WorldWideScience

Sample records for foreign aid policies

  1. Japan’s foreign aid sanctions policy toward African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines Japan’s aid sanctions policy toward African countries since new guidelines for Japanese ODA were introduced. There were three cases of positive reinforcement in Africa, i.e. in Madagascar, Zambia) and Guinea. Also, the Japanese government implemented nine negative reinforcements in the region, i.e. in Kenya, Zaire, Malawi, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Togo, Nigeria and Gambia. Although Japan applied positive reinforcement and provided additional foreign aid to assist the p...

  2. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  3. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  4. US Foreign Policy and Aid to the Peace Corps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald D.A. Schaefer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study examined foreign aid as administered by the US Agency for International Development (USAID through four presidencies, beginning with the Reagan era. Aid dispensed to the Peace Corps for humanitarian purposes was the major focus of the investigation. The research proposed that such aid should continue under the President Barack Obama administration. Approach: The approach taken used both qualitative analyses of the four administrations along with quantitative analyses of the data from USAID. Results: The findings indicated that, while many forms of economic and military assistance had been both used and abused throughout much of American history, the Peace Corps created under President John F. Kennedy presented an exception. However, the Peace Corps had received both benefit and harm as a beneficiary of US foreign aid due to fluctuating economic realities associated with the federal budget. President Reagan was a strong supporter of the Peace Corps; yet, it was “under his watch” that the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Deficit Reduction Act of 1985 was passed, which negatively influenced nearly all forms of economic and military assistance distributed through USAID. Starting with President Clinton’s second term funding for USAID dramatically increased. Conclusion: The Peace Corps was not immune to the adverse effects, but funding also increased under President Clinton. From this time onward, the Peace Corps has enjoyed a high level of political and financial support, a scenario that deserves to be continued under President Obama. This study can help future analyses of the US presidential responses to the giving of assistance to the Peace Corps.

  5. The 'Honne-Tatemae' Dimension in Japan's Foreign Aid Policy: Overseas Development Aid Allocations in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the socio-psychological concept of 'honne-tatemae' to analyse Japanese foreign aid policy. Tatemae refers to the 'façade' or 'appearances' while honne signifies the 'real intention'. The Japanese government has pledged to use foreign aid to promote economic development and political stability in developing countries. On the other hand, Japan's official development assistance (ODA program has been repeatedly criticised for being employed as a tool to promote Japan's own commercial interests. In this context, altruism could be a superficial principle of Japanese foreign aid policy which forms the 'tatemae' dimension while selfishness could represent a true hidden motive for the aid giving and form the 'honne' dimension. The present paper uses panel data analysis to examine which element – honne or tatemae – has influenced the decision-making process of allocation of Japan's ODA to Southeast Asia. The findings indicate that the volumes of Japan's exports to and income levels in the aid recipient countries had a significant influence on foreign aid distribution. The Japanese government tended to allocate bigger amounts of money to Japan's major trade partners in ASEAN. At the same time, the poorer nations in the region received more of Japan's ODA compared to the comparatively well-off nations. In other words, both altruism (tatemae dimension and selfishness (honne dimension characterise Japan's ODA flows.

  6. Foreign Aid and Microfinance: A new policy proposal for financing development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacalle-Calderón, Maricruz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review and compare the potential and limitations of foreign aid and microfinance as a top-down and bottom-up approaches to financing the development process in poor countries. We not only sustain that reviewing foreign aid is a must for the future of the least-developed countries but also posit that microfinance is a complementary and financially sustainable approach that creates better incentives for development. After calculating the potential effects of microfinance over employment and GDP through a simple empirical exercise, we propose a policy recommendation of redirecting a very small share of official development aid (ODA resources to microfinance in order to provide options for the most underprivileged populations.

  7. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  8. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  9. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  10. Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-09

    microenterprise , basic education, clean water and sanitation. For each of these specific interests, funding has been boosted by Congress in the form of...legislative directives or earmarks in the annual foreign aid appropriations legislation. Funding for microenterprise , for instance, went from $58 million...in FY1988 to $111 million in FY1996 and $216 million in FY2006. Congress mandated a level of $245 million for microenterprise assistance in FY2008

  11. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  12. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...

  13. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...

  14. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show that the th......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...

  15. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...... investments), but aid may crowd out private investments when it comes in the shape of pure physical capital transfers. Empirically, we find that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in FDI, while aid invested in physical capital crowds it out. The paper shows that the composition of aid matters for its...

  16. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis.......'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  17. Japan's Foreign Aid Policy Toward Malaysia: Case Studies of the New Miyazawa Initiative and the Kelau Dam Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Japan's foreign aid policy towards Malaysia and undertakes two case studies of more recent developments in Japan's ODA program. The first case study is the 'New Miyazawa Initiative', which was a rescue package introduced by the Japanese government in response to the Asian financial crisis of 1997-98. The Japanese government came up with its own plan to help the ailing Asian economies. As the Japanese government assessed properly the needs of its aid recipients and offered a viable alternative solution to the economic woes of its neighbours, Japan's help was positively received by the Malaysian government and the mass media. The case also highlighted some shortcomings in Japan's ODA program, such as excessive bureaucratic red tape and cumbersome procedures of funds distribution. The second case reviewed here is the construction of the Kelau Dam for which Japan also provided funds under the ODA program. The plan was met with a mixed reaction from the Malaysian public and attracted criticism from local NGOs. The second case highlights the necessity of a more stringent selection of projects to be supported by Japan's ODA program.

  18. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  19. A New Foreign Policy Consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the achievements of Reagan's foreign policy. Explores the question: Did Reagan reconstruct a domestic foreign policy consensus? Concludes that no consensus was reached. Analyzes Reagan's political beliefs, including his antinuclear sentiments, and examines relations between Reagan and Congress. (RW)

  20. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a cor...... cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return.......We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  1. China’s and Japan’s Foreign Aid Policies vis-à-vis Lusophone Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Amakasu Raposo de Medeiros Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the evolution of China’s and Japan’s foreign policies to Lusophone Africa, focusing on the period post-2000. The lack of analysis on Beijing’s and Tokyo’s respective aid policies towards Portuguese-speaking African countries (Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa, PALOP makes this study relevant. Arguably, Japan’s development “edge” over China in terms of the “aid model” approach towards PALOP countries is under threat. This raises questions about China’s changing pattern of aid, characterised by an increasing amount of “soft” aid towards PALOP states outside of trade and investment relations, which is much in line with Japan’s aid philosophy and, according to observers, less neocolonialist than Japan’s previous aid practices. This paper asks which model of cooperation is morally better and which is more effective, as both donors have interests in PALOP countries beyond development assistance. It finds complementarities in the two countries’ aid allocation to PALOP states, such as poverty eradication given the sectoral diversity of Chinese aid, and the empowerment of local communities fostered by Japanese aid’s emphasis on grassroots and human-security projects.

  2. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  3. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good,” Penguin Press, 2005 25. Easterly, William; Levine, Ross and Roodman , David . “New Data, New...Subramanian, “What Undermines Aid’s Impact on Growth?” IMF Working Paper 05/126, Washington, D.C., 2005b 156 85. Roodman , David “An Index of Donor...2000) measure of good policy. Roodman (2004) weights aid from individual donors depending on whether it goes to poor countries and whether it goes to

  4. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  5. Why foreign aid does (not) improve democracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Audrey Menard

    2012-01-01

    Foreign aid has become closely connected to the development of democracy since the nineties. This paper analyses the democracy effects of aid accounting for this change in donors’ criteria. This approach contributes to the literature by analysing how the kind of donor allocating aid flows influences the effect of aid on democ- racy. I estimate a dynamic panel data model using data from 52 African countries between 1997 and 2008. I find that aid favours democracy. However when consider- ing th...

  6. EUROPEANIZATION OF ROMANIAN FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Popescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various aspects of the Europeanization of Romanian foreign policy: elite socialization, bureaucratic reorganization, institutional and policy adaptation to the requirements and exigencies of EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP, projection of national interests onto CFSP agenda and decisions. There is very little written in the literature on the subject of Romanian foreign policy Europeanization. From this standpoint this article fills a gap and indicates an area of research in need to be explored. The paper is using a series of Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA documents related to its organizational changes as well as a number of interviews with diplomats. It is trying to test in the case of Romania a few relevant theses written by significant authors with reference to the Europeanization of other Member States. It draws a number of conclusions – most of them confirming important theses on Europeanization. It ends by remarking the uneven character and the short length of the Romanian foreign policy Europeanization.

  7. Does foreign aid harm political institutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The notion that foreign aid harms the institutions of recipient governments remains prevalent. We combine new disaggregated aid data and various metrics of political institutions to re-examine this relationship. Long-run cross-section and alternative dynamic panel estimators show a small positive...... not support the view that aid has had a systematic negative effect on political institutions.......The notion that foreign aid harms the institutions of recipient governments remains prevalent. We combine new disaggregated aid data and various metrics of political institutions to re-examine this relationship. Long-run cross-section and alternative dynamic panel estimators show a small positive...... net effect of total aid on political institutions. Distinguishing between types of aid according to their frequency domain and stated objectives, we find this aggregate net effect is driven primarily by the positive contribution of more stable inflows of ‘governance aid’. We conclude the data do...

  8. Does Foreign Aid Harm Political Institutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2016-01-01

    The notion that foreign aid harms the institutions of recipient governments remains prevalent. We combine new disaggregated aid data and various metrics of political institutions to re-examine this relationship. Long run cross-section and alternative dynamic panel estimators show a small positive...... that the data do not support the view that aid has had a systematic negative effect on political institutions.......The notion that foreign aid harms the institutions of recipient governments remains prevalent. We combine new disaggregated aid data and various metrics of political institutions to re-examine this relationship. Long run cross-section and alternative dynamic panel estimators show a small positive...... net effect of total aid on political institutions. Distinguishing between types of aid according to their frequency domain and stated objectives, we find that this aggregate net effect is driven primarily by the positive contribution of more stable inflows of ‘governance aid’. We conclude...

  9. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  10. Irans Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). March 17, 2016. 55 For detailed information on Iran-Kuwait relations , see CRS Report RS21513, Kuwait...pipeline-plans. 124 For detail on India’s foreign policy and relations with the United States, see CRS Report R42823, India -U.S. Security Relations ...45 India

  11. Does foreign aid harm political institutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The notion that foreign aid harms the institutions of recipient governments remains prevalent. We combine new disaggregated aid data and various metrics of political institutions to re-examine this relationship. Long-run cross-section and alternative dynamic panel estimators show a small positive...... net effect of total aid on political institutions. Distinguishing between types of aid according to their frequency domain and stated objectives, we find this aggregate net effect is driven primarily by the positive contribution of more stable inflows of ‘governance aid’. We conclude the data do...... not support the view that aid has had a systematic negative effect on political institutions....

  12. The Return to Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    different estimators and two different data sources for GDP and investment our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return on aid projects and with aggregate estimates of the rate...

  13. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  14. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  15. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    interested in evaluating the impact of foreign aid define criteria for success that can be measured preferably in numbers just as the investment in foreign aid is measured in amounts of money. This essay is about how a number of different stakeholders negotiate narratives of successful impact of private......Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural...... and social as well as the economic impact. This paper is an analysis of who tell the stories, how they tell them, and variations within the stories in terms of content and focus. By combining the ‘who’ of individual, community, and national impact and the nature of impact with the agency of the people who...

  16. Poder inteligente: a questão do HIV/AIDS na política externa Brasileira Smart power: the issue of HIV/AIDS in Brazilian foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Giacomelli da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor discute a faceta internacional da política brasileira sobre HIV/AIDS e sua relação com outras áreas da política externa, como propriedade intelectual e direitos humanos. Para isso, utiliza-se dos conceitos de Joseph Nye Jr. de soft power e hard power. Este reflete a capacidade de um ator fazer com que outros sigam sua posição, mesmo contra a vontade. Aquele consiste na capacidade de um ator atrair outros livremente para sua posição. O ensaio analisa a importância, nas relações internacionais, dos meios de comunicação, das ONGs, da opinião pública e das instituições interestatais, que não somente possuem soft power próprio, mas também desempenham papel relevante no fortalecimento do soft power dos países. O autor avalia a influência desse tipo de poder nas relações entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos, bem como em foros multilaterais como as Nações Unidas e a Organização Mundial do Comércio. O artigo analisa, igualmente, o papel do hard power nas relações internacionais e avalia por que os países não podem dispensá-lo. Embora o soft power venha de fato tornando-se cada vez mais importante nos últimos anos, a combinação dos dois tipos de poder continua sendo a política mais correta a ser seguida. A política externa brasileira de HIV/AIDS constitui exemplo ilustrativo.The paper discusses the international facet of the Brazilian policy on HIV/AIDS and its connection to other areas of foreign relations, such as intellectual property rights and human rights. In so doing, it takes into account Joseph Nye Jr. concepts of soft and hard power. The latter reflects the capacity of making others follow one's position, albeit against their will. The former consists in the capacity of freely attracting others to one's position. The author analyses the importance of the media, the nongovernmental organizations, the public opinion, and the international institutions in foreign affairs. Not only do they possess soft

  17. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural...... sector training programs partly financed by Japanese Official development Assistance (ODA)....

  18. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  19. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA, as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore, this paper conceptualizes foreign policy by comparing it to other types of policy. Although during the Cold War period foreign policy was equated with foreign security policy, in today’s world, security policy is only one dimension. Foreign policy’s scope has expanded to cover other issues such as trade, human rights and the environment. The growing number of domestic, international and transnational issues, stakeholders and inputs into the policy making process have made the formation and conduct of a coherent foreign policy increasingly challenging.

  20. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium...... Development Goals (MDGs) and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  1. The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...... representatives, journalists, policy makers and students, the event focused on the changing state of aid in the Arab world in the wake of the Arab Uprisings and its significance for the region. With the profound hope that accompanied the democratic revolutions across the Arab world since December 2010...... disconnect between, on the one hand, official expressions of support for political, economic and social transformations in the MENA region and, on the other, the continuity in the management of foreign assistance programmes....

  2. Trump's Abortion-Promoting Aid Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    On the fourth day of his presidency, Donald Trump reinstated and greatly expanded the "Mexico City policy," which imposes antiabortion restrictions on U.S. foreign health aid. In general, the policy has prohibited U.S. funding of any family-planning groups that use even non-U.S. funds to perform abortions; prohibited aid recipients from lobbying (again, even with non-U.S. money) for liberalization of abortion laws; prohibited nongovernment organizations from creating educational materials on abortion as a family-planning method; and prohibited health workers from referring patients for legal abortions in any cases other than rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. The policy's prohibition on giving aid to any organization that performs abortions is aimed at limiting alleged indirect funding of abortions. The argument is that if U.S. money is used to fund nonabortion programs of an abortion-providing NGO, then the NGO can simply shift the money thus saved into its abortion budget. Outside the context of abortion, we do not reason this way. And the policy's remaining three prohibitions are deeply troubling. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  3. Russian Foreign Policy. Sources and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    competitors . 83 CHAPTER FOUR Russian Foreign Policy Russian leaders and policymakers most often characterize Russian for- eign policy as focused on two...by Japanese companies in Russia have continued. Of special symbolic importance was the opening of a Toyota assembly line near St. Peters- burg...Rossiia v Mire 2017 Goda, Konturi Liberal’noy Vneshney Politiki [Russia in the World of 2017 , the Contours of a Liberal Foreign Policy],” Znamya, No

  4. 78 FR 54444 - Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United... Aid (ACVFA). Date: Wednesday, September 18, 2013. Time: 2:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Location: Horizon Room..., Executive Director, Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for...

  5. Theories and myths of European foreign policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    Thinking about European foreign policy (EFP) can be frustrated by the uncertainties of terms and definitions, as well as by the exclusive tendencies of foreign policy analysis. The uncertainties over how to interpret EFP are multiplied in a more global era reconfigured by globalising, multilatera......Thinking about European foreign policy (EFP) can be frustrated by the uncertainties of terms and definitions, as well as by the exclusive tendencies of foreign policy analysis. The uncertainties over how to interpret EFP are multiplied in a more global era reconfigured by globalising...... the international, supranational and transnational policy processes of European states and institutions in relation to the rest of the world. In this respect, the study of EFP includes an analysis of the engagements of European states in international and multilateral diplomacy, the interregional and multipolar...

  6. Complementarity of Foreign Aid and Domestic Savings as Drivers of Economic Growth: Evidence from WAMZ Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Felix Arawomo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of foreign aid and domestic savings on economic growth in the WAMZ countries, while including control variables: domestic investment, labour force, trade openness, financial liberalization and foreign direct investment. Panel Data Analysis and GMM were compared for the period 1980 and 2012. The paper found that economic growth obviously deteriorates with foreign aid and hence does not complement the role of saving on economic growth of the WAMZ countries. Savings on the other hand was found to be positively significant in increasing economic growth in the sub-region. Labour force and financial liberation (M2 and FDI exhibit economic growth. A policy implication of the result is that the countries in the West African Monetary Zone should be wary in soliciting for foreign aid. If foreign aids become expedient, then it should be channeled to productive ventures.

  7. Issues Related to EU's Foreign Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The European Union (EU) is widely regarded as an important international actor, and usually referred to as a big power like the U. S. , Russia, China and Japan. So naturally the foreign policy of the EU has caught attention of both officials and scholars over the world. However, the EU is also a combination of sovereign states, its foreign policy is different from others, and perhaps this is often ignored. For instance, unlike a single nation state, the EU's influence and power are different in various policy fields due to its different ways of decision-making and implementation. Also, different from the common currency, the forming of the common foreign policy of the EU doesn't mean the disappearance of respective member state's foreign policy. Only seeing or emphasizing one respect will lead to a misunderstanding of the EU. Moreover, as a unique "supranational and intergovernmental" organization in the world, the EU has too many complex institutions, names and terms. Of course, the situation is not better in the field of foreign policy, and it easily leads to confusion and misunderstanding. It is also necessary to point out that the EU is still in the process of evolvement, and in particular, as one of the major reforms of the EU in recent years, the foreign policy-making mechanism has been in the center of change and adjustment. It is no doubt that this adds to the difficulties of studying and understanding the EU's foreign policy. In a word, the author thinks it is necessary to raise some major issues related to the EU's foreign policy and delve into it in connecting with the EU's current development.

  8. Toward a Better Union: Improving the Effectiveness of Foreign Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Montville, “Foreign Policy According to Freud ,” Foreign Policy no. 45 (Winter) (1981), 155. 325 Chigas, Track Two (Citizen) Diplomacy. 326 See Jeri...Joseph Montville. “Foreign Policy According to Freud .” Foreign Policy no. 45 (Winter) (1981): 145-157. Di, He. The Great Powers in East Asia - 1953-1960

  9. Competition for Export Markets and the Allocation of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumeyer, Erich; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    We account for the competition for export markets among the donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. We employ sector-specific aid data, distinguishing between first and second stage decisions on the selection of recipient countries and the amount of aid a...

  10. Foreign Aid and Its Environmental Implication in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Sahoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study empirically investigates the impact of foreign aid on environmental quality in India with the presence of some linkage factors i.e. gross domestic product, trade liberalization, net forest depletion and total value added by the industrial sector. This study is based on the annual time series data covering the period from 1970-71 to 2010-11. By using the OLS technique, the study finds that impact of foreign aid on environment degradation is negative and statistically significant. However, aid helps in reduction of environment pollution in India. It concludes that deforestation, industrialization and economic growth are the major factors which responsible for environment degradation in India. This study suggests that, it is the responsibility of the government to make appropriate plans and programs to maintain a balance between growth challenges and environment challenges. Careful planning and systematic policies should be implemented to ensure that the green growth strategies do not result in a slow growth strategy.

  11. A. Davutoglu's Ideology of Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the ideology of turkish foreign policy is analyzed, elaborated and successfully put into practice by the former Minister for Foreign Affairs, and nowadays by prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu. Foreign policy strategy of Davutoglu represents set of the interconnected theoretical (the flexible approach; consistency and systematic approach; new diplomatic style and practical principles directed on increase of a role of the Turkish state on international scene - balance between democracy and safety; “zero of problems with neighbours”; preventive and priority peace diplomacy; multidimensional foreign policy; rhythmical diplomacy. Each of principles possesses certain properties and characteristics which have always been presented as a certain purpose which is necessary for reaching Turkey in the difficult international environment. Undoubtedly, A. Davutoglu's ideology has brought the huge contribution to activization and expansion of foreign policy of Turkey last decade. The merit of Davutoglu consists that it has cardinally changed the approach of the Turkish state to the foreign policy which was based earlier on such postulate - “the best friend of a Turk is a Turk”. However the destructive events which have passed and occurring today as in the Turkish state (terrorism strengthening, instability of political system, and also in region of the Middle East - civil war in Syria, deterioration of relations with Russia, Greece, Syria, Iran and Iraq have called into question a number of positions of the concept of Davutoglu in this connection in article some attention to the critic of its approach is paid also.

  12. Cuba's Revolutionary Foreign Policy Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcos Rodriguez Costa

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the invitation of Cui Liru, President of China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR), Cuban Deputy Foreign Minister Marcos Rodriguez Costa paid a visit to CICIR on November 13, 2006. Following are the contents of his speech in CICIR.

  13. Foreign aid and extremism in the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses foreign aid complexities and understanding the war on terrorism. In the past decade the US strategically integrated foreign aid with the fight against extremism, particularly in war torn regions like the Horn of Africa. In analysing the Somali case the paper contends the 911...... terror attacks inaugurated new form of foreign aid explicitly focusing on security. The “statelessness” condition in Somalia intensified intermingling of foreign aid with terrorism combatting programs in the Horn of Africa. In addition the collapse of the Somali military regime in 1991 empowered non...... claiming suspicious allegiance to the US gained momentum. In response extremists mobilized alternative partners and platforms. Consequently the declared war on terror had serious implications for the Horn of Africa. Foreign aid, external actors and extremism- the legacy of 911- made people in the region...

  14. FOREIGN POLICY SOVIET CONSTRUCT. LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin MEGHEŞAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soviet foreign policy is a field where theories abund. Most of these theories contend that one or more factors are extremely important determinant factors for Soviet behaviour in all or most situations. Soviet foreign policy has usually been analysed in terms of the leader’s objectives, their perceptions and iniatives in the outer environment of the world politics, and their response to development abroad. The main purpose of this article is to briefly examine the internal and external factors that shape Soviet foreign policy and behavior, and to analyse the forces that shape Soviet international behaviour, focusing on the national interest issue. Why Soviet foreign policy? Because we consider that even a brief look into the Soviet foreign policy may represent the key to understanding Russias current behaviour on the world stage. The first step in constructing viable security strategies is to understand the surrounding political world, as well as what Russia was, is and could be.

  15. Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substantially to the understanding of

  16. Turkish Foreign Policy towards the Arab Revolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, Mehmet; Korkut, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Turkey's foreign policy has been drawing considerable attention particularly because of the momentous transformations in the Middle East. The visits of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davuoglu to Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia in September 2011 and their subsequent visits to the region underscored the rise of Turkey's involvement in the region. The Arab Spring came at a time when Turkey's relations with the United States, Israel and the European Union were go...

  17. Mass Media Influence on Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančević, Bosiljka

    2012-01-01

    A main purpose of the thesis is to demonstrate and explain to what extend do media influence foreign policy of a state. Foreign policy is always under internal and external influences and media are considered to be one of those external influences that shape it. Agenda setting theory forms the theoretical frame for this thesis because it takes into consideration not just direct media-government relations but the public as well that inside of this relation serves as some sort of mediator. Besi...

  18. Competition for export markets and the allocation of foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and production sectors. By contrast, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure.......We account for competition for export markets among donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. Employing sector-specific aid data, we find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods...

  19. The Heroic Framing of US Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the US presidential use of heroic framing in connection with foreign policy. I identify "heroic framing" as speech which describes policies in terms evoking the heroic narrative, either explicitly or implicitly through references to heroic characters. The technique of heroic framing both encourages audiences to view a situation in terms of stark moral absolutes and normalizes casualties and violence as an aspect of these heroic conflicts. This rhetorical technique t...

  20. Essays on Economic Policy and Foreign Policy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    domain of "microeconomics"-- determination of prices in competitive or monopolistic markets, predicting the effects of minimum wages on employment... Malaysia , Hong Kong, and Singapore) which have long since adopted such policies. The common core of such liberalizing reforms lies, of course, in the...decrease in U.S. bank lending to developing countries, especially in Latin America. Such lending, even when not strictly "tied" to U.S. exports, usually

  1. Theories of International Relations and the Explanation of Foreign Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUSELLI, Gino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 50 years after the publication of the first and influential article in international relations (IR analyzing foreign aid motivations, A theory of foreign aid, by Hans Morgenthau, IR scholarship has not yet accomplished a consistent theoretical body explaining international development cooperation. Most of the empirical studies on foreign aid have been contributions from other disciplines, especially economics. Research from the field of international relations has been mostly descriptive or poorly connected with IR paradigms.This article proposes to analyze motivations of foreign aid allocations decisions of donors. These motivations will be examined from the theoretical perspective of the international relations scholarship. In this way, it is sought to contribute, from the discipline of IR, to the explanation of the process in which developed countries make transfers of resources to developing countries.

  2. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange."

  3. Health and foreign policy: influences of migration and population mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Douglas W; Gushulak, Brian D; Macdonald, Liane

    2007-03-01

    International interest in the relationship between globalization and health is growing, and this relationship is increasingly figuring in foreign policy discussions. Although many globalizing processes are known to affect health, migration stands out as an integral part of globalization, and links between migration and health are well documented. Numerous historical interconnections exist between population mobility and global public health, but since the 1990s new attention to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases has promoted discussion of this topic. The containment of global disease threats is a major concern, and significant international efforts have received funding to fight infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Migration and population mobility play a role in each of these public health challenges. The growing interest in population mobility's health-related influences is giving rise to new foreign policy initiatives to address the international determinants of health within the context of migration. As a result, meeting health challenges through international cooperation and collaboration has now become an important foreign policy component in many countries. However, although some national and regional projects address health and migration, an integrated and globally focused approach is lacking. As migration and population mobility are increasingly important determinants of health, these issues will require greater policy attention at the multilateral level.

  4. VISUAL AIDS HANDBOOK FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARIBALDI, VIRGINIA; STRASHEIM, LORRAINE A.

    TEACHERS ARE SHOWN HOW TO CONSTRUCT AND USE THEIR OWN VISUAL AIDS FOR ILLUSTRATING USEFUL BUT DIFFICULT EXPRESSIONS COMMON TO ALL LANGUAGES. SUCH SPECIFIC AIDS AS PROPS, REALIA, FLASHCARDS, CHARTS, FLANNEL AND MAGNETIC BOARDS, POCKET CHARTS, PUPPETS, DRILL CUING DEVICES, AND CULTURALLY ORIENTED VISUAL AIDS ARE DESCRIBED. LISTS OF PROFESSIONAL…

  5. Does foreign aid increase private investment? Evidence from panel cointegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); D. Herzer (Dierk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper uses panel cointegration and causality techniques to examine the long-run relationship between foreign aid and private investment. Our main result is that aid has a statistically significant negative effect on private investment. This result is robust to outliers, different m

  6. Economic growth and the volatility of foreign aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Chervin; S. van Wijnbergen

    2010-01-01

    Foreign aid’s effectiveness in promoting economic growth remains mired in controversy.We examine the impact of the volatility of aid on economic growth, controlling for the level of aid. A four-year panel analysis is conducted encompassing 155 countries over the period 1966-2001. We find that once t

  7. Perceived value congruence and attitudes toward international relations and foreign policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetherell, Geoffrey; Benson, Or'Shaundra; Reyna, Christine; Brandt, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Much of the justification for granting foreign aid is to support nations and international policies promoting one's national values. However, little to no research has examined how perceptions of similarity between nations, especially value similarity, drive feelings toward other nations and policy

  8. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jae Soo; Lee, H. M.; Jun, E. J.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, B. W.; Won, B. C.; Kim, H. J.

    2011-12-15

    This study addresses four arenas to assist national nuclear foreign policies under international nuclear nonproliferation regimes. Firstly, this study analyzes the trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime, and fissile material cut-off treaty. Secondly, this study analyzes the trends of international nuclear organizations and fora, which include the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a central body of international nuclear diplomacy and technical cooperation and International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) as a forum for international nuclear cooperation. Thirdly, this study analyzes the nuclear foreign policy of the U. S. Administration and reviews bilateral nuclear cooperation agreement between the ROK and the other countries including the U. S. Lastly, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran and multilateral nuclear approaches as assurances of nuclear fuel supply.

  9. Aid and the growth of income in aid-favoured developing countries: policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, H; Yeboah, D

    1994-04-01

    This paper opens by expressing disappointment in the disparities between published estimations of the effectiveness of foreign aid to developing countries and effectiveness data which arise from the application of complex econometric methods. The new dilemmas for aid policy include the fact that aid increasingly devoted to human development at the expense of productive activity is unlikely to create the material development which will allow maintenance of human development targets. The second part of the paper presents comparative statistics on gross national product, official development assistance, and savings growth which paint a disturbing picture because the growth of domestic savings has been negative in the period 1967-87 in nine of the 11 less developed countries with data available. Section 3 covers the shortcomings of econometric experiments which neither confirm nor deny the findings of other studies on the effectiveness of aid. The fourth section describes constraints to the growth of income imposed by the foreign exchange, the rate of return on investment, and the growth of labor productivity and presents statistical evidence supporting aid policy which would 1) take advantage of opportunities to rehabilitate output growth in traditional industries without the addition of a great deal of capital, 2) direct attention to increasing the absolute gross national product (GNP) to raise the growth of per capital income, and 3) strategically reorient the structure of aid to increase the absolute GNP faster to accelerate reversal of the negative savings pattern and speed the reduction of fertility. Section 5 considers suggested shifts in aid policy orientation dealing with 1) population growth, income level, and food security; 2) reconstruction and structural adjustment; 3) rationalizing aid for social, institutional, and human development and technical assistance. The concluding section notes that the suggested strategic reorientation of the structure of aid

  10. A Comparative Study of China's Foreign Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ying

    2007-01-01

    Chinese development assistance is totally different in nature in comparison with the aid offered by the United States and Japan. The U.S. sees its aid as a form of "mercy" to less-developed countries and gives it with numerous conditions attached. Japan seems to mainly use it to pursue commercial interests. By contrast, Chinese aid is, in essence, cooperation and mutual support between developing countries. This fundamental difference helps to explain why Beijing's aid is so different from that of the Western donors.

  11. Competition for Export Markets and the Allocation of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumeyer, Erich; Nunnenkamp, Peter;

    We account for the competition for export markets among the donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. We employ sector-specific aid data, distinguishing between first and second stage decisions on the selection of recipient countries and the amount of aid...... allocated to selected recipients. We find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and productive sectors. By contrast......, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  12. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...

  13. The Foreign Policies of European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreign Policies of EU Member States provides a clear and current overview of the motivations and outcomes of EU Member States regarding their foreign policy-making within and beyond the EU. It provides an in-depth analysis of intra-EU policy-making and sheds light, in an innovative and understan......Foreign Policies of EU Member States provides a clear and current overview of the motivations and outcomes of EU Member States regarding their foreign policy-making within and beyond the EU. It provides an in-depth analysis of intra-EU policy-making and sheds light, in an innovative...

  14. Political elites and foreign policy : democratization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, Aria Teguh Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the domestic sources of foreign policy analytical framework were used to analyze the dynamics of elites in foreign policy making. After analyses of the results of mostly personal interviews and historical materials, it was determined that political elites do matter in foreign p

  15. Political elites and foreign policy : democratization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, Aria Teguh Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the domestic sources of foreign policy analytical framework were used to analyze the dynamics of elites in foreign policy making. After analyses of the results of mostly personal interviews and historical materials, it was determined that political elites do matter in foreign

  16. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  17. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  18. U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    74), as extended by continuing resolution authority in P.L. 112-175. For information on budget sequestration and its general impact on U.S. foreign...aid, see CRS Report R42994, The Budget Control Act, Sequestration, and the Foreign Affairs Budget: Background and Possible Impacts , by Susan B. Epstein...all Palestinian refugees and microfinance clients in December 2008 for terrorist ties to Al Qaeda and the Taliban, pursuant to a list established

  19. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...

  20. VENEZUELA’S FOREIGN POLICY AFTER CHAVEZ

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes de Miranda, Jose Alberto; Centro Universitario La Salle - Unilasalle

    2013-01-01

    The death of Hugo Chavez may cause changes in the conduct of foreign policy of Venezuela. The actors involved in the foundation of the political project that highlights a revolutionary and a contestation discourse with the structure of the international system, considered outdated and exclusionary, may change over time. A morte de Hugo Chavez poderá provocar mudanças  na condução da política externa da Venezuela. Os atores envolvidos sob as bases do  projeto político que destaca um discurs...

  1. Globalisation, health and foreign policy: emerging linkages and interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John Wyn; Roberts, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    A discussion of the growing links between the issues of globalisation, health and foreign policy. This article examines the effect this has on health, development and foreign policy communities in the UK and internationally and considers what steps the policy community must take to address the challenges and opportunities of this new relationship. PMID:16053520

  2. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  3. The Foreign Currency Regime and Policy in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrota, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    The increase of connections between national economies generated an enhance of foreign currency activities, thus being necessary a continous arrangement /adaptation both for foreign currency policy and course policy to market mechanisms/devices. In Romania were registered frequently modifications of foreign currency policy, thank to the need to create a legal frame appropriate to the market economy and the financial tools evolution. In this work I have presented the main features of for...

  4. 196 FOREIGN AID, NGOS AND THE SOCIAL CONTRACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa, Vol.2. No.2 2010 ... to basic rules. However, foreign aid enables the evolution of an entirely different social .... the same. Governments which find better ways of strengthening the contract cycle and ..... “African Weak States and Commercial Alliances.” African ...

  5. The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    , and the many promises made by external actors like the EU and the US to turn their backs on their previous support of authoritarian regimes through full support for the peoples’ uprisings, the theme of foreign aid seemed to have lost relevance just less than a year later. This sheds light on the deep...

  6. Foreign Policy Involvement Matters: Towards an Analytical Framework Examining the Role of the Media in the Making of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schulz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreign policy processes have long played a minor role in the study of political communication. There is a broad consensus that the media is the central mediating actor and primary conduit between political decision-makers and the public. However, the media’s influence on foreign policy remains contingent across various processes and phases of foreign policy making; it is dynamic and multi-directional. Considering that the public sphere is essential for the legitimacy of foreign policy making, there is a demand for further research on the media’s performance in the making of foreign policy. Based on secondary research, this paper proposes an analytical framework for the systematic analysis of media–foreign policy relations by integrating foreign-policy context conditions as a research variable. The framework is based on the assumption that the role of the media varies across diverse foreign policy contexts depending on the intensity of governmental involvement in foreign affairs. The intensity is distinguished according to three dimensions: no involvement, indirect involvement and direct involvement. Finally, a case study is suggested in order to demonstrate the framework’s explanatory power: the German media coverage of Russia.

  7. 78 FR 70915 - Notice of December 11 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of December 11 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid... Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA). Date: Wednesday, December 11, 2013. Time: 2:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m... on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE 6116-01-P...

  8. 48 CFR 706.302-70 - Impairment of foreign aid programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impairment of foreign aid... Impairment of foreign aid programs. (a) Authority. (1) Citation: 40 U.S.C. 474. (2) Full and open competition... the purposes of foreign aid, relief, and rehabilitation. (b) Application. This authority may be...

  9. 78 FR 30267 - Notice of June 12 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of June 12 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United States Agency... Committee Act, notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA... Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE P...

  10. 78 FR 3878 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid AGENCY... renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid for a two-year period beginning January 10... Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE P...

  11. 75 FR 81205 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEVELOPMENT Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid AGENCY: United States Agency for... Voluntary Foreign Aid for a two-year period beginning January 15, 2011 is necessary and in the public... Hubbard, Executive Director, Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency...

  12. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society.

  13. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  14. Global health in foreign policy--and foreign policy in health? Evidence from the BRICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Nicola F; Gomez, Eduardo J; McKee, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Amidst the growing literature on global health, much has been written recently about the Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) countries and their involvement and potential impact in global health, particularly in relation to development assistance. Rather less has been said about countries' motivations for involvement in global health negotiations, and there is a notable absence of evidence when their motivations are speculated on. This article uses an existing framework linking engagement in global health to foreign policy to explore differing levels of engagement by BRICS countries in the global health arena, with a particular focus on access to medicines. It concludes that countries' differing and complex motivations reinforce the need for realistic, pragmatic approaches to global health debates and their analysis. It also underlines that these analyses should be informed by analysis from other areas of foreign policy.

  15. Balance sheet effects, foreign reserves and public policies

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Gong

    2014-01-01

    Based on a theoretical model, this paper shows that foreign reserves are useful for a country to enhance the resilience of its domestic economy against balance sheet effects in the context of external financing strains. Using foreign reserves, the government can either lend in foreign currency to the private sector or conduct expenditure-switching policy to increase fiscal spending on domestic goods. Both policies cam remove the bad equilibrium represented by a large depreciation of the domes...

  16. Nurses' engagement in AIDS policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M S; Mill, J; Muller, C E; Kahwa, E; Etowa, J; Dawkins, P; Hepburn, C

    2013-03-01

    A multidisciplinary team of 20 researchers and research users from six countries - Canada, Jamaica, Barbados, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa - are collaborating on a 5-year (2007-12) program of research and capacity building project. This program of research situates nurses as leaders in building capacity and promotes collaborative action with other health professionals and decision-makers to improve health systems for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) nursing care. One of the projects within this program of research focused on the influence of workplace policies on nursing care for individuals and families living with HIV. Nurses are at the forefront of HIV prevention and AIDS care in these countries but have limited involvement in related policy decisions and development. In this paper, we present findings related to the barriers and facilitators for nurses' engagement in policymaking. A participatory action research design guided the program of research. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 51 nurses (unit managers, clinic and healthcare managers, and senior nurse officers) for interviews. Participants expressed the urgent need to develop policies related to AIDS care. The need to raise awareness and to 'protect' not only the workers but also the patients were critical reason to develop policies. Nurses in all of the participating countries commented on their lack of involvement in policy development. Lack of communication from the top down and lack of information sharing were mentioned as barriers to participation in policy development. Resources were often not available to implement the policy requirement. Strong support from the management team is necessary to facilitate nurses involvement in policy development. The findings of this study clearly express the need for nurses and all other stakeholders to mobilize nurses' involvement in policy development. Long-term and sustained actions are needed to address

  17. FOREIGN POLICY ON THE SLOPES OF CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila IAKOB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The past years showed to the world and to the European Union that classical approaches are not enough to be a power breaker in the Caucasian region, where the overlap of history, myth, and cultures creates a unique geopolitical context marked by century old grudges and imaginary or real socio-economical issues. It is clear that concepts like “ring of friends” or Eastern Partnership need a rebranding and an upgrade due to contemporary context changes. Russian expansion, Turkish political shifts, Ukrainian crisis, Iranian ambitions, Kurd issues, energy policies and socio-economical convulsions are defining the new shape of the geographical areas on both side of the Caucasus Mountain. In this context the European leadership needs to rethink the foreign policy approach to the region and to create a new set of actions in this context. This difficult task is needed not only from the perspective of Europe’s energetic security but from the point of regional stability, because Europe and its global development depend on its involvement in the neighboring regions. From this perspective our paper would like to analyze and create a realistic image on the dynamic of the relations of EU with the countries in this region and the perspectives in the contemporary context where the overlapping geopolitical interests are making this region a key one for several future issues.

  18. Rising Value of Turkish Foreign Policy: Cultural Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fırat Purtaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “The 21st century is a period in which Turkey is going through deep changes not only in domestic policies, economic and social issues but also in foreign policies and diplomacy. The opening-up of Turkish people to the world in the 1990ies paved the way to their interaction with other countries which, in turn, played a major role in the transformation of the country. In this period, the parallel diplomacy practiced on a one-to-one basis by Turkish educational institutions, local governments and various NGOs through activities ranging from cultural events to humanitarian aid, has been the invisible power of Turkish foreign policy. As a country which has a universal narrative story of its own to tell the world, Turkey’s way to expressing itself in a correct and efficient way, goes through the development of individual rights and freedoms, the granting of a sense of belonging to its citizens which they will be proud of as well as the support of cultural diplomacy carried out by NGOs. Thus, a strategy to be developed by leading NGOs which are the main actors of cultural diplomacy, and providing them the resources they need, will not only strengthen the democratic structure of the country. Above all, through such a strategy, Turkey’s soft power which plays a leading role in the practice of cultural diplomacy on a global scale will become all the more so efficient and perceptible. Taking into consideration the changes currently occurring in the world, this article dealing with cultural diplomacy aims at shedding a light on the evolution which Turkish diplomacy is going through in terms of its enforcing institutions and practice.

  19. Member State Foreign Policy towards EU Military Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    suggest that another operation in CAR may be underway shortly. The EU’s military endeavours are particularly interesting to this enquiry, as they suggest a radical change in the cohort of member states’ foreign policy towards the Union, which until the turn of the Millennium had been considered by its MS......, amongst others, as a predominantly ‘civilian power’. The significance of such a change merits a chapter that delves deeper into MS foreign policy specifically related to EU military operations.The rationale for this research is to further unpack intra-EU foreign policy and its effect on the external...

  20. The role of e-PR in foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Vitaliy Ivanovych

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of the Internet as a global communication tool in the PR-support of the implementation of foreign policy. Special attention is paid to such innovative directions of electronic foreign PR as the creation of "virtual embassies" (on the example of the United States.

  1. Strategic imperative formation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Borysenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep rethinking and thorough elaboration require a general plan for the development of the state management in the sphere of foreign economic processes - strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine. Formed in conditions of political and economic crisis, it is not aimed at providing qualitative change - innovation development, enhance national business investment, measuring asymmetry foreign trade balance, optimize the structure of imports, increasing competitiveness of Ukrainian goods and so on. Significant changes need in government regulation mechanisms of transformation processes, their system updates, meaningful transition to a model of a market transformations, which combined with effective self-governance. The purpose of the article is to explore the strategic principles of foreign economic policy formation, identifying directions Ukraine’s foreign economic strategy formation and ways to improve its effectiveness. Today in Ukraine needs logically consistent application of the basic model of strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy: strategy of protectionism, strategy of competitiveness and foreign economic trade integration strategy. The scale and fragmentation tasks are preventing their full implementation. For a targeted and effective state influence on the economy suggest to build a strategy of foreign economic policy on the principles of consistency, integrity, comprehensiveness, subordination, continuity, dynamism, system-creating relations.

  2. Conceptualizing the Qatari-African foreign policy and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptualizing the Qatari-African foreign policy and economic relations: the case of soft ... relations strategies with select, geo-politically important African states, ... Keywords: Soft Power; Qatar; Africa; Sudan; Somalia; International Relations; ...

  3. Neoconservative foreign policy in USA: Changes, continuities and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Andrés Guida

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available When Barack Obama took office as president of the United States, there was a general feeling that substantial changes might take place in US foreign policy. Nevertheless, by carrying out a precise study of US power, in its position of dominance, we will end up replacing the analytical options that explain George W. Bush’s foreign policy from the standpoint of its historical exceptional nature (as an immediate antecedent to be modified through a foundation based on the underlying factors that determine it. An analysis of Bush’s foreign policy, its foundations, as well as an observation of the foreign policy implemented by Obama, will enable us to drawconclusions as to the presence of determining factors, continuities, changes and, at the same time, possible prospects.

  4. Policy Recommendations for Developing Foreign-invested Enterprise in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原磊

    2008-01-01

    China has undergone the three major stages in its development of foreign-invested enterprise: exploratory development, accelerated development and innovative development. This harnessing of foreign investment has resulted in tremendous success for China, including making up for the funds shortage for economic construction, promoting corporate technological progress and management expertise, easing employment pressure, increasing fiscal revenue and boosting trade. At the same time, there have been problems, including questions of economic security, environment and energy issues, unequal competition and problems with the management of foreign-invested enterprises. To promote the development of foreign-invested enterprises in both a healthy and rapid fashion, China should look toward "maintaining policy continuity, promoting the forward-looking nature of policy, strengthening policy guidance and highlighting policy innovativeness."

  5. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  6. 78 FR 13855 - Notice of March 14 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of March 14 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United States... Aid (ACVFA). Date: Thursday, March 14, 2013. Time: 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. Location: Ronald Reagan... on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE P...

  7. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are

  8. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-08-22

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  9. Favorable Policy for Foreign Investors in Dagang Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mingfa

    1995-01-01

    @@ Apart from series kinds of good products, advanced techniques, convenient communications and electric power and water supply in Dagand Oilfield, foreign investors who have investment in New Industrial Area of Dagang Oilfield will enjoy the same favourable policies as Tianjin Economic Develoment Zone. Main favorable policies are follows:

  10. Foreign Language Immersion Programs and School Policy: Conflicting Agendas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Boudreaux, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    In this position article, we explore what happens when school district policies regarding desegregation, accountability, and foreign language immersion education collide. Specifically, we contrast 2 immersion programs that experienced distinct outcomes as a result of the conflicting agendas underlying these 3 policies. One program, originally…

  11. 78 FR 51266 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice Closed Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to... meeting will be closed to the public as the Board will be reviewing and discussing matters...

  12. 78 FR 34702 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice Closed Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to... meeting will be closed to the public as the Board will be reviewing and discussing matters...

  13. De-stalinisation of soviet foreign policy towards Indonesia: reviewing the feasibility of the theory of foreign policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radityo Dharmaputra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-evaluates the changing policies of the Soviet Union towards Indonesia during the era of Joseph Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev, by applying the contemporary theory of foreign policy change. After discussing the debates revolving around the theory of foreign policy change from Gustavsson and Hermann, this paper contends that if there were any changes, then the causal factors would likely be the interplay between the domestic factors and international factors, as Putnam has argued. This finding enhances the understanding that the domestic de-Stalinisation process undergone during Khrushchev’s era was not the only factor that might affect Soviet’s foreign policy. By using the case of Indonesia as the representation of the developing countries, the author shows that both sets of factors affected the changing policy. However, author also found that the systemic condition of the Cold War, namely the contestation between the US and USSR, was more influential than the domestic condition. This paper contributes to the deeper understanding of Soviet-Indonesia relations, the effect of domestic de-Stalinisation to foreign policy, and the feasibility of applying current theory of foreign policy change to an historical case.

  14. AIDS: Setting Policy, Educating Employees at Bank of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagel, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how Bank of America has responded to the problem of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace by devising a comprehensive policy on life-threatening illnesses and initiating an employee education program on AIDS. (CH)

  15. Chinese Foreign Policy in Transition: Trends and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohui Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese foreign policy has been transformed in recent years. This article seeks to provide a systematic analysis of the most salient features of the new Chinese foreign policy. It identifies five such features. Based on these features, the article suggests that China is poised to become a true global power. This view differs significantly from Gerald Segal’s famous claim in 1999 that China was no more than a middle power. The article utilizes many current Chinese sources to help readers understand China’s new motives and goals in international and regional affairs.

  16. Post-Unified Korean Foreign Policy Options: Regional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Korean War, the U.S. security policy toward Korea has been instrumental in promoting peace and stability on the peninsula. The strong defense alliance...request the removal of United States troops from the Korean peninsula and the nullification of the United States-South Korea Mutual Defense Treaty...security alliance. However, after the elimination of the North Korean threat, a unified Korea will be able to redefine its foreign policy options

  17. USAFRICOM: The Militarization of U.S. Foreign Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    do” attitude, coupled with its large resource pool, has catapulted it to the front of Govern- ment agencies in its ability to implement and support...like the other combatant commands—is another prime example of American proconsuls plying foreign policy.28 In ancient Rome , proconsuls were

  18. Faultlines, Synergies and Frontiers of India’s Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Paper and presentation for the International workshop “The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India: Exploring Culture and Ethnic Sensitivities”. Jadavpur University, Kolkata in Collaboration with Political Science Department, Aalborg University and Nordic Institute for Asian ...... Studies, Denmark. Venue: Anita Banerjee Memorial Conference Hall, Jadavpur University, Kolkata – 700032, 23-24 November 2015...

  19. A Brief Introduction to Foreign Languages Education Policy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwen

    2012-01-01

    Based on a series of official published documents and relevant research reports, the paper make a brief introduction to foreign languages education policies in China, which included national English teaching guidance, national English language textbooks, national English curriculum standard and the massive English teachers training program, etc.…

  20. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  1. Morality and Foreign Policy. A Symposium on President Carter's Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    This monograph contains a critical examination of President Carter's view on ethics and foreign policy as expressed in his commencement speech at Notre Dame University on May 22, 1977. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 contains Mr. Carter's speech entitled, "Power for Humane Purposes." Part 2 contains nine responses to the speech:…

  2. Book review of Russian Energy Security and Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Anzinger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this collection, the editors, Adrian Dellecker and Thomas Gomart, ask how energy influences Russian foreign policy. The authors seek to examine this question in eleven chapters, divided into three parts, written by internationally recognised experts on Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia as well as economists, political scientists and practitioners.

  3. The Two-Headed Eagle: Faces of Russian Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    82 Putin, “Munich Security Conference Speech”, February 10, 2007. 90 in Europe ( CFE ) and the use of the OSCE for foreign policy promotion...unilaterally decreed Russia’s withdrawal from the CFE on 13 July 2007.85 This action reduced treaty control governing the deployment of Russian

  4. The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsieh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to discuss the nationality differences of foreign nurse aides and the effect of work stressors influencing work adjustment. And of helping them adapt to Taiwanese society, we summarized the difficulties that foreign nurse aides face in Taiwan. Methods The subjects included 80 foreign nurse aides from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam who worked in long-term care facilities in Tao Yuan County. We recruited volunteers at the participating facilities to complete the anonymous questionnaires. The return rate of the questionnaire was 88.75%. The validated instruments of Hershenson's (1981 and Schaefer and Moos (1993 were adopted to measure work stressors and work adjustment, respectively. A forward-backward translation process was used in this study. Results Indonesian foreign nurse aides respect their work, and are better workers than Vietnamese and Filipino nurse aids in many respects, which shows how the nationality of the foreign nurse aides might affect work adjustment. The stress created from patient care tasks influenced the foreign nurse aides' personal relationships at work and also affected their attitude when they performed their tasks. In addition, pressure from their supervisors might have affected their work skills, work habits, personal relationships, self-concepts or work attitudes. Moreover, a heavy workload and improper scheduling might have affected the personal relationships and work attitudes of the foreign nurse aides. It was found that work stressors had a significant correlation with work adjustment. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that training programs are important factors for work adjustment among foreign nurse aides. Furthermore, celebration and leisure activities could be provided to release them from work stressors. More effort should be put into improving the working environment, namely providing a more supportive and enriching

  5. Does Institutional Aid Compensate for or Comply with State Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.; Naughton, Blake Alan

    2009-01-01

    To what extent does state policy for student financial aid affect the distribution of institutional aid awarded to students at public institutions? Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey we employ a Tobit model to investigate the relationship between student characteristics, including family income and academic…

  6. Aiding violence or peace? The impact of foreign aid on the risk of civil conflict in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, de J.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of foreign aid flows on the risk of civil conflict. We improve on earlier studies on this topic by addressing the problem of the endogenous aid allocation using GDP levels of donor countries as instruments. A more structural addition to the literature is that we effic

  7. Is Foreign Aid Panacea for African Problems? The Case of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Rena

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Namibia has experienced impressive growth since 21 years of independence. Current GDP growth rates, estimated at 4-5%, are fuelled mainly by the increasing competitiveness of the mining sector. Mining sector accounts for half of the national foreign exchange earnings. Low scores on capital investment and education, however, is a considerable barrier to greater economic diversification and may contribute to the poor innovation score. As a result, Namibia remains somewhat dependent on foreign aid, despite relatively high average incomes. This paper will discuss the impact of foreign aid on the Namibian economy by systematically analyzing its influence on developing countries using Namibian economy as focus reference. Fifty years since the first official development assistance (ODA programs were instituted, the question of the effectiveness of foreign aid remains an unresolved issue. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether foreign aid is effective in helping Namibia to achieve development goals.

  8. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Abstract: A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. This paper provides some simple theory...... indicating how foreign aid and democracy can be associated with a more, not less, skewed income distribution. By using data on income quintiles derived from the World Income Inequality Database for 88 developing countries, the results indicate that foreign aid and democracy in conjunction are associated...... with a higher share of income held by the upper quintile. It thus appears that foreign aid, contrary to popular beliefs, leads to a more skewed income distribution in democratic developing countries while the effects are negligible in autocratic countries....

  9. State Policies Direct Foreign Investment towards Tertiary Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷华方

    2007-01-01

    There have been a number of discussions upon the evolution of China’s opening-up policy,but few empirical studies have been conducted from the perspective of state policy.In this article,the author analyzes China’s five promulgations of foreign direct investment (FDI) industrial policy and its trend of evolution.On the basis of these analyses,the author concludes that China has become more and more open to FDI and that the five promulgations have demonstrated continuity and consistency.

  10. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  11. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General...

  12. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze and foresee the international trends related to nuclear activities, especially nuclear non-proliferation activities among others, and to suggest desirable policy direction so as to mitigate hurdles that may hinder the expansion of utilization and development of nuclear energy in Korea. This study approaches the trends of international nuclear arena in five aspects as follows. First, this study analyzes the trends of the global multilateral nuclear non-proliferation regime in Chapter II, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international export control regime, the CTBT, and the treaties on nuclear weapon-free zone. Second, this study analyzes the trends of various international nuclear organizations in Chapter III, which include IAEA, OECD/NEA, and CTBTO. Third, this study reviews and analyzes regional situations in the northeast Asia surrounding Korea in Chapter IV, inter alia, pending concerns over the North Korean nuclear activities and proposed Northeast Asian nuclear cooperatively bodies such as ASIATOM, etc. Fourth, in Chapter V, this study analyzes issues concerning bilateral nuclear relationship. Especially this study analyzes nuclear cooperating agreements in general, and suggests a model agreement for the government to use when negotiating nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries. Furthermore, this study analyzes the trends of bilateral cooperation with the U.S., Canada, and Australia focusing on the standing bilateral nuclear committees. Fifth, Chapter VI especially deals with the framework of the U. S.`s nuclear non-proliferation policy, focusing on the issues such as the disposition of weapons-usable excess plutonium and the nuclear cooperation with China. (author). 44 refs., 15 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. The Revised European Neighbourhood Policy: Continuity and Change in EU Foreign Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouris, D.; Schumacher, T.

    2017-01-01

    This book analyses the revised European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which entered into force in May 2011, thereby replacing its predecessor of 2003/2004. The edited volume provides a structured and comprehensive overview of the most recent developments in EU foreign policy (EUFP) towards the EU’s sou

  14. Sovremennaja vneshnjaja politika Litvy: korrektirovki tradicionnogo kursa [Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substant

  15. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2017-01-01

    but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity......The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and be determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force...

  16. What Is the Aggregate Economic Rate of Return to Foreign Aid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, academic studies have been converging towards the view that foreign aid promotes aggregate economic growth. We employ a simulation approach to: (i) validate the coherence of empirical aid-growth studies published since 2008; and (ii) calculate plausible ranges for the rate...... of return to aid. Our results highlight the long run nature of aid-financed investments and the importance of channels other than accumulation of physical capital. We find the return to aid lies in ranges commonly accepted for public investments and there is little to justify the view that aid has had...

  17. Continuity and Change in India’s Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan López Nadal

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of foreign policy to the post-cold war era and the globalisation of the economy has not been easy for India, a country which occupies a key position in Asia and arguably the world due to its size, strategic position and economic potential. In Indiacontinuity and change coexist, manifesting dramatic contradictions, with the former gradually superseding the latter. The diplomacy of New Delhi has come under harsh criticism for its resistance to adapt to a changed and changing world - something rooted in its Britishcolonial heritage and its lack of enthusiasm for questioning traditional values and attitudes. An analysis of the fundamental basis underlining these traditional conceptions is necessary, as is an historical perspective on the evolution of India’s foreign policy which embraces vastly differing factors of influence such as the external environment and internal economic and political conditions. This study begins its historical perspective on the foreign policy of independent India in 1947, dividing the period up to the present decade into three phases: the period of Nehru (1947-65, including L.B.Shastri; that of Indira Ghandi and her successors (1965-1990; and the period following the end of the cold war, under an unstable and uncertain leadership.

  18. POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY – NEW CHALLENGES IN ANALYZING FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin MEGHEȘAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The art of governance, the relationship between the governed and the governing, the impact of a social and political system on coherent foreign policy-building is significantly influenced by the distribution of power and the type of decisional unit existent within the state. New subjects of study, such as political psychology, have proved their utility both in theoretical and practical study of international relations. Being a frontier subject, political psychology tries to offer answers to a number of questions regarding different issues among which the way character features influence the decision maker’s behavior, the role of the operational code in foreign policy and the utility of psychological profiles in the international relationships and in intelligence. Leading from the types of power distribution and decisional units existent in the professional literature, the present paper narrows the narrative and focuses on examining the importance of the individual level of analysis in explaining foreign policy decisions, analyzing the decision of the Russian Federation to veto the intervention of the international community in the Syrian civil conflict.

  19. RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY - INTERESTS VECTORS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA – EMANUELA DRǍGOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Russia's foreign policy was shaped by both a number of internal factors (government strategy, political elites, culture, economics and demography and external ones (international treaties, changes in the structure of the international power balance. In the post-soviet era Russian foreign policy was radically different from that of other major economic powers. One of the factors that influenced decisively Russia’s external strategies was the collapse of the USSR as a superpower (phenomenon described by the president Vladimir Putin as "the most powerful geo-political catastrophe of the XXst century". The shift from the former communist regime (a totalitarian one to an authoritarian oligarchy (the current regime was followed by the transition to a market economy, a phenomenon that coincided with Russia’s military and political diminished influence in the international arena. Our research aims to assess the main interest vectors that shaped Russian Foreign Policy considering the main events that constitute milestones: Russia’s emerging as a great energy power, the Crimean crisis and Western international economic sanctions that followed. Our paper will base the main assumption on a joint analysis both qualitative and quantitative, using main international economic indicators (GDP, FDI flows, trade flows, general government balance and general gross debt and the most relevant approaches in the literature in the field.

  20. HIV/AIDS policy agenda setting in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari - Zarnaq, Rahim; Ravaghi, Hamid; Mohammad Mosaddeghrad, Ali; Sedaghat, Abbas; Mohraz, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS control are one of the most important goals of the health systems. The aim of this study was to determine how HIV/AIDS control was initiated among policy makers’ agenda setting in Iran. Methods: A qualitative research (semi-structured interview) was conducted using Kingdon’s framework (problem, policy and politics streams, and policy windows and policy entrepreneurs) to analysis HIV/AIDS agenda setting in Iran. Thirty-two policy makers, managers, specialists, and researchers were interviewed. Also, 30 policy documents were analyzed. Framework analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: the increase of HIV among Injecting drug users (IDUs) and Female Sex Workers (FSWs), lack of control of their high-risk behaviors, and exceeding the HIV into concentrated phase were examples of problem stream. Policy stream was evidence-based solutions that highlighted the need for changing strategies for dealing with such a problem and finding technically feasible and acceptable solutions. Iran’s participation in United Nations General Assembly special sessions on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), the establishment of National AIDS Committee; highlighting AIDS control in Iran’s five years development program and the support of the judiciary system of harm reduction policies were examples of politics stream. Policy entrepreneurs linking these streams put the HIV/AIDS on the national agenda (policy windows) and provide their solutions. Conclusion: There were mutual interactions among these three streams and sometimes, they weakened or reinforced each other. Future studies are recommended to understand the interactions between these streams’ parts and perhaps develop further Kingdon’s framework, especially in the health sector. PMID:27579283

  1. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  2. The new aid paradigm: A case of policy incoherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction At the end of the 1990s there was widespread disappointment with aid and with what aid had achieved. Poverty was still rampant, and growth rates in many poor countries were still low, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of coherence with other policies of the rich cou

  3. The new aid paradigm: A case of policy incoherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction At the end of the 1990s there was widespread disappointment with aid and with what aid had achieved. Poverty was still rampant, and growth rates in many poor countries were still low, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of coherence with other policies of the rich

  4. 76 FR 45545 - Foreign Institutions-Federal Student Aid Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Examination (USMLE) and citizenship data by foreign graduate medical schools participating in the Title IV.... Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), and the school's citizenship rate (i.e., the percentage of its... calendar year 2010. Foreign graduate medical schools must submit scores on the USMLE, earned...

  5. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Abstract: A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. This paper provides some simple theor...

  6. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. By exploring data on income quintiles derived f...

  7. Business, Government and Foreign Policy: Brazilian Construction Firms Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Frossard Silva Rego

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the interaction between Brazilian companies and government in the context of foreign policy, observing the state's support for the internationalization of large Brazilian civil construction firms. The results show that over the years these companies had privileged access to the Federal Executive, including civil service agencies. One consequence of this system of channelling demands through the Executive was to demote the Legislative branch to a secondary role. This pattern of interaction changed following the restoration of Congress's decision-making capacity, prompting the sector to diversify its areas of influence, focusing in particular on the Congress. To expand internationally, construction firms interact with the government primarily through the Executive, specifically via the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Itamaraty, which provides technical and diplomatic support, and the Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico, which supplies funding. The main argument of this article is that foreign policy should be examined through the relations between state and non-state actors in a multitude of decision-making arenas, taking into consideration both domestic and international factors.

  8. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. By exploring data on income quintiles derived...... from the World Income Inequality Database for 88 developing countries, a set of results indicate that foreign aid and democracy in conjunction are associated with a higher share of income held by the upper quintile. It thus appears that foreign aid, contrary to popular beliefs, leads to a more skewed...... income distribution in democratic developing countries while the effects are negligible in autocratic countries. The paper closes with a discussion of potential mechanisms generating this perverse effect....

  9. National policy measures. Right approach to foreign direct investment flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2011 was a difficult year for all the countries, developed and emerging ones. For overcoming the negative effects of the financial crisis, many economies have established as purpose to adopt new economic policies regarding the foreign direct investment flows (FDI, even to stimulate the flows or to reduce it (protectionism measures. So, there can be identified two categories of national policies: measures for the FDI flows stimulation and measures whose aim was the weighting of FDI developing, through restriction and regulation. In the first category we could include the liberalization measures and promotional and faciletation policies. In this study we evidenced that the fundament of the second category of policies is the belief that the FDI outward lead to job exports, to a raise of unemployment and a weakness of the industrial base.Many reports on FDI flows, here we talk about those made by UNCTAD, show that the regulation and restriction policies are seen as a possible protectionism, especially in the agricultural and extractive industries, where there have been required nationalization processes and divestments. Even more, the economies which adopted this kind of policies have been less interested in investing abroad, the outward of FDI being affected and globally the total outward decreased.

  10. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  11. Contrastive Research on Domestic and Foreign Ecological Agriculture Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the first place,the definitions of ecological agriculture defined by scholars both at home and abroad are introduced.In the second place,the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture policies are expounded.Through contrastive research on the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture polices,the problems in the development of ecological agriculture in China are found.By mirroring the western experiences in developing ecological agriculture,the countermeasures and relevant suggestions are put forward from the perspective of government.The first one is to increase the subsidies from the government to ecological agriculture.The second one is to clarify the standard of ecological agriculture construction.The third one is to promote the industrialization of ecological agriculture.The fourth one is to strengthen the construction of ecological demonstration region and ecological village.

  12. Development Trend of Foreign Trade Policy for China’s Forest Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzed the current status of foreign trade of forest industry in China and the national and international market changes. Based on the analysis, the orientation and transformation of foreign trade policy for China's forest industry were discussed.

  13. Japanese Elites and Foreign Policy in the Era of Emerging Asian Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Louis J.

    1996-01-01

    Explicates the mercantilist ideology of the Japanese elite and its impact on Japanese trade policy. Offers a textured portrait of the world view of a particular elite: Japan's technocrats. Reveals a nationalist ideology that is not advertised by its adherents, especially to foreign observers such as in the United States. (MJP)

  14. Understanding how domestic health policy is integrated into foreign policy in South Africa: a case for accelerating access to antiretroviral medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modisenyane, Simon Moeketsi; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Fineberg, Harvey

    2017-01-01

    South Africa, as an emerging middle-income country, is becoming increasingly influential in global health diplomacy (GHD). However, little empirical research has been conducted to inform arguments for the integration of domestic health into foreign policy by state and non-state actors. This study seeks to address this knowledge gap. It takes the form of an empirical case study which analyses how South Africa integrates domestic health into its foreign policy, using the lens of access to antiretroviral (ARV) medicines. To explore state and non-state actors' perceptions regarding how domestic health policy is integrated into foreign policy. The ultimate goal of this study was to achieve better insights into the health and foreign policy processes at the national level. Employing qualitative approaches, we examined changes in the South African and global AIDS policy environment. Purposive sampling was used to select key informants, a sample of state and non-state actors who participated in in-depth interviews. Secondary data were collected through a systematic literature review of documents retrieved from five electronic databases, including review of key policy documents. Qualitative data were analysed for content. This content was coded, and the codes were collated into tentative categories and sub-categories using Atlas.ti v.7 software. The findings of this work illustrate the interplay among social, political, economic and institutional conditions in determining the success of this integration process. Our study shows that a series of national and external developments, stakeholders, and advocacy efforts and collaboration created these integrative processes. South Africa's domestic HIV/AIDS constituencies, in partnership with the global advocacy movement, catalysed the mobilization of support for universal access to ARV treatment nationally and globally, and the promotion of access to healthcare as a human right. Transnational networks may influence government

  15. A Non-Conventional IR Approach to India's Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    that an alternative Critical IPE approach (CPE) contributes to a more nuanced understanding of India's foreign policy. In generic terms, shifting governments have a variety of options both in defining and refining what 'national interest' means, how security and threats are perceived, and which factors shape geo......-economic and geopolitical relations to other countries. The CPE approach does not essentialize the state as a pre-constituted entity or a ‘black box’ of “national interests” interacting within anarchical international relations. Rather, CPE seeks to understand ‘forms of states’ as ‘state/society complex’ and asks how...

  16. The French Defense and Foreign Policies: Rwanda Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    Approved: 1~( ::Z.. ~ { V \\ Date:),_ s--- n ?/ c t__ ’J O () i DISCLAIMER THE OPINIONS AND CONCLUSIONS EXPRESSED HEREIN ARE THOSE OF THE...power in public opinions , scholar arenas, and international institutions. My idea was then to dig into the French defense and foreign policies in...séance solennelle d’ouverture de la 16ème conférence des chefs d’Etat de France et d’Afrique,” June 20, 1990. • Websites: Vie publique , http://www.vie

  17. Think tanks and influence on US foreign policy: The people and the ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-26

    Policy Research) APRC Asia Pacific Research Center CAP Center for American Progress CEIP Carnegie Endowment for International Peace CFR Council on Foreign...Director, Graduate Degree Programs Robert F. Baumann, PhD The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student ...Strategic and International Studies CSP Center for Security Policy DLC Democratic Leadership Council FPI Foreign Policy Initiative IISS International

  18. Effectiveness of China's Monetary Policy and Reform of Its Foreign Exchange System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Gu; Lan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of China's monetary policy in curbing the overheating and speculation problems under the current foreign exchange system. The paper stresses the necessity of capital controls in China's gradual foreign exchange reform and the importance of credible government policy in guiding market expectations. Also, the paper discusses the persistence of China's external imbalance, and provides policy recommendations for its reduction.

  19. Scientific Outlook on Development and China's Foreign Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yimeng; Liu Liping

    2008-01-01

    More than half a century has passed since the founding of the People's Republic of China. There have been successes as well as failures in China's policies and practices at home and abroad. The failures are stepping stones for success; lessons drawn from errors lead to truth. Chinese leader Hu Jintao recently spoke about "Scientific Outlook on Development," a summary of past history and an important guiding principle for China's economic and social development both now and in future. The authors believe that this is a major development in China's strategic thinking following Deng Xiaoping's "Reform and Opening Up" and Jiang Zemin's "Three Representatives" and that it should be upheld and applied to foreign policy decision making.

  20. Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Doyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

  1. Book review of The EU’s Foreign Policy: What Kind of Power and Diplomatic Action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Yoshizawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With an international team of foreign policy experts, the editors provide a clear and critical account of EU foreign policy with special reference to the Lisbon Treaty, the global financial crisis of 2007-8, as well as those structural constraints arising from the emerging multipolar world order. The book portrays the EU as a ‘civilian power by default’, while explaining the limited efficiency and effectiveness of post-Lisbon EU foreign policy.

  2. An Ethical Foreign Policy? Globalism as a Threat to the US National Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Daghrir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ethical foreign policy can have no objectives other than those that are of service to its own people. An unethical foreign policy, however, may pursue objectives that enhance the nation as a power, seeking dominance for its own sake, for the honor, glory and wealth of the state or a minority within the state, or spreading its ideology out of missionary fervor. The mainstream wisdom in the United States is that the US foreign policy agendas are virtuous and ethical, since they are oriented mainly towards the protection and enhancement of the American ‘National Interest’. Nevertheless, the orthodox perception among many foreign observers is that the American foreign policy is by no means ethical, since it is oriented exclusively towards the promotion of the Americans’ interests at the expense of the rest of the world. My thesis is that the US foreign policy is unethical and anti-democratic mainly because it is causing a lot of harm to the American taxpayers’ interests. I esteem that the American people are the real permanent victims of their country’s globalist stance. This article is based on an argumentative criticism of the mainstream American perception of U.S. foreign policy as well as a criticism of the foreign observers’ perception of American foreign policy. In a nutshell, this article tries to highlight the unethical nature of the American foreign policy with a focus on the complex justifications for such an undemocratic globalist agenda.

  3. 75 FR 42189 - Foreign Institutions-Federal Student Aid Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... is posted as background material in the docket for this NPRM. Transcripts of the regional meetings... German Academic Exchange Service. Judy Stymest, McGill University, and Alexander Leipziger (alternate... Title IV grant, loan, and work-study funds to students at what are really foreign institutions. In...

  4. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy: the Role of Concepts in European Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from the literature, it is shown that the concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor that are not met by most other international actors and that this curtails analysis of EU foreign policy....... It then demonstrates that the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap’ in different forms affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR....

  5. Iceland and the EU's Foreign, Security and Defense Policy. EU Goals, Icelandic History and Traditions

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Þóra Karlsdóttir 1987

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study how well the EU’s foreign, security and defense policies coincide with Iceland’s foreign policies, particularly in regards to Iceland’s history and traditions. For this purpose, main aspects of Iceland’s foreign policy history are studied, in particular the background to Iceland’s decision to join NATO. Four aspects of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) are then used as case-studies, along with three aspects of the EU’s Common Security and De...

  6. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening.

  7. China’s Foreign Aid and Its Role in the International Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibo Huang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThough China has long been an aid provider, the recent and remarkable surge in China’s foreign aid has important implications for the global aid architecture. It relies on aid principles that diverge in many ways from those of traditional Development Assistance Committee (DAC donor countries, particularly in relation to non-interference, mutual benefit and non-conditionality. China’s foreign aid also relies on a mixing of economic cooperation, trade and investment deals. While several Western scholars have examined the Chinese development cooperation system, few voices from China have been heard in European and North American journals and media. This chapter aims to offer a Chinese perspective on the evolution of China’s foreign aid. It focuses on the aid principles that have thus far informed Chinese development assistance, highlighting the successful outcomes achieved so far in Africa and South-East Asia. The chapter also addresses the main shortcomings of the Chinese approach, by recommending the improvement of institutional transparency, and strengthening of dialogue with DAC donors, all with a view towards learning from past experiences and exchanging best practices.

  8. Russia’s New Irredentist Foreign Policy Approach & Energy Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail KÖSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soon after Industrial Revolution fossil energy resources became extremely one of the irrevocable essentials of humankind. Nowadays, use of fossil energy resources paved the way of several problems. Throughout last two hundred years of human history disagreements to share energy resources led dramatic conflicts and wars broke out. Notably WWII and Cold War were a kind of proxy clashes over energy resources. In 1991 the long lasting Cold War came to an end yet neither energy disputes nor conflicts related to the sharing of energy resources have not ended. Starting with Industrial Revolution so far oil and coal are were unmatched basic energy sources to run the engines of industry. Especially after 1980’s hitherto natural gas and shale gas gained a new status in the energy need of humanity. Because both are more effective, clean and environment friendly. Beside shale gas, Europe and Turkey do not have natural gas reserves nowadays border neighborhood of Russian Federation has rich reserves. In other words Russian Federation is between rich reserves owing Central Asian countries and importer European countries. This fact led Russia to use energy card as a tool of foreign policy. Especially after the collapse of SU, the successor state Russia has not stopped intervening domestic affairs of post-communist countries. While intervening domestic affairs of former Iron-Curtain countries Russia uses numerous excuses such as to protect the rights of Russian originated people, to save its former citizens’ lives despite the fact nobody asked such a protection. Russia also argues that it has cultural and territorial rights in former Iron-Curtain countries. This kind of foreign policy aspects in international relations are called “irredentism” and European states could not force Russia to stop such conflict escalating policies. European dependency on Russian natural gas and energy problems one way or another affects European foreign policy priorities on

  9. Technical cooperation within the context of foreign aid: trends for the CEE countries in transition (1991—2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobis, I; Vries, M.S. de

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates technical assistance (TA) to CEE countries in relation to development aid in general. There is plenty of literature examining the foreign aid, but specific components of aid, like technical assistance, remain largely unexplored. One debate about development aid focuses on

  10. Precolonial centralisation, foreign aid and modern state capacity in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broich, T.; Szirmai, A.; Thomsson, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically explore the determinants of bureaucratic capacity in contemporary Africa. We connect the aid-governance literature with the historical, political economy and anthropological literature on African state formation. Our Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) results show that there

  11. 77 FR 13383 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Foreign Affairs Policy Board reviews and assesses: (1) Global threats and opportunities; (2) trends that implicate core national security interests; (3) tools and capacities of the civilian foreign affairs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign...

  12. 76 FR 27649 - HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01 (Replaces Policy Notice 99-02)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01...: Final Notice. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established policies for the use of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program funds authorized under...

  13. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context.

  14. AIDS Research and Its Role in China's AIDS Prevention and Control Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By the end of 2005, the estimated number of HIV infected people in China was 650,000. The seriousness of the epidemic calls for effective control measures to tackle the problems in order to avoid the tragedy in Africa from happening in China. "Prevention First" is the cornerstone of the country's health policy. On 2003 World AIDS Day, Premier Jiabao Wen announced a new national AIDS control policy, "Four Frees and One Care". This policy clearly shows that the Chinese government has once again taken full responsibility to solve public health problems and has profound impact far beyond the AIDS field. In early 2006, the central government put scientific and technology innovation as a national priority and set the target to build an innovative China by year 2020. Since then, the government has been increasing investment in science and technology with major emphasis on both infectious diseases control and new drug research and development. For the first time, development of 100 new drugs and control of major infectious diseases (AIDS, HBV, TB and other emerging infectious diseases) have been selected as national key scientific projects. China's best minds in related fields will be pooled to work together in order to remove the technical barriers blocking efficient control of the major infectious disease in China. Knowledge on molecular epidemiology, immunology, pathogenesis, HAART, as well as HIVDR strains will certainly provide urgently needed scientific information for China's AIDS control program. Only evidence-based strategy from good research will provide long-term effective control of AIDS.

  15. Burst Diplomacy The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Devin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to diplomacy tend to be restrictive because of an exclusively interstate insight. Indeed, historically, the state monopoly over diplomacy has always been challenged by private actors. Today, it is defied both from the inside because of growing public fragmentation (every ministry tends to lead its own foreign policy; subnational authorities develop their diplomatic relations and from the outside (the business sector and civil society play a growing role on the international scene. This proliferation of actors has transformed diplomatic methods. Beyond the binary division between “old diplomacy” – bilateral, secret and resident – and “new diplomacy” – multilateral, public and itinerant – this article shows that diplomacy has to adapt to number and complexity. Therefore a more global conception need now be considered. Diplomacy today is a system of multiple actors using diverse methods in order to coordinate positions of common interest in a competitive and sometimes hostile environment.

  16. Precolonial centralisation, foreign aid and modern state capacity in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically explore the determinants of bureaucratic capacity in contemporary Africa. We connect the aid-governance literature with the historical, political economy and anthropological literature on African state formation. Our Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) results show that there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between precolonial centralisation and bureaucratic quality in Africa from the mid-1990s onwards. Before the mid-1990s there is no such rela...

  17. 78 FR 54365 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice: Closed Meeting; Notice of Rescheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice: Closed Meeting; Notice of Rescheduling The meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board, formerly scheduled for September 9, 2013, has been rescheduled to September 11, 2013...

  18. Branding technologies in the foreign policy of Ukraine: regulatory and organizational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Maryna Ihorivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regulatory and organizational components of the application of branding technology as a tool of foreign policy of Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine in this sphere, as well as to the problems impeding the full implementation of the branding policy.

  19. Constitutional Limits of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    foreign policy. With the character of the legal framework surrounding the EU’s external relations increasingly coming under the spotlight, Constitutional Limits of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy critiques the current state of legal affairs in the EU’s external action.......The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union (EU) is a highly exceptional component of the EU legal order. This constitutionalised foreign policy regime, with legal, diplomatic and political DNA woven throughout its fabric, is a distinct sub-system of law on the outer...... and judicial jurisdiction at Union level. There is constitutional significance to the choice of legal basis for foreign policy and external relations acts of the Union. Legal tensions therefore exist in EU external relations between CFSP and non-CFSP fields, as the institutional competences differ in terms...

  20. Optimization of the Import Policy as a Factor of Foreign Trade Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasiuk Taras O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of ensuring the state foreign trade safety by using the tools of import policy. The analysis of the current condition of Ukraine import and import policy was carried out, the individual tools of the import policy were analyzed, a list of problems with the import that threaten separate industries of Ukraine was given, the measures, which implementation will positively affect the level of foreign trade safety of the state, were proposed.

  1. Foreign aid funnel? A placebo-based assessment of aid flows to non-permanent United Nations Security Council members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangeline M. Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have found that temporary members of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC experience increased foreign aid inflows. We use a constrained permutations approach to replicate analyses found in Vreeland and Dreher (2014. Permuting the timing of country membership on the Security Council, we create placebo UNSC membership histories which plausibly could have been observed. We use these placebos to construct a reference distribution for the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between UNSC membership and foreign aid flows and then observe whether or not the observed test statistic for the correlation found in the real-world data is in the tails of this distribution. In other contexts, such empirically based hypothesis tests have revealed a high false-positive rate for traditional, model-based time-series cross-sectional inference. Given the controversial nature of studies about increased aid flows as secondary benefits of UNSC membership, it is valuable to subject such analyses to additional scrutiny. Our reanalysis largely validates existing findings.

  2. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  3. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  4. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Garrido de Barros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989, based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields. A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers.

  5. Clinton administration forging population-foreign policy links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1994-12-01

    In the US, the Clinton administration has renewed the link between global population and national security issues. These so-called "soft security issues" receive attention from the Under-Secretary of State for Global Affairs, Tim Wirth, and the senior director of the Global Environmental Affairs branch of the National Security Council, Eileen Claussen. Wirth and Claussen draft the US response to soft security issues such as environmental security, refugee and migration movements, political instability, and religious and ethnic conflict as well as the other nonmilitary threats of illegal drug trafficking, terrorism, and international organized crime. Population was first considered a foreign policy concern in the 1960s. By 1965, President Johnson decided that the US would provide family planning supplies and technical assistance to any country which asked for help. The initial justification for assuming a leading role in developing innovative population strategies for less developed countries was a humanitarian desire to forward economic development, the self-interest of maintaining access to resources, and concern that rapid growth produced more communists. Today the US remains concerned about resource access and economic development and is also wary of spill-over environmental effects, economic migration, diminished US trade opportunities, political asylum seekers and refugees, and increasing demand for US peacekeepers. It is also believed that rapid population growth leads to political destabilization. Critics of these views blame the development difficulties of less developed countries on poor governing decisions (inadequate institutions, trade barriers, or indifference). Women's reproductive rights advocates fear that using security as a rationale for population assistance could lead to restrictions on women's rights to choose the number and spacing of births. Despite such objections, the belief that population growth is an underlying problem in imploding

  6. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact...... of ODA flows on the macroeconomy. In contrast, we find little evidence supporting the thesis that aid has been harmful. From a methodological point of view we highlight the importance of transparency in reporting results, especially when the hypothesis being tested differs from theoretical expectations...

  7. Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Future Perspective in Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem EREN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the end of the Cold War, as a result of the disintegration of the USSR, many new states has gained their independence in Turkistan, Central Asia and the South Caucasus and multipolar global system has ended and following that the new order emerged building USA as a global power. However, this led to instability in many regions. Firstly, with the emergence of the Independent States Community headed by the Russian Federation, and then a growing giant of China the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was established against the unilateral order of the United States. In Turkey's foreign policy, the organization has been seen as an alternative to the EU which has been on the verge of membership for many years, and which was applied for the application for membership in 2007. However, Turkey needs to be analyzed multidimensionally with positive and negative aspects of membership process; it seems that Turkey can build a long-term relationship with Russia and China based on mutual trust and benefit.

  8. The Arctic - A New Region for China's Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Yagiya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to foreign policy of China in the Arctic. Main attention is paid to strategic view of the China concerning the Arctic, to bilateral and multilateral cooperation on the Arctic issues, also to opinion of Russian experts about discussing of Russian-China economic partnership. It was shown interests of the People's Republic of China in the Arctic: use Arctic transport system from the Pacific Rim to Europe; possibility of access to the Arctic resources; seeks of partners for the realized of Arctic projects and programs. It was pointed six directions of China cooperation in the Arctic: a scientific researches, b natural minerals, oil and gas issues, c tourism, d routes of the Arctic navigation, e use of high technologies in development of regional economy, e cooperation in the cultural and educational spheres. Authors are summarized that at the initial stage of the international cooperation in the Arctic polar scientific researches become as the tool of “he soft power”, and in the long term - the Northern Sea Route of the Russian Federation is included in the Strategy of China Economic belt and the Maritime Silk Route in the XXI century.

  9. Confession and Carrying into Execution of Foreign Arbitration Courts' Decisions: Reciprocity and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarina, Salima A.; Nukusheva, Aigul A.; Kalmagambetov, Kassym S.; Kumysbekova, Zhanara T.; Nesterova, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    The article contains a comparative analysis of foreign arbitration courts' decisions, ensuring the reciprocity and public policy. The aim of the study is to explore such aspects as reciprocity and public policy of arbitration courts. The result is the view of the public policy, despite its apparent irrelevance in today's Kazakhstan, which is of…

  10. “Eastern Turn” of Russian Foreign Policy: Causes, Risks, and the Reaction of the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temchenko-Zavyalova Anastasia O.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the evolution of foreign policy of new Russia, identifies trends and patterns of transition to various courses, prerequisites of the “eastern turn”, and characterizes the specificity of this direction in the contemporary realia. The author proposes a number of clarifying concepts within the analysis of the foreign policies of Russia. The foreign policy of Russia for the last decades underwent a number of the changes connected with its orientation to various groups of the countries. However, in connection with the events which took place in 2014, the Russian foreign policy carried out the “eastern turn” that entailed certain consequences and prospects by estimates of experts. The relevance of the research consists in the opportunity to estimate realities of a foreign policy of Russia, to analyse the reasons of its acceptance, possible risks and reaction of the western partners who changed in their turn a course concerning Russia. Scientific novelty of the present work consists in the systematization of the issue on the evolution of a foreign policy of Russia and the analysis of current trends taking into account the “eastern turn”. Besides, scientific definition of “eastern turn of the Russian foreign policy” and its consequence in the conditions of development of modern Russia is worked out. The author considers the main actions and the directions which formed the basis of the updated foreign policy of Russia from 2009 to 2013. The author made the conclusions concerning the analysis of modern Russia’s foreign policy and its turn to the east.

  11. The foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic: new priorities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ch Ndakissa Onkassa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the features of formation and realization of foreign policy and the basic characteristics of the international image of modern Gabon are considered. It is shown, that the foreign policy is the important direction in the state activity of Gabon and is intended to offer the General public all over the world complete and reliable information on the situation in the country on key international issues, activities and initiatives of Gabon in the field of political space and the processes and projects of socio-economic development, its cultural and scientific achievements. Foreign policy activity is aimed at creating favorable conditions for the realization of the historic choice of the Gabonese people to strengthen the rule of law, market economy and democratic society, to focus on the social dimension. Нerewith this article analyzes the main provisions of the foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic, considered in conjunction with the country's development objectives defined in the strategic plan “A prosperous Gabon”. Particular attention is paid to the role of the President in making foreign policy decisions and ideas about the prospects for the development of Gabon's foreign policy. Key value of principles of maintenance of the sovereignty and the international inclusiveness, influence of the factor of the French language and policy of multilateral diplomacy is underlined at definition of objectives and priorities of foreign policy of Gabon during an epoch of new international realities. It is noted, that foreign policy activity of Gabon is aimed at creation a wide range of the international partnership in interests of national development in in the context of globalization.

  12. E-PR as an instrument of forming the foreign policy image of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Vitaliy Ivanovych

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of the Internet as a global communication tool in the PR-support of the implementation of Ukraine's foreign policy. The article pays particular attention to the features of the websites of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic missions of Ukraine as an image-forming tool.

  13. Review: Pavin Chachavalpongpun (2010: Reinventing Thailand: Thaksin and His Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wagener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Pavin Chachavalpongpun (2010, Reinventing Thailand: Thaksin and His Foreign Policy, Silkworm Books, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN: 978-616-215-000-5, 354 pages

  14. 77 FR 55183 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... systems (Sec. 742.14); Encryption items (Sec. 742.15); Crime control and detection items (Sec. 742.7.... The likelihood that such controls will achieve their intended foreign policy purposes, in light...

  15. FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS OF STABILIZATION OF PUBLIC FINANCES IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zaichykova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues to use the experience of foreign countries on measures of fiscal policy in reducing the public deficit, streamlining expenditure in terms of financial instability.

  16. AIDS policy modeling for the 21st century: an overview of key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, M S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-09-01

    Decisions about HIV prevention and treatment programs are based on factors such as program costs and health benefits, social and ethical issues, and political considerations. AIDS policy models--that is, models that evaluate the monetary and non-monetary consequences of decisions about HIV/AIDS interventions--can play a role in helping policy makers make better decisions. This paper provides an overview of the key issues related to developing useful AIDS policy models. We highlight issues of importance for researchers in the field of AIDS policy modeling as well as for policy makers. These include geographic area, setting, target groups, interventions, affordability and effectiveness of interventions, type and time horizon of policy model, and type of economic analysis. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the AIDS policy modeling literature, although many papers from the literature are discussed as examples; rather, we aim to convey the composition, achievements, and challenges of AIDS policy modeling.

  17. China's Foreign Trade: Achievements,Determinants and Future Policy Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PingyaoLai

    2004-01-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, China's foreign trade has achieved great success. The main determinants behind this success include market-oriented reform, appropriate trade and exchange rate policies, and the active participation of foreign-invested enterprises. However, China is far from completing the transition in trade structure, and is facing many difficult policy challenges in maintaining its export momentum into the future.

  18. Overview of National Interest, Continuities and Flaws in Nigeria Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderemi Opeyemi Ade-Ibijola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since becoming a sovereign nation in 1960, the nation called Nigeria had engaged herself with the world on a weak foreign policy that had saw the nation part away with a huge chuck of her human and economic resources without having something tangible to show for her huge diplomatic generosity. This has become worrisome to scholars, and stakeholders within the nation-space. To some, Nigeria only operates a father xmas style of foreign policy which had someway contributed to the economic misery of the nation. In light of the above, the article set-out to investigate certain issues in Nigeria foreign policy statement. To this end, the paper focuses on issues such as national interest which drives the nation’s foreign policy coupled with the continuities as well as the flaws associated with Nigeria policy of external relations since attainment of independence. The paper argues that Nigeria should embark on a reform of her foreign policy as a matter of urgency as what obtains presently can best be described as diplomatic prodigality. This is the summation of what Nigeria had ever done in the realm of foreign relations.

  19. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  20. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  1. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim; Bakri Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia...

  2. 75 FR 6672 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02 Amendment #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02... Notice 99-02, Amendment 1. SUMMARY: The HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established.../AIDS Program funds for housing referral services and short-term or emergency housing needs. Amendment...

  3. Policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are confronted with one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics worldwide, largely driven through injecting drug use. This article, based on a review of academic and grey literature, explores how they have responded. We find major similarities and differences across the region. At one extreme is Turkmenistan, which denies that there is any problem, does not offer harm reduction services or HIV/AIDS treatment and does not report any meaningful data to the international community. Uzbekistan is also pretty closed to outside influences, has discontinued its opioid substitution project and shares with Turkmenistan the legal prohibition of male-to-male sex. Kyrgyzstan originally led many progressive approaches in the region and, like neighbouring Tajikistan, has received substantial assistance by international agencies, in particular the Global Fund. Kazakhstan, with a much higher gross domestic product per capita, has taken on the financing of harm reduction activities through its national budget and has liberalised its drug policies. Yet, across the region punitive approaches to injecting drug use and people living with HIV/AIDS persist as do stigma and discrimination, while coverage with harm reduction programmes and treatment services is still low although with substantial variation across countries.

  4. Language Policing: Micro-Level Language Policy-in-Process in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Alia; Musk, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    This article examines what we call "micro-level language policy-in-process"--that is, how a target--language-only policy emerges "in situ" in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of "language policing", the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the…

  5. Review and Analysis of the Colombian Foreign Language Bilingualism Policies and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Sará, Mary Mily

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the foreign language bilingualism in Colombia, as well as the Colombian bilingualism plans and the policy launched between 2004 and 2016. Then, these plans and policy are analyzed taking into account the most common criticisms from the academic community. In this sense, aspects such as the lack of continuity,…

  6. Language Policing: Micro-Level Language Policy-in-Process in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Alia; Musk, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    This article examines what we call "micro-level language policy-in-process"--that is, how a target--language-only policy emerges "in situ" in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of "language policing", the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the…

  7. 77 FR 74048 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to... meeting will be closed to the public as the Board will be reviewing and discussing matters...

  8. Border dimension of Chilean foreign policies: Immobility and urgency of new dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovando Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article draws the priorities of border public policy that define the Chilean foreign policy. Through a theoretical framework from the rational–reflective approach of International Relations, we argue that despite of the increasing openness, internationalization of the country, and the emergence of new actors and subnational initiatives; the views and options between the actors of this new area and the definitions of foreign policy not always match. We propose the need to establish mechanisms that settle the positions among regional social–political actors, intermediate agencies and the central level.

  9. Soft Power, Hard Aspirations: the Shifting Role of Power in Brazilian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Valença

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Journalists and policy analysts have highlighted the emergence of Brazil as a regional power. However, little attention has been paid to its foreign policy strategies. Brazil's rise to prominence in world politics represents the historical culmination of a foreign policy featuring two main strategies – persuasion and consensus building – both of which emphasise the use of soft power. We analyse four current foreign policy initiatives: the campaign for a permanent seat on the UNSC; the development of a nuclear submarine; Brazil's leadership of the UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti; and government support for Brazilian multinationals. We suggest a growing tension between these initiatives and the two strategies identified above. These initiatives reflect the view current among some policymakers that if Brazil is to rise as a global power it must play by the rules of great power politics.

  10. 77 FR 4807 - Revised Fee Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel From High-Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... National Nuclear Security Administration Revised Fee Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor... Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel'' (61 FR 25092, May..., Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of a change in the fee policy. SUMMARY: This notice announces a...

  11. Oslo Ministerial Declaration--global health: a pressing foreign policy issue of our time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-21

    Under their initiative on Global Health and Foreign Policy, launched in September, 2006, in New York, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, South Africa, and Thailand issued the following statement in Oslo on March 20, 2007-In today's era of globalisation and interdependence there is an urgent need to broaden the scope of foreign policy. Together, we face a number of pressing challenges that require concerted responses and collaborative efforts. We must encourage new ideas, seek and develop new partnerships and mechanisms, and create new paradigms of cooperation. We believe that health is one of the most important, yet still broadly neglected, long-term foreign policy issues of our time. Life and health are our most precious assets. There is a growing awareness that investment in health is fundamental to economic growth and development. It is generally acknowledged that threats to health may compromise a country's stability and security. We believe that health as a foreign policy issue needs a stronger strategic focus on the international agenda. We have therefore agreed to make impact on health a point of departure and a defining lens that each of our countries will use to examine key elements of foreign policy and development strategies, and to engage in a dialogue on how to deal with policy options from this perspective. As Ministers of Foreign Affairs, we will work to: increase awareness of our common vulnerability in the face of health threats by bringing health issues more strongly into the arenas of foreign policy discussions and decisions, in order to strengthen our commitment to concerted action at the global level; build bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation for global health security by strengthening the case for collaboration and brokering broad agreement, accountability, and action; reinforce health as a key element in strategies for development and for fighting poverty, in order to reach the

  12. Turkey in Search of Relevant Foreign Policy Strategy (2002-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmanov Dayan R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this article is to describe the process of Turkish foreign policy evolvement during the rule of Justice and Development party (JDP. From weak economy and unstable political situation in 2001, JDP quickly formulated a new strategy of foreign policy and stabilized economy. In the article the Turkish foreign policy in the 21st century is divided into several stages which respond to different international threats and circumstances. The first stage was a peacekeeping stage when Turkey tried to stabilize the situation near its borders and implement peace initiatives for the purpose to find new markets and allies. As a result, Turkey formulated a new strategy of foreign policy, called “Zero Problems Policy” which aimed to create a ring of friendly countries on the borders. On the second stage, Turkish foreign policy was more active – Turkey tried to balance among regional power centers and confront with one of the most powerful actors – Israel. Confrontation with Tel Aviv was a preface to the third stage, and today under the influence of “Arab Spring” and desire to change its role in international relations, Turkey refused “Zero Problems Policy” strategy and turned to a new aggressive and revanchist idea – neo- Ottomanism. Ankara tries to build a new regional set of rules where Turkey will play a leading role.

  13. The bipartisanship of appointments to the foreign policy bureaucracy is more affected by domestic factors than international

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many academics and commentators on American foreign policy have maintained that since the end of the Vietnam and Cold Wars, foreign policy-making has become subject to the kind of partisan political battles that have long afflicted domestic politics. By using data on over 1,000 individual appointees to the U.S. foreign policy bureaucracy Michael Flynn tests this view, and finds that there is no evidence to support the idea that bipartisanship in appointments has undergone a structural shift. ...

  14. Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools (CFCRS: A policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Nitas Iftekhar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analysing the Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running schools (CFCRS policy in China. The two major legislative documents related to CFCRS are Interim Provisions on Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools (1995 and the Regulations on Chinese-foreign Cooperation in Running Schools (2003. The major thrusts of these policy documents were to regulate the highly growing transnational higher education (TNHE. The analysis utilizes the Four Frame Policy Analysis Model developed by Yin Cheong Cheng and Wing Ming Cheung (1995. The Framework was used to dissect the policy process into four frames; background and underlying principles; policy formulation process; policy implementation (gaps between implementation and planning; and policy effects. Both, practical and legal challenges facing CFCRS are discussed in this analysis and suggestion for improvement are put forward. The analysis concludes by asserting that the policy has been a success though there are still some challenges and shortcomings that need to be addressed for the policy to realize the desired goals.

  15. The Effects of Foreign Government Policies on the Location of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Min

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Many argue about which policy and non-policy variables play an important role in influencing foreign direct investment decisions. This article contributes to this debate by considering the effects of foreign government policies on the location of U.S. direct investment abroad. The analysis used pooled cross-section and time series data for 44 countries over three time periods to examine the effects of different types of non-policy and policy variables, including market size, per capita income, country risks, tax rates, investment incentives, and investment regulations. This study found that a policy variable, investment regulation and two non-policy variables, market size and per capita income impact investment decision. A moderately strong effect is found in investment incentive policy, whereas country risks and tax rates turned out not to be strong factors in influencing U.S. investment locations. However, in the case of FDI in developing countries, country risk and tax rates appeared to be more important factors for the location of U.S. FDI than host countries' market size. Strong interaction effects between policy variable and market size are found, while less strong interaction is found between policy variable and per capita income. This study concludes that policy variables are also important factors along with non-policy factors and the determinants of FDI are not independently exerting an influence but jointly affecting U.S. investment locations.

  16. Global health diplomacy: barriers to inserting health into Canadian foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Ruckert, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Health opportunities and risks have become increasingly global in both cause and consequence. Governments have been slow to recognise the global dimensions of health, although this is beginning to change. A new concept - global health diplomacy (GHD) - has evolved to describe how health is now being positioned within national foreign policies and entering into regional or multilateral negotiations. Traditionally, health negotiations have been seen as 'low politics' in international affairs: however, attention is now being given to understanding better how health can increase its prominence in foreign policy priorities and multilateral forums. We sought to identify how these efforts were manifested in Canada, with a focus on current barriers to inserting health in foreign policy. We conducted individual interviews with Canadian informants who were well placed through their diplomatic experience and knowledge to address this issue. Barriers identified by the respondents included a lack of content expertise (scientific and technical understanding of health and its practice), insufficient diplomatic expertise (the practice and art of diplomacy, including legal and technical expertise), the limited ways in which health has become framed as a foreign policy issue, funding limitations and cuts for global health, and lack of cross-sectoral policy coordination and coherence, given the important role that non-health foreign policy interests (notably in trade and investment liberalisation) can play in shaping global health outcomes. We conclude with some reflections on how regime change and domestic government ideology can also function as a barrier to GHD, and what this implies for retaining or expanding the placement of health in foreign policy.

  17. Lessons for Japanese foreign aid from research on aid’s impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    gains aid has provided in human security sustainable. Infrastructure investment can not only reduce spatial inequality, and provide the basis for growth through inter-connected regions and economic hubs, with enhanced national analytical capacity, and technical assistance to project preparation, it can......Japan has an impressive history when it comes to aid, industrial policy, and infrastructure development, both as a country that saw meteoric development of its own, and as a country that has been one of the world’s largest donors for decades. Looking towards an uncertain future in which...... infrastructure must be made resilient towards climate change, and the value of aid is questioned, few actors can offer more useful experience. Restoring structural transformation as a donor priority, and recognizing the critical role it played in the development of Japan, is a vital step towards making the real...

  18. [The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process : arvustus] / Hiski Haukkala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukkala, Hiski

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Maria Groeneveld. The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2012. ( Dissertationes rerum politicarum Universitatis Tartuensis ; 7)

  19. [The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process : arvustus] / Hiski Haukkala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukkala, Hiski

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Maria Groeneveld. The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2012. ( Dissertationes rerum politicarum Universitatis Tartuensis ; 7)

  20. The doctrine of human security in Canadian foreign policy: Lloyd Axworthy’s contribution to the study of world policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ortiz Navarrete

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The multitude of changes on the international scene during the 1990’s had a major impact on thinking in the area of international relations as well as on the foreign policy decision-making processes of all nation states. One of the most difficult issues to redefine and to give a meaning appropriate to the international needs of the moment was that of security. Lloyd Axworthy, Canada’s Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1996 to 2000, convinced that, with the end of bipolarity, the challenges to security had moved from the level of states to concerns more closely related to the well-being of individuals, undertook the task of promoting, as part of his country’s foreign policy, the concept of human security.

  1. From Chávez to Maduro: Continuity and Change in Venezuelan Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the transition from the presidency of Hugo Chávez to that of Nicolás Maduro, in the light of the effects of the dynamics in domestic politics and the changing international order on the formulation of Venezuela's foreign policy. We start from a central question: how does Maduro's government, amid a less favourable global scenario, face the international commitments made by its predecessor under complex and different domestic conditions? Our central hypothesis is that the historical currents of sociopolitical fragmentation, regional tensions and the energy market, pose difficulties to the continuation of an expansive foreign policy, but in turn act as a stimulus for greater centralisation of power internally, and the politicisation of the foreign policy agenda, in line with the objectives and general trends pursued by the governing party.

  2. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sandra Garrido de; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-07-21

    To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu's genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. Analisar a gênese da política de controle da aids no Brasil. Estudo sócio-histórico (1981-1989), orientado pela sociologia genética de Bourdieu, por meio de análise documental, revisão bibliográfica e entrevistas em profundidade. Consistiu na articulação entre a análise das trajetórias de 33 agentes envolvidos na criação de um espaço social voltado para as questões relativas à aids e as condições históricas de possibilidade

  3. Bases in the Philippines: A Foreign Policy Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    vim epressed In this peper are those of the author and do uot necessarily reflect the views of the D.partent of Defersce or any of its agencies. rh...point out that the country’s 1987 constitution calls for the removal of all foreign troops by 1991 unless a treaty or referendum extends their stay...negotiations conducted in September, 1990,. President Aquino set the tone for the meetings by calling for a negotiated, orderly withdrawal. U.S

  4. East Asia’s Foreign Exchange Rate Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-16

    At the other extreme, Japan, the Philippines, and South Korea have usually allowed their currencies to float freely in foreign exchange ( forex ...China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam allow their currency to adjust in value in forex markets so long as the...There were also reports that Korea sold more dollars for won in early April 2008.7 At the time, some forex analysts claimed that the new South Korean

  5. India in the Arctic: Science, Geopolitics and Soft Power - Perspectives on Contemporary Indian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gewelt, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of contemporary Indian foreign policy from the vantage point of India’s recent engagements in the Arctic. By analysing what is argued to be an ‘Indian Arctic discourse’ that emerged between India’s first expedition to Svalbard in 2007 and the following accession to observer status in the Arctic Council in 2013, this thesis explores how this discourse frames the Arctic within a broader Indian foreign policy perspective. The Indian Arctic discourse establishes India a...

  6. "India’s Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect” by Sumit Ganguly (ed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stuenkel

    2011-08-01

    reliable allies and a counterweight against the Pakistan- China alliance starting in the 1960s. Chapter 6 on India- Southeast Asia relations shows how difficult it has been in the past for India to exert influence in the region given its low economic integration due to its autarkic model. Despite these limitations, worries about Indian hegemony in the region have surfaced numerous times in the past decades. Chapter 7 (on India-Iran relations is among the most interesting, reflecting how challenging it has been for India to maintain warm ties to an important energy supplier despite sharp criticism by India’s other allies, namely the United States, Israel and the Arab nations. Chapter 8 (on India-Israel relations is a fascinating case study of how the Indian leadership used a brief window of opportunity after the Cold War to diversity its partnerships, making Israel into one of India’s most important providers of military equipment. Chapter 9 (on India-Korea ties is more normative and points to commonalities regarding the dependence on Middle Eastern energy and the exposure to piracy in the Indian Ocean, but it remains somewhat unclear why Korea deserves a full chapter, while other important countries such as Turkey, Brazil, South Africa, Indonesia or the EU are left out. Chapter 10 (on India-Japan relations is yet another example of how the Cold War constrained India’s foreign policy, given that Japan regarded the Soviet Union as a threat in the region. Despite not standing on the same side in the “cauldron of East-West confrontation”, the two managed to cooperate during the Cold War, and by the 1980s Japan was India’s largest aid donor. While both countries stand divided over India’s refusal to sign the NPT, the rise of China is likely to strengthen ties between India and Japan. Chapter 11 describes India’s ties to Russia, its former stalwart ally which remains India’s most important provider of arms, with over 70%, although this figure is set to decline

  7. The EU’s Difficulty in Translating Interests into Effective Foreign Policy Action: A Look at the Ukraine Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Nicholas Ross

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s foreign policy response(s to the unfolding Ukraine crisis has further illustrated its difficulty in making effective foreign policy decisions. Using a neoclassical realist analytical framework, this paper argues that although the EU did have tangible collective interests in pursuing its Ukraine foreign policy, it was unable to adequately filter these through its domestic setting. Three key constraints to the EU’s Ukrainian foreign policy> were identified: decision-makers ’ miscalculations; rigid normative demands; and a reliance on consensus politics. Ultimately, the Ukraine crisis illustrated that the EU, in current incarnation, cannot translate interests into effective foreign policies, even when making policy for their direct neighbourhood.

  8. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim; Bakri Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia. Monetary policy variables (interest rate and money supply) have been measured through a non-recursive structural VAR (SVAR) identification scheme, which allows the monetary authority to set the interest rate and money supply after observing the current value of foreign...

  9. Silencing women's sexuality: global AIDS policies and the case of the female condom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny JTP Peters

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequality is seen as a driving force of the AIDS epidemic. In this study, we analyze how major actors in the AIDS prevention field frame the AIDS problem, in particular the female condom in comparison to other prevention technologies, in their discourse and policy formulations. Our aim is to gain insight into the discursive power mechanisms that underlie the thinking about AIDS prevention and women's sexual agency. Methods: We analyze the AIDS policies of 16 agencies that constitute the most influential actors in the global response to AIDS. Our study unravels the discursive power of these global AIDS policy actors, when promoting and making choices between AIDS prevention technologies. We conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how the global AIDS epidemic is being addressed by them, in framing the AIDS problem, labelling of different categories of people for targeting AIDS prevention programmes and in gender marking of AIDS prevention technologies. Results: We found that global AIDS policy actors frame the AIDS problem predominantly in the context of gender and reproductive health, rather than that of sexuality and sexual rights. Men's sexual agency is treated differently from women's sexual agency. An example of such differentiation and of gender marking is shown by contrasting the framing and labelling of male circumcision as an intervention aimed at the prevention of HIV with that of the female condom. Conclusions: The gender-stereotyped global AIDS policy discourse negates women's agency in sexuality and their sexual rights. This could be an important factor in limiting the scale-up of female condom programmes and hampering

  10. Analysis of China's Foreign Trade Growth and Discussion of Related Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChanghongPei

    2005-01-01

    China’s foreign trade experienced three consecutive years of super-speed growth in 2002-2004, even though the country was stricken by the SARS epidemic in 2003 and power shortages in 2004. What has gone beyond expectations is that the exports trade still grew with momentum after the central government lowered the export rebate rates by an average of 3 percentage points, starting from January 2004. Such growth momentum is apparently associated with external demand and the performance of the domestic macroeconomy, and even more associated with a series of support policies. This paper tries to raise issues issues associated with these policies on the basis of an analysis of foreign trade performance in 2002-2004, in order to enhance understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of these policies, and to recommend a new line of thought for improving policy arrangements for the growth of import and export trade and for the harmonious development of the macroeconomy.

  11. Gaining Momentum: How Media Influences Public Opinion To Push Civil-Military Decision Makers Into Formulating Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    evenly split between attacking and waiting for the economic sanctions to have more impact.”17 With this being said, it “had been running in the high...Press vis-à-vis US Policy in Bosnia, 1992-1995. Journal of Peace Research 42, no 1, (2005), 84 2 “Foreign Policy” Business Dictionary . http...Penguin Books, 1999. “Foreign Policy” Business Dictionary . http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/foreign- policy.html “Foreign Policy, Vietnam

  12. The Phoenix of Foreign Policy: Isolationism’s Influence on U.S. Foreign Policy During the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    the West in general, and feared antagonism between Russia and the West 24 From a diary entry dated 30 September, 1916, contained in Foreign Relations of...defining contraband to suit its needs. London was cautious at first to avoid antagonizing the large section of American opinion resident in the...stigma be transferred like a bacillus . Although the publication of the blacklist aroused Wilson’s ire when it began including U.S. firms in July, 1916

  13. Domesticating the Arctic: A Discourse Analysis of Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Aaser, Agnes Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates how the concept the Arctic is utilized in a Canadian Arctic foreign policy context today. The thesis main argument is that the Canadian government discursively represents the Arctic as a domestic space by drawing on cultural references, historical analogies, geopolitical identity and representation of danger and external threats. This argument is based on a qualitative study of key Arctic policy documents produced by the Harper government since 2009. The study is...

  14. Foreign Aid and Security Sector Reform in Latin America: mapping donors and recipient countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maura Tomesani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: this article is part of a PhD thesis interested in confronting the demands of Latin American law enforcement institutions with programs in the security sector reform fostered by foreign agencies for international assistance on the continent. The guiding hypothesis of this study is that programs of international aid focused on the security sector reform in Latin America overlook law enforcement demands for institutional strengthening. I suggest that the international offering in this area follows a regional agenda, which is basically preventive and is very resistant to work with law enforcement organizations. Part of the work is mapping donor and recipient countries for analyzing programs implemented in Latin American countries. This article presents the literature review for this investigation and the first results of our empiric research.

  15. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy...

  16. Policy Capturing with Local Models: The Application of the AID technique in Modeling Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    or coding phases have upon the derived policy modelo . Particularly important aspects of these subtasks include: 1) Initial identification and coding of...Applying AID4UT/AIDTRE in Policy Capturing: The experience gained thus far in applying AID4UT/AIDTREl to Policy Capturing is extensive in the sense ...that numerous models have been attempted and produced, but limited in the sense that these models were all for a particular decision process, except for

  17. A Decision for War: The Formulation of English Foreign Policy from September 1754 to July 1755.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-31

    arriva- reglas upor 23 If this had been done, or even less than this, as the result of our meeting about this time twelve month [ago] at Mr. Pelham’s...Translated by J. Lewis May. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1934. Gibbs , G. C. "Parliament and Foreign Policy in the Age of Stanhope and Walpole

  18. Business as Means of Foreign Policy or Politics as Means of Production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    and to use them efficiently building up an industrial empire that comprehended the German, Polish, and Austrian iron and steel industry. The interplay of German foreign policy and private business activities in the inter-war years is analyzed as an agency problem in a specific “public-private partnership...

  19. News framing and public support for a common foreign and security policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kandyla, A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A common EU foreign and security policy (CFSP) can be framed by elites and media as a risk or as an opportunity. This article examines the effects of framing in terms of ‘risk’ and ‘opportunity’ on public support. Moreover, we examine first whether the effect of framing CFSP as a ‘risk for

  20. Simulations for the Discipline Specific and Professional Education of Foreign Policy Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Maryanne; Kingsmill, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly universities aim to provide students with opportunities to graduate with skills ready to perform in the workplace. However, workplace-based opportunities for students enrolled in foreign policy subjects are more limited due to the diplomatic and sensitive political nature of the professional work. Thus there exists a need for higher…

  1. English Language Ideologies in the Chinese Foreign Language Education Policies: A World-System Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the Chinese state's English language ideologies as reflected in official Chinese foreign language education policies (FLEP). It contends that the Chinese FLEP not only indicate a way by which the state gains consent, maintains cultural governance, and exerts hegemony internally, but also shows the traces of the combined…

  2. 75 FR 54540 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... current Annual Foreign Policy Report to the Congress are available at http://www.bis.doc.gov/news/2010... torture (Sec. 742.11); certain firearms and related items based on the Organization of American States Model Regulations for the Control of the International Movement of Firearms, their Parts and Components...

  3. 76 FR 54426 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... the current Annual Foreign Policy Report to the Congress are available at http://www.bis.doc.gov/news...); Specially designed implements of torture (Sec. 742.11); Certain firearms and related items based on the Organization of American States Model Regulations for the Control of the International Movement of Firearms...

  4. 76 FR 72236 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 10(a)(2), the Department of State announces a meeting of the... been determined that this meeting will be closed to the public as the Board will be reviewing...

  5. China's Rapid Accumulation of Foreign Exchange Reserves and Its Policy Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongnian Zheng; Jingtao Yi

    2007-01-01

    In late February 2006, China surpassed Japan to become the world's largest holder of foreign exchange reserves. Beijing is now faced with the growing challenge of how to handle these vast reserves effectively. Although China's soaring foreign exchange reserves indicate that its overall strength has grown, they have created internal and external pressures on the balance of the economy, and introduced risks to the financial system. It is estimated in the present study that foreign exchange reserves of approximately US$ 400bn in 2005 would have been appropriate under circumstances of a managed floating exchange rate regime and capital control. China's actual reserves have far exceeded its normal demand. The objective of China is to maintain an optimal level that maximizes net benefits as a whole.Four main policy options are available for China to achieve its target: spending and investing foreign exchange reserves, gradual liberalization of the capital account,diversification of foreign exchange reserves and a switch in holders of foreign exchange reserves. Spending and investing in foreign exchange reserves can be undertaken in combination with liberalization in the capital account, given careful consideration of the risks involved. Liberalization should be extensive but gradual so that companies and individuals can adjust to changes in financial markets and manage portfolios while avoiding unnecessary risks.

  6. The Role of the Media in Foreign Policy Decision-Making: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanan Naveh

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper maintains that the media is involved in all stages of foreign policy formulation processes and that political leaders take the media into consideration in its national and international aspects. Moreover, the paper argues that this double-edged media environment is considered mainly in the publication, or media management stage. The involvement of the media in this decision-making process is complex. When an external, international event occurs, political leaders learn about it from the media. This information is processed through various image components and than the policy or decision-formulating process is set in motion. Media advisors and PR professionals participate in the process, officials consult with them and consider their advice. Finally, they take the media into account when they define their policy and match to it the appropriate media tools. Past studies of foreign policy decision-making neglected to deal with this complex role of the media. They described the media (if at all as one of the channels of informing leaders of international events, as input for the decision-making process. Actual reality demonstrates that this perspective minimizes the place of the media and therefore it should be dealt theoretically as well as in applied research case studies using a more complex approach emphasizing the crucial role of the media in foreign policy. The paper develops and presents a framework for the analysis of foreign policy decision-making which tries to compensate for some of the flaws of existing models in the field, incorporating the complex processes of media input into decision-making, as well as reflecting the role of the press and TV in the formulation stage of policy-making.

  7. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: DIAGNOSIS AND PROPOSALS FOR A BRAZILIAN PUBLIC POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Abreu Campanario

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is the part of public policy of a larger research project on Brazilian Outward ForeignDirect Investment - OFDI. The text analyses the viability to adopt policies to enhance FDI,particularly outward. Based on statistical data and on literature review, the policy agenda framesthe underling questions surrounding the theme. There is not yet a theoretical framework to dealwith emergent countries’ FDI and related policies. There exist strong evidences that capital flowsthrough FDI generate externalities in the following domains: macroeconomics, microeconomicsand foreign relations particularly in areas related to industrial organization and innovation. Thetheoretical proposition is that international capital flows are compatible to monetary stability,commercial openness, investment promotion and industrial innovation policies. A betterpositioning of national enterprises internationally may result in growing partnership within theforeign environment. Brazil has not a set of policies to deal with inward and outward BrazilianFDI flows. These policies do not necessarily jeopardize macroeconomic policy and the relatedmonetary and currency stabilization goals. It contends that FDI stimulus by means of publicpolicies may contribute not just to a better competitiveness and innovation of Brazilianenterprises, but also assure a balanced growing and economic structural change.

  8. Soldier-Portable Battery Supply: Foreign Dependence and Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    manufacture within Asia represents too great a supply-chain risk and thus the current policy should be changed . How this Study Was conducted The RAND...private firm, the Sociedad Quimica y Minera (SQM) de Chile. Across the border in Bolivia, the Salar de Uyuni, which is the largest salt flat in the...manufactured cells, compared with the cur- rent batteries containing Asian-manufactured cells. This would require a change from the current DLA practice of

  9. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  10. Islam in Indonesian Foreign Policy: Assesing Impacts of Islamic Revivalism during the Soeharto Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azyumardi Azra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the Islamic world has witnessed something of an Islamic revival. Indonesian Muslims to a certain extent are likewise affected by the euphoria of Islamic revivalism; and there is much evidence to suggest that Islam, like other religions in Indonesia, is also experiencing a revival. As a result frequently since the end of the 1980s, Muslims have succeeded in influencing the making of government domestic policy for the interests of Islam and Muslims. For this reason, it is interesting to consider how Muslims' increasing pressure on the government affect the course of Indonesia's foreign policy, so far as Islamic issues are at stake. This paper attempts to delineate the "role", or more appropriately the position of Islam in Indonesia's foreign policy by taking into consideration several cases, involving Islam directly or indirectly.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v7i3.701

  11. Corneal foreign bodies--first aid, treatment, and outcomes. Skills review for an occupational health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J K; Scibilia, J; Hezoucky, N

    2001-05-01

    Eye injuries from foreign body incidents remain prevalent in the workplace setting. Often the professional nurse provides the first line of treatment. The informal class presented at the authors' facility offered a comprehensive, organized presentation of a common injury encountered in the practice of occupational health nursing. Strenghts of the presentation included handouts demonstrating eye eversion technique and a flip chart summarizing the content to be placed in each medical station as quick reference. One challenge involved presenting the information to all nurses. The site encompasses four locations and some nurses function as the only staff in the plant for a given shift. With the support of administration and some creative scheduling, 10 of 17 nurses attended one of three classes offered in one morning, and the remaining 7 were able to view the class on videotape. Videotaping the presentation also provided material for future orientation, as well as an opportunity for review. Overall analysis found this a worthwhile offering relevant to practice. A brief formal written evaluation indicated the objectives for the class were achieved and elicited subjects for future topics. Informal chart reviews to check for documentation of visual acuity testing and eversion of the upper lid for foreign body injuries is another outcome measure currently in progress. In addition, a performance improvement project could be accomplished easily by retrospective chart review of assessment and treatment documentation, and tracking of revisits and referrals. Knowledge of current standards in the assessment, first aid, and treatment of eye injuries is every occupational health nurse's responsibility. However, prevention of foreign body injuries is far superior to any treatment modality available. As highly visible leaders within the occupational setting, nurses can be advocates and role models for safe work practices. Occupational health nurses may promote safe eye practices by

  12. Global health and national borders: the ethics of foreign aid in a time of financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johri Mira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The governments and citizens of the developed nations are increasingly called upon to contribute financially to health initiatives outside their borders. Although international development assistance for health has grown rapidly over the last two decades, austerity measures related to the 2008 and 2011 global financial crises may impact negatively on aid expenditures. The competition between national priorities and foreign aid commitments raises important ethical questions for donor nations. This paper aims to foster individual reflection and public debate on donor responsibilities for global health. Methods We undertook a critical review of contemporary accounts of justice. We selected theories that: (i articulate important and widely held moral intuitions; (ii have had extensive impact on debates about global justice; (iii represent diverse approaches to moral reasoning; and (iv present distinct stances on the normative importance of national borders. Due to space limitations we limit the discussion to four frameworks. Results Consequentialist, relational, human rights, and social contract approaches were considered. Responsibilities to provide international assistance were seen as significant by all four theories and place limits on the scope of acceptable national autonomy. Among the range of potential aid foci, interventions for health enjoyed consistent prominence. The four theories concur that there are important ethical responsibilities to support initiatives to improve the health of the worst off worldwide, but offer different rationales for intervention and suggest different implicit limits on responsibilities. Conclusions Despite significant theoretical disagreements, four influential accounts of justice offer important reasons to support many current initiatives to promote global health. Ethical argumentation can complement pragmatic reasons to support global health interventions and provide an important

  13. Global health and national borders: the ethics of foreign aid in a time of financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Chung, Ryoa; Dawson, Angus; Schrecker, Ted

    2012-06-28

    The governments and citizens of the developed nations are increasingly called upon to contribute financially to health initiatives outside their borders. Although international development assistance for health has grown rapidly over the last two decades, austerity measures related to the 2008 and 2011 global financial crises may impact negatively on aid expenditures. The competition between national priorities and foreign aid commitments raises important ethical questions for donor nations. This paper aims to foster individual reflection and public debate on donor responsibilities for global health. We undertook a critical review of contemporary accounts of justice. We selected theories that: (i) articulate important and widely held moral intuitions; (ii) have had extensive impact on debates about global justice; (iii) represent diverse approaches to moral reasoning; and (iv) present distinct stances on the normative importance of national borders. Due to space limitations we limit the discussion to four frameworks. Consequentialist, relational, human rights, and social contract approaches were considered. Responsibilities to provide international assistance were seen as significant by all four theories and place limits on the scope of acceptable national autonomy. Among the range of potential aid foci, interventions for health enjoyed consistent prominence. The four theories concur that there are important ethical responsibilities to support initiatives to improve the health of the worst off worldwide, but offer different rationales for intervention and suggest different implicit limits on responsibilities. Despite significant theoretical disagreements, four influential accounts of justice offer important reasons to support many current initiatives to promote global health. Ethical argumentation can complement pragmatic reasons to support global health interventions and provide an important foundation to strengthen collective action.

  14. Foreign Policy Making and the U.S. Vision of European Integration in the Nixon Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an insight into Washington’s foreign policy establishment and its vision of European integration under the Nixon administration. It argues that President Nixon and his National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, managed to formulate many important aspects of foreign policy at the White House. From a realist perspective, the Nixon-Kissinger team saw the emergence of a new world order and in it the evolvement of European integration in a way different from previous U.S. administrations. The paper begins by discussing the Nixon administration’s realist approach to foreign policy before analyzing President Nixon’s determination to make decisions on foreign relations at the White House. Next, the paper examines the main features of the Nixon-Kissinger team’s vision of European integration. It concludes that, as realists, the Nixon administration supported integration in Western Europe, yet Washington was ambivalent if a united Europe with increasing self-confidence and self-assertiveness would be in the U.S. national interest. Henceforth, the European integration process had to be, in the Nixon-Kissinger view, taking place under U.S. control in the form of the consultative mechanism and the U.S. military umbrella.

  15. A Genealogy of Moderate Islam: Governmentality and Discourses of Islam in Indonesia’s Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rizky Mardhatillah Umar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the political construction of ‘Moderate Islam Discourse’ in contemporary Indonesian Foreign Policy. Since 2004, the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has campaigned for ‘Moderate Islam’ as the main image of Indonesian Islam. Within this discourse, Islam is conceived as ‘moderate’ and ‘tolerant’ as well as inherently compatible with democracy. However, in a more critical perspective, ‘Moderate Islam’’ also contains a political and discursive construction. By using a genealogical approach, I argue that the articulation Islam in Indonesia’s foreign policy is influenced by the ideological underpinnings of each political regime as well as the hegemonic discourse operating in international politics. Furthermore, I argue that there have been three discourses of Islam in Indonesia’s foreign policy, as articulated by different political regimes, namely (1 Islam as religious identity; (2 Moderate Islam from below; and (3 Moderate Islam as a part of the Global War on Terror project.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v23i3.3157

  16. Foreign Policy of the USA and Russia in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corsaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available his paper analyzes the role of the Russian Federation as a world power in the East Asian area between 2000 and 2010, delving into its relations with major regional actors, namely: China, Japan, Taiwan, North Korea and South Korea. Russia’s policies and actions are compared to those of the United States as the arguably predominant superpower during most of the period in exam. Emphasis is put on the possible causes of escalation between the various actors within the Asian scenario, with a detailed comparison between the actions taken by Russia and the United States. 

  17. Expectations, foreign exchange forwards and reflections on monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FERRO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides preliminary analysis on the relationships that can be established between the rates of the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rates at the various expectations hypothesis. The authors go on to highlight the implications of monetary policy that the various kinds of expectations entail. To test specifically the role of expectations in the determination of exchange rates at the end we will proceed through a couple of simple empirical tests that refer to the spot and forward prices of the Deutsche Mark against the pound on the Frankfurt market in the first four months of 1976.

  18. Sovereign wealth funds – public investment vehicles, foreign policy element. Comparative evolution in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Drăniceanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign funds are an important actor occurring on international financial markets in the last decade, being, in fact, state controlled international investments. Generally, they are financed from foreign currency reserves of the emergent countries they are constituted in, being managed apart of the official reserves and used for external expansion; they are likely to be detrimental to certain strategic interests. As public financial vehicles, they own, endorse or manage public funds of some emergent countries, freely invested by them in a great number of assets, being seen as a foreign policy element.

  19. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1996-12-01

    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea`s pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1996-12-01

    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea`s pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lane

    Full Text Available Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR. It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities.

  2. Selling the Arc of Crisis: Promoting Foreign Policy Change during the Carter Presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Vinha Luis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Carter Administration came to Office seeking to continue a policy of détente. However, the Administration’s policy vis-à-vis the Soviets became more assertive throughout the Presidency, culminating in the Carter Doctrine. The current paper applies a conceptual framework for “issue selling” to argue that a more assertive foreign policy was being promoted by the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and his NSC staff since the early days of the Carter Presidency. By applying an assortment of issue selling strategies, Zbigniew Brzezinski and the NSC staff were able to exploit the communicative interactions amongst the political leadership to continuously promote a more forceful US policy towards the Soviets. By being able to interpret and define the problem representation facing the Administration, the APNSA was able initiate and continuously promote a wholesale policy transformation leading to the development of the Carter Doctrine.

  3. International terrorism in internal and foreign policy of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Shchyholev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of the problem of social radicalization that lead to terrorism, because it is the basis and the crisis in the socio ­economic, political and spiritual spheres , and the context of inter­ethnic and inter­religious relations , geopolitical and foreign influences. This is a problematic basis on which the transformation processes of radicalization in immediate threat of terrorist attacks, it becomes more tangible in some member states of the European Union. The global financial and economic crisis, which significantly affected the welfare of the population, especially in Greece, Spain , Italy, led to an increase in the number of terrorist acts organized by members of the radical left and anarchist groups. According to Europol, there has been increasing aggressiveness of these groups, which have become priority objectives authorities. Moreover, almost twice the share of terrorist attacks using explosive devices. Finding effective ways to counter radicalization, extremism and terrorism , without exaggeration, be called one of the most serious challenges of the XXI century for most of the leading countries of the world. In today no one doubts the fact that effective work in this area requires a systematic approach by the state, not limited by narrow national boundaries. International experience suggests that the threat of the spread of radicalism , extremism and terrorism is becoming more global scale. Thus it is not only the common (or similar roots , but also the general trends of transformation and adaptation to modern conditions , respectively ­ and similar systematic countermeasures .Experience of leading nations to set the most common          (conceptual approach to the formulation of guidelines , directions and forms of state activity in combating radicalism , extremism and terrorism.

  4. Identifying Special Operations as a Distinct Foreign Policy Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    2017-01-01

    This chapter briefly discusses political premises for the question asked and secondly provides a condensed research review that relate to the question. The author discusses questions on civilian control and the advancement of special operations and finds it specifically important for SOF to be able...... to clarify and explain what special operations strategic qualities exactly are. The author then elaborates on specific elements of special operations with a point of departure in the “cognitive maps of SOF” as formulated in the research question. The author recommends that in order to influence policy...... on special operations, it is essential to have insight into the instrument’s capabilities and limitations, as this provides the prerequisites for sound contextual strategic analysis....

  5. Russia and the CIS: Relations of Foreign or Domestic Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesáreo R. Aguilera de Prat

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available What role does the Community of Independent States (CIS currently have in the area that was once called the Soviet Union, in particular in Russia’s so-called “near abroad”? The CIS was, to start with, little more than a liquidating committee of Soviet inheritance.This hybrid entity may be defined as a specific type of union among officially sovereign States that have few decision making mechanisms. For Russia its policy towards the “near abroad” is a priority given this country’s geostrategic interests in this area. The paperanalyzes some of the economic imperatives and the military’s participation in peacekeeping missions that have favored, up to a point, a “russification” of the CIS.

  6. Gazprom and Russia: The economic rationality of Russian foreign energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloudis, Stergos Carl Thornton

    Charges of imperialism underpinned by coercive economic tactics are some of the accusations leveled against Vladimir Putin's foreign energy policy during his presidential tenure. However, after the traditional policies of coercion failed to secure Russian interests in Europe during the 1990's, this dissertation argues Putin adopted a radically different approach upon his rise to the Presidency. Driven by public demand to continue the domestic subsidization of natural gas and realizing that the chief avenue for securing revenue was in gas sales to Europe, this project suggests that Putin developed a new foreign energy policy approach meant to secure Russian interests. This transformation was accomplished by the Presidential Administration's efforts during Putin's tenure to bring the Russian natural gas monopoly, Gazprom, under its control. Dubbed Persuasive Politics, this paradigm suggests that the foreign energy policies of the Presidential Administration and Gazprom during Putin's tenure were underpinned by the rational economic argument that the only route to Russian resurgence in the medium term was through profitable economic relations with the European states. To test this theoretical approach the author employs a case study analysis of Russian relations with the European Union member state Greece as well as the non-EU state of Ukraine. The intent is to identify how a mutually beneficial relationship was constructed to persuade both governments through the utilization of economic inducements that cooperation with Russia in the natural gas sphere was in their own best interest.

  7. From Obsolete Normative to Realpolitik in the EU and Russia Foreign Policy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Păsătoiu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing global and regional challenges in terms of security and prosperity call for cooperation and “new type of great power” relations. Yet, both the EU and Russia took a U-turn in terms of rejuvenation of the Cold War politics announcing an astonishing overt deviation to a binary ideology fuelled zero-sum game. The EU failed to transpose Russia radical twist in foreign policy into a new design of the ENP and directly recalibrating the instruments managed to address the Eastern neighbourhood. The liberal functionalist approach would have been compatible assuming Russia had maintained its Western course; here, an exclusive design of the policy based on the normative matrix might have worked, although still at risk as it was excluding other regional power dynamics, the influences of the proximity of geography and the path-dependency that seems to reveal Cold War legacies. The Russia-Georgia war of 2008 and the annexation of Crimea were just a few of the outstanding signals that Russia’s assertiveness announced a reset of the power relations in the region. Hence, we reckon that it was a wrongly inspired policy choice for the EU to conclude prematurely enough that “Russia lacks the means of maintaining great-power status”, and consequently not predict state-like behaviour scenarios in response to a particular foreign policy pursued by the EU. In order to demonstrate the inappropriateness of the EU foreign policy design, we apply the concept of power and the regional security complex. Despite the fact that one of the pillars of the European Neighbourhood Policy is security for all, the EU has relied exclusively on policy stewardship built on a normative paradigm while miscalculating national security concerns of the Russian Federation.

  8. Foreign Direct Investment: diagnosis and proposals for a public policy agenda for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Abreu Campanário

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the viability to adopt policies to enhance Brazilian Foreign Direct Investment FDI. Based on statistical data and on literature review, the policy agenda frames the underling questions surrounding FDI. There is not yet a theoretical framework to deal with emergent countries economic outward FDI. There exist strong evidences that capital flows through FDI generate externalities in the following domains: macroeconomic, international trade, and microeconomic (in themes closed related to industrial organization and innovation. The theoretical proposition has its grounds in the conception that international capital flows are absolutely compatible in the following contexts: monetary, commercial, industrial organization and innovation policies. A better positioning of national enterprises internationally may result in growing partnership within the foreign environment. Brazil has not yet a set of policies to deal with inward and outward Brazilian FDI flows, without necessarily jeopardizing macroeconomic policy and the related monetary and currency stabilization goals. Summing up, it is contended that FDI stimulus by means of public policies may contribute not just to a better competitiveness and innovation of Brazilian enterprises but also to assure balanced growing and economic structural change.

  9. The Impact of Global Institutions on National Health HIV/AIDS Policy Making in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanat Mokushev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship of global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, World Bank, and individual developing countries in social health policy making in terms of HIV and AIDS. We examine the role of IGOs and NGOs in regarding to HIV/AIDS issues then analyse the TRIPs agreement as a tool for developing countries to negotiate with International organisations in global health policy decisions.

  10. The Effect of State Financial Aid Policies on College Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…

  11. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community college…

  12. Explaining the evolution of European Union foreign climate policy: A case of bounded adaptiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schunz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the inception of the United Nations climate regime in the early 1990s, the European Union has aspired to play a leading part in the global combat against climate change. Based on an analysis of how the Union has developed its foreign climate policy to fulfil this role over the past two decades, the paper sets out to identify the driving factors behind this evolution. It demonstrates that the EU’s development in this area was co-determined by adaptations to shifting international dynamics strongly bounded by purely domestic concerns. Providing a concise understanding and explanation of how the Union designs its foreign policy with regard to one emblematic issue of its international activity, the contribution provides insights into the remarkably rapid, but not always effective maturation of this unique actor’s involvement in global politics.

  13. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how the factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...... and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and give an overview about India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and tentative concluding remarks....

  14. Africa Command and the Militarization of U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-10

    its large resource pool has literally catapulted the military out in front of other government agencies in its ability to implement and support...that USAFRICOM--like the other GCCs--is another prime example of American Proconsuls plying foreign policy.83 In ancient Rome , proconsuls were...Keeping Peace With America’s Military, 70. 84 The Columbia Encyclopedia, “proconsul, in ancient Rome ,” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., (New York

  15. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Husid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  16. An Initial Look at the Utility of Social Media as a Foreign Policy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    a widely cited example of the art of the possible was exemplified by Target’s ability to predict the pregnancy of a teenage girl before her father...foreign policy 13 Casey Chan, “Did Chick-fil-A Pretend to Be a Teenage Girl on Facebook...Gizmodo, 25 July 2012. http://gizmodo.com/5928926/chick+fil+a-got-caught-pretending-to-be-a-fake- teenage -girl- on-facebook 7 professionals

  17. Consular Identification Cards: Domestic and Foreign Policy Implications, the Mexican Case, and Related Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-26

    National Government Domestic Social Policy Division K. Larry Storrs Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division...security consular registration” (matrícula consular de alta seguridad , MCAS, in Spanish), first became available in the United States in March 2002.1...obtain a driver’s license. It is also accepted by numerous telephone and utility companies, hospitals , and video stores, among other establishments. Some

  18. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central and ...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  19. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central and ...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  20. The guests who stayed--the debate on 'foreigners policy' in the German Federal Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, S

    1985-01-01

    The recruitment of "guest workers" between 1956 and 1973 by West German employers has given rise to new ethnic minorities. The Federal Republic of Germany (GFR) claims that it is not a country of immigration--a controversy that reflects the basic dilemma over policies towards foreign residents, who now comprise about 7% of the total population. The shift from temporary labor migration to long-term settlement has been accompanied by structural changes in the foreign resident population. The logic of the migratory process is inescapable: virtually all migrations, whether organized or spontaneous, start with movements of young adult workers. When recruitment stated in the late 1950s state migration policies were concerned only with short-term fulfillment of capital's labor requirements. The state established a system of institutionalized discrimination, through which temporary guest workers could be recruited, controlled, and sent away, as the interests of capital dictated. This policy was impracticable because many firms found that rotation led to problems of labor fluctuation and high training costs. The trend toward restrictive policies on migration continued in the early 1980s; rising unemployment and urban problems led to widespread hostility towards foreigners. 3 key issues need resolving quickly: 1) the granting of security of residence status, so that migrant families have a clear basis for planning their own future, 2) the extending of political rights to foreign residents, and 3) the issue of citizenship. Like other West European countries, the GFR has become a multiethnic society through the postwar labor migrations. The early reform of legal structures to give migrants more rights is a precondition for social peace, and for achieving the benefits which multiculturalism can offer to all members of society.

  1. A Historical Analysis of Three Main Issues Affecting United States Foreign Policy in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    18:94; 87:335). Is peace a futile goal of the Arab-Israeli con- flict? Perceptively, Noam Chomsky described the conflict: International affairs can...statistical model in this thesis. The various communication media suggest conflict- ing views on the role of United States foreign policy in world politics...reap propaganda benefits in all countries that had sufficient Jewish populations. Fourth, it was 5! designed to beat the Germans in gaining Jewish

  2. South African foreign policy and China: converging visions, competing interests, contested identities

    OpenAIRE

    Alden, Chris; Wu, Yu-Shan

    2016-01-01

    South Africa's burgeoning relationship with China exposes the increasing complexities of its post-apartheid international relations. On one hand bilateral relations have deepened since 1998, due to the increasing complementarities with South Africa's foreign policy priorities that emphasise developmental pragmatism and a Southward orientation within the broader African context. On the other hand this relationship emphasises the deeper schisms within South African society itself, where diverge...

  3. Impact of the Sovereign Debt Crisis on E.U. Foreign Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Research Group at the Institute of European Studies, CICIR

    2012-01-01

    The sovereign debt crisis has been Europe's most serious financial crisis. Over the past two years, it has had a drastic impact on the E.U.' seconomic, social and political development, and has brought profound changes. Many scholars, at home and abroad, have focused their attention on the crisis itself and its impacts on the global economy and European integration. This paper analyzes the impact of the sovereign debt crisis on E.U. foreign policy and what changes have ensued.

  4. Perspectives on foreign-language policy: studies in honour of Theo Van Els (Book notices)

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    All too often, the festschrift consists of a disparate and uneven collection of papers on a range of subjects that often only vaguely intersect with the interests of the individual whose work is being honored by the volume. This is a festschrift with a difference. It consists of a coherent collection of original papers addressing an area of applied linguistics in which Van Els made his most outstanding contribution, that of foreign language policy. The collection is given added coherence by t...

  5. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  6. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  7. Fritz Reiche and the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2005-12-01

    I discuss the family background and early life of the German theoretical physicist Fritz Reiche (1883 1969) in Berlin; his higher education at the University of Berlin under Max Planck (1858 1947); his subsequent work at the University of Breslau with Otto Lummer (1860 1925); his return to Berlin in 1911, where he completed his Habilitation thesis in 1913, married Bertha Ochs the following year, became a friend of Albert Einstein (1879 1955), and worked during and immediately after the Great War. In 1921 he was appointed as ordentlicher Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Breslau and worked there until he was dismissed in 1933. He spent the academic year 1934 1935 as a visiting professor at the German University in Prague and then returned to Berlin, where he remained until, with the crucial help of his friend Rudolf Ladenburg (1882 1952) and vital assistance of the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, he, his wife Bertha, and their daughter Eve were able to emigrate to the United States in 1941 (their son Hans had already emigrated to England in 1939).From 1941 1946 he held appointments at the New School for Social Research in New York, the City College of New York, and Union College in Schenectady, New York, and then was appointed as an Adjunct Professor of Physics at New York University, where his contract was renewed year-by-year until his retirement in 1958.

  8. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  9. Meeting report of the International Policy Dialogue on HIV/AIDS and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peake Sharon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of a partnership arrangement with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada hosted an International Policy Dialogue on HIV/AIDS and Disability from 11 to 13 March 2009 in Ottawa, Canada. The dialogue provided a forum for stakeholders from governments, academia, and non-governmental and multilateral organizations to explore the issues and evidence related to HIV/AIDS and disability, and to chart a way forward in terms of policy and programme development. This meeting report outlines the participants, objectives and high-level outcomes.

  10. Meeting report of the International Policy Dialogue on HIV/AIDS and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Sharon

    2009-11-09

    As part of a partnership arrangement with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada hosted an International Policy Dialogue on HIV/AIDS and Disability from 11 to 13 March 2009 in Ottawa, Canada. The dialogue provided a forum for stakeholders from governments, academia, and non-governmental and multilateral organizations to explore the issues and evidence related to HIV/AIDS and disability, and to chart a way forward in terms of policy and programme development. This meeting report outlines the participants, objectives and high-level outcomes.

  11. "Foreign Language Activities" in Japanese Elementary Schools: Negotiating Teacher Roles and Identities within a New Language Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Sachiko Yokoi

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, a new language education policy called "Gaikokugo Katsudou" [Foreign Language Activities] was issued by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology (MEXT) in Japan. Effective 2011, foreign language education became mandatory in all Japanese public elementary schools for the first time. With this dramatic…

  12. The Interparliamentary Conference on the CFSP/CSDP: A new forum for the Oireachtas in Irish and EU foreign policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    and legislatures in the policy domains of foreign affairs, security and defence, compounded by the loss of institutional influence experienced by national parliaments as a result of the European integration process, interparliamentarianism within the EU has seen significant growth over the past number of years......This article reviews the Interparliamentary Conference (IPC) on the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) since its establishment in 2012. In light of the increasing cavities and skewed power balances between executives....... One of the most recent creatures of this new interparliamentary phenomenon relates to the EU's foreign policy—the IPC on the CFSP/CSDP. This article contends that the IPC has a long way to go to become a proper forum for democratic and parliamentary oversight of the EU's foreign policy, and also...

  13. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  14. RUSSIA’S ‘FOREIGN AGENT’ LAW: A RESPONSE TO AMERICAN DEMOCRATIC PROMOTION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently passed the Russian ‘Foreign Agent’ law against foreign funding of NGOs and civil society has attracted criticism from almost every quarter. From home to abroad all party concerned (i.e., civil society organizations, NGO groups, donor countries (especiallyAmericaand European countries as well as some Russian opposition political parties are of the view that this bill has been introduced to scuttle the independent civic activities and in this way unconstitutional. However on the basis of overall analysis of ‘Foreign Agent’ law in the context of American democratic promotion policy this paper is of the view that this law simply cannot be characterized as anti-democratic, which is against the very basis of freedom and rule of law, by the anti-democratic Russian government but it should be seen as extension of same challenge which American democratic promotion policy is facing around the whole world. It is because of its illegal and unconstitutional method of regime change policy, with the help of foreign funded NGOs, and civil society which has compelled various countries includingRussiato resort this type of law. It is important to note that the promise of peace, stability and prosperity by the democratic promotion protagonists after the fall ofSoviet Unionhas not been realised till today. Instead what post-Soviet states are witnessing today is emergence of chauvinist nationalist government in respective countries which witnessed colour revolution. Whole region is now plunging into economic turmoil, ethnic nationalism, rise of religious fundamentalism and identity politics. Recent overthrow of legitimate Viktor Yanukovych government inUkraineand subsequent decision by incumbent government to exclude Russian as administrative language can be sited as example. That is why former American Republican Congressman Ron Paul is of the view that “US‘Democracy Promotion’ Destroys Democracy Overseas’’. In this context this paper

  15. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Runnels

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status.

  16. A study on the effects of exchange rate and foreign policies on Iranians dates export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was studying the impact of exchange rate on date export as one of the most important and greatest foreign currency income earned horticultural products in agriculture sector in Iran. Selected time period in this study was chosen between 1991 and 2011. For this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS method has used to estimate the relationships between the value of date export and the variables taken from stationary tests. Library research method has used for the analysis. In this regard, required data have collected from various scientific and research resources. The results indicated that, exchange rate is a crucial factor for dates export and also for exporters. In addition, other factors specially government policies have been placed in export model. In this field, short-term outsourcing foreign policy has decreased the export value. Results also showed that, applying exchange rate unification policy without an appropriate exchange rate to encourage exporters has negative impact on dates export. Therefore, by applying exchange rate stabilization policy, according to inflation in the country, the potential exporters’ income has reduced and production costs have increased alternately.

  17. Foreign Direct Investment and Government Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Jensen, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    , this chapter discusses how aspects of the institutional framework and FDI policy affect diverse types of investment projects. Acquisition and Greenfield investors are concerned with different aspects of government policy: privatization and regulatory policies for acquirers and investment incentives, regional......The 1990s have been a period of extraordinary politics in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). This chapter discusses how the transition from state to market has created bureaucratic barriers to entry, but also windows of opportunity for foreign direct investment (FDI). The high costs and high...... investment risks associated with FDI in CEE are a reflection the institutional development. Thus, inflows of FDI have been largest in those countries that made most progress in establishing a market-oriented institutional framework. After outlining trends of institutional change and their impact on FDI...

  18. Percutaneous Retrieval of Foreign Bodies Around Vital Vessels Aided with Vascular Intervention: A Technical Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiu-Jun, E-mail: woothingyang2008@126.com [Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (China); Xing, Guang-Fu, E-mail: xgf8848@126.com [Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Department of General Surgery (China)

    2015-10-15

    ObjectiveTo describe a new interventional technique to remove foreign bodies (FBs) embedded in soft tissues around vital vessels.MethodsUnder fluoroscopic guidance and using local anesthesia, percutaneous removal of FBs was performed using forceps in nine patients. All patients suffered from a metallic soft tissue FB located in close proximity to important vessels and one also had a small traumatic pseudoaneurysm adjacent to the FB. Prior to removal of the FB, the position of the nearest vessel was identified using a guide wire or catheter placed into the vessel. Balloon catheter was also simultaneously used to temporarily stop the blood flow of the nearest artery during the FB removal in three of the nine patients.ResultsAll of the nine FBs with 0–2 mm interval to the nearest vessel were successfully removed in the nine patients without any serious complications. The removed FBs measured 3–12 mm in length and 1–3 mm in width. The total fluoroscopic time of retrieval of each FB was 5–9 min (mean, 6.4 min). The volume of intraoperative bleeding ranged from 5 to 12 ml (mean, 7.5 ml). The length of hospital stay for each patient ranged from 4 to 8 days (mean, 5.5 days).ConclusionVascular intervention-aided percutaneous FB removal is minimally invasive and an effective method for removal of FBs around vital vessels.

  19. 75 FR 55341 - Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public... comments on Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management Assistance. This is an existing policy that is scheduled for review to ensure that Recovery...

  20. Developing a decision aid to guide public sector health policy decisions: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwers Melissa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids have been developed in a number of health disciplines to support evidence-informed decision making, including patient decision aids and clinical practice guidelines. However, policy contexts differ from clinical contexts in terms of complexity and uncertainty, requiring different approaches for identifying, interpreting, and applying many different types of evidence to support decisions. With few studies in the literature offering decision guidance specifically to health policymakers, the present study aims to facilitate the structured and systematic incorporation of research evidence and, where there is currently very little guidance, values and other non-research-based evidence, into the policy making process. The resulting decision aid is intended to help public sector health policy decision makers who are tasked with making evidence-informed decisions on behalf of populations. The intent is not to develop a decision aid that will yield uniform recommendations across jurisdictions, but rather to facilitate more transparent policy decisions that reflect a balanced consideration of all relevant factors. Methods/design The study comprises three phases: a modified meta-narrative review, the use of focus groups, and the application of a Delphi method. The modified meta-narrative review will inform the initial development of the decision aid by identifying as many policy decision factors as possible and other features of methodological guidance deemed to be desirable in the literatures of all relevant disciplines. The first of two focus groups will then seek to marry these findings with focus group members' own experience and expertise in public sector population-based health policy making and screening decisions. The second focus group will examine issues surrounding the application of the decision aid and act as a sounding board for initial feedback and refinement of the draft decision aid. Finally, the Delphi

  1. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  2. The foreign policy of Iran in the Middle East and the American strategy of “system containment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Georgievitch Krasnov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In article features of forming and implementation of foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI in the Middle East (Iraq, the Syria-Lebanese-Palestinian zone, Egypt, Gulf States and Yemen in the conditions of transformation of forms and methods of implementation of Washington’s strategy of “system containment” of the IRI are analyzed. Special attention is paid to identification of potential of IRI as one of leaders of the Middle East region. The main stages, the directions and implementation methods of strategy of “system containment” of the IRI as triangle complex of political, economic and military measures, performed by the USA and their allies for rendering multilateral pressure upon Tehran in order to change its foreign policy and the State power in the country, are shown. Change of a foreign policy line and approaches of Tehran to the solution of regional problems is considered in the context of escalation of pressure upon Iran from the USA and the states of the West. It is analyzed what forms and methods of the foreign policy and foreign economic activity implementation were used by Iran in the situation of increased political and economic risks, connected with toughening of the international and unilateral sanctions. In the conclusion, efficiency evaluations of Middle Eastern dimension of the Iranian foreign policy during the considered period are given and the tendencies of development of the situation around the IRI, that allow us to make the forecast for the medium term, are allocated.

  3. Player or referee? Aid effectiveness and the governance of health policy development: Lessons from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Rebecca; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Viet Nam is one of the brightest stars in the constellation of developing countries. Its remarkable achievements in reducing poverty and improving health and education outcomes are well known, and as a result it has enjoyed generous aid programmes. Viet Nam also has a reputation for taking a strong lead in disciplining its donors and pushing for more efficient and effective forms of aid delivery, both at home and internationally. This article discusses how efforts to improve the effectiveness of aid intersect with policy-making processes in the health sector. It presents a quantitative review of health aid flows in Viet Nam and a qualitative analysis of the aid environment using event analysis, participant observation and key informant interviews. The analysis reveals a complex and dynamic web of incentives influencing the implementation of the aid effectiveness agenda in the health sector. There are contradictory forces within the Ministry of Health, within government as a whole, within the donor community and between donors and government. Analytical frameworks drawn from the study of policy networks and governance can help explain these tensions. They suggest that governance of health aid in Viet Nam is characterised by multiple, overlapping 'policy networks' which cut across the traditional donor-government divide. The principles of aid effectiveness make sense for some of these communities, but for others they are irrational and may lead to a loss of influence and resources. However, sustained engagement combined with the building of strategic coalitions can overcome individual and institutional incentives. This article suggests that aid reform efforts should be understood not as a technocratic agenda but as a political process with all the associated tensions, perverse incentives and challenges. Partners thus need to recognise - and find new ways of making sense of - the complexity of forces affecting aid delivery.

  4. Ideology or Pragmatism? U.S. Economic Aid, Military Assistance, and Foreign Military Sales: 1950-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    performed a critical pragmatic role in foreign policy with Ethiopia. Military assistance was used to negotiate with Haile Selassie , the Emperor of...Africa."[28] Immediately after World War II, Haile Selassie requested military assistance from the United States, which was initially denied by the... Selassie made to resource his military would ultimately become a key reason for his demise. In the 1960s and early 1970s, Kagnew gained greater

  5. Latin American vector in Russia’s Foreign Policy: Identities and interests in the Russian‑Venezuelan Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitenko Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Ukraine, that broke out in 2013 and escalated in 2014, has led to sanction policy and the emergence of significant political divergences between Russian Federation and the West. This has resulted in an intensification of Russia’s foreign and economic policy alliances with its neighboring countries as well as with the rest of the BRICS members. In his interview with Cuba’s Prensa Latina, Vladimir Putin further classified cooperation with Latin American states as one of the key and very promising lines of Russia’s foreign policy.

  6. The Importance and Effect of Using Aid Materials in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Mehmet Ali; Engin, Ali Osman

    2007-01-01

    This research presents and discusses the importance and effects of using visual and audio materials in foreign language teaching. Everybody who studies on the subject of using materials in foreign language teaching can find out something in the study. It is our sincere hope that this research informs its users. If it does, than it will have made a…

  7. Foreign Policy of the USA in the context of the Development of Ukrainian-American Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Shamraeva, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the main theoretical approaches to the definition of foreign policy concept of the USA at the modern stage. It considers the main tendencies of the development of the USA and Ukraine’s positions on international issues and the ways to solve problems in inter-state collaboration. Artykuł analizuje główne teoretyczne podejścia do definiowania konceptu polityki zagranicznej USA we współczesnym świecie. W tekście poruszono zagadnienia głównych tendencji w rozwoju stanowisk...

  8. STRENGTHENING ROLE OF G20: TRANSFORMATION OF WORLD ORDER AND FOREIGN POLICY OF CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article studies the role of the G20 in the evolving world and foreign policy of China in this entity. In the current world the G20 emerges as a key global platform for economic dialogue among major powers of the world. Which role has it been playing during and after global crisis? Which forces does impact it and define its future? How does China view this entity? These questions were raised by international and Chinese scholars The current article attempts to provide reasonable answers for those questions.

  9. The foreign policy and security options of Romania in the vision of Klaus Johannis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ioan Opriș

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If a decade ago, Romania became a NATO member and it was enrolled in the accession process to the European Union, in 2014, the problem is radically different: Romania has a new status within NATO, it is part of the EU, it is in process of accession to the Schengen area and it has developed its strategic partnership with the United States of America. In this context, the aim of this paper is to bring into attention the vision of the new president of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, regarding the romanian foreign policy and security.

  10. The Real Exchange Rate, Foreign Aid and Macroeconomic Transmission Mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar; Tarp, Finn

    ‡ows Tanzania experienced positive investment and GDP growth from the late 1960s to 2007. But, until the mid-1980s, the impact of aid on growth was well below its potential as the large in‡ows of aid facilitated a serious overappreciation of the real exchange rate. In Ghana, declining aid in the 1970s...

  11. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.'s "Middle Way out of Vietnam: The Limits of Technocratic Realism" as the Basis for Foreign Policy Dissent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoe, Stephen P.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.'s dissenting position on Vietnam by considering it as representative of the mode of foreign policy argument called "technocratic realism." Argues that such dissent can offer only an incomplete critique of U.S. foreign policy, because it does not question the policy's underlying purposes. (SR)

  12. Effects of audio-visual aids on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in EFL learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.

  13. The Real Exchange Rate, Foreign Aid and Macroeconomic Transmission Mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar; Tarp, Finn

    ‡ows Tanzania experienced positive investment and GDP growth from the late 1960s to 2007. But, until the mid-1980s, the impact of aid on growth was well below its potential as the large in‡ows of aid facilitated a serious overappreciation of the real exchange rate. In Ghana, declining aid in the 1970s...... was associated with lacking growth while the reactivation of aid ‡ows in the 1980s supported an economic rebound. When monetary and external factors are properly accounted for, we …nd that aid has been pivotal to growth in both real GDP and investment....

  14. The use of outer membrane proteins as an exposure surface for foreign antigens in AIDS vaccine methodology and AIDS diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede WWD; Hegger I

    1992-01-01

    A live recombinant bacteria or virus with HIV determinants exposed at the outermembrane is one strategy for AIDS vaccine development. Two HIV determinants that showed neutralization capacity in in- vitro experiments were tested for their expression in PhoE outer membrane protein of E coli K12.

  15. Foreign direct investment and policy framework: New Granger causality evidence from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Adewale Aregbeshola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of foreign direct investment in the contemporary economies has been tremendous.While various countries (developed and developing economies have benefitted from the direct and spillovereffects of FDI, which range from improved technology and knowledge diffusion through to individual andcorporate capability enhancement, FDI outflow remains largely channelled to the developed countries, andthe rapidly developing countries in Asia and South America. Evidence suggests that the developmentenhancingeffects of FDI are felt more highly in the developing economies, such as economies in Africa.However, FDI inflow to the developing economies has been very low. Using data generated from the AfricanDevelopment Indicators (ADI between 1980 and 2008 in econometric estimations, this paper finds thatgovernment policies (especially fiscal and monetary policies play significant roles in facilitating FDI inflow tothe African countries studied. The study thereby suggests an improved regulatory framework to make Africamore attractive to inflow of FDI.

  16. The EU Anti-dumping Policy towards China: Challenges for Chinese and Foreign Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the EU anti-dumping policy towards Chinese companies. It is based on the EU anti-dumping cases since 1990 and especially since July 1998. (Since then Chinese firms have been able to apply for market economy status). Based on this analysis, the paper presents some practical...... advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. First, the CELEX database may give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU so anti-dumping measures can be avoided. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important......, owner structure counts also in relation to getting individual treatment; here especially freedom in exporting is decisive. Fourthly, if an anti-dumping investigation seems to be against the interests of the company, it should make an offer to the EU Commission to raise its export prices instead...

  17. Soviet Foreign Policy in Guinea and Somalia, Implications for American Policy Toward Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    to accept a certain degree of indigenous private enterprise, it has instituted a policy which excludes the entreprenuers from holding party posts... statistic that more than one million Guineans (about one sixth of the total population) are living in exile, mainly in neighboring countries. Al...Guinea owning 49% of the company and receiving 65% of the profits. 81U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.: 1979, 100th ed

  18. Aid Agency Influence in National Education Policy-Making: A Case from Nepal's "Education for All" Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between foreign aid and Nepal's primary education in order to understand how aid agencies affect national educational development. It argues that after 1990, when global education targets provided the basic framework for all donor agency funding to primary education and the subsequent use of a sector-wide approach…

  19. The impact of the European Union on turkish foreign policy during the pre-accession process to the European Union, 1997-2005: à la carte Europeanisation

    OpenAIRE

    Gurkan, Seda

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation is about the impact of the European Union (EU) on the foreign policy of a candidate in the pre-accession period. More specifically, the research analyses the factors and processes that intervene between the EU power to generate change in Turkish foreign policy and Turkish national compliance with the EU conditions between 1997 and 2005 by way of analysing three cases: Turkish foreign policy towards Cyprus issue, Greek-Turkish bilateral problems in the Aegean Sea; and Turkey’s...

  20. INDIA’S FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: CURRENT STATUS, ISSUES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Ranga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as an important driver of growth. It is an important source of non debt financial resources for country for economic development. Besides it is a means of achieving technical know-how and employment generation of employment. However, many are of the view that FDI is a big threat to sovereignty of host and domestic business houses. Faster exploitation of natural resources for profit may deprive host from such resources in long run. Midst of debate on pros and cons of FDI, world economy has observed a phenomenal change in volume and pattern of FDI. There is clearly an intense global competition of FDI. India is not behind this global race of attracting foreign investment. India emerged as an attractive FDI destination in services but has failed to evolve a manufacturing hub which has greater economic benefit. FDI though one of the important sources of financing the economic development, but not is not a solution for poverty eradication, unemployment and other economic ills. India needs a massive investment to achieve the goals of vision 20-20. Policy makers need to ensure transparency and consistency in policy making along with comprehensive long term development strategy.

  1. Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact.

  2. PUBLIC POLICIES TO R&D IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EU STATE AID POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacila Nicolae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From an economic perspective, the importance of EU state aid policy refers to correcting “market failure” situations that may occur in the economy, aiming at maintaining an undistorted competition in the economic environment. In the context of the Commission focusing its efforts towards promoting R&D investment through Europe 2020 strategy, Romania is a modest innovator and is facing a relatively low level of economic competitiveness. The present paper aims at providing a contribution to the literature on public policies to R&D in the EU, developing both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of public policies to R&D in Romania in the context of the EU state aid policy. Our research hypothesis considers that public policies to R&D in Romania, as in other Central and Eastern European countries, are following a convergence process with the practices from the EU level. Based on data provided by Eurostat, we have stressed that the existing gap between the national level and the EU level tends to maintain in the state aid field even in the future, in spite of Romanian government sector R&D expenditure tending to converge with the EU level, which highlights the potential of catching up with the European model. We believe that the success of the convergence process will depend in the future, to a large extent, on the implementation of the modernised legal and institutional framework of state aid policy, as well as on the capacity to build consensus by policy makers around the necessity to structure future economic development around R&D investment. In order to successfully address these structural R&D problems, the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation aims to establish R&D as engine for increasing economic competitiveness, while at the same time strengthening strategic areas with comparative advantages, supporting public-private partnerships, funding clusters in areas of smart specialisation, developing intellectual

  3. The Number and Geographical Scope of the EU Foreign Policy Initiatives of Small Member States: Does „smallness“ matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luša Đana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complex voting and decision-making mechanisms of the EU, the size-factor has long been present within EU studies as a relevant and significant variable in explaining member states’ activism. Despite the aim of small states to achieve equal representation, there is a huge discrepancy between the power of big and small states within the EU. Therefore, the expected behavior of small states is different from that of the big ones. However, there are also significant differences in foreign policy activism within the group of small EU states and those are analysed in this article. In order to differentiate small states’ activism within EU foreign policy, the article explores the correlation between the scope and number of small states’ leadership initiatives in EU foreign policy and different quantitative criteria used to define these small states (population, total GDP, GDP per capita

  4. The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim

  5. The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim

  6. Developing Policy for HIV/AIDS in Sport: Separating Fact from Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Karin A. E.; Sankaran, Gopal; Bonsall, Dale R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines issues regarding rights, obligations, risks, privacy, and policy related to HIV/AIDS in sports, discussing the growing dilemma for sports professionals to weigh an athlete's right to privacy against their own duty to warn in the decision-making process; describing mandatory HIV testing for athletes; and providing guidelines based on…

  7. The Real Exchange Rate, Foreign Aid and Macroeconomic Transmission Mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    investigation. The focus is on the effect of aid when allowing external and nominal factors to play a role in the macroeconomic transmission mechanism. We conclude that when monetary and external factors are properly accounted for, then aid has been pivotal to growth in both real GDP and investment....

  8. 22 CFR 207.01 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 207.01 Section 207.01 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INDEMNIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES § 207.01 Policy. (a) A.I.D. may... employees) for any verdict, judgment or other monetary award which is rendered against any such employee...

  9. Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723

  10. United States foreign oil policy since World War 1 : for profits and security. 2 ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, S.J.

    2005-07-01

    This book provided a historical context for United States global oil politics, with a focus on the goals, accomplishments and challenges of United States foreign oil policy, as well as on the relationship between the state and private sectors. This second edition has integrated developments in global politics since the end of the Cold War. It was suggested that many factors have provided the context for oil policy formation: a succession of crises in Iran since the 1950s; 2 wars in Iraq; U.S. intervention in Afghanistan; the threat of international terrorism since September 11, 2001; ongoing conflicts between Israel and the Arab nations in the Middle East; political instability in Saudi Arabia and in Venezuela and the trend towards trade and investment liberalization in Latin America in the 1990s. In addition, the emergence of oil sands reserves in Canada and other sources of non-conventional oil were discussed. Nationalism and oil policies in the Depression and World War 2 were examined. The structure of decision-making in oil policies was examined. Domestic and offshore resources were reviewed, and an outline of international agreements and relationships was presented. Issues concerning OPEC countries and the Iranian Revolution were examined. It was concluded that the United States has become more and not less vulnerable, despite its military strength. The author suggested that the main policy challenge to the United States may well be the tension between its commitment to Israel and its determination to avoid alienating the Arab oil-producing states. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia. Monetary policy variables (interest rate and money supply have been measured through a non-recursive structural VAR (SVAR identification scheme, which allows the monetary authority to set the interest rate and money supply after observing the current value of foreign variables, domestic output and inflation. The results show the important role of foreign shocks in influencing Malaysian monetary policy and macroeconomic variables. There is a real effect of monetary policy, that is, a positive shock in money supply increases domestic output. In contrast, a positive interest rates shock has a negative effect on domestic output growth and inflation. The effects of money supply and interest rate shocks on the exchange rate and stock prices are also consistent with standard economic theory. In addition, domestic monetary policy is able to mitigate the negative effect of external shocks upon domestic economy.

  12. CONSULAR ASSISTANCE FOR NATIONALS DETAINED BY A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT: STATES’ POLICIES AND PRACTISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Avilia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963 outlined the rights of a state to exercise its obligation to protect the interests of its nationals abroad. The protection given by states to their nationals is commonly referred to as consular assistance. The main objective of consular assistance is to help nationals facing difficulties abroad. In the event of an arrest, the aim of the provision of consular assistance is to protect the inalienable rights of a foreign detainee. The inalienable rights inherent to all detainees are the right retain counsel, and to receive due process of law. Although the 1963 Convention on Consular Relations is the codification of international customary law with regard to states’ practises in protecting their nationals, the practises may vary from one state to another. This paper analyses the policy and practises adopted by a state to protect its nationals detained abroad and suggests effective policies to provide consular assistance based on the reviewed state practises and policies.

  13. Remote hearing aid fitting: Tele-audiology in the context of Brazilian Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Ramos, Sueli de Lima; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Marone, Silvio Antonio Monteiro; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Currently, the Brazilian government has certificated nearly 140 specialized centers in hearing aid fittings through the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Remote fitting through the Internet can allow a broader and more efficient coverage with a higher likelihood of success for patients covered by the SUS, as they can receive fittings from their own homes instead of going to the few and distant specialized centers. Aim: To describe a case of remote fitting between 2 cities, with revision of the literature. Method: Computer gears, a universal interface, and hearing aids were used. Case study: An audiologist located in a specialized center introduced a new hearing aid and its fitting procedure to a remote center (200 km away). The specialized center helped the remote center in fitting a hearing aid in 2 patients, and performed fitting in one of its own patients. The whole process was done through the Internet with audio and video in real time. Results: Three patients were fitted remotely. Three audiologists were remotely trained on how to fit the hearing aids. Conclusions: Remote fitting of hearing aids is possible through the Internet, as well as further supplying technical training to a remote center about the fitting procedures. Such a technological approach can help the government advance public policies on hearing rehabilitation, as patients can be motivated about maintaining their use of hearing aids with the option to ask for help in the comfort of their own homes. PMID:25991960

  14. Four moments from US foreign policy doctrine: Between theory and the practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tovar Ruiz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Doctrines and strategies in international politics represent one of the most interesting elements for the discipline of international relations as a point of connection between theory and practice. An analysis of four of the great doctrines of US foreign policy (two of them realist, i.e those of Truman and Nixon, and two idealist, those of Clinton and Bush Jr and their historical development lead us to the conclusion that these doctrines are capable of changing reality and creating lasting instruments for applying to very different contexts, reaching even the present day (for example, containment, the domino theory and “Vietnamization”. We must bear in mind, however, the need for these doctrines to meet the criteria ofpragmatism and flexibility, prudence and self restriction, and for them to accept the institutional and moral limits of the societies on which they are established.

  15. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  16. Sub-national entities’ participation in Brazil’s foreign policy and in regional integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ventura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how sub-national entities’ gradual participation in Brazilian foreign policy has come about, with reference to a decentralised scenario of the decision-making process in Itamaraty, where the ministries and presidential organs have a voice on many strategic themes, mainly concerning development. The article examines the insertion of sub-national entities into the decision-making process in the Southern Common Market (Mercosur, and concludes that in spite of the incipient participation, relevant contributions to the process of regional integration have arisen. Regarding the hypothesis that the participation of the federative entities in the decision-making process generates local and regional development, we argue that this is an alternative to increasing state efficiency. In conclusion, and despite the incipient institutionalisation that does not guarantee their vote in the decision-making process, at least their voice is heard.

  17. More of the same: Danish foreign and security policy after Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of ground forces to Helmand (2006-2014) resulted in the worst fighting experienced by the Danish army since its defeat to Prussia in 1864 and more casualties (43 fatalities and 214 wounded) than all other international operations conducted by the Danish armed forces since World War...... the financial and human costs, the disappointing outcome of the ISAF mission has triggered remarkably little domestic debate and soul-searching and left little discernible impact on Danish foreign and security policy....... Two. The financial costs were also unprecedented as the total civilian and military expenditures on Afghanistan came to approximately €2.68 billion by the end of 2014. Although some politicians now regard the Afghan war as a mistake and more than half of the Danish population do not consider it worth...

  18. International coalitions in Brazil’s foreign policy: security and governance reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Costa Vaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the relevance and role of international coalitions as instruments and arenas for negotiation in the context of Brazilian foreign policy under Luis Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010, and the perspectives they bring to the attainment of the goal of reforming the spaces and instruments of global governance in the political, economic and security spheres. Under Lula da Silva, Brazil supported and resorted intensively to coalitions not only for their instrumental value for consolidating the country’s international presence and actions, but also due to the possibility that they could induce systemic change towards a more uneven pattern of power distribution, thus helping to overcome lasting political and economic international asymmetries.

  19. The Problem of Partisanship in American Foreign Policy Book Review: Gries P.H. The Politics of American Foreign Policy: How Ideology Divides Liberals and Conservatives over Foreign Affairs Stanford, California: Stanford University press, 2014. 367 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'ya Anatol'evich Sokov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication is the review on the book of Peter Hays Gries “The Politics of American Foreign Policy: How Ideology Divides Liberals and Conservatives over Foreign Affairs”. The book consists of Preface, Introduction, the Text from two parts: Part I “Concepts” includes 5 chapters, Part II “Cases” also includes 5 chapters and four of them description the relations of the USA with the world regions: Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, the South Asia and the last chapter - relations with the international organizations. The end of the text is the Conclusion. Besides the text of book consists of 100 illustrations and 2 charts. The Preface was written by David Lyle Boren, the President of Oklahoma University and the US Ex-Senator (1979-1994, where he was at the head of Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and he knows the topic which the author of monograph studies. The problems is studied by P.H. Gries are interested by the native specialists, who studies the international relations. This book is recommended to students, post-graduate students, scientists and all of them who are interested by the problems of international relations.

  20. The impact of populist radical right parties on foreign policy: the Northern League as a junior coalition partner in the Berlusconi Governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.A.; Zaslove, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the populist radical right’s (PRR) popularity among political scientists, little scholarship has focused on its influence on foreign policy. This lack of study is due, in part, to a general lack of attention to the role of political parties in foreign policy, both in comparative politics and

  1. Not radical enough: why Jimmy Carter failed to change American foreign policy

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    Itai Nartzizenfield Sneh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El Presidente Jimmy Carter no consiguió traducir sus palabras e ideales referentes a derechos humanos a hechos y prácticas en la política exterior de E.E.U.U. Carter, ya en el primer período de su administración en 1976-77, tenía una perspectiva demasiado conservadora y tradicional con respecto a las relaciones internacionales. Sus ideas eran correctas, sin embargo seguió enfocando su política en la guerra fría más que en una puesta en práctica constante de un nuevo paradigma para los derechos humanos, especialmente con respecto a los aliados americanos en los territorios subdesarrollados. Carter no reformó suficientemente la práctica de la política exterior de los E.E.U.U. Él no creyó bastantes en la lucha por los derechos humanos así que fue imposible una modifica significativa de las prioridades tradicionales. Carter confió en las políticas, las conductas, las personalidades y estructuras administrativas vigentes. La intención de Carter de cambiar la política americana así como los principios y la comisión, fue minada seriamente por el Consejo de Seguridad Nacional (especialmente Zbigniew Brzezinksi mucho antes de los bien conocidos cambios de SALT II, de los tratados del Canal de Panamá, y del Oriente Medio.__________ABSTRACT:President Jimmy Carter failed to translate his words and ideals concerning human rights into deeds and practices in US foreign policy. Carter, already in the formative period of his administration in 1976-7, was too conservative and traditional in his outlook on international relations. While his heart was at the right place, the Cold War was still his focus rather than a consistent implementation of a new human rights paradigm, especially with respect to American allies in the Developing World. Carter did not sufficiently reform the practice of US foreign policy. He did not believe enough in advocating human rights so a meaningful recast of traditional priorities was difficult. Carter relied on

  2. Language Policy and the Manufacturing of Consent for Foreign Intervention in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Marlon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides a critical analysis of Colombia’s National Program of Bilingualism focusing on the ideologies behind it, how it facilitates the manufacturing of Colombian citizens’ consent for foreign intervention through free trade agreements, and the progressive dismantling of public education. The program is analyzed with a critical language policy lens that brings into consideration the historical and socio-political factors of the Colombian context. For this purpose, several news articles, policy documents, and academic essays are discussed. Connections are made between this language policy, the interests of transnational companies, and how this policy helps portray the Colombian public education system as inadequate to fulfill the government’s educational goals.El siguiente análisis crítico del Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB en Colombia hace énfasis en las ideologías que hay detrás de dicho programa y como este facilita la fabricación del consentimiento de los ciudadanos colombianos para la intervención extranjera a través de los tratados de libre comercio, al igual que la privatización progresiva de la educación pública. Se analiza el programade manera crítica teniendo en cuenta los factores históricos y sociopolíticos del contexto. Para este propósito se discuten artículos de noticias, documentos del programa y análisis académicos. El artículo establece relaciones entre el programa, los intereses de compañías multinacionales y lamanera como dicha política lingüística pone de manifiesto la insuficiencia del sistema educativo público colombiano para alcanzar sus propias metas.

  3. The impact of foreign banks on monetary policy transmission during the global financial crisis of 2008-2009: Evidence from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Bang Nam; Lim, Hosung; Wu, Ji

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of foreign banks on the monetary policy transmission mechanism in the Korean economy during the period from 2000 to 2012, with a specific focus on the lending behavior of banks with different types of ownership. Using the bank-level panel data of the banking system in Korea, we present consistent evidence on the buffering impact of foreign banks, especially foreign bank branches including U.S. bank branches, on the effectiveness of the monetary policy transmissi...

  4. Present international patterns of foreign direct investment: underlying causes and some policy implications for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Chesnais

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of the 1980s has been the substantial fall in the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI to the developing countries and also, with the limited exception of the Asian NIE (Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore and China, to the newly industrialized countries, in particular those in Latin America. FDI has been concentrated more than ever among the advanced industrialized countries of OECD. The same period has witnessed a number of extremely important changes, both in the nature and location of basic or key technologies, the role of technology in industrial competitiveness; the most appropriate industrial management paradigm following the difficulties of the "Fordist" one; the nature of predominant international supply or market structures; and the relationships between productive and financial capital. Today a number of governments in developing countries and in NIC, among them the new government of Brazil, are again engaged in an attempt to attract FDI and to make foreign capital one of the major pillars of industrial revival and future growth. This paper argues that this policy objective is both fairly illusory and largely mistaken. It is fairly illusory in that it seriously underestimates the nature and strength of the structural factors which have been at work since the mid-1970s and seriously modified the strategies and investment priorities of the TNC which under took the brunt of the investment in developing countries and NICs in the earlier "golden age" of the 1960s and 1970s . The objective of luring foreign capital again to Brazil in ways and on a level similar to the 1960s is also largely mistaken in that it fails to recognize that the change in technological paradigms has modified the parameters of international technology transfers (cf. Ernst and O'Connor, 1989 and made indigenous and endogenous industrial growth dependent to a much higher degree than in the previous period (19601975 on factors which foreign capital

  5. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with…

  6. Has the United States’ Manifest Destiny Run Its Course? U.S. Foreign Policy Juxtaposed Against Fourth Generation Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    Strategy. The White House, May, 2010. Strausz-Hupe, Robert. Democracy and American Foreign Policy: Reflections on the Legacy of Alexis De Tocqueville ...Rush to Empire, 1898. Little, Brown and Company, New York, 2010. Tocqueville , Alexis. Democracy in America. Edited by Henry Steele Commager

  7. Fallacies Affecting Policy and Practice in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in State Primary Schools in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of the worldwide trend to introduce English as a foreign language (EFL) into primary schools at ever younger ages. This trend has gained momentum in recent years, affecting millions of children in countries throughout Asia. A policy decision of this kind has far-reaching implications but it is often made without…

  8. The Power of Collective Identity Narration: Greenland’s Way to a more Autonomous Foreign Policy (2009-2015)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how different Greenlandic governments have exploited a narrative of a unique Greenlandic identity to shape and strengthen a foreign policy autonomous from Denmark. Central to this narrative is, on the one hand, the widespread anticipation of more independence in the future...

  9. A Citizen's Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy: Election '88. Nonpartisan Briefs on 18 Key Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    In order to make informed voting decisions citizens need background information on complex foreign policy issues facing the United States. This guide presents current issues and provides information to help citizens cast a thoughtful vote. The guide is divided into six main headings: Leadership; Security; Economic and Social Issues; Critical…

  10. Research Self-Efficacy Sources and Research Motivation in a Foreign Language University Faculty in Mexico: Implications for Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cruz, María del Rosario; Perales-Escudero, Moisés Damián

    2016-01-01

    The research self-efficacy and motivation of foreign language (FL) faculty in periphery countries is under-researched, yet there is a need to understand the impact of public policies that drive such faculty to conduct research. This paper reports a qualitative case study investigating research self-efficacy and research motivation in a group of…

  11. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  12. Migration, Aid and Trade: Policy Coherence for Development. Policy Brief No. 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Katseli, Louka T.

    2006-01-01

    Many Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries recruit internationally skilled workers for their health, education, or public administration sectors and the subsequent emigration of such workers can cause critical shortages in developing countries, even as these countries receive substantial aid from those same OECD…

  13. A Case for Development: Rebalancing America’s Foreign Aid Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    2010. 5 United States Agency for International Development,“The Greenbook ” (U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants: Detailed Foreign Assistance Data), http...gbk.eads.usaidallnet.gov/data/detailed.html (accessed April 9, 2012). Cited hereafter as USAID, Greenbook . 6 Curt Tarnoff and Marian Leonardo...www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41194.pdf (accessed April 9, 2012). Cited hereafter as Vaughn, Bangladesh. 36 Vaughn, Bangladesh, summary. 37 USAID, Greenbook

  14. Stability and Change in Americans’ Foreign Language Policy Attitudes: 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Robinson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen unprecedented policy emphasis on the Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs – whether broadly, as indicated by the regular publication of lists of languages critical to the national interest, such as that of the US Department of Education (2010, or in the particular languages included in the multiple new Federal programs that comprise the National Security Language Initiative (NSLI, such as the National Language Service Corps, STARTALK, the Language Flagship, the English for Heritage Language Speakers program, or the NSLI for Youth, to cite several examples. The LCTLs predominate in these lists, reflecting a national level policy emphasis on the LCTLs. This emphasis derives from perceived and actual needs for specific LCTLs required for the common weal – for national security, economic well being, and social justice (Brecht et al., 2007; Brecht & Rivers, 2000. This emphasis, consisting in its entirety of programs promulgated, funded, and directed by the Federal government, stands in contrast to the ongoing perception in our professional fields that Foreign Languages (FLs, and the LCTLs among them, are under increasing and unprecedented stress in the educational system, and that furthermore, that the teaching of LCTLs lacks public support, or is even actively opposed in the broader US society (Wiley, 2007.

  15. “Hiding the Brightness” – The Rise and Fall of Confucian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Motoh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the rise and fall of the new model of Chinese cultural diplomacy which was established more than a decade ago and which is based on the neo-traditionalist ideological framework of Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao’s leadership. At first glance, the rapid expansion of the institutions of Chinese cultural diplomacy seemed to be an opportunity for a new and deepened intercultural dialogue, while on the other hand it provoked a growing insecurity about its political content and anxiety about the influence and intentions of these policies. In recent years research has explained the phenomenon by using the “soft power” paradigm. The present paper follows this interpretation, but calls attention to an aspect that was often overlooked in this paradigm – namely, that in the past few years Chinese cultural diplomacy has been undergoing a fast and radical change. This is particularly related to ground- breaking shifts in the current political sphere and in official ideology. In contrast to common interpretations of the “soft power” paradigm, this paper does not focus on the success or failure thereof, but chooses to focus instead on the wider context of the foreign policy strategies of contemporary China and recent transformations of these strategies.

  16. Foreign direct investment and liberalization policies in Pakistan: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ejaz Ali Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI and ultimately to increase the economic growth, the countries have implemented a variety of financial and trade liberalization policies in the last three decades. Pakistan also initiated such type of policies. This study makes an analysis of the impact of liberalization (financial and trade in Pakistan, on the inflow of FDI using the time series data of 1971–2009. The DF-GLS test is used to determine the level of integration, and autoregressive distributed lag model to examine the long-run relationship. The results indicate that liberalization indicators, like financial liberalization index and trade openness along with real interest rate, negatively affect the inflow of FDI in Pakistan. Tax revenue of product also negatively affects the FDI. On the other hand, the gross fixed capital formation, infrastructure, and inflation positively influence the FDI in Pakistan. The market size (proxied by real gross domestic product has shown insignificant effect on FDI.

  17. New policies and strategies to tackle HIV/AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan; Katharine E. Poundstone; Julio Montaner; WU Zun-you

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade,China has made remarkable progress in promoting universal access to HIV prevention,treatment and care and support.As a result,overall AIDS mortality among treatment eligible patients dropped 63.9% between 2002 and 2009.However,many key challenges remain in the early identification of HIV-positive individuals and timely provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART).To address these challenges,the Chinese government has taken steps to translate the latest scientific research findings into its newly issued national AIDS policy and strategy.China's recent adoption of “Treatment as Prevention” to reduce HIV incidence and HIV/AIDS related morbidity and mortality is intended to help achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals by 2015.

  18. Impact of the 16th International Conference on AIDS: can these conferences lead to policy change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainberg Mark A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This Commentary reflects on the success of the XVI International Conference on AIDS, that was held in Toronto between August 13–18, 2006. Not only was the Conference judged to have been a scientific success, it will probably also be recognized over time as having had important political impact. It is vital that scientists and policy-makers continue to be able to interact at these meetings as part of global efforts to combat the HIV epidemic.

  19. Selecting and Dispatching Foreign Aid Medical Team%援外军医组抽组选派的做法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊汉; 夏挺

    2013-01-01

    本文在两次派出援外军医抽组实践的基础上,总结归纳“深入进行宣传发动,选拔德才兼备骨干,周密组织训练,细致做好保障”等经验做法,并就派遣工作中存在的问题进行探讨。%Based on the practices of two foreign aid medical teams dispatched , the author summarized the experience of in-depth propaganda , selecting members with both ability and political integrity , training carefully and providing meticulous service .In the end , the problems existing in the process of dispatching were discussed .

  20. CRIMEA REGION INVOLVED INTO THE RUSSIAN TURKISH WAR(S OF 1768 TO 1774: SOME ASPECTS OF FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usup Magomtdovich GYSEINOV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered an issue of foreign policy the Crimea region had carried on during the Russian-Turkish War in the years 1768 to 1774. The study pointed out the stand Russia made for the Crimea region. The author emphasized the part taken by Russia in the policy carried by the Crimea region during the War. The author did due diligence to Russia's policy in the Kuban Region and the Black Sea littoral area, that remained an area having experienced assaults from the southern borders, too.

  1. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C.K. Lam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type. Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts (reduce free cash flow or may be used to extract cash from firms (tunneling effect – which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy (China, we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public (individual ownership. Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  2. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin C.K.Lam; Heibatollah Sami; Haiyan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type.Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts(reduce free cash flow) or may be used to extract cash from firms(tunneling effect)- which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy(China), we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public(individual) ownership.Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  3. Computer-aided assessment of tone production: A case of Zimbabwean students learning Chinese as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Mushangwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how technology can help in assessing and teaching Chinese tones to foreign students who are not used to tonal languages. It was an attempt to show how we can use the PRAAT software to make learners of Chinese as a foreign language realize their tonal errors. The data used was collected from the students at the University of Zimbabwe studying Chinese and this was part of a continuous assessment for the students’ pronunciation of Chinese tones. This method which was used by teachers to assess students’ tones was found to be easy to follow such that students could also utilize it for their own pronunciation practice. We argued that the use of computer-aided assessment makes assessment of students’ tone acquisition lesser arbitrary than when the teacher merely gives comments based on his or her individual perception. This is because this assessment method gives PRAAT acoustic pictures which show the tone structures for each student; hence, both the student and the teacher can visualize the errors. Since PRAAT can provide a platform to compare the student’s pronunciation with that of the native speaker and at the same time can help the teacher to explain why student’s pronunciation is wrong, this paper concludes that PRAAT can be a useful tool in assessing and teaching Chinese tones.

  4. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  5. Two steps forward, one step back: The limits of foreign aid on Malawi's democratic consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Since the era of one-party rule, Malawi's relationship with the donor community has proved erratic and contentious. During the second term of Malawi's current president, Bingu wa Mutharika, this trend has continued apace, with important implications for the consolidation of the country's nascent democracy. Donors providing democracy aid have assisted with the conduct of elections and improved the technical capacity of parliamentarians. However, inconsistency across programme cycles, the conce...

  6. Eastern Africa: mapping the politics of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, G; Lanegran, K

    1991-01-01

    The political constraints slowing the battle against AIDS in Africa are getting AIDS on the public agenda, integrating the international community into the AIDS policy-making agenda and cultural barriers in national AIDS strategies. Policy making in most Africa is bureaucratic rather than democratic, so whether AIDS is a government priority depends largely on perception of AIDS risk by the leaders. In Zambia and Uganda, AIDS is a concern because it affects the ethnic group or family in power, while in Tanzania and Kenya, AIDS is associated with minority or "high risk" groups. The domination of AIDS agenda setting within nations in Africa by international donors and non-governmental organizations is a problem, made more severely severed by sensitivity of Africans who perceive research as a foreign effort to prove that AIDS originated there. Foreign domination is also detrimental because it prevents localities from becoming committed to AIDS interventions. Cultural barriers against effective interventions are similar to those in Western countries: AIDS is seen as a disease of shame affecting immoral people. In addition, the prevalent concept of fatalism defeats the Western insistence on intervention and strategies. Furthermore, women who are largely dependent on men cannot insist on preventive behavior, not do they have organizations in place to protect their rights. Finally, the concepts of behavioralism, and learning new behaviors for person-centered reasons, are foreign to much of Africa.

  7. The Bush/Cheney Energy Strategy: Implications for U.S. Foreign and Military Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klare, Michael T. [Hampshire College, Amherst, MA (United States). Peace and World Security Studies

    2003-07-01

    The 'National Energy Policy' (NEP) released by the Bush Administration on May 17, 2001 was supposedly intended to meet growing U.S. energy requirements in the first two decades of the 21st Century while also diminishing U.S. dependence on imported oil. This was to be accomplished, the White House suggested, by increasing production at existing oil fields in the United States and by commencing drilling on the Artic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska. So great was the furor over drilling on ANWR that most people never bothered to examine the NEP closely. This is unfortunate, as a close reading of the NEP report reveals a very different picture than that suggested by White House pronouncements: far from promoting energy 'independence', the NEP assumes that the United States will become MORE, not less dependent on imported petroleum in the years ahead and therefore calls on the Federal Government to take whatever steps are necessary to promote enhanced U.S. access to foreign oil. In particular, the NEP calls on the U.S. Government to seek additional petroleum from the Persian Gulf area, Russia, the Caspian Sea basin, Mexico, Venezuela, Angola, and Nigeria. As is implied by the report, the United States must acquire more oil from these countries in order to permit increased oil consumption in the United States at a time of declining domestic production. Even leaving aside the question of whether these countries will be able to boost their production sufficiently to satisfy steadily rising demand in the United States, this strategy poses enormous challenges for the United States because most of these areas are highly unstable and house anti-American governments and forces. It is likely, then, that U.S. efforts to acquire more oil from these countries will entail the increased presence of U.S. military forces in the area and periodic U.S. military intervention. Indeed, the requirement for increased military action in support of U.S. foreign

  8. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  9. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  10. Bush doctrine in the Middle East; The US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the George W. Bush presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hoder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused at the most important elements of the US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the administration of George W. Bush (2001 – 2009. The text has two parts. The first part shows three important influences on creation and formulation of the US foreign policy towards the region. At the first place it was an effort to preserve unipolar character of the international system, hegemonic possition of the USA and its dominance in all regions. The second source was specific decision-making process set up by president Bush and the third source of the Bush strategy was a partial transformation of the US longtime policy towards the Middle East. The second part of the article discuss results of the Bush doctrine in the region. The text is focused at five most important consequences of the US foreign policy, which are the fight against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the pursuit of the democratization throughout the region, the Israel-Palestinian conflict, regional “cold war” between Iran and Saudi Arabia and finally the struggle to stabilize the post-conflict Iraq.

  11. 对外医疗援助的新思维%Innovation of Chinese Medical Foreign Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张善纲; 浦金辉; 赵育新; 杨铭; 谢峻

    2013-01-01

    我国对外医疗援助取得了巨大成功.但面对新形势,需要在认识、机制、管理、结构、舆论和预案等方面进一步创新:在认识方面,要充分认识援外医疗具有超越政治的便利,它是国际关系的试金石和外交斗争的角力点.在机制方面,应实现援助的一体化,达到全非洲“一盘棋,共进退”;从提高现有资金的效率、丰富合作形式、收取费用和利用国际资金等方面入手,改善医疗队的造血机能以减轻国家的财政负担;开发非官方机制,拓展合作领域,灵活处理产权,提高对外医疗援助的抗击打能力和战斗力.在管理方面,应从医疗队的派遣、队长的选拔和队员的管理入手,完善和探索切实有效的管理制度.在结构上,或可建立非洲总医院,以实现医疗队的升级与升格.在舆论上,要主动作为,正确应对,掌控国际话语权.同时制定各种规避风险的预案.通过以上方式,提高我国对外医疗援助的实效,实现受援国民众健康与我国战略利益的双赢.%Whereas great successes had achieved of China's medical foreign aid,new problems were encountered recent years.Those should be innovated in the fields of recognitions,mechanisms,managements,structures,public opinions and preparatory programs.In the area of recognitions,the beyond-political convenience of the aid should be fully understood and the touchstone role in international relations and the wrestle point in diplomatic struggles should be recognized completely.In mechanisms,in order to improve the endurance and vitality of medical foreign aid,an integrated situation interpreted as "complete game,closely aligned" should be cultivated.Such ways as utilizing the existing funds efficiently,enriching the forms of cooperation and adopting international funds could be applied as the hematopoietic mechanisms of the medical teams to alleviate the financial burden of the state.At the same time,unofficial mechanisms should

  12. The port of Salonica in Yugoslav foreign policy 1919-1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the importance of the Greek port of Salonica (Thessaloniki for Yugoslav foreign policy-makers during the interwar period. It suggests that, apart from economic interests, namely securing trade facilities in the port and transport facilities offered by the Ghevgheli-Salonica railway connecting the Yugo­slav territory with Salonica, there were security considerations which accounted for Belgrade’s special interest in this matter. These stemmed from two reasons - Serbia’s painful experience from the Great War on which occasion the cutting off of the route for Salonica had had dire consequences for the Serbian Army and the post-war strategic situation whereby Yugoslavia was nearly ringed by hostile and potentially hostile neighbours which was a constant reminder of the immediate past and made both political and military leadership envisage a potential renewed need to retreat to Salonica in a general conflict. The events prior to and during the Second World War seem to have vindicated such preoccupations of Yugoslav policy-makers. All the Great Powers involved in the conflict in the Balkans realised the significance attached to Salonica in Belgrade and tried to utilise it for their own ends. Throughout these turbulent events Prince Paul and his government did not demonstrate an inclination to exploit the situation in order to achieve territorial aggrandisement but rather reacted with restraint being vitally concerned that neither Italy nor Germany took possession of Salonica and thus encircled Yugoslavia completely leaving her at their mercy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177011: History of political ideas and institutions in the Balkans in the 19th and 20th centuries

  13. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    -needed general-to-specific approach which can provide broad confidence intervals within which empirically relevant claims should fall. Based on stringent statistical testing, our results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact of ODA flows on the macroeconomy. For example, we find a positive effect...... to a natural economic null hypothesis. Our study identifies three reasons for econometrically unsatisfactory results in the literature: failure to adequately account for unit roots and breaks; imposing seemingly innocuous but invalid data transformations; and imposing aid endogeneity/exogeneity without testing....

  14. Brazil in Regional and Global Governance: Foreign Policy, Leadership and UNASUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Chin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of Brazil as a source of international governance innovation during the Lula da Silva and early Rousseff presidencies (2003–12. The analysis details some of Brazil’s main contributions to regional and global governance, and how these contributions are rooted in ideational and normative innovation and its imaginative, nonconformist, status quo–altering foreign policy of the period. Although Brazil was not, and is not, a “new actor” per se in global governance, it did take unprecedented and dramatic strides between 2003 and 2012 to redefine the multilateral agenda and reshape institutional arrangements for international cooperation and conflict management in South America. At the global level, Brazil launched new platforms for international cooperation, including with the other BRICS countries of Russia, India, China and South Africa. The regional trends are examined in the case of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR, and the innovations that Brazil spearheaded and supported in international security and health cooperation. However, Brazil’s contributions gain greater salience as part of the broader processes of global change where international power is becoming increasingly diffused and decentralized.

  15. Sustainable development as an organizing principle for US foreign policy: Opportunities and enduring constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    The disintegration of the Soviet Union has dramatically changed the international topography. Bipolar international relations have given way to a multipolar world wherein the United States is the only true superpower as gauged by both economic and military might. The decline of the Soviet Union has removed an important stabilizing force in international politics and a critical organizing principle for American Foreign Policy -- namely, the containment of international communism. The Soviet Union`s dismantlement has created opportunities for both cooperation and conflict. It means that increasingly cooperative relations between Russia and the United States have reduced the threat of nuclear war while intensifying regional political instability among present and former allies and former client states. Without the Soviet threat more resources are available to restore the nation`s transportation, communications, and industrial infrastructure, clean up the environment, and to develop technologies that promise to increase US economic competitiveness while minimizing environmental impacts. Internationally, there should be additional resources to promote international economic growth, to preserve natural environments, and to build democratic institutions in developing nations.

  16. Implementing Global Public Policies : Are the Aid Agencies Walking the Talk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mordasini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Beyond much rhetoric and stated ambition in recent years, the implementation of global public policies has been weak so far. There is a huge gap between the official discourse and the reality. This chapter focuses on the role, commitment and performance of aid agencies as ‘small’ but important suppliers of global public goods. While acknowledging some advances in the right direction (broad international recognition and improved costing of the global risks, consensus on the high vulnerability of the low-income countries and the need to act urgently, and substantial financing commitments the author argues, based on available evidence from evaluations and effectiveness reviews, that only limited progress has been made in the aid delivery model and that the poor have not yet gained much from these undertakings. The chapter makes the case that significant institutional, organisational and operational reforms must take place urgently in aid agencies. The international community, moreover, must address the high fragmentation and proliferation of the aid architecture, in order to set the stage for a credible response to the global challenges facing developing countries.

  17. Institutionalization of Foreign Policy Think Tanks in Italy and in the UK: An Explanatory Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhini Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the phenomenon of foreign policy think tanks in Europe in a comparative perspective and offers a framework of analysis for this topic. Assuming that think tanks were largely imported from the US after World Wars I and II, the article argues that European think tanks have been influenced by the different national political contexts in which they have undergone a process of institutionalization. First, the article hypothesizes that such contexts have contributed to determining different incentives for cooperation between think tanks and national policymakers. Such cooperation is based on the willingness of policymakers to turn to think tanks for expertise, advice or validation of policy decisions. Secondly, different political contexts are expected to influence the strategies of action that think tanks have developed towards policymakers and their audience. In this respect, the article identifies three strategies: the generalist, the advocate and the lobbyist. Empirically, the article is based on a survey of eleven organizations conducted in two countries, Italy and the United Kingdom, in 2013-14. Given that very few data are available on this type of organization, their activities, funding, policy audience and goals are investigated. These indicators are used to investigate the main commonalities and differences between the two cases and to compare them with the hypotheses. The results first show that there is comparatively more funding available for think tanks in the UK system than in the Italian one. Secondly, there is apparently more willingness from policymakers to turn to think tanks for expertise in the former case, considering that the UK think tanks hold a higher number of closed-door events and parliamentary hearings. On the contrary, where policymakers tend, instead, to more scarcely rely on external expertise - as it seems more evident in the Italian case - the core audience of think tanks tends to shift to other

  18. A Review Of The United States Government’s Status Quo North Korean Foreign Policy Approach And Reasons For Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Korea’s "Year of Friendship." Harvard International Review , 2015. 28 Nielsen, Suzanne C. "American Civil-Military Relations The Soldier and the State...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT’S STATUS QUO NORTH KOREAN FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH AND REASONS FOR...Colonel Spencer holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics, Masters of Education, and a Doctorate degree in Business Administration. She

  19. The Link between National Foreign Policy and the Performance of a Country in the European Union: The Polish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaminska

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the link between the adaptation of national executives and diplomats to the EU and the capacity of a state to influence EU foreign policy outcomes. It argues that, in the case of Poland, the politicization of the domestic administrative structures before 2004 constrained the ability of the state to impact on the EU’s external agenda after the enlargement. It also claims that a rapid adaptation to the EU occurred only after the Polish accession to the EU, as the will to influence the EU’s policy towards Eastern Europe was a main driver for changes in the national diplomacy.

  20. The Drafting and Submission of an HIV/AIDS Policy Draft for a Native American Child Welfare Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, Daniel Pete

    An Indian child welfare agency realized the need for an HIV/AIDS policy when a diabetic child possibly exposed to the HIV virus was placed in one of the agency's licensed foster homes. A focus-group interview process was selected for policy development because this method appeared to parallel the Native American cultural approach toward consensus…

  1. National Treatment and American Foreign Policy - The Evolution of National Treatment Approaches in International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherepa, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The National Treatment Clause, Article 1102 of the North American Free Trade Agreement, protects foreign investors from discrimination, including expropriation of their investments. This national treatment approach - equal treatment of foreign investors and local investors by states - was developed to encourage investment in Europe after the Second World War. Over the course of fifty years, the approach has evolved to provide foreign investors with protections over and above those provided to...

  2. 金融危机后东盟对外策略的调整%ASEAN's Foreign Policies Adjusted After the Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖开伦

    2004-01-01

    The eruption of the financial crisis in the Southeast Asia in July, 1997 greatly damaged the ASEAN's politics and economy and weakened its influence on the international stage. Under this circumstance, ASEAN was obliged to adjust its foreign policy. Therefore, we can say that the eruption of the financial crisis influxed new contents into the ASEAN' s foreign policy. This essay mainly formulates this adjustment.

  3. “Missionary zeal of recent converts”: norms and norm entrepreneurs in the foreign policy of the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia 1989-2011

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The following dissertation discusses the role of norms and norm entrepreneurs in the foreign policy-making of the Czech Republic, Poland and Bratislava after the downfall of communism. In at attempt to unpack the mechanics and appliance of “soft power” in foreign policy practice in post-communist Central and Eastern Europe, it identifies conditions and analyzes processes via which norms come to play the role of intermediary variable in the articulation and enactment of national interest. Capi...

  4. Caught in the middle: the contested politics of HIV/AIDS and health policy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on the changing landscape of responses to HIV in Vietnam, this article describes the key players and analyzes the relationships between global players and local interests, including both the omnipresent state and an emerging civil society presence. We discuss the critical importance of timing for policy intervention and the role of health policy in shaping the broader social terrain. The interventions of external actors such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund were instrumental in improving both policies and programs at a critical juncture, when the national responses to the epidemic had been ineffective. At the same time, those global interventions met resistance and led to unintended consequences, both welcome and unwelcome. Furthermore, the looming specter of donor withdrawal and the very gradually emerging national ownership raise many questions about capacity for scale-up and sustainability of the significant achievements to date. Further monitoring and in-depth analysis of the Vietnamese responses to the HIV epidemic in the next few years or so, we contend, have the potential to provide unique insights into the challenges faced by developing countries caught in the complex webs of health politics and policies at both the global and the national levels.

  5. Asylum migration and the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy: evidence from the Greek case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucía Forero Castañeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the recent evolution of asylum migration has affected the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy (EU-CFSP, taking the Greek case during the 2001-2012 period as a starting point. With this in mind, the normative progress of the EU-CFSP facing the reception of asylum seekers in Greece is analyzed, under the scope of what Barry Buzan and Ole Waever would call Securitization Process. Both legal and political frameworks on asylum migration in Greece and in the European Union are approached, in the context of the evolution of the EU-CFSP in three main areas: Neighborhood Policy, Development and Cooperation Policy, and Human Rights Protection. The conclusión points toward the partial influence of asylum migration in the configuration of the UE-CFSP during the studied period.

  6. A Shift in U.S. Foreign Policy under the Nixon Administration and European Political Cooperation: A Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy Hang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With a historical approach, this paper examines the Nixon administration’s policy and stance towards the European Political Cooperation (the EPC. In December 1969, at The Hague Summit the leaders of the European Community expressed their determination for deepening European integration. The final communiqué of The Hague Summit stressed the European Community’s desire to achieve the EPC and to parallel the European Community’s increasing economic strength with a role to play in the world affairs. With this in mind, the paper will examine the impacts that Nixon administration’s attempts to rebalance U.S. foreign relations reflected in the opening to China and the détente with the Soviet Union had on the European political integration. Then, it will be argued that the Nixon administration’s shifting of foreign policy priorities can be seen as one of the driving forces of the EPC. The paper puts forth that a European Community, whose weight was increased first by its economic integration and then by its political cooperation, was seen by the Nixon administration as a challenge to the United States. It is concluded that after a long time of consistently supporting European integration as a means to secure peace and prosperity in Europe, the United States under the Nixon administration had to reconsider its foreign relations and rebalance its focus on the global chessboard. This rebalancing certainly impacted the EPC in particular and the European integration process in general.

  7. Network structures as a model of interaction between state and non-state actors in EU foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinegubov Alexey Leonidovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the role of network structures in EU foreign policy. The role of networks in functioning of EU is analyzed as the model of interaction between state and non-state actors in contemporary world politics. Some studies, including the project of National Intelligence Council of USA, demonstrate that there is a tendency of growing influence of non-state actors. The model of interaction that has developed in EU can be considered as a model of the future. That’s why the type of force used by EU is called “post-modern”. This model is conductive to wide use of “soft power” and some of its variants including “normative” and “network” power. Quasi-federal character of EU’s structure, whiсh is characterized by many intersecting and delegated sovereign functions, is a reason of appearance of the analyzed model. Network practices and network technologies are widely used in the process of developing and realization of EU’s policy on three levels: 1 development and realization of EU’s general policy; 2 the policy of EU’s enlargement and deeper integration of the newcomers into Europe’s life; 3 the neighborhood policy and “Europeanization” of neighboring to EU states that cannot become EU members. The last dimension of EU policy causes a conflict with Russia, which makes this analysis politically relevant.

  8. Monitoring HIV-Related Laws and Policies: Lessons for AIDS and Global Health in Agenda 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mary Ann; Gruskin, Sofia; Buse, Kent; Erkkola, Taavi; Bendaud, Victoria; Alfvén, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    The National Commitments and Policy Instrument (NCPI) has been used to monitor AIDS-related laws and policies for over 10 years. What can be learnt from this process? Analyses draw on NCPI questionnaires, NCPI responses, the UNAIDS Law Database, survey data and responses to a 2014 survey on the NCPI. The NCPI provides the first and only systematic data on country self-reported national HIV laws and policies. High NCPI reporting rates and survey responses suggest the majority of countries consider the process relevant. Combined civil society and government engagement and reporting is integral to the NCPI. NCPI experience demonstrates its importance in describing the political and legal environment for the HIV response, for programmatic reviews and to stimulate dialogue among stakeholders, but there is a need for updating and in some instances to complement results with more objective quantitative data. We identify five areas that need to be updated in the next iteration of the NCPI and argue that the NCPI approach is relevant to participatory monitoring of targets in the health and other goals of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  9. Legitimising Emerging Power Diplomacy: an Analysis of Government and Media Discourses on Brazilian Foreign Policy under Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mesquita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyses whether Brazilian foreign policy under Lula successfully legitimised the country's international identity as a rising power in the eyes of the domestic and international media. Based on a constructivist framework, we have applied French Discourse Analysis to a corpus of 36 official addresses by the President of the Republic and the Minister of Foreign Relations and 137 news articles from four news outlets, two Brazilian and two international, concerning two diplomatic episodes deemed representative of Brazil's quest for greater pre-eminence: the leadership of MINUSTAH (2004 and the Nuclear Deal signed with Iran and Turkey (2010. Results show that official discourse characterises Brazil's identity as a rising power chiefly by South-South diplomacy, while media discourse was more heterogeneous, being the discursive formation of each news outlet determinant in explaining their interpretation of Brazil's international identity.

  10. Policy Rules and Bidding Behaviour in the Ethiopian Foreign Exchange Auction Policy Rules and Bidding Behaviour in the Ethiopian Foreign Exchange Auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Aron

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted a repeated Dutch auction for foreign exchange in May, 1993, for dedicated imports by the private and the state sectors. Various African countries with rudimentary financial systems and thin foreign exchange markets have successfully employed auctions in transition from centralised, controlled systems to decentralised interbank markets. This paper characterises the rules, regime shifts and auction outcomes in Ethiopia. It is emphasised that institutional micro-design and operation of an auction can have important macroeconomic consequences during of an auction can have important macroeconomic consequences during liberalisation. Models for the Central Bank’s supply rules for pre-announced supply of dollars in fortnightly can later weekly auctions, confirm the objective was to stabilise the exchange rate (the marginal auction price in a thin market around depreciating trends. Bidders were able to learn the supply rules, clustering their bids around predicted target rates. Using a method novel in auction empirical literature, bidders’ learning in repeated auctions is examined via the adjustment to equilibrium in error correction equations for the bid spread. Robust models for a similar learning process were found across both frequency regimes; but learning was faster where the exchange rate target was more transparent and uncertainty lower. Thus, a fairly stable depreciation was achieved over four years, despite considerable regime shifts from trade liberalisation, the progressive lifting of auction entry barriers, increased frequency of auctions, fiscal and other seasonality in demand, and temporary price shocks in coffee export earnings. Ethiopia adopted a repeated Dutch auction for foreign exchange in May, 1993, for dedicated imports by the private and the state sectors. Various African countries with rudimentary financial systems and thin foreign exchange markets have successfully employed auctions in transition from

  11. NSA Prof. Ostovar Publishes on Iran's Foreign Policy in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    National Security Affairs (NSA) News NSA Prof. Afshon Ostovar has written an article titled “From Tehran to Mosul: Iran and the Middle East's Great Game” for the November issue of Foreign Affairs.

  12. Reserve Requirementson Foreign Currency Deposits in Sub-Saharan Africa; Main Features and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Arto Kovanen

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the reserve requirement arrangements of sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the differences between reserve requirements on domestic- and foreign-currency deposits. The reserve requirement systems in sub-Saharan Africa are relatively simple and transparent, but in some countries high unremunerated reserve ratios impose a significant implicit tax on the banks. The currency denomination of the foreign-currency reserve deposits raises concern in countries undergoing large macroeco...

  13. Transcalar networks for policy transfer and implementation: the case of global health policies for malaria and HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoasong, Michael Zisuh

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and type of policy transfer promoted by global health partnerships to facilitate access to medication in Cameroon and the associated implementation challenges. Using concepts from policy transfer, multi-level governance and the politics of scale, the paper conceptualizes the social spaces (global-national-local linkages) through which global health policies are negotiated as transcalar networks. The framework is used to analyse policy documents, technical and media reports and journal articles focusing on two global health partnerships (GHPs)-Roll Back Malaria and the Accelerating Access Initiative-in Cameroon. Both GHPs helped to create the national Malaria and HIV/AIDS programmes in Cameroon, respectively. Global policies are negotiated through dialogue processes involving global, national and local partners who constitute the national HIV/AIDS and malaria committees. Successful policy transfer is evident from the consensual nature of decision-making. Analysis of policy implementation reveals that GHPs offer a 'technical fix' based on specific medical intervention programmes with a relatively limited focus on disease prevention. The GHP approach imposes new governance challenges due to policy resistance strategies (strategic interests of international agencies and country-specific challenges). Evidence of this is seen in the existence of several overlapping programmes and initiatives that distort accountability and governance mechanisms defined by the national committees. Finally, the implications of these challenges for achieving access to medication are discussed.

  14. Energy supplying of the Europe and foreign policy; Approvisionnement energetique de l'Europe et politique etrangere commune. Une problematique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1998-03-01

    This paper aims to answer the question on the impact of the energy supply in Europe on the foreign and safety policy. The geo-political principles of the energy, the european petroleum and gaseous supply and the american policy facing the european energy supply are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  15. IMPROVING THE FOREIGN POLICY OF RUSSIA ON THE BASIS OF THE GRAVITY MODELING (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Degtereva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the features of construction of gravity models, the results of the use of which will allow to identify eff ective ways of Russian foreign policy improvements.Purpose of the article: multigravitatsion development model of Russia's foreign trade, which will identify forward the development of export-import relations in the framework of inter-regional trade area of the Russian Federation, including integration associations such as the EU, BRICS, CIS.Methodology: methodological basis of the study make up scientific methods of cognition, namely, methods of theoretical generalization and comparison; method of integrated and structural analysis.Results: During the studied analyzed Russia's foreign trade turnover, the results of which revealed that for the country's economic development is important as a variety of trade fl ows and capital fl ows, which in turn updates the problem of formation and development of the national foreign trade potential, finding the optimal proportion of commodity structure diversification and the introduction of eff ective mechanisms of regulation of export-import operations. The solution of the problem determined the conduct of the study articles Russian contemporary maps of foreign cooperation in the conditions of existing sanctions and embargoes, as well as the identification of targeted country markets for Russia's non-oil exports with a separate allocation problem area that emerged as a result of external challenges of political and economic nature faced by Russia because of the military confl ict in Ukraine. Special attention is paid to the distribution of Russian imports by partner countries.Significance: the example of EU integration associations of the CIS and the BRICS, which make up multiregional commercial space of Russia, multigravitatsionnaya model is constructed in order to assess the impact of Russia's cooperation with the EU member countries, CIS countries and the BRICS, as well as

  16. From “Foreign” Language Education to Plurilingualism: Challenges for Language Education Policy in a Multilingual Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Ostheider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With a 41% increase in foreign residents over the last 10 years, the long-neglected issue of domestic multiculturalism and multilingualism cannot be ignored anymore in Japan. Nevertheless, there is still a deep gap between common images created by mass media and education regarding “internationalization” or “globalization” and the actual condition of Japan as a migrant country. By discussing the sociological background of this gap and its sociolinguistic consequences, this study points out present problems and challenges regarding language education policies in Japan. Approach: Based on data out of field-work, I analyze language attitudes derived from a language education which is mainly restricted to the “National Language” and English and discuss their impact on actual language behavior towards different groups of Non-Japanese people in Japan. Results: The data shows that “communication with foreigners” in Japan is widely associated with the use of English. However, the respondents reported communicating primarily in English only with people from Western countries, while with people from Asian countries-who make up the vast majority of foreign residents in Japan-Japanese is the primarily used language. Besides common images and stereotypes regarding “foreigner” and “foreign language”, different attitudes and experiences concerning communication with these two groups were found as significant factors in this contradiction. Conclusion: I summarize by pointing out the necessity of a more objective education and awareness regarding the multilingual and multicultural situation in Japan. The inclusion of languages of domestic minorities and neighboring countries in education policies is an important step to abolish stereotypes and linguistic discrimination based on one-sided orientation towards the West and myths about Japanese homogeneity. Concerning the Japanese language itself, I discuss its growing importance for

  17. Transition of China's Diplomacy and Foreign Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yizhou Wang

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the transformation of China' s foreign affairs. The transformation is closely associated with and mutually reinforced by the developmental changes that have taken place in China. China's strong economic focus has had a profound effect on its foreign relations and international strategies. With sustained growth over the past three decades (1978-2008), Chino has become an important member of the worm community. In particular, its influence has been growing in the Asia-Pacific area. China's unique developmental model and path are recognized and scrutinized worldwide. The present paper discusses special aspects of foreign aid and also explores the changes in principles of and approaches taken in the application of foreign aid policies. Under dual external and internal pressure, China has to constantly adjust, renew and improve its approach to diplomatic and international relations.

  18. Brazil’s fight against narcotraffic in the border with Colombia. An approach to the restrains of non-traditional threats over foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilse Calderón

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Cold War international scenario, the non-traditional nature of security threats conditions the states’ foreign policies. An example of the above is the policy employed by Brazil regarding the border shared with Colombia regarding the development that narcotraffic has been having since the end of the 20th century. Therefore, this article proposes a brief analysis around the influence exercised by the non-traditional nature of the drug traffic threat over the design of Brazilian foreign policy between 1999 and 2010.

  19. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  20. Attacking or Defending? Jurisdiction of the Court of Justice in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The Union’s external competence is fragmented, as are the powers of the institutional bodies involved in external relations. Despite the Union being depillarised after the Treaty of Lisbon coming into force, the ‘specific rules and procedures’ of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP...... unlimited, but have been substantially curbed as other non-CFSP external relations competences have been developed and acquired. In the third instance, the approach the Court has taken to CFSP in the case law is analysed given the Court’s competence in the limited circumstances that it is permitted...

  1. Peculiarities of foreign policy of Ukraine: European Integration or Accession with Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitical location of Ukraine on the map of Europe gave the country a number of benefits, as well as serious problems with which it is trying to understand and use as their advantage. The country, its government has a hard choice: to define their own place in Europe and the world. In general, European integration or accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, choice of Eurasian movement or the Western European traditions. The way out of the difficult domestic political situation in the country, raise of economy depend on the foreign policy of the country and the choice of integration model for its further development.

  2. The National Strategic Plan of South Africa: what are the prospects of success after the repeated failure of previous AIDS policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Edwin; van Rensburg, H C J; Meulemans, H

    2010-05-01

    Hitherto, the story of HIV/AIDS in South Africa is, to a large extent, one of lost opportunities. Whereas the country has one of the worst epidemics in the world, consecutive national AIDS strategies have been repeatedly marked by failure over almost three decades. Understandably, South Africa's most recent HIV/AIDS policy, the HIV & AIDS and STI Strategic Plan for South Africa, 2007-2011 (NSP), has been greeted with general acclaim. However, what are its real prospects of success against the backdrop of the repeated failures of the past? The first objective of this review is to systematically identify the core reasons for past policy failures. Using a comprehensive analytical framework, this article presents a systematic review of the literature on postapartheid AIDS policy in South Africa. The analysis demonstrates that a complex interplay among the content, context, actors and process of AIDS policy created a gap between policy making and policy implementation, which rendered near-ideal AIDS policies ineffective. Secondly, we evaluate the chances of success of the current NSP by examining both the policy-making phase and the resulting policy document in light of the reasons for past policy failures. Our analysis shows that the NSP contains dynamic and comprehensive policy content, sensitive to the socio-economic and cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS. However, many of the political actors that hampered treatment implementation in the past, and who deepened the gap between government and civil society, are still in office. Monetary and human resource shortages also create a policy context that is infertile for the implementation of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy, as envisaged in the NSP. Finally, these health system restrictions have a clear negative impact on the process of policy implementation. Without the mobilization of people living with HIV/AIDS and their communities, the NSP will be ineffective in bridging the gap between policy intentions and policy

  3. Stigma, sexual risks, and the war on drugs: Examining drug policy and HIV/AIDS inequities among African Americans using the Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Jackson, Trinidad

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between drug policy and HIV vulnerability is well documented. However, little research examines the links between racial/ethnic HIV disparities via the Drug War, sexual risk, and stigma. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model has been developed to address this dearth. This model contends that inequitable policing and sentencing promotes sexual risks, resource deprivation, and ultimately greater HIV risk for African-Americans. The Drug War also socially marginalizes African Americans and compounds stigma for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated persons living with HIV/AIDS. This marginalization has implications for sexual risk-taking, access to health-promoting resources, and continuum of care participation. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model may help illuminate mechanisms that promote increased HIV vulnerability as well as inform structural intervention development and targeting to address racial/ethnic disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Decision aiding in public policy generation and implementation: a multicriteria approach to evaluate territorial resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franca Norese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A decision aid process should be the result of an interaction between analysts, decision makers and stakeholders. Decision aiding is sometimes required when the problem situation is new and a formal decision system does not exist. Its role becomes that of facilitating the Intelligence phase of a decision process. In other situations, a criticism of certain policy making processes and their use of data, which may be available in institutional databases or are required as indicators for the decision process, motivates an intervention oriented towards structure knowledge and improvements of these processes. A preliminary study, which includes modelling and application of multi-criteria methods, can clarify a complex and new situation, propose a consistent approach for the later phases of a decision process or propose a different and more effective use of the data. A case study is proposed here to describe this methodological approach in relation to the disaster resilience of municipalities near the mbrone River, in Tuscany (Italy.

  5. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of th...

  6. THE EFFECT OF USING AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS VERSUS PICTURES ON FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY LEARNING OF INDIVIDUALS WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadat NOORI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of using audio-visual aids and pictures on foreign language vocabulary learning of individuals with mild intellectual disability. Method: To this end, a comparison group quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test and a post-test. The participants were 16 individuals with mild intellectual disability living in a center for mentally disabled individuals in Dezfoul, Iran. They were all male individuals with the age range of 20 to 30. Their mother tongue was Persian, and they did not have any English background. In order to ensure that all participants were within the same IQ level, a standard IQ test, i.e. Colored Progressive Matrices test, was run. Afterwards, the participants were randomly assigned to two experimental groups; one group received the instruction through audio-visual aids, while the other group was taught through pictures. The treatment lasted for four weeks, 20 sessions on aggregate. A total number of 60 English words selected from the English package named 'The Smart Child' were taught. After the treatment, the participants took the posttest in which the researchers randomly selected 40 words from among the 60 target words. Results: The results of Mann-Whitney U-test indicated that using audio-visual aids was more effective than pictures in foreign language vocabulary learning of individuals with mild intellectual disability. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the use of audio-visual aids can be more effective than pictures in foreign language vocabulary learning of individuals with mild intellectual disability.

  7. The Power of Collective Identity Narration: Greenland’s Way to a more Autonomous Foreign Policy (2009-2015)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    and, on the other hand, the notion of a common cultural core formed in the past. The three main elements of this core are the Greenlandic language, hunting traditions, and a particular relationship to nature. While the status of the three elements is often disputed in specific domestic policy debates......This paper demonstrates how different Greenlandic governments have exploited a narrative of a unique Greenlandic identity to shape and strengthen a foreign policy autonomous from Denmark. Central to this narrative is, on the one hand, the widespread anticipation of more independence in the future...... mirror the complexity of the identity narrative, as the cultural core and the anticipated future independence sometimes contrast each other....

  8. Comparison of Chinese and Foreign Urban Public Security Treatment Mechanisms and Analysis of Policy References

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuejun; Zhang Mingyu

    2007-01-01

    From the viewpoint of disaster prevention in the urban areas, this paper analyzes the value of urban public security system, selects typical cases to make a comparison of Chinese and foreign public security treatment mechanisms, and makes systematic summarization of the Chinese and foreign historic experiences. Then, the paper puts forward some designs on structure of the Chinese urban public security system structure. This paper is of the opinion that at present the management of urban public security concerning unexpected incidents should be strengthened. The effective way is to set up the sound urban public security system, urban public security mechanism and related laws and regulations.

  9. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and procedure. 209.325 Section 209.325 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. Moving Towards Inclusive Education Policies and Practices? Basic Education for AIDS Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure

    2007-01-01

    The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of…

  11. Foreign Interests of Person, Community and State in Energy Policy of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М V Glinskaya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Russian foreign interests in energy sphere. This problem is rather urgent because Russia has declared itself as a world leading gas and oil country at the «G8» meeting in 2006. Russia tries to maintain such position and strengthens its security in this sphere.

  12. 78 FR 75563 - Commission Policies and Procedures Under the Communications Act, Foreign Investment in Broadcast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... discretion to permit foreign ownership interests in entities that control the licensees of broadcast radio or... ownership in broadcast licensees to 25 percent. CBI member Adelante Media Group states that imposition of..., Alien Ownership and Control (Oct. 2012) (available at http://transition.fcc.gov/Forms/Form314/314.pdf...

  13. 45 CFR 5.62 - Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....” Executive Order No. 12356 (1982) provides for such classification. When the release of certain records may adversely affect U.S. relations with foreign countries, we usually consult with officials of those countries...) specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive Order to be kept secret in the interest...

  14. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commerce. For example, it requires certification by manufacturers (foreign and domestic), importers and... increases the safety of the consumer and facilitates the free movement of goods between countries. (4) When... shall be developed in the context of the overall responsibilities, authorities, priorities,...

  15. Managing Relative Decline: An Analysis of Foreign Policy Alternatives for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Liberal World Order,” Foreign Affairs 90, no. 3 (May 2011), Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed 10 January 2015). 19. Kennedy, The Rise and...Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed 10 January 2015). 22. Ibid.. 23. Posen, “Pull Back.” 24. Ibid.. 25. Barry R. Posen, “The Case for Restraint” (lecture

  16. From GRID to gridlock: the relationship between scientific biomedical breakthroughs and HIV/AIDS policy in the US Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Platt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From the travel ban on people living with HIV (PLHIV to resistance to needle exchange programmes, there are many examples where policy responses to HIV/AIDS in the United States seem divorced from behavioural, public health and sociological evidence. At its root, however, the unknowns about HIV/AIDS lie at biomedical science, and scientific researchers have made tremendous progress over the past 30 years of the epidemic by using antiretroviral therapy to increase the life expectancy of PLHIV almost to the same level as non-infected individuals; but a relationship between biomedical science discoveries and congressional responses to HIV/AIDS has not been studied. Using quantitative approaches, we directly examine the hypothesis that progress in HIV/AIDS biomedical science discoveries would have a correlative relationship with congressional response to HIV/AIDS from 1981 to 2010. Methods: This study used original data on every bill introduced, hearing held and law passed by the US Congress relating to HIV/AIDS over 30 years (1981–2010. We combined congressional data with the most cited and impactful biomedical research scientific publications over the same time period as a metric of biomedical science breakthroughs. Correlations between congressional policy and biomedical research were then analyzed at the aggregate and individual levels. Results: Biomedical research advancements helped shape both the level and content of bill sponsorship on HIV/AIDS, but they had no effect on other stages of the legislative process. Examination of the content of bills and biomedical research indicated that science helped transform HIV/AIDS bill sponsorship from a niche concern of liberal Democrats to a bipartisan coalition when Republicans became the majority party. The trade-off for that expansion has been an emphasis on the global epidemic to the detriment of domestic policies and programmes. Conclusions: Breakthroughs in biomedical science did

  17. From GRID to gridlock: the relationship between scientific biomedical breakthroughs and HIV/AIDS policy in the US Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Matthew B; Platt, Manu O

    2013-11-27

    From the travel ban on people living with HIV (PLHIV) to resistance to needle exchange programmes, there are many examples where policy responses to HIV/AIDS in the United States seem divorced from behavioural, public health and sociological evidence. At its root, however, the unknowns about HIV/AIDS lie at biomedical science, and scientific researchers have made tremendous progress over the past 30 years of the epidemic by using antiretroviral therapy to increase the life expectancy of PLHIV almost to the same level as non-infected individuals; but a relationship between biomedical science discoveries and congressional responses to HIV/AIDS has not been studied. Using quantitative approaches, we directly examine the hypothesis that progress in HIV/AIDS biomedical science discoveries would have a correlative relationship with congressional response to HIV/AIDS from 1981 to 2010. This study used original data on every bill introduced, hearing held and law passed by the US Congress relating to HIV/AIDS over 30 years (1981-2010). We combined congressional data with the most cited and impactful biomedical research scientific publications over the same time period as a metric of biomedical science breakthroughs. Correlations between congressional policy and biomedical research were then analyzed at the aggregate and individual levels. Biomedical research advancements helped shape both the level and content of bill sponsorship on HIV/AIDS, but they had no effect on other stages of the legislative process. Examination of the content of bills and biomedical research indicated that science helped transform HIV/AIDS bill sponsorship from a niche concern of liberal Democrats to a bipartisan coalition when Republicans became the majority party. The trade-off for that expansion has been an emphasis on the global epidemic to the detriment of domestic policies and programmes. Breakthroughs in biomedical science did associate with the number and types of HIV/AIDS bills introduced

  18. The Impact of the Crisis on Illegal Employment of Foreigners and the Related Policy - Case study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera–Karin BRAZOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a critical perspective of the public policy measures to tackle the illegal employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic taken by the Czech government in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the introductory part of the article, the problem of illegal employment of migrants in the Czech Republic is delimitated and put into a theoretical context. Based on the study of official documents as well as on expert interviews, the analysis of the changes in the public policy dealing with the problem of illegal employment is conducted. While the crisis triggered a more open public debate and brought the problem on the agenda of some core public policy actors and while new measures were taken to address the issue, some of the main underlying problems remain unaddressed. In the final part, a possible future development in the area of illegal employment of migrants is outlined, drawing on the global labor migration trends as well as on the current public policy practice in the Czech Republic.

  19. “Let’s play a game and learn German”A Case Study on Second Foreign Language Learning at the Faculty of Policy Studies of Chuo University

    OpenAIRE

    BIENEK, Tabea

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of language games in foreign language classes. The focus of consideration will be German at Japanese universities. German is widely studied as a second foreign language at universities in Japan. The case study for this article is carried out at the Faculty of Policy Studies (FPS) of Chuo University. The research on which this paper is based includes material from a questionnaire conducted in Japanese at the FPS. In total, 40 questionnaires were filled out by first...

  20. Policy Analysis Implications of a Model to Improve the Delivery of Financial Aid to Disadvantaged Students. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Porter, John D.

    The role of institutional research in policy analysis regarding the operation of a computer model for delivery of financial aid to disadvantaged students is considered. A student financial aid model at Arizona State University is designed to develop a profile of late appliers for aid funds and also those who file inaccurate or incomplete…

  1. Foreign Policy and Defense Attitudes in West Europe: Trends and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Europe." POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 98 (Summer 1983): 179-196. Safran, William. THE FRENCH POLICY. New York: Longman, 1979. 118 Sartori , Giovani ...mechanism by which public opinion is linked to policy is understood within democratic theory to be the political party. Sartori (1976) asserts that what

  2. ANALYSIS OF RUSSIA‟S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE CHINESE DIRECTION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of Russian foreign policy in the Chinese direction at the beginning of the XXI century. Nowadays, rise of the eastern regions deepening of integration into the political and economic space of the Pacific Rim countries and development of internal cooperation, especially with the People's Republic of China (PRC are on current interest for Russia‟s development. Since 2000 to the present time there is development of bilateral relations, cultural and humanitarian contacts and exchanges, more intensive cooperation in education, culture, health, sports, tourism, media, film industry, archives on the basis of the Russian Federation Foreign Policy Concept, the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness, friendship and cooperation between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China and other normative legal documents. It is noted that the parties have expressed their intention to continue increasing comprehensive cooperation and enhancing mutual support in protecting national sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of each other, maintenance of international peace and stability and building a new, more just, sustainable and democratic world order. An important component of the Russian-Chinese strategic cooperation is mutual support in the fundamental interests of both countries concerning with the issues of state sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity. The Russian side confirms strong support for the principled ground of the Chinese government on the Taiwan issues, Tibet and Xinjiang, the Chinese policy in the protection of the national unity and territorial integrity of China. At the same time, the People's Republic reaffirms its support for protecting Russia‟s fundamental interests and promoting regional peace and stability in the Caucasus region and in the CIS. The article shows the view of Chinese scholars, political scientists on the problems of cooperation between China and Russia.

  3. Like Father, Like Son? A Comparison of the Foreign Policies of George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. O'Reilly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aplica aproximaciones cognitivas (por ejemplo, la del liderazgo y poliheurísticas a la toma de decisiones en política exterior para explicar las variaciones en las políticas de George H. W. Bush y George W. Bush. Yuxtaponer estos enfoques relacionados ilustra el cómo y el por qué del proceso  de toma de decisiones de los presidentes estadounidenses, proporcionando un sintético pero más trabajado, análisis en la comprensión de la política exterior, especialmente cuando ésta afecta a las presidencias. La sección inicial del artículo confronta las dos teorías. La siguiente sección examina decisiones importantes a través de estudios de caso (uno por cada administración. La sección final analiza las decisiones dentro del contexto teórico. Mientras que el artículo enfatiza el nivel individual de análisis, factores tanto estructurales como doméstico también serán tenidos en cuenta._______________________ABSTRACT:This article applies cognitive (i.e., leadership and poliheuristic approaches to foreign-policy decision making to explain variances in the policies of George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush. Juxtaposing these related approaches highlights the how and why of presidential decision making, providing a synthetic, though more cogent, understanding of foreign-policy analysis -- especially as it pertains to presidencies. The initial section of the article discusses the two theories. The following section examines important decisions via case studies – one for each administration. The final section analyzes the decisions in the context of the theories. While this article emphasizes the individual level of analysis, structural as well as domestic factors will also be discussed.

  4. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES OF BRITISH ORGANIZATIONS IN AZERBAIJAN AS AN ELEMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM FOREIGN LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Niyazova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the United Kingdom language policy on the territory of Azerbaijan after the Soviet Union collapse, which is a bright example of the world political map redrawing. Taking into account the fact that the language is an important tool of the extending one’s influence over the country, we can say with certainty that the success of the specific state laying a claim to play the leading role in on the global political arena strongly depends on its ability to promote its language abroad, to enhance its status and to create such conditions where in the foreign country its language conquers the status close to the status of the native language. In this regard, the United Kingdom activity can serve as an example of a successful foreign language state policy.The authors analyze the activity of such organizations as the British Council, the BBC and BP on spreading the English language. The aforesaid British organizations are the master plate of the efficient language state policy tools, as long as they not only actively develop the global picture of the world, but also promote the interests of the United Kingdom on the territory of the former Soviet Union.Azerbaijan encourages the United Kingdom intention to spread the English language on its territory and does its best in assisting in the implementation of the proposed initiatives, realizing that the spread of the English language being the language of a global communication in Azerbaijan would contribute to the raising of Azerbaijan status on the world arena.

  5. America’s Credibility at Stake: Arab Perceptions of US Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-19

    drumbeats of anti- Americanism has been steady.”9 Intense anti-US sentiment held by extremist groups was manifested in the attack on the World Trade...occasional television commentator on Islamic, Middle East, and Central Asian events. 9 Fouad Ajami, “The Sentry’s Solitude ,” Foreign Affairs 80, no...likely approved or ordered by the government--at least the less violent ones--expressed the sentiment of Arab peoples throughout the Middle East

  6. Foreign Exchange Risk Premium; Does Fiscal Policy Matter? Evidence From Italian Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Giorgianni

    1997-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional view that foreign exchange risk premiums are small, not volatile, and unrelated to macroeconomic variables. For the Italian lira (1987-94), unconditional risk premiums—constructed using survey data to measure exchange rate expectations—are found to be sizable (relative to the dimension of the forward premium), highly volatile (relative to the variability of the forward bias), and predictable. Estimation of structural models of the risk premium suggests t...

  7. China’s Foreign Policy: What Does It Mean for U.S. Global Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-18

    Shinzo Abe , on October 8, 2006. The trip to the PRC was Prime Minister Abe’s first foreign visit as Prime Minister. In April 2007, PRC Premier Wen...Emma Chanlett-Avery. routinely protested former Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi’s annual visits to the Yasukuni Shrine , where war criminals are...also enshrined. After Koizumi first visited the shrine in 2001, China used the issue to justify its refusal to engage in bilateral summitry, except

  8. One Nation...Indivisible? Ethnic Interest Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    group’s efforts is the decision-maker possessing the power to influence events. Jürgen Habermas described the differences in public and quasi-public...Huntington, "The Erosion of American National Interests," Foreign Affairs, 76, no. 5 (September/October 1997): 40. 4 Jürgen Habermas , "On the...Concept of Public Opinion," in The Habermas Reader, ed. William Outhwaite (Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1996), 37. 26 Chapter 6 Conclusion Will a

  9. A sociedade civil contra a Aids: demandas coletivas e políticas públicas The civil society against aids: collective demands and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Jimenez Pereira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo realiza uma discussão da produção bibliográfica acerca da organização da sociedade civil na luta contra a Aids no Brasil. O objetivo é analisar as diferentes formas de articulação dos atores sociais, segundo a manifestação das necessidades coletivas e a conquista de políticas públicas. Foram recuperadas bibliografias da área da saúde e das ciências sociais, produzidas desde o início da epidemia no país até o momento atual. A análise da produção mostra que a pressão exercida pelos grupos mobilizados, principalmente no período da emergência da epidemia, gerou respostas por parte do poder público que tinham como referência o direito ao acesso e à assistência integral das pessoas que vivem com HIV/Aids. Atualmente, observa-se a heterogeneidade dos grupos da sociedade civil organizada voltados, sobretudo ao aprimoramento das políticas públicas existentes e à consolidação dos espaços conquistados. A importância desse estudo revela-se diante da necessidade de fortalecimento da ação coletiva para que sejam reivindicadas do Estado respostas compatíveis com o enfrentamento das novas demandas levantadas pelo movimento de luta contra a Aids.This article features a discussion about the bibliographical output on the organization of civil society in the campaign against Aids in Brazil. The objective was to analyze the different forms of articulation of the social players in accordance with the manifestation of collective needs and the achievement of public policies. The literature in the area of health and social sciences was reviewed from the outbreak of the Aids epidemic in Brazil through to the present moment. The results show that the pressure applied by mobilized groups at the beginning of the epidemic produced a response of the public authorities for whom the benchmark was right to access and comprehensive care of people infected with HIV/Aids. Currently, there are heterogeneous groups of organized civil

  10. The next 5 years of global HIV/AIDS policy: critical gaps and strategies for effective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Greg

    2008-08-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles Program in Global Health performed a landscape analysis based on interviews conducted between November 2006 and February 2007 with 35 key informants from major international organizations conducting HIV/AIDS work. Institutions represented included multilateral organizations, foundations, and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this analysis is to assist major foundations and other institutions to understand better the international HIV/AIDS policy landscape and to formulate research and development programmes that can make a significant contribution to moving important issues forward in the HIV/AIDS policy arena. Topics identified during the interviews were organized around the four major themes of the Ford Foundation's Global HIV/AIDS Initiative: leadership and leadership development; equity; accountability; and global partnerships. Key informants focused on the need for a visionary response to the HIV pandemic, the need to maintain momentum, ways to improve the scope of leadership development programmes, ideas for improving gender equity and addressing regional disparities and the needs of vulnerable populations, recommendations for strengthening accountability mechanisms among governments, foundations, and civil society and on calling for increased collaboration and partnership among key players in the global HIV/AIDS response.

  11. Monetary Policy and Foreign Exchange Management: Reforming Central Bank Functions in Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Nijathaworn, Bandid; Chaikhor, Suwatchai; Chotika-arpa, Suppakorn; Sakkankosone, Suchart

    2015-01-01

    Myanmar’s macroeconomic policy framework does not adequately support the new functions of the Central Bank of Myanmar. The monetary policy regime is deficient and institutions that complement the working of a market-based economy lacking. This paper identifies 10 priority areas for reform to allow the central bank to effectively perform its emerging new functions in support of economic growth and stability. This is a three-front effort: dismantle nonmarket arrangements, especially in the fina...

  12. Monetary Policy and Foreign Exchange Management: Reforming Central Bank Functions in Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Nijathaworn, Bandid; Chaikhor, Suwatchai; Chotika-arpa, Suppakorn; Sakkankosone, Suchart

    2015-01-01

    Myanmar's macroeconomic policy framework does not adequately support the new functions of the Central Bank of Myanmar. The monetary policy regime is deficient and institutions that complement the working of a market-based economy lacking. This paper identifies 10 priority areas for reform to allow the central bank to effectively perform its emerging new functions in support of economic growth and stability. This is a three-front effort: dismantle nonmarket arrangements, especially in the fina...

  13. Financial policy of prevention and liquidation of consequences of global economic instability: foreign experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushevska Viktoriia V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main measures of the financial policy realised in the countries of the world, in particular, Europe, USA, China and Japan, directed at prevention and liquidation of consequences of crisis phenomena of the world economy. It considers programmes of support of economy and financial sector of different countries adopted during the period of the world financial crisis of 2007 – 2009. It marks out that an important element of successful realisation of anti-crisis measures is a correct co-ordination of the budget and tax policy and money and loan policy. It positively marks out experience of application of active arbitrary stimulating policy under crisis conditions. In view of increase of efficiency of macro-economic management an important task of the future would be improvement of anti-crisis mechanisms with consideration of their influence upon short-term dynamics and long-term growth. The conducted analysis allows making a conclusion that mistakes of the financial policy are one of the main reasons of overheating the world economy, while analysis and use of experience of the leading countries of the world would allow increase of quality of the financial policy, directed at reduction of crisis vulnerability.

  14. EXPORT PROMOTION POLICY, PREREQUISITE OF AN EFFICIENT NATIONAL FOREIGN TRADE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIAN-LIVIU OLARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of international trade is widely recognized not only by the business sector, but also by governments. Governments all over the world have reviewed and streamlined their foreign trade strategies during the last decades. Nearly all countries have adopted special export promotion and development programmes. These programmes have focused on providing more efficient trade support services in areas such as trade information, financing, logistics, customs procedures and communications. Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs have a broad mandate to provide or coordinate trade support services in the above mentioned area.

  15. Beyond the Warsaw Pact: Russian Foreign Policy in East Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    NATO r. ision" (text). Warsaw PAP in English, 2142 GMT, 30 November 1990. (FBIS-ELJ-90-233, 4 December 1990): 27. " Kupa Assesses Economic Prospects for...1992" (text). Budapest Magyar Nenizet in Hungarian, 7 November 1991. Translated by FBIS. (FBIS-EEU-91-219, 13 November 1991): 21. " Kupa Encourages...Economic Ties with Soviets" (text). Budapest MTI in English, 1440 GMT, 19 June 1991. (FBIS-EEU-91-120, 21 June 1991): 14. " Kupa Expects Foreign Deficit to

  16. State Civilisation: The Statist Core of Vladimir Putin’s Civilisational Discourse and Its Implications for Russian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines Vladimir Putin’s civilisational discourse, which arose in earnest with the publication of his presidential campaign articles in 2012. It argues that what makes Putin’s rendering of Russia’s civilisational identity distinctive is its strongly emphasized Statism, understood as a belief in the primacy of the state. This suggests that while his endorsement of a distinct civilisational identity represents an important conceptual turn as regards how national identity is articulated, there are also significant lines of continuity with previous presidential periods, given that state primacy has been at the heart of Putin’s political agenda since the very beginning of his presidential career. This detail also reveals a great deal about the political rationale behind Putin’s commitment to a Russian civilisational identity. It provides the government with a theoretical justification of an illiberal political course. There are important implications for foreign policy-making as well. In relation to the West, there is an attempt to limit its normative reach by depicting liberal values as less than universal. In regional affairs, Russia is attempting to legitimate its involvement in the near abroad on civilisational grounds. The loose definition of ‘co-patriots’ as foreign nationals experiencing some affinity with Russia gives it plenty of leeway in this regard. Lastly, Russia has petitioned for Ukraine’s neutrality based on the argument that the country is straddling a civilisational fault line.

  17. A global public-goods perspective on the environment and poverty reduction. Implications for Dutch foreign policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, M.; Brons, J.; Witmer, M.

    2011-06-15

    Climate change, overexploitation of fish stocks, land erosion and resource scarcities are examples of environmental issues that require globally coordinated solutions. This is in the interest both of developing countries and of the Netherlands. Only in a combined effort will developing countries be able to sustainably exploit their natural resources. Livelihoods may otherwise be at risk of disappearing, and conflicts over water, land or minerals are likely to increase. Internationally coordinated development cooperation that enhances sustainable use of natural resources may significantly contribute to poverty reduction. For the Dutch Government this requires the setting of priorities and collaboration with other countries, international organisations and the business sector. Coherence between development cooperation and other foreign policies would be necessary, for example, those on trade, agriculture and climate.

  18. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research. NBER Working Paper No. 18710

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about…

  19. The concept of «soft power» in the context of strategy of foreign policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Korotkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the basic principles and conceptual approaches to the concept of «power». Modern globalizational processes in the world (political, economic influence the emergence of new concepts of power. The basic theoretical concepts of international relations ­ «hard power» and «soft power» and the possibility of using them in  ukrainian foreign policy are under consideration. The causes of emergence of the «soft power» concept is studied in the article. Among the mentioned causes we examine the end of «Cold War» and formation of multipolar international system. It brings us to the changes of the nature of the power itself and makes the strategy of «soft power» more potential. The attention is drawn to the relevance of the essence of the «soft power» concept and possibility of its usage in  ukrainian foreign policy, in its political scientific discussions. The annexation of the Crimea in 2014 and the military conflict with Russia influenced the future implementation of this concept. The potential of the «soft power» concept in Ukraine is already exhausted. The «Orange Revolution» in 2004 and «Revolution of Dignity» in 2014 are the symbolic events of modern Ukraine and the main tools of the «soft power». These events formed a positive image of Ukraine in Europe. It is necessary to restrict (financially and informationally the usage of this concept and give priority to the «hard power». Concept of «soft power» is only effective in the countries with significant military and economic potential. The events in Ukraine show that in order to ensure its national security for the ‘second­tier’ states the development of its own military force should be on a priority basis.

  20. Woodrow Wilson's hidden stroke of 1919: the impact of patient-physician confidentiality on United States foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard P; Storey, Christopher M; Guthikonda, Bharat; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil; Cooper, John M

    2015-07-01

    World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy. It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson's vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson's visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana. The authors describe Woodrow Wilson's stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy.

  1. From Assistance to Partnership: Morocco and Its Foreign Policy in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    recent decades, Morocco has set up military hospitals and sent food and medical aid on a variety of occasions when Western African coun- tries suffered...from conflicts or natural disasters. The most recent humanitarian initiative was the setting up of a surgical field military hospital by the Moroc...derived from other diverse sources such as tourism and manufacturing. Demographic trends and urbanization have also contributed to growth. Africa’s

  2. United States Foreign Policy RE: The Third World - The Economic Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    India, Peru , Jordan and Liberia are prime examples of this class of Third World nations. The remaining 200 million with whose plight thanks to...should also insist on internal reforms to ensure that: - the people are the recipients of the aid - that private entrepreneurs can produce, sell and...of the high import taxes , subsidies to domestic (U.S.) producers, and unpredictable import quotas 75 caused a ripple effect on the world market system

  3. Myanmar in Contemporary Chinese Foreign Policy – Strengthening Common Ground, Managing Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sutter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This assessment first briefly examines recent features of China’s approach to foreign affairs, and then examines in greater detail features in China’s approach to relations with its neighbours, especially in Southeast Asia. It does so in order to discern prevailing patterns in Chinese foreign relations and to determine in the review of salient recent China–Myanmar developments in the concluding section how China’s approach to Myanmar compares with Chinese relations with other regional countries and more broadly. The assessment shows that the strengths and weaknesses of China’s recent relations with Myanmar are more or less consistent with the strengths and weaknesses of China’s broader approach to Southeast Asia and international affairs more generally. On the one hand, China’s approach to Myanmar, like its approach to most of the states around its periphery, has witnessed significant advances and growing interdependence in the post-Cold War period. On the other hand, mutual suspicions stemming from negative historical experiences and salient differences require attentive management by Chinese officials and appear unlikely to fade soon.

  4. Attractiveness of foreign investments in Albania: a focused analysis of factors, constrains and policy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerta Dragusha (Spahija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. However, the major obstacle factors for FDI inflows seem to remain the same: pervasive corruption, weak law enforcement, poor rule of law, lack of developed infrastructure, lack of a reliable energy supply and insufficiently defined property rights. Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  5. On the Rule of Law in the Context of Russian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lukyanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to analyze the Russian school of law features and history of development over the last century, characterized by the priority of the positivist theory of law over the natural law approach. In particular, the author examines the differences in interpretation of such concepts as ‘rule of law,’ ‘rule by law’ and ‘Law-Bound State’ by Russian and foreign lawyers and concludes that these concepts are mixed and misunderstood. Based on the differences of interpretation, the author concludes that there is a significant difference in mentality not only between Russian and foreign lawyers, but also between lawyers in Russia: law enforcers on the one hand and human rights activists, advocates and some independent scientists on the other and, consequently, there are specific criteria for the specialist selection in competent state bodies. As an example of the differences of interpretation, the author analyzes in detail the decision of the Russian Federation Constitutional Court of March 19, 2014, on the constitutionality of the Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on the admission of the Republic of Crimea into the Russian Federation and the establishment of new subjects within the latter.

  6. THE EVOLUTION OF “THINK TANKS” IN THE U.S. FOREIGN POLICY MAKING (XX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. TELENGA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a role of “think tanks” and transnational corporation in making foreign policy of USA. The author looked through history of research items for better understanding of their phenomena. Besides that, there was a try of analysis of a state administration’s part in work of “think tanks” and their cooperation. "Think tanks" in the current sense of the word appeared in the United States at the beginning of the XX century. "Think tanks" - are organizations that are involved in the protection of public policy in the one-cal areas, as a political strategy, social policy, economics, science and technology, as well as industrial and business policies. This powerful re-generators of ideology, which create a subtle and indirect manner philosophical axiom of consciousness, their broad international figure-of substitutes and complements the work of diplomacy. Ideological products "Moss govyh centers" - applied political expertise, analysis of article, the fundamental theoretical works. The main purpose of these structures - depth study (in the framework of the state order with the corresponding pre-grant representation or on its own initiative those or other relevant issues and make recommendations that can be considered American military and political leaders at the expression- processing practices.

  7. Turning dread into capital: South Africa’s AIDS diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In much of the world, President George W. Bush was not admired for his foreign policy and diplomacy. It is therefore ironic that Bush’s single most uncontested foreign policy triumph was an instance of what has now become known as “health diplomacy”. In 2003 Bush launched the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, a five-year $15 billion initiative to fight HIV/AIDS, mostly in Africa. The president’s pragmatic health diplomacy may well save his foreign policy legacy. This article argues that a middle power such as South Africa should consider a similar instrumental AIDS diplomatic strategy, to rehabilitate its public health as well as foreign policy images. Discussion This article reflects on the emergence and contemporary practice of health diplomacy. In particular, it explores the potential of niche areas within health diplomacy to become constructive focal points of emerging middle powers’ foreign policies. Middle powers often apply niche diplomacy to maximise their foreign policy impact, particularly by pursuing a multilateral agenda. The literature on middle powers indicates that such foreign policy ambitions and concomitant diplomacy mostly act to affirm the global status quo. Instead, this paper argues that there may well be niches within health diplomacy in particular that can be used to actually challenge the existing global order. Emerging middle powers in particular can use niche areas within health diplomacy in a critical theoretical manner, so that foreign policy and diplomacy become a project of emancipation and transformation, rather than an affirmation of the world as it is. Summary The article first describes the emergence and contemporary practice of health diplomacy; this is followed by a discussion of niche diplomacy, in particular as it applies to the foreign policy agendas of emerging middle powers. It then reviews South African foreign policy and diplomacy, before situating these policies within the context of

  8. Turning dread into capital: South Africa's AIDS diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Pieter

    2013-03-05

    In much of the world, President George W. Bush was not admired for his foreign policy and diplomacy. It is therefore ironic that Bush's single most uncontested foreign policy triumph was an instance of what has now become known as "health diplomacy". In 2003 Bush launched the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, a five-year $15 billion initiative to fight HIV/AIDS, mostly in Africa. The president's pragmatic health diplomacy may well save his foreign policy legacy. This article argues that a middle power such as South Africa should consider a similar instrumental AIDS diplomatic strategy, to rehabilitate its public health as well as foreign policy images. This article reflects on the emergence and contemporary practice of health diplomacy. In particular, it explores the potential of niche areas within health diplomacy to become constructive focal points of emerging middle powers' foreign policies. Middle powers often apply niche diplomacy to maximise their foreign policy impact, particularly by pursuing a multilateral agenda. The literature on middle powers indicates that such foreign policy ambitions and concomitant diplomacy mostly act to affirm the global status quo. Instead, this paper argues that there may well be niches within health diplomacy in particular that can be used to actually challenge the existing global order. Emerging middle powers in particular can use niche areas within health diplomacy in a critical theoretical manner, so that foreign policy and diplomacy become a project of emancipation and transformation, rather than an affirmation of the world as it is. The article first describes the emergence and contemporary practice of health diplomacy; this is followed by a discussion of niche diplomacy, in particular as it applies to the foreign policy agendas of emerging middle powers. It then reviews South African foreign policy and diplomacy, before situating these policies within the context of emerging mechanisms of south

  9. Danish Foreign Policy and the Balance between the EU and the US

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    whether a different theoretical approach - namely, discourse analysis will lead to different findings than those of the dominant approaches. The article first presents different ways of explaining why a country chooses the balance that it does between the EU and the US. One particular approach......, poststructuralist discourse analysis, is applied. The balance between the EU and the US in the dominant Danish discourse is analysed. The article then outlines the policy level and attempts to map where Danish policies are conducted with the EU and the US respectively. It is shown that the EU is the most important...

  10. Taking Root in Foreign Soil: Adaptation Processes of Imported Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Terrece F.

    2016-01-01

    The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 ushered in a period of change in higher-education systems across the former Eastern bloc. Reform-minded leaders in the region sought to introduce western models and policies promoted by foreign development aid agendas. Private higher-education institutions emerged. This qualitative multiple case study examines…

  11. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  12. The Europeanisation of foreign policy: An assessment of the EU impact on Portugal’s post-colonial relations in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Raimundo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the growing literature on the Europeanisation of national foreign policies of European Union (EU member states, the case of Portugal has been almost absent. Yet despite its small size and intermediate level of development, Portugal has had relatively extensive international relations rooted in its long and rich national history. This article explores the impact of EU membership on Portuguese foreign policy by focusing attention on relations with Mozambique. Mozambique is one of Portugal’s largest former colonies in Sub-Saharan Africa, a sub-region where the EU has had long-lasting relations. Based on original fieldwork, the findings of this longitudinal assessment point to significant national adaptation, but also highlight Lisbon’s important efforts to project its priorities at the EU level and preserve some freedom of manoeuvre. This study adds to the literature on Portuguese foreign policy and corroborates the usefulness of the Europeanisation concept for exploring the European dynamics that influence national foreign policies. The results may also prove illuminating for other studies on smaller EU member states and Europe-Africa relations.

  13. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huey T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU, and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  14. Debtor States and the World Market: Explaining Mexican and Brazilian Foreign Economic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Dennis John

    The ways in which world market instabilities affect indebted developing countries and explanations of their differential policy responses are the central issues addressed in this paper. The development of Brazil and Mexico is examined as examples of middle-income developing nations whose economies have assumed dependent development. Dependent…

  15. English for University Administrative Work: English Officialization Policy and Foreign Language Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how the English officialization policy of higher education in an EFL context interplays with administrative workers' motivational orientations towards English learning. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of 117 administrative members with undergraduate degrees and qualitative interviews with 9 who answered the…

  16. The Use of Tactical Airlift as a Tool of Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    policy pie and did not get the more visible equipment and supply support we have provided other earthquake victims. On the other hand, when floods...H.W. Wilson Company, 1986); and Jack C. Plano and Roy Olton, The International Relations Dictionary (Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1988), pp. 7-8. 16

  17. U. S. Naval Strategy and Foreign Policy in China, 1945-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-05

    confusion and un- certainty regarding the future direction of America’s China policy preceding the Marshall Mission, Rear Admiral Stuart S. " Sunshine ...admiral, Badger possessed an outstanding former service record and an intense determination to succeed at his new assignment. En- ergetic, eternally

  18. 77 FR 38126 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App Sec. 10(a)(2), the Department of State announces a meeting of the... been determined that this meeting will be closed to the public as the Board will be reviewing...

  19. The promotion of financialization of China's foreign aid with external shocks%外部冲击下中国援外工作的金融化战略推进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨枝煌

    2012-01-01

    在论证我国援外进行金融化运作的必要性和紧迫性的基础上,重点论述我国援外金融化运作的重要途径,提出援外结算人民币化、建立中国对外援助银行等8个具体建议,并建议我国制定明确的援外金融目标。%This article focuses on the important ways of the financialization of China's foreign aid and put forward eight specific recommendations such as renminbisation, establish China's foreign aid banks and recommendations of eight foreign aid to develop clear financial goals.

  20. HIV/AIDS and the construction of Sub-Saharan Africa: heuristic lessons from the social sciences for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Ian E A

    2007-03-01

    There is no doubt that Sub-Saharan African countries face major problems due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic that has ravaged the region. Yet the Eurocentric construction of the region as the source of the virus not only creates negative stereotypes in social science disciplines like geography, but also glosses over the potential of social science disciplines to provide knowledge and influence policy about HIV/AIDS. This oppositional construction of the region has unfortunately contributed to a glossing over of many aspects of Sub-Saharan Africa's people, their environment, culture, history, politics, economics, gender relations, and the region's global status that would provide important input for policy aimed at curbing the devastating spread of HIV in the region. This paper argues that once we recognize that HIV is a global virus with trans-cultural implications, social science disciplines, such as geography, can reveal certain attributes about the region and its HIV/AIDS pandemic that can be used in policy formulation to combat the spread of the virus.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE AID POLICY FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BALDAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Competition Council's activity regarding the state aid field has considered Romania's obligations as a member state, and the fulfillment of some specific tasks by the competition authority acquired after January 1, 2007. In this regard, the Competition Council has encouraged the collaboration between institutions to develop projects of state aid schemes. In 2010 there were six major investment projects approved, four of them being in the photovoltaic sector in which three are in Germany, one is in Spain and the rest concern the mechanical industry in Germany and Italy. Also, there were approved five ad hoc aid measures in favor of individual enterprises, for investments in areas that are on the regional aid maps for the period 2007-2013, and ten aid schemes, of which five related to the outermost regions. In accordance with the guidelines on national regional aids for 2007-2013, the Commission developed a statistical evaluation of the situation of state aid and regional aid ceiling which received a transitional assisted area status under Article 107 paragraph 3 letters (a by the end of 2010. The Commission accepted the changes introduced by the three member states (France, Ireland and Italy in state aid maps for certain regions eligible for regional aid under Article 107 paragraph 3letter (c.

  2. ‘Defensive Liberal Wars’: The Global War on Terror and the Return of Illiberalism in American Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the illiberal practices and discourse of the Global War on Terror (GWoT and demonstrates how the United States of America used the liberal argument as a qualitative metric of its success and failure in the GWoT. I argue that ‘the othering’ of Salafi Jihadists as well the full military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq were both philosophically rooted in the liberal thinking of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, which have traditionally guided US foreign policy. More significantly, these liberal philosophies of history and international relations hold within them the seeds of illiberalism by depicting non-liberal, undemocratic societies/organisations as ‘barbaric’ – and as such prime candidates for intervention and regime change. Predicated upon this logic, the discourse of the GWoT framed Al Qaeda as a key existential threat to not only the United States but also the ‘civilised world’ in general and one which required a ‘liberal defensive war’ in response. It was the successful securitisation of Al Qaeda that essentially enabled the United States to adopt deeply illiberal policies to counter this so-called existential threat by using any means at its disposal.

  3. THE PREDICTABILITY OF POLISH FOREIGN POLICY: THE CASE OF ENERGY COOPERATION WITH RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Emelin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the political, economic and legal imperatives of Poland’s policy in international energy markets. There are two different paradigms of interaction between Poland and Russia in the oil and gas sector. The co-operative model is implemented in the field of oil trade and characterized by long-term and mutually beneficial relations. The confrontational model is implemented in the field of natural gas trade and characterized by the presence of both rational and irrational imperatives in the development and implementation of energy policy. The construction of pragmatic cooperation between Russia and Poland in the field of natural gas trade requires the key problem of pricing to be resolved. 

  4. United States Foreign Policy and the Liberal Awakening in Greece, 1958-1967

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Draenos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the evolution and outcome of the US opening to the Greek Center triggered by the May 1958 parliamentary elections. It focuses on the role which that opening played in the liberal awakening that took shape under the banner of the Center Union (CU party, founded in September 1961. After John F. Kennedy assumed the US presidency (January 1961, New Frontier liberals, including Andreas Papandreou, son of CU leader George Papandreou, pushed more aggressively for this opening, which was validated by the Center Union's rise to power in November 1963, the same month as the Kennedy assassination. During the Johnson Administration, US liberal policies in Greece were tested and found wanting, as Cold War fears trumped the US embrace of reform and change in Greece. The American retreat drove US policies towards bankruptcy, culminating in an uneasy acceptance of the 1967 Greek military dictatorship, wreaking permanent damage on Greek-US relations.

  5. German Foreign and Security Policy: Determinants of German Military Engagement in Africa Since 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Friedensethik und Sicherheitspolitik: Weißbuch 2006 und die EDK-Friedensdenkschrift 2007 in der Diskussion [Peace ethics and security Policy: White...10. 363 Seibel, “Libyen,” 107; Brockmeier, “Germany and the Intervention in Libya,” 72; Christian Hacke , “Deutschland und der Libyen Konflikt...Kriegsbeteiligung und—verweigerung [German participation and nonparticipation in wars],” 117; Hacke , “Deutschland und der Libyen Konflikt [Germany and the Libyan

  6. Growing Interdependence in Europe: Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-19

    descriptive poles within which the U.S. has oscillated. These are internationalism and isolationism . Over the past 45 years, the U.S. has moved...Domestic issues Isolationism Figure 1 A close and objective review of U.S. actions over the Cold War period will indicate that the U.S. has indeed...factors include political initiatives to encourage the spread of democracy, economic policy that reduces protectionism , and military strength that

  7. Targeted Killing as an Element of U.S. Foreign Policy in the War On Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-25

    6 Tony Karon, “Yemen Strike Opens New Chapter in War on Terror,” Time, 5 November 2002. 7 Anthony Dworkin , “The Yemen Strike: The War on...Struggle Over Legitimacy,” Program on Humanitarian Policy and Coflict Research , Occasional Paper Series (Winter 2005): 18. 7 In his address to the...Afghanistan and Sudan, members of the Senate Judiciary Committee asked FBI director Louis Freeh to research the legality of assassinating terrorist

  8. On the Policies and System of Foreign Trade in the Philippines%菲律宾对外经贸政策和制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘效梅

    2004-01-01

    Philippines' economy began to recover and develop in 1990's. Its international ecnomic and trade policies performed by the Philippine government since the late 1980' s contributed to its steady development even after experiencing the attack of Asian financial crisis . This paper aims to introduce the main contents of Philippines' policies and regulations on internatinal trade, the introduction of capital from foreign investment and exchange control. The paper also presents some information about Philippines' participating in international ecnnomic interchange and cooperation. In addition, the paper evaluates the guidelines and the tendency in terms of its international economic and trade policies.

  9. Task shifting of HIV/AIDS case management to Community Health Service Centers in urban China: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuchang; Lv, Fan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Dapeng; Meng, Sining; Ju, Lahong; Jiang, Huihui; Ma, Liping; Sun, Jiangping; Wu, Zunyou

    2015-07-02

    The growing number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China points to an increased need for case management services of HIV/AIDS. This study sought to explore the challenges and enablers in shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) to Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) in urban China. A qualitative method based on the Health Policy Triangle (HPT) framework was employed to gain in-depth insights into four elements of the task shifting strategy. This included a review on published literature and health policy documents, 15 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 30 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with four types of key actors from three cities in China. A total of 78 studies and 17 policy files at the national, municipal and local levels were obtained and reviewed comprehensively. Three semi-structured interview guides were used to explore key actors' views on shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services to CHSCs. It is necessary and feasible for CHSCs to engage in case management services for PLWHA in local communities. The increasing number of PLWHA and shortage of qualified health professionals in CDCs made shifting case management services downwards to CHSCs an urgent agenda. CHSCs' wide distribution, technical capacity, accessibility and current practice enabled them to carry out case management services for PLWHA. However our findings indicated several challenges in this task shifting process. Those challenges included lack of specific policy and stable financial support for CHSCs, inadequate manpower, relatively low capacity for health service delivery, lack of coordination among sectors, PLWHA's fear for discrimination and privacy disclosure in local communities, which may compromise the effectiveness and sustainability of those services. Shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from CDCs to CHSCs is a new approach to cope with the rising number of PLWHA in China, but it should be

  10. Estimating the Effect of Student Aid on College Enrollment: Evidence from a Government Grant Policy Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Sørensen, Torben; Taber, Christopher

    In this paper, we investigate the responsiveness of the demand for college to changes in student aid arising from a Danish reform. We separately identify the effect of aid from that of other observed and unobserved variables such as parental income. We exploit the combination of a kinked aid scheme...... and a reform of the student aid scheme to identify the effect of direct costs on college enrollment. To allow for heterogeneous responses due to borrowing constraints, we use detailed information on parents' assets. We find that enrollment is less responsive than found in other studies and that the presence...

  11. 新世纪以来美国对拉美和加勒比地区援助的变化与特点%Orientations and Characteristics of US’s Foreign Aid towards Latin America and the Caribbean since 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁艳

    2016-01-01

    美国对拉美和加勒比地区的援助历史悠久,其援助策略因不同时期而有所调整。新世纪以来,尤其是“9·11事件”后,美国迅速将对外援助与国家安全战略结合起来,更加重视非传统安全威胁因素。对拉美和加勒比地区的援助也体现出新的变化和特点:对援助对象的选择,更重视靠近美国的墨西哥、中美洲和加勒比地区;其援助领域,更加注重反毒品、反恐怖、保安全等项目。%It has been a long history for the US to provide foreign aid to Latin America and the Caribbean and its aid strategy varied with different periods. Since the new century,especially after the“9·11”inci-dent. The US has combined foreign aid policy with national security strategy,attaching more importance to non-traditional security-threatening factors. And the US’s foreign aid towards Lain America and the Caribbean also demonstrates new orientations and characteristics,which is reflected in the fact that it has paid more attention to adjacent Mexico,Central America and the Caribbean and that it lays great emphasis on such projects as antidrug,counterterrorist and the maintenance of security.

  12. Implementation of the 1958 New York Convention in Several Asian Countries: The Refusal of Foreign Arbitral Awards Enforcement on the Grounds of Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Radjagukguk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The national character of public policy indicates that the decision is up to the court of national country concerned. Therefore, each country can rule whether public policy and its related issues are part of the country’s public policy. Courts around the world have recognized that Article V of the Convention is discretionary. The courts of Civil Law countries appear to be interpreting public policy broadly. This is quite evident from decisions made by courts in Indonesia, The People’s Republic of China, Japan and Korea. The Indonesian Court considered Article V (2 (b of the New York Convention which states that the court may deny the enforcement of an arbital award if enforcement would violate public policy of the place of enforcement. In addition, before the enactment of Law No. 30 of 1999 concerning Arbitration and Alternative Disptue Resolution, the Court referred to Indonesian Supreme Court Regulation No. 1 of 1999, which provides that the enforcement of foreign arbital awards in Indonesia imitatively applies to awards which do not violate public policy order in terms of all underlying principles of the Indonesian legal system and society. In Indonesia, Bakrie Brothers v. Trading Corporation of Pakistan Ltd., was the first case in which the Indonesian court rejected the enforcement of foreign arbital awards for the reason of violating public policy.

  13. When Procedural Legitimacy Equals Nothing: Civil Society and Foreign Trade Policy in Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Rodrigues Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-state actors contribute with inputs to the elaboration of the national interest in trade negotiations, thus enhancing its legitimacy. Nevertheless, does the participation of those actors necessarily equal influence on the part of all segments of civil society on policymaking? To answer the question, I argue that procedural legitimacy should be evaluated not only in relation to the inputs society provides to the State, but should also consider whether officials actually analyse societal contributions in decision-making. I demonstrate the empirical application of the model based upon Brazil's experience in multilateral trade negotiations during the 2000s, using Mexico as a shadow case. I conclude that foreign trade policymaking can only be democratised if, in procedural legitimacy, the State attributes equal weight to contributions from all types of societal actors, including civil society organisations and organised social movements, which tend to have less material resources and power than interest groups such as business associations and labour unions.

  14. Regulatory policy and the location of bio-pharmaceutical foreign direct investment in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Pamina; Macgarvie, Megan

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between cross-country differences in drug price regulation and the location of biopharmaceutical Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Europe. Simple theory predicts that price regulation in one country might affect total investment, but not the location of that investment, if sales are global. Nevertheless, some manufacturers threaten that the introduction of price regulation in a country will motivate them to move their investments to other countries. Are such threats cheap talk, or is there evidence that firms avoid price-controlling countries when making FDI location choices? We use data on 527 investments initiated in 27 European countries between 2002 and 2009 and find that investors are less likely to choose countries with price controls, after controlling for other determinants of investment. We also observe a relative decline in investment in countries that increased the stringency of regulatory regimes during our sample period. The effect is restricted to non-manufacturing investments and is most robust for those related to administrative functions.

  15. The Legacy of Ideology in Soviet Foreign Policy Toward the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    capitalist states. The rise of facism and Nazism (both considered as forms of capitalism by Soviets1 61 ) served to further cause division in the...Congress in 1935, "We must bear in mind that the direct danger of war against the USSR has increased, certain influential circles in Japan have long...situation: Not only Japan , but Germany also has withdrawn from the League of Nations, and the meaning of this policy is patent to all. They did so in order to

  16. A Triumph of Hope over Reason? Aid Accords and Education Policy in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Christopher; Webb, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long history of post-independence aid to education, Kenya's relationships with overseas donors have, until recently, been markedly fractious. Donors' concerns about transparency and corruption, in the context of a political regime which became increasingly authoritarian, led to sharp reductions in aid to Kenyan education during the…

  17. The Revista Médica project: medical journals as instruments of German foreign cultural policy towards Latin America, 1920-1938.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    After the First World War, foreign cultural policy became one of the few fields in which Germany could act with relative freedom from the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. In this context the Hamburg doctors Ludolph Brauer, Bernhard Nocht and Peter Mühlens created the Revista Médica de Hamburgo (as of 1928 Revista Médica Germano-Ibero-Americana), a monthly medical journal in Spanish (and occasionally in Portuguese), to increase German influence especially in Latin American countries. The focus of this article is on the protagonists of this project, the Hamburg doctors, the Foreign Office in Berlin, the German pharmaceutical industry, and the publishing houses involved.

  18. Assessing behavioural intention of small and medium enterprises in implementing an HIV/AIDS policy and programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parsadh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs are likely to feel the impact of an HIV/AIDS epidemic through reduced productivity and an increased percentage of absenteeism; staff turnover; recruitment and training costs; cost of employee benefits; and poor staff morale. One of the interventions is to implement an HIV/AIDS policy and programme, yet a literature search showed that psychological studies of SMEs in implementing an HIV/AIDS policy and programme are limited. The present study utilised the model of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1988, 1991, which is an extension of the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. The intention to implement an HIV/AIDS policy and programme was predicted by the theory of planned behaviour constructs such as attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The theory of planned behaviour was found to have limited use in assessing behavioural intention of SMEs in implementing an HIV/AIDS policy and programme. Opsomming Die uitwerking van die MIV/VIGS pandemie op Klein en Medium Sake-ondernemings sal tot gevolg hê ’n afname in produktiwiteit; ’n toename in personeelafwesigheid, personeelomset, personeelwerwing en –opleidingskoste, personeelvoordele; en swak personeel moraal tot gevolg hê. Een manier om die probleem aan te spreek is om ’n MIV/VIGS beleid en program te implimenteer. Navorsing toon dat psigologiese studies van klein en medium sakeondernemings om ’n HIV/VIGS beleid en program te implimenteer, beperk is. Hierdie navorsing steun op die teorie van planmatige gedrag (Ajzen, 1988; 1991, wat ’n verlenging is van die teorie van beredeneerde optrede (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. Die oogmerk met die implimentering van ’n MIV/VIGS beleid en program is bepaal deur die teorie van planmagtige gedrag soos waargeneem in houding, subjektiewe norme en waargenome gedragskontrole. Die resultate toon dat die teorie van planmagtige gedrag

  19. 中外艾滋病人犯罪管控比较研究%Comparative Study on Chinese and Foreign AIDS Patients' Crimes Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳光辉; 刘力皲

    2016-01-01

    Due to the special nature of the AIDS disease, the current relevant functional departments of local govern⁃ments encounter big difficult when they are controlling AIDS patients' crimes, which results in the increasing crime rate of HIV sufferers, and seriously affecting the public safety and social stability. Therefore, we can learn from the ad⁃vanced experience of foreign countries in terms of management and control of AIDS patients, to improve our manage⁃ment and control system of AIDS patients, so that we can not only fully protect the rights of AIDS patients but also pre⁃vente and reduce the AIDS patients' crime rate maximumly.%由于艾滋病病情的特殊性,社会对艾滋病人的歧视,相关法律制度不完善,监管制度缺失,犯罪后的收押场所缺乏,打击力度不够,使得我国基层政府相关职能部门在管控艾滋病人犯罪时遇到很大困难,导致艾滋病人犯罪不断增多,严重影响公共安全与社会稳定。为此,可以借鉴国外在艾滋病人管控方面的先进经验,在实践中不断完善我国艾滋病人管控体系及社会保障机制,设立专门的羁押场所,加强对基层管控人员的业务培训,做到既充分保障艾滋病人应当享有的权利,又最大限度地预防和减少艾滋病人犯罪行为的发生。

  20. A Hybrid Mechanism of Multilateral Economic Cooperationas a New Form of Foreign Policy of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Gorbunova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze current trends in multilateral international cooperation determined by the global stagnation and the changing role of developing countries that reflects their growing political and economic potential compared to developed countries. China is one of the leading actors in the process of modernization of the multilateral cooperation. The authors examine the scale and potential influence of two China-led multilateral cooperation and development initiatives in Eurasia: the Silk Road Economic Belt and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB. These initiatives imply a new kind of initiator different from the traditional participant in international multilateral initiatives. China’s growing global role has reached a qualitatively new stage related to the fact that the country has moved into first place among world economies and has accumulated significant financial resources, although per capita income remains relatively low. Furthermore, China’s internationalization model has required it to be more actively involved in the global governance system as a responsible super power. The awareness to address important issues of economic growth, sustainable development and the provision of global public goods forces China to go beyond the standard profit-seeking trade and investment models of internationalization.The explication of its enormous economic potential at the regional (African, Asian and Latin American and global levels directly or indirectly contradicts the interests of the leading developed and developing countries concerning foreign markets, mineral resources access and political influence in Eurasia. The authors offer an objective assessment of the potential impact of the Silk Road Economic Belt and AIIB on the associated national economies. The Silk Road Economic Belt is an integral part of the “One Belt and One Road” project and involves the construction of transport and logistics infrastructure from East to

  1. An Analysis of Foreign Diplomatic Aid to the Catholic Clergy during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manuel Moral Roncal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the European crisis of the thirties of the twentieth century, the most significant persecution of the Catholic Church in the history of Spain was generated. With the ultimate goal of saving lives, the Foreign Diplomatic Corps provided many humanitarian services, the most important of those the massive granting of diplomatic and consular asylum to more than 11,000 people, including Catholics and clergy. This article analyzes the genesis and realization of this fact and its consequences, which were supposed to maintain and facilitate a clandestine Catholic cult in the Spain of Popular Front.

  2. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008–2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. Methods The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson’s policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler’s health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon’s multiples streams model of the policymaking process. Results The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK’s international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support

  3. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle L; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-06-06

    Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008-2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson's policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler's health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon's multiples streams model of the policymaking process. The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK's international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support from the Prime Minister and from the

  4. The Changing Nature of Security in Europe: the Triangle between Russia’s New Foreign Policy, the CSDP and NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Veljanovska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s new foreign policy appears to be a potential turning point for the Euro-Atlantic security context. Having come as a surprise to many, some senior Western officials and politicians have talked of a changed European security landscape, and argued that the current situation creates new security realities for the twenty-first century and, at the same time, demands a significant response from NATO. The “triangle” formed by Russia – EU – NATO is a mirror of a number of wider and longer-term problems that have been increasingly visible for some time. Arguably, the most notable is related to the intensifying sense of strategic dissonance between Russia and the West. It is a fact that this relationship – particularly in terms of European security – has been deteriorating for some time. The developments in Ukraine and the ongoing crisis in the region is also a reason for the need of a new strategic framework. Europe is no longer limited to the European Union; this will still require undertaking certain actions closely connected to the security aspect of the relations between EU and Russia, Russia and NATO, and the EU and NATO respectively. Within the present paper we will give a general overview of the current threats to the CSDP of the EU, especially according to the new role of Russia in the Ukraine crisis, and in connection with NATO’s role as a security provider for the Old Continent.

  5. Diversionary Foreign Policy in Authoritarian States: The Use of Multiple Diversionary Strategies by Saddam Hussein during the Gulf War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilic B. Kanat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversionary theory of war has been considered one of the most contested theories that link domestic and external conflicts. Thus far scholarship in this field has focused on one-time single diversionary attacks, which led to the temporary deflection of attention from domestic problems to external ones. This study intends to bring revisions to the assumptions in the center of diversionary theory and demonstrate these through a well-known but underutilized case. This article intends to show that leaders have not one single option but rather a repertoire of different foreign policy actions in their possession to divert the attention of domestic public. In addition to the use of force, leaders can also use the threat to use force and other less violent means to create a rally round the flag effect. Secondly, this study will show that, unlike the presumptions of the previous studies, leaders can use multiple different diversionary strategies within a short period of time if the initial diversionary action does not create intended outcomes and if they are still willing to use externalization to boost his approval rating and divert public attention from present problems. These two contributions to the theory will be demonstrated in the case of Saddam Hussein’s attacks to Kuwait and Israel during the first Gulf War.

  6. Biophysical structure of the Ecuadorian economy, foreign trade, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo, Maria Cristina [Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Pradera E7-174 y Avenida Diego de Almagro, Quito (Ecuador)

    2010-12-15

    At the core of this paper lays the notion that a systematic analysis of material flow accounts enables us to discuss the sustainability of an economic model. Ecuador is going through a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian towards an industrial regime, based on the use of nonrenewable sources of materials and energy. Direct material flow indicators are used in this article to analyze the ecological dimension of the economy of Ecuador during 1970-2007. This approach enables the concept of societal metabolism to become operative. The paper compares societal metabolic profiles showing that per capita use of materials is still at about one-fifth of the average in the high income countries of the world. Physical flows of trade indicate that there is an ecologically unequal exchange. Whereas a positive trade balance is desirable from an economic policy, its counterpart in physical units has been a persistent net outflow of material resources, the extraction of which causes environmental impacts and social conflicts. (author)

  7. Aides stratégiques dans un environnement d'apprentissage en FLE Strategic aids in a learning environment for French as a Foreign Language - FFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Foucher

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Aider à apprendre, pour peu que l'on choisisse de se situer dans un paradigme d'apprentissage, et, qui plus est, dans une perspective constructiviste, devrait, selon nous, impliquer de prendre en compte les savoirs et les savoir-faire de l'apprenant, ses habitudes et ses manières d'apprendre tout en proposant des interventions didactiques portant, non pas tant sur les savoirs à acquérir, mais sur le processus même de l'apprentissage. Ce sont, en tout cas, ces orientations que nous retenons pour la médiatisation de notre environnement multimédia pour la compréhension orale du FLE en direction d'adultes, en proposant des interventions didactiques, que nous appelons "aides stratégiques", car elles veulent induire de nouvelles stratégies d'apprentissage.Dans cet article, nous tenterons de montrer la cohérence entre nos choix didactiques, fondés sur une vision dynamique de l'apprentissage qui met l'accent sur le processus d'apprentissage, l'individualisation et l'autonomisation de l'apprenant, et les réalisations concrètes auxquelles nous avons abouti en nous appuyant sur des phases de travail médiatisées de notre environnement.Helping to learn, if we place ourselves in a paradigm for teaching and learning within a constructivist perspective, should imply taking into account the learner's knowledge and skills, encouraging the learner to construct his own understanding through real-world experience and helping him promote learning strategies under the teacher's guidance. These are the orientations that we have adopted so as to devise our multimedia learning environment for oral comprehension of FFL with adult learners, by providing didactic interventions which we call "strategic aids" since they aim to induce new learning strategies.In the present paper, we will attempt to show how consistent our didactic choices are, based on a dynamic vision of language learning which focuses on the learning process, individualisation and learner

  8. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.

  9. Mobility Partnerships and Security Subcomplexes in the Mediterranean: The Strategic Role of Migration and the EU’s Foreign and Security Policies towards the MENA region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    issues, the article analyses the MPs by looking at the strategic significance of migration in the context of EU’s foreign and security policy cooperation with the five Arab Mediterranean states. The MPs are seen as an important element in the EU’s overall migration strategy, but have been met......The present article discusses the negotiating and implementing of Mobility Partnership (MP) agreements between the European Union (EU) and Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia. Taking its starting point in the conceptual notions of subregional security complexes and non-traditional security...... with reluctance by the Arab partner states. The article concludes that so far only to a limited degree have the MPs developed into well-functioning tools for managing the migration policies of the EU and its partners states, and that they seem mainly to play a role as instruments for the EU’s foreign and security...

  10. Principles of human rights protection in foreign and home legal policy of the Russian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anokhin Yu.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The principles of state protection of human rights are stated to be important. The principles of human rights policy being a system are conditional on main state goals and objectives, that is ensuring legal safety and unhindered development of an individual and society. This system is argued to be two-component and to include the principles of government mechanism’s construction and activity and general human rights principles. The principles which are not fixed in the legislation are also of great importance. The legislative fixing of principles of civil servants’ activity concerning the human rights is positively estimated by the authors, notably the priority of rights and freedoms of man and citizen; professionalism and competence of civil servants; availability of information on civil service; cooperation with public associations and citizens; security of civil servants against illegal intrusion into their activity. The facts of departure from impartial justice and disrespectful attitude of law enforcement officers to citizens are stated to be wide-spread. The authors prove the necessity to intensify the control of public authorities’ and officials’ activity, to create conditions of its full transparency for the public. The principles of state protection of human rights are ruling principles of public authority’s organization and activity, stating its essence, social function and orientation on setting high level of legal security of man and citizen, fixed in the international agreements and national legislation. It is proposed to reconsider the principles of Russia’s functioning in the sphere of protecting the rights of citizens and proprietors residing abroad.

  11. The Effect of Policy Changes of State Scholarship Programs on Enrollment and Financial Aid Awards to Students Attending Two-Year Technical Colleges in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Tonya F.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a policy evaluation of the HOPE Grant Program in the state of Georgia. It examines if the HOPE Grant policy change related to the shifts in enrollment and financial aid awards at two-year technical colleges in Georgia. It particularly focuses on the FY2011 policy change where the GPA was raised from a 2.0 to a 3.0 as a…

  12. 略论撒切尔夫人的外交策略%A Brief Discussion about Margaret Thatcher's foreign policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙科斌

    2012-01-01

    Thatcher government in power for 11 years (1979 -1990), is an important period of British post -war history. After World War II British national decline is more pronounced, which is irreparable. However, as histori- cal conditions show the continuity of foreign policy and a considerable degree of freshness, is a major feature of the Thatcher government. On the diplomatic front, the Thatcher to take a pragmatic, tough, flexible foreign policy. The maximum benefit for the British to revive Britain's great power status is her foreign policy objectives. This also high- lights the fourth Thatcher govemment's foreign policy in several key aspects of the United States, Soviet Union, Eu- rope and the colonies.%撒切尔政府执政的11年(1979—1990),是英国战后历史的一个重要时期。二战后英国国力衰落更加明显,这是无法挽回的。然而,在那样的历史条件下表现出的外交策略的连贯性和相当程度的新鲜感,则是撒切尔政府的一大特色。在外交方面,撒切尔采取务实、强硬、灵活的外交政策。为英国谋取最大利益,重振英国的大国地位是她的外交宗旨。这也突出地体现在撒切尔政府在对美、对苏、对欧和对殖民地的几个主要方面的外交策略上。

  13. “天定命运论”与美国扩张主义外交%"Manifest Destiny" and Expansionist Foreign Policy of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳阳

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the "manifest destiny" and the expansionist foreign policy of the United States are introduced."Manifest destiny" has been profoundly affected the foreign policy of the United States.Today's "American exceptionalism" is exactly the same with the "manifest destiny" in nature,it "like a bond,the highest foreign policy makers,opinion leaders and the general public are linked with that",and it became the guise of U.S.hegemony and power politics.%介绍了美国"天定命运论"的产生及其扩张主义外交,认为"天定命运论"一直深深地影响着美国的外交政策。当今的"美国例外论"在性质上与"天定命运论"如出一辙,它"像一根共同的纽带,将最高对外决策者、舆论引导者及广大民众联系起来",成为美国推行霸权主义和强权政治的幌子。

  14. Vneshnjaja politika Pol'shi i Kaliningradskaja oblast' v 1989—2012 godah [The foreign policy of Poland and the Kaliningrad region in 1989—2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chełminiak Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy after 1989. The analysis focuses on the political and regional determinants, which had the greatest impact on the Poland-Kaliningrad region relations. The methodology used in the article is not unusual for political science and is based on analysing original (documents and secondary (scholarly publications, press articles sources. The authors also use the system and decision analysis methods. The analysis covers the period after 1989, when the geopolitical changes brought about by the collapse of the Yalta-Potsdam order resulted in Poland redefine the priorities of its foreign policy. One of the most important challenges for the Polish diplomacy after 1989 was the development of economic and political relations with the Russian Federation. Cross-border cooperation between Poland and the Kaliningrad Region is conducted, inter alia, through euroregional structures functioning in the border areas. The analysis of this issue is vital for further cooperation in the Polish-Russian borderland, especially after the conclusion of the local border traffic agreement in 2012. The authors come to a conclusion that the implementation of the local border traffic agreement can improve cross-border relations but it will not significantly change the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy.

  15. 外资新政下调整我国利用外资策略%The Tactics Adjustment of Utilizing Foreign Investment under the New Foreign Investment Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金萍; 马力

    2011-01-01

    Ever-since the reform and opening-up, China has made great achievements, but there are many deficiencies. Under the background of the new foreign investment policy, we should adjust the tactics of utilizing foreign investment, which is speeding the upgrad%自从改革开放以来,我国在利用外资方面取得了巨大成就,但也存在很多不足。在我国推出了外资新政的背景下,应及时调整利用外资策略,即利用外资加快产业结构升级,引导外资向中西部转移,进一步提升外资利用水平。

  16. An assessment of government policy response to HIV/AIDS in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ireneous Soyiri is a Ghanaian and had his university education and training in ... He works in the University of Ghana, School of Public Health and is currently a ... Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ..... draw a budget line for such activities.

  17. Aids and the Military: Policy Seminars June 5-6, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    and behavior. tum to poge 8 HIVAIDS Prevention in Africa Lessons and Legacies HAPA from the GRANTS PROGRAM HAPA Grants Program The IIAPA Grants Program...I HIVAIDS In Miltary Population* Whose ConcerIn Is It? An opportunity for positive change: Although HIV/AIDS is Chair: Norman Milh’r a severe problem

  18. Heterosexually Acquired HIV Infection in a Chinese Population in Malaysia-HIV/AIDS control policy recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京

    2001-01-01

    @@ Introduction HIV infection and AIDS has emerged as a major public health problem all over the world. In the1980s,the infection was first found to be transmitted through homosexual activity and blood product transfusion. Now it is spreading among heterosexuals and injection drug users, and can be transmitted from mothers to infants.

  19. Silencing women's sexuality: Global AIDS policies and the case of the female condom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.J.T.P.; Driel, F.T.M. van; Jansen, W.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequ

  20. United States aid policy and induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Eran; Avila, Patrick; Miller, Grant

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether the Mexico City Policy, a United States government policy that prohibits funding to nongovernmental organizations performing or promoting abortion, was associated with the induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa. Women in 20 African countries who had induced abortions between 1994 and 2008 were identified in Demographic and Health Surveys. A country's exposure to the Mexico City Policy was considered high (or low) if its per capita assistance from the United States for family planning and reproductive health was above (or below) the median among study countries before the policy's reinstatement in 2001. Using logistic regression and a difference-in-difference design, the authors estimated the differential change in the odds of having an induced abortion among women in high exposure countries relative to low exposure countries when the policy was reinstated. The study included 261,116 women aged 15 to 44 years. A comparison of 1994-2000 with 2001-2008 revealed an adjusted odds ratio for induced abortion of 2.55 for high-exposure countries versus low-exposure countries under the policy (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.76-3.71). There was a relative decline in the use of modern contraceptives in the high-exposure countries over the same time period. The induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa rose in high-exposure countries relative to low-exposure countries when the Mexico City Policy was reintroduced. Reduced financial support for family planning may have led women to substitute abortion for contraception. Regardless of one's views about abortion, the findings may have important implications for public policies governing abortion.