model on regional cooperation and integration in South America. In particular, it focuses on the discursive use of the model in Brazilian foreign policy during the two tenures of President Luis Inacio Lula da Silva as a dominant rhetoric for the promotion of regional integration, especially in the case of the Mercado Común del Sur(Common Market of the South, MERCOSUR and the Unión de Naciones Suramericanas (Union of South American Nations, UNASUR. The last part looks at the impact of the financial crisis on the 'deconstruction' of this ideal model of European integration and attempts to discern how this will influence the future discourse on regional cooperation integration in South America, and primarily in Brazil. To illustrate the shift that has occurred in Brazilian views of regionalism, this part also discusses the Brazilian support of a new form of regional integration, as embodied in the creation of CELAC, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF REGIONAL TOURISM INTEGRATION--Case of Quadrangle Economic Cooperation Zone in Great Mekong Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-gang; BAO Ji-gang; ZHOU Chang-chun

    2006-01-01

    The Quadrangle Economic Cooperation Zone in Great Mekong Region, where the Golden Triangle is located, is composed with the border areas of China,Laos, Thailand and Myanmar. The poorest and inaccessible remote Golden Triangle now faces the opportunity to develop and participate in the global economic system. Not only has the traditional border tourism between two countries in this region been growing rapidly and various tourism products cross the regions also have been developed. The article attempts to explore the multiplier effects of tourism on regional cooperation. These consequences of tourism cooperation take effect through the infrastructure improvement, facilitation of the free movement, improvement of communication and promotion of the alternative economy. The study also points out the unexpected negative consequences to limit its role as a regional cooperative engine due to the lack of consideration of the dual economic and social structure in tourism development. The special attention should be drawn to consider the limited benefits for the marginalized community, the high transaction of the social costs related with the drug tourism and sex tourism. The paper calls for more rigorous cooperative regional plans and policies to the complexity of tourism development in this region.

  20. Comprehensive Assessment of Integration Activity of Business Structures in Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Gennad’evna Karelina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic sanctions and growing international isolation, the research into regional differences in integration development acquires special relevance for Russia; this fact determines the need for a comprehensive assessment of integration activity of business structures in Russian regions. The diversity of approaches to the study of problems and prospects of economic integration and the current debate about the role of integration processes in the development of regional economies determined a comprehensive approach to the concepts of “integration” and “integration activity” in order to create objective prerequisites for analyzing integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. The information base of the research is the data of Russian information and analytical agencies. The tools used in the research include methods for analyzing structural changes, methods for analyzing economic differentiation and concentration, nonparametric statistics methods, and econometric analysis methods. The first part of the paper shows that socio-economic development in constituent entities of Russia is closely connected with the operation of integrated business structures located on their territory. Having studied the structure and dynamics of integration activity, we reveal the growing heterogeneity of integration activity of business structures in Russian regions. The hypothesis about significant divergence of mergers and acquisitions for corporate structures in Russian regions was confirmed by high values of the Gini coefficient, the Herfindahl index and the decile differentiation coefficient. The second part of the paper contains a comparative analysis and proposes an econometric approach to the measurement of integration activity of business structures in subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of integral synthetic categories. The approach we propose focuses on the development of a system of indicators

  1. Influence of international economic integration on socio-economic development of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis about new type’s integration processes in the world economy is made, the essence and distinctive peculiarities of these processes are determined. By the proposed groups of parameters, the comparative analysis of international economic integration (IEI within traditional integration processes (EU, NAFTA and those of new type (SCO, BRIC(S is carried out. The technique of estimation of influence of international economic integration on development of a country’s region is worked out, and the estimation of influence of international economic integration on socio-economic development of Sverdlovsk region is carried out. The movement of goods, services and factors of production (capital, work force between the region and the integration associations of traditional type and the groups of countries arisen in terms of forming integration processes of new type is analyzed. It is shown that the one of the tendencies in development of international economic integration of Sverdlovsk region during the last 12 years has been the increasing role and importance of new integration groups of countries. It is revealed that the purposeful account of this tendency can provide quantitative and qualitative shifts in external trade, foreign investments and labor migration of the region, related on the change of direction of flows: from the receivers of high-technological goods, capital, specialists from developed countries — to the supplier of manufactured goods, investments and high-qualified work force into countries of SCO and BIRC(S, what is one of the factors of providing economic safety of the region.

  2. Regionálna integrácia v Afrike-vybrané aspekty

    OpenAIRE

    Bednárová, Ľudmila

    2008-01-01

    Disintegration of colonial system during the period of 1960s enabled the emergence of a group of developing countries, that broke out from political addiction and started independent operation. In the region of African countries the decolonisation was rounded out in the 1960 when the first african regional integrations were established. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to analyze the development of African regionalism (its chosen aspects), as well as other coherent agreements of cooperation...

  3. Integrating Regional Development, Promoting Local Cooperation Reflections on the China-UK Regional Leaders Exchange Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Chang

    2016-01-01

    The first China-UK Regional Leaders Meeting was held March21-24 in the United Kingdom,both in London and the industrial city of Sheffield.The event was jointly organized by the CPAFFC and the British Department for Communities and Local Government.The Chinese delegation,comprising government

  4. Empirical Analysis of the Integration Activity of Business Structures in the Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gennadyevna Karelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. A wide variety of approaches to the study of the problems and prospects of economic integration and the current dispute on the role of integration processes in the regional economic development have determined the complexity of the concepts “integration” and “integration activities” in order to develop the objective conditions to analyse the integration activity of business structures in the Russian regions. The monitoring of the current legal system of the Russian Federation carried out in the area of statistics and compiling statistical databases on mergers and acquisitions has showed the absence of the formal executive authority dealing with the compiling and collections of information on the integration activity at the regional level. In this connection, the data of Russian information and analytical agencies are made from the information and analytical base. As the research tools, the methods of analysis of structural changes, methods of analysis of economic differentiation and concentration, methods of non-parametric statistics are used. The article shows the close relationship between the social and economic development of the subjects of Russia and the integrated business structures functioning on its territory. An investigation of the integration activity structure and dynamics in the subjects of the Russian Federation based on the statistical data for the period from 2003 to 2012 has revealed the increasing heterogeneity of the integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. The hypothesis of a substantial divergence of mergers and acquisitions of corporate structures in the Russian regions was confirmed by the high values of the Gini coefficient, the Herfindahl index, and the decile coefficient of differentiation. The research results are of practical importance since they can be used to improve the existing

  5. Asymmetry of ECOWAS integration process: contribution of regional hegemon and small country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis O Omo-Ogbebor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the role of Nigeria and Ghana in ECOWAS specific fields of integration since its creation in 1975. It showed the relevance of Nigeria as a regional leader and the importance of Ghana as a key factor in ECOWAS integration process, and their respective foreign policy stand towards West African integration process in the present century. In order to evaluate and present the role of Nigeria and Ghana in ECOWAS integration process, the authors set out three main tasks to actualize it. The first task is to identify the main areas of ECOWAS integration process, namely: economic integration, security formation and political reformation using qualitative methodological analysis to achieve this task. The second task is the review of ECOWAS operational structure, which explained how Nigeria was able to exert its hegemony status in ECOWAS, and how Ghana is able to remain useful in ECOWAS despite the overwhelming influence of Nigeria. The third task is using historical analytical method to present facts and explain the various contributions by Nigeria and Ghana in ECOWAS economic liberation process, peacekeeping operations, and political interventions in ECOWAS member states which have brought relative peace and security to the region. The authors draw conclusion based on the result of the research analysis that, in spite of ECOWAS compositions which include the Francophone countries in the region and its leadership structure, Nigeria and Ghana have led by example, by devoting much attention and commitment to the ECOWAS integration process through mediations, peacekeeping, political intervention and economic cooperation.

  6. Communal spaces: aggregation and integration in the Mogollon Region of the United States Southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisengard, Jennifer E.

    2006-12-01

    Aggregation and integration are processes that occur in human societies throughout the globe. An informative example of population aggregation and social integration can be observed in the North American desert borderlands from A.D. 250 to 1450 in the area known as the Mogollon region. In fact, Mogollon communities oscillated from smaller social groups into larger ones and dispersed into smaller groups only to form larger ones again. For this reason, examining the groups of people living in the Mogollon region provides a magnified view of social change over a substantial period. Understanding patterns of aggregation and integration provides researchers with the promise for research into the nature of these phenomena. In general, the Mogollon region is characterized by limited water supplies and low average annual precipitation. However, pockets of the Mogollon area, including the Mimbres valley and the Gila River valley, represent oases, where permanent rivers and their associated tributaries allowed for the pursuit of agricultural endeavors and access to a wide variety of wild plant and animal resources. The areas with these kinds of potential became population centers for previously dispersed groups of people living in the region. These people exploited natural resources and practiced agriculture in areas surrounding their communities. Over time, more organized aggregated and socially integrated communities were established throughout the region. Using ancient Mogollon communal architecture, commonly called kivas, this study examines issues of, and evidence for, population aggregation and social integration.

  7. Getting China Right: The Chinese World Order and Asia-Pacific Regional Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jing

    2008-01-01

    Is a rising China good for the stability and integration of the Asia-Pacific region? The dominant point of view in the Western worm is a resounding no. However, that realist point of view, based on the very different experiences of Europe, is not appropriate in the Asia-Pacific context. Area studies are a useful tool to achieve a better understanding of the Asia-Pacific situation. This paper attempts to prove that a rising China will be good for the stability and integration of the Asia-Pacific region through the lens of historical, economic and security analyses. First, history shows that once China is strong and stable, order of the Asia-Pacific region is preserved. Second, with China's economic cooperation with neighboring countries, especially after its entry into the Worm Trade Organization (WTO), China's economic integration with the Asia-Pacific region has been enhanced. Third, regional security has been assured by a peaceful and strong China. Finally, the paper comes to the conclusion that a stable and strong China is beneficial for the overall stability and integration of the Asia-Pacific region.

  8. Regional planning and sustainability: Towards integration in the Uk and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glasson John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A key premise of the paper is that the regional level of planning is a particularly appropriate level for the integration of biophysical and socio-economic development issues. The UK, and the European Union (EU more generally, have witnessed some important developments in regional planning practice over the last decade which have sought to encourage such integration. The paper reviews examples of innovative applications of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and Sustainability Appraisal (SA, in relation to EU Structural Funds, the new generation of UK Regional Plans, and UK Multi-Model Transport Corridor studies. It concludes with an appraisal of progress to date towards the goal of a more integrated approach.

  9. Are South East Europe stock markets integrated with regional and global stock markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, Francesco; Ugur, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses whether stock markets of South East Europe (SEE) have become more integrated with regional and global stock markets during 2000s. Using a variety of co integration methodologies we show that SEE stock markets have no long-run relationship with their mature counterparts. This means that SEE markets might be immunized to external shocks. We also model time varying correlations among these markets by using Multivariate Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroschedastic (...

  10. Integration versus Segmentation in Asian Financial Market: The Prospect of Regionalism in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Herlina Yoka Roida

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws the prospect of regionalism among inancial market in Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia,  Philippine,  Singapore,  China,  Hong  Kong,  Japan  and  South  Korea).  The  irst part  examines  the  correlation  among  them  that  lead  to  regional  integration.  The  second part shows the possibility of integration or segmentation between Asia countries and w...

  11. Integration of telehealth and telecare: the implementation model for chronic disease management in the veneto region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancin, Silvia; Centis, Giorgia

    2014-01-01

    The integration of health and social care is the latest dogma for improving the quality of care for chronic and frail patients. In the Veneto Region, a unique platform has been developed for the provision of both telecare and telehealth to chronic patients that are equipped at home with a personal health system for real time detection of emergencies situations and to measure their clinical parameters according to a plan scheduled by their clinician. The integrated service is centrally managed by a regional eHealth center that represents the point of intermediation between the patient and the health and social care professionals.

  12. Southern Africa’s Water–Energy Nexus: Towards Regional Integration and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Development Community’s (SADC water and energy sectors are under increasing pressure due to population growth and agricultural and industrial development. Climate change is also negatively impacting on the region’s water and energy resources. As the majority of SADC’s population lives in poverty, regional development and integration are underpinned by water and energy security as the watercourses in the region are transboundary in nature. This paper reviews the region’s water and energy resources and recommends policies based on the water–energy nexus approach. This is achieved by reviewing literature on water and energy resources as well as policy issues. Water resources governance provides a strong case to create a water–energy nexus platform to support regional planning and integration as SADC countries share similar climatic and hydrological conditions. However, there has been a gap between water and energy sector planning in terms of policy alignment and technical convergence. These challenges hinder national policies on delivering economic and social development goals, as well as constraining the regional goal of greater integration. Regional objectives on sustainable energy and access to clean water for all can only be achieved through the recognition of the water–energy nexus, championed in an integrated and sustainable manner. A coordinated regional water–energy nexus approach stimulates economic growth, alleviates poverty and reduces high unemployment rates. The shared nature of water and energy resources requires far more transboundary water–energy nexus studies to be done in the context of regional integration and policy formulation.

  13. Small tumor virus genomes are integrated near nuclear matrix attachment regions in transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, K A; Shera, C A; McDougall, J K

    2001-12-01

    More than 15% of human cancers have a viral etiology. In benign lesions induced by the small DNA tumor viruses, viral genomes are typically maintained extrachromosomally. Malignant progression is often associated with viral integration into host cell chromatin. To study the role of viral integration in tumorigenesis, we analyzed the positions of integrated viral genomes in tumors and tumor cell lines induced by the small oncogenic viruses, including the high-risk human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, simian virus 40, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. We show that viral integrations in tumor cells lie near cellular sequences identified as nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs), while integrations in nonneoplastic cells show no significant correlation with these regions. In mammalian cells, the nuclear matrix functions in gene expression and DNA replication. MARs play varied but poorly understood roles in eukaryotic gene expression. Our results suggest that integrated tumor virus genomes are subject to MAR-mediated transcriptional regulation, providing insight into mechanisms of viral carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the viral oncoproteins serve as invaluable tools for the study of mechanisms controlling cellular growth. Similarly, our demonstration that integrated viral genomes may be subject to MAR-mediated transcriptional effects should facilitate elucidation of fundamental mechanisms regulating eukaryotic gene expression.

  14. Regional, environmentally sound integrated protection of sorghum from the diseases in Samara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii Matvienko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the forest of the Samara region to major diseases of sorghum are striped bacterial blotch, Fusarium root rot and blight. Biological efficiency of chemical system products and Grands Prestige was 22-62 against root rots, bacteriosis 17-40% of bioproduct fitosporin-M and the growth regulator Albite respectively 6-32 and 4-21%. Against Alternaria effectiveness Prestige was 9-22%, fitosporin - 13-34%. By the phase of full ripeness when the intensity of bacteriosis 45-75% of plant height is reduced by 13, their weight - 11, the mass of grains per plant - 28, the number of grains per panicle - 20, the mass of 1000 seeds - 11%. Under the influence of pre-sowing seed treatment chemicals and Prestige Grands increased yield of grain sorghum grain at 4-12, sugar - by 5-9%. In experiments with irrigation at sowing in the average weather conditions for the years 2012-2013. biological grain yield increased in grain sorghum 13-20, sugar - by 28-32%. Important factors of stability of sorghum grain to the fungal infection of the genera Fusarium and Alternaria in the field include the presence on the seeds of the protective film. It may be noted that a significantly higher prevalence of grain grain sorghum, compared with diabetes, due to the fact that the seeds of grain sorghum naked and sweet sorghum filmy. This feature is important to consider in the selection of resistant varieties to this disease.

  15. Further evidence on the determinants of regional stock market integration in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Guesmi; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Frédéric Teulon

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs a conditional version of the International Capital Asset Pricing Model (ICAPM) to investigate the determinants of regional integration of stock markets in the Latin America over the period 1996-2008. This model allows for three sources of time-varying risks: common regional market risk, exchange rate risk and local market risk. In particular, exchange rate risk exposure is not only measured by bilateral exchange rates against the US dollar as in previous studies, but also b...

  16. Economic Partnership Agreements of the EU: Impact on Regional Integration in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marinov, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    The development and dynamics of regional integration in Africa are severely influenced by the transformation of the trade relations between African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and the EU, imposed by the Cotonou agreement. Economic relations now based on unilateral trade preferences provided by the EU are envisaged to be based on Economic partnership agreements (EPAs) that should regulate trade and cooperation establishing new trade regimes between the EU and ACP regions selected by...

  17. Two-Way Integration of WRF and CCSM for Regional Climate Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wuyin [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Zhang, Minghua [Stony Brook University; He, Juanxiong [Stony Brook University; Jiao, Xiangmin [Stony Brook University; Chen, Ying [Stony Brook University; Colle, Brian [Stony Brook University; Vogelmann, Andrew M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Liu, Ping [Stony Brook University; Khairoutdinov, Marat [Stony Brook University; Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2013-07-12

    Under the support of the DOE award DE-SC0004670, we have successfully developed an integrated climate modeling system by nesting Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model within the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the ensuing new generation Community Earth System Model (CESM). The integrated WRF/CESM system is intended as one method of global climate modeling with regional simulation capabilities. It allows interactive dynamical regional downscaling in the computational flow of present or future global climate simulations. This capability substantially simplifies the process of dynamical downscaling by avoiding massive intermediate model outputs at high frequency that are typically required for offline regional downscaling. The inline coupling also has the advantage of higher temporal resolution for the interaction between regional and global model components. With the aid of the inline coupling, a capability has also been developed to ingest other global climate simulations (by CESM or other models), which otherwise may not have necessary intermediate outputs for regional downscaling, to realize their embedded regional details. It is accomplished by relaxing the global atmospheric state of the integrated model to that of the source simulations with an appropriate time scale. This capability has the potential to open a new venue for ensemble regional climate simulations using a single modeling system. Furthermore, this new modeling system provides an effective modeling framework for the studies of physical and dynamical feedbacks of regional weather phenomena to the large scale circulation. The projected uses of this capability include the research of up-scaling effect of regional weather system, and its use as an alternative physical representation of sub-scale processes in coarser-resolution climate models.

  18. Integration versus Segmentation in Asian Financial Market: The Prospect of Regionalism in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Yoka Roida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws the prospect of regionalism among inancial market in Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia,  Philippine,  Singapore,  China,  Hong  Kong,  Japan  and  South  Korea.  The  irst part  examines  the  correlation  among  them  that  lead  to  regional  integration.  The  second part shows the possibility of integration or segmentation between Asia countries and world. The  next  part,  tries  to  draw  whether  last  inancial  crises  1997  gave  different  result  to  the integration process. The correlation between Asia regional return and world return is tested by F-test (degree of signiicant 5%. The inal part of this paper gives a picture as to how the prospect  of  integration  or  segmentation  return  of Asia  and  world  can  initiate  a  process  of economic integration   towards a trade block development. ";} // -->activate javascript

  19. Database specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, B.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Loftis, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Database Specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) describes the database organization and storage allocation, provides the detailed data model of the logical and physical designs, and provides information for the construction of parts of the database such as tables, data elements, and associated dictionaries and diagrams.

  20. Functional description for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Rollow, J.P.; Shipe, P.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, W.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ferguson, R.A. [SAIC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-15

    This Functional Description for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) documents the purpose of and requirements for the ICDB in order to ensure a mutual understanding between the development group and the user group of the system. This Functional Description defines ICDB and provides a clear statement of the initial operational capability to be developed.

  1. The stage of the waste integrated management in the counties of 6 North – West Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROOROCU M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The stage of the objectives suggested by the regional environment policy with the aim of implementation ofseveral integrated systems of waste management is analyzed in this paper. The domestic waste managementrepresents a problem for any community in the context of alignement to the European requirements.

  2. Developing and implementing a service charter for an integrated regional stroke service: An exploratory case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-P. Thomassen (Jean-Pierre); C.T.B. Ahaus (Kees); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Based on practices in commercial organizations and public services, healthcare organizations are using service charters to inform patients about the quality of service they can expect and to increase patient-centeredness. In the Netherlands, an integrated regional stroke

  3. Developing and implementing a service charter for an integrated regional stroke service: An exploratory case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-P. Thomassen (Jean-Pierre); C.T.B. Ahaus (Kees); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Based on practices in commercial organizations and public services, healthcare organizations are using service charters to inform patients about the quality of service they can expect and to increase patient-centeredness. In the Netherlands, an integrated regional stroke serv

  4. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  5. Further evidence on the determinants of regional stock market integration in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Guesmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a conditional version of the International Capital Asset Pricing Model (ICAPM to investigate the determinants of regional integration of stock markets in the Latin America over the period 1996-2008. This model allows for three sources of time-varying risks: common regional market risk, exchange rate risk and local market risk. In particular, exchange rate risk exposure is not only measured by bilateral exchange rates against the US dollar as in previous studies, but also by the real effective exchange rate index. At the empirical level, we make use of the asymmetric multivariate DCC-GARCH of Engle and Sheppard (2006 process to simultaneously estimate the ICAPM for four major Latin American emerging countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico. Our findings show that the degrees of trade openness and stock market development are among themost important drivers of regional integration in the Latin America context whatever the measure of the exchange rate risk.

  6. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We...... compare the effects of these two instruments of economic diplomacy on bilateral trade by employing a gravity model for 45 African states over the period 1980-2005. The results show that bilateral diplomatic exchange is a relatively more significant determinant of bilateral exports among African states...... compared to regional integration. We also find a nuanced interaction between these two instruments of economic diplomacy: the trade–stimulating effect of diplomatic exchange is less pronounced among African countries that shared membership of the same regional bloc. Generally, this could mean...

  7. Regional Activities related to IAU Strategic Plan and Integration of Armenia in the European Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Armenia is one of the candidates to host a Regional Office of Astronomy for Development, according to the IAU Strategic Plan for 2014-2020 and further years. Armenian astronomers are rather integrated in the international and European astronomical communities, as well as BAO is one of the most important astronomical centres in the Middle East area. The Armenian Astronomical Society is one of the 25 EAS affiliated members and is rather active in organizing various events. The Armenian Virtual Observatory is a member of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. We have started a series of Byurakan International Summer Schools for regional and European students with involvement of a number of European lecturers. Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize is one of the important international astronomy awards. Armenian astronomy integrated into the European one may serve much more efficiently both for Armenia, Middle East region, as well as Europe, particularly establishing a link between Europe and Eastern Partnership countries.

  8. Integration Strategies and Barriers to Co-Operation in Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze strategies for cross-border integration in the Øresund Region. The point of departure is that the development of strategies for cross-border integration is dependent on the development on both the general level in the EU and deregulation of economy...... and business on the global level. In this respect, the article points out the importance of market forces and their influence on institutional change. Recent economic crises have put growth center stage at both the national and regional level, and have called for regional development programs on both...... the Swedish and Danish sides of the Sound. The strengths and weaknesses of the Øresund Region’s ‘traditional’ and new institutions as instruments for change are examined. The article identifies and discusses the structures, institutions, and players which are the driving forces in the field between markets...

  9. RADSS: an integration of GIS, spatial statistics, and network service for regional data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haitang; Bao, Shuming; Lin, Hui; Zhu, Qing

    2005-10-01

    Regional data mining, which aims at the discovery of knowledge about spatial patterns, clusters or association between regions, has widely applications nowadays in social science, such as sociology, economics, epidemiology, crime, and so on. Many applications in the regional or other social sciences are more concerned with the spatial relationship, rather than the precise geographical location. Based on the spatial continuity rule derived from Tobler's first law of geography: observations at two sites tend to be more similar to each other if the sites are close together than if far apart, spatial statistics, as an important means for spatial data mining, allow the users to extract the interesting and useful information like spatial pattern, spatial structure, spatial association, spatial outlier and spatial interaction, from the vast amount of spatial data or non-spatial data. Therefore, by integrating with the spatial statistical methods, the geographical information systems will become more powerful in gaining further insights into the nature of spatial structure of regional system, and help the researchers to be more careful when selecting appropriate models. However, the lack of such tools holds back the application of spatial data analysis techniques and development of new methods and models (e.g., spatio-temporal models). Herein, we make an attempt to develop such an integrated software and apply it into the complex system analysis for the Poyang Lake Basin. This paper presents a framework for integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service in regional data mining, as well as their implementation. After discussing the spatial statistics methods involved in regional complex system analysis, we introduce RADSS (Regional Analysis and Decision Support System), our new regional data mining tool, by integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service. RADSS includes the functions of spatial data visualization, exploratory spatial data analysis, and

  10. Region Emilia Romagna: Primary Health Care Integration/Regione Emilia-Romagna: l’integrazione nel sistema di Cure Primarie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basenghi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The politics of Region Emilia-Romagna have been meant to improve social and health care integration through an architecture of local services coherent with this purpose, setting up a Department dedicated to Primary Care inside the Social and Health District. The territorial basis of the Local Health Units (LHU), the resident people, the sustained public spending, the employed human resources and the provided services all delineate the organization of the LHU. The purpose is to grant strong integration among local bodies and LHUs through a governance system (planning, management and administration) that makes a distinction between commissioning and supply. The Committenza (commissioning department), which reports to the Strategic Direction and the District, directs the offer in connection with the need analysis, whereas the Primary Care Department arranges activities and provides services by means of integrated networks which ensure continuity to the care. The main hub in the network is known as the Casa della Salute (House of Health), which works through structured practices, protocols and procedures. LHU professionals and freelancers under contract supply primary, in-home and nursing home care, plus specialist outpatient treatment. The Casa della Salute, whose size will depend on the context (large, medium and small), are reliable reference points for citizens, who can address to them in every moment of the day. On behalf of the Regione Emilia-Romagna, it is the Primary Care Observatory which registers the functions existing in the 42 Houses of Health and their organizational and structural characteristics. The analysis of the obtained data will increase enhance the Houses’ implementation.

  11. The Policy of Regional Convergence in Russia-Belarus integration: Prospects for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygin Vladimir G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a number of cases, integration of a large international region or an interstate union can only be promoted by political means. The policy of regional economic convergence prevails in many sectors. The single economic market and membership in economic and monetary unions give a new impetus to consolidation. The study aims to identify and explore the problems of political governance, which the Union State of Russia-Belarus faces due to their asymmetric and not completely compatible economies. The author analyzes the process of interstate convergence, considering it as an essential part of integration and explores a number of specific characteristics underlying the Russian-Belarusian economic integration. The author offers a set of criteria of convergence/not convergence of the states, describes the principles of their economic and political rapprochement and offers models of convergence as well as prerequisites for them. The article examines the principles that determine the participation of a country in international integration as well as prospects for the further development of the regional economic and political mechanisms, which are being formed

  12. [Integrated strategy for dengue prevention and control in the Region of the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, José Luis; Brathwaite-Dick, Olivia

    2007-01-01

    During the last 22 years, the Region of the Americas has seen an upward trend in dengue incidence, with epidemics peaking ever higher and recurring every 3-5 years, almost regularly. A major factor in the spread of the disease has been the diminished capacity of national programs to respond with dengue prevention and control. This paper evaluates the Integrated Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control-approved by the 44th Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization in September 2003- and its preliminary results. The Integrated Strategy for Dengue is a management model designed to strengthen national programs, with a focus on reducing morbidity, mortality, and the societal and economic burdens produced by outbreaks and epidemics. Currently, 11 of the countries in the Region have developed a plan for or implemented a national strategy. In addition, a sub-Regional plan has been developed for Central America and the Dominican Republic. The Integrated Strategy for Dengue is expected to produce a qualitative leap forward in prevention and control through stronger partnerships among the State, its various ministries, and governing bodies, at all levels; private companies; and the range of community and civil groups. Once implemented, this strategy will reduce risk factors for dengue transmission, establish an integrated epidemiological surveillance system, decrease Aedes aegypti mosquito populations, prepare laboratories to better detect and identify the virus, optimize diagnosis and treatment, and, as a result, decrease the frequency, magnitude, and severity of dengue outbreaks and epidemics.

  13. Integrated Prevention and Control System for Soil Erosion in Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-ying; CAI Qiang-guo; CHEN Sheng-yong; HE Ji-jun

    2012-01-01

    The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important food production bases and commodity grain bases in China. However, the continual loss and degradation of precious black soil resources has led to direct threats to national food security and regional sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize integrated prevention and control experience of small watersheds in black soil region of Northeast China. Tongshuang small watershed, a typical watershed in rolling hills of typical black soil areas in Northeast China, is selected as the study area. Based on nearly 50 years’ experience in prevention and control of soil and water loss, the structures and overall benefits of an integrated prevention and control system for soil and water loss are investigated. Then, the ’three defense lines’ tri-dimensional protection system with reasonable allocation of different types of soil and water control measures from the hill top to gully is systematically analyzed. The first line on the top hill can weaken and block uphill runoff and sediment, hold water resources and improve soil property. The second line on the hill can truncate slope length, slow down the runoff velocity and reduce erosion energy. The third line in the gully is mainly composed of waterfall engineering, which can inhibit soil erosion and restore land resources. The ’three defense lines’ system is feasible for soil and water loss control of small watersheds in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. Through the application of the in Tongshuang small watershed, There are effective improvements in ecological conditions in Tongshuang small watershed after the application of ’three defense lines’ soil and water control system. Moreover, the integrated treatment paradigm for soil and water loss in typical black soil region is compared with that in loess region. The results of this study could offer references and experiences for other small watersheds in

  14. Uruguay y los procesos de integración regional: trayectoria, cambios y debates = Uruguay and regional integration processes: paths, changes, and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revelez, Lincoln Bizzozero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Uruguay’s evolution in the Latin-American regional integration process. In order to do that it shows right from the start some conceptual explanations on different moments of the regional integration process and on the new regionalism conditions and principles of this country external policies. Based on the argument that new regionalisms and especially all strategic new regionalisms from the 21st century rethink the basis of each country’s external policies, among them Uruguay. In Uruguay’s case it means rethinking the principles of regional equidistance with its neighbors. Such a fact necessarily makes Uruguay think over its role in the new regional construction against the resources that it gets from the integration process

  15. Cryodamage to plasma membrane integrity in head and tail regions of human sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-JieZHU; Xue-GaoLIU

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of cryopreservation on the plasma membrane integrity in the head and tail regions of individual sperm, and the relationship between intact cryopreserved sperm and its motility and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration rate. Methods: The eosin Y exclusion and the hypoosmotic swelling tests were combined to form a single test (HOS-EY test) to identify the spermatozoa with four types of membrane integrity. Results: After cryopreservation, there was a marked decline in the percentage of spermatozoa with Type IV membrane integrity (head membrane intact/tail membrane intact), and a significant increase in those with Type Ⅰ (head membrane damaged/tail membrane damaged) and Type Ⅲ (head membrane damaged/tail membrane intact) membrane integrity (n = 50, P0.05). Conclusion: (1) The HOS-EY test has the advantage of showing four patterns of membrane integrity in individual spermatozoon; (2) Cryopreservation causes a significant membrane rupture in the head and tail regions of spermatozoa; Type IT[ is the main transitional state of membrane cryodamage; (3) Cryodamage to head and tail membrane may occur independently; the presence of an intact tail membrane does not necessarily indicate the intactness of head membrane. (4) Intact membranes am closely related to postthaw motility, but do not reflect the fertilizing potential.

  16. AN ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPING CAPABILITY OF INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL REGIONALIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the provincial units evaluation, this paper makes an assessment for sustainable developingcapability of the integrated agricultural regionalization in China. At first, an index system of agricultural sustainabledevelopment in China is built up, which includes 5 supporting subsystems of agricultural resources, agricultural develop-ment, environment and ecosystem, rural society, sciences-education and management. We selected 95 factors on provin-cial level as basic indexes. Second, a relative assets/debt assessing method is used to gain relative net assets values(relative superiority) of every provincial unit, which are as supporting data for assessment. We also overlaid the Administra-tive Divisions Map of China and the Map of Integrated Agricultural Regionalization of China by Geography Information Sys-tem (GIS) to gain the area units of assessment. Third, according to the relative coherence principle of regionalization,we transform administration units to natural units through homogenizing all provincial relative net assets values in everyagricultural assessing unit. After making order and grade, we complete the sustainable developing capability assessmentto integrated agricultural regionalization in China. The assessing outcome shows that the total sustainable agricultural develop-ing capability of China is not high. Only about 1/3 in number or in area has reached the level of agricultural sustainabledevelopment. The relative net assets values exists a reducing trend from East China to West China. It needs a long periodand great efforts to realize sustainable agricultural development over all China. Finally, there is a discussion to the studymethod.

  17. The Passenger Satisfaction Survey in the Regional Integrated Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Valaskova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Quality criteria Method of the Servicesin the Integrated Public Transport System in Slovak Republic.The proposed method is based on the detailed list of theQuality criteria of the Services in Public Transport from theview of passengers. The criteria are determined based on theSlovak Technical Norm STN EN 138 16 which is related toquality of transport. The method has been applied in RegionalIntegrated Public Transport System of Zilina (ZRIDS in theform of Passenger Quality Satisfaction Survey.

  18. INTEGRATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ON ORGANISATIONAL AND REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kokic Arsic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the article is an integration of quality management and sustainable development, with the basis of considerations of sustainable development and the structure of the key quality factors pointed to the possibility of achieving synergy of action on the most important variables, as well as the established model of integration of these two complex concepts. Areas of our study were 83 organizations in the region of Central Serbia. The study was based on questionnaires which contained 50 questions about the level of quality and sustainable development in the companies surveyed. Results of research highlights the most influenced variables in condition of constraints related to transition economy characteristics.

  19. PROSPECTS FOR THE CUSTOMS UNION IN TERMS OF MODERN THEORIES OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Ghazaryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leading the trend of world development is globalization, which covers all areas of public life, including economic, and national economies poses more challenges, fi rst and foremost – ensuring competitiveness on a global scale, fi nd their own niche in the international division of labor.The development of the global trading system is characterized by two interrelated trends – the expansion of economic openness and the formation of trade unions, to ensure the most favorable terms of trade between the participating countries. The latest trend has led to the relevance of research topic "Prospects of Customs Union from the point of view of modern theories of regional integration."The integration processes taking place in the former Soviet Union in fact since joining the former Soviet republics of the status of independent states. Already in 1991. CIS was created, which brought together 12 post-Soviet countries (all former Soviet republics except the Baltic. Since then, the integration processes in the post-Soviet space are permanent, and therefore, we set a goal – to analyze the prospects of the Customs Union from the point of view of modern theories of regional integration.Notwithstanding that goal has led to the need to address a number of problems, namely:• consideration of the role and place of regional trade (economic union, the importance of their experience, especially for developing countries and countries with economies in transformation;• justify the importance of the openness of the national economy to generate the preconditions for sustainable economic growth, determining the levels of trade (economic integration;• analysis of modern views on the nature of regional integration;• consideration of the characteristics of individual regional trade and economic unions, including the Customs Union, and determine their place in the modern system of world trade.The study is based on the use of a systematic approach using

  20. The Politics of Technical Assistance in Regional Integration Processes: Mesoamerican Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaguer-Kalixto, P. E.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a regional integration process that includes Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico and Panama. Formally launched in 2001 as the Puebla-Panama Plan (PPP with a strong commitment to sustainable development and safeguarding the environmental dimension of the regionalisation process, its current version, renamed the Mesoamerican Project (Proyecto Mesoamérica, PM, does not have the same orientation or goals. This paper addresses two questions: a which stakeholders and discourses shaped the regional integration’s environmental policy process during its different phases? and b how have the PPP and PM contributed to the environmental governance of the region? The findings suggest that the process has been characterised by strong intervention on the part of supra-national stakeholders that have prioritised liberalisation over the sustainable development agenda for 15 years, weakening regional environmental agencies’ ability to produce warrants to reduce the environmental impacts of regionalisation.

  1. An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wujisguleng Wujisguleng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products.

  2. Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix Regional Integration to Quantify Spectra for Dissolved Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Westerhoff, P.; Leenheer, J.A.; Booksh, K.

    2003-01-01

    Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water and soil. However, interpreting the >10,000 wavelength-dependent fluorescence intensity data points represented in EEMs has posed a significant challenge. Fluorescence regional integration, a quantitative technique that integrates the volume beneath an EEM, was developed to analyze EEMs. EEMs were delineated into five excitation-emission regions based on fluorescence of model compounds, DOM fractions, and marine waters or freshwaters. Volumetric integration under the EEM within each region, normalized to the projected excitation-emission area within that region and dissolved organic carbon concentration, resulted in a normalized region-specific EEM volume (??i,n). Solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra, and EEMs were obtained for standard Suwannee River fulvic acid and 15 hydrophobic or hydrophilic acid, neutral, and base DOM fractions plus nonfractionated DOM from wastewater effluents and rivers in the southwestern United States. DOM fractions fluoresced in one or more EEM regions. The highest cumulative EEM volume (??T,n = ????i,n) was observed for hydrophobic neutral DOM fractions, followed by lower ??T,n values for hydrophobic acid, base, and hydrophilic acid DOM fractions, respectively. An extracted wastewater biomass DOM sample contained aromatic protein- and humic-like material and was characteristic of bacterial-soluble microbial products. Aromatic carbon and the presence of specific aromatic compounds (as indicated by solid-state 13C NMR and FTIR data) resulted in EEMs that aided in differentiating wastewater effluent DOM from drinking water DOM.

  3. Integrated Variable Speed Limits Control and Ramp Metering for Bottleneck Regions on Freeway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hui Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of the existing freeway system and therefore to mitigate traffic congestion and related problems on the freeway mainline lane-drop bottleneck region, the advanced strategy for bottleneck control is essential. This paper proposes a method that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering for freeway bottleneck region control to relieve the chaos in bottleneck region. To this end, based on the analyses of spatial-temporal patterns of traffic flow, a macroscopic traffic flow model is extended to describe the traffic flow operating characteristic by considering the impacts of variable speed limits in mainstream bottleneck region. In addition, to achieve the goal of balancing the priority of the vehicles on mainline and on-ramp, increasing capacity, and reducing travel delay on bottleneck region, an improved control model, as well as an advanced control strategy that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering, is developed. The proposed method is tested in simulation for a real freeway infrastructure feed and calibrates real traffic variables. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can substantially improve the traffic flow efficiency of mainline and on-ramp and enhance the quality of traffic flow at the investigated freeway mainline bottleneck.

  4. PROGRESS ON THE INTERACTION REGION DESIGN AND DETECTOR INTEGRATION AT JLAB'S MEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Vasiliy; Brindza, Paul; Camsonne, Alexandre; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Ent, Rolf; Gaskell, David; Lin, Fanglei; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Ungaro, Maurizio; Zhang, Yuhong; Hyde, Charles; Park, Kijun; Sullivan, Michael; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2014-07-01

    One of the unique features of JLab's Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) is a full-acceptance detector with a dedicated, small-angle, high-resolution detection system, capable of covering a wide range of momenta (and charge-to-mass ratios) with respect to the original ion beam to enable access to new physics. We present an interaction region design developed with close integration of the detection and beam dynamical aspects. The dynamical aspect of the design rests on a symmetry-based concept for compensation of non-linear effects. The optics and geometry have been optimized to accommodate the detection requirements and to ensure the interaction region's modularity for ease of integration into the collider ring lattices. As a result, the design offers an excellent detector performance combined with the necessary provisions for non-linear dynamical optimization.

  5. Great Lakes O shore Wind Project: Utility and Regional Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, Amirhossein [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Loparo, Kenneth A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [General Electric (GE), Albany, NY (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Waligorski, Joseph G. [FirstEnergy, Akron, OH (United States); Baker, Scott [PJM Interconnection, Audubon, PA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project aims to identify transmission system upgrades needed to facilitate offshore wind projects as well as operational impacts of offshore generation on operation of the regional transmission system in the Great Lakes region. A simulation model of the US Eastern Interconnection was used as the test system as a case study for investigating the impact of the integration of a 1000MW offshore wind farm operating in Lake Erie into FirstEnergy/PJM service territory. The findings of this research provide recommendations on offshore wind integration scenarios, the locations of points of interconnection, wind profile modeling and simulation, and computational methods to quantify performance, along with operating changes and equipment upgrades needed to mitigate system performance issues introduced by an offshore wind project.

  6. Integrating Expert Knowledge with Statistical Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integration landslide susceptibility model by combining expert-based and bivariate statistical analysis (Landslide Susceptibility Index—LSI approaches is presented. Factors related with the occurrence of landslides—such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, lithology, land cover, Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA—were analyzed within a GIS environment. This integrated model produced a landslide susceptibility map which categorized the study area according to the probability level of landslide occurrence. The accuracy of the final map was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis depending on an independent (validation dataset of landslide events. The prediction ability was found to be 76% revealing that the integration of statistical analysis with human expertise can provide an acceptable landslide susceptibility assessment at regional scale.

  7. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We compare the effects of these two instruments of economic diplomacy on bilateral trade by employing a gravity model for 45 African states over the period 1980-2005. The results show that bilateral d...

  8. China-East Asia Cooperation——In the Context of Economic Globalization and Regional Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ⅰ.Economic globalization and regional integration Economic globalization, a general trend in the world’s development today, is interdependence for various countries in its real sense. Economic globalization, which began in the initial stage of development of capitalism, has a history of over a hundred years, and has undergone several stages from raw material procurement to trade in commodities and then to technology transfer and capital export, making economic links

  9. Electrifying Integration: Electricity Production And The South-East Europe Regional Energy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, E; Medvedev, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the generation of electricity in 10 countries in South East Europe during 1995-2004. Using the latest available statistics the potential of the nascent integration of the electricity markets in South East Europe is explored. We conduct a cross-country analysis of electricity production based on different types of fuel used. The region has a low level of gasification combined with few nuclear power generation facilities, while some countries heavily rely on hy...

  10. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  11. Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cancela, Javier J.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate. PMID:25251495

  12. Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtezion, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Senay Habtezion (shabtezion@start.org) / Hassan Virji (hvirji@start.org)Global Change SySTem for Analysis, Training and Research (START) (www.start.org) 2000 Florida Avenue NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20009 USA As part of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) project partnership effort to promote use of earth observations in advancing scientific knowledge, START works to bridge capacity needs related to earth observations (EOs) and their applications in the developing world. GOFC-GOLD regional networks, fostered through the support of regional and thematic workshops, have been successful in (1) enabling participation of scientists for developing countries and from the US to collaborate on key GOFC-GOLD and Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC) issues, including NASA Global Data Set validation and (2) training young developing country scientists to gain key skills in EOs data management and analysis. Members of the regional networks are also engaged and reengaged in other EOs programs (e.g. visiting scientists program; data initiative fellowship programs at the USGS EROS Center and Boston University), which has helped strengthen these networks. The presentation draws from these experiences in advocating for integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building through the lens of the GOFC-GOLD partnership effort. Specifically, this presentation describes the role of the GODC-GOLD partnership in nurturing organic networks of scientists and EOs practitioners in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

  13. The rubber hand illusion in complex regional pain syndrome: preserved ability to integrate a rubber hand indicates intact multisensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Landwehrt, Julia; Krumova, Elena K; Peterburs, Jutta; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    In patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1, processing of static tactile stimuli is impaired, whereas more complex sensory integration functions appear preserved. This study investigated higher order multisensory integration of body-relevant stimuli using the rubber hand illusion in CRPS patients. Subjective self-reports and skin conductance responses to watching the rubber hand being harmed were compared among CRPS patients (N=24), patients with upper limb pain of other origin (N=21, clinical control group), and healthy subjects (N=24). Additionally, the influence of body representation (body plasticity [Trinity Assessment of Body Plasticity], neglect-like severity symptoms), and clinical signs of illusion strength were investigated. For statistical analysis, 1-way analysis of variance, t test, Pearson correlation, with α=0.05 were used. CRPS patients did not differ from healthy subjects and the control group with regard to their illusion strength as assessed by subjective reports or skin conductance response values. Stronger left-sided rubber hand illusions were reported by healthy subjects and left-side-affected CRPS patients. Moreover, for this subgroup, illness duration and illusion strength were negatively correlated. Overall, severity of neglect-like symptoms and clinical signs were not related to illusion strength. However, patients with CRPS of the right hand reported significantly stronger neglect-like symptoms and significantly lower illusion strength of the affected hand than patients with CRPS of the left hand. The weaker illusion of CRPS patients with strong neglect-like symptoms on the affected hand supports the role of top-down processes modulating body ownership. Moreover, the intact ability to perceive illusory ownership confirms the notion that, despite impaired processing of proprioceptive or tactile input, higher order multisensory integration is unaffected in CRPS.

  14. Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

    This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

  15. FEATURES OF TERRITORIAL INTEGRATION OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN THE CAUCASIAN MINERAL WATERS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Влидимирович Беляев

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to describe the situation taken place with integration of marketing communications in the region. The author conducted research aimed at identifying the most popular and effective forms of communication with the consumer, allowing in detail to characterize the state of the advertising market of Caucasian Mineral Waters. Information concluded in article may be used by companies present in the Caucasian Mineral Waters region, to form notion about the effectiveness of the regional channels of communication with customers and building a more efficient model of advertising policy, also its could be useful for specialists, which are working in marketing communication and advertising sphere.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-34

  16. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  17. TPP: Is the best path to regional integration of Asia Pacific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Carlos Martínez Jurado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia-Pacific has distinguished itself for its high levels of interdependence and its fast economic growth, however, it lacks of a strong regional institutional framework. Despite the existence of APEC as a forum which includes the region’s diversity of economic development levels and cultural differences, its voluntary approach which relays on open regionalism has not allowed member economies to advance towards its ambitious goals of trade and investment liberalization. Therefore, several of its members have decided to embrace binding schemes, at a bilateral and multilateral basis, among them the TPP, which due to its comprehensive approach, for many represents the better route to achieve regional integration. However, there are questions raised regarding the convenience for Asia-Pacific to transit from a flexible model towards a reciprocal one, and the possible costs involved in such process.

  18. A Sub-block Based Image Retrieval Using Modified Integrated Region Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E R Vimina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a content based image retrieval (CBIR system using the local colour and texture features of selected image sub-blocks and global colour and shape features of the image. The image sub-blocks are roughly identified by segmenting the image into partitions of different configuration, finding the edge density in each partition using edge thresholding followed by morphological dilation. The colour and texture features of the identified regions are computed from the histograms of the quantized HSV colour space and Gray Level Co- occurrence Matrix (GLCM respectively. The colour and texture feature vectors is computed for each region. The shape features are computed from the Edge Histogram Descriptor (EHD. A modified Integrated Region Matching (IRM algorithm is used for finding the minimum distance between the sub-blocks of the query and target image. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides better retrieving result than retrieval using some of the existing methods.

  19. The energy geopolitics interests: the Initiative for South American Regional Integration - ISARI; Os interesses da geopolitica energetica: a Iniciativa para Integracao Regional Sul Americana - IIRSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeronymo, Alexandre; Roig, Carla de Almeida; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: alexandre.jeronymo@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: carla.roig@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: sguerra@ufabc.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This work adds itself to the debates on the project Integration of South America Regional Infrastructure - ISARI. Its focus is related with Energy Geopolitics and the South America integration under the world system of commodities production. The ISARI, as a project oriented to the viability of low value aggregated which should be transported from the south american continent for consumption at the world market.

  20. Improving integrated waste management at the regional level: the case of Lombardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Lucia; Falbo, Alida; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The article summarises the main results of the 'Gestione Rifiuti in Lombardia: Analisi del ciclo di vita' (Waste management in Lombardia region: Life cycle assessment; GERLA) project. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been selected by Regione Lombardia as a strategic decision support tool in the drafting of its new waste management programme. The goal was to use the life cycle thinking approach to assess the current regional situation and thus to give useful strategic indications for the future waste management. The first phase of the study consisted of the LCA of the current management of municipal waste in the Lombardia region (reference year: 2009). The interpretation of such results has allowed the definition of four possible waste management scenarios for the year 2020, with the final goal being to improve the environmental performance of the regional system. The results showed that the current integrated waste management of Lombardia region is already characterised by good energy and environmental performances. However, there is still room for further improvement: actions based, on the one hand, on a further increase in recycling rates and, on the other hand, on a series of technological modifications, especially in food waste and residual waste management, can be undertaken to improve the overall system.

  1. AN ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPING CAPABILITY OF INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL REGIONALIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUXue-gong; LINHui-ping; 等

    2002-01-01

    Based on the provincial units evaluation,this paper makes an assessment for sustainable developing capability of the integrated agricultural regionalization in China.At first ,an index system of agricultural sustainable development in China is built up,which includes 5 supporting subsystems of agricultural resources,agricultural develop-ment ,environment and ecosystem,rural society,sciences-esucation and management.We selected 95 factors on provin-cial level as basic indexes.Second,a relative assets/debt assessing method is used to gain relative net assets values (relative superiority) of every provincial unit,which are as supporting data for assessment.We also overlaid the Administra-tive Divisions Map of China and the Map of Integrated Agricultural Regionalization of China by Geography Information Sys-tem(GIS) to gain the area units of assessment.Third,according to the relative coherence principle of regionalization,we transform administration units to natural units through homogenizing all provincial relative net assets values in every agricultural assessing unit.After making order and grade,we complete the sustainable developing capability assessment to integrated agricultural regionalization in China.The assessing outcome shows that the total sustainable agricultural devdelop-ing capability of China is not high.Only about 1/3 in number or in area has reached the level of agricultural sustainable development.The relative net assets values exists a reducing trend from East China to West China.It needs a long period and great efforts to realize sustainable agricultural development over all China.Finally,there is a discussion to the study method.

  2. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  3. Measurements of the Influence of Integral Length Scale on Stagnation Region Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanfossen, G. James; Ching, Chang Y.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose was twofold: first, to determine if a length scale existed that would cause the greatest augmentation in stagnation region heat transfer for a given turbulence intensity and second, to develop a prediction tool for stagnation heat transfer in the presence of free stream turbulence. Toward this end, a model with a circular leading edge was fabricated with heat transfer gages in the stagnation region. The model was qualified in a low turbulence wind tunnel by comparing measurements with Frossling's solution for stagnation region heat transfer in a laminar free stream. Five turbulence generating grids were fabricated; four were square mesh, biplane grids made from square bars. Each had identical mesh to bar width ratio but different bar widths. The fifth grid was an array of fine parallel wires that were perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical leading edge. Turbulence intensity and integral length scale were measured as a function of distance from the grids. Stagnation region heat transfer was measured at various distances downstream of each grid. Data were taken at cylinder Reynolds numbers ranging from 42,000 to 193,000. Turbulence intensities were in the range 1.1 to 15.9 percent while the ratio of integral length scale to cylinder diameter ranged from 0.05 to 0.30. Stagnation region heat transfer augmentation increased with decreasing length scale. An optimum scale was not found. A correlation was developed that fit heat transfer data for the square bar grids to within +4 percent. The data from the array of wires were not predicted by the correlation; augmentation was higher for this case indicating that the degree of isotropy in the turbulent flow field has a large effect on stagnation heat transfer. The data of other researchers are also compared with the correlation.

  4. Integral field spectroscopy of a sample of nearby galaxies: II. Properties of the H ii regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, S F; Marino, R A; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Vilchez, J M; Kennicutt, R C; Diaz, A I; Mast, D; Monreal-Ibero, A; Garcia-Benito, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Perez, E; Delgado, R Gonzalez; Husemann, B; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Fernandes, R Cid; Kehrig, C; Walcher, C J; de Paz, A Gil; Ellis, S

    2012-01-01

    In this work we analyze the spectroscopic properties of a large number of H ii regions, \\sim2600, located in 38 galaxies. The sample of galaxies has been assembled from the face-on spirals in the PINGS survey and a sample described in M\\'armol-Queralt\\'o (2011, henceforth Paper I). All the galaxies were observed using Integral Field Spectroscopy with a similar setup, covering their optical extension up to \\sim2.4 effective radii within a wavelength range from \\sim3700 to \\sim6900{\\AA}. We develop a new automatic procedure to detect H ii regions, based on the contrast of the H{\\alpha} intensity maps. Once detected, the procedure provides us with the integrated spectra of each individual segmented region. A well-tested automatic decoupling procedure has been applied to remove the underlying stellar population, deriving the main proper- ties of the strongest emission lines in the considered wavelength range (covering from [O ii] {\\lambda}3727 to [S ii] {\\lambda}6731). A final catalogue of the spectroscopic prope...

  5. ICT & innovation: a case of integration in a regional construction firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brewer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction firms in regional areas face considerable challenges to their competitiveness. Logistics, availability of suitable personnel, unfamiliarity with trading partners, and the tyranny of distance conspire to obstruct profitable engagement beyond their local area. Electronic information and communication technology (ICT such as web-based project management applications and other forms of collaborative data sharing have the potential to mitigate many of these obstacles, but have yet to gain widespread acceptance, particularly by smaller regional firms who question their cost effectiveness. The attitudes of decision-makers and the impact of their decisions on intra- and inter-firm culture lie at the heart of ICT-mediated innovation. This paper presents a case study of a specialist subcontractor located in regional New South Wales and its involvement in a New Zealand project, whose competitiveness arose from using ICT to integrate its own supply chain. It also provided additional value by triggering collaboration and integration in the broader project team. The case reveals that these outcomes were symptomatic of the organisational culture of the subcontractor, and were achieved through a combination of leadership, collaboration, flexibility and pragmatism, redolent of dynamic capabilities.

  6. ICT & innovation: a case of integration in a regional construction firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brewer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction firms in regional areas face considerable challenges to their competitiveness. Logistics, availability of suitable personnel, unfamiliarity with trading partners, and the tyranny of distance conspire to obstruct profitable engagement beyond their local area. Electronic information and communication technology (ICT such as web-based project management applications and other forms of collaborative data sharing have the potential to mitigate many of these obstacles, but have yet to gain widespread acceptance, particularly by smaller regional firms who question their cost effectiveness. The attitudes of decision-makers and the impact of their decisions on intra- and inter-firm culture lie at the heart of ICT-mediated innovation. This paper presents a case study of a specialist subcontractor located in regional New South Wales and its involvement in a New Zealand project, whose competitiveness arose from using ICT to integrate its own supply chain. It also provided additional value by triggering collaboration and integration in the broader project team. The case reveals that these outcomes were symptomatic of the organisational culture of the subcontractor, and were achieved through a combination of leadership, collaboration, flexibility and pragmatism, redolent of dynamic capabilities. 

  7. Translation from the 5′ untranslated region shapes the integrated stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Starck, Shelley R.; Tsai, Jordan C.; CHEN, Keling; Shodiya, Michael; WANG Lei; Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Martins-Green, Manuela; Shastri, Nilabh; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Translated regions distinct from annotated coding sequences have emerged as essential elements of the proteome. This includes upstream open reading frames (uORFs) present in mRNAs controlled by the integrated stress response (ISR) that show “privileged” translation despite inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 2–guanosine triphosphate–initiator methionyl transfer RNA (eIF2·GTP·Met-tRNAiMet). We developed tracing translation by T cells to directly measure the translation products of uORFs dur...

  8. Two Examples of Integrated Aquifer Characterization at Local and Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, R.; Gloaguen, E.; Rivard, C.; Parent, M.; Morin, R. H.; Pugin, A.; Pullan, S.; Crow, H.; Paradis, D.; Tremblay, L.; Blouin, M.; Laurencelle, M.

    2012-12-01

    approach is currently being used for regional groundwater resources assessment of a 9 000 km2 fractured sedimentary rock aquifer system for which the quaternary sediment cover controls in large part recharge, confinement and discharge conditions. Results of this study will be applied to regional resource management, the numerical modeling of the effects of historical geological events on aquifer conditions and hydrogeochemistry. Field methods adapted to the scales and conditions of these study areas were used. The detailed understanding of aquifer systems gained from integrated characterization is also needed for the development of scientifically sound and representative conceptual and numerical models of aquifer systems. The characterization approach is general in nature and could be applied at different scales.

  9. Sub-national entities’ participation in Brazil’s foreign policy and in regional integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ventura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how sub-national entities’ gradual participation in Brazilian foreign policy has come about, with reference to a decentralised scenario of the decision-making process in Itamaraty, where the ministries and presidential organs have a voice on many strategic themes, mainly concerning development. The article examines the insertion of sub-national entities into the decision-making process in the Southern Common Market (Mercosur, and concludes that in spite of the incipient participation, relevant contributions to the process of regional integration have arisen. Regarding the hypothesis that the participation of the federative entities in the decision-making process generates local and regional development, we argue that this is an alternative to increasing state efficiency. In conclusion, and despite the incipient institutionalisation that does not guarantee their vote in the decision-making process, at least their voice is heard.

  10. Novel lattice Boltzmann method based on integrated edge and region information for medical image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Junling; Yan, Zhuangzhi; Jiang, Jiehui

    2014-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is a mesoscopic method based on kinetic theory and statistical mechanics. The main advantage of the LB method is parallel computation, which increases the speed of calculation. In the past decade, LB methods have gradually been introduced for image processing, e.g., image segmentation. However, a major shortcoming of existing LB methods is that they can only be applied to the processing of medical images with intensity homogeneity. In practice, however, many medical images possess intensity inhomogeneity. In this study, we developed a novel LB method to integrate edge and region information for medical image segmentation. In contrast to other segmentation methods, we added edge information as a relaxing factor and used region information as a source term. The proposed method facilitates the segmentation of medical images with intensity inhomogeneity and it still allows parallel computation. Preliminary tests of the proposed method are presented in this paper.

  11. Smart specialisation strategies and cross-border integration of regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Emmanuel; Zenker, Andrea; Hufnagl, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide insights into the implications of the European Commission’s smart specialisation agenda in a specific, cross-border context. The paper critically reflects on some of the RIS3 (research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation) agenda’s premises by ill...... strategy. The last section brings together these conceptual and applied perspectives on smart specialisation and outlines suggestions for progressive cross-border integration via regional innovation policies....... by illustrating its practical implementation in the Upper Rhine area (i.e. Alsace in France and Baden-Württemberg in Germany). The first section revisits not only the smart specialisation concept in itself but also discusses it vis-à-vis the thematic of cross-border regional innovation systems and outlines some...

  12. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  13. Adaptive integration of local region information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro- vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es- tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat- terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com- bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho- mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat- terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  14. [Prediction of regional soil quality based on mutual information theory integrated with decision tree algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fen-Fang; Wang, Ke; Yang, Ning; Yan, Shi-Guang; Zheng, Xin-Yu

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, some main factors such as soil type, land use pattern, lithology type, topography, road, and industry type that affect soil quality were used to precisely obtain the spatial distribution characteristics of regional soil quality, mutual information theory was adopted to select the main environmental factors, and decision tree algorithm See 5.0 was applied to predict the grade of regional soil quality. The main factors affecting regional soil quality were soil type, land use, lithology type, distance to town, distance to water area, altitude, distance to road, and distance to industrial land. The prediction accuracy of the decision tree model with the variables selected by mutual information was obviously higher than that of the model with all variables, and, for the former model, whether of decision tree or of decision rule, its prediction accuracy was all higher than 80%. Based on the continuous and categorical data, the method of mutual information theory integrated with decision tree could not only reduce the number of input parameters for decision tree algorithm, but also predict and assess regional soil quality effectively.

  15. Regional Integration of Biophysical and Socio-economic Aspects : Approach Selected for Preparing the ZIP integration Document

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, Jean

    1991-01-01

    ...) prepared for each zone. The purpose of the integration method described in this document is to combine the sectoral diagnoses into an integrated document, to be used as a base document for consulting the various riverside parties involved...

  16. The New Coordinates of Globalization and Regional Integration: Resizing the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Moldoveanu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly strong process of interdependence between globalization and regionalization - in the context of the end of the bipolar power at world level - has engendered a new philosophy regarding the evolution of the world, a reconsideration of the strategy of political and diplomatic, economic and also cultural and human relationships. In my opinion, in a multipolar world, that will bring into the first line of international relations new big actors of regional and universal vocation (China, Rusia, Brasil, India, the European Union will play an extensive role in participating at the geostrategic, regional and global equilibrium, through promotion of an „open diplomacy” that will allow – by dialogue and cooperation – the resolving more rapidly and efficiently the great challenges of the beginning of the century and millenium: the reduction of the great development gaps, the regional and global security, in a very solid economic background. A new dimension of the EU enlargement policy at regional scale is represented by the cooperation relations and the attraction into the European circuit of material and spiritual values of the countries in the Central and Eastern Europe. In the context of deepening the interdependence and complementarities at regional and global level, more focus should be put on the viable ways and modalities to intensify the cooperation in the Danube-Black Sea and Euro-Mediterranean geo-economic and strategic areas. The two big geo-strategic regions of the world belong to the same civilization and are subject to similar changes as the other regions of the world, despite some specific features of history and culture. The intensification and diversification of the cooperation at the Central and South-Eastern European level, as well as the Euro-Mediterranean and Danube-Black Sea region, does not represent an alternative to the general objective process of integration into the Euro-Atlantic structures, but a

  17. MIGRATION INTEGRATION AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Daniela FERARU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International migration, together with economic and financial crisis or the different socio-economic development of Member States, is a serious threat to security in Europe. Population migration as a threatening factor, places the European Union in the face of a decision to establish clear policies for the establishment of a climate of external security, both for the migrant population and for the rest of the population. All in all, this study will centre on the following hypothesis: the better we know the challenges of international migration in the European Union and its Member States the more the European policies to mitigate negative effects of the world will be diminished. The aim is to highlight aspects pertaining to migration integration as a factor of economic, social and regional development in the European Union, and less as a factor of destabilization and insecurity. In other words, a good knowledge of the phenomenon leads to drawing up effective policies to reduce hazards, risks, threats and negative effects that happen today due to the increasing number of immigrants. Finally, the study will present a series of conclusions, including on the work hypothesis verification and some proposals related to migration integration efficiency as a factor of regional and economic development in the European Union.

  18. Regional Integrated Experiments on Air Quality over Pearl River Delta 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004): Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Hu, M.; Zhong, L. J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Liu, S. C.; Andreae, M. O.; Wang, W.; Fan, S. J.

    The aims of the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments on Air Quality over Pearl River Delta of China 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004) were to characterize in depth the pollution, and to improve the understanding of the chemical and radiative processes in the atmosphere of Pearl River Delta (PRD) in South-Eastern China. This comprehensive program integrated ground-base in situ measurements, vertical observations (including aircraft) and model simulations. The intensive field campaign was conducted from 4 October to 5 November 2004 at two super-sites: an urban site in Guangzhou city (23.13°N, 113.26°E) and a non-urban site at Xinken (22.61°N, 113.59°E). They were coordinated with concurrent meteorological observations as well as measurements at stations of a regional monitoring network. Quality control and quality assurances, application of closure studies and observation-based modeling were the key elements of the research strategies for the PRIDE-PRD2004 campaign. Knowledge and understanding of the important issues, including 3-D distribution of air pollution, ozone formation process and its control strategies, sources of volatile organic compounds, chemical and physical characteristics and radiative properties of aerosols, and the important role of nitrous acid atmospheric chemistry, have been improved substantially by this study.

  19. The 2011 Tuscaloosa tornado: integration of pediatric disaster services into regional systems of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Robert K

    2012-09-01

    To empirically describe the integration of pediatric disaster services into regional systems of care after the April 27, 2011, tornado in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, a community with no pediatric emergency department or pediatric intensive care unit and few pediatric subspecialists. Data were obtained in interviews with key informants including professional staff and managers from public health and emergency management agencies, prehospital emergency medical services, fire departments, hospital nurses, physicians, and the trauma program coordinator. A single hospital in Tuscaloosa served 800 patients on the night of the tornado. More than 100 of these patients were children, including more than 20 with critical injuries. Many children were unaccompanied and unidentified on arrival. Resuscitation and stabilization were performed by nonpediatric prehospital and emergency department staff. More than 20 children were secondarily transported to the nearest children's hospital an hour's drive away under the care of nonpediatric local emergency medical services providers. No preventable adverse events were identified in the resuscitation and secondary transport phases of care. Stockpiled supplies and equipment were adequate to serve the needs of the disaster victims, including the children. Essential aspects of preparation include pediatric-specific clinical skills, supplies and equipment, operational disaster plans, and interagency practice embedded in everyday work. Opportunities for improvement identified include more timely response to warnings, improved practices for identifying unaccompanied children, and enhanced child safety in shelters. Successful responses depended on integration of pediatric services into regional systems of care. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  1. The Role of Media in Social Integration within the Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanna Pankova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the importance of media as a perpetrator, influencing the pace of social integration. The article explores the differentiation in the way various media present events and the power of its influence. Prior Work: Study of Social integration, Approach: Survey among various media and its impact, Results: The results of the research show that the role of media is crucial for the subsequent attitude of citizens of the Danube region. It depends on the minimized or exaggerated impact of various issues, presented by it. The news media, as a global informative actor in shaping citizen`s acquaintance on various topics, is crucial player in the process of integration. Implications: The significance of media`s influence is effecting not only the attitude of citizens but also the tourism development. Value: With the emergence of printing and broadcasting media, their impact on the fulfilment of social unity is constantly emerging. Due to that fact it is necessary to explore the various types of media and their influence.

  2. Integrated geologic and engineering reservoir characterization of the Hutton Sandstone, Jackson region, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Holtz, M.H.; Yeh, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    An integrated geologic and engineering reservoir characterization study of the Hutton Sandstone was completed for the Jackson region, Eromanga Basin, Australia. Our approach involves four principal steps: (1) determine reservoir architecture within a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, (2) investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow, (3) integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture to identify fundamental reservoir heterogeneities, and (4) identify opportunities for reserve growth. Contrary to the existing perception, the Hutton Sandstone, a continental-scale bed-load fluvial system, does not behave as a large, homogeneous tank in which pistonlike displacement of produced oil occurs unimpeded by vertical migration of the aquifer. The sequence stratigraphic analysis identified numerous thin but widespread shale units, deposited during lacustrine flooding events that periodically interrupted episodes of coarse clastic Hutton deposition. These shales represent chronostratigraphically significant surfaces. More importantly, the trends established in reservoir fluid flow from monitoring aquifer encroachment, production response to water shut-off workovers, and differential depletion in Repeat Formation Tests indicate that these shale units act as efficient barriers to vertical fluid flow. Erosion of the upper part of the Hutton reservoir by the younger Birkhead mixed-load fluvial system caused further stratigraphic complexity and introduced additional barriers to vertical and lateral migration of mobile oil and aquifer encroachment. This integrated characterization targeted strategic infill and step-out drilling and recompletion candidates.

  3. Integration of Optical and SAR Data for Burned Area Mapping in Mediterranean Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Stroppiana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate how optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data can be combined in an integrated multi-source framework to identify burned areas at the regional scale. The proposed approach is based on the use of fuzzy sets theory and a region-growing algorithm. Landsat TM and (C-band ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR images acquired for the year 2003 have been processed to extract burned area maps over Portugal. Pre-post fire SAR backscatter temporal difference has been integrated with optical spectral indices to the aim of reducing confusion between burned areas and low-albedo surfaces. The output fuzzy score maps have been compared with reference fire perimeters provided by the Fire Atlas of Portugal. Results show that commission and omission errors in the output burned area maps are a function of the threshold applied to the fuzzy score maps; between the two extremes of the greatest producer’s accuracy (omission error < 10% and user’s accuracy (commission error < 5%, an intermediate threshold value provides errors of about 20% over the study area. The integration of SAR backscatter allowed reducing local commission errors from 65.4% (using optical data, only to 11.4%, showing to significantly mitigate local errors due to the presence of cloud shadows and wetland areas. Overall, the proposed method is flexible and open to further developments; also in the perspective of the European Space Agency (ESA Sentinel missions operationally providing SAR and optical datasets.

  4. Participatory and Integrated Research in Mountainous Regions of Thailand and Vietnam: Approaches and Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Neef; Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; Pittaya Sruamsiri

    2006-01-01

    Participatory and integrated research approaches employed by a long-term ThaiVietnamese-German collaborative research program,circles of resource scarcity, environmental degradation and rural poverty in mountainous regions of northern Thailand and northern Vietnam are discussed in this paper. We present two examples from the Thai component of the research program to show how different disciplines and stakeholders need to cooperate at different scales to make meaningful scientific contributions towards sustainable land use and rural development in mountainous regions. The case of resource conservation in the Thai highlands shows that local and scientific knowledge, conventional surveys and participatory modeling can be creatively combined. Integrated research on the potential of integrating fruit trees and associated technologies into mountain farming systems suggests that natural scientists have to work alongside economists and social scientists to avoid harmful effects of purely technology-driven and productivityenhancing approaches. The success of new technologies cannot be measured solely by adoption rates and yield increases, but also needs to take into account their long-term impact on various groups of farmers and the ecological, economic and social trade-offs that they entail. Technical and institutional innovations need to go hand in hand to provide viable livelihood opportunities for smallholder farmers in mountain watersheds. The major lesson learned from the first six years of our research in the mountains of Thailand and Vietnam is that conventional and participatory approaches are not antagonistic; if scientists from various disciplines and research paradigms are open-minded, the combination of both approaches can produce meaningful results that cater for the needs of both the academic community and local stakeholders in mountain environments.

  5. Formation of the Integrated Approach to the Assessment of the Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vasilievna Kislitsyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The integrated approach to the assessment of the socio-economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation, which is characterized by systematic character and novelty, is presented in the article. This approach is based on the modern techniques used in this sphere. The main purpose of the comprehensive assessment of a region’s socio-economic development level is the elaboration of a possible solution for the strategic development issues taking into account spatial, geographical, natural, socioinstitutional and other features. The authors propose to estimate the socio-economic climate of the subjects of the Russian Federation by the average values of socio-economic indexes for the three-year period. For comparability of multitemporal indicators and regional distinctions, the indicators measured in monetary units are transformed in the form of their relation to the cost of the fixed set of consumer goods and services. In addition, we estimate the dynamics of comparable indicators in absolute and relative expression and introduce scales for the assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic situation and a level of quality (stability of dynamics. On the basis of this technique, the authors examine the socio-economic situation of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012–2014. As a result, we have revealed one of the problems of socio-economic development — the imbalance of the dynamics of the main socio-economic indexes. In the studied period, 7 regions have shown moderate or high growth of the integrated indicator (not less than 9 %, but in 4 of them, the growth was unbalanced of poor quality. Moreover, further 11 regions have shown a considerable and unbalanced decrease in the social-economic situation. This has been revealed on the basis of the integrated indicator. Thus, the offered approach can be applied for an assessment of the level of socio-economic development in Russian regions in medium-term prospect. It can be

  6. Dosimetric evaluation of integrated IMRT treatment of the chest wall and supraclavicular region for breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bo; Wei, Xian-ding; Zhao, Yu-tian [Department of Radiation Oncology, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University, Wuxi (China); Ma, Chang-Ming, E-mail: charlie.ma@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the dosimetric characteristics of irradiation of the chest wall and supraclavicular region as an integrated volume with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after modified radical mastectomy. This study included 246 patients who received modified radical mastectomy. The patients were scanned with computed tomography, and the chest wall (with or without the internal mammary lymph nodes) and supraclavicular region were delineated. For 143 patients, the chest wall and supraclavicular region were combined as an integrated planning volume and treated with IMRT. For 103 patients, conventional treatments were employed with 2 tangential fields for the chest wall, abutting a mixed field of 6-MV x-rays (16 Gy) and 9-MeV electrons (34 Gy) for the upper supraclavicular region. The common prescription dose was 50 Gy/25 Fx/5 W to 90% of the target volume. The dosimetric characteristics of the chest wall, the supraclavicular region, and normal organs were compared. For the chest wall target, compared with conventional treatments, the integrated IMRT plans lowered the maximum dose, increased the minimum dose, and resulted in better conformity and uniformity of the target volume. There was an increase in minimum, average, and 95% prescription dose for the integrated IMRT plans in the supraclavicular region, and conformity and uniformity were improved. The V{sub 30} of the ipsilateral lung and V{sub 10}, V{sub 30}, and mean dose of the heart on the integrated IMRT plans were lower than those of the conventional plans. The V{sub 5} and V{sub 10} of the ipsilateral lung and V{sub 5} of the heart were higher on the integrated IMRT plans (p < 0.05) than on conventional plans. Without an increase in the radiation dose to organs at risk, the integrated IMRT treatment plans improved the dose distribution of the supraclavicular region and showed better dose conformity and uniformity of the integrated target volume of the chest wall and supraclavicular region.

  7. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  8. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Stigter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  9. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigter, T. Y.; Monteiro, J. P.; Nunes, L. M.; Vieira, J.; Cunha, M. C.; Ribeiro, L.; Nascimento, J.; Lucas, H.

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells. For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s-1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand), requiring only disinfection (900 l s-1) or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make the water supply system extremely vulnerable, with a high

  10. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school"…

  11. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school"…

  12. Functionally distinct regions for spatial processing and sensory motor integration in the planum temporale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, A Lisette; Vaden, Kenneth I; Saberi, Kourosh; Muftuler, L Tugan; Hickok, Gregory

    2012-10-01

    There has been much debate recently over the functional role played by the planum temporale (PT) within the context of the dorsal auditory processing stream. Some studies indicate that regions in the PT support spatial hearing and other auditory functions, whereas others demonstrate sensory-motor response properties. This multifunctionality has led to the claim that the PT is performing a common computational pattern matching operation, then routing the signals (spatial, object, sensory-motor) into an appropriate processing stream. An alternative possibility is that the PT is functionally subdivided with separate regions supporting various functions. We assess this possibility using a within subject fMRI block design. DTI data were also collected to examine connectivity. There were four auditory conditions: stationary noise, moving noise, listening to pseudowords, and shadowing pseudowords (covert repetition). Contrasting the shadow and listen conditions should activate regions specific to sensory-motor processes, while contrasting the stationary and moving noise conditions should activate regions involved in spatial hearing. Subjects (N = 16) showed greater activation for shadowing in left posterior PT, area Spt, when the shadow and listen conditions were contrasted. The motion vs. stationary noise contrast revealed greater activation in a more medial and anterior portion of left PT. Seeds from these two contrasts were then used to guide the DTI analysis in an examination of connectivity via streamline tractography, which revealed different patterns of connectivity. Findings support a heterogeneous model of the PT, with functionally distinct regions for sensory-motor integration and processes involved in auditory spatial perception. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Development of a regional model for integrated management of water resources at the basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiser, T.; Printz, A.; von Raumer, H. G. Schwarz; Götzinger, J.; Dukhovny, V. A.; Barthel, R.; Sorokin, A.; Tuchin, A.; Kiourtsidis, C.; Ganoulis, I.; Stahr, K.

    Integrated modeling is a novel approach to couple knowledge and models from different disciplines and research fields and to use their potential in the strategic planning of water management at the river basin scale. The MOSDEW integrated regional model has been developed in the Neckar basin, a 14,000 km 2 river catchment in South-West Germany as a model cascade of nine submodels covering large scale hydrology, groundwater flow, water demand, agricultural production, point and non-point pollution and chemical as well as biological water quality. The models are being tested and validated in the Neckar basin as well as in additional river basins in West Africa (Ouémé basin) and Central Asia (Chirchik-Ahangaran-Keles basin, CHAB) with contrasting ecological, hydrological and socio-economic boundary conditions. The transfer to the CHAB basin required changes in the submodel selection and integration structure due to the strong anthropogenic modifications of the flow regime in the downstream area. There, water is conveyed from the Chirchik river to other catchments and distributed in a complex channel system to satisfy the demand of competing water users (irrigation, urban water supply, energy production). In the Ouémé basin, the ecohydraulic model was not integrated due to lack of input data for ecological requirements of fish species whereas the groundwater flow model was not applicable to the predominant presence of aquifers in fractured rock. The model results obtained so far are promising with respect to their accuracy to be used in scenario simulations for the strategic basin wide planning of water management.

  14. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA STEFANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  15. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal integrated management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Heck, V.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater systems in arid coastal regions are particularly at risk due to limited potential for groundwater replenishment and increasing water demand, caused by a continuously growing population. For ensuring a sustainable management of those regions, we developed a new simulation-based integrated water management system. The management system unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. Due to the large number of decision variables, a decomposition approach is applied to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for faster and more reliable solutions. It consists of an analytical inner optimisation loop to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water and an outer simulation-based optimisation loop to find the optimal groundwater abstraction pattern. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions and the aquifer response, including the seawater interface, is simulated by an artificial neural network. The methodology is applied exemplarily for the south Batinah re-gion/Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs aquifer sustainability, a multi-objective optimisation is performed which can provide sustainable solutions for water and agricultural management over long-term periods at farm and regional scales in respect of water resources, environment, and socio-economic development.

  17. Sobre la naturaleza de la integración regional: teorías y debates On the Nature of Regional Integration: Theories and Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA OYARZÚN SERRANO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Un rasgo permanente en los estudios sobre integración regional es la dificultad para adoptar una definición de la variable estudiada (integración y la aplicación -en algunos casos simultánea- de herramientas provenientes de diversas teorías de las ciencias sociales para superar el problema. En este texto analizaré, desde la perspectiva de las Relaciones Internacionales, los principales debates que han abordado la integración regional, sus particularidades y tipologías. En la primera parte examinaré la conexión entre regionalismo e integración, posteriormente exploraré diferentes teorías vinculadas al tema para extraer posibles generalizaciones. Finalmente, y basándome en los enfoques neofuncionalistas, formularé una definición de integración regional que recupera la noción de transferencia de lealtades, idea clave que permite distinguir este concepto de otros similares.A permanent feature of studies on regional integration is the difficulty of defining the dependent variable (integration and the application -often simultaneously- of analytical tools from various approaches and theories of social sciences to attempt to overcome this problem. In this paper I will discuss the issue from an International Relations perspective, focusing on the major debates surrounding regional integration, highlighting their particularities and typologies. In the first part I will examine the connection between regionalism and integration and subsequently I will explore the main theories linked to the issue in order to make generalizations. Finally, and based on neofunctionalist approaches I will present a definition of regional integration that revitalizes the notion of transfer loyalties, a key idea that permits the distinction of this concept from other similar ones.

  18. On Application of the Model of the Global Dimension of Regional Integration for Evaluating the Development of Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkhanov Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the need to study the integration processes of the Eurasian region in order to identify promising directions of its development. It is noted that most studies of this issue are dedicated to the economic aspect, but the analysis of the integration processes requires a comprehensive approach. The authors propose to use The Model of Global Dimension of Regional Integration (GDRI-Model – the methodology which takes into account the most important aspects of integration. This model was developed by Malaysian Professor M. Estrada. The general objective of the GDRI-Model is to offer policy-makers and researchers a new analytical tool for studying the evolution and the stages of any regional integration process in a global perspective. The presented model is not a forecasting one, but its use is not limited to a certain group of countries and regions. The authors note that some model criteria are not acceptable for the evaluation of Eurasian integration because of the specific features of the region. The adaptation of the model is based on theoretical analysis allowing to reveal separate directions of integration and its factors. At the same time, the flexibility of the proposed model makes it possible to adapt it to the conditions of the Eurasian Economic Union with the aim of its further application for the evaluation of integration development. It is concluded that the GDRI-Model is simple and universal, so it can act as a tool of Eurasian integration research to determine the stages of its development. After adaptation the presented model will also determine the feasibility of further convergence of national systems of economic union and the possibility of transition to monetary integration.

  19. Dosimetric evaluation of integrated IMRT treatment of the chest wall and supraclavicular region for breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wei, Xian-Ding; Zhao, Yu-Tian; Ma, Chang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the dosimetric characteristics of irradiation of the chest wall and supraclavicular region as an integrated volume with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after modified radical mastectomy. This study included 246 patients who received modified radical mastectomy. The patients were scanned with computed tomography, and the chest wall (with or without the internal mammary lymph nodes) and supraclavicular region were delineated. For 143 patients, the chest wall and supraclavicular region were combined as an integrated planning volume and treated with IMRT. For 103 patients, conventional treatments were employed with 2 tangential fields for the chest wall, abutting a mixed field of 6-MV x-rays (16Gy) and 9-MeV electrons (34Gy) for the upper supraclavicular region. The common prescription dose was 50Gy/25Fx/5W to 90% of the target volume. The dosimetric characteristics of the chest wall, the supraclavicular region, and normal organs were compared. For the chest wall target, compared with conventional treatments, the integrated IMRT plans lowered the maximum dose, increased the minimum dose, and resulted in better conformity and uniformity of the target volume. There was an increase in minimum, average, and 95% prescription dose for the integrated IMRT plans in the supraclavicular region, and conformity and uniformity were improved. The V30 of the ipsilateral lung and V10, V30, and mean dose of the heart on the integrated IMRT plans were lower than those of the conventional plans. The V5 and V10 of the ipsilateral lung and V5 of the heart were higher on the integrated IMRT plans (p supraclavicular region and showed better dose conformity and uniformity of the integrated target volume of the chest wall and supraclavicular region. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions in China, 1961-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xushu; Wang, Zhaoli; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    By characterizing the patterns of temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions (IARs) in China from 1961 to 2011, this study performed trend analyses on 16 extreme temperature indices using a high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) daily gridded dataset and the Mann-Kendall method. The results show that annually, at both daytime and nighttime, cold extremes significantly decreased but warm extremes significantly increased across all IARs. Overall, nighttimes tended to warm faster than daytimes. Diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) diminished, apart from the mid-northern Southwest China Region and the mid-Loess Plateau Region. Seasonally, DTR widely diminished across all IARs during the four seasons except for spring. Higher minimum daily minimum temperature (TNn) and maximum daily maximum temperature (TXx), in both summer and winter, were recorded for most IARs except for the Huang-Huai-Hai Region; in autumn, all IARs generally encountered higher TNn and TXx. In all seasons, warming was observed at daytime and nighttime but, again, nighttimes warmed faster than daytimes. The results also indicate a more rapid warming trend in Northern and Western China than in Southern and Eastern China, with accelerated warming at high elevations. The increases in TNn and TXx might cause a reduction in agriculture yield in spring over Northern China, while such negative impact might occur in Southern China during summer. In autumn and winter, however, the negative impact possibly occurred in most of the IARs. Moreover, increased TXx in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta is possibly related to rapid local urbanization. Climatically, the general increase in temperature extremes across Chinese IARs may be induced by strengthened Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High or weakened Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex.

  1. SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gabriela DUMITRU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development represents an equitable development model for which the main concern is achieving a balance between economic growth and raising the quality of life through the use of natural resources within the planet’s tolerable limits. The sustainable development of community spaces is in the pursuit of preserving the right to access resources for future generations through their equitable use, keeping the excavation rate lower than the regeneration rate for renewable resources, and the excavation rate of non-renewable resources not exceeding their substitution rate. On the other hand, regional development implies the diversification of economic activities by supporting investments in the private sector with the purpose of lowering the unemployment rate towards increasing quality of life using different measures in field like: developing the small and medium-sized enterprises sector, the transfer of knowledge and education, rural development, quality of the surrounding environment, health and infrastructure. The regional development policy encourages the stimulation of a balanced growth of our territory by lowering the existing imbalance between regions at the current moment and by reducing the possibility for it to appear. Furthermore, the regional and rural growth of Romania in the context of sustainable development is a short term process. Due to the specificity of Romanian agriculture, predominantly subsistence farming, the inadequate structure and main factor that limits agricultural competitive growth, it implies a closer look over the social sector. Therefore, two major action plans are asserted, firstly developing connective activities in the rural space and the integration into the labour market of the people engaged into agriculture, and secondly the growth of agribusinesses by supporting measures that target the creation of associations towards increasing the efficiency of Romanian agriculture.

  2. Developing and implementing a service charter for an integrated regional stroke service: an exploratory case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Jean-Pierre; Ahaus, Kees; Van de Walle, Steven

    2014-03-29

    Based on practices in commercial organizations and public services, healthcare organizations are using service charters to inform patients about the quality of service they can expect and to increase patient-centeredness. In the Netherlands, an integrated regional stroke service involving five organizations has developed and implemented a single service charter. The purpose of this study is to determine the organizational enablers for the effective development and implementation of this service charter. We have conducted an exploratory qualitative study using Grounded Theory to determine the organizational enablers of charter development and implementation. Individual semi-structured interviews were held with all members of the steering committee and the taskforce responsible for the service charter. In these twelve interviews, participants were retrospectively asked for their opinions of the enablers. Interview transcripts have been analysed using Glaser's approach of substantive coding consisting of open and selective coding in order to develop a framework of these enablers. A tabula rasa approach was used without any preconceived frameworks used in the coding process. We have determined seven categories of enablers formed of a total of 27 properties. The categories address a broad spectrum of enablers dealing with the basic foundations for cooperation, the way to manage the project's organization and the way to implement the service charter. In addition to the enablers within each individual organization, enablers that reflect the whole chain seem to be important for the effective development and implementation of this service charter. Strategic alignment of goals within the chain, trust between organizations, willingness to cooperate and the extent of process integration are all important properties. This first exploratory study into the enablers of the effective development and implementation was based on a single case study in the Netherlands. This is the

  3. A climate robust integrated modelling framework for regional impact assessment of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Gijs; Bakker, Alexander; van Ek, Remco; Groot, Annemarie; Kroes, Joop; Kuiper, Marijn; Schipper, Peter; van Walsum, Paul; Wamelink, Wieger; Mol, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Decision making towards climate proofing the water management of regional catchments can benefit greatly from the availability of a climate robust integrated modelling framework, capable of a consistent assessment of climate change impacts on the various interests present in the catchments. In the Netherlands, much effort has been devoted to developing state-of-the-art regional dynamic groundwater models with a very high spatial resolution (25x25 m2). Still, these models are not completely satisfactory to decision makers because the modelling concepts do not take into account feedbacks between meteorology, vegetation/crop growth, and hydrology. This introduces uncertainties in forecasting the effects of climate change on groundwater, surface water, agricultural yields, and development of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems. These uncertainties add to the uncertainties about the predictions on climate change itself. In order to create an integrated, climate robust modelling framework, we coupled existing model codes on hydrology, agriculture and nature that are currently in use at the different research institutes in the Netherlands. The modelling framework consists of the model codes MODFLOW (groundwater flow), MetaSWAP (vadose zone), WOFOST (crop growth), SMART2-SUMO2 (soil-vegetation) and NTM3 (nature valuation). MODFLOW, MetaSWAP and WOFOST are coupled online (i.e. exchange information on time step basis). Thus, changes in meteorology and CO2-concentrations affect crop growth and feedbacks between crop growth, vadose zone water movement and groundwater recharge are accounted for. The model chain WOFOST-MetaSWAP-MODFLOW generates hydrological input for the ecological prediction model combination SMART2-SUMO2-NTM3. The modelling framework was used to support the regional water management decision making process in the 267 km2 Baakse Beek-Veengoot catchment in the east of the Netherlands. Computations were performed for regionalized 30-year climate change

  4. The Energy Community of Southeast Europe: A neo-functionalist project of regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Renner

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the emergence of the Energy Community of Southeast Europe with (1 the European Union’s external energy policy, (2 the specific regional approach of the EU at the Western Balkans and (3 the neo-functionalist ideas of those European Commission officials that were crucially involved in the process. The guiding ideas of the Commission officials involved were directly drawn from a 'popular version' of neo-functionalism: the idea that peace can be established with integration starting in a highly technical area and with creating the institutional capacity for a possible spill-over into other areas. Through this export of the EU’s rules and institutions in the energy sector the Energy Community represents an innovative new mode of governance in Southeast Europe.

  5. Regional Energy Planning Tool for Renewable Integrated Low-Energy District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy district heating systems, operating at low temperature of 55 °C as supply and 25°C as return, can be the energy solution as being the prevailing heating infrastructure in urban areas, considering future energy schemesaiming at increased exploitation of renewable energy sources together...... with low-energy houses in focus with intensified energy efficiency measures. Employing low-temperature operation allows the ease to exploit not only any type of heat source but also low-grade sources, i.e., renewable and industrial waste heat, which would otherwise be lost. In this chapter, a regional...... energy planning tool is described considered with various energy conversion systems based on renewable energy sources to be supplied to an integrated energy infrastructure involving a low-energy district heating, a district cooling, and an electricity grid. The developed tool is performed for two case...

  6. Uncertainty and Evaluation of Impacts Modeling at Regional Scales in Integrated Assessment: the Case of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L.; Zhou, Y.; Eom, J.; Kyle, P.; Daly, D.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) models have traditionally focused on the evaluation of climate mitigation strategies. However, in recent years, efforts to consider both impacts and mitigation simultaneously have expanded dramatically. Because climate impacts are inherently regional in scale, the incorporation of impacts into IA modeling - which is inherently global in character - raises a range of challenges beyond the already substantial challenges associated with modeling impacts. In particular, it raises questions about how to best evaluate and diagnose the resulting representations of impacts, and how to characterize the uncertainty surrounding associated projections. This presentation will provide an overview of the challenges and uncertainties surrounding modeling climate impacts on building heating and cooling demands in an integrated assessment modeling framework - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The presentation will first discuss the issues associated with modeling building heating and cooling degree days in IA models. It will review research using spatially explicit climate and population information to inform a standard version of GCAM with fourteen geopolitical regions. It will discuss a new subregional version of GCAM in which building energy consumption is resolved at a fifty-state level. The presentation will also characterize efforts to link GCAM to more technologically resolved buildings models to gain insights about demands at higher temporal resolution. The second portion of the presentation will discuss the uncertainties associated with projections of building heating and cooling demands at various scales. A range of key uncertainties are important. This includes a range of uncertainties surrounding the nature of changes to global and regional climates, with particular emphasis on the uncertainty surrounding temperature projections. In addition, the linkage in this research between human and Earth systems means that the projections are

  7. Cover plants with potential use for crop-livestock integrated systems in the Cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose concentrations in the decomposition process of cover plant residues with potential use in no-tillage with corn, for crop-livestock integrated system, in the Cerrado region. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Cerrados, in Planaltina, DF, Brazil in a split plot experimental design. The plots were represented by the plant species and the subplots by harvesting times, with three replicates. The cover plants Urochloa ruziziensis, Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus, Sorghum bicolor were evaluated together with spontaneous plants in the fallow. Cover plants with lower lignin concentrations and, consequently, higher residue decomposition such as C. brasiliensis and U. ruziziensis promoted higher corn yield. High concentrations of lignin inhibit plant residue decomposition and this is favorable for the soil cover. Lower concentrations of lignin result in accelerated plant decomposition, more efficient nutrient cycling, and higher corn yield.

  8. [Regional cooperation and integration in health in South America: the contribution of Unasur-Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Ferreira, José Roberto

    2011-06-01

    The scope of this study is to discuss the process of integration of South America in the domain of health, from the constitution of the Union of South American Nations (Unasur), in May 2008, through to the emergence of the Unasur Council of Health, in 2009, and its ongoing development in the past year (2009-2010). This study is descriptive in nature and the medium of investigation was the case study. The authors present the main constituent elements of the South-American Health Agenda, with particular emphasis on the area of development and management of human resources in health, which was coordinated by Brazil in the past year. The authors conclude that this interchange will contribute to minimization of the asymmetries amongst the countries, collaborating to improve the quality of life and health conditions in the region.

  9. Integrated economic model of waste management: Case study for South Moravia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřebíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and discusses the developed integrated economic model of municipal waste management of the Czech Republic, which was developed by authors as a balanced network model for a set of sources (mostly municipalities of municipal solid waste connected with a set of chosen waste treatment facilities processing their waste. Model is implemented as a combination of several economic submodels including environmental and economic point of view. It enables to formulate the optimisation problem in a concise way and the resulting model is easily scalable. Model involves submodels of waste prevention, collection and transport optimization, submodels of waste energy utilization (incineration and biogas plants and material recycling (composting and submodel of landfilling. Its size (number of sources and facilities depends only upon available data. Its application is used in the case study of the South Moravia region with verification of using time series waste data. The results enable to improve decision making in waste management sector.

  10. Driving pattern analysis of Nordic region based on the national travel surveys for electric vehicle integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Christensen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    to the power system. This paper presents a methodology to transform driving behavior of persons into the one of cars in order to analyze the driving pattern of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys. In the proposed methodology, a statistical process is used to obtain the driving behavior......EVs show great potential to cope with the intermittency of renewable energy sources (RES) and provide demand side flexibility required by the smart grid.On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. Large scale integration of EVs will probably have substantial impacts...... of cars by grouping the survey respondents according to the driving license number and car number and mapping the households with similar characteristics. The proposed methodology was used to carry out the driving pattern analysis in the Nordic region. The detailed driving requirements and the charging...

  11. Motor imagery and its effect on complex regional pain syndrome: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Silva de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The motor imagery (MI has been proposed as a treatment in the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1, since it seems to promote a brain reorganization effect on sensory- motor areas of pain perception. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through an integrative critical review, the influence of MI on the CRPS-1, correlating their evidence to clinical practice. Research in PEDro, Medline, Bireme and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Nine randomized controlled trials (level 2, 1 non-controlled clinical study (level 3, 1 case study (level 4, 1 systematic review (level 1, 2 review articles and 1 comment (level 5 were found. We can conclude that MI has shown effect in reducing pain and functionality that remains after 6 months of treatment. However, the difference between the MI strategies for CRPS-1 is unknown as well as the intensity of mental stress influences the painful response or effect of MI or other peripheral neuropathies.

  12. A paradigm for human body finite element model integration from a set of regional models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A B; Gayzik, F S; Moreno, D P; Rhyne, A C; Vavalle, N A; Stitzel, J D

    2012-01-01

    Computational modeling offers versatility, scalability, and cost advantages to researchers in the trauma and injury biomechanics communities. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) is a group of government, industry, and academic researchers developing human body models (HBMs) that aim to become the standard tool to meet this growing research need. The objective of this study is to present the methods used to develop the average seated male occupant model (M50, weight = 78 kg, height = 175 cm) from five separately validated body region models (BRMs). BRMs include the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and a combined pelvis and lower extremity model. Modeling domains were split at the atlanto-occipital joint, C7-T1 boundary, diaphragm, abdominal cavity (peritoneum/retroperitoneum), and the acetabulum respectively. BRM meshes are based on a custom CAD model of the seated male built from a multi-modality imaging protocol of a volunteer subject found in literature.[1] Various meshing techniques were used to integrate the full body model (FBM) including 1-D beam and discrete element connections (e.g. ligamentous structures), 2D shell nodal connections (e.g. inferior vena cava to right atrium), 3D hexahedral nodal connections (e.g. soft tissue envelope connections between regions), and contact definitions varying from tied (muscle insertions) to sliding (liver and diaphragm contact). The model was developed in a general-purpose finite element code, LS-Dyna (LTSC, Livermore, CA) R4.2.1., and consists of 1.95 million elements and 1.3 million nodes. The element breakdown by type is 41% hexahedral, 33.7% tetrahedral, 19.5% quad shells and 5% tria shell. The integration methodology presented highlights the viability of using a collaborative development paradigm for the construction of HBMs, and will be used as template for expanding the suite of GHBMC models.

  13. Regional analysis techniques for integrating experimental and numerical measurements of transport properties of reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, S. M.; Latham, S.; Middleton, J.; Limaye, A.; Senden, T. J.; Arns, C. H.

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the mechanisms of micro-structural change and their effect on transport properties using digital core analysis requires balancing field of view and resolution. This typically leads to the compromise of working with relatively small samples, where boundary effects can be substantial. A direct comparison with experiment, as e.g. desirable to eliminate unknown parameters and integrate numerical and physical experiments, needs to consider these boundary effects. Here we develop a workflow to define measuring windows within a sample where these boundary effects are minimised allowing the integration of physical and numerical experiment. We consider in particular sleeve leakage and use a radial partitioning of the solutions to various transport equations to derive relevant regional measures, which may be used for the development of cross-correlations between physical properties. Samples of Bentheimer and Castlegate sandstone as well as Mt. Gambier limestone and a sucrosic dolomite are considered. The sample plugs are encased in rubber sleeves and micro-CT images acquired at ambient conditions. Using these high-resolution images we calculate transport properties, namely permeability and electrical conductivity, and analyse the resulting field solutions with regard to flux across different regions of interest. The latter are selected on the basis of distance to the sample sleeve inner surface. Clear bypassing at the sleeve-sample interface in terms of elevated fluxes is observed for all samples, although to different extent. We consider different sleeve boundary conditions to define a measuring window minimising these effects, use the procedure to compare flux averages defined over these measuring windows with conventional choices of simulation domains, and compare resulting physical cross-correlations.

  14. THE INTEGRATION OF CULTURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT AT SPECIAL REGION PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deffi Ayu Puspito Sari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Indonesia Law number 24 year 2007 on disaster emphasizes that the protection of national assets is in line with Law No. 11 year 2010 on the cultural heritage. Yogyakarta Province has 12 disaster hazards and has five complete archaeological cultural layers in Indonesia. In the event of a disaster, potential damage to the cultural heritage is exposed. The archaeological cultural layer consists of prehistoric, classical, Islamic and colonial. The lack of research related to cultural heritage in the province resulting in increasing vulnerability of cultural heritage and society. Using qualitative method with in-depth interview, the aim of this study is to analyse the management of cultural heritage from the perspective of disaster management. Archaeological cultural layers that embedded into the realm of cultural heritage is defined as a national asset that should be protected. The result shows that the management of cultural resources in the province is not yet integrated with disaster management. However, the results of the archaeological identification of cultural heritage in each cultural layer in Yogyakarta showed the development of community adaptation to the disaster. Utilization of cultural heritage as an element of the panca gatra has been impartial that affected the regional resilience and security in facing the disaster. Both of these problems can be overcome by integrating the cultural resources management and disaster management, the establishment of an emergency response team on cultural preservation, and disaster risk analysis on cultural heritage that annexed by BPBD and Cultural Office of Yogyakarta Province.

  15. Quantifying wetland–aquifer interactions in a humid subtropical climate region: An integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Niu, Jie; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; McGuire, Jennifer T.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are widely recognized as sentinels of global climate change. Long-term monitoring data combined with process-based modeling has the potential to shed light on key processes and how they change over time. This paper reports the development and application of a simple water balance model based on long-term climate, soil, vegetation and hydrological dynamics to quantify groundwater–surface water (GW–SW) interactions at the Norman landfill research site in Oklahoma, USA. Our integrated approach involved model evaluation by means of the following independent measurements: (a) groundwater inflow calculation using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (16O, 18O, 1H, 2H); (b) seepage flux measurements in the wetland hyporheic sediment; and (c) pan evaporation measurements on land and in the wetland. The integrated approach was useful for identifying the dominant hydrological processes at the site, including recharge and subsurface flows. Simulated recharge compared well with estimates obtained using isotope methods from previous studies and allowed us to identify specific annual signatures of this important process during the period of study (1997–2007). Similarly, observations of groundwater inflow and outflow rates to and from the wetland using seepage meters and isotope methods were found to be in good agreement with simulation results. Results indicate that subsurface flow components in the system are seasonal and readily respond to rainfall events. The wetland water balance is dominated by local groundwater inputs and regional groundwater flow contributes little to the overall water balance.

  16. The role of right frontal brain regions in integration of spatial relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiahui; Cao, Bihua; Cao, Yunfei; Gao, Heming; Li, Fuhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have explored the neural mechanisms of spatial reasoning on a two-dimensional (2D) plane; however, it remains unclear how spatial reasoning is conducted in a three-dimensional (3D) condition. In the present study, we presented 3D geometric objects to 16 adult participants, and asked them to process the spatial relationship between different corners of the geometric objects. In premise-1, the first two corners of a geometric shape (e.g., A vs. B) were displayed. In premise-2, the second and third corners (e.g., B vs. C) were displayed. After integrating the two premises, participants were required to infer the spatial relationship between the first and the third corners (e.g., A and C). Finally, the participants were presented with a conclusion object, and they were required to judge whether the conclusion was true or false based on their inference. The event-related potential evoked by premise-2 revealed that (1) compared with 2D spatial reasoning, 3D reasoning elicited a smaller P3b component, and (2) in the right frontal areas, increased negativities were found in the 3D condition during the N400 and late negative components (LNC). These findings imply that higher brain activity in the right frontal brain regions were related with the integration and maintenance of spatial information in working memory for reasoning.

  17. Aeolian and fluvial processes in dryland regions: the need for integrated studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Munson, Seth M.; Field, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Aeolian and fluvial processes play a fundamental role in dryland regions of the world and have important environmental and ecological consequences from local to global scales. Although both processes operate over similar spatial and temporal scales and are likely strongly coupled in many dryland systems, aeolian and fluvial processes have traditionally been studied separately, making it difficult to assess their relative importance in drylands, as well as their potential for synergistic interaction. Land degradation by accelerated wind and water erosion is a major problem throughout the world's drylands, and although recent studies suggest that these processes likely interact across broad spatial and temporal scales to amplify the transport of soil resources from and within drylands, many researchers and land managers continue to view them as separate and unrelated processes. Here, we illustrate how aeolian and fluvial sediment transport is coupled at multiple spatial and temporal scales and highlight the need for these interrelated processes to be studied from a more integrated perspective that crosses traditional disciplinary boundaries. Special attention is given to how the growing threat of climate change and land-use disturbance will influence linkages between aeolian and fluvial processes in the future. We also present emerging directions for interdisciplinary needs within the aeolian and fluvial research communities that call for better integration across a broad range of traditional disciplines such as ecology, biogeochemistry, agronomy, and soil conservation.

  18. [Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draibe, Sônia Miriam

    2007-01-01

    In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship.

  19. On the determination of phase boundaries via thermodynamic integration across coexistence regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramo, Maria Concetta, E-mail: mcabramo@unime.it; Caccamo, Carlo, E-mail: caccamo@unime.it; Costa, Dino, E-mail: dcosta@unime.it; Giaquinta, Paolo V., E-mail: paolo.giaquinta@unime.it; Malescio, Gianpietro, E-mail: malescio@unime.it; Munaò, Gianmarco, E-mail: gmunao@unime.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Contrada Papardo, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Prestipino, Santi, E-mail: sprestipino@unime.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Contrada Papardo, I-98166 Messina (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 37, I-98158 Messina (Italy)

    2015-06-07

    Specialized Monte Carlo methods are nowadays routinely employed, in combination with thermodynamic integration (TI), to locate phase boundaries of classical many-particle systems. This is especially useful for the fluid-solid transition, where a critical point does not exist and both phases may notoriously go deeply metastable. Using the Lennard-Jones model for demonstration, we hereby investigate on the alternate possibility of tracing reasonably accurate transition lines directly by integrating the pressure equation of state computed in a canonical-ensemble simulation with local moves. The recourse to this method would become a necessity when the stable crystal structure is not known. We show that, rather counterintuitively, metastability problems can be alleviated by reducing (rather than increasing) the size of the system. In particular, the location of liquid-vapor coexistence can exactly be predicted by just TI. On the contrary, TI badly fails in the solid-liquid region, where a better assessment (to within 10% accuracy) of the coexistence pressure can be made by following the expansion, until melting, of the defective solid which has previously emerged from the decay of the metastable liquid.

  20. Developing Flexible, Integrated Hydrologic Modeling Systems for Multiscale Analysis in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Chiu, C. M.; Sharma, A.; Byun, K.; Hanson, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Physically based hydrologic modeling of surface and groundwater resources that can be flexibly and efficiently applied to support water resources policy/planning/management decisions at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales are greatly needed in the Midwest, where stakeholder access to such tools is currently a fundamental barrier to basic climate change assessment and adaptation efforts, and also the co-production of useful products to support detailed decision making. Based on earlier pilot studies in the Pacific Northwest Region, we are currently assembling a suite of end-to-end tools and resources to support various kinds of water resources planning and management applications across the region. One of the key aspects of these integrated tools is that the user community can access gridded products at any point along the end-to-end chain of models, looking backwards in time about 100 years (1915-2015), and forwards in time about 85 years using CMIP5 climate model projections. The integrated model is composed of historical and projected future meteorological data based on station observations and statistical and dynamically downscaled climate model output respectively. These gridded meteorological data sets serve as forcing data for the macro-scale VIC hydrologic model implemented over the Midwest at 1/16 degree resolution. High-resolution climate model (4km WRF) output provides inputs for the analyses of urban impacts, hydrologic extremes, agricultural impacts, and impacts to the Great Lakes. Groundwater recharge estimated by the surface water model provides input data for fine-scale and macro-scale groundwater models needed for specific applications. To highlight the multi-scale use of the integrated models in support of co-production of scientific information for decision making, we briefly describe three current case studies addressing different spatial scales of analysis: 1) Effects of climate change on the water balance of the Great Lakes, 2) Future

  1. OpenDanubia - An integrated, modular simulation system to support regional water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muerth, M.; Waldmann, D.; Heinzeller, C.; Hennicker, R.; Mauser, W.

    2012-04-01

    The already completed, multi-disciplinary research project GLOWA-Danube has developed a regional scale, integrated modeling system, which was successfully applied on the 77,000 km2 Upper Danube basin to investigate the impact of Global Change on both the natural and anthropogenic water cycle. At the end of the last project phase, the integrated modeling system was transferred into the open source project OpenDanubia, which now provides both the core system as well as all major model components to the general public. First, this will enable decision makers from government, business and management to use OpenDanubia as a tool for proactive management of water resources in the context of global change. Secondly, the model framework to support integrated simulations and all simulation models developed for OpenDanubia in the scope of GLOWA-Danube are further available for future developments and research questions. OpenDanubia allows for the investigation of water-related scenarios considering different ecological and economic aspects to support both scientists and policy makers to design policies for sustainable environmental management. OpenDanubia is designed as a framework-based, distributed system. The model system couples spatially distributed physical and socio-economic process during run-time, taking into account their mutual influence. To simulate the potential future impacts of Global Change on agriculture, industrial production, water supply, households and tourism businesses, so-called deep actor models are implemented in OpenDanubia. All important water-related fluxes and storages in the natural environment are implemented in OpenDanubia as spatially explicit, process-based modules. This includes the land surface water and energy balance, dynamic plant water uptake, ground water recharge and flow as well as river routing and reservoirs. Although the complete system is relatively demanding on data requirements and hardware requirements, the modular structure

  2. An integrated framework for regional studies: emergy based spatial analysis of the Province of Cagliari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulselli, Riccardo Maria; Rustici, Mauro; Marchettini, Nadia

    2007-10-01

    This research proposes an integrated framework to investigate human-dominated systems and provide a basic approach to urban and regional studies in which the multiple interactions between economic and ecological processes are considered as a whole. Humans generate patterns of land use, infrastructures and other settings and redistribute ecosystem functions as flows of energy and matter for self-maintenance. To understand these emerging interactions between humans and ecological processes, human activities (e.g. transformation processes, land conversions, use of resources) and biophysical agents such as geomorphology, climate and natural cycles need to be considered. Emergy Analysis (spelled with an "m") is then used as an environmental accounting method to evaluate different categories of resource use with reference to their environmental cost. A case study of the Province of Cagliari (in the island of Sardinia, Italy) is reported and the procedure for allocating emergy flows, assigning them to districts and managing point data is discussed. Outcomes plotted on a map showed non-homogeneous spatial distribution of emergy flows throughout the region, suggesting the way ecosystem functions are affected and restructured by the human economy.

  3. Integration of groundwater information into decision making for regional planning: a portrait for North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Roxane; Lebel, Alexandre; Joerin, Florent; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2013-01-15

    Groundwater is widely used as a source of drinking water in North America. However, it can be contaminated by microbial or chemical agents potentially hazardous to human health. In recent decades, governments have developed better knowledge of groundwater and established measures to protect and preserve the resource. Several studies have shown that relevant information on groundwater might prove very useful for regional planning purposes. However, there is little information on how groundwater information contributes to decision making in urban and regional planning in Canada and the United States. The objective of this study is to explore the level of use of groundwater information for land use planning purposes in Canada and the United States and to identify the factors that may explain why some provinces or states are more proactive than others when it comes to using such data for groundwater protection purposes. This paper presents the results of a survey sent across North America to groundwater information producers. The resulting data from the survey were examined using descriptive analyses and multiple correspondence analysis, and illustrate how groundwater data can be integrated into land planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional integrated environmental model system and its simulation of East Asia summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhe; FU CongBin; YAN XiaoDong

    2009-01-01

    A continuous 22-year simulation in Asia for the period of 1 January 1979 to 31 December 2000 was conducted using the Regional Integrated Environmental Model System (RIEMS 2.0) with NCEP Reanalysis Ⅱ data as the driving fields.The model processes include surface physics state package (BATS le),a Grell cumulus parameterization,and a modified radiation package (CCM3) with the focus on the ability of the model to simulate the summer monsoon over East Asia.The analysis results show that (1)RIEMS reproduces well the spatial pattern and the seasonal cycle of surface temperature.When regionally averaged,the summer mean temperature biases are within 1-2℃.(2) For precipitation,the model reproduces well the spatial pattern,and temporal evolution of the East Asia summer monsoon rain belt,with steady phases separated by more rapid transitions,is reproduced.The rain belt simulated by RIEMS 2.0 is closer to observation than by RIEMS 1.0.(3) RIEMS 2.0 can reasonably reproduce the large-scale circulation.

  5. Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    A System Dynamics Model (SDM) assessing water scarcity and potential impacts of socio-economic policies in a complex hydrological system is developed. The model, simulating water resources deriving from numerous catchment sources and demand from four sectors (domestic, industrial, agricultural, external pumping), contains multiple feedback loops and sub-models. The SDM is applied to the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia; the first time such an integrated model has been developed for the water scarce Kairouan region. The application represents an early step in filling a critical research gap. The focus of this paper is to a) assess the applicability of SDM for assessment of the evolution of a water-scarce catchment and b) to analyse the current and future behaviour of the catchment to evaluate water scarcity, focusing on understanding trends to inform policy. Baseline results indicate aquifer over-exploitation, agreeing with observed trends. If current policy and social behaviour continue, serious aquifer depletion is possible in the not too distant future, with implications for the economy and environment. This is unlikely to occur because policies preventing depletion will be implemented. Sensitivity tests were carried out to show which parameters most impacted aquifer behaviour. Results show non-linear model behaviour. Some tests showed negligible change in behaviour. Others showed unrealistic exponential changes in demand, revenue and aquifer water volume. Policy-realistic parameters giving the greatest positive impact on model behaviour were those controlling per-capita domestic water demand and the pumped volume to coastal cities. All potentially beneficial policy options should be considered, giving the best opportunity for preservation of Kairouan aquifer water quantity/quality, ecologically important habitats and the agricultural socio-economic driver of regional development. SDM is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of possible policy measures

  6. Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement: Between globalization and regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina García Segura

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analize, from Canada’s perspective, the choice regarding the model of state as well as of economic and commercial policy which the decision to participate in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA implies. The debatewhich NAFTA provoked in Canada expresses in concrete terms that debate which, in much larger terms, takes place at the international level regarding the multilateralization and/or the regionalization of commercial exchanges. It is a reflection of the tension between theintegrating forces (process of globalization and the fragmenting ones (processes of regionalization which characterize the dynamics of the contemporary international system. The hypothesis of this work is that in spite of being a commercial agreement, the Canadian government’s decision to participate in NAFTA was a decision of a political nature which was not determined exclusively by the reality of the existing commercial exchanges between Canada and Mexico or by the perspectives of improving them inthe short term. The immediate objective of Canada was to avoid that a possible bilateral agreement between its prinicipal economic member, the United States, and Mexico would empty out the contents of the existing Free Trade Agreement (FTA between Canada and the United States. In this sense, NAFTA was the possible remedy to an unwanted situation (the negotiation of a US-Mexico bilateral agreement. The objective in the medium and long term is use the platform of regional integration as a trampoline from where the Canadian economy can be reorientated and driven in order to attain international competitiveness. In this sense, Canada’s true option had already beenrealised with the FTA.

  7. Integration of association statistics over genomic regions using Bayesian adaptive regression splines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohua

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the search for genetic determinants of complex disease, two approaches to association analysis are most often employed, testing single loci or testing a small group of loci jointly via haplotypes for their relationship to disease status. It is still debatable which of these approaches is more favourable, and under what conditions. The former has the advantage of simplicity but suffers severely when alleles at the tested loci are not in linkage disequilibrium (LD with liability alleles; the latter should capture more of the signal encoded in LD, but is far from simple. The complexity of haplotype analysis could be especially troublesome for association scans over large genomic regions, which, in fact, is becoming the standard design. For these reasons, the authors have been evaluating statistical methods that bridge the gap between single-locus and haplotype-based tests. In this article, they present one such method, which uses non-parametric regression techniques embodied by Bayesian adaptive regression splines (BARS. For a set of markers falling within a common genomic region and a corresponding set of single-locus association statistics, the BARS procedure integrates these results into a single test by examining the class of smooth curves consistent with the data. The non-parametric BARS procedure generally finds no signal when no liability allele exists in the tested region (ie it achieves the specified size of the test and it is sensitive enough to pick up signals when a liability allele is present. The BARS procedure provides a robust and potentially powerful alternative to classical tests of association, diminishes the multiple testing problem inherent in those tests and can be applied to a wide range of data types, including genotype frequencies estimated from pooled samples.

  8. Integrated map of the chromosome 8p12-p21 region, a region involved in human cancers and Werner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbert, A.; Chaffanet, M.; Birnbaum, D.; Pebusque, M.J. [INSERM, Marseille (France)] [and others

    1996-02-15

    This article discusses the genetic mapping of the specific region on human chromosome 8, 8p12-p21, and its implications to human hereditary cancers and diseases. The localization of disease genes such as NEFL and FGFR1 are given, accomplished using contigs which span the region of deletion involved in these hereditary diseases. 59 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Health policy and integrated mental health care in the SADC region: strategic clarification using the Rainbow Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, André Janse; Fourie, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Mental illness is a well-known challenge to global development, particularly in low-to-middle income countries. A key health systems response to mental illness is different models of integrated health care, especially popular in the South African Development Community (SADC) region. This complex construct is often not well-defined in health policy, hampering implementation efforts. A key development in this vein has been the Rainbow Model of integrated care, a comprehensive framework and taxonomy of integrated care based on the integrative functions of primary care. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and strategic forms of integrated mental health care in selected SADC countries, specifically how integrated care is outlined in state-driven policies. Health policies from five SADC countries were analysed using the Rainbow Model as framework. Electronic copies of policy documents were transferred into NVivo 10, which aided in the framework analysis on the different types of integrated mental health care promoted in the countries assessed. Several Rainbow Model components were emphasised. Clinical integration strategies (coordination of person-focused care) such as centrality of client needs, case management and continuity were central considerations, while others such as patient education and client satisfaction were largely lacking. Professional integration (inter-professional partnerships) was mentioned in terms of agreements on interdisciplinary collaboration and performance management, while organisational integration (inter-organisational relationships) emerged under the guise of inter-organisational governance, population needs and interest management. Among others, available resources, population management and stakeholder management fed into system integration strategies (horizontally and vertically integrated systems), while functional integration strategies (financial, management and information system functions) included human resource

  10. Regional integration and economic convergence in the post-Soviet space: Experience of the decade of growth

    OpenAIRE

    Libman, Alexander; Vinokurov, Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of regional integration and economic convergence in the post-Soviet world during the period 1999-2008. This is the period, when FSU countries experienced rapid economic growth, following the “Big Bang” of the disintegration of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and the deep economic recession of the 1990s. It starts by discussing a set of indicators reflecting various aspects of interaction of post-Soviet countries (trade, labor migration, integration in key functi...

  11. Energy and resource basis of an Italian coastal resort region integrated using emergy synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Paolo; Paoli, Chiara; Tilley, David R; Fabiano, Mauro

    2009-10-01

    Sustainable development of coastal zones must balance economic development that encourages human visitation from a larger population with desires that differ from the local residents with the need to maintain opportunities for the local resident society and conserve ecological capital, which may serve as the basis for residents. We present a case study in which the sustainability level of a coastal zone (Riviera del Beigua), located along the Ligurian coast of north-western Italy, was assessed through the lens of systems ecology using emergy synthesis to integrate across economic, social and environmental sub-systems. Our purposes were (1) to quantify the environmental sustainability level of this coastal zone, (2) to evaluate the role of tourism in affecting the economy, society and environment, and (3) to compare emergy synthesis to Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle model (TALC). Results showed that 81% of the total emergy consumption in the coastal zone was derived from external sources, indicating that this tourist-heavy community was not sustainable. Tourism, as the dominant economic sub-system, consumed 42% of the total emergy budget, while local residents used the remaining 58%. The progressive stages of the TALC model were found to parallel the dynamic changes in the ratio of external emergy inputs to local emergy inputs, suggesting that emergy synthesis could be a useful tool for detecting a tourist region's TALC stage. Use of such a quantitative tool could expedite sustainability assessment to allow administrative managers to understand the complex relationship between a region's economy, environment and resident society so sound policies can be developed to improve overall sustainability.

  12. LLNL Seismic Locations: Validating Improvement Through Integration of Regionalized Models and Empirical Corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, C.A.; Flanagan, M.P.; Myers, S.C.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Swenson, J.L.; Hanley, W.; Ryall, F.; Dodge, D.

    2001-07-27

    The monitoring of nuclear explosions on a global basis requires accurate event locations. As an example, a typical size used for an on-site inspection search area is 1,000 square kilometers or approximately 17 km accuracy, assuming a circular area. This level of accuracy is a significant challenge for small events that are recorded using a sparse regional network. In such cases, the travel time of seismic energy is strongly affected by crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity and large biases can result. This can lead to large systematic errors in location and, more importantly, to invalid error bounds associated with location estimates. Calibration data and methods are being developed and integrated to correct for these biases. Our research over the last few years has shown that one of the most effective approaches to generate path corrections is the hybrid technique that combine both regionalized models with three-dimensional empirical travel-time corrections. We implement a rigorous and comprehensive uncertainty framework for these hybrid approaches. Qualitative and quantitative validations are presented in the form of single component consistency checks, sensitivity analysis, robustness measures, outlier testing along with end-to-end testing of confidence measures. We focus on screening and validating both empirical and model based calibrations as well as the hybrid form that combines these two types of calibration. We demonstrate that the hybrid approach very effectively calibrates both travel-time and slowness attributes for seismic location in the Middle East North Africa, and Western Eurasia (ME/NAAVE). Furthermore, it provides highly reliable uncertainty estimates. Finally, we summarize the NNSA validated data sets that have been provided to contractors in the last year.

  13. Identification of a high incidence region for retroviral vector integration near exon 1 of the LMO2 locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakashita Kazuo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Therapeutic retroviral vector integration near the oncogene LMO2 is thought to be a cause of leukemia in X-SCID gene therapy trials. However, no published studies have evaluated the frequency of vector integrations near exon 1 of the LMO2 locus. We identified a high incidence region (HIR of vector integration using PCR techniques in the upstream region close to the LMO2 transcription start site in the TPA-Mat T cell line. The integration frequency of the HIR was one per 4.46 × 104 cells. This HIR was also found in Jurkat T cells but was absent from HeLa cells. Furthermore, using human cord blood-derived CD34+ cells we identified a HIR in a similar region as the TPA-Mat T cell line. One of the X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID patients that developed leukemia after gene therapy had a vector integration site in this HIR. Therefore, the descriptions of the location and the integration frequency of the HIR presented here may help us to better understand vector-induced leukemogenesis.

  14. New insights into regional tectonics of the Sunda-Banda Arcs region from integrated magnetic and gravity modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, Teti; Korte, Monika; Mandea, Mioara; Hamoudi, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    The Lombok Island (Indonesia), situated along the Sunda-Banda Arcs transition region, lies between zones characterized by very large intensity magnetic anomalies. These anomalies have been noted as being part of the eight most important ones seen on the 1st edition of the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. Unfortunately, only marine magnetic data of surroundings are available, and no regional high-resolution magnetic surveys of this island had been done. Since 2004, we have carried out several geomagnetic ground surveys in this region. Here, we present modelling results for a new geological and tectonic interpretation of the magnetic anomalies. The new results confirm the general pattern of contiguous negative-positive anomalies, revealing two active Quaternary normal faults and a magmatic arc related to a subduction region. This outcome agrees with earlier results in surrounding areas obtained by satellite, aeromagnetic, and marine platforms, and provides a more detailed picture of strong anomalies on this island. Considering both magnetic anomalies and gravity models, it is possible to suggest an extension of the Flores Thrust zone (reaching the northwest off the Lombok Island). The Flores Thrust zone may be considered as a mature subduction in the back arc region, showing a tendency of progressive subduction during last decades.

  15. DICOM image quantification secondary capture (DICOM IQSC) integrated with numeric results, regions, and curves: implementation and applications in nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinhua; Xu, Xiaoyin; Voss, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we describe an enhanced DICOM Secondary Capture (SC) that integrates Image Quantification (IQ) results, Regions of Interest (ROIs), and Time Activity Curves (TACs) with screen shots by embedding extra medical imaging information into a standard DICOM header. A software toolkit of DICOM IQSC has been developed to implement the SC-centered information integration of quantitative analysis for routine practice of nuclear medicine. Primary experiments show that the DICOM IQSC method is simple and easy to implement seamlessly integrating post-processing workstations with PACS for archiving and retrieving IQ information. Additional DICOM IQSC applications in routine nuclear medicine and clinic research are also discussed.

  16. IDB-9: Competitive Regional and Global International Integration Title: IDB-9: Integración internacional competiviva regional y mundial

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Puerta; Laura Atuesta

    2013-01-01

    La integración comercial y regional en Latinoamérica y el Caribe han sido objetivos constantes del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID, o Banco) desde su creación. Si bien el Banco ha jugado históricamente un rol muy activo en los debates de política con los países y ha brindado asistencia en estos campos, nunca ha podido implementar un programa de financiamiento regional importante. De hecho, la cartera de comercio e integración se divide entre la parte no ligada a préstamos, liderada po...

  17. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-06-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of interrow shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from interrow shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of interrow shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  18. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Stein, J.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-07-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of inter-row shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage-ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from inter-row shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of inter-row shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  19. Integrated silicon p–i–n structures with highly doped p++, n++ regions for modulation in terahertz frequency band

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Modulators of terahertz range on the base of silicon integrated p–i–n-structures are investigated theoretically. The generalization of the Fletcher boundary conditions at the injecting contacts has been put forward for the case of highly doped p++, n++ regions, where both forbidden gap narrowing and dependence of coefficients of diffusion on doping concentration are taken into account. The problem of double injection into i-region has been simulated in a two-dimensional case. The investigatio...

  20. Border governance in Mozambique : The intersection of international border controls, regional integration and cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.M. Seda (Fulgêncio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA tension exists between the interests of states in protecting national security through border controls and those of communities in cross-border regions, to whom frequent border crossing is part of daily life – a necessary part of achieving their own wellbeing. The interplay between

  1. EVALUATION OF THE FIRST YEAR OF APPLICATION OF THREE-YEAR REGIONAL INTEGRATED PLAN OF CONTROLS (2008/2010 IN LAZIO REGION (REGULATION EC 882/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saccares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the first year of the three-year Regional Integrated Plan of Controls has highlighted some problems that does not allow, in some cases, to perform risk assessments to different production processes. Evidence of these concerns has allowed to analyze the corrective actions to be applied in order to make the plan appropiate for the purposes intended by the EC.

  2. Feminization of Migration Routes and Integration Aspects in Trieste Area and Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Richter Malabotta

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian society is going through deep structural demographic and cultural changes whereby its emigration pattern has been reversed to the extent that the country is now experiencing intensive immigration. Pre-supposing the two basic characteristics of the migration routes which have become visible in the last decade – namely feminization and internal diversification of universal migrant, this article has tried to show the market typology (a characteristic not only of Italy but other Mediterranean countries of the EU which contributes to the gender differentiation of the foreigners' work, paying special attention to the position of an immigrant woman in the integration process into the native community. In that context, the analysis is directed towards the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region and the town of Trieste which have proved themselves to be unique in their acceptance of newcomers, among whom the most numerous being the ex-Yugoslavian (mainly Serbian population. Issues which have been touched include the recent history of dynamic Italian-Yugoslav relationships, the importance of the border, the daily cross-border migration mostly performed by the female workforce and the multiculturalism of Trieste as a border town. The so-called stable migration going through “family unification” has also been observed, a process responsible for the constant rise in the numbers of immigrant women and their underage children. In the way of their harmonic integration into the new society stand numerous obstacles: the language barrier, prejudice, the social invisibility of foreign women, their domestication, professional disqualification and coerced collective identity enforced by national or monoethnic associations. In school – an institution that forms a relationship with the foreign students’ mothers – attempts are being made to break free from this state of social invisibility. Similarly, in multicultural associations and societies, immigrant women

  3. An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe: findings of the AIR-CLIM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcamo, J.; Mayerhofer, P.; Guardans, R.; Harmelen, T. van; Minnen, J. van; Onigkeit, J.; Posch, M.; Vries, B. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an assessment of the linkages between regional air pollution and climate change in Europe (the AIR-CLIM Project). The main research tool was an integrated modeling framework and the main product was a consistent set of long-term scenarios covering Europe between 1995 a

  4. An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe: findings of the AIR-CLIM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcamo, J.; Mayerhofer, P.; Guardans, R.; Harmelen, T. van; Minnen, J. van; Onigkeit, J.; Posch, M.; Vries, B. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an assessment of the linkages between regional air pollution and climate change in Europe (the AIR-CLIM Project). The main research tool was an integrated modeling framework and the main product was a consistent set of long-term scenarios covering Europe between 1995

  5. Integration project of regional markets in Europe (European directive); Proyecto de integracion de mercados regionales en Europa (Directva europea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Fernandez-Castaneda, J. J.

    2010-07-01

    The article presents the current situation of the Day-Ahead electricity markets in the different countries and Regions along West Europe. It describes the different possibilities applied to congestion management in the borders between countries and price areas, and the options employed to couple Day-ahead markets to form regional markets in Europe. Finally, it presents the initiative to Price couple Regional markets (PCR) that is being developed by Nord pool spot, EPEX Spot and OMEL with the objective to advance towards the integration of the markets that they operate in the internal Electricity Market. (Author)

  6. Environmental integrity and damselfly species composition in Amazonian streams at the "arc of deforestation" region, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Schlemmer Brasil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Investigated how the loss of environmental integrity affects damselfly species composition in nine sites with different levels of environmental integrity in a Cerrado-Amazon transition region known as "arc of deforestation" in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We also tested the influence of environmental variables on species composition. METHODS: We collected in transects of 100 m and used ordination (PCoA and simple linear regression. RESULTS: Species composition was strongly influenced by the environmental quality of sites, and the best model to explain species composition included variables related to channel morphology. CONCLUSIONS: These results are connected to the environmental homogenization and loss of environmental integrity as a result of extensive agricultural practices which alter stream communities of dragonflies in this region.

  7. Climatic Data Integration and Analysis - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.; Sheneman, L.; Gollberg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA) is a five-year USDA/NIFA-funded coordinated agriculture project to examine the sustainability of cereal crop production systems in the Pacific Northwest, in relationship to ongoing climate change. As part of this effort, an extensive data management system has been developed to enable researchers, students, and the public, to upload, manage, and analyze various data. The REACCH PNA data management team has developed three core systems to encompass cyberinfrastructure and data management needs: 1) the reacchpna.org portal (https://www.reacchpna.org) is the entry point for all public and secure information, with secure access by REACCH PNA members for data analysis, uploading, and informational review; 2) the REACCH PNA Data Repository is a replicated, redundant database server environment that allows for file and database storage and access to all core data; and 3) the REACCH PNA Libraries which are functional groupings of data for REACCH PNA members and the public, based on their access level. These libraries are accessible thru our https://www.reacchpna.org portal. The developed system is structured in a virtual server environment (data, applications, web) that includes a geospatial database/geospatial web server for web mapping services (ArcGIS Server), use of ESRI's Geoportal Server for data discovery and metadata management (under the ISO 19115-2 standard), Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) for data cataloging, and Interactive Python notebook server (IPython) technology for data analysis. REACCH systems are housed and maintained by the Northwest Knowledge Network project (www.northwestknowledge.net), which provides data management services to support research. Initial project data harvesting and meta-tagging efforts have resulted in the interrogation and loading of over 10 terabytes of climate model output, regional entomological data

  8. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Chun-Chih

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  9. Integrated regional modeling assessment of the environmental and economic potential of perennial grass bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Khanna, M.; Dwivedi, P.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S.; Wang, W.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial grasses have been proposed as viable bioenergy crops because of their potential to yield harvestable biomass on marginal lands without displacing food and contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction by storing carbon in soil. Switchgrass, miscanthus, and restored native prairie are among the crops being considered in the corn and agricultural regions of the eastern United States. In this study, we used an extensive dataset of site observations for each of these crops to evaluate and improve a combined ecosystem and economic modeling framework about how both yield and GHG fluxes would respond to different land use strategies. Using this model-data integration approach, we found 30-75% improvement in our predictions over previous studies and good model-data agreement of harvested yields and soil carbon stocks (r2 > 0.62 for all crops). We found that growing perennial grasses would result in average onsite GHG reductions of 0.5-2.0 Mg CO2e ha-1 yr-1compared to a corn-soy baseline, not including fossil fuel offsets. If grown on marginal lands, average onsite GHG reductions remain significant at 0.3-1.0 Mg CO2e ha-1 yr-1. After conversion to bioenergy and complete life cycle assessment, offsite GHG savings can increase by up to 150%, providing a dry biomass supply of 11-22 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for energy use. Preliminary model results of the abatement cost range between 62- 250 per ton of CO2e abated. While a carbon tax would provide an incentive, we find that it would need to be larger than the abatement cost to induce production of cellulosic biofuels.

  10. Integrated water and renewable energy management: the Acheloos-Peneios region case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouvinos, Antonios; Nikolopoulos, Dionysis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tegos, Aristotelis; Rozos, Evangelos; Papalexiou, Simon-Michael; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yiannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Tyralis, Christos; Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tzouka, Katerina; Christofides, Antonis; Karavokiros, George; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Within the ongoing research project "Combined Renewable Systems for Sustainable Energy Development" (CRESSENDO), we have developed a novel stochastic simulation framework for optimal planning and management of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems, in which hydropower plays the dominant role. The methodology and associated computer tools are tested in two major adjacent river basins in Greece (Acheloos, Peneios) extending over 15 500 km2 (12% of Greek territory). River Acheloos is characterized by very high runoff and holds ~40% of the installed hydropower capacity of Greece. On the other hand, the Thessaly plain drained by Peneios - a key agricultural region for the national economy - usually suffers from water scarcity and systematic environmental degradation. The two basins are interconnected through diversion projects, existing and planned, thus formulating a unique large-scale hydrosystem whose future has been the subject of a great controversy. The study area is viewed as a hypothetically closed, energy-autonomous, system, in order to evaluate the perspectives for sustainable development of its water and energy resources. In this context we seek an efficient configuration of the necessary hydraulic and renewable energy projects through integrated modelling of the water and energy balance. We investigate several scenarios of energy demand for domestic, industrial and agricultural use, assuming that part of the demand is fulfilled via wind and solar energy, while the excess or deficit of energy is regulated through large hydroelectric works that are equipped with pumping storage facilities. The overall goal is to examine under which conditions a fully renewable energy system can be technically and economically viable for such large spatial scale.

  11. AgMIP's Transdisciplinary Agricultural Systems Approach to Regional Integrated Assessment of Climate Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, John M.; Valdivia, Roberto O.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Janssen, Sander; Jones, James W.; Porter, Cheryl H.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alexander C.; Thorburn, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes methods developed by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to implement a transdisciplinary, systems-based approach for regional-scale (local to national) integrated assessment of agricultural systems under future climate, biophysical, and socio-economic conditions. These methods were used by the AgMIP regional research teams in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to implement the analyses reported in their respective chapters of this book. Additional technical details are provided in Appendix 1.The principal goal that motivates AgMIP's regional integrated assessment (RIA) methodology is to provide scientifically rigorous information needed to support improved decision-making by various stakeholders, ranging from local to national and international non-governmental and governmental organizations.

  12. A challenge of regional integration: the Southern Argentinian pipeline enlargement; Desafio de integracao regional: ampliacao do gasoduto Sul-Argentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardi, Oscar; Sosa, Damian [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Duarte Filho, Arno [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The enlargement of the pipelines of Southern Argentina comprised the construction of around 500 km of 30' and 36' loops in the first semester of 2005 and presented many peculiarities. It has been the first enlargement of the argentinian pipeline system since the country's default statement, in 2001, and it has been financed and built by a bi national Brazilian-Argentinian consortium. It has also been the first time that a governmental trusteeship has been used in such an enterprise in Argentina to guarantee the necessary funds. The increasing demand of natural gas to industries and power generation plants brought about by Argentina's recent growth has stated the sense of urgency: the construction must be on duty in June 2005, ready to increase de flow of gas to the Provincia de Buenos Aires and Great Buenos Aires regions. This has represented also a technical challenge, due to the small time to built the loops, the geographical distribution of the construction, which extends from Patagonia to the Great Buenos Aires region and the meteorological conditions of the period of the construction. The article describes the negotiations done to assemble the construction's financial and managerial frameworks, the building and the solutions found to face the challenge and to meet the deadline. (author)

  13. HTLV-1 integration into transcriptionally active genomic regions is associated with proviral expression and with HAM/TSP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran N Meekings

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 causes leukaemia or chronic inflammatory disease in approximately 5% of infected hosts. The level of proviral expression of HTLV-1 differs significantly among infected people, even at the same proviral load (proportion of infected mononuclear cells in the circulation. A high level of expression of the HTLV-1 provirus is associated with a high proviral load and a high risk of the inflammatory disease of the central nervous system known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. But the factors that control the rate of HTLV-1 proviral expression remain unknown. Here we show that proviral integration sites of HTLV-1 in vivo are not randomly distributed within the human genome but are associated with transcriptionally active regions. Comparison of proviral integration sites between individuals with high and low levels of proviral expression, and between provirus-expressing and provirus non-expressing cells from within an individual, demonstrated that frequent integration into transcription units was associated with an increased rate of proviral expression. An increased frequency of integration sites in transcription units in individuals with high proviral expression was also associated with the inflammatory disease HAM/TSP. By comparing the distribution of integration sites in human lymphocytes infected in short-term cell culture with those from persistent infection in vivo, we infer the action of two selective forces that shape the distribution of integration sites in vivo: positive selection for cells containing proviral integration sites in transcriptionally active regions of the genome, and negative selection against cells with proviral integration sites within transcription units.

  14. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  15. LOCAL BRAND DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONALIZATION AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru LUCA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently Romania is in the process of regionalization whose foundations were laid in the "Green Paper regional development in Romania", elaborated under the aegis of the EU Delegation in our country. Regional development is a defining concept of EU construction and at the same time it constitutes a monitoring parameter of any country that wishes to join this structure. Not incidentally, one of the most important directions of the European Commission is called "Regional development and social cohesion”. Against the background of regional development trends, the brand of the region is the one that will make the difference. The concept of branding applied to countries, cities and regions began to be used in the mid-90s in order to support these geographical areas in their fierce competition in the competitive environment. In this era of "super-brands" is nothing unusual to consider a city, a country or a region as being a successful brand.

  16. Modeling Crop Water Requirement at Regional Scales in the Context of Integrated Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogrul, E. C.; Kadir, T.; Brush, C. F.; Chung, F. I.

    2009-12-01

    In developed watersheds, the stresses on surface and subsurface water resources are generally created by groundwater pumping and stream flow diversions to satisfy agricultural and urban water requirements. The application of pumping and diversion to meet these requirements also affects the surface and subsurface water system through recharge of the aquifer and surface runoff back into the streams. The agricultural crop water requirement is a function of climate, soil and land surface physical properties as well as land use management practices which are spatially distributed and evolve in time. In almost all modeling studies pumping and diversions are specified as predefined stresses and are not included in the simulation as an integral and dynamic component of the hydrologic cycle that depend on other hydrologic components. To address this issue, California Department of Water Resources has been developing a new root zone module that can either be used as a stand-alone modeling tool or can be linked to other stream and aquifer modeling tools. The tool, named Integrated Water Flow Model Demand Calculator (IDC), computes crop water requirements under user-specified climatic, land-use and irrigation management settings at regional scales, and routes the precipitation and irrigation water through the root zone using physically-based methods. In calculating the crop water requirement, IDC uses an irrigation-scheduling type approach where irrigation is triggered when the soil moisture falls below a user-specified level. Water demands for managed wetlands, urban areas, and agricultural crops including rice, can either be computed by IDC or specified by the user depending on the requirements and available data for the modeling project. For areas covered with native vegetation water demand is not computed and only precipitation is routed through the root zone. Many irrigational practices such as irrigation for leaching, re-use of irrigation return flow, flooding and

  17. The history of the integration between Russia’s Kaliningrad region and Poland’s northeastern voivodeships: A programme approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironyuk D. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the development of integration between Russia’s Kaliningrad region and Poland’s northeastern voivodeships in 1946—2016. The authors set out to identify the main results of Russian-Polish cross-border cooperation in the context of the changing historical and political paradigms in the Baltic region. The authors conduct a brief historical analysis of this sphere of international relations. The genesis of integration at the regional level is explored by identifying the major areas and tools for collaboration. The authors address research works of Russian (Soviet and Polish researchers, intergovernmental agreements, EU-Russia crossborder cooperation programmes, expert interviews, and relevant analytical reports. Special attention is paid to programme-based interregional and cross-border cooperation as the most efficient form of collaboration for accelerating integration and socio-economic development in border areas. Based on their evaluation of the major achievements, the authors conclude that Russian-Polish cross-border cooperation has been successful. Yet, there is a need for developing a long-term empirical model of Russian-Polish relations in view of the many-years’ collaboration between the Kaliningrad region and the Polish voivodeships.

  18. Considerations in regional integrated hydrologic modeling: grid resolution, topography, and overland flow processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, A.; Welty, C.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Highly resolved regional distributed hydrologic models have become increasingly attainable with ongoing advances in high performance computing, GIS, and remote sensing technologies. These models have been gaining interest owing to management needs in large river basins, the context of pervasive global environmental change, and the perspective of the coupling with land surface and atmospheric models, as well as their potential usefulness as virtual laboratories in hydrologic research and education. These models present challenges inherent to the applicability of the governing equations to different scales. We address some of those challenges as a part of an ongoing effort to construct an integrated hydrologic model of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (382,976 sq km), using ParFlow, a parallel three dimensional, and variably saturated subsurface - surface flow model. We present here the considerations related to the overland flow component of the model, with regard to the spatial discretization. 4-km, 2-km, and 1-km gridding schemes with a vertical discretization of 1 m were evaluated for a homogeneous domain with a net recharge input. DEMs preprocessed with various techniques were used to generate topography. Model results show that only the 1-km grid can provide a representation of the landscape to generate a saturation field at the land surface that allows formation of rivers and proper drainage. However, results were variable across the five physiographic provinces that comprise the domain. It appears that better drainage is manifested in the Coastal Plain and the Appalachian Plateau. Drainage and river formation becomes more problematic in high reliefs, especially in the Blue Ridge physiographic province and along topographic divides. The need of such a relatively fine discretization is accompanied by greater computational needs. The 1-km grid model (more than 700,000,000 cells) requires about 768 GB of memory and use of 256 processors on the distributed memory

  19. INTEGRATION OF THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY AND EDUCATION AS A FACTOR OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION'S ECONOMY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LIPETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Esina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Modern global processes identified human capital, education and science as determinants of innovation development. In order to achieve economic growth the government should create the necessary conditions for effective interaction of business, scientific and educational processes at the level of each region. Most of the subjects of the Russian Federation tend to the mono-production of individual industries. The basic industry of the Lipetsk region is metallurgy. The policy of modernization and differentiation of economy allowed to reduce the share of this sector to 55% and led to the rapid development of other industries, agriculture, food and processing industry and construction. Innovations are widely supported and new types of production are created in the region. High rates of economic development have affected the regional labor market, changed the structure of labor demand and increased employers’ requirements to the quality of educational programs. The system of vocational education of the Lipetsk region is represented by the institutions of different levels. It offers a wide range of educational programs for traditional sectors of the regional economy. New and high-tech industries have a shortage of personnel. Employers demand engineering and technical professions and highly skilled workers. It is necessary to organize continuous improvement of qualification and create a system of continuous and advanced vocational education. To solve the problem of the shortage of labour in the region the Concept of "Human resource development of the Lipetsk region” was developed and approved. There is a Coordinating Council on staffing and vocational education. The road map for the creation of manufacturing and educational clusters was approved. Manufacturing and educational cluster of metallurgical profile proved to be effective. Three more manufacturing and educational clusters of machine-building, agriculture and construction profiles

  20. The Economic Integration Of The EU13 Regions Into EU Economy During The 2004–2013 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabát Libor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study and to highlight the applicative and interpretive limits of the GDP per capita indicators, when regional economics of the new member countries (EU13, particularly the process of integration of their regions into EU economy is examined in terms of the beta and sigma convergence. The growth of gross domestic product has long been pursued as the main objective of the economic activities of countries and regions. Its growth is seen as almost a guarantee of the proper functioning of the economy. The governments of individual countries, in the event of a decline in GDP, take measures for its recovery. Small attention, however, is given to the fact, whether such an economic development copes with the parameters of sustainable economic growth. Also, little attention is paid to the study of how the previous growth is reflected in the standard of living of the population and households in respective countries and regions.

  1. Integrated care through disease-oriented critical paths:experience from Japan’s regional health planning initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Okamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In April 2008, Japan launched a radical reform in regional health planning that emphasized the development of disease-oriented clinical care pathways. These 'inter-provider critical paths' have sought to ensure effective integration of various providers ranging among primary care practitioners, acute care hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, long-term care facilities and home care.  Description of policy practice: All 47 prefectures in Japan developed their Regional Health Plans pursuant to the guideline requiring that these should include at least four diseases: diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident and cancer.  To illustrate the care pathways developed, this paper describes the guideline referring to strokes and provides examples of the new Regional Health Plans as well as examples of disease-oriented inter-provider clinical paths. In particular, the paper examines the development of information sharing through electronic health records (EHR to enhance effective integration among providers is discussed.Discussion and conclusion: Japan's reform in 2008 is unique in that the concept of "disease-oriented regional inter-provider critical paths" was adopted as a national policy and all 47 prefectures developed their Regional Health Plans simultaneously. How much the new regional health planning policy has improved the quality and outcome of care remains to be seen and will be evaluated in 2013 after the five year planned period of implementation has concluded. Whilst electronic health records appear to be a useful tool in supporting care integration they do not guarantee success in the application of an inter-provider critical path.

  2. Integrated care through disease-oriented critical paths:experience from Japan’s regional health planning initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Okamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In April 2008, Japan launched a radical reform in regional health planning that emphasized the development of disease-oriented clinical care pathways. These 'inter-provider critical paths' have sought to ensure effective integration of various providers ranging among primary care practitioners, acute care hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, long-term care facilities and home care.   Description of policy practice: All 47 prefectures in Japan developed their Regional Health Plans pursuant to the guideline requiring that these should include at least four diseases: diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident and cancer.  To illustrate the care pathways developed, this paper describes the guideline referring to strokes and provides examples of the new Regional Health Plans as well as examples of disease-oriented inter-provider clinical paths. In particular, the paper examines the development of information sharing through electronic health records (EHR to enhance effective integration among providers is discussed. Discussion and conclusion: Japan's reform in 2008 is unique in that the concept of "disease-oriented regional inter-provider critical paths" was adopted as a national policy and all 47 prefectures developed their Regional Health Plans simultaneously. How much the new regional health planning policy has improved the quality and outcome of care remains to be seen and will be evaluated in 2013 after the five year planned period of implementation has concluded. Whilst electronic health records appear to be a useful tool in supporting care integration they do not guarantee success in the application of an inter-provider critical path.

  3. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  4. INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION WITH ANALYTICAL NETWORK PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A decision analysis method for integrating environmental indicators was developed. This was a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP). Being able to take into account interdependency among variables, the method was capable of ran...

  5. A Study of Tourism Dynamics in Three Italian Regions Using a Nonautonomous Integrable Lotka-Volterra Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro

    This article is a first application of an integrable nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra (LV) model to the study of tourism dynamics. In particular, we analyze the interaction in terms of touristic flows among three Italian regions. Confirming an hypothesis advanced by recent theoretical works, we find that these regions not only compete against each other, but at times they also proceed in mutualism. Moreover, the kind and the intensity of the interaction changes over time, suggesting that dynamic models can play a vital role in the study of touristic flows.

  6. A Study of Tourism Dynamics in Three Italian Regions Using a Nonautonomous Integrable Lotka–Volterra Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This article is a first application of an integrable nonautonomous Lotka–Volterra (LV) model to the study of tourism dynamics. In particular, we analyze the interaction in terms of touristic flows among three Italian regions. Confirming an hypothesis advanced by recent theoretical works, we find that these regions not only compete against each other, but at times they also proceed in mutualism. Moreover, the kind and the intensity of the interaction changes over time, suggesting that dynamic models can play a vital role in the study of touristic flows. PMID:27661615

  7. Geographic Information Systems for the Regional Integration of Renewable Energies; Los sitemas de Informacion Geografica en la Integracion Regional de Energias Renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report is based on the project: The GIS in the regional integration of Renewable Energies for decentralized electricity production; developed by CIEMAT (Spanish Energy Research Centre) and UPM (Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain) since 1997. The objective of this project is to analyse, evaluate and improve the GIS methodologies for application in RE and how GIS can aid in the evaluation and simulation of influence of technical, socio economical and geographical parameters. This project begin with the review of SOLARGIS methodology. SOLARGIS was developed by an european research team (included CIEMAT) in the frame of JOULE II Programme. In the first place this report described the state of the art in the application of GIS to Renewable Energies. In second place, the SOLARGIS review tasks and the application of this new product to Lorca (Murcia Region in Spain). Finally, the report describes the methodology for the spatial sensibility analysis. (Author) 24 refs.

  8. The Eurasian Economic Union: prospective regional integration in the post-Soviet space or just geopolitical project?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo PODADERA RIVERA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the strong competition on the part of the European Union (EU to become a main integrator in the Post-Soviet Space, the Russian Federation (RF has not abandoned the idea of continuing to promote integration among ex Soviet Union’s republics and as a result, on the basis of the Eurasian Economy Community (EAEC, the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, which is meant to become a link between Europe and Asia, has been created. This contribution aims to analyse the integration in the Post-Soviet Space and the role and perspectives of a new agent in the region, the EEU. With regard to methodology of research, such theoretical methods as analysis of literature and authors’ opinions, analyses of official legal documents and statistics data and comparative analysis of institutions were applied.

  9. Agroparks - The European Landscape Convention and a European way to regional sustainable landscape development through land use integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    of production activities. These landscapes integrate nature protection, agriculture, settlement and recreation in complex structures of management. They could serve as an example for future sustainable landscape planning at a larger scale, supported by regional regulation. The European Landscape Convention (ELC...... land use drivers, a transition to sustainability may become possible. This is the case in the privately owned manor landscapes, which are examples of an integrated land use strategy which has developed over centuries, made possible through stabile ownership conditions and a diversification......) supports such an alternative avenue of development, and can be considered a vision for more integrated types of landscape planning and management also outside protected areas (ELC 2000). The ELC highlights the common right to the landscape for all its inhabitants, and as such provides a singularly European...

  10. Climate Dynamics and Experimental Prediction (CDEP) and Regional Integrated Science Assessments (RISA) Programs at NOAA Office of Global Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzai, A.

    2003-04-01

    This talk will highlight science and application activities of the CDEP and RISA programs at NOAA OGP. CDEP, through a set of Applied Research Centers (ARCs), supports NOAA's program of quantitative assessments and predictions of global climate variability and its regional implications on time scales of seasons to centuries. The RISA program consolidates results from ongoing disciplinary process research under an integrative framework. Examples of joint CDEP-RISA activities will be presented. Future directions and programmatic challenges will also be discussed.

  11. Towards An Integrated Fire Management Framework Using Space-Based Application In Asia-Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hendri; Loh, Timothy; Tiwaree, Ram S.; Lee, Khiam Jin; Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao

    2011-01-01

    The integrated fire management framework using space-based application has been developed to reduce the consequences of fire disaster, particularly in developing countries, least developed countries (LDCs), small island developing states (SIDs) and land-locked developing countries (LLDCs) in Asia and the Pacific. Since 1982/1983 and 1997/1998, the two recorded forest fires in the world created much suffering in Asia and the Pacific region, while the resulting transboundary atmospheric polluta...

  12. Characterizing the interaction between uranyl ion and fulvic acid using regional integration analysis (RIA) and fluorescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bingqi; Ryan, David K

    2016-03-01

    The development of chemometric methods has substantially improved the quantitative usefulness of the fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) in the analysis of dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, Regional Integration Analysis (RIA) was used to quantitatively interpret EEMs and assess fluorescence quenching behavior in order to study the binding between uranyl ion and fulvic acid. Three fulvic acids including soil fulvic acid (SFA), Oyster River fulvic acid (ORFA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) were used and investigated by the spectroscopic techniques. The EEM spectra obtained were divided into five regions according to fluorescence structural features and two distinct peaks were observed in region III and region V. Fluorescence quenching analysis was conducted for these two regions with the stability constants, ligand concentrations and residual fluorescence values calculated using the Ryan-Weber model. Results indicated a relatively strong binding ability between uranyl ion and fulvic acid samples at low pH (log K value varies from 4.11 to 4.67 at pH 3.50). Fluorophores in region III showed a higher binding ability with fewer binding sites than in region V. Stability constants followed the order, SFA > ORFA > SRFA, while ligand concentrations followed the reverse order, SRFA > ORFA > SFA. A comparison between RIA and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) data treatment methods was also performed and good agreement between these two methods (less than 4% difference in log K values) demonstrates the reliability of the RIA method in this study.

  13. An Integral Evaluation of the Financial State of the Regional Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Panteleyevich Kyurdzhiev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the development of theoretical positions and methodical approaches to the integral evaluation of the financial state of the region’s metallurgical enterprises. The purpose is to show the possibility of dividing the integral evaluation into separate elements for using this tool to build individual models based on the forecasting of the various coordinates of the financial position of enterprise. The hypothesis of the study is based on the objective need to improve the integral evaluation of the financial position of enterprises. This involves the modernization of existing theoretical and methodological approaches to the increase of the quality of analysis by eliminating certain shortcomings of discriminant models in order to clarify the algorithm of constructing the integral index. The methodological bases of systemic approach and mathematical modelling in economics are applied: the methods of financial analysis, grouping, abstraction, comparison which give the possibility of determining the financial indicators needed to build the predictive models of financial state; the methods of correlation and regression analysis, which allow to improve the integral value and to build the mathematical forecasting models. With the purpose of improving the integral evaluation of the financial condition of enterprise, the geometric interpretation is used, which involves the dividing of the integral indicator on the individual elements. The special feature of the proposed methodological approach consists in the implementation rules for the certain procedures of the evaluation of financial position and generalization of the analysis results. The proposed approach can be used by financial analysts to elaborate the strategic plans of company development and structure optimization of financial resources. This research allows to define the quantitative influence of separate parameters on the general assessment of the financial

  14. Spurred emulation: The EU and regional integration in SADC and Mercosur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, T.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the EU's influence on regional institutional change in Mercosur and the Southern African Development Community from a diffusion perspective. Focusing on market-building objectives and dispute settlement mechanisms, it addresses the puzzle that policy-makers in both regions have

  15. Integration of onshore and offshore seismological data to study the seismicity of the Calabrian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Guerra, Ignazio; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Gervasi, Anna; Harabaglia, Paolo; Luzio, Dario; Stellato, Gilda

    2014-05-01

    The Pollino Massif marks the transition from the Southern Appenninic to the Calabrian Arc. On the western side it is characterized by a moderately sized seismicity (about 9 M > 4 events in the last 50 years), well documented in the last 400 years. The moment tensor solutions available in this area yields, mainly, normal faults with coherent Southern Appeninic trend. This remains true also for the events that are localized on the calabrian side of Pollino, South of the massif. In most of the Sibari plane, seismic activity is very scarce, while it is again rather marked on its southeastern corner, both onshore and offshore. The above observations point to the perspective that the stress field of a vast portion of Northern Calabria still resembles that of the Southern Appenines. In this frame, it becomes important to investigate the offshore seismicity of the Sibari Gulf and the deformation pattern within the Sibari Plane. The latter might function as a hinge to transfer the deformation of the extensional fault system in the Pollino area to a different offshore fault system. Since return times of larger events might be very long, we need to investigate the true seismic potential of the offshore faults and to verify whether they are truly strike slip or if they could involve relevant thrust or normal components, that would add to the risk that of potentially associated tsunamis. Despite their importance in the understanding of the seismotectonic processes taking place in the Southern Appenninic - Calabrian Arc border and surrounding areas, the seismicity and the seismogenic volumes of the Sibari Gulf until now has not been well characterized due to the lack of offshore seismic stations. The seismicity of the Calabrian is monitored by the Italian National Seismic Network (INSN) managed by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and by the Calabrian Regional Seismic Network (CRSN) managed by the University of Calabria. Both the network comprise only on

  16. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Haase

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  17. Integrating fuzzy logic and statistics to improve the reliable delimitation of biogeographic regions and transition zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Jesús; Márquez, Ana L; Real, Raimundo

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the amphibian species of the Mediterranean basin to develop a consistent procedure based on fuzzy sets with which biogeographic regions and biotic transition zones can be objectively detected and reliably mapped. Biogeographical regionalizations are abstractions of the geographical organization of life on Earth that provide frameworks for cataloguing species and ecosystems, for answering basic questions in biogeography, evolutionary biology, and systematics, and for assessing priorities for conservation. On the other hand, limits between regions may form sharply defined boundaries along some parts of their borders, whereas elsewhere they may consist of broad transition zones. The fuzzy set approach provides a heuristic way to analyse the complexity of the biota within an area; significantly different regions are detected whose mutual limits are sometimes fuzzy, sometimes clearly crisp. Most of the regionalizations described in the literature for the Mediterranean biogeographical area present a certain degree of convergence when they are compared within the context of fuzzy interpretation, as many of the differences found between regionalizations are located in transition zones, according to our case study. Compared with other classification procedures based on fuzzy sets, the novelty of our method is that both fuzzy logic and statistics are used together in a synergy in order to avoid arbitrary decisions in the definition of biogeographic regions and transition zones.

  18. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  19. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  20. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Honorio Coronado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale

  1. The Effects of Various Regional and Global Integration Indices on Foreign Direct Investment (Case Study: OPEC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoofe Nagheli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration at global and regional level is one of the most important consequences of mutual relationships of countries. Given that capital is the stimulant of economic growth and development and developing countries are often faced with lack of capital, they are trying to compensate this with foreign borrowing but regarding crises resulted from it foreign direct investment is being used as its substitute. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of economic integration and globalization on FDI attraction. In order to achieve the above goal foreign direct investment equation for Asian countries is estimated by Stata software using panel data during 2001-2011 based on theoretical literature of gravity model and using of econometric methods. Our results, as we expected reveal that there is a positive relation between economic integration and foreign investment. Comparison of results in different cases shows that co-integration has more impacts on FDI for OPEC Countries under globalization conditions. In globalization cases, integration is the best choice for attracting of FDI in OPEC.

  2. European integration and the supervision of local and regional authorities Experiences in the Netherlands with requirements of European Community law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hessel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing European integration, local and regional authorities are having to deal with European law more and more intensively. As Member States (read: central government are responsible vis-à-vis the Community for the errors of local and regional authorities, the question arises within Member States whether the central government possesses sufficient supervisory instruments for complying with their obligations under Community law: they must ensure that the errors of local and regional authorities are rectified in time, and national law must provide for sufficient possibilities to do so. Although Community law is neutral towards the internal relations between the various tiers of government within the Member States, this responsibility of the central government may, as a result of European integration, lead to a need for more powerful supervisory instruments in relation to local and regional authorities. In the past five years there has been some debate on this subject within the Netherlands and after a long delay the Dutch cabinet in 2004 decided that the existing supervisory instruments in the decentralized unitary state of the Netherlands should be expanded. The legislation intended to realize this expansion is being prepared. This discussion and its results would seem of interest to other Member States of the Community facing similar problems.

  3. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC, EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP. The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities.

  4. Foreign Direct Investment in Regional Integration: Comparative Attractiveness in the CEMAC and UEMOA Economic Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Ngongang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The competition or complementarity of foreign direct investment (FDIattractiveness between economically similar regions located in the same continenthas not yet been up to now sufficiently explored in the literature. The purpose ofthis paper is consequently to contribute to this literature by determining whetheror not there exists a long-term relationship between FDI flows in the CEMAC andUEMOA regions of Central and West Africa. This hypothesis is tested in botheconomic spaces using a Vector Autoregression (VAR model. The study showsthat the FDI flowing in the UEMOA zone directly attracts FDI flows in theCEMAC zone. These inflows improve the business environment in both regions.Overall, the study however finds that the long-term relationship which existsbetween these two regions is inclined to be more competitive rather thancomplementary.

  5. Foreign Direct Investment in Regional Integration: Comparative Attractiveness in the CEMAC and UEMOA Economic Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Ngongang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The competition or complementarity of foreign direct investment (FDIattractiveness between economically similar regions located in the same continenthas not yet been up to now sufficiently explored in the literature. The purpose ofthis paper is consequently to contribute to this literature by determining whetheror not there exists a long-term relationship between FDI flows in the CEMAC andUEMOA regions of Central and West Africa. This hypothesis is tested in botheconomic spaces using a Vector Autoregression (VAR model. The study showsthat the FDI flowing in the UEMOA zone directly attracts FDI flows in theCEMAC zone. These inflows improve the business environment in both regions.Overall, the study however finds that the long-term relationship which existsbetween these two regions is inclined to be more competitive rather thancomplementary.

  6. Trade Policy and Regional Integration: Implications for the Relations between Europe and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Paul; Toye, John

    1994-01-01

    For Africa, a regional customs union is unlikely to realise net welfare gains (in the sense of trade creation dominating trade diversion) which cannot be attained through unilateral trade liberalization. Unilateral reform has often failed in Africa, however. A regional customs union tied to Europe with reciprocal free trade is likely to dominate unilateral liberalization in several ways. Most importantly, it would make trade liberalization credible and thereby easier to sustain.

  7. Quantifying the link between anatomical connectivity, gray matter volume and regional cerebral blood flow: an integrative MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Várkuti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the graph theoretical analysis of anatomical brain connectivity, the white matter connections between regions of the brain are identified and serve as basis for the assessment of regional connectivity profiles, for example, to locate the hubs of the brain. But regions of the brain can be characterised further with respect to their gray matter volume or resting state perfusion. Local anatomical connectivity, gray matter volume and perfusion are traits of each brain region that are likely to be interdependent, however, particular patterns of systematic covariation have not yet been identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the covariation of these traits by conducting an integrative MRI study on 23 subjects, utilising a combination of Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Arterial Spin Labeling and anatomical imaging. Based on our hypothesis that local connectivity, gray matter volume and perfusion are linked, we correlated these measures and particularly isolated the covariation of connectivity and perfusion by statistically controlling for gray matter volume. We found significant levels of covariation on the group- and regionwise level, particularly in regions of the Default Brain Mode Network. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Connectivity and perfusion are systematically linked throughout a number of brain regions, thus we discuss these results as a starting point for further research on the role of homology in the formation of functional connectivity networks and on how structure/function relationships can manifest in the form of such trait interdependency.

  8. A comparative analysis between the relation of income distribution and economic regional integration in East Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Jeaneth Ospina Enciso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between inequality and de facto regional economic integration during the last two decades in Latin America and East Asia Pacific regions, focusing on intra-regional exports. Globalization has been considered as a driving of inequality, although export-led growth models are associated with high economic growth rates. Export-led growth models have been more dynamic in East Asia than in Latin America, through the development of supply chain networks of intermediate and final goods. Research questions explore the relation between inequality and patterns of de facto intra-regional trade. Empirical analysis uses a fixed effects panel data with Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent (HAC covariance matrix. Results showed that increments in regional intra-trade are associated with reductions of inequality, more in East Asia Pacific than in Latin America. The contribution of this paper is the introduction of intra-regional trade as a new factor that is negatively associated with inequality.

  9. Towards the Development of an Automated Learning Assistant for Vector Calculus: Integration over Planar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Yuzita; Wester, Michael; Steinberg, Stanly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a computer learning assistant ILMEV (Interactive Learning-Mathematica Enhanced Vector calculus) package with the purpose of helping students to understand the theory and applications of integration in vector calculus. The main problem for students using Mathematica is to convert a textbook description of a…

  10. THE GENESIS OF CONCEPTS OF INSTITUALIZATION OF THE EU REGIONAL FINANCIAL INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Poshtar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of modern theories and conceptions of monetary and financial integration in the EU. Main characteristics of the development of supranational regulation over financial markets were provided. Moreover, contemporary tendencies and perspectives of economic convergence development were defined as well.

  11. Marine Governance in a European context: Regionalization, integration and cooperation for ecosystem-based management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soma, K.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Leeuwen, van J.

    2015-01-01

    New EU policy initiatives within the Maritime Strategy Framework Directive, the Integrated Maritime Policy, the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy, the offshore Energy policy and the Blue Growth Strategy, are in different manners aiming at implementing Ecosystem Based Management (EBM). EBM focuse

  12. Regional Economic Integration in the Developing World: Historical Trends at the Future Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    American Integration. Inter-American Economic Affairs, Summer 1967. ldos Santos , Theotonio . "The Structure of 5 Baer, Wener. The Economics of...Series in World Affairs. 1965. Denver: University of dos Santos , Theotonio . "The Structure of Denver. Dependence." American Economic Review, Vol

  13. Detection of hard X-ray emission from the Galactic nuclear region with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Goldoni, P.

    2004-01-01

    This Letter presents the first results of an observational campaign to study the Galactic center with INTEGRAL, the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. Mosaicked images were constructed using data obtained with ISGRI, the soft gamma-ray instrument of the coded aperture IBIS imager, i...

  14. Detection of hard X-ray emission from the Galactic nuclear region with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Goldoni, P.

    2004-01-01

    This Letter presents the first results of an observational campaign to study the Galactic center with INTEGRAL, the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. Mosaicked images were constructed using data obtained with ISGRI, the soft gamma-ray instrument of the coded aperture IBIS imager, i...

  15. The Integration of Climate Science and Collaborative Processes in Building Regional Climate Resiliency in Southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, J.

    2016-12-01

    Southeast Florida is widely recognized as one of the most vulnerable regions in the United States to the impacts of climate change, especially sea level rise. Dense urban populations, low land elevations, flat topography, complex shorelines and a porous geology all contribute to the region's challenges. Regional and local governments have been working collaboratively to address shared climate mitigation and adaptation concerns as part of the four-county Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact (Compact). This partnership has emphasized, in part, the use of climate data and the development of advanced technical tools and visualizations to help inform decision-making, improve communications, and guide investments. Prominent work products have included regional vulnerability maps and assessments, a unified sea level rise projection for southeast Florida, the development and application of hydrologic models in scenario planning, interdisciplinary resilient redesign planning workshops, and the development of regional climate indicators. Key to the Compact's efforts has been the engagement and expertise of academic and agency partners, including a formal collaboration between the Florida Climate Institute and the Compact to improve research and project collaborations focused on southeast Florida. This presentation will focus on the collaborative processes and work products that have served to accelerate resiliency planning and investments in southeast Florida, with specific examples of how local governments are using these work products to modernize agency processes, and build support among residents and business leaders.

  16. Integrated assessment of socioeconomic and climate change on the Broads National Park, UK, using the 'Regional Impact Simulator'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, I. P.

    2007-12-01

    The Broads National Park, located in the east of England is the UK's only wetland National Park. Located in a low-lying area of intensive arable agriculture in the driest part of England, it faces many challenges. The 'Regional Impact Simulator' is a user friendly software tool designed to allow UK stakeholders to perform regional integrated assessments of the effects of socio-economic and/or climate change on important sectors and resources. This includes assessment of agriculture, water resources, biodiversity and coastal and river flooding. The development of this regional tool arose from the need to further develop the methods applied in the first local to regional integrated assessment in the UK, which was limited by very long run times, a limited number of simulations, incomplete linkages between models and no allowance for scenario uncertainty. Using the 'Regional Impact Simulator' for a range of socio-economic and emissions scenarios for the 2050s, The Broads in will face a diverse range of challenges related to: 1) Changes in coastal and fluvial flood risk - increased sea level and fluvial flows will increase flood risk for current flood defences; 2) Changing agricultural practices, associated with changing farmer responses to policy, will affect nutrient losses and habitats 3) Changes in water abstraction and discharge - irrigation demand will increase as water resources decrease. However future water availability is a consequence of both societal and policy priorities towards abstraction, and the changing patterns of urbanization and water usage; 4) Changes in habitats especially coastal habitats - saltmarsh will tend to be lost due to sea level rise, although managed realignment may increase stocks at the expense of coastal grazing marshes Socio-economic changes can be as (if not more) important than direct climate change-induced impacts, but the impacts of these changes depend on the choices society makes (e.g. flood defence policy; water demand

  17. Role of the short telomeric repeat region in Marek's disease virus replication, genomic integration, and lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Annachiara; Fester, Nadine; Engel, Annemarie T; Kaufer, Benedikt B

    2014-12-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a cell-associated alphaherpesvirus that causes generalized polyneuritis and T-cell lymphomas in chickens. MDV is able to integrate its genome into host telomeres, but the mechanism of integration is poorly understood. The MDV genome harbors two arrays of telomeric repeats (TMR) at the ends of its linear genome: multiple telomeric repeats (mTMR), with a variable number of up to 100 repeats, and short telomeric repeats (sTMR), with a fixed number of 6 repeats. The mTMR have recently been shown to play an important role in MDV integration and tumor formation; however, the functions of the sTMR have remained unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of the sTMR in the MDV genome abrogates virus replication, while extensive mutation of the sTMR does not, indicating that the presence of the sTMR but not the sTMR sequence itself is important. Furthermore, we generated a panel of truncation mutants to determine the minimal length of the sTMR and observed a direct correlation between sTMR length and MDV replication. To address the role of sTMR in MDV replication, integration, and tumorigenesis, sTMR sequences were replaced by a scrambled repeated sequence (vsTMR_mut). vsTMR_mut replicated comparably to parental and revertant viruses in vitro. In vivo, however, a significant reduction in disease and tumor incidence was observed in chickens infected with vsTMR_mut that also correlated with a reduced number of viral integration sites in tumor cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the sTMR play a central role in MDV genome replication, pathogenesis, and MDV-induced tumor formation. Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus that infects chickens and causes high economic losses in the poultry industry. MDV integrates its genetic material into host telomeres, a process that is crucial for efficient tumor formation. The MDV genome harbors two arrays of telomeric repeats (TMR) at the ends of its linear

  18. Moving beyond Component Research in Mountain Regions: Operationalizing Systems Integration .at Farm and Landscape Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura German

    2006-01-01

    Most research in support of agricultural development and natural resource management in densely settled mountain ecosystems continues to emphasize component over system-level goals.Research by plant breeders, foresters and animal scientists is generally designed to maximize the yield of products within their particular area of expertise(edible plant parts, tree products and livestock products, respectively), while soil scientists aim largely to increase soil nutrient stocks. At landscape level the same dynamic holds within the agronomic sciences, while water engineers work independently to conserve water through its isolation from broader landscape dynamics, and other common property resources remain largely ignored. Opportunities to foster positive synergies between system components,and to integrate livelihood with conservation goals,are generally missed.This paper presents experiences of the African Highlands Initiative, an ecoregional program of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and a network of the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), in operationalizing integrated research at farm and landscape scale.Following a discussion of the shortcomings of the conventional research paradigm that beg for stronger integration and a review of the contributions of extant research paradigms that help us move in the right direction, the paper lays a conceptual foundation for integrated research. System components at farm and landscape level are delineated, and this somewhat arbitrary conceptual partitioning of agroecological systems shown to influence the current research paradigm as well as the partitioning of institutional mandates. Diverse meanings of systems integration are then discussed to illustrate the synergies that might be built into agricultural and natural resource research programs. The distinction between the logic of maximization and optimization is then utilized to

  19. Magneto-optical responses of microcavity-integrated graphene photonic crystals in the infrared spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi-Ghaleh, Reza; Sattari, Maryam

    2016-09-01

    The magneto-optical responses and photonic band gap properties of the microcavity-integrated graphene photonic crystals were numerically studied. The structure consists of a graphene sheet embedded between two mirror symmetric Bragg reflectors, under the influence of an external static magnetic field. The properties of the microcavity resonance mode were investigated, considering the right- and left-handed circular polarization transmission coefficients and their phases, together with the Faraday rotation angle and ellipticity of the output light. The effects of the repetition number of the Bragg reflectors, thickness of the microcavity central layer and refractive indices of the graphene adjacent layers were considered. The obtained results revealed that a pure linear polarized output light with no ellipticity and high transmittance enhanced Faraday rotation can be achieved. These results can be utilized in designing a variety of graphene based photonic devices and magneto-optical integrated elements, such as miniaturized isolators or circulators.

  20. GEOFIM: A WebGIS application for integrated geophysical modeling in active volcanic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Sicali, Antonino; Greco, Filippo; Negro, Ciro Del

    2014-09-01

    We present GEOFIM (GEOphysical Forward/Inverse Modeling), a WebGIS application for integrated interpretation of multiparametric geophysical observations. It has been developed to jointly interpret scalar and vector magnetic data, gravity data, as well as geodetic data, from GPS, tiltmeter, strainmeter and InSAR observations, recorded in active volcanic areas. GEOFIM gathers a library of analytical solutions, which provides an estimate of the geophysical signals due to perturbations in the thermal and stress state of the volcano. The integrated geophysical modeling can be performed by a simple trial and errors forward modeling or by an inversion procedure based on NSGA-II algorithm. The software capability was tested on the multiparametric data set recorded during the 2008-2009 Etna flank eruption onset. The results encourage to exploit this approach to develop a near-real-time warning system for a quantitative model-based assessment of geophysical observations in areas where different parameters are routinely monitored.

  1. Burdock, a novel retrotransposon in Drosophila melanogaster, integrates into the coding region of the cut locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, N A; Bannikov, V M; Anashchenko, V A; Tchurikov, N A

    1997-08-11

    The burdock element is known to be the 2.6-kb insertion into the same region of the cut locus in 12 independently obtained ct-lethal mutants. Here we have determined the complete sequences of this insertion and of the hot spot region. It was found that the burdock is a short retrotransposon with long terminal repeats and a single open reading frame (ORF). The polypeptide encoded by the burdock ORF contains two adjacent regions homologous to the gag and pol polyproteins of the gypsy mobile element. The burdock insertion interrupts the short ORF of the cut locus. The target site sequence of the burdock insertions is similar to the Drosophila topoisomerase II cleavage site.

  2. Cross-border population movements and regional economic integration in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwil, K H

    1995-01-01

    This article, which is concerned with the area of international migration, examines some of the problems associated with the trend toward greater integration of the economies of Latin American countries. The geographic focus is on the member countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) or the Andean Group. The author proposes a program of measures to control migration. The proposal attempts to incorporate the social dimension of migration as well as its economic aspects.

  3. A Regional GIS of the Central Andes, South America - Integration of Satellite and Geophysical Data Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, K; F. K. List; [Child, Sir Josiah, bart.] 

    1996-01-01

    The Central Andes of northern Chile, southwestern Bolivia and northwestern Argentina are studied by a research project supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 267). The main topics of these geological and geophysical investigations are the orogeny of the Andean mountains and the crustal development at an active continental margin. The "Andean GIS" is designed as a tool for data collection, management, overview, analysis and mapping. The integration of different data supports the...

  4. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  5. Integration Strategies and Barriers to Co-Operation in Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2007-01-01

    and business on the global level. In this respect, the article points out the importance of market forces and their influence on institutional change. Recent economic crises have put growth center stage at both the national and regional level, and have called for regional development programs on both...... the Swedish and Danish sides of the Sound. The strengths and weaknesses of the Øresund Region’s ‘traditional’ and new institutions as instruments for change are examined. The article identifies and discusses the structures, institutions, and players which are the driving forces in the field between markets...

  6. Resource Planning Model: An Integrated Resource Planning and Dispatch Tool for Regional Electric Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Drury, E.; Eurek, K.; Bodington, N.; Lopez, A.; Perry, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces a new capacity expansion model, the Resource Planning Model (RPM), with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be used for mid- and long-term scenario planning of regional power systems. Although RPM can be adapted to any geographic region, the report describes an initial version of the model adapted for the power system in Colorado. It presents examples of scenario results from the first version of the model, including an example of a 30%-by-2020 renewable electricity penetration scenario.

  7. Analysing a Chinese Regional Integrated Healthcare Organisation Reform Failure using a Complex Adaptive System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxi Tang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: China’s organised health system has remained outdated for decades. Current health systems in many less market-oriented countries still adhere to traditional administrative-based directives and linear planning. Furthermore, they neglect the responsiveness and feedback of institutions and professionals, which often results in reform failure in integrated care. Complex adaptive system theory (CAS provides a new perspective and methodology for analysing the health system and policy implementation.  Methods: We observed the typical case of Qianjiang’s Integrated Health Organization Reform (IHO for 2 years to analyse integrated care reforms using CAS theory. Via questionnaires and interviews, we observed 32 medical institutions and 344 professionals. We compared their cooperative behaviours from both organisational and inter-professional levels between 2013 and 2015, and further investigated potential reasons for why medical institutions and professionals did not form an effective IHO. We discovered how interested parties in the policy implementation process influenced reform outcome, and by theoretical induction, proposed a new semi-organised system and corresponding policy analysis flowchart that potentially suits the actual realisation of CAS.  Results: The reform did not achieve its desired effect. The Qianjiang IHO was loosely integrated rather than closely integrated, and the cooperation levels between organisations and professionals were low. This disappointing result was due to low mutual trust among IHO members, with the main contributing factors being insufficient financial incentives and the lack of a common vision.  Discussion and Conclusions: The traditional 'organised health system' is old-fashioned. Rather than being completely organised or adaptive, the health system is currently more similar to a s'emi-organised system'. Medical institutions and professionals operate in a middle ground between complete adherence

  8. Optimizing decentralized renewable energy production by combining potentials and integrated environmental impact analysis. A case study in the Hannover region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmas, Claudia; Siewert, Almut [Leibniz Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    In Europe, the integration of decentralized renewable energy production in regional planning processes plays a crucial role. In particular, regions face a major challenge in order to set up renewable decentralized energy systems and incorporate them into the electricity grid. This paper presents a methodological concept and preliminary tests of applications in order to create an optimization model for an improved renewable energy development and planning practice: firstly, the energy potentials of micro renewable resources are estimated, and secondly the outcomes are combined with an estimation of resulting environmental impacts. Including these data into the spatial analysis, different scenarios can be developed in order to support decision making in landscape planning on the basis of environmental and landscape criteria as well as energy issues, including technical aspects and costs. The case study area is the Hannover region. First results show good energy potentials, which will be in a next step evaluated and combined with environmental impacts in order to improve energy efficiency by integrated renewable, decentralized power plants and energy mix. (orig.)

  9. Laser diodes with several emitting regions ({lambda} = 800-1100 nm) on the basis of epitaxially integrated heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmalyuk, A. A., E-mail: A.Marmalyuk@siplus.ru; Davydova, E. I.; Zverkov, M. V.; Konyaev, V. P.; Krichevsky, V. V.; Ladugin, M. A.; Lebedeva, E. I.; Petrov, S. V.; Sapozhnikov, S. M.; Simakov, V. A.; Uspenskiy, M. B.; Yarotskaya, I. V. [Stel' makh Research and Development Institute ' Polyus' (Russian Federation); Pikhtin, N. A.; Tarasov, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The results of a series of studies concerned with formation of epitaxially integrated InGaAs/AlGaAs and AlGaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures with several emitting regions and with investigation of properties of laser diodes based on the above structures operating in the spectral ranges {lambda} = 800-810, 890-910, and 1040-1060 nm are summarized. It is shown that the suggested approach to integration of individual laser structures by the method of the MOVPE epitaxy operates efficiently in fabrication of laser diodes for a wide spectral range on the basis of various types of heterostructures. This approach made it possible to efficiently increase the output power of the laser diodes practically without variation in their mass-and-dimension characteristics. The main advantages of this approach and its limitations are outlined. Epitaxial integration of two laser heterostructures made it possible to increase the differential quantum efficiency by 1.7-2.0 times, while integration of three laser heterostructures increases the differential quantum efficiency by a factor of 2.5-3.0.

  10. Semi-arid Northeast Brazil: integrated modelling of regional development and global change impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Maarten S.; Fuhr, Dagmar; Döring, Andreas; Unruh, Jon D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Kliot, Nurit

    2004-01-01

    Societies in semi-arid areas in developing regions are amongst those most vulnerable to climate variability and potentially most vulnerable to climate change. The vulnerability to climate variability emerges from a combination of the level of availability of natural resources and the human dependenc

  11. Predicting wheat production at regional scale by integration of remote sensing data with a simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Schouten, L.S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Optical remote sensing satellite data (SPOT HRV XS, Landsat 5 TM) were used to estimate winter wheat area in a pilot area of 5 × 5 km in the Southeast of France. The approach was scaled up to a larger area of 45 × 50 km and finally to the regional level covering several departments. Microwave remote

  12. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Modeling Tools: Integration of Advanced Sediment Transport Tools into HEC-RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Point of Contact, Dr. Paul M. Boyd (Paul.M.Boyd@ usace.army.mil), or to Dr. Standford A. Gibson (Stanford.Gibson...Parker. 2004. Experiments on upstream-migrating erosional narrowing and widening of an incisional channel caused by dam removal. Water Resources

  13. Semi-arid Northeast Brazil: integrated modelling of regional development and global change impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Fuhr, Dagmar; Döring, Andreas; Unruh, Jon D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Kliot, Nurit

    2004-01-01

    Societies in semi-arid areas in developing regions are amongst those most vulnerable to climate variability and potentially most vulnerable to climate change. The vulnerability to climate variability emerges from a combination of the level of availability of natural resources and the human

  14. Influence of ecohydrologic feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsum, van P.E.V.; Supit, I.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrologic climate change modelling is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. To reduce this dependency, we extended the regional hydrologic modelling framework SIMGRO to host a two-way coupling between the soil moisture model MetaSWAP and the crop growth simulation model WOFOST, acc

  15. Influence of feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsum, van P.E.V.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impact modelling of hydrologic responses is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. Reducing this dependency was one of the goals of extending the regional hydrologic modelling system SIMGRO with a two-way coupling to the crop growth simulation model WOFOST. The couplin

  16. Integrated and Participatory Research Approaches towards Sustainable Livelihoods and Ecosystems in Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Neef; Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; David Thomas; Pittaya Sruamsiri

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mountainous regions cover about 27 per cent of the world's land surface and are home to some 22 per cent of the global population (UNEP 2002). A much greater number of people depend on mountain environments for a wide range of services, including clean water, energy, timber,biodiversity, recreation, and protection from environmental hazards, such as landslides and floods.

  17. Predicting wheat production at regional scale by integration of remote sensing data with a simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Schouten, L.S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Optical remote sensing satellite data (SPOT HRV XS, Landsat 5 TM) were used to estimate winter wheat area in a pilot area of 5 × 5 km in the Southeast of France. The approach was scaled up to a larger area of 45 × 50 km and finally to the regional level covering several departments. Microwave remote

  18. Integrated assessment of adaptation to Climate change in Flevoland at the farm and regional level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Mandryk, M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Schaap, B.F.; Reidsma, P.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2011-01-01

    A key objective of the AgriAdapt project is to assess climate change impacts on agriculture including adaptation at regional and farm type level in combination with market and technological changes. More specifically, the developed methodologies enable (a) the assessment of impacts, risks and resili

  19. Integration of Soil Information System and Interactive Self—Organizing Data for Agricultural Developing Zones in Red Soil Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIZHOU; WANGRENCHAO; 等

    1999-01-01

    Integration of soil information system (SIS) and interactive self-organizing data(ISODATA) was studied to establish proper agricultural developing zones in red soil region of southern China which are of crucial importance to farmers,researchers,and decision maders while utilizing and managing red soil resources.SIS created by using ARC/INFO was used to provide data acquisition,systematic model parameter assignment,and visual display of analytic results.Topography,temperature,soil component(e.g.,organic matter and pH) and condition of agricultural production were selected as parameters of ISODATA model.Taking Longyou County,Zhejiang Province as the case study area,the effect of the integration and recommendations are discussed for future research.

  20. [Research on professional health training in the MERCOSUR: a contribution to regional integration policies for training health technicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marise

    2007-01-01

    Progress with regional economic integration in the Southern Cone raises the problem of workers' circulation, requiring reciprocal recognition of curricula and mechanisms for professional certification. The Escola Politécnica de Saúde Joaquim Venâncio (Joaquim Venâncio Polytechnic Health School) of the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation), as a WHO Collaborating Center for Technical Education in Health, has focused on this issue by conducting studies and standardizations for the integration of training policies for health technicians within the MERCOSUR. An important challenge is to identify and systematize the quantitative and qualitative supply of technical education in health in the MERCOSUR member countries, to help establish commonalities between prevailing curricular regulations, titles, diplomas, and professional work codes in the respective countries. The purpose of the current article is to situate this challenge vis-à-vis the relationship between work, education, and health.

  1. Cluster management model of the region development as the basis for ensuring the integration of science, education and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartashova A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to trace the integration of education, science and production through the development of regional cluster policy. At the present stage of development of postindustrial society in the global economy, the processes of globalization and specialization of national markets significantly increase competition between countries, between regions and between producers within the country. In these circumstances, the state authorities of the Russian Federation, while maintaining global leadership in the energy sector, define as long-term development goals of the country, the creation of a competitive economy based on knowledge and high technologies. Following this doctrine in the Russian regions in the period from 2012 to 2014 cluster policy is implemented on the basis of Federal and regional innovation strategies. An important role in this process belongs to the activities of leading higher educational institutions - national research universities, which contribute to stimulate an active scientific activity of students and the introduction of scientific achievements into production. One of the pilot cluster projects, funded by the Federal budget became the territorial cluster “ Pharmaceutics, medical technology and information technology ” formed in the Tomsk region with a unique starting opportunities for the development of sustainable regional innovation system is a developed scientific and educational complex, small and medium-sized innovative enterprises with the latest technological developments in pharmaceuticals and medical technology. In two years, the activity cluster, implemented with the financial support of public authorities, has been successful. In the future, there are plans to expand the range of pharmaceutical products and the collaboration with other clusters Tomsk. Cluster policy contributes to the emergence of stakeholders and large economic enterprises, thus providing a close relationship between science

  2. Integrated Indicators-based Gradation of Cultivated Land Quality in Mountainous Region of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jing'an; WEI Chaofu; XIE Deti; ZHOU Yan

    2006-01-01

    The gradation of cultivated land is to assess the suitability of cultivated land for agricultural production in terms of natural and economic properties of land. It can be used to evaluate sustainability of land use and soil management practices. Formal and informal surveys, Delphi and comprehensive index method are adopted to identify appropriate integrated indicators, and measure the gradation of cultivated land quality. The determination of integrated indicators presents three basic features of cultivated land quality: stable plant productivity, social acceptability and maintenance of environmental quality.Pronounced concentration-dissipation law of total function score value occurs in paddy field units, with three ranges, I.e., 79-68.5, 68.5~59 and 59-51. Total function score value in dryland units mainly ranges from 40 to 70, but slight concentration-dissipation law of each unit is still observed, with four ranges, I.e., 79~68, 68~51, 51~37 and 37~15. Paddy field quality is divided into three gradations, and the scales are 18 220.9 ha, 5410.6 ha and 2890.9 ha. Dryland quality is classified into four gradations, and the scales are 1548.6 ha, 8153.8 ha, 3316.3 ha and 685.2 ha. The total function score value of every gradation unit is conformed to the results of farmers' assessment. Research results meet with the needs of accurate degree of the gradation of cultivated land quality. Integrated indicators-based gradation of cultivated land assessment accords with the characteristics of land resources and human preference in the mountains of southwestern China. This study will be useful to promote the monitoring of cultivated land quality, and to supply fine ground and knowledge for establishing appropriate cultivated land management practices in Southwestern China.

  3. Regional Densification of the ITRF through the Integration of National Active GNSS Network Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyeres, Ambrus; Horvath, Tivadar; Stangl, Gunter; Garayt, Bruno; Hansen, Dionne; Valdes, Marcellino; Caporali, Alessandro; Figurski, Mariusz; Georgiev, Ivan; Droscak, Branislav; Franke, Peter; Jumare, Izolde; Nagl, Jaroslav; Pihlak, Priit; Huisman, Lennard

    2015-04-01

    The actual realization of the ITRS represents the most precise station positions and velocities at selected set of sites. The scientific and practical applications may require the access to the global 3D reference frame in a dense network without loss of consistency and reliability. Relying on the long term homogeneously analyzed data the dense national permanent GNSS networks shall be the ideal tool for such reference frame densification. In the frame of the ongoing EPN densification the national active networks are integrated and a homogeneous, dense position and velocity product is being derived based on the actual ITRS realization and using the EPN as backbone infrastructure. In order to minimize inconsistencies (e.g. site naming, discontinuities, constraint handling) the only way to get a uniform, homogeneous cumulative solution from national to global scales is the integration done relying on the weekly SINEX product level. The integration is being performed using the CATREF software (Altamimi et al, IGN) and based on the Minimum Constraint approach. The derived position and velocity product will be an essential material for various geokinematic studies (PGR, intraplate and plate boundary zone investigations), and also for the better definition and realization of ETRS89. This work is very well inline with the goals of relevant European initiatives in the frame of EPOS, EUREF (WG on Deformation Models), CEGRN, EUPOS, IAG (WG on Unified Dense Velocity Fields). The work is well in progress, up to 15 years of weekly SINEX files are already available and analyzed from 17 countries, and considering the countries in negotiation phase the full continental coverage will be reached within few years. The actual database contains more close to 3000 sites. In this presentation a status report is shown and the first version of the position/velocity product with related interpretation options are introduced as well.

  4. Integrated Futures for Europe's Mountain Regions: Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Human Livelihoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Mitchley; Martin F. Price; Joseph Tzanopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Europe's mountains cover nearly half of the continent's area and are home to one fifth of the European population. Mountain areas are hotspots of biodiversity and agriculture has played a multifunctional role in defining and sustaining mountain biodiversity. Ongoing trends of agricultural decline are having negative impacts on mountain biodiversity.This paper presents results from an interdisciplinary European research project, BioScene, which investigated the relationship between agriculture and biodiversity in six mountain study areas across Europe to provide recommendations for reconciling biodiversity conservation with social and economic activities through an integrated rural development strategy.BioScene used scenario analysis and stakeholder participation as tools for structuring the analysis of alternative mountain futures. Three main BioScene scenarios were evaluated: Business as Usual (BaU),Agricultural Liberalisation (Lib), Managed Change for Biodiversity (MCB). BioScene brought together ecologists, economists, sociologists and rural geographers, to carry out interdisciplinary analysis of the scenarios: identifying key drivers of change, assessing the biodiversity consequences and evaluating costeffectiveness. BioScene used a sustainability assessment to integrate the research outputs across natural and social science disciplines to assess the broader sustainability of the scenarios in terms of biodiversity,natural resources, rural development, social development, economic development and institutional capacity. The sustainability assessment showed that the MCB scenario was potentially the most sustainable of the three BioScene scenarios. Through the reconciliation of potentially conflicting objectives,such as conservation, economic development and human livelihoods, and with a strong participatory planning approach, the MCB scenario could represent an alternative approach to BaU for sustainable rural development in Europe's mountains. BioScene confirms

  5. The calculation of electromagnetic fields in the Fresnel and Fraunhofer regions using numerical integration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Some results obtained with a digital computer program written at Goddard Space Flight Center to obtain electromagnetic fields scattered by perfectly reflecting surfaces are presented. For purposes of illustration a paraboloidal reflector was illuminated at radio frequencies in the simulation for both receiving and transmitting modes of operation. Fields were computed in the Fresnel and Fraunhofer regions. A dual-reflector system (Cassegrain) was also simulated for the transmitting case, and fields were computed in the Fraunhofer region. Appended results include derivations which show that the vector Kirchhoff-Kottler formulation has an equivalent form requiring only incident magnetic fields as a driving function. Satisfaction of the radiation conditions at infinity by the equivalent form is demonstrated by a conversion from Cartesian to spherical vector operators. A subsequent development presents the formulation by which Fresnel or Fraunhofer patterns are obtainable for dual-reflector systems. A discussion of the time-average Poynting vector is also appended.

  6. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration on the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    African Standby Force is one of five regional structures that are intended to provide robust tools to the continental conflict management regime. In the book The Future of African Peace Operations from 2016, de Coning et al. shows the changing nature and role of African Peace Operations (Coning , Gelot......, & Karlsrud, 2016). They also ask the key question about the future of the African Standby Force, and end by asking an open and important question: how should the future force be structured and equipped to enable it to deal effectively with the hybrid threats that confront African states, which have...... announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015. Their readiness was tested in the continental field exercise, Amani Africa II, that took place in South Africa in October-November 2015 (Defence Web, 2015) The exercise successfully tested both...

  7. Integrated Evaluation Model for Eco- Environmental Quality in Mountainous Region Based on Remote Sensing and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ainong; WANG Angsheng; HE Xiaorong; FENG Wenlan; ZHOU Wancun

    2006-01-01

    Based on Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and combining Principal Component Analysis, this paper designed a numerical integrated evaluation model for mountain eco-environment on the base of grid scale. Using this model, we evaluated the mountain eco-environmental quality in a case study area-the upper reaches of Minjiang River, and achieved a good result, which accorded well with the real condition. The study indicates that, the integrated evaluation model is suitable for multi-layer spatial factor computation, effectively lowing man's subjective influence in the evaluation process; treating the whole river basin as a system, the model shows full respect to the circulation of material and energy, synthetically embodies the determining impact of such natural condition as water-heat and landform, as well as human interference in natural eco-system; the evaluation result not only clearly presents mountainous vertical distribution features of input factors, but also provides a scientific and reliable thought for quantitatively evaluating mountain eco-environment.

  8. Resolving the coronal line region of NGC1068 with near infrared integral field spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzalay, X; Komossa, S; McGregor, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    We present AO-assisted J- and K-band integral field spectroscopy of the inner 300 x 300 pc of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC1068. The data were obtained with the Gemini NIFS integral field unit spectrometer, which provided us with high-spatial and -spectral resolution sampling. The wavelength range covered by the observations allowed us to study the [CaVIII], [SiVI], [SiVII], [AlIX] and [SIX] coronal-line (CL) emission, covering ionization potentials up to 328 eV. The observations reveal very rich and complex structures, both in terms of velocity fields and emission-line ratios. The CL emission is elongated along the NE-SW direction, with the stronger emission preferentially localized to the NE of the nucleus. CLs are emitted by gas covering a wide range of velocities, with maximum blueshifts/redshifts of ~ -1600/1000 km/s. There is a trend for the gas located on the NE side of the nucleus to be blueshifted while the gas located towards the SW is redshifted. The morphology and the kinematics of the near-infrared CL...

  9. Evaluation of Integrated Horticulture-Cum- Fish Farming in Malwa Region of Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In India, the farming community accounts for 80% under marginal and small farmer’s category1. Farmers under these categories are economically poor working in diverse, risk prone environments and with hardly sufficient to sustain their family. The declining trend in land holding per capita poses a serious challenge to the sustainability and profitability of farming. Considering the efficacy of this viable production system, the study was conducted in purposively selected ponds of farmers which had available space of the pond bundh used for production of horticulture produce. The trial was conducted minimum 06 replications were taken under farm field condition. Vegetable growing in the trellis and dykes is an additional component which helps in maximizing profit from unit area. The data were collected from each treatment for consecutively 03 years to judge the economic profitability and sustainability of the practice. It was observed that better production and sustainable economic return can be achieved through integrated production technology or with dyke vegetable cultivation in pond based integrated farming practices.

  10. Integration of population mobility in the evaluation of air quality measures on local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, S.; Beckx, C.; Degraeuwe, B.; Lefebvre, W.; Kochan, B.; Bellemans, T.; Int Panis, L.; Macharis, C.; Putman, K.

    2012-11-01

    By focussing on air pollutant concentration levels only, the variation in population mobility is not taken into account when assessing the exposure. Transportation policies have an impact on both concentration levels and mobility patterns. The impact of a fuel price increase policy on population exposure to elemental carbon (EC) was evaluated and compared to the base scenario (current situation), taking into account time-activity patterns - including time in commute. We assessed the effect on exposure of both the change in concentrations and whereabouts. The decrease in exposure due to the fuel price increase using residential information only was limited to areas near highways and urban centres. Integrating population movement, exposures to EC were higher and the decrease in exposure was no longer limited to areas near traffic hotspots. For inhabitants of urban areas, the exposure integrating time-activity patterns was more similar to the residential exposure, as they spent more time in their own neighbourhood. For people living further away from traffic hotspots, the estimated impact of the policy was higher than expected for residential exposure. These people profited both from the higher decrease in concentrations at their work/shop/leisure destinations in more urban areas and, as they have to travel longer, also had a larger gain from the high decrease in concentrations during transport. Therefore, the impact of changing concentrations is underestimated when using residential exposure only. These results show the importance of taking into activity-travel patterns when planning future actions.

  11. Integrating emergy evaluation and geographic information systems for monitoring resource use in the Abruzzo region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulselli, Riccardo Maria

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an application of an environmental accounting method, namely emergy evaluation, developed for the monitoring and assessment of environmental resource use by local communities in the Abruzzo Region (Italy). Once quantified and classified according to their origin (renewable or non-renewable, local or external), emergy flows were elaborated through a geographic information system (GIS) that allowed us to represent their spatial distribution throughout the region. Outcomes took the form of patterns in which different emergy intensities, namely empower (unit: seJ yr(-1)), were represented through a graduated grey-scale and visualized on a cartographic basis. The concentration of emergy flows, depending on the activity of local communities, showed variable levels of environmental load in different areas. In particular, spatial zones with homogeneous values of empower density (unit: seJ yr(-1) km(-2))--high, medium and low--were detected in order to identify areas with a similar "thermodynamic" nature, emergy being a thermodynamics based function. This allowed for the representation, at a glance, of a kind of geography that mirrors the behavior of a population settled in an area as additional information for investigating the effects of the use of urban structures and functions and improving our understanding of regional systems. A combined use of emergy evaluation and GIS could thus provide a complementary view of a territorial system and inform policy makers for planning specific strategies of future development.

  12. Integrated Approach To The Analysis Of The Quality Of Socio-Economic Regional Development Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Michailovich Kachalov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of the methods of the analysis and improvement of quality of governance the socio-economic systems application, based conceptual provisions of the system theory of economics, multilevel stratification of the economic space and the operational economical risk management theory are considered. For mesoeconomics, the types of system resources of the economy are defined. Also, it is analyses the influence on the quality of governance socio-economic region development the disparity of different types of system economical resources. Potential possibilities of the improvement of quality of governance due to thinner stratification of economical space and improvement the interaction parameters of the main actors of regional economic space are revealed. Leaning on the operational theory of risk management, ways of justification of administrative, strategic decisions by identification of the relevant economic risk factors and on the basis of received information development the program of anti-risk measures are offered. The methodical solutions promoting successful introduction of considered tools in practice of regional government are proposed.

  13. Integrated management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. Recent trends of weather extremes in Saxony, Germany also enhance drought risks for agricultural production. In addition, signals of longer and more intense drought conditions during the vegetation period can be found in future regional climate scenarios for Saxony. However, those climate predictions are associated with high uncertainty and therefore, e.g. stochastic methods are required to analyze the impact of changing climate patterns on future crop water requirements and water availability. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic approach for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. The developed concept of stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i) a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii) a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  14. La integración regional latinoamericana a partir de las oportunidades para el progreso (The Latin American regional integration based on its opportunities for progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoner Perdomo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de un Estado debería ser la ampliación de oportunidades y capacidades para que la ciudadanía promueva resultados que permitan el desarrollo humano. En este sentido, los países se integran en bloques para fortalecer sus políticas, dar respuestas a las demandas sociales y mejorar la calidad de vida de sus habitantes. Por ello, la conformación de alianzas presume que quienes las conforman poseen elementos y objetivos en común. Se realiza un ejercicio a países de la región latinoamericana, mediante un análisis discriminante utilizando indicadores multidimensionales, cuyo objetivo es determinar cuáles son las condiciones que permiten diferenciar los respectivos convenios en la región, para nuestro análisis: MERCOSUR, ALBA y Alianza del Pacifico. | The goal of a state should be expanding opportunities and capabilities citizenship to promote results that enable human development. In this regard, countries integrate into blocks to strengthen their policies, to respond to social demands and improve the quality of life of its inhabitants. Therefore the formation of alliances presumes that those who make them possess elements and objectives in common. An exercise is performed to countries in the Latin American region, using the discriminant analysis using multidimensional indicators, which aims to determine what are the conditions that allow differentiating blocks in the region, for our analysis: MERCOSUR, ALBA and Pacific Alliance.

  15. Prerrogativas estatais, integração regional e lógica distributiva State prerrogatives, regional integration, and distributive logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de A. Medeiros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a emergência de um novo paradigma de ordem internacional, baseado em processos de integração regional no lugar do decadente Estado nacional, tendo em vista os limites a ele impostos pela persistência da dinâmica do Estado nacional. Assinala-se a dificuldade para substituir a lógica intergovernamental pela lógica supranacional. A ausência de organizações supranacionais efetivas impõe restrições à distribuição dos ganhos obtidos pela dinâmica integracionista. Examina-se isso com base nos casos do Mercosul e da União Européia.The emergency of a new paradigm of international order, based on processes of regional integration instead of the decadent national State is examined in view of the limits imposed on it by the persistence of the dynamics of the national State. The difficulty in substituting a supranational logic for the intergovernmental one is pointed out. The absence of effective supranational organizations imposes restrictions on the distribution of the gains attained through the integrationist dynamics. This is examined on the basis of the cases of the Mercosul and of the European Union.

  16. Investigating the Nexus of Climate, Energy, Water, and Land at Decision-Relevant Scales: The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraucunas, Ian P.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dirks, James A.; Hathaway, John E.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Huang, Maoyi; Jin, Chunlian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Hongyi; Moss, Richard H.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.; Thomson, Allison M.; Voisin, Nathalie; West, Tristram O.

    2015-04-01

    The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA) is an innovative modeling system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to simulate interactions among natural and human systems at scales relevant to regional decision making. PRIMA brings together state-of-the-art models of regional climate, hydrology, agriculture, socioeconomics, and energy systems using a flexible coupling approach. The platform can be customized to inform a variety of complex questions and decisions, such as the integrated evaluation of mitigation and adaptation options across a range of sectors. Research into stakeholder decision support needs underpins the platform's application to regional issues, including uncertainty characterization. Ongoing numerical experiments are yielding new insights into the interactions among human and natural systems on regional scales with an initial focus on the energy-land-water nexus in the upper U.S. Midwest. This paper focuses on PRIMA’s functional capabilities and describes some lessons learned to date about integrated regional modeling.

  17. Integrated energy resources planning for Sao Paulo state region; Proposicao para o interior paulista do planejamento integrado de recursos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Ino, William Takanori; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baeso; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The present work has in view the elaboration of projections based on IRP (Integrated Energy Resources Planning) in order to propose an alternative of sustainable development to one region of the State of Sao Paulo. Using the data of the region, gathered in the past years by several researches of the GEPEA-USP, scenarios of the development and consume of energy have been created. In these scenarios, two possibilities to supply the demand of the region were considered: energy of clean sources and/or renewable as well as energy of sources that have lower costs. In order to simulate the behavior of several factors of the offer and demand, the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) has been used. Both scenarios have vantages and disadvantages, but the clean sources scenario certainly could supply the needs of the region for the next twenty years. Uncertainties in longer periods make the forecasts no much reliable, because changes in both, demand and offer, could invalidate the study. The best is an accompaniment of the sector's behavior in order to make shorter projections, ten years for example, to set the generator estate and policies of consumption. Long forecasts are good to show the limits of the system and the reserve to preview emergency situations as occurred in 2001 with shortness of water supply and consequently broke of energy catering. (author)

  18. Integration of climatic indices in an objective probabilistic model for establishing and mapping viticultural climatic zones in a region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luis L.; García, Abelardo; Honorio, Fulgencio

    2016-05-01

    Different climatic indices have been proposed to determine the wine suitability in a region. Some of them are related to the air temperature, but the hydric component of climate should also be considered which, in turn, is influenced by the precipitation during the different stages of the grapevine growing and ripening periods. In this study, we propose using the information obtained from ten climatic indices [heliothermal index (HI), cool night index (CI), dryness index (DI), growing season temperature (GST), the Winkler index (WI), September mean thermal amplitude (MTA), annual precipitation (AP), precipitation during flowering (PDF), precipitation before flowering (PBF), and summer precipitation (SP)] as inputs in an objective and probabilistic model, the Rasch model, with the aim of integrating the individual effects of them, obtaining the climate data that summarize all main climatic indices, which could influence on wine suitability from a climate viewpoint, and utilizing the Rasch measures to generate homogeneous climatic zones. The use of the Rasch model to estimate viticultural climatic suitability constitutes a new application of great practical importance, enabling to rationally determine locations in a region where high viticultural potential exists and establishing a ranking of the climatic indices which exerts an important influence on wine suitability in a region. Furthermore, from the measures of viticultural climatic suitability at some locations, estimates can be computed using a geostatistical algorithm, and these estimates can be utilized to map viticultural climatic zones in a region. To illustrate the process, an application to Extremadura, southwestern Spain, is shown.

  19. Regional Integrated Meteorological Forecasting and Warning Model for Geological Hazards Based on Logistic Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing; YANG Chi; ZHANG Guoping

    2007-01-01

    Information model is adopted to integrate factors of various geosciences to estimate the susceptibility of geological hazards. Further combining the dynamic rainfall observations, Logistic regression is used for modeling the probabilities of geological hazard occurrences, upon which hierarchical warnings for rainfall-induced geological hazards are produced. The forecasting and warning model takes numerical precipitation forecasts on grid points as its dynamic input, forecasts the probabilities of geological hazard occurrences on the same grid, and translates the results into likelihoods in the form of a 5-level hierarchy. Validation of the model with observational data for the year 2004 shows that 80% of the geological hazards of the year have been identified as "likely enough to release warning messages". The model can satisfy the requirements of an operational warning system, thus is an effective way to improve the meteorological warnings for geological hazards.

  20. ENHANCING REGIONAL INTEGRATION THROUGH COMMERCIAL TIES IN THE EASTERN NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Lucian Moga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic unification across Europe has been the main impetus for the European integration process and this rationale stood also behind the European Union (EU approach towards its neighbourhood. Since the launch of the European Neighbourhood Policy (2004, the economic incentives have been the most effective instruments for generating structural change in the neighbourhood, taking into account the fact that EU membership has not been yet considered. Our research will aim at investigating the potential of the European Union to promote economic cooperation in its Eastern vicinity by seeking to include the Eastern Partnership states into a network that shares the same economic principles and values. Among these values, we argue that deep economic engagement through bilateral and multilateral frameworks of trade relations has played a major in enhancing the economic development of the six-Post Soviet states: Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION MAPS ON KEY PLOT OF KRASNOYARSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bozhilina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggested the construction of a comprehensive air pollution map as an example of the key area of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. To create a map developed an original technique for limiting emissions spread zones in the atmosphere from industrial plants near the cities on the basis of climatic data. The proposed method is based on taking into account the repeatability wind speed and direction and length of time of pollutants in the atmosphere. The used methods of cartographic representation – quantitative background (emissions per unit area within the zones of the potential spread of contaminants, localized diagrams (emissions and air pollution index for the city, contour lines (the value of air pollution potential. Using an integrated map allows you to specify the impact of the transfer of pollutants in the formation of the level of pollution in the city, together with the volumes and values of emissions of air pollution potential.

  2. Sami in the History of the Norwegian-Russian Borderland: Factor of Tension or Regional Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav I. Goldin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is based of an extensive array of documents and cartographic materials of the leading archives of the Russian Federation and Norway. The authors focus their attention on the history of Russian-Norwegian border and the Sami aspect of its development. On the Scandinavian continent, the population of frontier areas was often a factor of political tension, but the ethnic picture of the Russian-Norwegian borderland distinguished by the fact that the frontier status of the Skolt was the integration factor for the formation of economic cooperation between the border provinces of Russia and Norway. This thesis the authors explain by the peculiarities of the States policy regarding the border territories, ethnic groups, economic activities and economic interaction of Skolt with other communities, as well as their perception of own inhabited space.

  3. Korea’s Trade Strategies for Mega Free Trade Agreements in Regional and Global Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s. It is one of the four Asian tiger economies and a good model for developing countries. Korea shows the world how a developing country can develop its economy rapidly and become industrialized. Its development strategy has mainly been an export-oriented trade policy. As a result, its trade volume grew from $1 billion in 1966 to $1 trillion in 2011, which is a 1,000-fold increase within five decades. Since 2011, Korea has become one of seven countries with a trade volume over $1 trillion. However, the Korean economy has experienced turbulence as well as positive growth. It underwent severe economic crises such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Its economy has been extremely vulnerable to the external economic environment, although it has improved and strengthened, particularly since the global financial crisis. During those two crises, the government carried out an appropriate trade policy with a strategic approach to upgrade its industrial structure and competitiveness in global markets. This article comprehensively discusses Korean trade policy and strategy over the last five decades, and how its national economy has developed rapidly. It also explores how the government sets its strategic targets in Asia and the Asia Pacific region. It considers two mega free trade agreements (FTAs — the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership — as new opportunities for further development. Therefore, it is wise to analyze these regional mega FTAs in order to maximize the national interest.

  4. Integrated Canada-U.S. Power Sector Modeling with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A.; Eurek, K.; Mai, T.; Perry, A.

    2013-02-01

    The electric power system in North America is linked between the United States and Canada. Canada has historically been a net exporter of electricity to the United States. The extent to which this remains true will depend on the future evolution of power markets, technology deployment, and policies. To evaluate these and related questions, we modify the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to include an explicit representation of the grid-connected power system in Canada to the continental United States. ReEDS is unique among long-term capacity expansion models for its high spatial resolution and statistical treatment of the impact of variable renewable generation on capacity planning and dispatch. These unique traits are extended to new Canadian regions. We present example scenario results using the fully integrated Canada-U.S. version of ReEDS to demonstrate model capabilities. The newly developed, integrated Canada-U.S. ReEDS model can be used to analyze the dynamics of electricity transfers and other grid services between the two countries under different scenarios.

  5. Combining Meteosat-10 satellite image data with GPS tropospheric path delays to estimate regional integrated water vapor (IWV) distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Anton; Reuveni, Yuval

    2017-02-01

    Using GPS satellites signals, we can study different processes and coupling mechanisms that can help us understand the physical conditions in the lower atmosphere, which might lead or act as proxies for severe weather events such as extreme storms and flooding. GPS signals received by ground stations are multi-purpose and can also provide estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into accurate integrated water vapor (IWV) observations using collocated pressure and temperature measurements on the ground. Here, we present for the first time the use of Israel's dense regional GPS network for extracting tropospheric zenith path delays combined with near-real-time Meteosat-10 water vapor (WV) and surface temperature pixel intensity values (7.3 and 10.8 µm channels, respectively) in order to assess whether it is possible to obtain absolute IWV (kg m-2) distribution. The results show good agreement between the absolute values obtained from our triangulation strategy based solely on GPS zenith total delays (ZTD) and Meteosat-10 surface temperature data compared with available radiosonde IWV absolute values. The presented strategy can provide high temporal and special IWV resolution, which is needed as part of the accurate and comprehensive observation data integrated in modern data assimilation systems and is required for increasing the accuracy of regional numerical weather prediction systems forecast.

  6. Integrating Landscape Ecology and Geoinformatics to Decipher Landscape Dynamics for Regional Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikou, Angela; Papapanagiotou, Evangelos; Troumbis, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    We used remote sensing and GIS in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods to: (i) quantify landscape composition (land cover types) and configuration (patch density, diversity, fractal dimension, contagion) for five coastal watersheds of Kalloni gulf, Lesvos Island, Greece, in 1945, 1960, 1971, 1990 and 2002/2003, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of physical (slope, geologic substrate, stream order) and human (road network, population density) variables on landscape composition and configuration, and (iii) characterize processes that led to land cover changes through land cover transitions between these five successive periods in time. Distributions of land cover types did not differ among the five time periods at the five watersheds studied because the largest cumulative changes between 1945 and 2002/2003 did not take place at dominant land cover types. Landscape composition related primarily to the physical attributes of the landscape. Nevertheless, increase in population density and the road network were found to increase heterogeneity of the landscape mosaic (patchiness), complexity of patch shape (fractal dimension), and patch disaggregation (contagion). Increase in road network was also found to increase landscape diversity due to the creation of new patches. The main processes involved in land cover changes were plough-land abandonment and ecological succession. Landscape dynamics during the last 50 years corroborate the ecotouristic-agrotouristic model for regional development to reverse trends in agricultural land abandonment and human population decline and when combined with hypothetical regulatory approaches could predict how this landscape could develop in the future, thus, providing a valuable tool to regional planning.

  7. LPV control for the full region operation of a wind turbine integrated with synchronous generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guoyan; Grigoriadis, Karolos M; Nyanteh, Yaw D

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbine conversion systems require feedback control to achieve reliable wind turbine operation and stable current supply. A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) controller is proposed to reduce the structural loads and improve the power extraction of a horizontal axis wind turbine operating in both the partial load and the full load regions. The LPV model is derived from the wind turbine state space models extracted by FAST (fatigue, aerodynamics, structural, and turbulence) code linearization at different operating points. In order to assure a smooth transition between the two regions, appropriate frequency-dependent varying scaling parametric weighting functions are designed in the LPV control structure. The solution of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) leads to the LPV controller. A synchronous generator model is connected with the closed LPV control loop for examining the electrical subsystem performance obtained by an inner speed control loop. Simulation results of a 1.5 MW horizontal axis wind turbine model on the FAST platform illustrates the benefit of the LPV control and demonstrates the advantages of this proposed LPV controller, when compared with a traditional gain scheduling PI control and prior LPV control configurations. Enhanced structural load mitigation, improved power extraction, and good current performance were obtained from the proposed LPV control.

  8. Late Holocene climate variability in the southwestern Mediterranean region: an integrated marine and terrestrial geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín-Puertas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A combination of marine (Alboran Sea cores, ODP 976 and TTR 300 G and terrestrial (Zoñar Lake, Andalucia, Spain geochemical proxies provides a high-resolution reconstruction of climate variability and human influence in the southwestern Mediterranean region for the last 4000 years at inter-centennial resolution. Proxies respond to changes in precipitation rather than temperature alone. Our combined terrestrial and marine archive documents a succession of dry and wet periods coherent with the North Atlantic climate signal. A dry period occurred prior to 2.7 cal ka BP – synchronously to the global aridity crisis of the third-millennium BC – and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1.4–0.7 cal ka BP. Wetter conditions prevailed from 2.7 to 1.4 cal ka BP. Hydrological signatures during the Little Ice Age are highly variable but consistent with more humidity than the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, Pb anomalies in sediments at the end of the Bronze Age suggest anthropogenic pollution earlier than the Roman Empire development in the Iberian Peninsula. The Late Holocene climate evolution of the in the study area confirms the see-saw pattern between the eastern and western Mediterranean regions and the higher influence of the North Atlantic dynamics in the western Mediterranean.

  9. LPV Control for the Full Region Operation of a Wind Turbine Integrated with Synchronous Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine conversion systems require feedback control to achieve reliable wind turbine operation and stable current supply. A robust linear parameter varying (LPV controller is proposed to reduce the structural loads and improve the power extraction of a horizontal axis wind turbine operating in both the partial load and the full load regions. The LPV model is derived from the wind turbine state space models extracted by FAST (fatigue, aerodynamics, structural, and turbulence code linearization at different operating points. In order to assure a smooth transition between the two regions, appropriate frequency-dependent varying scaling parametric weighting functions are designed in the LPV control structure. The solution of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs leads to the LPV controller. A synchronous generator model is connected with the closed LPV control loop for examining the electrical subsystem performance obtained by an inner speed control loop. Simulation results of a 1.5 MW horizontal axis wind turbine model on the FAST platform illustrates the benefit of the LPV control and demonstrates the advantages of this proposed LPV controller, when compared with a traditional gain scheduling PI control and prior LPV control configurations. Enhanced structural load mitigation, improved power extraction, and good current performance were obtained from the proposed LPV control.

  10. Snow accumulation/melting model (SAMM for integrated use in regional scale landslide early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martelloni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple snow accumulation/melting model (SAMM to be applied at regional scale in conjunction with landslide warning systems based on empirical rainfall thresholds. SAMM is based on two modules modelling the snow accumulation and the snowmelt processes. Each module is composed by two equations: a conservation of mass equation is solved to model snowpack thickness and an empirical equation for the snow density. The model depends on 13 empirical parameters, whose optimal values were defined with an optimisation algorithm (simplex flexible using calibration measures of snowpack thickness. From an operational point of view, SAMM uses as input data only temperature and rainfall measurements, bringing about the additional benefit of a relatively easy implementation. After performing a cross validation and a comparison with two simpler temperature index models, we simulated an operational employment in a regional scale landslide early warning system (EWS and we found that the EWS forecasting effectiveness was substantially improved when used in conjunction with SAMM.

  11. Regional controls on geomorphology, hydrology, and ecosystem integrity in the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Andrew G.; Meade, Robert H.; White, William A.; Guevara, Edgar H.; Gibeaut, James; Smyth, Rebecca C.; Aslan, Andres; Tremblay, Thomas

    2002-05-01

    Interacting river discharge, tidal oscillation, and tropical rainfall across the 22,000 km 2 Orinoco delta plain support diverse fresh and brackish water ecosystems. To develop environmental baseline information for this largely unpopulated region, we evaluate major coastal plain, shallow marine, and river systems of northeastern South America, which serves to identify principal sources and controls of water and sediment flow into, through, and out of the Orinoco Delta. The regional analysis includes a summary of the geology, hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, and geomorphic characteristics of the Orinoco drainage basin, river, and delta system. Because the Amazon River is a major source of sediment deposited along the Orinoco coast, we summarize Amazon water and sediment input to the northeastern South American littoral zone. We investigate sediment dynamics and geomorphology of the Guiana coast, where marine processes and Holocene history are similar to the Orinoco coast. Major factors controlling Orinoco Delta water and sediment dynamics include the pronounced annual flood discharge; the uneven distribution of water and sediment discharge across the delta plain; discharge of large volumes of water with low sediment concentrations through the Rı´o Grande and Araguao distributaries; water and sediment dynamics associated with the Guayana littoral current along the northeastern South American coast; inflow of large volumes of Amazon sediment to the Orinoco coast; development of a fresh water plume seaward of Boca Grande; disruption of the Guayana Current by Trinidad, Boca de Serpientes, and Gulf of Paria; and the constriction at Boca de Serpientes.

  12. An Integrated Model for Simulating Regional Water Resources Based on Total Evapotranspiration Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total evapotranspiration and water consumption (ET control is considered an efficient method for water management. In this study, we developed a water allocation and simulation (WAS model, which can simulate the water cycle and output different ET values for natural and artificial water use, such as crop evapotranspiration, grass evapotranspiration, forest evapotranspiration, living water consumption, and industry water consumption. In the calibration and validation periods, a “piece-by-piece” approach was used to evaluate the model from runoff to ET data, including the remote sensing ET data and regional measured ET data, which differ from the data from the traditional hydrology method. We applied the model to Tianjin City, China. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens of the runoff simulation was 0.82, and its regression coefficient R2 was 0.92. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (Ens of regional total ET simulation was 0.93, and its regression coefficient R2 was 0.98. These results demonstrate that ET of irrigation lands is the dominant part, which accounts for 53% of the total ET. The latter is also a priority in ET control for water management.

  13. Integrating disparate lidar datasets for a regional storm tide inundation analysis of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, J.M.; Tyler, D.J.; Turnipseed, D.P.; Van Wilson, Jr.; Oimoen, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina was one of the largest natural disasters in U.S. history. Due to the sheer size of the affected areas, an unprecedented regional analysis at very high resolution and accuracy was needed to properly quantify and understand the effects of the hurricane and the storm tide. Many disparate sources of lidar data were acquired and processed for varying environmental reasons by pre- and post-Katrina projects. The datasets were in several formats and projections and were processed to varying phases of completion, and as a result the task of producing a seamless digital elevation dataset required a high level of coordination, research, and revision. To create a seamless digital elevation dataset, many technical issues had to be resolved before producing the desired 1/9-arc-second (3meter) grid needed as the map base for projecting the Katrina peak storm tide throughout the affected coastal region. This report presents the methodology that was developed to construct seamless digital elevation datasets from multipurpose, multi-use, and disparate lidar datasets, and describes an easily accessible Web application for viewing the maximum storm tide caused by Hurricane Katrina in southeastern Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

  14. Integrating an NTD with one of "The big three": combined malaria and trachoma survey in Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Emerson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia has a population of approximately 19.6 million, is prone to unstable and epidemic malaria, and is severely affected by trachoma. An integrated malaria and trachoma control program is being implemented by the Regional Health Bureau. To provide baseline data, a survey was conducted during December 2006 to estimate malaria parasite prevalence, malaria indicators, prevalence of trachoma, and trachoma risk factors in households and people of all ages in each of the ten zones of the state, excluding three urban centers (0.4% of the population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was designed to provide prevalence estimates at zone and state levels. Using multi-stage cluster random sampling, 16 clusters of 25 households were randomly selected in each of the ten zones. Household heads were interviewed for malaria indicators and trachoma risk factors (N = 4,101. All people were examined for trachoma signs (N = 17,242, and those in even-numbered households provided blood films for malaria parasite detection (N = 7,745; both thick and thin blood films were read. Zonal malaria parasite prevalence ranged from 2.4% to 6.1%, with the overall state-wide prevalence being 4.6% (95% confidence interval (CI: 3.8%-5.6%. The Plasmodium falciparum: Plasmodium vivax ratio ranged from 0.9-2.1 with an overall regional ratio of 1.2. A total of 14.8% of households reported indoor residual spraying in the past year, 34.7% had at least one mosquito net, and 16.1% had one or more long-lasting insecticidal net. Zonal trachoma prevalence (trachomatous inflammation follicular [WHO grade TF] in children aged 1-9 years ranged from 12.6% to 60.1%, with the overall state-wide prevalence being 32.7% (95% CI: 29.2%-36.5%. State-wide prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT in persons aged over fifteen was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.3-7.4, and 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5 in children aged 0-14 years. Overall, an estimated 643,904 persons (lower bound

  15. The role of Italian FDI in Southeast Europe's international integration. A focus on investors from the Marche region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cutrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeast European countries have experienced significant economic integration into the world economy since 2000, through international capital flows and especially foreign direct investment (FDI. The work sheds light on recent trends in Italy-Western Balkans economic integration through FDI and other non-equity modes (NEMs. The methodology applied is based on country-level analysis, enriched by a case study approach. Main trends, characteristics and motivation of investments in the area are investigated. Based on this evidence, we suggest that the phenomenon of Italian integration in the Western Balkans is broader than official statistics would indicate, since Italian firms often set up subsidiaries through various non-equity arrangements. The surge in FDI in the area is recent, therefore it is not surprising that the main determinants are cost reductions and new market opportunities. What is interesting in this context is that local entrepreneurs regard efficiency-seeking investments as profitable only if they are connected to market-seeking goals. We find evidence also of localized industrial development stimulated by the entry of Italian firms, which is activating subcontracting relationships with existing companies in the host region. Further and in depth studies are needed to investigate the phenomenon

  16. Identification of similar regions of protein structures using integrated sequence and structure analysis tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiland Randy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding protein function from its structure is a challenging problem. Sequence based approaches for finding homology have broad use for annotation of both structure and function. 3D structural information of protein domains and their interactions provide a complementary view to structure function relationships to sequence information. We have developed a web site http://www.sblest.org/ and an API of web services that enables users to submit protein structures and identify statistically significant neighbors and the underlying structural environments that make that match using a suite of sequence and structure analysis tools. To do this, we have integrated S-BLEST, PSI-BLAST and HMMer based superfamily predictions to give a unique integrated view to prediction of SCOP superfamilies, EC number, and GO term, as well as identification of the protein structural environments that are associated with that prediction. Additionally, we have extended UCSF Chimera and PyMOL to support our web services, so that users can characterize their own proteins of interest. Results Users are able to submit their own queries or use a structure already in the PDB. Currently the databases that a user can query include the popular structural datasets ASTRAL 40 v1.69, ASTRAL 95 v1.69, CLUSTER50, CLUSTER70 and CLUSTER90 and PDBSELECT25. The results can be downloaded directly from the site and include function prediction, analysis of the most conserved environments and automated annotation of query proteins. These results reflect both the hits found with PSI-BLAST, HMMer and with S-BLEST. We have evaluated how well annotation transfer can be performed on SCOP ID's, Gene Ontology (GO ID's and EC Numbers. The method is very efficient and totally automated, generally taking around fifteen minutes for a 400 residue protein. Conclusion With structural genomics initiatives determining structures with little, if any, functional characterization

  17. Integrated studies of a regional ozone pollution synthetically affected by subtropical high and typhoon system in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; Xie, Min; Wang, Tijian; Gao, Da; Chen, Pulong; Han, Yong; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Li, Mengmeng

    2016-12-01

    Severe high ozone (O3) episodes usually have close relations to synoptic systems. A regional continuous O3 pollution episode was detected over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China during 7-12 August 2013, in which the O3 concentrations in more than half of the cities exceeded the national air quality standard. The maximum hourly concentration of O3 reached 167.1 ppb. By means of the observational analysis and the numerical simulation, the characteristics and the essential impact factors of the typical regional O3 pollution are comprehensively investigated. The observational analysis shows that the atmospheric subsidence dominated by the western Pacific subtropical high plays a crucial role in the formation of high-level O3. The favorable weather conditions, such as extremely high temperature, low relative humidity and weak wind speed, caused by the abnormally strong subtropical high are responsible for the trapping and the chemical production of O3 in the boundary layer. In addition, when the YRD cities are at the front of Typhoon Utor, the periphery circulation of typhoon system can enhance the downward airflows and cause worse air quality. However, when the typhoon system weakens the subtropical high, the prevailing southeasterly surface wind leads to the mitigation of the O3 pollution. The integrated process rate (IPR) analysis incorporated in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is applied to further illustrate the combined influence of subtropical high and typhoon system in this O3 episode. The results show that the vertical diffusion (VDIF) and the gas-phase chemistry (CHEM) are two major contributors to O3 formation. During the episode, the contributions of VDIF and CHEM to O3 maintain the high values over the YRD region. On 10-12 August, the cities close to the sea are apparently affected by the typhoon system, with the contribution of VDIF increasing to 28.45 ppb h-1 in Shanghai and 19.76 ppb h-1 in Hangzhou. In contrast, the cities

  18. UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AS A MEANS FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia DONCHENKO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Programs of international cooperation in higher education claim to promote peace and intercultural understanding, contribute to development of efficient human resources as well as research and innovation. For centuries, universities were centers of progress that ensure community’s development. Processes of globalization, internationalization, rapid development of information technology transform the mission of university, challenging modern universities to join forces to meet growing needs of knowledge society. The European Higher Education Area is continuously working to reduce mismatch of skills between the workforce and labor market. International cooperation in education has fundamental potential for reducing economic disparity. Ukrainian government views higher education as a means of growth and development and considers international activity pivotal in responding to global and regional change and achieving world quality standards of education. The aim of this paper is to explore potential of international cooperation in higher education in globalized world by examining selected international projects and their outcomes.

  19. Regional probabilistic nuclear risk and vulnerability assessment by integration of mathematical modelling land GIS-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigina, O. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Inst. of Geography, Copenhagen (Denmark); Baklanov, A. [Danish Meteorological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-04-01

    The Kola Peninsula, Russian Arctic exceeds all other regions in the world in the number of nuclear reactors. The study was aimed at estimating possible radiation risks to the population in the Nordic countries in case of a severe accident in the Kola Peninsula. A new approach based on probabilistic analysis of modelled possible pathways of radionuclide transport and precipitation was developed. For the general population, Finland is at most risk with respect to the Kola NPP, because of: high population density or proximity to the radiation-risk sites and relatively high probability of an airflow trajectory there, and precipitation. After considering the critical group, northern counties in Norway, Finland and Sweden appear to be most vulnerable. (au)

  20. Toward Building a Cross-Border Integration Region among Five Caribbean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende aportar insumos para proponer una zona de integración transfronteriza entre cinco países que comparten fronteras marítimo-territoriales en el c aribe: c olombia ( san andrés, Providencia y s anta c atalina, Panamá, c osta r ica, n icaragua y j amaica. s e realizó una caracterización de la zona fronteriza a partir de procesos comunes de conf iguración geohis - tórica, dinámicas de poblamiento y elementos étnicos, lingüísticos, culturales y religiosos que consolidaron la unidad sociocultural de esta región caribeña. e l desarrollo de esta caracteriza - ción permite identif icar una comunidad transfronteriza que, pese a las divisiones establecidas por los e stados, justif ica la integración regional.

  1. Integrated modeling for optimized regional transportation with compressed natural gas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation represents major energy consumption where fuel is considered as a primary energy source. Recent development in the vehicle technology revealed possible economical improvements when using natural gas as a fuel source instead of traditional gasoline. There are several fuel alternatives such as electricity, which showed potential for future long-term transportation. However, the move from current situation where gasoline vehicle is dominating shows high cost compared to compressed natural gas vehicle. This paper presents modeling and simulation methodology to optimize performance of transportation based on quantitative study of the risk-based performance of regional transportation. Emission estimation method is demonstrated and used to optimize transportation strategies based on life cycle costing. Different fuel supply scenarios are synthesized and evaluated, which showed strategic use of natural gas as a fuel supply.

  2. Integrated Models for Solid Waste Management in Tourism Regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Shamshiry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island.

  3. Integrated Models for Solid Waste Management in Tourism Regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiry, Elmira; Nadi, Behzad; Bin Mokhtar, Mazlin; Komoo, Ibrahim; Saadiah Hashim, Halimaton; Yahaya, Nadzri

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island. PMID:21904559

  4. Generation of Integration-free and Region-Specific Neural Progenitors from Primate Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Lu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal and adult human and monkey fibroblasts were infected with Sendai virus containing the Yamanaka factors for 24 hr, then they were cultured in a chemically defined medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β inhibitor SB431542, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β inhibitor CHIR99021 at 39°C for inactivation of the virus. Induced neural progenitor (iNP colonies appeared as early as day 13 and can be expanded for >20 passages. Under the same defined condition, no induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC colonies formed at either 37°C or 39°C. The iNPs predominantly express hindbrain genes and differentiate into hindbrain neurons, and when caudalized, they produced an enriched population of spinal motor neurons. Following transplantation into the forebrain, the iNP-derived cells retained the hindbrain identity. The ability to generate defined, integration-free iNPs from adult primate fibroblasts under a defined condition with predictable fate choices will facilitate disease modeling and therapeutic development.

  5. Integrated models for solid waste management in tourism regions: Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiry, Elmira; Nadi, Behzad; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Komoo, Ibrahim; Hashim, Halimaton Saadiah; Yahaya, Nadzri

    2011-01-01

    The population growth, changing consumption patterns, and rapid urbanization contribute significantly to the growing volumes of solid waste that are generated in urban settings. As the rate of urbanization increases, demand on the services of solid waste management increases. The rapid urban growth in Langkawi Island, Malaysia, combined with the increasing rates of solid waste production has provided evidence that the traditional solid waste management practices, particularly the methods of waste collection and disposal, are inefficient and quite nonsustainable. Accordingly, municipal managers and planners in Langkawi need to look for and adopt a model for solid waste management that emphasizes an efficient and sustainable management of solid wastes in Langkawi Island. This study presents the current practices of solid waste management in Langkawi Island, describes the composition of the solid waste generated in that area, and presents views of local residents and tourist on issues related to solid waste management like the aesthetic value of the island environment. The most important issue of this paper is that it is the first time that integrated solid waste management is investigated in the Langkawi Island.

  6. Integral Field Spectroscopy of the circumnuclear region of the Radio Galaxy Pictor A

    CERN Document Server

    Couto, Guilherme S; Robinson, Andrew; Riffel, Rogemar A; Kharb, Preeti; Lena, Davide; Schnorr-Müller, Allan

    2016-01-01

    We present optical integral field spectroscopy of the inner $2.5 \\times 3.4$ kpc$^2$ of the broad-line radio galaxy Pictor A, at a spatial resolution of $\\approx 400$ pc. Line emission is observed over the whole field-of-view, being strongest at the nucleus and in an elongated linear feature (ELF) crossing the nucleus from the south-west to the north-east along PA $\\sim 70^\\circ$. Although the broad double-peaked H$\\alpha$ line and the [OI]6300/H$\\alpha$ and [SII]6717+31/H$\\alpha$ ratios are typical of AGNs, the [NII]6584/H$\\alpha$ ratio (0.15 - 0.25) is unusually low. We suggest that this is due to the unusually low metallicity of the gas. Centroid velocity maps show mostly blueshifts to the south and redshifts to the north of the nucleus, but the velocity field is not well fitted by a rotation model. Velocity dispersions are low (< 100 km s$^{-1}$) along the ELF, ruling out a jet-cloud interaction as the origin of this structure. The ELF shows both blueshifts and redshifts in channel maps, suggesting tha...

  7. Impacts Of Global/Regional Climate Changes On Environment And Health: Need For Integrated Research And Education Collaboration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluri, F.

    2013-12-01

    The realization of long term changes in climate in research community has to go beyond the comfort zone through climate literacy in academics. Higher education on climate change is the platform to bring together the otherwise disconnected factors such as effective discovery, decision making, innovation, interdisciplinary collaboration, Climate change is a complex process that may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system, or to variations in natural or anthropogenic (human-driven) external forcing. Global climate change indicates a change in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for several decades or longer. This includes changes in average weather conditions on Earth, such as a change in average global temperature, as well as changes in how frequently regions experience heat waves, droughts, floods, storms, and other extreme weather. It is important to examine the effects of climate variations on human health and disorders in order to take preventive measures. Similarly, the influence of climate changes on animal management practices, pests and pest management systems, and high value crops such as citrus and vegetables is also equally important for investigation. New genetic agricultural varieties must be explored, and pilot studies should examine biotechnology transfer. Recent climate model improvements have resulted in an enhanced ability to simulate many aspects of climate variability and extremes. However, they are still characterized by systematic errors and limitations in accurately simulating more precisely regional climate conditions. The present situations warrant developing climate literacy on the synergistic impacts of environmental change, and improve development, testing and validation of integrated stress impacts through computer modeling. In the present study we present a detailed study of the current status on the impacts of global/regional climate changes on environment and health with a view

  8. Satellite-guided hydro-economic analysis for integrated management and prediction of the impact of droughts on agricultural regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Howitt, R.; Kimball, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural activity can exacerbate or buffer the impact of climate variability, especially droughts, on the hydrologic and socioeconomic conditions of rural areas. Potential negative regional impacts of droughts include impoverishment of agricultural regions, deterioration or overuse of water resources, risk of monoculture, and regional dependence on external food markets. Policies that encourage adequate management practices in the face of adverse climatic events are critical to preserve rural livelihoods and to ensure a sustainable future for agriculture. Diagnosing and managing drought effects on agricultural production, on the social and natural environment, and on limited water resources, is highly complex and interdisciplinary. The challenges that decision-makers face to mitigate the impact of water shortage are social, agronomic, economic and environmental in nature and therefore must be approached from an integrated multidisciplinary point of view. Existing observation technologies, in conjunction with models and assimilation methods open the opportunity for novel interdisciplinary analysis tools to support policy and decision making. We present an integrated modeling and observation framework driven by satellite remote sensing and other ancillary information from regional monitoring networks to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, management decisions and socioeconomic policy. The core of this framework is a hydroeconomic model of agricultural production that assimilates remote sensing inputs to quantify the amount of land, water, fertilizer and labor farmers allocate for each crop they choose to grow on a seasonal basis in response to changing climatic conditions, including drought. A regional hydroclimatologic model provides biophysical constraints to an economic model of agricultural production based on a class of models referred to as positive mathematical programming (PMP

  9. A refined regional modeling approach for the Corn Belt - Experiences and recommendations for large-scale integrated modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Gassman, Philip W.; Jha, Manoj K.; Kling, Catherine L.; Campbell, Todd; Srinivasan, Raghavan; White, Michael; Arnold, Jeffrey G.

    2015-05-01

    Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stream systems of the Corn Belt region in the Midwestern US. This region is comprised of two large river basins, the intensely row-cropped Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) and Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB), which are considered the key contributing areas for the Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Thus, in this area it is of utmost importance to ensure that intensive agriculture for food, feed and biofuel production can coexist with a healthy water environment. To address these objectives within a river basin management context, an integrated modeling system has been constructed with the hydrologic Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, capable of estimating river basin responses to alternative cropping and/or management strategies. To improve modeling performance compared to previous studies and provide a spatially detailed basis for scenario development, this SWAT Corn Belt application incorporates a greatly refined subwatershed structure based on 12-digit hydrologic units or 'subwatersheds' as defined by the US Geological Service. The model setup, calibration and validation are time-demanding and challenging tasks for these large systems, given the scale intensive data requirements, and the need to ensure the reliability of flow and pollutant load predictions at multiple locations. Thus, the objectives of this study are both to comprehensively describe this large-scale modeling approach, providing estimates of pollution and crop production in the region as well as to present strengths and weaknesses of integrated modeling at such a large scale along with how it can be improved on the basis of the current modeling structure and results. The predictions were based on a semi-automatic hydrologic calibration approach for large-scale and spatially detailed modeling studies, with the use of the Sequential

  10. Influence of feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walsum, P. E. V.

    2011-11-01

    Climate change impact modelling of hydrologic responses is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. Reducing this dependency was one of the goals of extending the regional hydrologic modelling system SIMGRO with a two-way coupling to the crop growth simulation model WOFOST. The coupling includes feedbacks to the hydrologic model in terms of the root zone depth, soil cover, leaf area index, interception storage capacity, crop height and crop factor. For investigating whether such feedbacks lead to significantly different simulation results, two versions of the model coupling were set up for a test region: one with exogenous vegetation parameters, the "static" model, and one with endogenous simulation of the crop growth, the "dynamic" model WOFOST. The used parameterization methods of the static/dynamic vegetation models ensure that for the current climate the simulated long-term average of the actual evapotranspiration is the same for both models. Simulations were made for two climate scenarios. Owing to the higher temperatures in combination with a higher CO2-concentration of the atmosphere, a forward time shift of the crop development is simulated in the dynamic model; the used arable land crop, potatoes, also shows a shortening of the growing season. For this crop, a significant reduction of the potential transpiration is simulated compared to the static model, in the example by 15% in a warm, dry year. In consequence, the simulated crop water stress (the unit minus the relative transpiration) is lower when the dynamic model is used; also the simulated increase of crop water stress due to climate change is lower; in the example, the simulated increase is 15 percentage points less (of 55) than when a static model is used. The static/dynamic models also simulate different absolute values of the transpiration. The difference is most pronounced for potatoes at locations with ample moisture supply; this supply can either come from storage release of a

  11. Evaluating the impact of climate policies on regional food availability and accessibility using an Integrated Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, E.; Cui, Y. R.; Waldhoff, S.

    2015-12-01

    Beyond 2015, eradicating hunger will remain a critical part of the global development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Efforts to limit climate change through both mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and land use policies may interact with food availability and accessibility in complex and unanticipated ways. Here, we develop projections of regional food accessibility to 2050 under the alternative futures outlined by the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and under different climate policy targets and structures. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model (IAM), for our projections. We calculate food access as the weighted average of consumption of five staples and the portion of income spend on those commodities and extend the GCAM calculated universal global producer price to regional consumer prices drawing on historical relationships of these prices. Along the SSPs, food access depends largely on expectations of increases in population and economic status. Under a more optimistic scenario, the pressures on food access from increasing demand and rising prices can be counterbalanced by faster economic development. Stringent climate policies that increase commodity prices, however, may hinder vulnerable regions, namely Sub-Saharan Africa, from achieving greater food accessibility.

  12. Estimates of spatially and temporally resolved constrained black carbon emission over the Indian region using a strategic integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Reddy, D. Manigopal; Ghosh, S.; Kumar, D. Bharath; Chowdhury, A. Kundu

    2017-10-01

    We estimated the latest spatially and temporally resolved gridded constrained black carbon (BC) emissions over the Indian region using a strategic integrated modelling approach. This was done extracting information on initial bottom-up emissions and atmospheric BC concentration from a general circulation model (GCM) simulation in conjunction with the receptor modelling approach. Monthly BC emission (83-364 Gg) obtained from the present study exhibited a spatial and temporal variability with this being the highest (lowest) during February (July). Monthly BC emission flux was considerably high (> 100 kg km- 2) over the entire Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), east and the west coast during winter months. This was relatively higher over the central and western India than over the IGP during summer months. Annual BC emission rate was 2534 Gg y- 1 with that over the IGP and central India respectively comprising 50% and 40% of the total annual BC emissions over India. A high relative increase was observed in modified BC emissions (more than five times the initial emissions) over the most part of the IGP, east coast, central/northwestern India. The relative predominance of monthly BC emission flux over a region (as depicted from z-score distribution maps) was inferred being consistent with the prevalence of region- and season-specific anthropogenic activity.

  13. Terrestrial ecosystems of the Osa-Golfito region: one component of an integrative cross-disciplinary initiative for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, E. N.; Dirzo, R.; Morales Barquero, L.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainability science seeks to develop approaches incorporating simultaneous human and environmental well-being. The Osa-Golfito Initiative (InOGo), as described in the previous presentation by Dr. Hunt et al. in this session, represents a cutting edge project seeking to develop both a fundamental framework for linking interdisciplinary components to address this objective with the creation of an applied approach for a sustainable future in this area of exceptional cultural and environmental diversity. In this presentation we describe the terrestrial ecosystems component of InOGo. This component incorporates four primary research approaches: (a) an extensive literature review; (b) spatial and non-spatial data aggregation; (c) change analysis via remote sensing; and (d) a questionnaire and participatory mapping survey with relevant experts. Integrating these approaches we seek to: (a) establish a detailed baseline understanding of the terrestrial ecosystems and their spatial distribution in the study region; (b) quantify temporal changes in their extent, connectivity, and ecosystem services; (c) identify the principal conservation priorities and threats in the region; and (d) isolate specific actions to address identified threats. We highlight both the overall approach developed for this component, which is broadly applicable throughout similar tropical regions, as well as results specific to the initiative.;

  14. Integrating Recovery within a Resilience Framework: Empirical Insights and Policy Implications from Regional Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Drennan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within Australia’s federal system, responsibility for preventing, preparing for, responding to and recovering from natural disasters is shared between the three tiers of government. Intergovernmental policy and funding arrangements are premised on shared responsibility and aim to foster individual, business and community resilience. These arrangements underpin Australia’s international reputation for effectiveness in its management of natural disasters. The capacity of the diverse networks that comprise the disaster management system to coordinate and deliver in the preparedness and response phases of a disaster, and to provide relief in the immediate aftermath, has been developed over time and tested and refined through the experience of frequent, severe disaster events over recent decades. Less well developed is the system’s ability to support economic recovery in disaster-affected communities over the longer term. This paper presents case studies of regional communities affected by two of Australia’s most expensive and deadly natural disasters—the 2009 Victorian bushfires and the cyclones and floods that struck the state of Queensland in 2010–2011. It highlights significant gaps in policy and funding arrangements to support recovery and offers lessons for aligning recovery within a resilience framework.

  15. Urban Growth and the Spatial Structure of a Changing Region: An Integrated Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca SALVATI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses changes (1949-2008 in the structure of a Mediterranean urban area (Rome, Italy in three phases (compact growth, medium-density growth, low-density growth of its recent expansion which reflect different economic contexts at the local scale. Using a quantitative approach based on land-use indicators and landscape metrics, distribution and fragmentation of built-up areas were analyzed from high-resolution and diachronic digital maps covering the investigated area (1,500 km2. The analysis of the (changing urban structure during the study period allows for an indirect evaluation of planning impact on Rome's expansion. City's morphology changed rapidly due to urbanization. While in the first examined phase (1949-1974 metrics indicated compactness and densification trends, the fractal dimension of urban settlements increased in the subsequent period together with patch fragmentation, dispersion and shape complexity. The study identified the indicators better characterizing Rome's expansion as a contribution to the understanding of long-term urban dynamics in the Mediterranean region.

  16. Sensorimotor integration in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; McCabe, Candida S; Harris, Nigel; Filipovic, Sasa R

    2007-02-01

    There is evidence that patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) have altered central sensorimotor processing. Sensory input can influence motor output either through indirect pathways or through direct connections from the sensory to motor cortex. The purpose of this study was to investigate sensorimotor interaction via direct connections in patients with CRPS and to compare the results with normal subjects'. Direct short-latency sensory-motor interaction was evaluated in eight patients with CRPS1 affecting a hand. Modulation of EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induced by concomitant median nerve stimulation was measured, the so-called, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI). Results were compared with eight normal subjects who were age and sex matched with the patients. As expected, all the normal subjects' EMG responses to TMS with median nerve stimulation were smaller than responses to TMS alone. In seven of the eight CRPS patients EMG responses to TMS were suppressed when paired with median nerve stimulation. Only one CRPS patient's results showed no suppression of EMG responses. These results suggest that the disease mechanisms of CRPS1 do not typically affect the direct neural circuit between sensory and motor cortex and that normal sensorimotor interaction is occurring via this route.

  17. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2013-01-01

    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties.

  18. An Integrative Database System of Agro-Ecology for the Black Soil Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Ge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive database system of the Northeast agro-ecology of black soil (CSDB_BL is user-friendly software designed to store and manage large amounts of data on agriculture. The data was collected in an efficient and systematic way by long-term experiments and observations of black land and statistics information. It is based on the ORACLE database management system and the interface is written in PB language. The database has the following main facilities:(1 runs on Windows platforms; (2 facilitates data entry from *.dbf to ORACLE or creates ORACLE tables directly; (3has a metadata facility that describes the methods used in the laboratory or in the observations; (4 data can be transferred to an expert system for simulation analysis and estimates made by Visual C++ and Visual Basic; (5 can be connected with GIS, so it is easy to analyze changes in land use ; and (6 allows metadata and data entity to be shared on the internet. The following datasets are included in CSDB_BL: long-term experiments and observations of water, soil, climate, biology, special research projects, and a natural resource survey of Hailun County in the 1980s; images from remote sensing, graphs of vectors and grids, and statistics from Northeast of China. CSDB_BL can be used in the research and evaluation of agricultural sustainability nationally, regionally, or locally. Also, it can be used as a tool to assist the government in planning for agricultural development. Expert systems connected with CSDB_BL can give farmers directions for farm planting management.

  19. O processo de integração regional: fronteiras abertas para os trabalhadores do Mercosul The process of regional integration: open borders for Mercosul workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia de Camargo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O que me proponho neste trabalho é discutir o tema da livre circulação dos trabalhadores no Mercosul, levando-se em conta que esta liberdade - diferentemente de outras que aparecem como objetivos essenciais a serem alcançados no processo de integração desta sub-região - não faz parte do texto do Tratado de Assunção, assinado em março de 1991. Esta ausência é reveladora, na medida em que a liberdade de circulação de pessoas constitui um dos elementos que evidencia com maior clareza a existência de um processo de integração, na medida em que afeta diretamente a vida dos cidadãos assegurando seu livre trânsito dentro do bloco e oportunidades iguais entre os nacionais e não nacionais. No texto do referido Tratado, a integração aparece limitada à circulação de capitais, bens e serviços, liberdade assegurada pela eliminação de qualquer medida que possa prejudicá-la. Partindo dessa discussão, pretendo examinar quais os avanços institucionais já alcançados no sentido da criação de políticas que, concretamente, conduzam à abertura de fronteiras entre os países do Mercosul por meio das quais seus cidadãos - neste caso, os trabalhadores - possam se deslocar livremente e residir em seu local de trabalho. Para tanto, acredito que conhecer a experiência da União Europeia possa ser de grande utilidade.My proposal for this article is to discuss the free mobility of workers inside the Mercosul block, bearing in mind that this liberty, in the contrary of others issues that arise as essential aims to be reached in the integration process of the region, wasn't incorporated in the Assunção Treaty, signed in march 1991. This absence is revealing in the sense that the liberty of circulation of persons is one of the elements that show with more evidence the existence of an integration process as it affects directly the life of its citizens ensuring their free displacement inside the region and equal opportunities among

  20. Regional Military Integration in West Africa: A Case Study of the Multi-National Joint Task Force in the Fight against Boko Haram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    REGIONAL MILITARY INTEGRATION IN WEST AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF THE MULTI-NATIONAL JOINT TASK FORCE IN THE FIGHT AGAINST BOKO HARAM......ABSTRACT The militant Jihadist group Boko Haram has established itself as a regional threat in the areas surrounding the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) of

  1. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    After a long history dominated by out-migration, Denmark, Norway and Sweden have, in the past 50 years, become immigration societies. This article compares how these Scandinavian welfare societies have sought to incorporate immigrants and refugees into their national communities. It suggests that......, while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  2. Impacto da integração regional sobre os fluxos mundiais de investimento direto estrangeiro The effects of regional integration on the world foreign direct investment flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Almeida Jorge

    2011-08-01

    feature of the global economy in the 90's. This process was characterized by several economic and political phenomena that deepened the integration of national economies to global economy. The growth of the world's foreign direct investment (FDI flows and the advance of regionalism are two of these phenomena interrelated by many reasons and mechanisms. This present paper aims to evaluate the impact of regional trading agreements over the world's FDI flows, based on the hypothesis that the trading arrangements, which traditionally generate trade, can also have investment creation and diversion effects. A gravity model was estimated for an unbalanced panel constituted by 71 countries for the period 1990-2003. We compared the results from several estimation methods recommended by recent literature like Poisson, pooled cross-section and fixed effects methods. Our results show that trade arrangements tend to increase FDI due to the raise of intra-regional investment and also to the increase of member countries' attractiveness. Nevertheless, even if the gravity model has shown to be adapted for the analysis of the relationship between FDI and regionalization, some methodological issues remain opened.

  3. A Local Action Plan (PAL to Combat Desertification in Apulia Region: Functional Integration of Existing Territorial Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trotta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007, the Italian National Committee to Combat Drought and Desertification promoted the execution of local action plans in some of the Italian regions. The aims of these plans were: to carry out specific actions at a local scale; to promote the integration of local policies; to involve the local communities in proposing strategies to be adopted; to harmonize the procedures among institutions in charge of adopting the policies. In this framework, ENEA carried out an evaluation of existing policies and programs to be considered in implementing a local action plan to combat desertification in the Apulia region. The application of the environmental and socio-economic measures of the regional Rural Development Plan 2007-2013 (PSR seemed to be an effective tool to positively influence human activities such as agriculture, breeding, and forestry, with the purpose of preserving or improving soil characteristics and overall environmental conditions, and eventually resulting in a reduction of desertification processes. Therefore, we proposed that these measures should be taken into account and effectively integrated into the Local Action Plan of the Apulia region. Additionally, we considered the four priority sectors identified by the National Action Plan (PAN to combat drought and desertification as the guiding principles to carry out our analysis. These sectors were: Soil Protection, Sustainable Water Management, Reduction of the Impact of Productive Activities, and Territorial Equilibrium. We also included Climate Change, in consideration of the alarming and urgent role it has assumed. The desertification-prone province of Foggia was selected as a pilot area in where to evaluate the influences that PSR measures can directly or indirectly have on desertification-related factors, and identify and implement specific actions. The Provincial Coordination Territorial Plan (PTCP of Foggia provided the basic land units for this analysis, the

  4. Extent of Integration of Priority Interventions into General Health Systems: A Case Study of Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest O Mensah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global health system has a large arsenal of interventions, medical products and technologies to address current global health challenges. However, identifying the most effective and efficient strategies to deliver these resources to where they are most needed has been a challenge. Targeted and integrated interventions have been the main delivery strategies. However, the health system discourse increasingly favours integrated strategies in the context of functionally merging targeted interventions with multifunctional health care delivery systems with a focus on strengthening country health systems to deliver needed interventions. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD have been identified to promote and perpetuate poverty hence there has been global effort to combat these diseases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme (NTDP in Ghana has a national programme team and office, however, it depends on the multifunctional health delivery system at the regional and district level to implement interventions. The NTDP seeks further health system integration to accelerate achievement of coverage targets. The study estimated the extent of integration of the NTDP at the national, regional and district levels to provide evidence to guide further integration.The research design was a descriptive case study that interviewed key persons involved in the programme at the three levels of the health system as well as extensive document review. Integration was assessed on two planes-across health system functions-stewardship and governance, financing, planning, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation and demand generation; and across three administrative levels of the health system-national, regional and district. A composite measure of integration designated Cumulative Integration Index (CII with a range of 0.00-1.00 was used to estimate extent of integration at the three levels of the health system. Service delivery was most integrated while financing and

  5. Extent of Integration of Priority Interventions into General Health Systems: A Case Study of Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Ernest O; Aikins, Moses K; Gyapong, Margaret; Anto, Francis; Bockarie, Moses J; Gyapong, John O

    2016-05-01

    The global health system has a large arsenal of interventions, medical products and technologies to address current global health challenges. However, identifying the most effective and efficient strategies to deliver these resources to where they are most needed has been a challenge. Targeted and integrated interventions have been the main delivery strategies. However, the health system discourse increasingly favours integrated strategies in the context of functionally merging targeted interventions with multifunctional health care delivery systems with a focus on strengthening country health systems to deliver needed interventions. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) have been identified to promote and perpetuate poverty hence there has been global effort to combat these diseases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme (NTDP) in Ghana has a national programme team and office, however, it depends on the multifunctional health delivery system at the regional and district level to implement interventions. The NTDP seeks further health system integration to accelerate achievement of coverage targets. The study estimated the extent of integration of the NTDP at the national, regional and district levels to provide evidence to guide further integration. The research design was a descriptive case study that interviewed key persons involved in the programme at the three levels of the health system as well as extensive document review. Integration was assessed on two planes-across health system functions-stewardship and governance, financing, planning, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation and demand generation; and across three administrative levels of the health system-national, regional and district. A composite measure of integration designated Cumulative Integration Index (CII) with a range of 0.00-1.00 was used to estimate extent of integration at the three levels of the health system. Service delivery was most integrated while financing and planning were

  6. Assessing and managing suicidal behaviour in the primary care setting: A model for an integrated regional suicide prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voros, Viktor; Osvath, Peter; Fekete, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Although suicide rates are decreasing in most countries, suicide is still a major health concern. Our aim was to introduce a complex, integrative, regional suicide prevention strategy. Based on reviewing the literature and on our previous studies we developed a suicide prevention model, which includes recognition, risk assessment and intervention. The main steps of the model are the recognition of warning signs (communicative or behavioural), exploration of crisis situation and/or psychopathologic symptoms, assessment of protective and risk factors, estimation of suicide risk and a plan for management of suicidal patients through different levels of interventions. In the management of suicidal behaviour, the complex stress-diathesis model has to be adjusted by considering biological markers and psycho-social factors. Only after the assessment of these factors can primary care professionals, as gatekeepers, manage suicidal patients effectively by using adequate psychopharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic interventions in the recognition, treatment and prevention of suicidal behaviour.

  7. Integrated energy balance analysis of a stand-alone wind power system for various typical Aegean Sea regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldellis, J. K.; Tsesmelis, M.

    2002-01-01

    The wind power industry is nowadays a mature energy production sector disposing to market commercial wind converters from 50 W up to 5 MW. In the present work the possibility of using stand-alone electricity production systems based on a small wind turbine in order to meet the electricity requirements of remote consumers is analysed for selected Aegean Sea regions possessing representative wind potential types. The proposed configuration results from an extensive long-term meteorological data analysis on a no-load rejection condition basis during the entire time period examined. Accordingly, an integrated energy balance analysis is carried out for the whole time period investigated, including also the system battery depth-of-discharge distribution versus time. Finally, the predicted optimum system configuration is compared to other existing technoeconomic alternatives on a simplified total production cost basis. The results support the viability of similar solutions, especially for areas of high or medium wind potential.

  8. Integrated energy balance analysis of a stand-alone wind power system for various typical Aegean Sea regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Tsesmelis, M. [TEI Piraeus, Hellinico (Greece). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2002-07-01

    The wind power industry is nowadays a mature energy production sector disposing to market commercial wind converters from 50 W up to 5 MW. In the present work the possibility of using stand-alone electricity production systems based on a small wind turbine in order to meet the electricity requirements of remote consumers is analysed for selected Aegean Sea regions possessing representative wind potential types. The proposed configuration results from an extensive long-term meteorological data analysis on a no-load rejection condition basis during the entire time period examined. Accordingly, an integrated energy balance analysis is carried out for the whole time period investigated, including also the system battery depth-of-discharge distribution versus time. Finally, the predicted optimum system configuration is compared to other existing technoeconomic alternatives on a simplified total production cost basis. The results support the viability of similar solutions, especially for areas of high or medium wind potential. (author)

  9. A experiência da integração europeia e seu potencial para a integração regional The experience of european integration and its potential for regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C. Schmitter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo mostra que o processo de constituição da União Europeia representa um caminho significativo para o reforço do regionalismo. Assim, pode tornar-se modelo para outras tentativas políticas de integração regional. A reflexão sobre as diversas teorias que explicam esse fenômeno é a estratégia mais eficaz para examinar as possibilidades de transferência dessa experiência. O autor constrói um quadro classificatório que permite a avaliação dos pontos fortes e os mais débeis presentes nas diferentes propostas. O desafio que se coloca à análise é o de compreender a mudança na relação entre Estados nacionais previamente soberanos e economias nacionais cada vez mais interdependentes.This paper shows that the process of constitution of the European Union represents a significant way of reinforcing regionalism. It can thus become a model for other political attempts at regional integration. A reflection on the various theories that account for this phenomenon is the best strategy to study the transposition of the European experience. The autor constructs a classification scheme that allows for the evaluation of the stronger and weaker points of the different approaches. The challenge is to understand the change in the relation among previously sovereign nation states and increasingly interdependent national economies.

  10. Integrative taxonomy supports new candidate fish species in a poorly studied neotropical region: the Jequitinhonha River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugedo, Marina Lages; de Andrade Neto, Francisco Ricardo; Pessali, Tiago Casarim; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso

    2016-06-01

    Molecular identification through DNA barcoding has been proposed as a way to standardize a global biodiversity identification system using a partial sequence of the mitochondrial COI gene. We applied an integrative approach using DNA barcoding and traditional morphology-based bioassessment to identify fish from a neotropical region possessing low taxonomic knowledge: the Jequitinhonha River Basin (Southeastern Brazil). The Jequitinhonha River Basin (JRB) has a high rate of endemism and is considered an area of high priority for fish conservation, with estimates indicating the presence of around 110 native and non-indigenous species. DNA barcodes were obtained from 260 individuals belonging to 52 species distributed among 35 genera, 21 families and 6 orders, including threatened and rare species such as Rhamdia jequitinhonha and Steindachneridion amblyurum. The mean Kimura two-parameter genetic distances within species, genera and families were: 0.44, 12.16 and 20.58 %, respectively. Mean intraspecific genetic variation ranged from 0 to 11.43 %, and high values (>2 %) were recovered for five species. Species with a deep intraspecific distance, possibly flagging overlooked taxa, were detected within the genus Pimelodella. Fifteen species, only identified to the genus level, had unique BINs, with a nearest neighbor distance over 2 % and therefore, potential new candidate species supported by DNA barcoding. The integrative taxonomy approach using DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy may be a remedy to taxonomy impediment, accelerating species identification by flagging potential new candidate species and to adequately conserve the megadiverse neotropical ichthyofauna.

  11. Culture and the school: The degree of educational integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded by the European Union. Despite governmental incentives for poor families to enrol their school-aged children, school attendance of Roma and Gypsy children was found to decline from primary year one to primary year six, with hardly any of them entering secondary school at all. Besides looking at school attendance figures and Roma and Gypsy children's proficiency in reading, writing and numeracy, this paper also considers gender, family composition, living conditions and economic situation, as well as culturally constructed perceptions of childhood and a person's life cycle. The aim of this article is to highlight the contradictions and ambiguities involved in the process of incorporating Roma and Gypsy children in formal education, and to evaluate their school performance and assess their academic choices.

  12. Developing Integrated Object-Oriented Conception of Geomarketing as a Tool for Promotion of Regional Sustainable Development: The Case Study of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In the paper we propose and discuss new vision of geomarketing as a tool for promotion of regional sustainable development. Integrated object-oriented conception of geomarketing was designed by adoption and elaboration of some new ideas and approaches, such as “place marketing”, “non-profit marketing”, “counter-marketing”, “collaborative spatial decision-making”, “endogenous regional development”, “regional sustainable development”, “public-private partnership”. We explore how geomarketing in...

  13. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a {approx}10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38.

  14. Integral Field Spectroscopy of Local LCBGs: NGC 7673, a case study. Physical properties of star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo-Morales, A; Pérez-Gallego, J; Guzmán, R; Muñoz-Mateos, J C; Zamorano, J; Sánchez, S F

    2010-01-01

    Physical properties of the star-forming regions in the local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxy NGC 7673 are studied in detail using 3D spectroscopic data taken with the PPAK IFU at the 3.5-m telescope in CAHA. We derive integrated and spatially resolved properties such as extinction, star formation rate and metallicity for this galaxy. Our data show an extinction map with maximum values located at the position of the main clumps of star formation showing small spatial variations (E(B-V)_{t}=0.12-0.21 mag). We derive a H\\alpha-based SFR for this galaxy of 6.2 \\pm 0.8 M_{\\odot}/yr in agreement with the SFR derived from infrared and radio continuum fluxes. The star formation is located mainly in clumps A, B, C and F. Different properties measured in clump B makes this region peculiar. We find the highest H\\alpha luminosity with a SFR surface density of 0.5 M_{\\odot}yr^{-1}kpc^{-2} in this clump. In our previous work, the kinematic analysis for this galaxy shows an asymmetrical ionized gas velocity field with a kinema...

  15. Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios for Regional Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation. 5; Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Roberto O.; Antle, John M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alexander C.; Vervoort, Joost; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hathie, Ibrahima; Tui, Sabine Homann-Kee; Mulwa, Richard; Nhemachena, Charles; Ponnusamy, Paramasivam; Rasnayaka, Herath; Singh, Harbir

    2015-01-01

    The global change research community has recognized that new pathway and scenario concepts are needed to implement impact and vulnerability assessment where precise prediction is not possible, and also that these scenarios need to be logically consistent across local, regional, and global scales. For global climate models, representative concentration pathways (RCPs) have been developed that provide a range of time-series of atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations into the future. For impact and vulnerability assessment, new socio-economic pathway and scenario concepts have also been developed, with leadership from the Integrated Assessment Modeling Consortium (IAMC).This chapter presents concepts and methods for development of regional representative agricultural pathways (RAOs) and scenarios that can be used for agricultural model intercomparison, improvement, and impact assessment in a manner consistent with the new global pathways and scenarios. The development of agriculture-specific pathways and scenarios is motivated by the need for a protocol-based approach to climate impact, vulnerability, and adaptation assessment. Until now, the various global and regional models used for agricultural-impact assessment have been implemented with individualized scenarios using various data and model structures, often without transparent documentation, public availability, and consistency across disciplines. These practices have reduced the credibility of assessments, and also hampered the advancement of the science through model intercomparison, improvement, and synthesis of model results across studies. The recognition of the need for better coordination among the agricultural modeling community, including the development of standard reference scenarios with adequate agriculture-specific detail led to the creation of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) in 2010. The development of RAPs is one of the cross-cutting themes in AgMIP's work

  16. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  17. An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Monier, E.; Scott, J R; A. P. Sokolov; C. E. Forest; C. A. Schlosser

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), an integrated assessment model that couples an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to a human activity model, is linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Since the MIT IGSM-CAM framework (version 1.0) inc...

  18. 全球化视角的区域主义与区域一体化理论阐释%Implication of regionalism and regional integration under the global shift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 陈雯

    2013-01-01

    区域一体化作为重要的区域发展模式,历来是地理学者关注的焦点.本文通过对区域一体化相关概念的辨析,回顾区域主义发展历程,并概括全球化赋予区域一体化的新内涵,提出目前区域一体化研究的不足之处,以期为区域经济发展研究提供有益的启示.区域主义与全球化是塑造当今世界经济格局的两种重要的力量,自19世纪以来,区域主义就伴随着全球化的趋势产生了4次思想浪潮的变革;与此同时,区域一体化的理论趋于系统化,从早期的关税同盟理论、自由区贸易理论、大市场理论等以国际贸易为重点,转而向空间、制度等方面扩展,引入了新区域主义、新经济地理理论和新制度经济学等研究视角.随着区域行为主体的多元化、合作领域的深化、组织机制的复杂化,形成了全球化背景下区域一体化新的内涵.根据国外的研究进展和国内区域一体化的现实需求,未来应该对主权国家内部跨界一体化理论、内涵等方面加强研究.%As one of the important paradigms for regional cooperation,regional integration has been receiving extensive attention from scholars,especially in the field of geography.In today' s globalizing world,regional integration is one of the driving forces that reshape the world' s politics and economies.Especially,a considerable amount of research interest has been focused on how the emergence of regional integration after the World War Ⅱ has affected,and will continue to affect,the global economy.However,it is widely accepted that regionalism is not just a recent phenomenon.There have arisen at least four waves of regionalism since the 19th century,along with the trend of globalization.The first wave occurred during the second half of the 19th century and was characterized by colonization.After World War Ⅱ,regionalism demonstrated some new traits and began to pave a peaceful path.Soon after that,a plethora of

  19. Integrated pathway-based approach identifies association between genomic regions at CTCF and CACNB2 and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilafruz Juraeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an integrated hierarchical approach was applied to: (1 identify pathways associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia; (2 detect genes that may be potentially affected in these pathways since they contain an associated polymorphism; and (3 annotate the functional consequences of such single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the affected genes or their regulatory regions. The Global Test was applied to detect schizophrenia-associated pathways using discovery and replication datasets comprising 5,040 and 5,082 individuals of European ancestry, respectively. Information concerning functional gene-sets was retrieved from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Gene Ontology, and the Molecular Signatures Database. Fourteen of the gene-sets or pathways identified in the discovery dataset were confirmed in the replication dataset. These include functional processes involved in transcriptional regulation and gene expression, synapse organization, cell adhesion, and apoptosis. For two genes, i.e. CTCF and CACNB2, evidence for association with schizophrenia was available (at the gene-level in both the discovery study and published data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia study. Furthermore, these genes mapped to four of the 14 presently identified pathways. Several of the SNPs assigned to CTCF and CACNB2 have potential functional consequences, and a gene in close proximity to CACNB2, i.e. ARL5B, was identified as a potential gene of interest. Application of the present hierarchical approach thus allowed: (1 identification of novel biological gene-sets or pathways with potential involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia, as well as replication of these findings in an independent cohort; (2 detection of genes of interest for future follow-up studies; and (3 the highlighting of novel genes in previously reported candidate regions for schizophrenia.

  20. Integrated GIS and multivariate statistical analysis for regional scale assessment of heavy metal soil contamination: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Deyi; O'Connor, David; Nathanail, Paul; Tian, Li; Ma, Yan

    2017-09-19

    Heavy metal soil contamination is associated with potential toxicity to humans or ecotoxicity. Scholars have increasingly used a combination of geographical information science (GIS) with geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis techniques to examine the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils at a regional scale. A review of such studies showed that most soil sampling programs were based on grid patterns and composite sampling methodologies. Many programs intended to characterize various soil types and land use types. The most often used sampling depth intervals were 0-0.10 m, or 0-0.20 m, below surface; and the sampling densities used ranged from 0.0004 to 6.1 samples per km(2), with a median of 0.4 samples per km(2). The most widely used spatial interpolators were inverse distance weighted interpolation and ordinary kriging; and the most often used multivariate statistical analysis techniques were principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The review also identified several determining and correlating factors in heavy metal distribution in soils, including soil type, soil pH, soil organic matter, land use type, Fe, Al, and heavy metal concentrations. The major natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals were found to derive from lithogenic origin, roadway and transportation, atmospheric deposition, wastewater and runoff from industrial and mining facilities, fertilizer application, livestock manure, and sewage sludge. This review argues that the full potential of integrated GIS and multivariate statistical analysis for assessing heavy metal distribution in soils on a regional scale has not yet been fully realized. It is proposed that future research be conducted to map multivariate results in GIS to pinpoint specific anthropogenic sources, to analyze temporal trends in addition to spatial patterns, to optimize modeling parameters, and to expand the use of different multivariate analysis tools beyond principal component analysis

  1. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ugolini

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes to central units (the hubs once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods: We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results: The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions: Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities.

  2. Generation of an integrated transcription map of the BRCA2 region on chromosome 13q12-q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, F.J.; Peng, Yi; Thakur, Sanjay [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-15

    An integrated approach involving physical mapping, identification of transcribed sequences, and computational analysis of genomic sequence was used to generate a detailed transcription map of the 1.0-Mb region containing the breast cancer susceptibility locus BRCA2 on chromosome 13q12-q13. This region is included in the genetic interval bounded by D13S1444 and D13S310. Retrieved sequences from exon amplification or hybrid selection procedures were grouped into physical intervals and subsequently grouped into transcription units by clone overlap. Overlap was established by direct hybridization, cDNA library screening, PCR cDNA linking (island hopping), and/or sequence alignment. Extensive genomic sequencing was performed in an effort to understand transcription unit organization. In total, approximately 500 kb of genomic sequence was completed. The transcription units were further characterized by hybridization to RNA from a series of human tissues. Evidence for seven genes, two putative pseudogenes, and nine additional putative transcription units was obtained. One of the transcription units was recently identified as BRCA2 but all others are novel genes of unknown function as only limited alignment to sequences in public databases was observed. Several retrieved transcribed sequences were not aligned into transcription units because no corresponding cDNAs were obtained when screening libraries or because of a lack of definitive evidence for splicing signals or putative coding sequence based on computational analysis. However, the presence of additional genes in the BRCA2 interval is suggested as groups of putative exons and hybrid selected clones that were transcribed in consistent orientations could be localized to common physical intervals. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ugolini

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes to central units (the hubs once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods: We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results: The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions: Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities.

  4. Patient perceptions of innovative longitudinal integrated clerkships based in regional, rural and remote primary care: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Judith N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students at the University of Wollongong experience continuity of patient care and clinical supervision during an innovative year-long integrated (community and hospital clinical clerkship. In this model of clinical education, students are based in a general practice ‘teaching microsystem’ and participate in patient care as part of this community of practice (CoP. This study evaluates patients’ perceptions of the clerkship initiative, and their perspectives on this approach to training ‘much-needed’ doctors in their community. Methods Semi-structured, face-to-face, interviews with patients provided data on the clerkship model in three contexts: regional, rural and remote health care settings in Australia. Two researchers independently thematically analysed transcribed data and organised emergent categories into themes. Results The twelve categories that emerged from the analysis of transcribed data were clustered into four themes: learning as doing; learning as shared experience; learning as belonging to a community; and learning as ‘becoming’. Patients viewed the clerkship learning environment as patient- and student-centred, emphasising that the patient-student-doctor relationship triad was important in facilitating active participation by patients as well as students. Patients believed that students became central, rather than peripheral, members of the CoP during an extended placement, value-adding and improving access to patient care. Conclusions Regional, rural and remote patients valued the long-term engagement of senior medical students in their health care team(s. A supportive CoP such as the general practice ‘teaching microsystem’ allowed student and patient to experience increasing participation and identity transformation over time. The extended student-patient-doctor relationship was seen as influential in this progression. Patients revealed unique insights into the longitudinal

  5. Not-recognizing policy within the minority EU members - Challenge for Kosovo’s Integration and Regional Peace-building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Samet Dalipi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Act of Recognition is the matter regulated by international law. After declaration of independence, Kosovo’s path toward EU integration is going to be problematic for Kosovo institutions and challenging for EU foreign policy.  Even though Kosovo was recognized by major international actors as sui generis case, some of them see this case as precedent and harmful for supposed developments within their jurisdictions, especially by 5 EU not recognizing countries. The article aims to justify the proclamation of independence by Kosovo institutions and to analyze the possible negative effects deriving from non-recognition policy for Kosovo and its new fragile democracy, hampering the democratic peace.  The policy of minor EU member states, contesting Kosovo’s statehood based on the assumption that the act of recognition will open a dangerous path for secession-minded national minorities in their own countries, taking into account that through (nonrecognition, states attempt to continue or change the existing order at international relations. Postponing Kosovo’s recognition by the rest of EU members will accumulate negative potentials within the new state, with possible consequences for the region.

  6. Diurnal variations in integrated water vapor derived from a GPS ground network in the Volga-Ural region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinnikov, Vladislav V.; Khutorova, Olga G.

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we present estimates of diurnal and semidiurnal harmonics of variations in integrated water vapor content (IWV) according to data from 16 GPS stations in the Volga-Ural region of Russia during 2013-2015. Amplitudes of diurnal harmonics are maximal in summer and reach values from 0.37 to 1.01 mm. Time at the maximum of diurnal harmonic is typically in the period from 14:00 to 17:00. Semidiurnal harmonics have the largest amplitudes in spring and autumn, but they do not exceed 0.19 mm. A comparison of the diurnal cycle from GPS data and ERA-Interim reanalysis has revealed significant differences in the phase. It is established that, as a result of evaporation from the underlying surface and convective lifting of moist air, the summer diurnal variations in IWV and surface density of water vapor are in antiphase. The diurnal cycle of IWV is determined by surface air temperature to be 88 % in summer and less than at 35 % in other seasons. It is noted that maximal amplitudes of diurnal harmonic of IWV are observed at stations located on the windward side of mountains.

  7. RAISING COOPERATION AMONG FARM HOLDINGS AND AGROINDUSTRIAL INTEGRATION IN FARM PRODUCTION OF THE KUBAN REGION IN THE 1970-IES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolaevich Chernikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper stated that in Russia nowadays high priority is attached to farming’ advancement, due to the necessity to ensure food security nationwide. The country accumulated an extensive experience in the sector of industrial farming; that experience may be qualified as both positive and negative, being instructive in many respects. On the one part, this experience evidently demonstrated that the total control being highly destructive, as well as petty regulation, and practicing transfer of private farm holdings into State ownership. On the other part, using the State regulation machinery in the farming sector reflected one of the leading trends in the farming sector advancement round the world nowadays, namely: strengthening the part taken by the State in advancement of the industrial farming sector. In this regard, experience accumulated in the policy of farming sector over the period of Soviet State being both conceptually and pragmatically significant for determining the most efficient ways of industrial farming sector’ advancement. The paper reviewed raising cooperation among the farm holdings and agro-industrial integration in farm production of the Kuban Region in the 1970-ies with the purpose of increasing production and processing of farm products.

  8. Assessing regional environmental quality by integrated use of remote sensing, GIS, and spatial multi-criteria evaluation for prioritization of environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Rejaur; Shi, Z H; Chongfa, Cai

    2014-11-01

    This study was an attempt to analyse the regional environmental quality with the application of remote sensing, geographical information system, and spatial multiple criteria decision analysis and, to project a quantitative method applicable to identify the status of the regional environment of the study area. Using spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach with expert knowledge in this study, an integrated regional environmental quality index (REQI) was computed and classified into five levels of regional environment quality viz. worse, poor, moderate, good, and very good. During the process, a set of spatial criteria were selected (here, 15 criterions) together with the degree of importance of criteria in sustainability of the regional environment. Integrated remote sensing and GIS technique and models were applied to generate the necessary factors (criterions) maps for the SMCE approach. The ranking, along with expected value method, was used to standardize the factors and on the other hand, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was applied for calculating factor weights. The entire process was executed in the integrated land and water information system (ILWIS) software tool that supports SMCE. The analysis showed that the overall regional environmental quality of the area was at moderate level and was partly determined by elevation. Areas under worse and poor quality of environment indicated that the regional environmental status showed decline in these parts of the county. The study also revealed that the human activities, vegetation condition, soil erosion, topography, climate, and soil conditions have serious influence on the regional environment condition of the area. Considering the regional characteristics of environmental quality, priority, and practical needs for environmental restoration, the study area was further regionalized into four priority areas which may serve as base areas of decision making for the recovery, rebuilding, and

  9. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Steven R.; Raber, George T.; Roberts, Jason J.; Treml, Eric A.; Jorge Brenner; Patrick N. Halpin

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between ...

  10. Study of the electron-positron annihilation in the galactic center region with the Integral/SPI spectrometer; Etude de l'annihilation electron-positon dans la region du centre galactique avec le spectrometre INTEGRAL/SPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizun, P

    2007-04-15

    A spectral feature was detected in 1970 in the gamma-ray emission from the central regions of the Milky Way, during balloon flight observations. Located near 511 keV, this feature was soon attributed to the gamma-ray line tracing the annihilation of electrons with their anti-particles, positrons. However, none of the multiple astrophysical scenarios contemplated to explain the production of positrons in the Galactic bulge has been able to reproduce the high injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line, close to 10{sup 43} positrons per second. Launched in 2002, the European gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL was provided with a spectrometer, SPI, whose unprecedented imaging and spectral capabilities in this energy range enable us to further study the source of the 511 keV line detected in the Galactic centre region. Indeed, a better determination of the spatial extent of the source, the intrinsic width of the line and the fraction of positrons annihilating in-flight, directly or via the formation of ortho-Positronium atoms would improve our knowledge of both the annihilation medium and the initial source of positrons, and could allow us to discriminate between the various explanatory scenarios. The first part of this thesis deals with a key ingredient in the extraction of the annihilation spectrum: the optimization of the instrumental background model. New data screening and tracer selection procedures are presented. Classical multi-linear models are compared to neural and Bayesian networks. Finally, three years of observation are used to constrain the width of the source and derive its spectrum. The second part of the thesis focuses on one of the possible scenarios explaining the high positron injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line: the annihilation of light dark matter particles into electron-positron pairs. The various radiation mechanisms involved are modeled and confronted to observations in order to set an upper limit on the injection

  11. Urban-rural Integration Based on Regional Economic Integration——A Case of Jiuquan-Jiayuguan Areas of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between urban-rural integration and regional economic integration is summarized in the paper.Based on the fact,it expressed the necessity and realistic meaning of pushing forward the urban-rural integration process synchronously during Jiuquan-Jia yuguan (abbreviate:Jiu-Jia) areas economic integration.The current degree of the urban-rural integration of Jiu-Jia was analyzed by index calculation,and the related conclusions were obtained.Besides,the development concepts and the key works to accelerate the process of Jiu-Jia urban-rural integration were suggested.The results show that the overall level of urban-rural integration in Jiuquan and Jiayuguan is higher than the average level of Gansu Province,but the urban-rural economic development and social development lose the balance and the dual structure is prominent.In the end,three developmental patterns for accelerating the developmental process of urban-rural integration are put forward.Firstly,the government should find the key of the current work and coordinate the construction of infrastructure.Secondly,rural economic industrialization should be promoted.Thirdly,the urbanized social management should be promoted.

  12. Coastal flooding impact evaluation using an INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model for Varna region, Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nataliya; Eftimova, Petya; Valchev, Nikolay; Prodanov, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The study presents evaluation and comparative analysis of storm induced flooding impacts on different coastal receptors at a scale of Varna region using INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model. The model was developed within the FP7 RISC-KIT project, as a part of Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) consisting of two phases. CRAF Phase 1 is a screening process that evaluates coastal risk at a regional scale by means of coastal indices approach, which helps to identify potentially vulnerable coastal sectors: hot spots (HS). CRAF Phase 2 has the objective to assess and rank identified hotspots by detailed risk analysis done by jointly performing a hazard assessment and an impact evaluation on different categories (population, businesses, ecosystems, transport and utilities) using INDRA model at a regional level. Basically, the model assess the shock of events by estimating the impact on directly exposed to flooding hazard receptors of different vulnerability, as well as the potential ripple effects during an event in order to assess the "indirect" impacts, which occur outside the hazard area and/or continue after the event for all considered categories. The potential impacts are expressed in terms of uniform "Impact Indicators", which independently score the indirect impacts of these categories assessing disruption and recovery of the receptors. The ultimate hotspot ranking is obtained through the use of a Multi Criteria analysis (MCA) incorporated in the model, considering preferences of stakeholders. The case study area - Varna regional coast - is located on the western Black Sea, Bulgaria. The coastline, with a length of about 70 km, stretches from cape Ekrene to cape St. Atanas and includes Varna Bay. After application of CRAF Phase 1 three hotspots were selected for further analysis: Kabakum beach (HS1), Varna Central beach plus Port wall (HS2) and Artificial Island (HS3). For first two hotspots beaches and associated infrastructure are the assets

  13. Strategic Location and Territorial Integrity: The Role of Subsidiary Sites in the Classic Maya Kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Anaya Hernández

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Usumacinta region was the scene of an intense interaction between the different kingdoms of the Classic Maya Period. This interaction took the form of political and marriage alliances as well as warfare and is well attested in the inscribed monuments of the region, especially towards the Late Classic Period (c. AD 600-900. Through this interaction the Maya rulers would not only assert their claim to power but also ensure the boundaries of their kingdoms, with an eye to accruing a vaster domain. The definition of the political organisation and territorial extent of the Maya Lowland kingdoms is an issue that has attracted the attention of various scholars (Adams 1981; Adams and Jones 1981; Ball and Taschek 1991; Flannery 1972; Freidel 1981; Hammond 1974; 1981; Inomata and Aoyama 1996; Mathews 1988; 1991; Sanders 1981. Like these scholars, I have presented a model aimed at estimating the territorial extent of the kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta region, taking into account the physical characteristics of the terrain (Anaya Hernández 2001. In this article I approach this issue again, focusing this time on the importance that the subsidiary centres located at strategic locations across the landscape had for the maintenance of the territorial integrity of the kingdoms of Pomoná and Piedras Negras. The political importance of these sites is reflected in the efforts that the kings of these polities went through to warrant the loyalty of the rulers of these secondary centres, as can be attested by the presence of a sculptured stela at the site of Panhalé, in the vicinity of Pomoná, and an inscribed wooden box found within the Redención del Campesino Valley that makes reference to a Piedras Negras ruler. To address this issue I took advantage of the capabilities that GIS offers to model movement across the physical setting in order to define the potential boundaries between the aforementioned kingdoms in the light of the available

  14. Assessing the Influence of the PTTC Principal's Competency in ICT on the Teachers' Integration of ICT in Teaching Science in PTTCs in Nyanza Region, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwenga, Ezekiel; Nyabero, Charles; Okioma, Lazarous

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the influence of Primary Teacher Training College (PTTC) principal's competency in ICT on the teacher's integration of ICT in teaching science in PTTC's in Nyanza region in Kenya. The one research question and one research hypothesis guided the study. The population comprised of 21 principals and 159 tutors. Data…

  15. The dynamics of regional economic integration : a system dynamics analysis of pathways to the development of value chains in the South African Customs Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobbelaar, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress towards improved cooperation within the Southern African Customs Union (SACU, it can be argued that real economic integration is still lacking. Cross-border value chain (VC development has been proposed as a potential enabler of regional economic integration. This article draws on a systems thinking process to explore the dynamic process of regional economic integration and value chain development. Through an inductive approach, we consider pathways for value chain development using the agro-processing and automotive sectors within SACU as case studies. The outcome of the dynamic hypothesis is to inform a framework for strategic decision-making to support policy action towards developing cross-border value chains in SACU.

  16. The region of Valencia: an avant-garde integration. The School of Reception / Comunitat Valenciana: una integración de vanguardia. La Escuela de Acogida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa María Núñez Sánchez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Voluntary Program of Understanding of the Valencian Society (The School of Reception, a unique and pioneer project in Spain, is included in Title II of the Commitment to Integration of Law 15/2008 of Integration of Immigrant Persons in the Region of Valencia (LIPIE and in Decree 93/2009, by which the regulation of the aforementioned law is approved. This program is a tool that introduces immigrants voluntarily to the knowledge of the values and rules of democratic conviviality, their rights and duties, the politico-constitutional structure of Spain, and the official languages of the region, both Spanish and Valencian, all essential elements for said persons to know the society that has received them and in order to integrate into it.

  17. Examining regional groundwater-surface water dynamics using an integrated hydrologic model of the San Joaquin River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James M.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2017-02-01

    Widespread irrigated agriculture and a growing population depend on the complex hydrology of the San Joaquin River basin in California. The challenge of managing this complex hydrology hinges, in part, on understanding and quantifying how processes interact to support the groundwater and surface water systems. Here, we use the integrated hydrologic platform ParFlow-CLM to simulate hourly 1 km gridded hydrology over 1 year to study un-impacted groundwater-surface water dynamics in the basin. Comparisons of simulated results to observations show the model accurately captures important regional-scale partitioning of water among streamflow, evapotranspiration (ET), snow, and subsurface storage. Analysis of this simulated Central Valley groundwater system reveals the seasonal cycle of recharge and discharge as well as the role of the small but temporally constant portion of groundwater recharge that comes from the mountain block. Considering uncertainty in mountain block hydraulic conductivity, model results suggest this component accounts for 7-23 % of total Central Valley recharge. A simulated surface water budget guides a hydrograph decomposition that quantifies the temporally variable contribution of local runoff, valley rim inflows, storage, and groundwater to streamflow across the Central Valley. Power spectra of hydrograph components suggest interactions with groundwater across the valley act to increase longer-term correlation in San Joaquin River outflows. Finally, model results reveal hysteresis in the relationship between basin streamflow and groundwater contributions to flow. Using hourly model results, we interpret the hysteretic cycle to be a result of daily-scale fluctuations from precipitation and ET superimposed on seasonal and basin-scale recharge and discharge.

  18. Automatic 1D integrated geophysical modelling of lithospheric discontinuities: a case study from Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinč, Michal; Zeyen, Hermann; Bielik, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    Using a very fast 1D method of integrated geophysical modelling, we calculated models of the Moho discontinuity and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary in the Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region and its surrounding tectonic units. This method is capable to constrain complicated lithospheric structures by using joint interpretation of different geophysical data sets (geoid and topography) at the same time. The Moho depth map shows significant crustal thickness variations. The thickest crust is found underneath the Carpathian arc and its immediate Foredeep. High values are found in the Eastern Carpathians and Vrancea area (44 km). The thickest crust modelled in the Southern Carpathians is 42 km. The Dinarides crust is characterized by thicknesses more than 40 km. In the East European Platform, crust has a thickness of about 34 km. In the Apuseni Mountains, the depth of the Moho is about 36 km. The Pannonian Basin and the Moesian Platform have thinner crust than the surrounding areas. Here the crustal thicknesses are less than 30 km on average. The thinnest crust can be found in the SE part of the Pannonian Basin near the contact with the Southern Carpathians where it is only 26 km. The thickest lithosphere is placed in the East European Platform, Eastern Carpathians and Southern Carpathians. The East European Platform lithosphere thickness is on average more than 120 km. A strip of thicker lithosphere follows the Eastern Carpathians and its Foredeep, where the values reach in average 160 km. A lithosphere thickness minimum can be observed at the southern border of the Southern Carpathians and in the SE part of the Pannonian Basin. Here, it is only 60 km. The extremely low values of lithospheric thickness in this area were not shown before. The Moesian Platform is characterized by an E-W trend of lithospheric thickness decrease. In the East, the thickness is about 110 km and in the west it is only 80 km. The Pannonian Basin lithospheric thickness ranges from 80 to

  19. Integration of satellite imagery and forest inventory in mapping dominant and associated species at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangjian; He, Hong S; Dijak, William D; Yang, Jian; Shifley, Stephen R; Palik, Brian J

    2009-08-01

    To achieve the overall objective of restoring natural environment and sustainable resource usability, each forest management practice effect needs to be predicted using a simulation model. Previous simulation efforts were typically confined to public land. Comprehensive forest management practices entail incorporating interactions between public and private land. To make inclusion of private land into management planning feasible at the regional scale, this study uses a new method of combining Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data with remotely sensed forest group data to retrieve detailed species composition and age information for the Missouri Ozark Highlands. Remote sensed forest group and land form data inferred from topography were integrated to produce distinct combinations (ecotypes). Forest types and size classes were assigned to ecotypes based on their proportions in the FIA data. Then tree species and tree age determined from FIA subplots stratified by forest type and size class were assigned to pixels for the entire study area. The resulting species composition map can improve simulation model performance in that it has spatially explicit and continuous information of dominant and associated species, and tree ages that are unavailable from either satellite imagery or forest inventory data. In addition, the resulting species map revealed that public land and private land in Ozark Highlands differ in species composition and stand size. Shortleaf pine is a co-dominant species in public land, whereas it becomes a minor species in private land. Public forest is older than private forest. Both public and private forests have deviated from historical forest condition in terms of species composition. Based on possible reasons causing the deviation discussed in this study, corresponding management avenues that can assist in restoring natural environment were recommended.

  20. Uruguay y los procesos de integración regional: trayectoria, cambios y debates = Uruguay and regional integration processes: paths, changes, and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revelez, Lincoln Bizzozero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución de Uruguay en los procesos de integración regional de América Latina. Para ello plantea desde el comienzo algunas aclaraciones conceptuales sobre los distintos momentos del proceso de integración regional y sobre los condicionantes y principios de la política exterior del país. Se parte de la base que los nuevos regionalismos y sobre todo el regionalismo estratégico del siglo 21 replantean las bases de la política exterior de los distintos países, entre los cuales Uruguay. En el caso de Uruguay eso significa replantear los principios de equidistancia regional con los países vecinos. Ello necesariamente provoca que Uruguay se enfrente a su papel en la nueva construcción regional y los recursos que provee para ello

  1. Knowledge management and economic integration in Southern Africa: unpacking the contribution of a regional spatial perspective in building regional competitiveness and prosperity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the southern African region’s economic integration and knowledge management terrain from a spatial perspective. Its purpose is to generate insights relating to the role that space and spatial structure play in determining equity...

  2. An integrated system for the determination of the local, regional and long-transport contributions to Particulate Matter concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M.; Andriani, E.; Daresta, B. E.; de Gennaro, G.; di Gilio, A.; Ielpo, P.,; Placentino, C. M.; Trizio, L.; Tutino, M.

    2010-05-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown the negative effects of air pollution on human health, which range from respiratory and cardiovascular disease to neurotoxic effects, and cancer. Most recent investigations have been focused on health toxicological features of Particulate Matter (PM) and its interactions with other pollutants: it was found that fine particles (PM2.5) could be an effective media to transport these pollutants deeply into the lung and to cause many kind of reactions which include oxidative stress, local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses (Künzli and Perez, 2009). Based on these implications on public health, many countries have developed plans to suggest effective control strategies which involve the identification of Particulate Matter sources, the quantitative estimation of the emission rates of the pollutants, the understanding of PM transport, mixing and transformation processes and the identification of main factors influencing PM concentrations. In this field, receptor models can be useful tools to estimate sources contributions to PM collected in an area under investigations. Different approaches to receptor model analysis can be distinguished on basis of whether chemical characteristics of emission sources are required to be known before the source apportionment. The multivariate approach could be preferred when a lack of information concerning sources profiles occurred (Hopke, 2003). In this work, the results obtained by applying an integrated approach in the monitoring of PM using several typologies of instrumentations will be shown. A prototype for the determination of the contributions of a single source (‘fugitive emission') on the fine PM concentrations has been developed: it consists of a Swam dual-channel sampler, an OPC Monitor, a sonic anemometer and a PBL Mixing monitor. The investigated site chosen for the application of prototype will be the iron and steel pole of Taranto (Apulia Region, South of Italy

  3. The Research of the Balanced Development of China’s Urban-rural Spatial Integration Based on the Evolution of Regional Spatial Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The general law of regional spatial evolution is researched.In the process of the evolution of four stages,namely the early stage of traditional agriculture and industrialization,the middle stage of industrialization,the later stage of industrialization and post-industrialization,the types of space are homogenized space,polarized space,pole-axis space and integrated space respectively;the choosing of the spatial location is influenced by economy,society and environment,and the spatial structure extends along with three-dimensional space.Based on the fact that China’s urban-rural spatial structure evolution develops rapidly,and the outstanding characteristics of dual structure becomes the main obstacle to urban-rural balanced development,the thesis poses the countermeasures of China’s urban-rural spatial integrated balanced development.It points out that the healthy development of socio-economy is the external environment of realizing urban-rural spatial integration;the urban-rural coordinated planning is the prerequisite of realizing urban-rural spatial integration;fulfilling the governmental function is the key to realizing urban-rural spatial integration;promoting agricultural industrialization is the approach to realizing urban-rural spatial integration;perfecting social security system is the basis of realizing urban-rural spatial integration.

  4. Comparative analysis of the Hrp pathogenicity island of Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting Erwinia amylovora strains identifies the IT region as a remnant of an integrative conjugative element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rachel A; Blom, Jochen; Bühlmann, Andreas; Plummer, Kim M; Beer, Steven V; Luck, Joanne E; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Rodoni, Brendan C; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2012-08-01

    The Hrp pathogenicity island (hrpPAI) of Erwinia amylovora not only encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) and other genes required for pathogenesis on host plants, but also includes the so-called island transfer (IT) region, a region that originates from an integrative conjugative element (ICE). Comparative genomic analysis of the IT regions of two Spiraeoideae- and three Rubus-infecting strains revealed that the regions in Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were syntenic and highly conserved in length and genetic information, but that the IT regions of the Rubus-infecting strains varied in gene content and length, showing a mosaic structure. None of the ICEs in E. amylovora strains were complete, as conserved ICE genes and the left border were missing, probably due to reductive genome evolution. Comparison of the hrpPAI region of E. amylovora strains to syntenic regions from other Erwinia spp. indicates that the hrpPAI and the IT regions are the result of several insertion and deletion events that have occurred within the ICE. It also suggests that the T3SS was present in a common ancestor of the pathoadapted Erwinia spp. and that insertion and deletion events in the IT region occurred during speciation.

  5. The Chemistry CATT-BRAMS model : a regional atmospheric model system for integrated air quality and weather forecasting and research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longo, K. M; Freitas, S. R; Pirre, M; Marécal, V; Rodrigues, L. F; Panetta, J; Alonso, M. F; Rosário, N. E; Moreira, D. S; Gácita, M. S; Arteta, J; Fonseca, R; Stockler, R; Katsurayama, D. M; Fazenda, A; Bela, M

    2013-01-01

    ... (CCATT-BRAMS, version 4.5) is an on-line regional chemical transport model designed for local and regional studies of atmospheric chemistry from the surface to the lower stratosphere suitable both for operational and research purposes...

  6. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Steven R; Raber, George T; Roberts, Jason J; Treml, Eric A; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  7. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Schill

    Full Text Available We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  8. Integrating systematic screening for gender-based violence into sexual and reproductive health services: results of a baseline study by the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A; Bott, S; Cuca, Y

    2002-09-01

    Three Latin American affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Inc. (IPPF/WHR) have begun to integrate gender-based violence screening and services into sexual and reproductive health programs. This paper presents results of a baseline study conducted in the affiliates. Although most staff support integration and many had already begun to address violence in their work, additional sensitization and training, as well as institution-wide changes are needed to provide services effectively and to address needs of women experiencing violence.

  9. From national to regional plans – the Integrated Drought Management Programme of the Global Water Partnership for Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bokal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades it has become evident that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE are affected by droughts which are becoming more and more lasting and severe. The region׳s vulnerability to this natural hazard alerted the public, governments, and operational agencies to the many socio-economic problems accompanying water shortage and to the need for drought mitigation measures. In addition, climate change amplifies the frequency and severity of droughts in the region. In this context, the CEE region of the Global Water Partnership (GWP recently launched the regional Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP as part of the global joint World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GWP IDMP. The purpose of this paper is to present the work plan of the GWP CEE IDM Programme which is being implemented in the years 2013–2015. The planning process for this Programme carried out in 2012 included national and regional reviews of existing drought risks, policies and strategies. The programme inception phase was summarized in October 2012 by a regional workshop organized jointly by GWP and WMO, with the participation of representatives of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD Secretariat, the Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe (DMCSEE, the EU Joint Research Centre, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and the European Drought Centre. The Programme was launched in February 2013 and involves more than 40 organizations from 9 CEE countries. The basic four elements of the Programme include policy advice, demonstration projects, capacity building knowledge management and regional cooperation (from national to regional plans. The major output, building upon national initiatives, shall be a coordinated regional framework for drought monitoring, early warning, prediction and management, accompanied by a set of guidelines and tools for the development of regional, national and local

  10. Regional Joint-Integrated Air and Missile Defense (RF-IAMD): An Operational Level Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Command and Control (C2) Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    the Naval Air and Missile Defense Command (NAMDC). NAMDC then began training field grade officers through a Weapons and Tactics Instructor ( WTI ...49 Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Weapons and Tactics Instructor ( WTI ), Naval Air and Missile...and Missile Defense (IAMD) Weapons and Tactics Instructor ( WTI ). Accessed April 28, 2015. http://namdc.ahf.nmci.navy.mil/site%20pages/wti.htm

  11. Attitudes and Prerequisites for the Establishment of an Integrated Cultural Identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Popova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: On the basis of the results from an empirical study this research aims at exploration of the prerequisites for the establishment of an integrated cultural identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River (RBCBR. Prior Work: The paper is trying to prove the necessity of identity re-negotiation process within RBCBR. The theoretical background of the research is related to some of the most topical considerations in this scientific field. Approach: The research uses an interdisciplinary approach and combines the perspectives of regional studies, cross-cultural psychology and intercultural communication. A representative survey is the main instrument of the research. Results: Among the citizens of the RBCBR there exist favourable attitudes towards closer relations with their neighbours which can serve as a key element of the identity re-negotiation process within the region. Implications: The research results can be used by policy makers and regional authorities in the process of establishment of a new policy for territorial cooperation as well as by researchers in further development of this topic area. Value: the importance of the research is in its new approach towards the establishment of integrated regional identity as well as in the comparison of the Romanian and Bulgarian attitudes towards cooperation in the neighbourhood area.

  12. The environmental "risky" region: identifying land degradation processes through integration of socio-economic and ecological indicators in a multivariate regionalization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca; Zitti, Marco

    2009-11-01

    Although several studies have assessed Land Degradation (LD) states in the Mediterranean basin through the use of composite indices, relatively few have evaluated the impact of specific LD drivers at the local scale. In this work, a computational strategy is introduced to define homogeneous areas at risk and the main factors acting as determinants of LD. The procedure consists of three steps and is applied to a set of ten environmental indicators available at the municipality scale in Latium, central Italy. A principal component analysis extracting latent patterns and simplifying data complexity was carried out on the original data matrix. Subsequently, a k-means cluster analysis was applied on a restricted number of meaningful, latent factors extracted by PCA in order to produce a classification of the study area into homogeneous regions. Finally, a stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine which indicators contributed the most to the definition of homogeneous regions. Three classes of "risky" regions were identified according to the main drivers of LD acting at the local scale. These include: (i) soil sealing (coupled with landscape fragmentation, fire risk, and related processes), (ii) soil salinization due to agricultural intensification, and (iii) soil erosion due to farmland depopulation and land abandonment in sloping areas. Areas at risk for LD covered 56 and 63% of the investigated areas in 1970 and 2000, respectively.

  13. The Environmental ``Risky'' Region: Identifying Land Degradation Processes Through Integration of Socio-Economic and Ecological Indicators in a Multivariate Regionalization Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca; Zitti, Marco

    2009-11-01

    Although several studies have assessed Land Degradation (LD) states in the Mediterranean basin through the use of composite indices, relatively few have evaluated the impact of specific LD drivers at the local scale. In this work, a computational strategy is introduced to define homogeneous areas at risk and the main factors acting as determinants of LD. The procedure consists of three steps and is applied to a set of ten environmental indicators available at the municipality scale in Latium, central Italy. A principal component analysis extracting latent patterns and simplifying data complexity was carried out on the original data matrix. Subsequently, a k-means cluster analysis was applied on a restricted number of meaningful, latent factors extracted by PCA in order to produce a classification of the study area into homogeneous regions. Finally, a stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine which indicators contributed the most to the definition of homogeneous regions. Three classes of “risky” regions were identified according to the main drivers of LD acting at the local scale. These include: (i) soil sealing (coupled with landscape fragmentation, fire risk, and related processes), (ii) soil salinization due to agricultural intensification, and (iii) soil erosion due to farmland depopulation and land abandonment in sloping areas. Areas at risk for LD covered 56 and 63% of the investigated areas in 1970 and 2000, respectively.

  14. Integration of multiethnic fine-mapping and genomic annotation to prioritize candidate functional SNPs at prostate cancer susceptibility regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Stram, Daniel O.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Wang, Zhaoming; Rand, Kristin A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Xu, Jianfeng; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Timothy J.; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Stanford, Janet L.; Kolb, Suzanne; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Strom, Sara S.; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Isaacs, William B.; Chen, Constance; Lindstrom, Sara; Le Marchand, Loic; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Pomerantz, Mark; Long, Henry; Li, Fugen; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; John, Esther M.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Murphy, Adam B.; Blot, William J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, M. Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm J. M.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Riboli, Elio; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L.; Hunter, David J.; Gronberg, Henrik; Cook, Michael B.; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Henderson, Brian E.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Conti, David V.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk associations for prostate cancer is complicated by the relatively large number of risk variants (n = 100) and the thousands of surrogate SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. Here, we combined three distinct approaches: multiethnic fine-mapping, putative functional annotation (based upon epigenetic data and genome-encoded features), and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, in an attempt to reduce this complexity. We examined 67 risk regions using genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping in populations of European (cases/controls: 8600/6946), African (cases/controls: 5327/5136), Japanese (cases/controls: 2563/4391) and Latino (cases/controls: 1034/1046) ancestry. Markers at 55 regions passed a region-specific significance threshold (P-value cutoff range: 3.9 × 10−4–5.6 × 10−3) and in 30 regions we identified markers that were more significantly associated with risk than the previously reported variants in the multiethnic sample. Novel secondary signals (P < 5.0 × 10−6) were also detected in two regions (rs13062436/3q21 and rs17181170/3p12). Among 666 variants in the 55 regions with P-values within one order of magnitude of the most-associated marker, 193 variants (29%) in 48 regions overlapped with epigenetic or other putative functional marks. In 11 of the 55 regions, cis-eQTLs were detected with nearby genes. For 12 of the 55 regions (22%), the most significant region-specific, prostate-cancer associated variant represented the strongest candidate functional variant based on our annotations; the number of regions increased to 20 (36%) and 27 (49%) when examining the 2 and 3 most significantly associated variants in each region, respectively. These results have prioritized subsets of candidate variants for downstream functional evaluation. PMID:26162851

  15. Integration of multiethnic fine-mapping and genomic annotation to prioritize candidate functional SNPs at prostate cancer susceptibility regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wiklund, Fredrik; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Stram, Daniel O; Berndt, Sonja I; Wang, Zhaoming; Rand, Kristin A; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Xu, Jianfeng; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis A; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Isaacs, William B; Chen, Constance; Lindstrom, Sara; Le Marchand, Loic; Giovannucci, Edward L; Pomerantz, Mark; Long, Henry; Li, Fugen; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm J M; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Riboli, Elio; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Gronberg, Henrik; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Easton, Douglas F; Henderson, Brian E; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Conti, David V; Haiman, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation of biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk associations for prostate cancer is complicated by the relatively large number of risk variants (n = 100) and the thousands of surrogate SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. Here, we combined three distinct approaches: multiethnic fine-mapping, putative functional annotation (based upon epigenetic data and genome-encoded features), and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, in an attempt to reduce this complexity. We examined 67 risk regions using genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping in populations of European (cases/controls: 8600/6946), African (cases/controls: 5327/5136), Japanese (cases/controls: 2563/4391) and Latino (cases/controls: 1034/1046) ancestry. Markers at 55 regions passed a region-specific significance threshold (P-value cutoff range: 3.9 × 10(-4)-5.6 × 10(-3)) and in 30 regions we identified markers that were more significantly associated with risk than the previously reported variants in the multiethnic sample. Novel secondary signals (P < 5.0 × 10(-6)) were also detected in two regions (rs13062436/3q21 and rs17181170/3p12). Among 666 variants in the 55 regions with P-values within one order of magnitude of the most-associated marker, 193 variants (29%) in 48 regions overlapped with epigenetic or other putative functional marks. In 11 of the 55 regions, cis-eQTLs were detected with nearby genes. For 12 of the 55 regions (22%), the most significant region-specific, prostate-cancer associated variant represented the strongest candidate functional variant based on our annotations; the number of regions increased to 20 (36%) and 27 (49%) when examining the 2 and 3 most significantly associated variants in each region, respectively. These results have prioritized subsets of candidate variants for downstream functional evaluation.

  16. Regionalism versus integration of the EU electricity market : An open debate from the comparative and prospective analysis of regulatory regimes in the central European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engoian, Alda; Mouchart, Christel

    2005-12-15

    The failure of integration of 25 national energy markets into an unique one has been clearly expressed by the European Commission in its last benchmarking report. This working paper investigate the question of the more appropriate and realistic market design to limit perverse effects linked to the gaps between Western and Eastern European electricity markets. The paper consists in comparing electricity regulations per segment of the value chain in the CECs (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia) characterized by industrial structures stemming from the socialism. Our regulatory approach and the example of South-East Europe support the idea of regionalism as an interim stage towards a final integrated European market. This regionalism based on the Standard Market Design concept, with flexible principles, and simultaneously combined to national reforms would seem to be a ''key of success''. (Author)

  17. The Integrated Rural Planning System, an evaluative and participative decision support system to implement sustainable urban development in the Ballons des Vosges Regional Natural Park

    OpenAIRE

    Bombenger, Pierre-Henri; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the methodology developed for the experimental implementation of the Integrated Rural Planning System (IRPS) in the Regional Natural Park of Ballons des Vosges. This involves a socio-technical approach aiming at an increased inclusion of sustainable land use planning principles in local urban plans (LUP). This approach is enforced by using standard geographic information system (GIS), simulation of management scenarios and multicriteria decision aid...

  18. The Potential of Regional Integration Agreements (RIAs) in Enhancing the Credibility of Reform: The Case of the Syrian-European Association Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Zorob, Anja

    2007-01-01

    The effect of 'locking-in' economic reform and enhancing its credibility is generally regarded as one of the most important potential effects of regional integration. Based on a detailed review of the theoretical debate, this paper develops a general framework for assessment to evaluate the ability of RIAs to serve as effective mechanisms for 'commitment' and 'signalling'. In the second part, this assessment framework is applied to the case of the Syrian-European Association Agreement (AA). S...

  19. Strategic Conception for Regionally Integrative Land Use in Jiangsu Province%江苏省统筹区域土地利用战略构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衍毓; 王静; 陈美景

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explore effective pattern for regionally integrated land use and regionally coordinated development. Methods employed include empirical survey, experts' consultation and literature review. The results show that Inter-regional Rural Land Joint Consolidation and Readjustment (IRLJCR) in the typical region, i.e. Jiangsu province can effectively relieve problems of regionally uncoordinated development, supply macro-strategic guidance for regionally coordinated development, promote the optimal allocation of inter-regional production factors, innovate mechanism for coordinating regional benifits, enhance the process of regional integration, alleviate land resource constraints for industrial transformation period in developed regions and offer more financing source for underdeveloped regions. Therefore, significant economic, social and ecological benefits can be achieved. It is concluded that IRLJCR is an important strategy to promote regionally coordinated development. It is suggested some pilot areas can be carried out in suitable counties (cities) within provincial scale accordingly.%研究目的:探索通过统筹区域土地利用促进区域协调发展的有效模式与途径。研究方法:实地调研,专家咨询,文献研究。研究结果:省内跨区域农村土地联合整治模式,可为江苏省统筹区域发展提供宏观战略指导,有效促进区际要素优化配置,创新区域利益协调机制,加快区域一体化进程,有利于缓解该省经济发达地区产业转型升级中的土地资源约束,为经济欠发达地区农村土地综合整治和城乡一体化建设拓展融资渠道,经济、社会和生态预期效益较好。研究结论:农村土地联合整治是统筹区域土地利用,促进区域协调发展的重要战略途径,可适时在省内条件成熟的县(市)开展试点。

  20. Cross-Border Higher Education for Regional Integration:Analysis of the JICA-RI Survey on Leading Universities in East Asia. JICA-RI Working Paper. No. 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo; Yuki, Takako; Kang, Kyuwon

    2010-01-01

    Set against the backdrop of increasing economic interdependence in East Asia, the idea of regional integration is now being discussed as a long-term political process in the region. As in the field of the international economy, de facto integration and interdependence exist with respect to the internationalization of the higher education system…

  1. Regional Inflation, Financial Integration and Dollarization (This is a revision of CentER DP 2013-073)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, R.; Brown, M.; Sokolov, V.

    2015-01-01

    We exploit variation in consumer price inflation across 71 Russian regions to examine the relationship between the perceived stability of the domestic currency and financial dollarization. Our results show that regions with higher inflation experience an increase in the dollarization of household de

  2. Regional Inflation, Financial Integration and Dollarization (This is a revision of CentER DP 2013-073)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, R.; Brown, M.; Sokolov, V.

    2015-01-01

    We exploit variation in consumer price inflation across 71 Russian regions to examine the relationship between the perceived stability of the domestic currency and financial dollarization. Our results show that regions with higher inflation experience an increase in the dollarization of household

  3. Financial crises as catalysts for regional cooperation? Chances and obstacles for financial integration in ASEAN+3, MERCOSUR and the eurozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article compares and analyses the different answers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations+3 (ASEAN+3), Mercado Común del Dur (MERCOSUR) and the eurozone on financial crises in their respective regions. All three regions were hit by economic turmoil between 1997 and 2012, but whereas A

  4. Labour force participation rates at the regional and national levels of the European Union : An integrated analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul; Zeilstra, Annette S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in regional labour force participation rates in a cross-country perspective. A microeconomic framework of the tabour force participation decision is aggregated across individuals to obtain an explanatory rnodel of regional participation rates in which

  5. Policy measure for creating an integrated and brand-focused regional innovation system in tourism in a shadow destination:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brambini, Annalisa; Vang, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Tourism has often been hyped as an engine of regional growth and development but often failed to deliver the expected results. This is especially the case in shadow destinations. The concept of a shadow destination refers to a region whose relative attractioness is significantly lower than co...

  6. Benefit of regional energy balancing service on wind integration in the western interconnection of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael; Kirby, Brendan; King, Jack [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Beuning, Stephen [Xcel Energy Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Interest in various wide-area balancing schemes to help integrate wind have generated significant interest. As we have shown in past work, large balancing areas not only help with wind integration, but can also increase the efficiency of operations in systems without wind. Recent work on the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) has found that combining balancing over the WestConnect footprint will increase the efficiency of commitment and dispatch at wind penetrations ranging from 10-30% of annual electricity demand, and will be essential for high penetrations and small balancing areas. In addition the northwest Wind Integration Action Plan recommended balancing area cooperation as a method to help integrate the large potential wind development. In this paper we investigate the potential impact of a proposed Energy Imbalance Service on the ability of the non-market portions of Western Electricity Coordinating Councils (WECC) United States footprint to integrate wind energy. We will utilize data adapted from the WWSIS for the Western Interconnection. The analysis uses time-synchronized wind and load data to evaluate the potential for ramp requirement reduction that could be achieved with combined operation. Chronological analysis and ramp duration analysis quantify the benefit in terms of not only the ramp sizes, but the frequency of the potentially avoided ramps that must be managed by the non-wind generation fleet. Multiple approaches that can be used to achieve these benefits are also suggested in the paper. We also suggest other approaches that can help achieve much of the benefit of full consolidation without requiring the physical consolidation of balancing areas. (orig.)

  7. The Organization and Institution Analysis on the Formation of Regional Integration%区域一体化生成的组织制度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王得新

    2015-01-01

    理论上认清区域一体化的发展规律和形成机制,对加快我国城市群建设,实现经济社会区域一体化发展有重要意义。首先,区域一体化具有空间组织性特征,是各种生产要素在空间上的优化配置、城市载体功能不断优化的过程。其次,区域一体化发展是在市场制度前提下自组织与他组织叠加作用的产物,制度创新与组织演化反馈互动。再次,我国以城市群为特征的区域一体化实践是一系列制度改革和制度创新的结果。最后,我国区域一体化组织过程中存在制度的路径依赖和锁定的障碍,需要全面深化改革,从市场制度创新和区域合作制度创新两个层面共同着力。%It is very important to get a clear understanding of development law and formation mechanism of regional integration on the aspect of strengthening city group construction and realizing development of economic and social integration. First, regional integration is characterized by space organization, it is the process in which all factors are rationally distributed and urban vector function has been continuously optimized. Second, regional integration development is resulted from superposition of self-organization and hetero-organization under the premise of market system, the interaction of system innovation and organization evolution. Finally, the path dependence and lock-in effect hinders the process of regional integration in our country, which requires deepening the reform in all-round way, including joint efforts of market system renovation and regional cooperation system renovation.

  8. Hierarchical Fabrication of Engineered Vascularized Bone Biphasic Constructs via Dual 3D Bioprinting: Integrating Regional Bioactive Factors into Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haitao; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-09-01

    A biphasic artificial vascularized bone construct with regional bioactive factors is presented using dual 3D bioprinting platform technique, thereby forming a large functional bone grafts with organized vascular networks. Biocompatible mussel-inspired chemistry and "thiol-ene" click reaction are used to regionally immobilize bioactive factors during construct fabrication for modulating or improving cellular events. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. RETROSPECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRAL IODINE-131 FALLOUT FOR THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF IODINE-129 CONTENT IN THE SOIL DETERMINATION IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Gavrilin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the procedure of reconstruction of integral iodine-131 fallouts using fragmentary data on iodine-131 fallouts in May-June 1986, as well as results of determination (in the late period after the accident of iodine-129 concentration in the soil and values of integral fallouts of cesium-137 in the settlements of the Bryansk region of Russia. Results of estimation of integral iodine-131 fallouts (in the area of 32 soil sampling points are presented in the table form. Regularities of ratio (131I/137CsII change in the integral radionuclide fallouts are being determined and values of integral iodine-131 fallouts are being estimatedfor the other settlements of the region with the known values of integral cesium-137 fallouts. It is shown that variability of the average for settlements values of integral iodine-131 fallouts is 70 times less then variability of corresponding integral cesium-137 fallouts.

  10. 区域综合运输成本研究的理论探讨%On the Theory of Regional Integrated Transportation Costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威; 曹有挥; 梁双波

    2011-01-01

    当前从部门和企业层面对运输成本的研究已较为深入,而在区域层面,相关研究主要 集中于运输成本效应的分析,本文尝试立足于区域视角和宏观尺度,从概念内涵、主要影响因素、计量模型、空间格局的形成演化机制及时空演化规律等方面构建区域综合运输成本研究的理论框架.区域综合运输成本是对特定地域单元为进行客货流动所必须克服的阻力的一个宏观的、一般的衡量,深受一地综合交通可达性、客货运输规模及运输外部成本的影响;以此为基础,构建了区域综合运输成本指数以反映不同节点成本的相对高低.综合运输成本空间格局的形成与演化是交通基础设施格局、经济社会发展阶段及政府政策取向等共同作用的结果,一般条件下,其时空演化遵循“初级发散—收敛—高度收敛—发散”的基本模式,随时间推移,综合运输成本逐渐下降,而在空间分布上则由最初的低级均衡演化为非均衡,最终又趋于高级均衡.%At present, important advances in transportation costs studies have been achieved at sector and enterprise levels. However, at the regional level, relevant studies focused primarily on the impacts of transportation costs. Based on the regional perspectives and macro-scales, this paper attempts to build a theoretical framework on the regional integrated transportation costs, which consists of its concept, the main influencing factors, the measurement model, the mechanism of pattern formation and changes, and the spatial-temporal evolution rules. For a particular geographic unit, the regional integrated transportation cost is a general measurement of the resistance of passenger and cargo flows, which is greatly influenced by the integrated transportation accessibility, the passenger and freight traffic scale, and the external costs of transportation, with the integrated transportation accessibility serving as a

  11. Regulatory R region of the CFTR chloride channel is a dynamic integrator of phospho-dependent intra- and intermolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoky, Zoltan; Krzeminski, Mickael; Muhandiram, Ranjith; Birtley, James R; Al-Zahrani, Ateeq; Thomas, Philip J; Frizzell, Raymond A; Ford, Robert C; Forman-Kay, Julie D

    2013-11-19

    Intrinsically disordered proteins play crucial roles in regulatory processes and often function as protein interaction hubs. Here, we present a detailed characterization of a full-length disordered hub protein region involved in multiple dynamic complexes. We performed NMR, CD, and fluorescence binding studies on the nonphosphorylated and highly PKA-phosphorylated human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) regulatory region, a ∼200-residue disordered segment involved in phosphorylation-dependent regulation of channel trafficking and gating. Our data provide evidence for dynamic, phosphorylation-dependent, multisite interactions of various segments of the regulatory region for its intra- and intermolecular partners, including the CFTR nucleotide binding domains 1 and 2, a 42-residue peptide from the C terminus of CFTR, the SLC26A3 sulphate transporter and antisigma factor antagonist (STAS) domain, and 14-3-3β. Because of its large number of binding partners, multivalent binding of individually weak sites facilitates rapid exchange between free and bound states to allow the regulatory region to engage with different partners and generate a graded or rheostat-like response to phosphorylation. Our results enrich the understanding of how disordered binding segments interact with multiple targets. We present structural models consistent with our data that illustrate this dynamic aspect of phospho-regulation of CFTR by the disordered regulatory region.

  12. The N-terminal region of the dopamine D2 receptor, a rhodopsin-like GPCR, regulates correct integration into the plasma membrane and endocytic routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, DI; Min, C; Jung, KS; Cheong, SY; Zheng, M; Cheong, SJ; Oak, MH; Cheong, JH; Lee, BK; Kim, KM

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Functional roles of the N-terminal region of rhodopsin-like GPCR family remain unclear. Using dopamine D2 and D3 receptors as a model system, we probed the roles of the N-terminal region in the signalling, intracellular trafficking of receptor proteins, and explored the critical factors that determine the functionality of the N-terminal region. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The N-terminal region of the D2 receptor was gradually shortened or switched with that of the D3 receptor or a non-specific sequence (FLAG), or potential N-terminal glycosylation sites were mutated. Effects of these manipulations on surface expression, internalization, post-endocytic behaviours and signalling were determined. KEY RESULTS Shortening the N-terminal region of the D2 receptor enhanced receptor internalization and impaired surface expression and signalling; ligand binding, desensitization and down-regulation were not affected but their association with a particular microdomain, caveolae, was disrupted. Replacement of critical residues within the N-terminal region with the FLAG epitope failed to restore surface expression but partially restored the altered internalization and signalling. When the N-terminal regions were switched between D2 and D3 receptors, cell surface expression pattern of each receptor was switched. Mutations of potential N-terminal glycosylation sites inhibited surface expression but enhanced internalization of D2 receptors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Shortening of N-terminus or mutation of glycosylation sites located within the N-terminus enhanced receptor internalization but impaired the surface expression of D2 receptors. The N-terminal region of the D2 receptor, in a sequence-specific manner, controls the receptor's conformation and integration into the plasma membrane, which determine its subcellular localization, intracellular trafficking and signalling properties. PMID:22117524

  13. Optimized reservoir operation model of regional wind and hydro power integration. Case study: Zambezi Basin and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Fant, Chas; Strzepek, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The present study develops a reliability assessment method of wind resource using optimum reservoir target power operations that maximizes the firm generation of integrated wind and hydro power. A combined water resources model for a system of reservoirs that implements a priority based linear programing algorithm and a single node power grid system model is implemented on an hourly time step. This model was then accompanied by a genetic algorithm solver to determine optimum operation targets...

  14. The Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Program, Climate Services, and Meeting the National Climate Change Adaptation Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Udall, B.; Miles, E.; Dow, K.; Anderson, C.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Hartmann, H.; Jones, J.; Mote, P.; Ray, A.; Shafer, M.; White, D.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA-led RISA Program has grown steadily to nine regions and a focus that includes both natural climate variability and human-driven climate change. The RISAs are, at their core, university-based and heavily invested in partnerships, particularly with stakeholders, NOAA, and other federal agencies. RISA research, assessment and partnerships have led to new operational climate services within NOAA and other agencies, and have become important foundations in the development of local, state and regional climate change adaptation initiatives. The RISA experience indicates that a national climate service is needed, and must include: (1) services prioritized based on stakeholder needs; (2) sustained, ongoing regional interactions with users, (3) a commitment to improve climate literacy; (4) support for assessment as an ongoing, iterative process; (5) full recognition that stakeholder decisions are seldom made using climate information alone; (6) strong interagency partnership; (7) national implementation and regional in focus; (8) capability spanning local, state, tribal, regional, national and international space scales, and weeks to millennia time scales; and (9) institutional design and scientific support flexible enough to assure the effort is nimble enough to respond to rapidly-changing stakeholder needs. The RISA experience also highlights the central role that universities must play in national climate change adaptation programs. Universities have a tradition of trusted regional stakeholder partnerships, as well as the interdisciplinary expertise - including social science, ecosystem science, law, and economics - required to meet stakeholder climate-related needs; project workforce can also shift rapidly in universities. Universities have a proven ability to build and sustain interagency partnerships. Universities excel in most forms of education and training. And universities often have proven entrepreneurship, technology transfer and private sector

  15. An Integrated Geophysical and Tectonic Study of the Structure and Evolution of the Crust in the Snake River Plain Region, Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, G. R.; Khatiwada, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Snake River Plain region in the Pacific Northwest of North America has been the target of a number of recent studies that have revealed further complexities in its structure and tectonic evolution. Based on surface morphology and Late Cenozoic volcanic activity, the Snake River Plain consists of an eastern and western arm (ESRP and WSRP) that are similar in many respects but also quite different in other respects. Thus, its origin, evolution, structural complexities, the role of extension and magmatism in its formation, and the tectonic drivers are still subjects of debate. Numerous seismic studies have specifically focused on the structure of the ESRP and Yellowstone area. However, crustal-scale studies of the WSRP are limited. We added new gravity data to the existing coverage in the WSRP region and undertook a regional, integrated analysis approach that included magnetic, seismic reflection and refraction profiling, receiver function results, geological and geospatial data, and interpreted well logs. Our integrated geophysical modeling focused on the structure of the WSRP. We generated two crustal models across it at locations where the most existing geophysical and geological constraints were available. We observed both differences and similarities in the structure of the WSRP and ESRP. Although, the shallow crustal structures are different, a mid-crustal mafic intrusion is a major source of the high gravity anomaly values. Within the context of recent studies in the surrounding region, the intersection of the two arms of the Snake River Plain emerges as a major element of a complex tectonic intersection that includes the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon, the Northern Nevada Rift, a southwestern extension of the ESRP into northern Nevada, as well as, faulting and volcanism extending northwestward to connect with the Columbia River Basalts region.

  16. Methods of Reprogramming to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Associated with Chromosomal Integrity and Delineation of a Chromosome 5q Candidate Region for Growth Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Maria; Raykova, Doroteya; Cavelier, Lucia; Khalfallah, Ayda; Schuster, Jens; Dahl, Niklas

    2015-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have brought great promises for disease modeling and cell-based therapies. One concern related to the use of reprogrammed somatic cells is the loss of genomic integrity and chromosome stability, a hallmark for cancer and many other human disorders. We investigated 16 human iPSC lines reprogrammed by nonintegrative Sendai virus (SeV) and another 16 iPSC lines generated by integrative lentivirus for genetic changes. At early passages we detected cytogenetic rearrangements in 44% (7/16) of iPSC lines generated by lentiviral integration whereas the corresponding figure was 6% (1/16) using SeV-based delivery. The rearrangements were numerical and/or structural with chromosomes 5 and 12 as the most frequently involved chromosomes. Three iPSC lines with chromosome 5 aberrations were derived from one and the same donor. We present in this study the aberrant karyotypes including a duplication of chromosome 5q13q33 that restricts a candidate region for growth advantage. Our results suggest that the use of integrative lentivirus confers a higher risk for cytogenetic abnormalities at early passages when compared to SeV-based reprogramming. In combination, our findings expand the knowledge on acquired cytogenetic aberrations in iPSC after reprogramming and during culture.

  17. Regional integrated modelling of climate change impacts on natural resources and resource usage in semi-arid Northeast Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Maarten S.; Bronstert, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Semi-arid regions are characterised by a high vulnerability of natural resources to climate change, pronounced climatic variability and often by water scarcity and related social stress. The analysis of the dynamics of natural conditions and the assessment of possible strategies to cope with drought

  18. Regional integrated modelling of climate change impacts on natural resources and resource usage in semi-arid Norhteast Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Bronstert, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Semi-arid regions are characterised by a high vulnerability of natural resources to climate change, pronounced climatic variability and often by water scarcity and related social stress. The analysis of the dynamics of natural conditions and the assessment of possible strategies to cope with

  19. Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome : the role of sensory processing and sensory-motor integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Paulina Johanna Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), motor disturbances are common and cause significant disability. The motor dysfunction of CRPS is a poorly understood phenomenon that is characterized predominantly by a decrease or loss of voluntary muscle control. This thesis aims to

  20. Near-IR integral field spectroscopy of ionizing stars and young stellar objects on the borders of HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Deharveng, L; Zavagno, A; Bouret, J -C

    2009-01-01

    We present near-IR SINFONI observations of three Galactic HII regions: RVW79, RCW82 and RCW120. We identify the ionizing stars of each region: they are early to late O stars, close to the main sequence. We derive their stellar and wind properties using atmosphere models computed with the code CMFGEN. The cluster ionizing RCW~79 formed 2.3+/-0.5 Myr ago. Similar ages are estimated, albeit with a larger uncertainty, for the ionizing stars of the other two regions. In RCW79 the mechanical wind luminosity represents only 0.1% of the ionizing luminosity, questioning the influence of stellar winds on the dynamics of the the HII region. The young stellar objects show four main types of spectral features: H2 emission, Br gamma emission, CO bandheads emission and CO bandheads absorption. These features are typical of young stellar objects surrounded by disks and/or envelopes. The radial velocities of most YSOs are consistent with that of the ionized gas, firmly establishing that star formation is taking place on the b...

  1. Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome : the role of sensory processing and sensory-motor integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Paulina Johanna Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), motor disturbances are common and cause significant disability. The motor dysfunction of CRPS is a poorly understood phenomenon that is characterized predominantly by a decrease or loss of voluntary muscle control. This thesis aims to ob

  2. The use of regional advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure impacts with sustainability; a perspective from the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H.; Huber, Patrick R.; O'Donoghue, Elizabeth; Santos, Maria J.

    2014-05-01

    Globally, urban areas are expanding, and their regional, spatially cumulative, environmental impacts from transportation projects are not typically assessed. However, incorporation of a Regional Advance Mitigation Planning (RAMP) framework can promote more effective, ecologically sound, and less expensive environmental mitigation. As a demonstration of the first phase of the RAMP framework, we assessed environmental impacts from 181 planned transportation projects in the 19 368 km2 San Francisco Bay Area. We found that 107 road and railroad projects will impact 2411-3490 ha of habitat supporting 30-43 threatened or endangered species. In addition, 1175 ha of impacts to agriculture and native vegetation are expected, as well as 125 crossings of waterways supporting anadromous fish species. The extent of these spatially cumulative impacts shows the need for a regional approach to associated environmental offsets. Many of the impacts were comprised of numerous small projects, where project-by-project mitigation would result in increased transaction costs, land costs, and lost project time. Ecological gains can be made if a regional approach is taken through the avoidance of small-sized reserves and the ability to target parcels for acquisition that fit within conservation planning designs. The methods are straightforward, and can be used in other metropolitan areas.

  3. Time for Action! ICT Integration in Formal Education: Key Findings from a Region-Wide Follow-Up Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeman, Katie; Elen, Jan; Pynoo, Bram; van Braak, Johan

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a report on the key findings of a region-wide monitoring study conducted in Dutch-speaking schools in Belgium. First, we elaborate on the building blocks of the instrument, which has been updated and improved since its first deployment in 2007. In particular we focus on the core indicators, along with the multi-actor approach, the…

  4. A Comparative Approach to the Principles of Proportionality and Subsidiarity in the Jurisprudence of the ECJ and the ACCJ: The Coordination-Harmonization of Regional Legal Pluralisms under the Challenge of the Internationalization of Regional Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenfieth de Jesus Sierra cadena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the current complexity of performing a comparative analysis of European Union Law and Andean Community Law as a result of growing pluralistic internationalization, the mere idea of coordinating the various regional legal pluralism leads us to reassess the great principles of interpretation of the law as a representation of both the diversity and the unity of a supranational legal system. Nowadays, it does not seem possible to define the boundaries of the internationalization of Regional Integration Law, as they are vague and permeable. It is therefore necessary to study the center of this legal internationalization based on the comparison of macro-principles of a universal type. Proportionality and subsidiarity can be analyzed from a comparative perspective based on the jurisprudence of the ECJ and TJCA. The first principle may be viewed as a means of coordinating community rights while the latter may be viewed as a means for the coordination of community competences.

  5. NANOOS, the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems: a regional Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) for the Pacific Northwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J.; Martin, D.; Kosro, M.

    2012-12-01

    NANOOS is the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems, the Pacific Northwest Regional Association of the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (US IOOS). User driven since its inception in 2003, this regional observing system is responding to a variety of scientific and societal needs across its coastal ocean, estuaries, and shorelines. Regional priorities have been solicited and re-affirmed through active engagement with users and stakeholders. NANOOS membership is composed of an even mix of academic, governmental, industry, and non-profit organizations, who appoint representatives to the NANOOS Governing Council who confirm the priority applications of the observing system. NANOOS regional priorities are: Maritime Operations, Regional Fisheries, Ecosystem Assessment, Coastal Hazards, and Climate. NANOOS' regional coastal ocean observing system is implemented by seven partners (three universities, three state agencies, and one industry). Together, these partners conduct the observations, modeling, data management and communication, analysis products, education and outreach activities of NANOOS. Observations, designed to span coastal ocean, shorelines, and estuaries, include physical, chemical, biological and geological measurements. To date, modeling has been more limited in scope, but has provided the system with increased coverage for some parameters. The data management and communication system for NANOOS, led by the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS) is the cornerstone of the user interaction with NANOOS. NVS gives users access to observational data, both real time and archived, as well as modeling output. Given the diversity of user needs, measurements, and the complexity of the coastal environment, the challenge for the system is large. NANOOS' successes take advantage of technological advances, including real-time data transmission, profiling buoys, gliders, HF radars, and modeling. The most profound challenges NANOOS faces stem

  6. Heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon 2.3x μm distributed feedback lasers based on a type-II active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Malik, Aditya; Vasiliev, Anton; Boehm, Gerhard; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-11-01

    We report on 2.3x μm wavelength InP-based type-II distributed feedback (DFB) lasers heterogeneously integrated on a silicon photonics integrated circuit. In the devices, a III-V epitaxial layer stack with a "W"-shaped InGaAs/GaAsSb multi-quantum-well active region is adhesively bonded to the first-order silicon DFB gratings. Single mode laser emission coupled to a single mode silicon waveguide with a side mode suppression ratio of 40 dB is obtained. In continuous-wave regime, the 2.32 μm laser operates close to room temperature (above 15 °C) and emits more than 1 mW output power with a threshold current density of 1.8 kA/cm2 at 5 °C. A tunable diode laser absorption measurement of CO is demonstrated using this source.

  7. USE OF TERRITORY AND CONSOLIDATION OF AGRIBUSINESS IN REGION CENTER-WEST: A STUDY ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRATION THROUGH SYSTEM OF AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gallo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to make some reflections on the use of small aircrafts for the integration and modernization of the Brazilian territory. The system of air transport, in a country of large territorial extension, is very important to narrow the regional ties and it is an important  element of the productive space circuit of the modern agriculture developed in the Brazilian Center-West. The small aircrafts of not-regular routes, act as basic vector of the interactional fluidity, speeding the transport of people, in function of its flexibility of displacement and time, act as basic vector of the productivity integration of the Brazilian territory, a time that the production properly said and corporative command if had separated given to the possibilities techniques of the actual technician-scientific and informational period. 

  8. Improving the network management of integrated primary mental healthcare for older people in a rural Australian region: protocol for a mixed methods case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Oster, Candice; Dawson, Suzanne; O'Kane, Deb; Lawn, Sharon; Henderson, Julie; Gerace, Adam; Reed, Richard; Nosworthy, Ann; Galley, Philip; McPhail, Ruth; Cochrane, Eimear Muir

    2014-09-16

    An integrated approach to the mental healthcare of older people is advocated across health, aged care and social care sectors. It is not clear, however, how the management of integrated servicing should occur, although interorganisational relations theory suggests a reflective network approach using evaluation feedback. This research will test a network management approach to help regional primary healthcare organisations improve mental health service integration. This mixed methods case study in rural South Australia will test facilitated reflection within a network of health and social care services to determine if this leads to improved integration. Engagement of services will occur through a governance group and a series of three 1-day service stakeholder workshops. Facilitated reflection and evaluation feedback will use information from a review of health sector and local operational policies, a network survey about current service links, gaps and enablers and interviews with older people and their carers about their help seeking journeys. Quantitative and qualitative analysis will describe the policy enablers and explore the current and ideal links between services. The facilitated reflection will be developed to maximise engagement of senior management in the governance group and the service staff at the operational level in the workshops. Benefit will be assessed through indicators of improved service coordination, collective ownership of service problems, strengthened partnerships, agreed local protocols and the use of feedback for accountability. Ethics approval will deal with the sensitivities of organisational network research where data anonymity is not preserved. The benefit will be the tested utility of a facilitated reflective process for a network of health and social care services to manage linked primary mental healthcare for older people in a rural region. Dissemination will make use of the sectoral networks of the governance group. Published by

  9. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  10. CLINICAL ANALYSIS ON INTEGRATED TREATMENT OF 2240 CASES OF PERIPHERAL FACIAL PARALYSIS BY STAGES IN PLATEAU REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Rui-quan; SU Li-qing; SUN Yong; ZHANG Jin-rong; LIU Su-chen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of integrated treatment of peripheral facial paralysis by stages in Qinghai plateau area. Methods: A total of 2 240 cases of peripheral facial paralysis treated with integrated approaches by stages were assigned to treatment group, and other 75 cases treated with acupuncture therapy assigned to control group. In treatment group, patients were treated with 1) medication (Prednisone, Dibazol, etc) and TDP ("special electromagnetic spectrum") plus ultrashort irradiation in the early stage; 2) TDP plus ultrasonic wave irradiation and acupuncture of Yangbai (阳白GB 14) to Yuyao (鱼腰EX-HN 4, penetration needling), etc in the medium stage; 3) medium-frequency irradiation and electroacupuncture (EA) of muscle motor joints and acupoints (GB-14, etc). Patients of control group were treated with conventional acupuncture therapy (GB-14, etc). Results: After treatment, of the 2 240 patients in treatment group, 2 072 (92.5%) were cured, 120 (5.3%) effective, 33 (1.5%) improved, and 15 (0.7%) failed. The total effective rate was 99.3%. Of the 75 cases in control group, 46 (61.3%) were cured, 16 (21.3%) effective, 9 (12.0%) improved, and 4 (5.4%) ineffective. The total effective rate was 94.6%. The cure rate and the total effective rate of treatment group were significantly higher than those of control group respectively (χ2=29.379, P<0.01; χ2=5.716, P<0.025). Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of integrated approaches (medication, acupuncture, electromagnetic+ultrashort wave+ultrasonic wave+ medium-frequency wave irradiation) is significantly superior to that of simple acupuncture therapy in treating peripheral facial paralysis.

  11. Agroparks - The European Landscape Convention and a European way to regional sustainable landscape development through land use integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    , South East Asia and South America and the urban sprawl around our megacities are examples of this global tendency. The segregation trend has had a long history in Europe and has traditionally been balanced by the establishment of nature protection zones, designed to conserve valuable landscape resources...... land use drivers, a transition to sustainability may become possible. This is the case in the privately owned manor landscapes, which are examples of an integrated land use strategy which has developed over centuries, made possible through stabile ownership conditions and a diversification...

  12. Experiences about the integrated fruit and grape cultivation target programme in the micro-region of Gyöngyös

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Gonda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The most popular target programme of the agricultural-environmental programme advertised by the New Hungary Rural Development Programme in the period between 2010-2014 was the integrated fruit and grape cultivation target programme in the micro-region of Gyöngyös. In the course of our research we were curious how the farms were prepared for it (professional knowledge, technology etc. whether they were able to adapt to the rules and at the same time how it could take effect on the financial positions of the farms.

  13. Energy sector integration for low carbon development in Greater Mekong sub-region: Towards a model of South-South cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yongping

    2010-09-15

    The Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) in Southeast Asia has embarked on a roadmap of power interconnection and expanded energy sector cooperation. An Asian development bank committed study using Model of Energy Supply Systems Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) assessed the impacts of various scenarios, the results indicate that GMS integration will help these countries to achieve low carbon and sustainable development. The article suggests that the experience of GMS cooperation be made a model for South-South cooperation in the global effort to fight climate change.

  14. Advancing scientific base lines for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation in mountain regions in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, C.; Jurt, N. Salzmann, C.; Calanca, P.; Ordonez, A. Diaz, J.; Zappa, T. Jonas M.; Konzelmann, T.; Lagos, P.; Obersteiner, M.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.

    2009-04-01

    Adaptation to climate change impacts is a major challenge for the human society. For countries in development, consistent base lines of expected impacts at the regional scale are required to plan and implement low-cost adaptation measures that effectively address societal needs. However, donors and implementing agencies are often confronted with a lack of scientific data. This poses a serious problem to global adaptation funds, such as the one established under the UNFCCC, which are predominantly directed towards developing countries. This contribution summarizes recent experiences gained from international projects in the Andes, by the Peruvian and Swiss Governments, and the World Bank, on the development of scientific base lines for selected regions in the Peruvian Andes. The focus is on the nexus between water resources, food security and natural disasters. The analysis shows that Peruvian Andes are among the most vulnerable regions to climate change. Negative impacts on water resources are expected from the rapid retreat of glaciers, extended and more frequent drought periods and increasing human needs. Climate change impacts are exacerbated by continued sub-optimal resource management. As a consequence of growing stresses, water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation is increasingly limited. Assessment of the current conditions and reliable projections for the future are hampered by scarce data availability and methodological problems, such as downscaling of global and regional climate scenarios, cross-sector effects, and others. It is critical that related uncertainties, and the propagation thereof, are assessed throughout the impact analysis for an improved management of adaptation measures. Challenges furthermore include communication and understanding among different actors, including the scientific community, political and implementation agencies, and local population. Based on our experiences we will outline a good practice

  15. Integrated Verification Experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Source Region Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, C.L.; Baker, D.F.

    1993-03-01

    Our goal was to obtain a better understanding of the effects of near-source phenomenology on far-field signals used for monitoring the testing limits of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty. Specifically, we tried to determine if regional phases, with or without corrections for working point media or spallation effects, provide yield estimates with acceptable uncertainties. When acquiring regional seismic data, careful selection of hard-rock sites was paramount to reducing the ground-motion amplitude scatter typical of network data sets. In spite of this cautious approach to siting stations, the scatter of the observed amplitudes was unacceptably large, and so we tried measurements of the near-total-wave trains to bring the range of estimates for any given explosion down to more acceptable levels. Most of our field deployments for recording seismic signals from NTS events at local and near-regional distances were toward the east along a profile that passes by the LANL intrasound array site at St. George, Utah, and continues by the Lawrence livermore National Laboratory seismic station at Kanab, Utah. The Sandia National Laboratories seismic station at Leeds, Utah is between St. George and Kanab. Typically, four to six stations were set up to record intermediate-period data, and four to eight stations were set up to record the high-frequency data. Intermediate-period seismic stations, high-frequency seismic stations, and intrasound arrays of stations were collocated whenever possible to maximize the data acquired with the manpower and equipment resources available. We used two types of instrumentation for recording the regional seismic waves: high-frequency and intermediate-period systems. The high-frequency system records acceleration to a corner frequency at approximately 25 Hz and records velocity at higher frequencies. The intermediate-period system records velocity at frequencies above the seismometer period of 5 s.

  16. Integration of magnetic, gravity, and well data in imaging subsurface geology in the Ksar Hirane region (Laghouat, Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhi, Walid; Boudella, Ammar; Saibi, Hakim; Bounif, Mohand Ou Abdallah

    2016-12-01

    Gravity and magnetic surveys, comprised of data from 985 gravity stations and 1373 magnetic stations, were recorded in the Ksar Hirane region in Laghouat, Algeria from May-August 2011 to study the poorly understood thickness of the sedimentary rocks and the structure of the basement rocks. The Bouguer anomalies vary from -48 mGal (northwest) to -58 mGal (southeast) and the magnetic intensities from 42,094 nT (northwest) to 42,344 nT (southeast). The constrained two-dimensional (2-D) forward modeling, three-dimensional (3-D) inversion of measured gravity and magnetic datasets helped us highlight the structure of the basement rocks at Ksar Hirane and determine the thickness of the sedimentary cover. Prominent NE-SW-trending geophysical anomalies that affect the study area were revealed by potential field gradient methods and were in agreement with the geological structure trends. The 3-D constrained inversion of magnetic data showed magnetized Precambrian metamorphic basement rock at shallow depths (approximately 3 km) in the southeast region and deeper (>10 km) in the northwestern part of the region, presenting similar results to that of the 2-D forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data. The inverted gravity data explain the structural architecture of the Ksar Hirane area, dissected by NE-SW sub-vertical faults.

  17. Peru Water Resources: Integrating NASA Earth Observations into Water Resource Planning and Management in Perus La Libertad Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Steentofte, Catherine; Holbrook, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries often struggle with providing water security and sanitation services to their populations. An important aspect of improving security and sanitation is developing a comprehensive understanding of the country's water budget. Water For People, a non-profit organization dedicated to providing clean drinking water, is working with the Peruvian government to develop a water budget for the La Libertad region of Peru which includes the creation of an extensive watershed management plan. Currently, the data archive of the necessary variables to create the water management plan is extremely limited. Implementing NASA Earth observations has bolstered the dataset being used by Water For People, and the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration) model has allowed for the estimation of the evapotranspiration values for the region. Landsat 8 imagery and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard Terra were used to derive the land cover information, and were used in conjunction with local weather data of Cascas from Peru's National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI). Python was used to combine input variables and METRIC model calculations to approximate the evapotranspiration values for the Ochape sub-basin of the Chicama River watershed. Once calculated, the evapotranspiration values and methodology were shared Water For People to help supplement their decision support tools in the La Libertad region of Peru and potentially apply the methodology in other areas of need.

  18. Integrated Assessments of the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: An Overview of AgMIP Regional Research in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Sonali P.; Dileepkumar, Guntuku; Murthy, K. M. Dakshina; Nedumaran, S.; Singh, Piara; Srinivasa, Chukka; Gangwar, B.; Subash, N.; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    South Asia's growing population. In order to assess the future of food and livelihood security across South Asia, the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has undertaken integrated climate-crop-economic assessments of the impact of climate change on food security and poverty in South Asia, encompassing Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. AgMIP has funded, on a competitive basis, four South Asian regional research teams (RRTs) and one South Asian coordination team (CT) to undertake climate-crop-economic integrated assessments of food security for many districts in each of these countries, with the goal of characterizing the state of food security and poverty across the region, and projecting how these are subject to change under future climate change conditions.

  19. A tale of integrated regional water supply planning: Meshing socio-economic, policy, governance, and sustainability desires together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Tirusew; Adams, Alison; Kajtezovic-Blankenship, Ivana

    2014-11-01

    In 1998, Tampa Bay Water, the largest wholesale water provider in South East USA with over 2.3 million customers, assumed the role of planning, developing, and operating water supply sources from six local water supply utilities through an Interlocal Agreement. Under the agreement, cities and counties served by the agency would have their water supply demands met unequivocally and share the cost of delivery and/or development of new supplies based on their consumption, allowing a more holistic approach to manage resources in the region. Consequently, the agency was able to plan and execute several components of its Long-Term Master Water Plan to meet the region's demand, as well as diversify its sources of water supply. Today, the agency manages a diverse and regionally interconnected water supply system that includes 13 wellfields, two surface water supply sources, off-site reservoir storage, a sea water desalination plant, a surface water treatment plant, and 14 pumping/booster stations. It delivers water through 390 km of large diameter pipe to 19 potable water connections. It uses state-of-the-practice computer tools to manage short and long-term operations and planning. As a result, after the agency's inception, groundwater pumpage was reduced by more than half in less than a decade-by far one of the largest cutback and smaller groundwater utilization rate compared to other utilities in Florida or elsewhere. The region was able to witness a remarkable recovery in lake and wetland water levels through the agency's use of this diverse mix of supply sources. For example, in the last three years, 45-65% of water supply came from groundwater sources, 35-45% from surface water sources and 1-9% from desalinated seawater-very different from 100% groundwater only supply just few years ago. As an "on demand" wholesale water provider, the agency forecasts water supply availability and expected water demands from seasonal to decadal time frames using a suite of

  20. Regional integration time controllable imaging based on DMD%基于DMD的区域积分时间可控成像

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄佳衍; 何伟基; 陈钱

    2012-01-01

    利用CCD(Charge Coupled Device)相机获取图像后常常存在区域过暗和过曝光的情况,而这两种情况都会掩盖该区域的细节信息.改变CCD相机的积分时间只能对获取的当前帧图像进行单一的积分时间增加或减小,不能同时处理一帧图像中光强过强和过弱的情况.因此针对DMD(Digital Micromirror Device)对每一个微镜片的翻转时间可控的特点,提出了一种区域积分时间可控成像系统,该系统可以通过控制DMD微镜片翻转时间来增加或者减少图像指定区域的积分时间.实验结果表明,该系统可有效地达到同时处理一帧图像中区域过暗和过曝光的目的.%When an image is captured by CCD, some regions of the acquired image are usually too dark or over-exposure, either of the previous problem will cover the detail information of the regions. The changing integration time of the CCD can only increase or decrease at one time, the given problem can not be solved when the dark region and the over-exposure region both exit in the same image. So a new regional integration time controllable imaging system based on DMD is proposed. By changing the flip time of the micromirror in the DMD , this system can both decrease and increase the integration time at one time. The result of the experiment shows that the imaging system can solve the given problem very well.

  1. O papel da integração regional para o Brasil: universalismo, soberania e percepção das elites The role of regional integration for Brazil: universalism, sovereignty, autonomy and elites' perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullo Vigevani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar o significado do Mercosul para a política exterior do Brasil. Para isso, discutiremos as percepções das elites brasileiras em relação ao processo de integração regional. A defesa do princípio da intergovernamentalidade está ligada à concepção do lugar do Mercosul nas relações internacionais do país. A grande valorização de princípios como o do universalismo e o de soberania acaba afetando o aprofundamento da integração. A hipótese deste trabalho é que a estrutura do Mercosul seria condizente com as percepções de parte das elites brasileiras. Argumentaremos que a estrutura atual é insuficiente para garantir a dinâmica da integração.The aim of this article is to analyse the role of Mercosur for the Brazilian foreign policy. We will discuss the perception of the Brazilian elites concerning the regional integration process. The defense of the principle of intergovernmentalism is related to the conception of Mercosur's place in the set of Brazilian international relations. The huge valuation of some principles, as universalism and sovereignty, ends up by affecting the deepening of integration. The hypothesis of this paper is that the Mercosur structure would be related with part of Brazilian elite's perceptions. Our argument is that the current structure is insufficient to guarantee the dynamics of the integration.

  2. Role of surface-water and groundwater interactions on projected summertime streamflow in snow dominated regions : An integrated modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Justin L.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate predominantly increasing trends in precipitation across the Western United States, while at the same time, historical streamflow records indicate decreasing summertime streamflow and 25th percentile annual flows. These opposing trends could be viewed as paradoxical, given that several studies suggest that increased annual precipitation will equate to increased annual groundwater recharge, and therefore increased summertime flow. To gain insight on mechanisms behind these potential changes, we rely on a calibrated, integrated surface and groundwater model to simulate climate impacts on surface water/groundwater interactions using 12 general circulation model projections of temperature and precipitation from 2010 to 2100, and evaluate the interplay between snowmelt timing and other hydrologic variables, including streamflow, groundwater recharge, storage, groundwater discharge, and evapotranspiration. Hydrologic simulations show that the timing of peak groundwater discharge to the stream is inversely correlated to snowmelt runoff and groundwater recharge due to the bank storage effect and reversal of hydraulic gradients between the stream and underlying groundwater. That is, groundwater flow to streams peaks following the decrease in stream depth caused by snowmelt recession, and the shift in snowmelt causes a corresponding shift in groundwater discharge to streams. Our results show that groundwater discharge to streams is depleted during the summer due to earlier drainage of shallow aquifers adjacent to streams even if projected annual precipitation and groundwater recharge increases. These projected changes in surface water/groundwater interactions result in more than a 30% decrease in the projected ensemble summertime streamflow. Our findings clarify causality of observed decreasing summertime flow, highlight important aspects of potential climate change impacts on groundwater resources, and underscore the need for integrated hydrologic

  3. Integrated Mapping of Drought-Impacted Areas in the Sierra-Nevada Foothills Region of California Using Landsat Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is a natural disaster with serious implications to environmental, social and economic well-being at local, regional and global scales. In its third year, California's drought condition has seriously impacted not just the agricultural sector, but also the natural resources sector including forestry, wildlife, and fisheries. As of July 15, 2014, the National Weather Service drought monitor shows 81% of California in the category of extreme drought. As future predictions of drought and fire severity become more real in California, there is an increased awareness to pursue innovative and cost-effective solutions that are based on silvicultural treatments and controlled burns to improve forest health and reduce the risk of high-severity wildfires. The main goal of this study is to develop a GIS map of the drought-impacted region of northern and central California using remote sensing data. Specifically, based on a geospatial database for the study region, Landsat imagery in conjunction with field and ancillary data will be analyzed using a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification techniques in addition to spectral indices such as the Modified Perpendicular Drought Index (MPDI). This spectral index basically scales the line perpendicular to the soil line defined in the Red-NIR feature space in conjunction with added information about vegetative fraction derived using NDVI. The image processing will be conducted for two time periods (2001 and 2014) to characterize the severity of the drought. In addition to field data, data collected by state agencies including calforests.org will be used in the classification and accuracy assessment procedures. Visual assessment using high-resolution imagery such as NAIP will be used to further refine the spatial maps. The drought severity maps produced will greatly facilitate site-specific planning efforts aimed at implementing resource management decisions.

  4. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle - a review using an integrated approach with regional examples for forests & native ecosystems -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D.; Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Beer, C.; Ciais, P.; Mahecha, M.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Smith, P.; van Oijen, M.; Walz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle provides an important biogeochemical feedback to climate and is itself particularly susceptible to extreme climate events. Climate extremes can override any (positive) effects of mean climate change as shown in European and recent US-American heat waves and dry spells. They can impact the structure, composition, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and have the potential to cause rapid carbon losses from accumulated stocks. We review how climate extremes like severe droughts, heat waves, extreme precipitation or storms can cause direct impacts on the CO2 fluxes [e.g. due to extreme temperature and/ or drought events] as well as lagged impacts on the carbon cycle [e.g. via an increased fire risk, or disease outbreaks and pest invasions]. The relative impact of the different climate extremes varies according to climate region and vegetation type. We present lagged effects on plant growth (and mortality) in the year(s) following an extreme event and their impacts on the carbon sequestration of forests and natural ecosystems. Comprehensive regional or even continental quantification with regard to extreme events is missing, and especially compound extreme events, the role of lagged effects and aspects of the return frequency are not studied enough. In a case study of a Mediterranean ecosystem we illustrate that the response of the net carbon balance at ecosystem level to regional climate change is hard to predict as interacting and partly compensating processes are affected and several processes which have the ability to substantially alter the carbon balance are not or not sufficiently represented in state-of-the-art biogeochemical models.

  5. Integrated evaluation of aerosols during haze-fog episodes at one regional background site in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Li, Weijun; Zhou, Shengzhen; Yang, Lingxiao; Chi, Jianwei; Sui, Xiao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-04-01

    To investigate haze-fog (HF) formation mechanisms and transport, trace gases and aerosols in the aged air masses during regional haze episodes were measured at a regional background site in the North China Plain during 4-19 July, 2011. Mixing state of individual particles, soluble ions of PM2.5, and particle number concentrations were studied using transmission electron microscope, ambient ion monitoring, and wide-range particle spectrometer, respectively. Average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 3 times higher on HF days (70 μg/m3) than on clear days (22 μg/m3). The major soluble ionic components (SO42 -, NO3-, and NH4+) in PM2.5 were over 4 times higher on HF days (40.6 μg/m3) than on clear days (9.1 μg/m3). The high sulfur oxidation ratios (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation ratios (NOR) values during HF days suggest that polluted weather favored transformation of SO2 and NOx into sulfates and nitrates compared to clear days. Particle number fraction of the accumulation mode increases from 11% on clear days up to 26% on HF days. Individual particle analysis shows that secondary inorganic particles (e.g., sulfate and nitrate) as the most abundant species likely determine internal mixing of individual particles and almost half of them mixed refractory particles (e.g., metal, fly ash, soot, and mineral) on HF days. These fine refractory particles were likely emitted from coal fired power plants, heavy industries, and urban city in Shandong and Hebei provinces. Our results suggest that aged air masses mostly contain aged particles of long-range transport and some from new particle formation and growth in the regional background atmosphere.

  6. ANALISIS SISTEM USAHATANI TERPADU DI LAHAN PASANG SURUT UNTUK MENDUKUNG PENGEMBANGAN AGROINDUSTRI WILAYAH (An Analysis Integrated Farming System in Tidal Swamp Land to Support Regional Agroindustrial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustan Massinai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated farming system was directed to the efforts to lengthen biological cycle by optimizing the use of agriculture and livestock by-products. Each chain of cycle resulted a new product that has high economic value, so this system was expected to optimize the empowerment and use of marginal land in all regions. The objective of this research was to analyze integrated farming system in tidal swamp land to support agroindustry development in Pulang Pisau Regency of Central Kalimantan Province. This research was done with survey and interview method in Pulang Pisau Regency of Central Kalimantan Province. Primary data was collected from May 2011 to December 2011. The results showed that the management of agro-based enterprises integrated farming (rice, coffee and cattle obtained by the BC Ratio = 1.09, (greater than 1, IRR = 16,7% greater than the rate bank interest rate (12% and NPV values obtained for Rp 37,349,080 is positive (+, then the utilization of integrated agro-based farming in tidal land eligible to be developed. Agro-industry development opportunities based integrated farming in tidal land in the future have a chance to be applied in other areas, it can anticipate the growing number of people who have added each year. Keywords: Integrated farming system analysis, tidal swamp land, agroindustry   ABSTRAK Sistem pertanian terpadu diarahkan pada upaya memperpanjang siklus biologis dengan mengoptimalkan pemanfaatan hasil samping pertanian dan peternakan. Setiap mata rantai siklus menghasilkan produk baru yang memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi, sehingga dengan sistem ini diharapkan pemberdayaan dan pemanfaatan lahan marginal di seluruh daerah dapat lebih dioptimalkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sistem usahatani terpadu (Integrated Farming System di lahan pasang surut untuk mendukung pengembangan agroindustri di Kabupaten Pulang Pisau Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan metode survei dan wawancara

  7. [Hospital-territorial services and integration of health care: the Protected Discharge program in the Umbria Region from 2005 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Rossana; Angeli, Giuseppe; Marzulli, Tiziana; Duca, Emilio; Minelli, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    In order to address the management of patients with chronic diseases, national and international regulatory guidelines have developed policies and operational tools aimed at integration and implementation of pathways of continuity of health care between different healthcare settings. "Protected Discharge" programs have been developed for the organized transfer of patients from one setting of care (hospital) to another (territory) in order to ensure their continuity of care and assistance. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of implementation the program in the context of continuity of healthcare in the Umbria region (Italy). An analysis of the regional archive of hospital discharge records was performed to examine trends of the various types of hospital discharges during the years 2005 to 2010. A slow but steady increase of protected discharges was observed from 2005 (0.9%) to 2010 (1.9%). The percentages observed are higher than those at the national level (except for transfer to RSA); however, results indicate insufficient implementation of hospital-territorial services integration and hence of the principle of continuity of health and social care.

  8. Tissue banking in a regional hospital: a promising future concept? First report on fresh frozen tissue banking in a hospital without an integrated institute of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Strauss und Torney, Marco; Güller, Ulrich; Rezaeian, Farid; Brosi, Philippe; Terracciano, Luigi; Zuber, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Vital tissue provided by fresh frozen tissue banking is often required for genetic tumor profiling and tailored therapies. However, the potential patient benefits of fresh frozen tissue banking are currently limited to university hospitals. The objective of the present pilot study--the first one in the literature--was to evaluate whether fresh frozen tissue banking is feasible in a regional hospital without an integrated institute of pathology. Patients with resectable breast and colon cancer were included in this prospective study. Both malignant and healthy tissue were sampled using isopentan-based snap-freezing 1 h after tumor resection and stored at -80 °C before transfer to the main tissue bank of a University institute of pathology. The initial costs to set up tissue banking were 35,662 US$. Furthermore, the running costs are 1,250 US$ yearly. During the first 13 months, 43 samples (nine samples of breast cancer and 34 samples of colon cancer) were collected from 41 patients. Based on the pathology reports, there was n