WorldWideScience

Sample records for forces future requirements

  1. Strategic forces: Future requirements and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  2. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart;

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  3. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  4. Air Force Power Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-24

    2 Outline • Our Recent Heritage – MEA • Our Plan – HiPAC • HiPAC Technologies • Summary Powering the United States Air Force NASA AI R FO RC E NA VY...Aircraft i l i Munitions / UAV i i / Micro-Mini Platforms i i i l HiPAC Technical Program Areas • High Temperature Power System Components • High

  5. Future requirements for advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances and future trends in aerospace materials technology are reviewed with reference to metal alloys, high-temperature composites and adhesives, tungsten fiber-reinforced superalloys, hybrid materials, ceramics, new ablative materials, such as carbon-carbon composite and silica tiles used in the Shuttle Orbiter. The technologies of powder metallurgy coupled with hot isostatic pressing, near net forging, complex large shape casting, chopped fiber molding, superplastic forming, and computer-aided design and manufacture are emphasized.

  6. Future requirements for advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances and future trends in aerospace materials technology are reviewed with reference to metal alloys, high-temperature composites and adhesives, tungsten fiber-reinforced superalloys, hybrid materials, ceramics, new ablative materials, such as carbon-carbon composite and silica tiles used in the Shuttle Orbiter. The technologies of powder metallurgy coupled with hot isostatic pressing, near net forging, complex large shape casting, chopped fiber molding, superplastic forming, and computer-aided design and manufacture are emphasized.

  7. Telecommuters: the work force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancer, D A; Moe, J K

    1995-01-01

    Telecommuters are the work force of the future. The dawning of the information age, with its explosion of telecommunication technology, presents new opportunities for healthcare agencies to extend their borders far beyond traditional physical boundaries. The virtual workplace can become a reality and position healthcare agencies to be geographically dispersed throughout their community. The authors describe a pioneering effort to use telecommunications to retain a valuable employee and create a healthcare agency's first virtual workplace. Strategies for success in telecommuting also are provided from both the telecommuter's and the manager's viewpoints.

  8. Shaping Air Mobility Forces for Future Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    a professor in the Department of Aeronautical Science at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach Campus. In this position, he teaches ... virtually any item of combat or support 10 equipment required by Army BCTs or air combat units. Large military trans- ports also can utilize Tier 2...is an understanding that official air mobility force struc- ture bogies reflect budgetary realities as much as or more than they do mili- tary

  9. Key requirements for future control room functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This internal report provides the key requirements for the future control centres. R8.1 represents the starting point of WP8 activities and wants to achieve a double objective. On the one hand it collects general requirements on future control centres emerging from the general trends in power...... system operation as well as experiences and results from other European projects. On the other hand, it analyses what requirements for future control rooms arise from the ELECTRA proposed control solutions. Hence, different points of view are taken into account. The ELECTRA Use Cases (UCs...... requirements for the future control centres discussed within this report. The analysis of what happened before the European system disturbance occurred on 4th November 2006 and of the existing trends by vendors helped T8.1 in the definition of the requirements for the future control centres. Volunteer...

  10. ATLAS Future Framework Requirements Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Future Frameworks Requirements Group was constituted in Summer 2013 to consider and summarise the framework requirements from trigger and offline for configuring, scheduling and monitoring the data processing software needed by the ATLAS experiment. The principal motivation for such a re-examination arises from the current and anticipated evolution of CPUs, where multiple cores, hyper-threading and wide vector registers require a shift to a concurrent programming model. Such a model requires extensive changes in the current Gaudi/Athena frameworks and offers the opportunity to consider how HLT and offline processing can be better accommodated within the ATLAS framework. This note contains the report of the Future Frameworks Requirements Group.

  11. Global mega forces: Implications for the future of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Kubik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of leading global mega forces and their importance to the future of natural resource decisionmaking, policy development, and operation. Global mega forces are defined as a combination of major trends, preferences, and probabilities that come together to produce the potential for future high-impact outcomes. These...

  12. The labor force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, J L

    1987-07-01

    In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.

  13. Flexible Forces: US Ground Forces in Future War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-20

    simply design and create a force we believe to be appropriate. We start not from tabula rasa , but from an established organization whose equipment...increasing pressures of non-national economic interdependency seem to have eroded the role of the traditional nation-state in security affairs. Some...efforts of other countries who resist the roles they have been assigned.” Ibid, pg.44. 13 announced enemy whose capabilities and intentions can drive

  14. Future requirements for fossil power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spliethoff H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fast increasing installation of technologies to convert renewable energy into power influences the operation of conventional power plants. New requirements on the technology, on the operation and on the economic have to be considered for already running and future power plants. Currently, first experiences with such a production and market situation are available. Technologies are discussed to store power and to reduce CO2 emissions. New compensation models are necessary to enable economic operation of fossil power plants in base load. This article gives a short review about available technologies and future challenges.

  15. Data Services Required for Future Magnetospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherron, R. L.

    2006-05-01

    Magnetospheric research today has gone far beyond the search for new phenomena in the data from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Typical studies today are either case histories of several events using data from many instruments in many locations or statistical studies of very long records. Most existing data services are not designed to support such studies. Individual and group data bases, mission data archives, data centers, and future virtual observatories will all be sources of data for future research. To facilitate this research these data sources must satisfy a number of requirements. These include: the data must be publicly accessible via the internet; the data must exist in well organized file systems; the data must have accompanying metadata; the data should exist or be delivered in processed form; the delivered data should be in an easily used format; it should not be necessary to repeatedly fill forms to obtain long data sets; there should be no arbitrary limits on the amount of data provided in a single request. In addition to data there exist certain forms of data processing that are better done in specialized facilities. Some examples of this include: generation of survey plot; coordinate transformation; calculation of spacecraft orbits; propagation of solar wind data; projection of images; evaluation of complex models. In this paper we will discuss the justification for these and other requirements in facilitating research through a distributed Great Observatory.

  16. Reconstructing Volcanic Forcing of Climate: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, M.; Timmreck, C.; Sigl, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative forcing resulting from major volcanic eruptions has been a dominant driver of climate variability during Earth's history. Including volcanic forcing in climate model simulations is therefore essential to recreate past climate variability, and provides the opportunity to test the ability of models to respond accurately to external forcing. Ice cores provide estimates of the volcanic sulfate loadings from past eruptions, from which radiative forcing can be reconstructed, with associated uncertainties. Using prior reconstructions, climate models have reproduced the gross features of global mean temperature variability reconstructed from climate proxies, although some significant differences between model results and reconstructions remain. There is much less confidence in the accuracy of the dynamical responses to volcanic forcing produced by climate models, and thus the regional aspects of post-volcanic climate anomalies are much more uncertain—a result which mirrors uncertainties in the dynamical responses to future climate change. Improvements in model's response to volcanic forcing may be possible through improving the accuracy of the forcing data. Recent advances on multiple fronts have motivated the development of a next-generation volcanic forcing timeseries for use in climate models, based on (1) improved dating and precision of ice core records, (2) better understanding of the atmospheric transport and microphysical evolution of volcanic aerosol, including its size distribution, and (3) improved representations of the spatiotemporal structure of volcanic radiative forcing. A new volcanic forcing data set, covering the past 2500 years, will be introduced and compared with prior reconstructions. Preliminary results of climate model simulations using the new forcing will also be shown, and current and future applications of the forcing set discussed.

  17. The Future of Additive Manufacturing in Air Force Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-22

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE FUTURE OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING IN AIR FORCE ACQUISITION by Benjamin D. Forest, Lt Col, USAF...those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government, the Department of Defense, or Air University. In...accordance with Air Force Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. 3 Biography Lieutenant Colonel

  18. America’s Air Force: A Call to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    office. However, I know the issues will last beyond my tenure and are therefore woven into the key themes and vectors contained in this document...importance of airpower now and well into the future, this paper details our core missions and how—through the skill, commitment, dedication, and...dangerous future were gathering. Then, like now , some things were crystal clear. Among them, that force will remain an essential component of

  19. Joint Force Interdependence for a Fiscally Constrained Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Army 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Richard Meinhart ...Joint Force Interdependence For A Fiscally Constrained Future by Colonel Daniel P. Ray United States Army ...United States Army War College Class of 2013 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited

  20. Air Force Strategic Planning: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    most influential documents came from far- sighted visionaries operating outside of formal channels, official documents proved critical in a different...corporate view of the future. It was not based on individuals.”102 Indeed, Ryan believed that Global Engagement was “fundamentally sound ” and “a good...ultimately released in 2000.113 As a process, the crafting of America’s Air Force Vision 2020 generally receives lower marks than Fogleman’s Global

  1. Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20 th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential

  2. Potential contributions of noncontact atomic force microscopy for the future Casimir force measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, W J

    2010-01-01

    Surface electric noise, i.e., the non-uniform distribution of charges and potentials on a surface, poses a great experimental challenge in modern precision force measurements. Such a challenge is encountered in a number of different experimental circumstances. The scientists employing atomic force microscopy (AFM) have long focused their efforts to understand the surface-related noise issues via variants of AFM techniques, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy or electric force microscopy. Recently, the physicists investigating quantum vacuum fluctuation phenomena between two closely-spaced objects have also begun to collect experimental evidence indicating a presence of surface effects neglected in their previous analyses. It now appears that the two seemingly disparate science communities are encountering effects rooted in the same surface phenomena. In this report, we suggest specific experimental tasks to be performed in the near future that are crucial not only for fostering needed collaborations between...

  3. Visual soil evaluation - future research requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Ball, Bruce; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    A review of Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) techniques (Emmet-Booth et al., 2016) highlighted their established utility for soil quality assessment, though some limitations were identified; (1) The examination of aggregate size, visible intra-porosity and shape forms a key assessment criterion in almost all methods, thus limiting evaluation to structural form. The addition of criteria that holistically examine structure may be desirable. For example, structural stability can be indicated using dispersion tests or examining soil surface crusting, while the assessment of soil colour may indirectly indicate soil organic matter content, a contributor to stability. Organic matter assessment may also indicate structural resilience, along with rooting, earthworm numbers or shrinkage cracking. (2) Soil texture may influence results or impeded method deployment. Modification of procedures to account for extreme texture variation is desirable. For example, evidence of compaction in sandy or single grain soils greatly differs to that in clayey soils. Some procedures incorporate separate classification systems or adjust deployment based on texture. (3) Research into impacts of soil moisture content on VSE evaluation criteria is required. Criteria such as rupture resistance and shape may be affected by moisture content. It is generally recommended that methods are deployed on moist soils and quantification of influences of moisture variation on results is necessary. (4) Robust sampling strategies for method deployment are required. Dealing with spatial variation differs between methods, but where methods can be deployed over large areas, clear instruction on sampling is required. Additionally, as emphasis has been placed on the agricultural production of soil, so the ability of VSE for exploring structural quality in terms of carbon storage, water purification and biodiversity support also requires research. References Emmet-Booth, J.P., Forristal. P.D., Fenton, O., Ball, B

  4. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  5. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this study. The numerical model, previously calibrated on an olive orchard located in Sicily (Italy with a satisfactory reproduction of historical olive yield data, has been forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic weather generator and a downscaling procedure of an ensemble of climate model outputs. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of some General Circulation Models adopted in the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessment report (4AR for future scenarios. The outcomes state that climatic forcings driving potential evapotranspiration compensate for each other, resulting in a slight increase of this water demand flux; moreover, the increase of CO2 concentration leads to a potential assimilation increase and, consequently, to an overall productivity increase in spite of the growth of water stress due to the rainfall reduction.

  6. Evolution of Requirements and Assumptions for Future Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Sargusingh, Miriam; Perry, Jay

    2017-01-01

    NASA programs are maturing technologies, systems, and architectures to enabling future exploration missions. To increase fidelity as technologies mature, developers must make assumptions that represent the requirements of a future program. Multiple efforts have begun to define these requirements, including team internal assumptions, planning system integration for early demonstrations, and discussions between international partners planning future collaborations. For many detailed life support system requirements, existing NASA documents set limits of acceptable values, but a future vehicle may be constrained in other ways, and select a limited range of conditions. Other requirements are effectively set by interfaces or operations, and may be different for the same technology depending on whether the hard-ware is a demonstration system on the International Space Station, or a critical component of a future vehicle. This paper highlights key assumptions representing potential life support requirements and explanations of the driving scenarios, constraints, or other issues that drive them.

  7. Predicting and Supplying Human Resource Requirements for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Larry J.

    After asserting that public institutions should not provide training for nonexistent jobs, this paper reviews problems associated with the accurate prediction of future manpower needs. The paper reviews the processes currently used to project labor force needs and notes the difficulty of accurately forecasting labor market "surprises,"…

  8. Precipitation Extremes: Considerations for Anthropogenically-forced Future Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, K.; Young, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Third National Climate Assessment states that "increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events are projected for all U.S. regions". While that general statement was made with high confidence, the practical implications for decision-makers are much less clear. In particular, engineering design needs quantitative estimates of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) values for the future in order to optimize runoff control structures for future climate conditions. This can be realized by simply analyzing the precipitation data from global climate model simulations of the future. However, confidence in the resulting values suffers from the known issues with GCM simulation of precipitation. In addition, skepticism about the accuracy of climate models negatively affects potential adoption of revised values in the engineering design community. We contend that scientists need a multi-pronged approach to develop PMP/IDF values that can be defended, explained, and promoted in order to maximize societal benefits and avoid catastrophic events. This talk will discuss considerations that could/should form the basis for design values. While global-warming induced increases in atmospheric water vapor content are nearly certain and form the foundation for expected increases in extreme precipitation, they most likely will be modulated by changes in global atmospheric dynamics and the consequent effects on local weather system climatology. This can be seen currently in the unexplained regional variations in recent trends in extreme precipitation frequency and intensity. We need to be able to understand recent trends, when greenhouse gas forcing of the climate systems has been rapidly increasing, in order to produce confident projections of future extreme precipitation.

  9. Radiative Forcing in the ACCMIP Historical and Future Climate Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew Todd; Lamarque, J.-F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M.; Jiao, C.; Chin, M.; Young, P. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Rotstayn, L.; Mahowald, N.; hide

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model IntercomparisonProject (ACCMIP) was to characterize the short-lived drivers of preindustrial to 2100climate change in the current generation of climate models. Here we evaluate historicaland 5 future radiative forcing in the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of whichalso participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5).The models generally reproduce present-day climatological total aerosol opticaldepth (AOD) relatively well. components to this total, however, and most appear to underestimate AOD over East10 Asia. The models generally capture 1980-2000 AOD trends fairly well, though theyunderpredict AOD increases over the YellowEastern Sea. They appear to strongly underestimate absorbing AOD, especially in East Asia, South and Southeast Asia, SouthAmerica and Southern Hemisphere Africa.We examined both the conventional direct radiative forcing at the tropopause (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (adjusted forcing AF, including direct andindirect effects). The models calculated all aerosol all-sky 1850 to 2000 global meanannual average RF ranges from 0.06 to 0.49 W m(sup -2), with a mean of 0.26 W m(sup -2) and a median of 0.27 W m(sup -2. Adjusting for missing aerosol components in some modelsbrings the range to 0.12 to 0.62W m(sup -2), with a mean of 0.39W m(sup -2). Screen20ing the models based on their ability to capture spatial patterns and magnitudes ofAOD and AOD trends yields a quality-controlled mean of 0.42W m(sup -2) and range of0.33 to 0.50 W m(sup -2) (accounting for missing components). The CMIP5 subset of ACCMIPmodels spans 0.06 to 0.49W m(sup -2), suggesting some CMIP5 simulations likelyhave too little aerosol RF. A substantial, but not well quantified, contribution to histori25cal aerosol RF may come from climate feedbacks (35 to 58). The mean aerosol AF during this period is 1.12W m(sup -2) (median value 1.16W m(sup -2), range 0.72 to1.44W m

  10. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP was to characterize the short-lived drivers of preindustrial to 2100 climate change in the current generation of climate models. Here we evaluate historical and future radiative forcing in the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5.

    The models generally reproduce present-day climatological total aerosol optical depth (AOD relatively well. They have quite different contributions from various aerosol components to this total, however, and most appear to underestimate AOD over East Asia. The models generally capture 1980–2000 AOD trends fairly well, though they underpredict AOD increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They appear to strongly underestimate absorbing AOD, especially in East Asia, South and Southeast Asia, South America and Southern Hemisphere Africa.

    We examined both the conventional direct radiative forcing at the tropopause (RF and the forcing including rapid adjustments (adjusted forcing; AF, including direct and indirect effects. The models' calculated all aerosol all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average RF ranges from −0.06 to −0.49 W m−2, with a mean of −0.26 W m−2 and a median of −0.27 W m−2. Adjusting for missing aerosol components in some models brings the range to −0.12 to −0.62 W m−2, with a mean of −0.39 W m−2. Screening the models based on their ability to capture spatial patterns and magnitudes of AOD and AOD trends yields a quality-controlled mean of −0.42 W m−2 and range of −0.33 to −0.50 W m−2 (accounting for missing components. The CMIP5 subset of ACCMIP models spans −0.06 to −0.49 W m−2, suggesting some CMIP5 simulations likely have too little aerosol RF. A substantial, but not

  11. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Tjiputra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long period, smaller eruptions similar to Pinatubo in amplitude, but set to occur frequently, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the global temperature by more than one degree before it returns to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades, and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. Our climate-carbon feedback analysis shows that future volcanic eruptions induce positive feedbacks (i.e., more carbon sink on both the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle. The feedback signal on the ocean is consistently smaller than the terrestrial counterpart and the feedback strength is proportionally related to the frequency of the volcanic eruption events. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45 % increase in accumulated carbon uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by a reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between the ocean and the atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean carbon uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even

  12. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjiputra, J. F.; Otterå, O. H.

    2011-06-01

    Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long period, smaller eruptions similar to Pinatubo in amplitude, but set to occur frequently, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the global temperature by more than one degree before it returns to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades, and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. Our climate-carbon feedback analysis shows that future volcanic eruptions induce positive feedbacks (i.e., more carbon sink) on both the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle. The feedback signal on the ocean is consistently smaller than the terrestrial counterpart and the feedback strength is proportionally related to the frequency of the volcanic eruption events. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45 % increase in accumulated carbon uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by a reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between the ocean and the atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean carbon uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even in the relatively extreme scenario where

  13. How much force is required to dislodge an alternate airway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jestin N; Mayrose, James; Wang, Henry E

    2010-01-01

    Endotracheal tube (ETT) dislodgment is a potentially catastrophic adverse event. Newer alternate airway devices-esophageal-tracheal Combitube (ETC), King laryngeal tube disposable airway (King LT), and laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-are easier to insert, but their relative extubating forces remain unknown. To examine the applied forces required to dislodge an ETC, King LT, LMA, and ETT. We used five recently deceased adult unembalmed cadavers. In random order, we sequentially inserted an ETC, King LT, LMA, and standard ETT. Because commercial tube holders are not designed for all alternate airways, we secured the devices with a standard adhesive tape method. Using a precision digital force measuring device, we measured the minimum manually applied axial force (lb) that dislodged each airway device at least 4 cm. We compared required dislodgment forces between airway devices using a mixed-effects regression model, adjusting for cadaver height, weight, neck circumference, and thyromental distance. Characteristics of the cadavers were as follows (median, interquartile range [IQR]): height 172 cm (167-177), weight 98 kg (84-120), neck circumference 46.5 cm (41-52), and thyromental distance 7.5 cm (7.5-8). Required axial dislodgment forces for each airway device were as follows (median, IQR): ETC 28.3 lb (19.0-28.6), King LT 12.5 lb (11.7-13.3), LMA 18.3 lb (14.0-21.9), and ETT 14.4 lb (13.5-22.1). The ETC required twice as much dislodgment force as the ETT (adjusted difference 16.7 lb, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.3 to 25.1). The King LT and LMA dislodgment forces were similar to that of the ETT (King LT vs. ETT adjusted difference 5.9 lb, 95% CI: -2.4 to 14.2; LMA vs. ETT 8.1 lb, 95% CI: -0.2 to 16.5). In a cadaver model of unintended airway dislodgment, the ETC required the most force for dislodgment. The King LT and LMA performed similarly to a standard ETT.

  14. Radiative forcing from particle emissions by future supersonic aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pitari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on the direct radiative forcing (RF of black carbon (BC and sulphuric acid particles emitted by future supersonic aircraft, as well as on the ozone RF due to changes produced by emissions of both gas species (NOx, H2O and aerosol particles capable of affecting stratospheric ozone chemistry. Heterogeneous chemical reactions on the surface of sulphuric acid stratospheric particles (SSA-SAD are the main link between ozone chemistry and supersonic aircraft emissions of sulphur precursors (SO2 and particles (H2O–H2SO4. Photochemical O3 changes are compared from four independent 3-D atmosphere-chemistry models (ACMs, using as input the perturbation of SSA-SAD calculated in the University of L'Aquila model, which includes on-line a microphysics code for aerosol formation and growth. The ACMs in this study use aircraft emission scenarios for the year 2050 developed by AIRBUS as a part of the EU project SCENIC, assessing options for fleet size, engine technology (NOx emission index, Mach number, range and cruising altitude. From our baseline modeling simulation, the impact of supersonic aircraft on sulphuric acid aerosol and BC mass burdens is 53 and 1.5 μg/m2, respectively, with a direct RF of −11.4 and 4.6 mW/m2 (net RF=−6.8 mW/m2. This paper discusses the similarities and differences amongst the participating models in terms of changes to O3 precursors due to aircraft emissions (NOx, HOx,Clx,Brx and the stratospheric ozone sensitivity to them. In the baseline case, the calculated global ozone change is −0.4 ±0.3 DU, with a net radiative forcing (IR+UV of −2.5± 2 mW/m2. The fraction of this O3-RF attributable to SSA-SAD changes is, however, highly variable among the models, depending on the NOx removal

  15. Joint force protection advanced security system (JFPASS) "the future of force protection: integrate and automate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Carlos E.; Fagan, Joe E.

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Defense (DoD) defines 'force protection' as "preventive measures taken to mitigate hostile actions against DoD personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information." Advanced technologies enable significant improvements in automating and distributing situation awareness, optimizing operator time, and improving sustainability, which enhance protection and lower costs. The JFPASS Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) demonstrates a force protection environment that combines physical security and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) defense through the application of integrated command and control and data fusion. The JFPASS JCTD provides a layered approach to force protection by integrating traditional sensors used in physical security, such as video cameras, battlefield surveillance radars, unmanned and unattended ground sensors. The optimization of human participation and automation of processes is achieved by employment of unmanned ground vehicles, along with remotely operated lethal and less-than-lethal weapon systems. These capabilities are integrated via a tailorable, user-defined common operational picture display through a data fusion engine operating in the background. The combined systems automate the screening of alarms, manage the information displays, and provide assessment and response measures. The data fusion engine links disparate sensors and systems, and applies tailored logic to focus the assessment of events. It enables timely responses by providing the user with automated and semi-automated decision support tools. The JFPASS JCTD uses standard communication/data exchange protocols, which allow the system to incorporate future sensor technologies or communication networks, while maintaining the ability to communicate with legacy or existing systems.

  16. Deriving future oriented research and competence requirements based on scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    The key to a company's survival lies in its ability to adapt itself to an ever changing world. A company's knowledge and competencies must be fitted to the requirements of the environment in which it operates. However, the kind of competencies that ensures a company's survival are not acquired...... prepare for different possible futures do scenario methods offer real value. A way to try to be better prepared for the future is to deduct competence and research needs given different possible future development described in a number of scenarios. Hence, the aim of this paper is to test the use...... of scenarios for this purpose. Most scenario studies report mostly on the scenario construction, were as we want to focus on the suitability of scenario methods as a mean of deducting competence requirements and research needs. Also scenario techniques have mostly been used on either a company level or a macro...

  17. Requirements for user interaction support in future CACE environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Szymkat, M.

    1994-01-01

    Based on a review of user interaction modes and the specific needs of the CACE domain the paper describes requirements for user interaction in future CACE environments. Taking another look at the design process in CACE key areas in need of more user interaction support are pointed out. Three...

  18. Smart Agri-Food Logistics: Requirements for the Future Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Sundmaeker, H.; Meyer, F.; Wolfert, J.; Verhoosel, J.

    2013-01-01

    The food and agribusiness is an important sector in European logistics with a share in the EU road transport of about 20 %. One of the main logistic challenges in this sector is to deal with the high dynamics and uncertainty in supply and demand. This paper defines requirements on Future Internet (F

  19. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  20. Space and Airborne Communications for the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Existing - Military Strategic and Tactical Relay (MILSTAR); Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS); UHF Follow-On ( UFO )); Global Broadcast...System (GBS)) is an ad-on package to the UFO satellites. 7 Figure 2: SATCOM Current and Future Figure 3: Existing SATCOM 8 Future Future...decade. UFO and MUOS are for individuals or moving platforms. But they are low data rate and quickly saturate with number of users. All of

  1. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bryan, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled “Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors”, was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor’s current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  2. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  3. Future CANDU nuclear power plant design requirements document executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Usmani, S.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Toronto (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    The future CANDU Requirements Document (FCRED) describes a clear and complete statement of utility requirements for the next generation of CANDU nuclear power plants including those in Korea. The requirements are based on proven technology of PHWR experience and are intended to be consistent with those specified in the current international requirement documents. Furthermore, these integrated set of design requirements, incorporate utility input to the extent currently available and assure a simple, robust and more forgiving design that enhances the performance and safety. The FCRED addresses the entire plant, including the nuclear steam supply system and the balance of the plant, up to the interface with the utility grid at the distribution side of the circuit breakers which connect the switchyard to the transmission lines. Requirements for processing of low level radioactive waste at the plant site and spent fuel storage requirements are included in the FCRED. Off-site waste disposal is beyond the scope of the FCRED. 2 tabs., 1 fig. (Author) .new.

  4. Radiative Forcing and Climate Response: From Paleoclimate to Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.; Cao, L.

    2011-12-01

    The concept of radiative forcing was introduced to allow comparison of climate effects of different greenhouse gases. In the classic view, radiative forcing is applied to the climate system and the climate responds to this forcing, approaching some equilibrium temperature change that is the product of the radiative forcing times the 'climate sensitivity' to radiative forcing. However, this classic view is oversimplified in several respects. Climate forcing and response often cannot be clearly separated. When carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere, within days, the increased absorption of longwave radiation begins to warm the interior of the troposphere, affecting various tropospheric properties. Especially in the case of aerosols, it has been found that considering rapid tropospheric adjustment gives a better predictor of "equilibrium" climate change than does the classic definition of radiative forcing. Biogeochemistry also provides additional feedbacks on the climate system. It is generally thought that biogeochemistry helps diminish climate sensitivity to a carbon dioxide emission, since carbon dioxide tends to stimulate carbon dioxide uptake by land plants and the ocean. However, there is potential to destabilize carbon locked up in permafrost and at least some possibility to destabilize methane in continental shelf sediments. Furthermore, wetlands may provide a significant methane feedback. These and other possible biogeochemical feedbacks have the potential to greatly increase the sensitivity of the climate system to carbon dioxide emissions. As time scales extend out to millennia, the large ice sheets can begin to play an important role. In addition to affecting atmospheric flows by their sheer bulk, ice sheets tend to reflect a lot of energy to space. If carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere long enough, there is potential to melt back the large ice sheets, which would add additional warming to the climate system. It is likely that these millennial

  5. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindell, D. T.; Lamarque, J. -F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M.; Jiao, C.; Chin, M.; Young, P. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Rotstayn, L.; Mahowald, N.; Milly, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Collins, W. J.; Conley, A. J.; Dalsoren, S.; Easter, R.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L.; Liu, X.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S. T.; Skeie, R.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yoon, J. -H.; Lo, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980-2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects). The models’ all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range) -0.26Wm-2-2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of -0.42Wm-2-2-2-2forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global

  6. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5. The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980–2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects. The models' all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range −0.26 W m−2; −0.06 to −0.49 W m−2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of −0.42 W m−2; −0.33 to −0.50 W m−2, including adjustment for missing aerosol components in some models. Many ACCMIP and CMIP5 models appear to produce substantially smaller aerosol RF than this best estimate. Climate feedbacks contribute substantially (35 to −58% to modeled historical aerosol RF. The 1850 to 2000 aerosol ERF is −1.17 W m−2; −0.71 to −1.44 W m−2. Thus adjustments, including clouds, typically cause greater forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global aerosol RF

  7. Facing the Future: Slovenian Armed Forces Officer Corps and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    and “profesionalni.” 56Anton Zabkar, “Ahilova Peta Sistema Izobrazevanja Castnikov (Razprava)” [The Achilles’ heels of the education system for SAF...Primerjalna Analiza Urejanja Sistema Plac Pripadnikov Obrambnih Sil” [Comparative analysis of salary systems of armed forces members], Slovenian Armed...UN or through some regional politico -security organization such as NATO, African Union, EU or other treaty organization. In a way, it is demanded of

  8. The Future of United States Forces in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-22

    Kwak, The Reduction of US Forces in Korea in the Inter- Korean Peace Process: The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. II No. 2 Winter 1990, pp... Korean Peace Process: The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. II No. 2 Winter 1990. 11. Levin, Norman D., and Richard L. Sneider, " Korea in...group with 500 officers and enlisted personnel. After the Korean war broke out in June 1950, the United States sent its troops to Korea in July under

  9. Reimaging The Chaplain Corps For The Force Of The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    not have a fielded force and will be motivated by value systems, ideologies, and theologies that are difficult to deter.19 Combatting such VEOs will...has been placed on unit ministry.24 Key activities of unit ministry include visiting Airmen in their workplaces , responding to crisis, offering...sacrificing their role as noncombatants. Among those avenues are religious leader engagement (RLE), religious area assessment, and ethical advisement

  10. Building Future Transatlantic Interoperability Around a Robust NATO Response Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    spawned a nascent culture of multinational planning and opera- tional teamwork among a host of militaries. This coalition culture is emerg- ing in the same...deployed together in combat and postconflict land, maritime, and air operations for more than 20 years. Junior through senior leaders will have...experience in planning operations and commanding forces in life and death situations. A substantial percentage of these will have experienced multiple

  11. Looking to the Future of the Air Force Nuclear Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    8-Steps Dr. John Kotter is an American writer and educator from Harvard Business School writing many books on organizational structures and how to... Business Review Press. Kozak, W. (2009). LeMay: The Life and Wars of General Curtis LeMay. Washington DC: Regenery Publishing Inc. Lambeth, B. S...end of the Cold War was Air Combat Command (ACC). The ICBMs would move out of ACC to Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) in 1993. A thorough review was

  12. Future Enablers: Air Force Smart Weapons in the 2040s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Knutsen , Strike Warfare in the 21 st Century (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2012), 8. 84 Ibid., 8-9. 85 Ibid., 37-41. 86 Lambeth...february/LockheedMartinSLOCAASSuccessfulInFl.html. Kaku, Michio. Physics of the Future. New York, NY: Doubleday, 2011. Knutsen , Dale E

  13. Far Future Colliders and Required R&D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2012-06-01

    Particle colliders for high energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the collider has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size and the cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but its pace of progress has greatly slowed down. In this paper we very briefly review the R&D toward near future colliders and make an attempt to look beyond the current horizon and outline the changes in the paradigm required for the next breakthroughs.

  14. CHANGE@CERN:Task Force 2: reshaping for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Second in our series reviewing the Task Forces reports. How to lay the foundations for a more efficient organisational structure. Our present organization is based on sixteen Divisions and units under the Directorate. CERN's organization is based on a Directorate and sixteen Divisions and units, while its activities are broadly divided into four Sectors: Research, Accelerators, Technical and Administration. The mandate of Task Force 2, led by Horst Wenninger, was to identify if a structural change and a reduction of duplicated efforts could result in an increased efficiency at CERN, especially as the Laboratory continues to focus its resources on the LHC. 'This is the most difficult project ever undertaken at CERN', acknowledges Wenninger, 'a double accelerator at a temperature of 1.9 K'. For the next five years the success of the LHC must be the main priority, and CERN will have to adapt the procedures of how it works. Wenninger sees the process as an opportunity for the Laboratory to move into the 21st c...

  15. Wireless Technology Use Case Requirement Analysis for Future Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Ali; Wilkerson, DeLisa

    2016-01-01

    This report presents various use case scenarios for wireless technology -including radio frequency (RF), optical, and acoustic- and studies requirements and boundary conditions in each scenario. The results of this study can be used to prioritize technology evaluation and development and in the long run help in development of a roadmap for future use of wireless technology. The presented scenarios cover the following application areas: (i) Space Vehicles (manned/unmanned), (ii) Satellites and Payloads, (iii) Surface Explorations, (iv) Ground Systems, and (v) Habitats. The requirement analysis covers two parallel set of conditions. The first set includes the environmental conditions such as temperature, radiation, noise/interference, wireless channel characteristics and accessibility. The second set of requirements are dictated by the application and may include parameters such as latency, throughput (effective data rate), error tolerance, and reliability. This report provides a comprehensive overview of all requirements from both perspectives and details their effects on wireless system reliability and network design. Application area examples are based on 2015 NASA Technology roadmap with specific focus on technology areas: TA 2.4, 3.3, 5.2, 5.5, 6.4, 7.4, and 10.4 sections that might benefit from wireless technology.

  16. Force Structure: Better Information Needed to Support Air Force A-10 and Other Future Divestment Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    fiscal constraints and a strategy-based, portfolio -wide review of alternatives. Air Force budget guidance for fiscal year 2015 stated that it...anticipated levels, the Air Force examined its entire portfolio and concluded, among other things, that the benefits of divesting the A-10...the ability of rescue groups to conduct CSAR in volatile environments. Figure 9 provides an example of a CSAR mission and the Sandy roles

  17. Frictional forces required for unrestrained locomotion in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tol, P P J; Metz, J H M; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Back, W; Braam, C R; Weijs, W A

    2005-02-01

    Most free-stall housing systems in the Netherlands are equipped with slatted or solid concrete floors with manure scrapers. A slipping incident occurs when the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) exceeds the coefficient of friction (COF) at the claw-floor interface. An experiment was conducted to measure ground reaction forces (GRF) of dairy cows (n = 9) performing various locomotory behaviors on a nonslippery rubber-covered concrete floor. The RCOF was determined as the ratio of the horizontal and vertical components of the GRF. It was shown that during straight walking and walking-a-curve, the RCOF reached values up to the COF, whereas for sudden stop-and-start responses, the RCOF reached values beyond the maximum COF that concrete floors can provide. Our results indicate that concrete floors do not provide enough friction to allow natural locomotory behavior and suggest that tractional properties of floors should be main design criteria in the development of better flooring surfaces for cattle.

  18. Building a Shallow Army: Replacement Operations in the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    warfare by air and sea and ground occupation of the enemy homelands. See Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millett, A War to Be Won: Fighting the Second...the POE for the unit, gathering and mobilizing key personnel, and other critical tasks required for a functional CRC.62 The second major issue with...Praeger, 1992. Krepinevich, Andrew. The Army and Vietnam. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986. Murray, Williamson and Allan R

  19. Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future) Capability Assessment: Planned and Alternative Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    could interface more closely with the LCACs, either by directly offloading onto the hovercraft themselves or by transload- ing supplies from T-AKE to MLP... hovercraft that can load personnel, supplies, and equipment at the sea base and deliver them to the beach) are launched at a distance of 25 NM from the...aboard the MPF(F) be capable of moving ashore in one period of darkness. To a large extent, that requirement drives the need for the 18 hovercraft

  20. Downsizing Future USAF Fighter Forces. Living Within the Constraints of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Downsizing future USAF fighter forces : ibliving within the constraints of history /IcKevin N. Lewis. 260: Santa Monica, CA : ibRAND, 1c1995. 300: xxviii...play a continuing vital role in future American defense planning. That role may, in fact, grow in importance as U.S. defense downsizing continues, as...reason. 506: 1 UNCLASSIFIED S95: 1 Air Force. 695: 1 Air Force planning. 695: 2 Fighter aircraft. 787: Supersedes RAND/DRR-474-AF 982: 3 Downsizing

  1. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy

  2. Performance requirements of automotive batteries for future car electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, R.; Richter, G.

    The further increase in the number of power-consuming functions which has been announced for future vehicle electrical systems, and in particular the effects of new starting systems on battery performance, requires a further optimization of the lead acid system coupled with effective energy management, and enhanced battery operating conditions. In the face of these increased requirements, there are proven benefits to splitting the functions of a single SLI battery between two separate, special-purpose batteries, each of which are optimized, for high power output and for high energy throughput, respectively. This will bring about a marked improvement in weight, reliability, and state of charge (SOC). The development of special design starter and service batteries is almost completed and will lead to new products with a high standard of reliability. The design of the power-optimized lead acid accumulator is particularly suitable for further development as the battery for a 42/36 V electrical system. This is intended to improve the efficiency of the generator and the various power-consuming functions and to improve start/stop operation thereby bringing about a marked reduction in the fuel consumption of passenger cars. This improvement can also be assisted by a charge management system used in conjunction with battery status monitoring.

  3. The Other Quiet Professionals: Lessons for Future Cyber Forces from the Evolution of Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    SOF Truths,” originally espoused by COL Sid Shacknow in the mid-1980s: Humans are more important than hardware . Quality is better than quantity... Trojan horse were no doubt the period SOF equivalent. The United States’ special forces predate the country’s independence; during the Revolutionary...technical problems, install hardware and software – Training: operate and repair hardware , configure servers, etc. • Developers and engineers

  4. The Total Force: Cultural Considerations for the Future of the Total Force Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    and complaint, but significant movement has yet to be realized because formal education today is virtually non-existent.”2 Acknowledging the...prevent everything. Perceptions are reality when working together as AD and ARC.”3 The barriers commanders faced dealt with regulatory limitations to...budgetary reasons. Second, the Air Force will need to simultaneously teach and develop a holistic academic plan throughout, ensuring education occurs at

  5. Force Reduction Impacts on Resourcing Army Operational Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Management Support Agency’s (USAFMSA) Force Management System Web Site (FMSWeb)4. Unit authorizations for personnel for units not in the Army Force...of the project, we selected a limited number of resources that would be both manageable for presentation purposes and relevant. The personnel and...56 Appendix E. Personnel and Equipment (P/E) Types used in the Study Vignettes .......... 59 Appendix F. Additional

  6. Conserving the Future Force Fighting Strength: Findings from the Army Medical Department Transformation Workshops, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    TRADOC, AAN Overview Briefing: Army After Next-Knowledge, Speed and Power, Fort Monroe : U.S. Army TRADOC, 1999. 6 Conserving the Future Force Fighting...to Army if AMEDO hseof Pr Issue Not Resolved in Another Reovd Control mation Conditional Issue 1AN:, What doctrina mdchange mconsiderations of MOUn T

  7. Influence of future air pollution mitigation strategies on total aerosol radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kloster

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We apply different aerosol and aerosol precursor emission scenarios reflecting possible future control strategies for air pollution in the ECHAM5-HAM model, and simulate the resulting effect on the Earth's radiation budget. We use two opposing future mitigation strategies for the year 2030: one in which emission reduction legislation decided in countries throughout the world are effectively implemented (current legislation; CLE 2030 and one in which all technical options for emission reductions are being implemented independent of their cost (maximum feasible reduction; MFR 2030.

    We consider the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols. The total anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation between 2000 and pre-industrial times amounts to −2.00 W/m2. In the future this negative global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing will only slightly change (+0.02 W/m2 under the "current legislation" scenario. Regionally, the effects are much larger: e.g. over Eastern Europe radiative forcing would increase by +1.50 W/m2 because of successful aerosol reduction policies, whereas over South Asia it would decrease by −1.10 W/m2 because of further growth of emissions. A "maximum feasible reduction" of aerosols and their precursors would lead to an increase of the global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing by +1.13 W/m2. Hence, in the latter case, the present day negative anthropogenic aerosol forcing could be more than halved by 2030 because of aerosol reduction policies and climate change thereafter will be to a larger extent be controlled by greenhouse gas emissions.

    We combined these two opposing future mitigation strategies for a number of experiments focusing on different sectors and regions. In addition, we performed sensitivity studies to estimate the importance of future changes in

  8. Influence of future air pollution mitigation strategies on total aerosol radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kloster

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We apply different aerosol and aerosol precursor emission scenarios reflecting possible future control strategies for air pollution in the ECHAM5-HAM model, and simulate the resulting effect on the Earth's radiation budget. We use two opposing future mitigation strategies for the year 2030: one in which emission reduction legislation decided in countries throughout the world are effectively implemented (current legislation; CLE 2030 and one in which all technical options for emission reductions are being implemented independent of their cost (maximum feasible reduction; MFR 2030.

    We consider the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols. The total anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation between 2000 and pre-industrial times amounts to −2.05 W/m2. In the future this negative global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing will only slightly change (+0.02 W/m2 under the "current legislation" scenario. Regionally, the effects are much larger: e.g. over Eastern Europe radiative forcing would increase by +1.50 W/m2 because of successful aerosol reduction policies, whereas over South Asia it would decrease by −1.10 W/m2 because of further growth of emissions. A "maximum feasible reduction" of aerosols and their precursors would lead to an increase of the global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing by +1.13 W/m2. Hence, in the latter case, the present day negative anthropogenic aerosol forcing cloud be more than halved by 2030 because of aerosol reduction policies and climate change thereafter will be to a larger extend be controlled by greenhouse gas emissions.

    We combined these two opposing future mitigation strategies for a number of experiments focusing on different sectors and regions. In addition, we performed sensitivity studies to estimate the importance of future changes in

  9. U.S. Northern Command Counterterrorism Response Force Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    U.S. Government Printing Office, 26 April 1998), accessed 9 January 2016, http://www.marines.mil/ Portals /59/MCWP%203- 35.3.pdf, 1-1. 4 man...Command, Peterson Air Force Base, CO, 31 December 2012, accessed 29 December 2015, http://www.northcom.mil/ Portals /28/ Documents/Supporting%20documents...President, Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, 1. 42 Jerome H. Kahan, “What’s in a Name? The Meaning of Homeland Security,” Journal of

  10. Accounting for radiative forcing from albedo change in future global land-use scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collins, William D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a new method for quantifying radiative forcing from land use and land cover change (LULCC) within an integrated assessment model, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The method relies on geographically differentiated estimates of radiative forcing from albedo change associated with major land cover transitions derived from the Community Earth System Model. We find that conversion of 1 km² of woody vegetation (forest and shrublands) to non-woody vegetation (crops and grassland) yields between 0 and –0.71 nW/m² of globally averaged radiative forcing determined by the vegetation characteristics, snow dynamics, and atmospheric radiation environment characteristic within each of 151 regions we consider globally. Across a set of scenarios designed to span a range of potential future LULCC, we find LULCC forcing ranging from –0.06 to –0.29 W/m² by 2070 depending on assumptions regarding future crop yield growth and whether climate policy favors afforestation or bioenergy crops. Inclusion of this previously uncounted forcing in the policy targets driving future climate mitigation efforts leads to changes in fossil fuel emissions on the order of 1.5 PgC/yr by 2070 for a climate forcing limit of 4.5 Wm–2, corresponding to a 12–67 % change in fossil fuel emissions depending on the scenario. Scenarios with significant afforestation must compensate for albedo-induced warming through additional emissions reductions, and scenarios with significant deforestation need not mitigate as aggressively due to albedo-induced cooling. In all scenarios considered, inclusion of albedo forcing in policy targets increases forest and shrub cover globally.

  11. Ecological study requirements for Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, R.C. Jr. (Air Force Weapons Lab., Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, G.F.; Sigler, J.W.; Scott, C.L.

    1975-01-23

    The impact of the Space Transportation System on the ecology of Vandenberg and the need and direction of future land management are determined. Vandenberg has a variety of vegetative communities which support various species of animal and bird life. The coastal areas may support a rich abundance of marine life. Recommendations include a systematic approach and multidiscipline study to determine the significance and associativity of the various forms of biota.

  12. The Future of Indigenous Security Force Training: Considerations for the Joint Operational Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    in Iraq and Afghanistan may not be sustained as these conflicts wind down. Where the U.S. conducts regime change or in failed states, U.S. forces...requirements of the Joint Force as across the full range of military operations ( ROMO ). 29 A major part of the Army transformation adds high demand... ROMO . Specific enhancements in planning, communications, computers, intelligence, civil affairs, public affairs, fires and effects, air space

  13. Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.

  14. Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.

  15. Frictional Forces Required for unrestrained locomotion in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der P.P.J.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, W.; Braam, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Most free-stall housing systems in the Netherlands are equipped with slatted or solid concrete floors with manure scrapers. A slipping incident occurs when the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) exceeds the coefficient of friction (COF) at the claw–floor interface. An experiment was conducted t

  16. The Future of Constitutionally Required Lesser Included Offenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Hoffheimer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For over a generation courts have recognized that failing to instruct juries on lesser included offenses results in wrongful convictions. In Beck v. Alabama, the Supreme Court held that in capital cases juries must be instructed on the option of returning convictions of non-capital lesser included offenses. The Court explained that this right prevents juries from being forced to make all-or-nothing choices between guilt and innocence in cases where serious crimes have been committed and pressures to convict of some crime are great.

  17. Factors Required for Successful Future Research in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Verne Wheelwright. Uruvcrsit)’ of Houston, Clear-Lake 16 AC/UNU Mllk�.1Wll ProJect - Implementation of Futures Research in Decision Making...parts of the city separated by a 14 Submitted by Verne Wheelwright, Department of Studies of the Futw"e, University of Houston, Clear-Lake, Texas 1...Russian Fed. Abidjan, Ivory Coast Stanislaw Orzeszyna Julio A. Millan B. World Health Organization Jaya Kothai Pillai M. Salihu, Vice Chancellor

  18. Metrology Requirements of Future X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness: Programmatic issues are at least as severe

  19. Future Capabilities and Technologies for the Air Force in 2030. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    as a foil to evaluate future systems and technologies, to deter- mine the optimum path forward for Air Force investment. These senior officers each...attacks are being designed to degrade adversary command and control and early- warning capabilities. Finally, submarines, destroyers, aircraft, mines ...Paralysis in Military Operations Jan S. Breemer, December 2000 20 Using Lasers in Space: Laser Orbital Debris Removal and Asteroid Deflection Jonathon

  20. Development of seismic force requirements for buildings in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Juin-Fu; Teng, Tsung-Jen; Tsai, Keh-Chyuan

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes static and dynamic procedures to calculate seismic demand specified by the current seismic design code for buildings in Taiwan, which was issued in 2005. For design levels with a return period of 475 years, the design spectral response acceleration can be developed for general sites, near-fault sites and Taipei Basin. In addition, in order to prevent building collapse during extremely large earthquakes and yielding of structural components and elements during frequent small earthquakes, the required seismic demands at the maximum considered earthquake level (MCE, 2%/50 years) and operational level are also included in the new seismic design code. For dynamic analysis procedures, both the response spectrum method and time history method are specified in the new seismic design code. Finally, procedures to generate spectrum compatible ground motions for time history analysis are illustrated in this paper.

  1. Development of seismic force requirements for buildings in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juin-Fu Chai; Tsung-Jen Teng; Keh-Chyuan Tsai

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes static and dynamic procedures to calculate seismic demand specified by the current seismic design code for buildings in Taiwan, which was issued in 2005. For design levels with a return period of 475 years, the design spectral response acceleration can be developed for general sites, near-fault sites and Taipei Basin. In addition, in order to prevent building collapse during extremely large earthquakes and yielding of structural components and elements during frequent small earthquakes, the required seismic demands at the maximum considered earthquake level (MCE, 2%/50 years) and operational level are also included in the new seismic design code.'For dynamic analysis procedures, both the response spectrum method and time history method are specified in the new seismic design code. Finally, procedures to generate spectrum compatible ground motions for time history analysis are illustrated in this paper.

  2. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...... and discusses information requirements of particular interest to m-commerce and how the technological development facilitates but also challenges the traditional way in which legal information is given. In order to prevent over-regulation and hindrances to the technological development, it has been suggested...

  3. The Combined Arms Maneuver-Force and the Stability and Support-Force: A Dual Force Concept to Meet the Challenges of Future Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    the need for separate organizations that are equally good at performing missions within their respective environments. A synopsis of this argument is...Biological, Radiological , and Nuclear Response Enterprise that is able to deliver lifesaving capability faster than what was previously fielded. To...effects of a Chemical, Biological, Radiological , and Nuclear attack in the wake of catastrophic events. It also requires that these forces are able to

  4. Sensitivity of the Atmospheric Response to Warm Pool El Nino Events to Modeled SSTs and Future Climate Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Newman, Paul A.; Oman, Luke D.

    2013-01-01

    Warm pool El Nino (WPEN) events are characterized by positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific. Under present-day climate conditions, WPEN events generate poleward propagating wavetrains and enhance midlatitude planetary wave activity, weakening the stratospheric polar vortices. The late 21st century extratropical atmospheric response to WPEN events is investigated using the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM), version 2. GEOSCCM simulations are forced by projected late 21st century concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and by SSTs and sea ice concentrations from an existing ocean-atmosphere simulation. Despite known ocean-atmosphere model biases, the prescribed SST fields represent a best estimate of the structure of late 21st century WPEN events. The future Arctic vortex response is qualitatively similar to that observed in recent decades but is weaker in late winter. This response reflects the weaker SST forcing in the Nino 3.4 region and subsequently weaker Northern Hemisphere tropospheric teleconnections. The Antarctic stratosphere does not respond to WPEN events in a future climate, reflecting a change in tropospheric teleconnections: The meridional wavetrain weakens while a more zonal wavetrain originates near Australia. Sensitivity simulations show that a strong poleward wavetrain response to WPEN requires a strengthening and southeastward extension of the South Pacific Convergence Zone; this feature is not captured by the late 21st century modeled SSTs. Expected future increases in GHGs and decreases in ODSs do not affect the polar stratospheric responses to WPEN.

  5. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2007-01-01

      The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents a...

  6. Mask data volume: historical perspective and future requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Chris; Goad, Scott; Buck, Peter; Gladhill, Richard; Cinque, Russell; Preuninger, Jürgen; Griesinger, Üwe; Blöcker, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Mask data file sizes are increasing as we move from technology generation to generation. The historical 30% linear shrink every 2-3 years that has been called Moore's Law, has driven a doubling of the transistor budget and hence feature count. The transition from steppers to step-and-scan tools has increased the area of the mask that needs to be patterned. At the 130nm node and below, Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) has become prevalent, and the edge fragmentation required to implement OPC leads to an increase in the number of polygons required to define the layout. Furthermore, Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RETs) such as Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) or tri-tone Phase Shift Masks (PSM) require additional features to be defined on the mask which do not resolve on the wafer, further increasing masks volumes. In this paper we review historical data on mask file sizes for microprocessor, DRAM and Flash memory designs. We consider the consequences of this increase in file size on Mask Data Prep (MDP) activities, both within the Integrated Device Manufacturer (IDM) and Mask Shop, namely: computer resources, storage and networks (for file transfer). The impact of larger file sizes on mask writing times is also reviewed. Finally we consider, based on the trends that have been observed over the last 5 technology nodes, what will be required to maintain reasonable MDP and mask manufacturing cycle times.

  7. Visual information about past, current and future properties of irregular target paths in isometric force tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazich, Molly M; Studenka, Breanna E; Newell, Karl M

    2015-01-01

    In visual-motor tracking, information about past, current, and future properties of a target path can be available but, because they are typically manipulated independently, the relative contribution of these information categories to tracking performance is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of visual information pertaining to past, current, and future states of the target path in guiding isometric tracking performance as a function of the irregularity of the target path (sine wave, brown/pink noise, white noise). The findings from local and global properties of the force output showed that the role of visual information about the past, current, and future states of target paths is dependent on the regularity of the signal to be tracked. The brown/pink noise pathway condition was most strongly influenced by future and past-future visual information for both local error properties (lead/lag, root mean square error (RMSE)) and global properties of the force output (ApEn, cross correlation). The highly irregular white noise pathway did not benefit from past or future information and the highly regular sine wave was only influenced for the local error properties of RMSE and lead/lag. It appears that visual information about past and future tracking states is more effective with a pathway that is middling with respect to regularity/irregularity. This is consistent with the role of visual information in tracking to be dependent on the potential adaptability for change in the dimension of the motor output.

  8. [Requirements of a future-oriented social medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, R

    2005-02-01

    With the new national licensing regulations for physicians subsections of the social medicine became discrete subjects. The question arises, which contents the social medicine can have in the future, with consideration of important basic conditions. Such are the progress of medical knowledge, the representation of social medicine at medical faculties, changes of the medical supply, the transformation of jobs and the globalization. On a long-term basis effects of the demographic development, changes of the family structure and the financing of health and illness are important too. The social medicine should promptly make quality-assured contents available with consideration of the Internet. Such contents could be the comprehensive consultation, investigation and control of patient careers as well as the consultation and investigation from health problems in municipalities and in the society. In addition an inductive and practical oriented curriculum should be compiled, using the subject catalogue of the social medicine as well as a new basic textbook of social medicine.

  9. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    though existing standards and guidelines are met. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in buildings in the 21st century. Based on existing information and on new research results, five principles are suggested as elements behind a new philosophy of excellence......Air-conditioning of buildings has played a very positive role for economic development in warm climates. Still its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from SBS symptoms, even...... to the breathing zone of each individual; individual control of the airflow and/or the thermal environment should be provided. These principles of excellence should be combined with energy efficiency and sustainability of future buildings....

  10. Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics: Current Status and Future Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Horst D.; VanDalsem, William R.; Dagum, Leonardo; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One or the key objectives of the Applied Research Branch in the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Systems Division at NASA Allies Research Center is the accelerated introduction of highly parallel machines into a full operational environment. In this report we discuss the performance results obtained from the implementation of some computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications on the Connection Machine CM-2 and the Intel iPSC/860. We summarize some of the experiences made so far with the parallel testbed machines at the NAS Applied Research Branch. Then we discuss the long term computational requirements for accomplishing some of the grand challenge problems in computational aerosciences. We argue that only massively parallel machines will be able to meet these grand challenge requirements, and we outline the computer science and algorithm research challenges ahead.

  11. Simulator Training Requirements and Effectiveness Study (STRES): Future Research Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    simulation technology. The AFHRL/OT program, using the ASPT and SAAC devices, is already embarked on an extensive visual technology research effort, one...facilities that would be required to conduct the research described. In some cases, specific research devices are mentioned, such as ASPT , SAAC, and the...configuration of a particular device cannot be foreseen at this point (e.g., the ASPT might have a variety of possible specific cockpit configurations), no

  12. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2006-01-01

    and discusses information requirements of particular interest to m-commerce and how the technological development facilitates but also challenges the traditional way in which legal information is given. In order to prevent over-regulation and hindrances to the technological development, it has been suggested...... that the solution may be relaxed enforcement of the regulatory framework and/or self-regulation, e.g. by codes of conduct. However, the article argues that other possible solutions should be considered, e.g. the use of specific symbols and sounds that - like road traffic rules - could help the consumer to navigate...

  13. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2007-01-01

    and discusses information requirements of particular interest to m-commerce and how the technological development facilitates but also challenges the traditional way in which legal information is given. In order to prevent over-regulation and hindrances to the technological development, it has been suggested...... that the solution may be relaxed enforcement of the regulatory framework and/or self-regulation, e.g. by codes of conduct. However, the article argues that other possible solutions should be considered, e.g. the use of specific symbols and sounds that - like road traffic rules - could help the consumer to navigate...

  14. Solar sorptive cooling. Technologies, user requirements, practical experience, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Hardthausen (Germany); Hertlein, H.P. [eds.] [Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sorptive cooling techniques permit the use of low-temperature solar heat, i.e. a renewable energy of low cost and world-wide availability. The Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie intends to develop solar sorptive cooling technologies to the prototype stage and, in cooperation with the solar industry and its end users, to promote practical application in air conditioning of buildings and cold storage of food. The workshop presents an outline of the state of development of solar sorptive cooling from the view of users and developers. Exemplary solar cooling systems are described, and the potential of open and closed sorptive processes is assessed. Future central activities will be defined in an intensive discussion between planners, producers, users and developers. [German] Der Einsatz von Sorptionstechniken zur Kaelteerzeugung erlaubt es, als treibende Solarenergie Niedertemperatur-Solarwaerme einzusetzen, also eine regenerative Energie mit sehr geringen Kosten und weltweiter Verfuegbarkeit. Der Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie hat sich als Aufgabe gestellt, die Techniken der solaren Sorptionskuehlung bis zum Prototyp zu entwickeln und mit Industrie und Nutzern die praktische Anwendung voranzubringen. Die Anwendungsfelder sind die Klimatisierung von Gebaeuden und die Kaltlagerung von Lebensmitteln. Der Workshop gibt einen Ueberblick zum Entwicklungsstand der solaren Sorptionskuehlung aus der Sicht der Anwender und Entwickler. Bereits ausgefuehrte Beispiele zur solaren Kuehlung werden vorgestellt und das Potential geschlossener und offener Sorptionsverfahren angegeben. In intensiver Diskussion zwischen Planern, Herstellern, Nutzern und Entwicklern sollen kuenftige Arbeitsschwerpunkte herausgearbeitet werden. (orig.)

  15. Future materials requirements for high temperature power engineering components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.B. (Commission of the European Communities, Petten (Netherlands). Joint Nuclear Research Center)

    1989-08-01

    The two dominant technologies in power engineering are steam and gas turbines. These are, however, dependent on a prior stage of combustion and, perhaps, gasification. There is a continuous drive towards higher operating efficiencies and greater reliability of the units. This leads to a need for larger components to operate at higher temperatures and pressures and hence under more arduous conditions of mechanical and corrosive loading for times which may exceed 200,000 h (30 years). Some examples are used to illustrate generic features of the materials problems towards which research and development is aimed. In some components the high temperature time-dependent mechanical properties dominate, a good example being gas turbine blades. Uniformity of the time-dependent mechanical properties plus fracture toughness is difficult to attain in the very large forgings required for steam turbines. Within the heat generation units (boiler tubes, headers, etc.) the mechanical requirements are severe, but would not be critical without the constraints imposed by the need for inexpensive corrosion and erosion resistance. (author).

  16. Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

  17. Requirements for a Future Astronomical Data Analysis Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbl, P.; Banse, K.; Tody, D.; Cotton, W.; Cornwell, T. J.; Ponz, D.; Ignatius, J.; Linde, P.; van der Hulst, T.; Burwitz, V.; Giaretta, D.; Pasian, F.; Garilli, B.; Pence, W.; Shaw, D.

    2005-12-01

    Most of the systems currently used to analyze astronomical data were designed and implemented more than a decade ago. Although they still are very useful for analysis, one often would like a better interface to newer concepts like archives, Virtual Observatories and GRID. Further, incompatibilities between most of the current systems with respect to control language and semantics make it cumbersome to mix applications from different origins. An OPTICON Network, funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission, started this year to discuss high-level needs for an astronomical data analysis environment which could provide a flexible access to both legacy applications and new astronomical resources. The main objective of the Network is to establish widely accepted requirements and basic design recommendations for such an environment. The hope is that this effort will help other projects, which consider to implement such systems, in collaborating and achieving a common environment.

  18. The Role of CO2 Physiological Forcing in Driving Future Precipitation Variability and Precipitation Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. B.; Poulsen, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Transpired water contributes roughly 25% to total precipitation over the Earth's land surface. In addition to transpiration's impact on climatological mean precipitation, recent work suggests that transpiration reduces daily and intraseasonal precipitation variability in tropical forest regions. Projected increases in the concentration of CO2 are expected to reduce transpiration through changes in plant physiology (termed the CO2 physiological effect). Here, we use an ensemble of climate model experiments to assess the potential contribution of the CO2 physiological effect to future changes in precipitation variability and extreme precipitation events. Within our model simulations, precipitation responses to the physiological effects of increased CO2 concentrations are greatest throughout the tropics. In most tropical forest regions CO2 physiological forcing increases the annual number of dry (less than 0.1 mm/day) and extremely wet (rainfall exceeds 95th percentile) days. Changes in precipitation are primarily driven by an increase in surface temperature and subsequent changes in atmospheric stability and moisture convergence over vegetated tropical land regions. Our results suggest that the plant physiological response to CO2 forcing may serve as an important contributor to future precipitation variability in the tropics, and that future work should aim to reduce uncertainty in the response of plant physiology to changes in climate.

  19. The threshold force required for femoral impaction grafting in revision hip surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannery, Olivia M

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Femoral impaction grafting requires vigorous impaction to obtain adequate stability without risk of fracture, but the force of impaction has not been determined. We determined this threshold force in a preliminary study using animal femurs. METHODS: Adult sow femurs were used because of their morphological similarity to human femurs in revision hip arthroplasty. 35 sow femurs were impacted with morselized bone chips and an increasing force was applied until the femur fractured. This allowed a threshold force to be established. 5 other femurs were impacted to this force and an Exeter stem was cemented into the neomedullary canal. A 28-mm Exeter head was attached and loaded by direct contact with a hydraulic testing machine. Axial cyclic loading was performed and the position sensor of the hydraulic testing machine measured the prosthetic head subsidence. RESULTS: 29 tests were completed successfully. The threshold force was found to be 4 kN. There was no statistically significant correlation between the load at fracture and the cortex-to-canal ratio or the bone mineral density. Following impaction with a maximum force of 4 kN, the average axial subsidence was 0.28 mm. INTERPRETATION: We achieved a stable construct without fracture. Further studies using human cadaveric femurs should be done to determine the threshold force required for femoral impaction grafting in revision hip surgery.

  20. When ideals face reality: shaping the future of the South African Defence Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    of and its involvement in the African Standby Force and the African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crises (ACIRC)? During the first years of the post-apartheid government, there was a marked reluctance to believe in the effectiveness of the military tool. Since the intervention in Lesotho in 1998...... this has changed, and the SANDF has increasingly been used as integral part of South Africa’s foreign policy, and increasingly robustly. Given the dominant role played by South Africa in setting up the ACIRC, it seems that the South African military and political leadership foresees a future in which...

  1. User requirements and future expectations for geosensor networks – an assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.; Thessler, S.; Bregt, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made on the technical development of sensor networks. However increasing attention is now also required for the broad diversity of end-user requirements for the deployment of sensor networks. An expert survey on the user requirements and future expectations for sensor

  2. Forces required to operate controls on farm tractors: implications for young operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, F A; Chang, J H; Berg, R L; Pickett, W; Marlenga, B

    2008-07-01

    Farm tractors account for the majority of fatal injuries to adolescents working in agriculture and therefore remain a leading occupational priority. The question of whether these injuries occur because adolescents are assigned tractor jobs beyond their physical capabilities has not been answered. The purpose of this study was to estimate the activation forces required to operate controls on 40 tractors in common use in the US and compare them with existing estimates of physical strength for children of varying ages and with recommended ergonomic force limits for repeatedly engaging controls. Activation forces for steering, brakes and clutch were measured on each tractor. The main study finding was that the activation forces required to operate tractors typically exceeded the physical abilities of most children aged 13 to 17 years. This raises serious questions about the ability of children to safely operate tractors in common use on US farms. This study provides an ergonomic approach for evaluating the potential mismatch between young people's strength capabilities and forces required in operating farm tractors. This approach could be used in similar situations where adolescents may operate vehicles (e.g. all-terrain vehicles), machinery or other mechanical devices requiring activation of levers and controls. Study findings potentially inform the establishment of occupational policies surrounding tractor operation by young people.

  3. Methodological requirements of the competitive approach in tourist formation of the future teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudorova L.J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove methodological requirements of the competetive approach in the tourist preparation of the future teachers. Material : the research work was made on the basis of studying of references, the analysis and synthesis of the received information, with the usage of the method of pedagogical designing. Results: methodological requirements of the competetive approach in tourist formation of the future teachers are considered and concretised. The methods of objective diagnosing of tourist preparation of the future teacher is opened. It is noticed that for objective diagnosing are necessary not only the subject (as it descends in traditional training, but also the system, professionally oriented criteria, allowing to measure level of forming of tourist competence of the future teacher. Conclusions: the universal structure of tourist competence of the future teachers consists of following components: motivational; cognitive; praxeological; individually-psychologic; the subjective. The assessment of these components allows to define complex level of forming of tourist competence of the future teacher.

  4. The future of obstetrics/gynecology in 2020: a clearer vision. Transformational forces and thriving in the new system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrew, David C; Jenkins, Todd R

    2015-01-01

    Revamping the delivery of women's health care to meet future demands will require a number of changes. In the first 2 articles of this series, we introduced the reasons for change, suggested the use of the 'Triple Aim' concept to (1) improve the health of a population, (2) enhance the patient experience, and (3) control costs as a guide post for changes, and reviewed the transformational forces of payment and care system reform. In the final article, we discuss the valuable use of information technology and disruptive clinical technologies. The new health care system will require a digital transformation so that there can be increased communication, availability of information, and ongoing assessment of clinical care. This will allow for more cost-effective and individualized treatments as data are securely shared between patients and providers. Scientific advances that radically change clinical practice are coming at an accelerated pace as the underlying technologies of genetics, robotics, artificial intelligence, and molecular biology are translated into tools for diagnosis and treatment. Thriving in the new system not only will require time-honored traits such as leadership and compassion but also will require the obstetrician/gynecologist to become comfortable with technology, care redesign, and quality improvement.

  5. 17 CFR 1.15 - Risk assessment reporting requirements for futures commission merchants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exposure reports filed by such Material Affiliated Person with a foreign futures authority or other foreign... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment reporting requirements for futures commission merchants. 1.15 Section 1.15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY...

  6. Cultural Changes Required in the Army to Truly Achieve a Total Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CULTURAL CHANGES REQUIRED IN THE ARMY TO TRULY ACHIEVE A TOTAL FORCE by John Gobrick, LTC...and Army Reserve need to act now and implement enduring cultural changes . Leaders must invest the time and effort to address the underlying cultural...employment, technicians are required to have a simultaneous membership in the Army Reserve , typically in the same unit. The vast majority of Army

  7. A Joint Force Medical Command is Required to Fix Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    all-volunteer military and similar programs evolved to train the majority of medical specialists the military required ranging from medics to nurse ...surgery, nursing , pharmacy, radiology and laboratory services, and also have a basic understanding of what a hospital does when it is established...A Joint Force Medical Command is Required to Fix Combat Casualty Care by Colonel Shawn C. Nessen United States Army Pr og ra

  8. Imprint of external climate forcing on coastal upwelling in past and future climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are the major coastal upwelling regions. The trade winds are driving these upwelling regimes located in the subtropics at the eastern boundary of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. Here we analyse the impact of the external climate forcing, e.g. the greenhouse gas concentration, solar activity and volcano eruptions, on these upwelling systems in simulations of ensembles of two Earth System Models. The ensembles contain three simulations for each time period which cover the past millennium (900–1850, the 20th century (1850–2005 and the near future (2006–2100. Using a set of simulations, differing only in their initial conditions, enables us to detect whether the variability is driven internally or externally. Our analysis shows that the variability of the simulated upwelling is to the most driven internally and that there are no significant trends except for the scenario with the most dramatic increase of greenhouse gas concentrations.

  9. Air Force Manpower Requirements and Component Mix: A Focus on Agile Combat Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    volunteerism suggests a very low probability that the program will be used as intended. The program would be more effective if it developed pools of IMAs...manager in determining and structuring garrison manpower requirements as having a significant impact on the AC forces available for deployment. The

  10. 17 CFR 1.14 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for futures commission merchants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regarding sources of funding, together with a narrative discussion by management of the liquidity of the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... Related Reporting Requirements § 1.14 Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for futures...

  11. A computational study of the aerodynamic forces and power requirements of dragonfly Aeschna juncea hovering

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, M; Sun, Mao; Lan, Shi Long

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic force generation and mechanical power requirements of a dragonfly (Aeschna juncea) in hovering flight are studied. The method of numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in moving overset grids is used. There are two large vertical force peaks in one flapping cycle. One is in the first half of the cycle, which is mainly due to the hindwings in their downstroke; the other is in the second half of the cycle, which is mainly due to the forewings in their downstroke. Hovering with a large stroke plane angle, the dragonfly uses drag as a major source for its weight supporting force (approximately 65% of the total vertical force is contributed by the drag and 35% by the lift of the wings). The vertical force coefficient of a wing is twice as large as the quasi-steady value. The interaction between the fore- and hindwings is not very strong and is detrimental to the vertical force generation. Compared with the case of a single wing in the same motion, the interaction effect reduces the vertical fo...

  12. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  13. A study considering the force required for broken glass bottles to penetrate a skin simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Gary; Lawes, Simon; Hainsworth, Sarah; Rutty, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Injuries and assaults related to alcohol consumption are a growing concern in many countries. In such cases, the use of impulsive weapons, an object from the immediate environment, such as a glass bottle, is not uncommon. This current study utilises a material testing system to measure the force required to push a broken glass bottle into a skin simulant with the displacement of the bottle into the skin simulant being recorded simultaneously, using a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). From this data, load versus displacement plots were produced. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) was also used to analyse bottle wall thickness to determine if a relationship could be found between force required for penetration and bottle wall thickness. The forces required for the penetration of the skin simulant ranged from 9.8 to 56.7 N. The range was found to be independent of bottle type with the variation in force for penetration being attributed to the varying fracture points, with some fractures presenting a sharper point on first contact with the skin. Although the dangers associated with the use of broken bottles as weapons is apparent, there is a paucity of information in this area in the current English literature, which this study has addressed. The results of this study also highlight the risks of attempting reconstructions of broken bottle stab events.

  14. Air Force Officer Accession Planning: Addressing Key Gaps in Meeting Career Field Academic Degree Requirements for Nonrated Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    responsible for providing the human capital for Air Force missions, clearly state the Air Force philosophy on establishing education requirements for Air...undermine successfully meeting career field education requirements. This document summarizes our work to identify these gaps, assess their effect on the...8 3. An Overarching Education Requirement Philosophy Is Needed .............................................. 11 Meet Only Mandatory Education

  15. Grasping and manipulation of deformable objects based on internal force requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil Garg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of grasping and manipulation of deformable objects by a three finger robot hand has been carried out. It is proved that the required fingertip grasping forces and velocities vary with change in object size due to deformation. The variation of the internal force with the change in fingertip and object contact angle has been investigated in detail. From the results it is concluded that it is very difficult to manipulate an object if the finger contact angle is not between 30 o and 70 o, as the internal forces or velocities become very large outside this range. Hence even if the object is inside the work volume of the three fingers it would still not be possible to manipulate it. A simple control model is proposed which can control the grasping and manipulation of a deformable object. Experimental results are also presented to prove the proposed method.

  16. Forced degradation studies: current trends and future perspectives for protein-based therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine P

    2016-07-01

    Forced degradation (FD) studies (stress testing) are an integral part of pharmaceutical product development. The design and execution of these studies require thorough planning and coordination through the various stages of development as well as post-approval commercial operations. This is particularly crucial in the case for protein-based therapeutics due to complexity of the molecular structure as well as the potential influence of the manufacturing process on product attributes. Often, FD study applications are linked to specific product development in a phase-specific and case-by-case manner with differing purposes and focus. Expert commentary: This paper summarizes some key FD approaches commonly employed in the industry and provides considerations on study design strategies and database management through the course of the product lifecycle.

  17. Limit of axial force ratio and requirement for stirrups of RC columns with special shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yiqun; XU Yidong; ZHAO Yanjing; CHEN Yunxia

    2007-01-01

    Thousands of columns with special shape are analyzed by nonlinear numerical methods. The ductility is calculated to investigate the limit of the axial force ratio and circumstantial requirement for stirrups of an reinforced concrete (RC) column with special shape, in the point of view of the characteristic value for providing stirrup. The limit of the axial force ratio of columns with special shape in relation to the characteristic value of the stirrup is obtained. Then, the effect of stirrup arrangement on the ductility of the RC column is discussed in case of buckling of the longitudinal reinforcement and constraint concrete columns. The complete requirement for stirrups of RC column with special shape is given.

  18. Unsteady aerodynamic forces and power requirements of a bumblebee in forward flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghao Wu; Mao Sun

    2005-01-01

    Aerodynamic forces and power requirements in forward flight in a bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) were studied using the method of computational fluid dynamics. Actual wing kinematic data of free flight were used in the study (the speed ranges from 0 m/s to 4.5 m/s; advance ratio ranges from 0-0.66). The bumblebee employs the delayed stall mechanism and the fast pitching-up rotation mechanism to produce vertical force and thrust. The leading-edge vortex does not shed in the translatory phase of the half-strokes and is much more concentrated than that of the fruit fly in a previous study. At hovering and low-speed flight, the vertical force is produced by both the half-strokes and is contributed by wing lift; at medium and high speeds, the vertical force is mainly produced during the downstroke and is contributed by both wing lift and wing drag. At all speeds the thrust is mainly produced in the upstroke and is contributed by wing drag.The power requirement at low to medium speeds is not very different from that of hovering and is relatively large at the highest speed (advance ratio 0.66), i.e. the power curve is Jshaped. Except at the highest flight speed, storing energy elastically can save power up to 20%-30%. At the highest speed,because of the large increase of aerodynamic torque and the slight decrease of inertial torque (due to the smaller stroke amplitude and stroke frequency used), the power requirement is dominated by aerodynamic power and the effect of elastic storage of energy on power requirement is limited.

  19. Bristles reduce force required to fling wings apart in small insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shannon; Yun, Young; Hedrick, Tyson; Griffith, Boyce; Miller, Laura

    2016-11-01

    The smallest flying insects commonly possess wings with long bristles. Little quantitative information is available on the morphology of these bristles, and the functional importance of these bristles remains a mystery. In this study, we used the immersed boundary method to determine via numerical simulation if bristled wings reduced the force required to fling the wings apart during "clap and fling". The challenge of studying the fluid dynamics of bristles was in resolving the fluid flow between the bristles. The effects of Reynolds number, angle of attack, bristle spacing, and wing-wing interactions were investigated. We found that a bristled wing experiences less force than a solid wing, however bristled wings may act more like solid wings at lower angles of attack than they do at higher angles of attack. In wing-wing interactions, bristled wings significantly decrease the drag required to fling two wings apart compared with solid wings, especially at lower Reynolds numbers. These results support the idea that bristles may offer an aerodynamic benefit during clap and fling by reducing the force required to fling the wings apart in tiny insects.

  20. 9/11 and Canadian Special Operations Forces: How 40 Selected Men Indelibly Influenced the Future of the Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    was not in vogue .” DM Fowler supports this notion that elitism within the CAF was frowned upon by the political and military leadership. 57Canada...Security Strategy: A Strong Britain in an Age of Uncertainty.Cabinet Office, UK: UK: Crown Copyright/MOD, 2012. http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk...resource-library/national-security-strategy-strong- britain -age-uncertainty.pdf. (accessed 12 September 2012). United States Joint Forces Command. Joint

  1. Air Force and the Cyberspace Mission: Defending the Air Force’s Computer Network in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Internet bots, also known as web robots , are automated internet applications controlled by software agents. These bots interact with network...Future Military Operations Brad Mason, June 2001 23 The End of Secrecy? Military Competitiveness in the Age of Transparency Beth M. Kaspar

  2. 17 CFR 1.17 - Minimum financial requirements for futures commission merchants and introducing brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... but not limited to customers, general creditors, subordinated lenders, minority shareholders... Commission (17 CFR 240.15c3-1(a)). (ii) Each person registered as a futures commission merchant engaged in... capital required by Rule 15c3-1(a) of the Securities and Exchange Commission (17 CFR 240.15c3-1(a))....

  3. Organizing for the Future Requires the Non-Aristotelian Lens of a Dragonfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Marla Del

    To organize for the future requires non-Aristotelian thinking...a multifaceted wide-angle lens revealing hidden information. A multifaceted lens includes at least three general systems of evaluation, all of which promote complex thinking. The three systems are general semantics, postmodern feminist philosophy, and the unifying principle of…

  4. Expanding Thinking Through a Kaleidoscopic Look Into the Future: Implications of the Mixed Methods International Research Association’s Task Force Report on the Future of Mixed Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Donna M.; Bazeley, Patricia; Bowleg, Lisa; Fielding, Nigel; Maxwell, Joseph; Molina-Azorín, José F.; Niglas, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    The field of mixed methods research abounds with opportunities for creative development in terms of methodological advances and potential to contribute to important and complex societal problems. Inspired by issues that arose in the Mixed Methods International Research Association task force report on the future of mixed methods, this article contemplates its implications for challenges and opportunities for the mixed methods community for advancement in philosophy and methodology, innovative...

  5. Atomic force microscopy and lamins: A review study towards future, combined investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorari, Ilaria; Puzzi, Luca; Sbaizero, Orfeo

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, atomic force microscopy (AFM) underwent a rapid and stunning development, especially for studying mechanical properties of biological samples. The numerous discoveries relying to this approach, have increased the credit of AFM as a versatile tool, and potentially eligible as a diagnostic equipment. Meanwhile, it has become strikingly evident that lamins are involved on the onset and development of certain diseases, including cancer, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, cardiovascular pathologies, and muscular dystrophy. A new category of pathologies has been defined, the laminopathies, which are caused by mutations in the gene encoding for A-type lamins. As the majority of medical issues, lamins, and all their related aspects can be considered as a quite complex problem. Indeed, there are many facets to explore, and this definitely requires a multidisciplinary approach. One of the most intriguing aspects concerning lamins is their remarkable contribute to cells mechanics. Over the years, this has led to the speculation of the so-called "structural hypothesis", which attempts to elucidate the etiology and some features of the laminopathies. Among the various techniques tried to figure out the role of lamins in the cells mechanics, the AFM has been already successfully applied, proving its versatility. Therefore, the present work aims both to highlight the qualities of AFM and to review the most relevant knowledge about lamins, in order to promote the study of the latter, taking advantage from the former. Microsc. Res. Tech. 80:97-108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading...... strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy...

  7. Prediction of Draft Force and Energy Requirement for Subsoiling Operation with a Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Abbaspour Gilandeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a knowledge-based fuzzy logic system was developed on experimental data and used to predict the draft force and energy requirement of tillage operation. In comparison with traditional methods, the fuzzy logic model acts more effectively in creating a relationship between multiple inputs to achieve an output signal in a nonlinear range. Field experiments were carried out in a sandy loam soil on coastal plain at the Edisto Research and Education Center of Clemson University near Blackville, South Carolina (Latitude 33˚ 21"N, Longitude 81˚ 18"W. In this paper, a fuzzy model based on Mamdani inference system has been used. This model was developed for predicting the changes of draft force and energy requirement for subsoiling operation. This fuzzy model contains 25 rules. In this investigation, the Mamdani Max-Min inference was used for deducing the mechanism (composition of fuzzy rules with input. The center of gravity defuzzification method was also used for conversion of the final output of the system into a classic number. The validity of the presented model was achieved by numerical error criterion, based on empirical data. The prediction results showed a close relationship between measured and predicted values such that the mean relative error of measured and predicted values were 3.1% and 2.94% for draft resistant force and energy required for subsoiling operation, respectively. The comparison between the fuzzy logic model and the regression models showed that the mean relative errors from the regression model are greater than that from the fuzzy logic model.

  8. Global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources during past and future periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation (e.g. rivers and reservoirs) are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use is considered unsustainable and threatens food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during past (1960-2001) and future (2002-2050) periods using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model can simulate water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° latitude and longitude. The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR), medium-size reservoirs (MSR), and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). The simulated results from 1960 to 2001 showed that RIV, MSR and NNBW increased significantly from the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, the increase in RIV declined as it approached a critical limit, due to the continued expansion of irrigation area. MSR and NNBW increased significantly, during the same time period, following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as a future increase in NNBW. After the 2020s, MSR was predicted to approach the critical limit, and ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s.

  9. A global model simulation of present and future nitrate aerosols and their direct radiative forcing of climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Hauglustaine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ammonia cycle and nitrate particle formation have been introduced in the LMDz-INCA global model. Both fine nitrate particles formation in the accumulation mode and coarse nitrate forming on existing dust and sea-salt particles are considered. The model simulates distributions of nitrates and related species in agreement with previous studies and observations. The calculated present-day total nitrate direct radiative forcing since the pre-industrial is −0.056 W m−2. This forcing has the same magnitude than the forcing associated with organic carbon particles and represents 18% of the sulfate forcing. Fine particles largely dominate the nitrate forcing representing close to 90% of this value. The model has been used to investigate the future changes in nitrates and direct radiative forcing of climate based on snapshot simulations for the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios and for the 2030, 2050 and 2100 time horizons. Due to a decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the future, the concentrations of most of the species involved in the nitrate-ammonium-sulfate system drop by 2100 except for ammonia which originates from agricultural practices and for which emissions significantly increase in the future. Despite the decrease of nitrate surface levels in Europe and Northern America, the global burden of accumulation mode nitrates increases by up to a factor of 2.6 in 2100. This increase in nitrate in the future arises despite decreasing NOx emissions due to increased availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. The total aerosol direct forcing decreases from its present-day value of −0.234 W m−2 to a range of −0.070 to −0.130 W m−2 in 2100 based on the considered scenario. The direct forcing decreases for all aerosols except for nitrates for which the direct negative forcing increases to a range of −0.060 to −0.115 W m−2 in 2100. Including nitrates in the radiative forcing calculations increases the

  10. Consequences for designer and manufacturer of mechanical components due to future requirements in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans-Joachim, Frank [Siemens/ SNP-NDM1, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In the frame of European harmonization, a lot of changes on requirements for designer and manufacturer of mechanical components have been performed. Differed organizations are involved in preparing future requirements for nuclear application. On one side the French German cooperation on the development of EPR. At the origin of this project was the common decision in 1989 of Framatome and Siemens to cooperate through NPI, to design the Nuclear Island, which meets the future needs of utilities. EDF and a group of the main German Utilities joined this cooperation in 1991 and since then they have been totally involved to the progress of the work. In addition, all the process was backed up to the end by the strong cooperation between the French and the German. Safety Authorities, which have a long lasting cooperation to define common requirements, which have to be applied to future Nuclear Power Plants. Furthermore an organization has been set up to elaborate common codes related to the EPR design, at the level of the French design and construction rules (RCC) or the German KTA safety standards, the so-called EPR technical codes (ETC). On the other side, the European utilities co-operate on a much broader basis for the establishment of European Utilities Requirements (EUR). These requirements are prepared by a group of European utilities that represent the major European electricity generating companies that are determined to keep the nuclear option open. The technical requirements specified in the EUR document define the boundaries in which future plants need to be designed in order to be acceptable for the needs of the utilities and in order to fulfill the basic requirements of competitive power generation costs and licensability in all countries represented in the EUR group. All the new requirements have to be applied by designer and manufacturer. Siemens /SNP act as a designer of a lot of various vessels and tanks, heat exchangers and other items of process

  11. Consequences for designer and manufacturer of mechanical components due to future requirements in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans-Joachim, Frank [Siemens/ SNP-NDM1, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In the frame of European harmonization, a lot of changes on requirements for designer and manufacturer of mechanical components have been performed. Differed organizations are involved in preparing future requirements for nuclear application. On one side the French German cooperation on the development of EPR. At the origin of this project was the common decision in 1989 of Framatome and Siemens to cooperate through NPI, to design the Nuclear Island, which meets the future needs of utilities. EDF and a group of the main German Utilities joined this cooperation in 1991 and since then they have been totally involved to the progress of the work. In addition, all the process was backed up to the end by the strong cooperation between the French and the German. Safety Authorities, which have a long lasting cooperation to define common requirements, which have to be applied to future Nuclear Power Plants. Furthermore an organization has been set up to elaborate common codes related to the EPR design, at the level of the French design and construction rules (RCC) or the German KTA safety standards, the so-called EPR technical codes (ETC). On the other side, the European utilities co-operate on a much broader basis for the establishment of European Utilities Requirements (EUR). These requirements are prepared by a group of European utilities that represent the major European electricity generating companies that are determined to keep the nuclear option open. The technical requirements specified in the EUR document define the boundaries in which future plants need to be designed in order to be acceptable for the needs of the utilities and in order to fulfill the basic requirements of competitive power generation costs and licensability in all countries represented in the EUR group. All the new requirements have to be applied by designer and manufacturer. Siemens /SNP act as a designer of a lot of various vessels and tanks, heat exchangers and other items of process

  12. The influence of tape type and of skin preparation on the force required to dislodge angiocatheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N; Smith, C E; Pinchak, A C; Hancock, D E

    1994-08-01

    The study evaluated the effects of different techniques used to secure intravenous (i.v.) catheters. An angiocatheter attached to standard i.v. tubing was taped to human forearm using a standard taping method. A calibrated piezoelectric force transducer was attached to the i.v. tubing. The force applied along the longitudinal axis to pull out the taped catheter was measured and recorded on paper. Three tape types, Curity, Leukopor and Transpore, were evaluated alone, with benzoin skin pretreatment and with mastisol pretreatment. A randomized 3 x 3 block design with 20 replications per block was utilized, and a total of 180 pullout tests were performed on two adult volunteers. Without pretreatment, the forces required to dislodge catheters were (means +/- SEM) 46 +/- 2, 37 +/- 2 and 38 +/- 2 Newtons for Curity, Leukopor and Transpore tape, respectively. Corresponding values for mastisol pretreatment (64 +/- 1, 64 +/- 3 and 52 +/- 3 Newtons) were greater (P tape compared with benzoin (54 +/- 3, 53 +/- 2 and 40 +/- 2 Newtons) and no pretreatment. The most frequent failure mode for Transpore tape was by tape fracture, for Curity tape was by separation from the skin of tape and catheter as a single unit, and for Leukopor tape was by catheter separation while tape remained attached to skin (P tape helps to minimize the risk of accidental dislodgement.

  13. An Exploration of Equipping a Future Force Warrior Small Combat Unit with Non-Lethal Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    usually easier) skills before attempting more difficult tasks. Beginner -, intermediate-, and advanced-level progression applies to real life and to M&S...anticipated invasion by Armenian forces. On 15 December, Russia proposed a coalition of US and Russian forces to restore order within Azerbaijan and

  14. Predicting Future Capabilities of the People’s Liberation Army Air Forces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    five variables describe expeditionary air force capabilities based on the AEF construct explained by Dr. Thierry Gongora , a defense scientist employed...40 Thierry Gongora . “The Meaning of Expeditionary Operations from an Air Force Prospective” (Paper... Gongora lists air superiority fighters, bomber aircraft, tankers, and medium lift (assuming inflight refuelable). Because of China’s lack of tankers

  15. A global model simulation of present and future nitrate aerosols and their direct radiative forcing of climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauglustaine, D. A.; Balkanski, Y.; Schulz, M.

    2014-10-01

    The ammonia cycle and nitrate particle formation are introduced into the LMDz-INCA (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, version 4 - INteraction with Chemistry and Aerosols, version 3) global model. An important aspect of this new model is that both fine nitrate particle formation in the accumulation mode and coarse nitrate forming on existing dust and sea-salt particles are considered. The model simulates distributions of nitrates and related species in agreement with previous studies and observations. The calculated present-day total nitrate direct radiative forcing since the pre-industrial is -0.056 W m-2. This forcing corresponds to 18% of the sulfate forcing. Fine particles largely dominate the nitrate forcing, representing close to 90% of this value. The model has been used to investigate the future changes in nitrates and direct radiative forcing of climate based on snapshot simulations for the four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios and for the 2030, 2050, and 2100 time horizons. Due to a decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the future, the concentration of most of the species involved in the nitrate-ammonium-sulfate system drop by 2100 except for ammonia, which originates from agricultural practices and for which emissions significantly increase in the future. Despite the decrease of nitrate surface levels in Europe and North America, the global burden of accumulation mode nitrates increases by up to a factor of 2.6 in 2100. This increase in ammonium nitrate in the future arises despite decreasing NOx emissions due to increased availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. The total aerosol direct forcing decreases from its present-day value of -0.234 W m-2 to a range of -0.070 to -0.130 W m-2 in 2100 based on the considered scenario. The direct forcing decreases for all aerosols except for nitrates, for which the direct negative forcing increases to a range of -0.060 to -0.115 W m-2 in 2100. Including nitrates in the radiative

  16. Efficiency and economics of large scale hydrogen liquefaction. [for future generation aircraft requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen is being considered as a substitute for conventional hydrocarbon-based fuels for future generations of commercial jet aircraft. Its acceptance will depend, in part, upon the technology and cost of liquefaction. The process and economic requirements for providing a sufficient quantity of liquid hydrogen to service a major airport are described. The design is supported by thermodynamic studies which determine the effect of process arrangement and operating parameters on the process efficiency and work of liquefaction.

  17. Future atmospheric abundances and climate forcings from scenarios of global and regional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Guus J. M.; Fahey, David W.; Daniel, John S.; Andersen, Stephen O.; McFarland, Mack

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are manufactured for use as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. While HFCs do not deplete ozone, many are potent greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. Here, new global scenarios show that baseline emissions of HFCs could reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050. The new baseline (or business-as-usual) scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. The scenarios rely on detailed data reported by countries to the United Nations; projections of gross domestic product and population; and recent observations of HFC atmospheric abundances. In the baseline scenarios, by 2050 China (31%), India and the rest of Asia (23%), the Middle East and northern Africa (11%), and the USA (10%) are the principal source regions for global HFC emissions; and refrigeration (40-58%) and stationary air conditioning (21-40%) are the major use sectors. The corresponding radiative forcing could reach 0.22-0.25 W m-2 in 2050, which would be 12-24% of the increase from business-as-usual CO2 emissions from 2015 to 2050. National regulations to limit HFC use have already been adopted in the European Union, Japan and USA, and proposals have been submitted to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries.

  18. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  19. Organizing for the Future: Aligning U.S. Air Force Cyber Support with Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    MAJCOM Commanders, memorandum, 7 June 2006. 8 Laura M. Colarusso , “The Deepest Cuts: USAF To Let Go of Hundreds of Planes, Thousands of Airmen” Defense...M. Colarusso and Rod Hafemeister, “Forced cuts - Air Force leaders plan to drop 40,000 airmen, civilians over 6 years, starting in 2006,” Air Force...Blue. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1997. Colarusso , Laura M. “The Deepest Cuts: USAF To Let Go of Hundreds of Planes, Thousands of Airmen

  20. Strategy for the Long Haul. Special Operations Forces: Future Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S...Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress,” pp. 4–5; and Sean Naylor, “More than Door Kickers ,” Armed Forces Journal, March 2006. 3 This is a...Issues for Congress,” p. 4; and Sean Naylor, “More Than Door Kickers ,” Armed Forces Journal, March 2006. JSOC is, in theory at least, responsible for

  1. Expeditionary Operations Require Joint Force Capabilities in the Future Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    point for civilian and military expeditions. Chapter Two looks at the existing joint expeditionary architecture to provide the foundation for what the...Jun., 1989): pp. 893-894, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1873989. Moskos, Charles C., John Allen Williams,and David R.Segal, eds. "The Postmodern

  2. Future Tactical Truck System Maximization: A Achieving Objective Force Sustainment and Distribution Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    automatically execute a convoy standing operating procedure that creates the convoy chain of command and S/V team roles in the convoy for execution of...responsibility for their assigned vehicle. Soldiers are culturally indoctrinated to understand their individual S/V team role in the greater sustainment

  3. The Future of Officer Career Development System in the Slovenian Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Professors Anton Zabkar and Uros Svete, at the Faculty for Social Science at University of Ljubljana, clearly identified the deficiencies in the...short-lived solution], Slovenian Armed Forces Bulletin 10, no. 1 (May 2008): 97-120. 5Anton Zabkar and Uros Svete, “Solanje Vojaskih Profesionalcev...education system: Reality or short-lived solution]. Slovenian Armed Forces Bulletin 10, no. 1 (May 2008): 97-120. 97 Zabka,r Anton, and Uros Svete

  4. Employers’ Perspectives on Future Roles and Skills Requirements for Australian Health Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Hamill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study, which comprises one stage of a larger project (ALIA/HLA Workforce and Education Research Project, aimed to discover employers’ views on how (or whether health librarians assist in achieving the mission-critical goals of their organizations; how health librarians contribute to the organization now and into the future; and what are the current and future skills requirements of health librarians.Methods – Each member of the project group approached between one and five individuals known to them to generate a convenience sample of 22 employers of health librarians. There were 15 semi-structured interviews conducted between October and November 2010 with employers in the hospital, academic, government, private, consumer health and not-for-profit sectors. The interview schedule was sent to each interviewee prior to the interview so that they had time to consider their responses. The researchers wrote up the interview notes using the interview schedule and submitted them to the principal researcher, who combined the data into one document. Content analysis of the data was used to identify major themes.Results – Employers expressed a clear sense of respect for the roles and responsibilities of library staff in their organizations. Areas of practice such as education and training, scientific research and clinical support were highlighted as critical for the future. Current areas of practice such as using technology and systems to manage information, providing information services to meet user needs and management of health information resources in a range of formats were identified as remaining highly relevant for the future. There was potential for health librarians to play a more active and strategic role in their organizations, and to repackage their traditional skill sets for anticipated future roles. Interpersonal skills and the role of health librarians as the interface between clinicians and information technology

  5. Aircraft Modifications: Assessing the Current State of Air Force Aircraft Modifications and the Implications for Future Military Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    Modifications, analysis suggests that installation and procurement schedules are codependent due to an Air Force requirement to install a modification kit in...simultaneously and codependently determined. Further exploration of this requirement is presented in Chapter 5. Schedule estimates is combined with the cost...install a modification kit in the same year that it is procured will constrain one or both of these phases by making them codependent . In accordance with

  6. S6K1 Is Required for Increasing Skeletal Muscle Force during Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Marabita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss of skeletal muscle mass and force aggravates age-related sarcopenia and numerous pathologies, such as cancer and diabetes. The AKT-mTORC1 pathway plays a major role in stimulating adult muscle growth; however, the functional role of its downstream mediators in vivo is unknown. Here, we show that simultaneous inhibition of mTOR signaling to both S6K1 and 4E-BP1 is sufficient to reduce AKT-induced muscle growth and render it insensitive to the mTORC1-inhibitor rapamycin. Surprisingly, lack of mTOR signaling to 4E-BP1 only, or deletion of S6K1 alone, is not sufficient to reduce muscle hypertrophy or alter its sensitivity to rapamycin. However, we report that, while not required for muscle growth, S6K1 is essential for maintaining muscle structure and force production. Hypertrophy in the absence of S6K1 is characterized by compromised ribosome biogenesis and the formation of p62-positive protein aggregates. These findings identify S6K1 as a crucial player for maintaining muscle function during hypertrophy.

  7. Masterplanning in the process of adapting existing hospitals to future requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatermann, Hans-Evert

    2003-01-01

    In many countries in Europe there will be built only few total new hospitals, but a lot of existing hospitals need to be adapted to the requirements of the future. For this process of planning we need masterplans. However, there does not exist an exact definition of the term "Masterplan" up to now. Therefore several committees tried to rectify this lack. The UIA WP Public Health focussed the exchange of experience in the field of updating and upgrading existing hospitals in its last International Public Health Seminars. It has shown that the process of masterplanning step by step is similar in many countries. UIA WP Public Health now tries to find new ways for a better understanding: to develop a definition of terms, to standardize the building structure of hospitals as well as the structure of the process of masterplanning and its depiction. We now have received the first interesting results and we are looking with optimize into the future.

  8. Energy Requirements of US Army Special Operation Forces During Military Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Special Operations Forces (SOF regularly engage in physically demanding combat operations and field training exercises, resulting in high daily energy expenditure, and thus increased energy requirements. However, the majority of studies assessing energy requirements of SOF have been conducted on soldiers going through intense SOF initiation training. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the energy expenditure of SOF conducting military training operations. Thirty-one soldiers taking part in Pre-Mission Training (PMT n = 15 and Combat Diver Qualification Courses (CDQC n = 16 volunteered to participate in this observational study. Energy expenditure was determined using doubly labeled water. Body weight (83 ± 7 kg remained stable during both training periods. Overall energy expenditure adjusted for body composition was 17,606 ± 2326 kJ·day−1. Energy expenditure was 19,110 ± 1468 kJ·day−1 during CDQC and 16,334 ± 2180 kJ·day−1 during PMT, with physical activity levels of 2.6 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.3 during CDQC and PMT, respectively. Compared to the Military Dietary Reference Intakes for energy (13,598 kJ·day−1, these data are in agreement with previous reports that energy requirement for SOF Soldiers exceed that of the average soldier.

  9. CSAR-eXit: The Future of Air Force Combat Search and Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    lines is high. At the same time the DoD must remain a trusted steward of the nation’s talent and treasure. It is our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and...1 Dec 1946 – 8 Jul 1952 The last line of the Air Force Vision states, “We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the...aircrew prior to their capture would have significantly changed the political calculus . I am not suggesting that a recovery would have been AU/ACSC

  10. Supporting the Future Total Force. A Methodology for Evaluating Potential Air National Guard Mission Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    CIRF centralized intermediate repair facility CMDB Consolidated Manpower Database CMS component maintenance squadron COCOM combatant command COMAFFOR...strength.htm. 6 Roughly 83,854, or 23 percent. See Consolidated Manpower Database ( CMDB ), as of September 30, 2004. Data file provided by the Air Force...16,191 3,660 5,788 11,878 Total authorizations 35,315 12,831 12,394 21,105 SOURCE: CMDB as of September 30, 2004. Data file provided by the Air Force

  11. Depot Maintenance: Improved Strategic Planning Needed to Ensure That Army and Marine Corps Depots Can Meet Future Maintenance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    of Representatives DEPOT MAINTENANCE Improved Strategic Planning Needed to Ensure That Army and Marine Corps Depots Can Meet Future...Depot Maintenance. Improved Strategic Planning Needed to Ensure That Army and Marine Corps Depots Can Meet Future Maintenance Requirements 5a... Strategic Planning Needed to Ensure That Army and Marine Corps Depots Can Meet Future Maintenance Requirements Highlights of GAO-09-865, a report to

  12. Proxy Forces, the Future of the Land Component in Coalition Operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    League voting in favor of an UN-backed no-fly zone on 17 March, and UNSCR 1973 was passed in the UN Security Council. With PGF reaching the outskirts of...Forces in Afghanistan. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2003. Brown, Malcolm. Lawrence of Arabia the Life, the Legend . New

  13. Air Force Commodity Councils: A Template for Future Implementation Comparing Successful and Failed Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Purchasing, Transaction Cost Analysis, Transaction Cost Economics, Air Force, Supply Chain Management, Procurement, Transformation 16. PRICE CODE 17...SOURCING .............................................................................7 C. TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS... Transaction Cost Economics xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Our sincere gratitude and appreciation goes out to our advisors, LtCol Bryan Hudgens and Professor

  14. Future Skill Needs in Europe: Critical Labour Force Trends. Cedefop Research Paper. No 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The European labour market is challenged by changes in the demographic composition of the labour force and increasing work complexities and processes. Skills forecasting makes useful contribution to decisions by policy-makers, experts and individuals. In this publication, Cedefop presents the latest results of skills supply and demand forecasts.…

  15. CHANGE@CERN:Task Force 3: adjusting services to future needs

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We continue our articles on the Task Force reports The number of craftsmen and technicians could be increased with a change in the staff composition. The mandate for Task Force 3 was to make proposals for savings and new cost control procedures in the area of Industrial Support and Contracts for the period until 2009. The aim, explains the convenor, Karl-Heinz Kissler, was to keep spending under control under difficult conditions when staff numbers are decreasing and the work for the LHC becomes more demanding. The measures proposed, if implemented, could lead to savings of around 170 MCHF. The proposals involve both Industrial Services contracts, which were discussed in the Bulletin of the 22nd of April (n°17/2002) and readjustments for staff at CERN, on which we concentrate here. As with other Task Forces the principle aim was to be able to refocus resources onto the LHC project. In this respect, Task Force 3 could work within the framework of the revised programme for the LHC and the reduced non-LHC pro...

  16. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  17. Senior Leader Perspective on the Air Force Nuclear Enterprise: Todays Issues and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    nuclear enterprise senior leadership  Each individual opinion will be weighted the same 6  There are only a limited number of senior leaders in the...force saw a dramatic atrophy of its nuclear operational and academic skills set (Schlesinger 2008a). Most Americans erroneously assumed the threat of...appointments whose daily business involved nuclear weapons were lowered 4) The nuclear mission and those who performed it were generally devalued 5) There

  18. The Future of Air Force Motion Imagery Exploitation: Lessons from the Commercial World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    producers to keep them apprised of the events as well. We observed a similar informal practice among some IMSs and MOCs at various DGS sites to cope with...communications is that, within the control room format, the supervisors are constantly in motion. Unlike Air Force MOCs and IMSs , who typically must be...open question whether the IMS-O position must be filled by an officer, unlike the current IMS position. We fully expect that current IMSs are quite

  19. Permanent Presence for the Persistent Conflict: An Alternative Look at the Future of Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    psychological operations as methods that can be leveraged by military actions and forces. Understanding that the indigenous populace is the center of...bandwidth. Some of that money might be better spent improving how our military thinks and studies, to create a parallel transformation based on cognition ... cannabis production. The long-term presence of SF in the region on a permanent basis would provide an element of much needed stability

  20. Transatlantic Current. Number 7. October 2012. Building Future Transatlantic Interoperability Around a Robust NATO Response Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    spawned a nascent culture of multinational planning and opera- tional teamwork among a host of militaries. This coalition culture is emerg- ing in the same...deployed together in combat and postconflict land, maritime, and air operations for more than 20 years. Junior through senior leaders will have...experience in planning operations and commanding forces in life and death situations. A substantial percentage of these will have experienced multiple

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on the Future Tactical Battlefield - Are UAVs and Essential Joint Force Multiplier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-12

    MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Major Roald L. MOgoniale Title of Monograph: Untanned Aerial Vj!ji.UAVs) on the Future Tactical Battlefield - Are UAVa an Essential...New York: Hill and Wang , 1984. Lambeth, Benjamin S. Moscow’s Lessons Learned from the 1982 Lebanon Air War. Santa Monica, CA.: Rand Corporation, 1984

  2. Location Forecast of Future Urban Residential Development Near Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products . All product names and trademarks cited...in telecommuting . Fourth, this model is only forecasting the development locations of future high-density urban residential development. In reality

  3. Challenges to United States Tactical Air Force Aircraft Maintenance Personnel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Korean War. MS thesis, AFIT/GSM/L/88S-7. School of Systems and Logistics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson APB OH, September 1988 (AD...1.5-billion program, MSIP is upgrading 15 line replaceable units (LRUs) in the Hughes APG-63 radar and other key avionics systems to extend the...1980. 11. Forney, Captain James I. Logistics Of Aircrnt Mmintenance During The Korean War. MS thesis, AFIT/GSM/LS/88S-7. School of Systems and Logistics

  4. Supporting the Future Total Force: A Methodology for Evaluating Potential Air National Guard Mission Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    U.S. Air Forces, Central Command CENTCOM U.S. Central Command CIRF centralized intermediate repair facility CMDB Consolidated Manpower Database CMS...See http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/end-strength.htm. 6 Roughly 83,854, or 23 percent. See Consolidated Manpower Database ( CMDB ), as...19,124 9,171 6,606 9,227 Intermediate-level authorizations 16,191 3,660 5,788 11,878 Total authorizations 35,315 12,831 12,394 21,105 SOURCE: CMDB as

  5. Social Gaming and Learning Applications: A Driving Force for the Future of Virtual and Augmented Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörner, Ralf; Lok, Benjamin; Broll, Wolfgang

    Backed by a large consumer market, entertainment and education applications have spurred developments in the fields of real-time rendering and interactive computer graphics. Relying on Computer Graphics methodologies, Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality benefited indirectly from this; however, there is no large scale demand for VR and AR in gaming and learning. What are the shortcomings of current VR/AR technology that prevent a widespread use in these application areas? What advances in VR/AR will be necessary? And what might future “VR-enhanced” gaming and learning look like? Which role can and will Virtual Humans play? Concerning these questions, this article analyzes the current situation and provides an outlook on future developments. The focus is on social gaming and learning.

  6. Une force venant du futur chercherait à saboter l'expérience du LHC...

    CERN Multimedia

    Scappaticci, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    "A quelques jours de la reprise de l'expérience du LHC, on ne parle plus de la menace d'un trou noir, mais deux physicines souteinnent aujourd'hui une tout autres hypothèse: la nature, depuis le futur, va continuer de contrarier les travaux du Cern, afin d'éviter à l'Homme de mettre le doigt là où il ne faut pas..." (1.5 pages)

  7. Balancing Strategy, Resources and Capability: Sizing the Force for an Uncertain Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-30

    time consuming enterprise. In the revolutionary era, an Army was built quickly for war from the militia and National Guard, and was just as quickly...her leadership battle with Steny Hoyer in 2001; she’s speaker today due more to Murtha than to anyone else. But, said Work, “No matter how powerful...ground Services recommended for the near future. Lack of strategic priorities and questionable Service programming behaviors allow congressional

  8. Future climate forcing potentially without precedent in the last 420 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gavin L.; Royer, Dana L.; Lunt, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of Earth's climate on geological timescales is largely driven by variations in the magnitude of total solar irradiance (TSI) and changes in the greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere. Here we show that the slow ~50 Wm-2 increase in TSI over the last ~420 million years (an increase of ~9 Wm-2 of radiative forcing) was almost completely negated by a long-term decline in atmospheric CO2. This was likely due to the silicate weathering-negative feedback and the expansion of land plants that together ensured Earth's long-term habitability. Humanity's fossil-fuel use, if unabated, risks taking us, by the middle of the twenty-first century, to values of CO2 not seen since the early Eocene (50 million years ago). If CO2 continues to rise further into the twenty-third century, then the associated large increase in radiative forcing, and how the Earth system would respond, would likely be without geological precedent in the last half a billion years.

  9. The large contribution of projected HFC emissions to future climate forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Guus J M; Fahey, David W; Daniel, John S; McFarland, Mack; Andersen, Stephen O

    2009-07-01

    The consumption and emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are projected to increase substantially in the coming decades in response to regulation of ozone depleting gases under the Montreal Protocol. The projected increases result primarily from sustained growth in demand for refrigeration, air-conditioning (AC) and insulating foam products in developing countries assuming no new regulation of HFC consumption or emissions. New HFC scenarios are presented based on current hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) consumption in leading applications, patterns of replacements of HCFCs by HFCs in developed countries, and gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Global HFC emissions significantly exceed previous estimates after 2025 with developing country emissions as much as 800% greater than in developed countries in 2050. Global HFC emissions in 2050 are equivalent to 9-19% (CO(2)-eq. basis) of projected global CO(2) emissions in business-as-usual scenarios and contribute a radiative forcing equivalent to that from 6-13 years of CO(2) emissions near 2050. This percentage increases to 28-45% compared with projected CO(2) emissions in a 450-ppm CO(2) stabilization scenario. In a hypothetical scenario based on a global cap followed by 4% annual reductions in consumption, HFC radiative forcing is shown to peak and begin to decline before 2050.

  10. Bench Test Modeling for Current and Future PCMO Fuel Economy Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark T.Devlin; Cheng C.Kuo; John M.Pietras; Zhang Yun

    2008-01-01

    The automotive and lubricant industries have been placing increased emphasis on the fuel economy benefits of today's modern passenger car motor oils.The current ILSAC GF-4 specification has more stringent requirements than previous ILSAC specifications,and the proposed future ILSAC GF-5 specification is looking at further improvements in the lubricant's fuel economy performance.To address these needs,Afton Chemical has developed correlations between the rheological and frictional properties of oils and fuel economy measured in engine and field tests.In this paper we will present correlations between lubricauts' physical properties and fuel economy measured in vehicles and enginetests.These tools have been used to develop current commercial oils which are being used extensively to meet today's OEM needs.

  11. International evaluation of current and future requirements for environmental engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenroth, E; Daigger, G T; Ledin, A; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering is developing as a result of changing environmental requirements. In response, environmental engineering education (E3) needs to ensure that it provides students with the necessary tools to address these challenges. In this paper the current status and future development of E3 is evaluated based on a questionnaire sent to universities and potential employers of E3 graduates. With increasing demands on environmental quality, the complexity of environmental engineering problems to be solved can be expected to increase. To find solutions environmental engineers will need to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on the questionnaire there was a broad agreement that the best way to prepare students for these future challenges is to provide them with a fundamental education in basic sciences and related engineering fields. Many exciting developments in the environmental engineering profession will be located at the interface between engineering, science, and society. Aspects of all three areas need to be included in E3 and the student needs to be exposed to the tensions associated with linking the three.

  12. Telecommuters: the stay-at-home work force of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, P.F.

    1983-06-01

    The spread of teleworkers who commute via telecommunications from their home offices will depend, despite the energy-saving and tax advantages of self-employment, on how fast the social climate accepts teleworking, whether software can be made friendlier, and whether legal issues of database networks are resolved. The societal changes associated with home offices can be either a positive reemphasis on the home or a negative electronic sweatshop and a way to export office work to low-wage areas. The author, who sees a gradual adoption of teleworking while these technological, societal, and marketing barriers are dealt with, develops a scenario for an information society of the future. (DCK)

  13. Fueling the Future Force: Preparing the Department of Defense for a Post-Petroleum Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    avail- ability of petroleum. The U.S. Energy Information Administration projects that world energy demand will grow from its 2007 level of 495.2...and can be recov- ered under current geological, economic and technological conditions) are often cited in consid- ering the future of world energy trends...N r At I o S ? By Alexandra Stark | 25 Figure 2: WOrlD peTrOleum reserve-TO-prODuCTiOn raTiOs Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

  14. The modernization of the Russian strategic forces and the future of the US-Russian arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miasnikov, Eugene [The Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    The bilateral U.S.-Russian strategic arms control di alog was at its peak at the end of the Cold War, when the very successful Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) and Strategic Arms Reduction (START) Treaties were succeeded. Unfortunately, it is almost non-existent these days. With the end of START in 2009, an important verification mechanism, that currently provides transparency of U.S. and Russian strategic forces and their activities, might be lost, if the sides fail to work out a replacement for it. At the same time the role of transparent nuclear arms reductions by nuclear states is growing for the future of the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) regime, and this factor should stimulate U.S. and Russia to renew the strategic arms control dialog. The talk focuses on modern trends in the evolution of U.S. and Russian nuclear forces and doctrines of their implementation as well as on the impact of these tendencies on attitudes toward arms control. A framework of a new bilateral strategic arms reduction agreement that might replace START and enforce Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT) is proposed.

  15. Climatic and Oceanic Forcing of Glacier Mass Balance across Svalbard in Recent Decades and Implications for Future Glacier Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M.; Lux, J. D.; Schneider, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic archipelago Svalbard is situated at the intersection between cold northern polar air masses and ocean waters and the influences of the West Spitsbergen Current, which is the major warm-water conveyor to the Arctic system. Studying the glacier response on Svalbard to the variability in climatic and oceanic forcing therefore promises to yield important insights into the causal chains that connect the response of Arctic land-ice to both, the principle variability of Arctic climate and ocean conditions and climate change. The glaciers, ice caps and ice fields that cover most of the Svalbard archipelago experienced significant changes over the past decades. However, recent glacier mass balance and actual evolution at different locations of the archipelago varies substantially. Our contribution presents an analysis of the influences potential climate and ocean-related drivers have on glacier mass balance on Svalbard. Here, frequency anomalies in weather type occurrence and anomalies in the spatial patterns of sea ice and sea surface temperature are considered. They are correlated to time series of multi-decadal seasonal mass-balance anomalies of three glaciers on the archipelago. It is shown that both, type and strength of the influences of the different climatic and oceanic drivers vary substantially across the archipelago. The topographic location with respect to large-scale relief and prevailing wind direction plays an important governing role. Positive and negative seasonal mass balance anomalies were found to be significantly correlated with both frequency anomalies of certain weather types and anomalies of patterns in sea ice and sea surface temperature. In the light of expectable, projected future evolutions of the considered driving forces and of the obtained relations between driving forces and glacier mass balance it is concluded in which qualitative way glacier change on Svalbard might be influenced by atmospheric and oceanic conditions in the

  16. Regional Climate Variability Responses to Future Land Surface Forcing in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation could destabilize regional climate changes. This paper aimed to model the potential climatological variability caused by future forest vulnerability in the Brazilian Amazon over the 21th century. The underlying land surface changes between 2005 and 2100 are first projected based on the respectable output produced by Hurtt et al. Then the weather research and forecasting (WRF model is applied to assess the impacts of future deforestation on regional climate during 2090–2100. The study results show that the forests in the Brazilian Amazon will primarily be converted into dryland cropland and pasture in the northwest part and into cropland/woodland mosaic in the southeast part, with 5.12% and 13.11%, respectively. These land surface changes will therefore lead to the significant reduction of the sum of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux and precipitation and the increase of the surface temperature. Furthermore, the variability of surface temperature is observed with close link to the deforested areas.

  17. Future mission opportunities and requirements for advanced space photovoltaic energy conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The variety of potential future missions under consideration by NASA will impose a broad range of requirements on space solar arrays, and mandates the development of new solar cells which can offer a wide range of capabilities to mission planners. Major advances in performance have recently been achieved at several laboratories in a variety of solar cell types. Many of those recent advances are reviewed, the areas are examined where possible improvements are yet to be made, and the requirements are discussed that must be met by advanced solar cell if they are to be used in space. The solar cells of interest include single and multiple junction cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous materials. Single crystal cells on foreign substrates, thin film single crystal cells on superstrates, and multiple junction cells which are either mechanically stacked, monolithically grown, or hybrid structures incorporating both techniques are discussed. Advanced concentrator array technology for space applications is described, and the status of thin film, flexible solar array blanket technology is reported.

  18. Requirements and solutions for future pellet technology; Krav och loesningar foer framtidens pelletsteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Roennbaeck, Marie; Ryde, Daniel; Laitila, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Requirements and solutions for future pellet burning technologies Since 2006, sales of pellet burning technologies to the Swedish residential market have fallen. The main reasons for this decrease are: many of the economically favorable easy conversions from oil to pellets have been made; competition from heat pumps; warm winters; a stable electricity price; and the current structure of heating in residential buildings, where electric heating dominates. To change this falling trend pellets need to become more attractive to consumers. This project aimed to analyze the requirements for the next generation of pellets systems and to develop potential solutions, in collaboration with the pellets industry. More specifically, the study looked at consumers' attitudes toward heating choices and different heating through a survey to 2000 house owners across Sweden. The project included a market analysis of Swedish and international technologies and examines the conditions for Swedish pellet burning technology in different markets. In addition, new solutions and developments for Swedish pellets burning technology are described

  19. Key Technologies in the Context of Future Networks: Operational and Management Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Isabel Barona López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Future Networks is based on the premise that current infrastructures require enhanced control, service customization, self-organization and self-management capabilities to meet the new needs in a connected society, especially of mobile users. In order to provide a high-performance mobile system, three main fields must be improved: radio, network, and operation and management. In particular, operation and management capabilities are intended to enable business agility and operational sustainability, where the addition of new services does not imply an excessive increase in capital or operational expenditures. In this context, a set of key-enabled technologies have emerged in order to aid in this field. Concepts such as Software Defined Network (SDN, Network Function Virtualization (NFV and Self-Organized Networks (SON are pushing traditional systems towards the next 5G network generation.This paper presents an overview of the current status of these promising technologies and ongoing works to fulfill the operational and management requirements of mobile infrastructures. This work also details the use cases and the challenges, taking into account not only SDN, NFV, cloud computing and SON but also other paradigms.

  20. Managing Diversity: The New Multicultural Work Force Requires a Simpatico Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piturro, Marlene; Mahoney, Sarah S.

    1992-01-01

    Some companies are finding ways to manage a culturally diverse work force: analyzing work force composition, increasing awareness of attitudinal differences and diversity issues, thinking interculturally about problems, mentoring diverse employees, making standards fluid enough for all achievers, and rewarding successful managers of diverse…

  1. The role of natural versus forced change in future rapid summer Arctic ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Marika M.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Tremblay, L.-Bruno; Bailey, David A.

    Climate model simulations from the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) suggest that Arctic sea ice could undergo rapid September ice retreat in the 21st century. A previous study indicated that this results from a thinning of sea ice to more vulnerable conditions, a "kick" in the form of pulse-like increases in ocean heat transport and positive feedbacks that accelerate the retreat. Here we further examine the factors affecting these events, including the role of natural versus forced change and the possibility of threshold-like behavior in the simulated sea ice cover. We find little indication that a critical sea ice state is reached that then leads to rapid ice loss. Instead, our results suggest that the rapid ice loss events result from anthropogenic change reinforced by growing intrinsic variability. The natural variability in summer ice extent increases in the 21st century because of the thinning ice cover. As the ice thins, large regions can easily melt out, resulting in considerable ice extent variations. The important role of natural variability in the simulated rapid ice loss is such that we find little capability for predicting these events based on a knowledge of prior ice and ocean conditions. This is supported by results from sensitivity simulations initialized several years prior to an event, which exhibit little predictive skill.

  2. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Rate of change of Herrnstein's κ as a function of response-force requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J; Wood, Helena M.

    1985-01-01

    Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes (¢/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's κ were obtained at each reinforcer magnitude. The results were: (1) response rate was more sensitive to changes in reinforcement rate at the high than at the low force requirement, (2) κ increased from the beginning to the end of the magnitude range for all subjects at both force requirements, (3) the reciprocal of κ was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude for seven of the eight data sets, and (4) the rate of change of κ was greater at the high than at the low force requirement by an order of magnitude or more. The second and third findings confirm predictions made by linear system theory, and replicate the results of an earlier experiment (McDowell & Wood, 1984). The fourth finding confirms a further prediction of the theory and supports the theory's interpretation of conflicting data on the constancy of Herrnstein's κ. PMID:16812408

  3. Modern requirements to professional training of future teacher of physical culture in the conditions of informatization of teaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumenko O.I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern requirements to professional training of future teacher of physical culture in the conditions of informatization of teaching are examined. It is exposed, that in the conditions of introduction of the modern newest information technologies in teaching new requirements are put to training of future teacher of physical culture. Abilities which must characterize the modern teacher of physical culture are indicated. It is marked that application of information technologies in industry of physical education optimizes an educational process. However there are contradictions between growth of their role in studies and direct application of these technologies in the field of knowledges. It is certain that a future specialist must adhere to the certain requirements of information technologies. It is marked that to the basic measures on implementation of the program providing of high-quality level of preparation of future teachers belongs to professional activity.

  4. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  5. Strategy, Requirements, and Forces The Rising Imperative of Air and Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Operations,” Inside the Air Force, Nov. 1, 2002. 195 Donald Rumsfeld and Paul Wolfowitz , Pentagon news briefing, May 8, 2002. 196James G. Roche, Defense...Air Force Magazine, February 2002. 208 Lt. Gen. Charles Wald , USAF Deputy Chief of Staff for Air & Space Operations, interview with John Tirpak...2002. _______ and Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz , Pentagon news briefing, May 8, 2002. RYAN, Gen. Michael E., Statement to the Senate Armed

  6. 26 CFR 54.4980F-1 - Notice requirements for certain pension plan amendments significantly reducing the rate of future...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice requirements for certain pension plan... (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980F-1 Notice requirements for certain pension plan amendments... a plan amendment of an applicable pension plan that significantly reduces the rate of future benefit...

  7. 17 CFR 1.48 - Requirements for classification of sales or purchases for future delivery as bona fide hedging of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for....48 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.48 Requirements for classification of sales or purchases...

  8. 17 CFR 1.47 - Requirements for classification of purchases or sales of contracts for future delivery as bona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for... the regulations. 1.47 Section 1.47 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.47 Requirements for...

  9. Future local and remote influences on Mediterranean ozone air quality and climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steve; Martin, Maria Val; Emmons, Louisa; Rap, Alex; Heald, Colette; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is expected to display large increases in population over the coming decades, and to exhibit strong sensitivity to projected climate change, with increasing frequency of extreme summer temperatures and decreases in precipitation. Understanding of how these changes will affect atmospheric composition in the region is limited. The eastern Mediterranean basin has been shown to exhibit a pronounced summertime local maximum in tropospheric ozone, which impacts both local air quality and the atmospheric radiation balance. In summer, the region is subject to import of pollution from Northern Europe in the boundary layer and lower troposphere, from North American sources in the large-scale westerly flow of the free mid and upper-troposphere, as well as import of pollution lofted in the Asian monsoon and carried west to the eastern Mediterranean in anticyclonic flow in the upper troposphere over north Africa. In addition, interactions with the land-surface through biogenic emission sources and dry deposition play important roles in the Mediterranean ozone budget. Here we use the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) to investigate how tropospheric ozone in the Mediterranean region responds to climate, land surface and global emissions changes between present day and 2050. We simulate climate and atmospheric composition for the year 2050, based on greenhouse gas abundances, trace gas and aerosol emissions and land cover and use from two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP4.5 & RCP8.5), designed for use by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5(CMIP5) experiments in support of the IPCC. By comparing these simulations with a present-day scenario, we investigate the effects of predicted changes in climate and emissions on air quality and climate forcing over the Mediterranean region. The simulations suggest decreases in boundary layer ozone and sulfate aerosol throughout the tropospheric column over the Mediterranean

  10. Research, Education and Innovation Bundling Forces towards a Sustainable European Energy Future

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    New technologies and applied innovation in the field of sustainable energy are needed in order to achieve a competitive and climate neutral Europe. As one of the first three Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KIC) of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT), KIC InnoEnergy invests in innovation projects and new educational programmes and provides business creation service with the purpose of delivering the disruptive technologies and innovations that Europe requires to meet this ambitious goal. Its stakeholders are top European players in the industry, research institutes, universities and business schools. Six regionally bundled European hubs – Barcelona/Lisbon, Grenoble, Eindhoven, Karlsruhe, Stockholm and Krakow - lead one thematic field each in sustainable energy. The thematic fields addressed range from Intelligent “Energy-efficient Residential Buildings and Cities” over “Energy from Chemical Fuels”, “Renewable Energies”, “Clean Coal Technologies” to “European Smar...

  11. Future needs and requirements for AMS {sup 14}C standards and reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, E. Marian E-mail: marian@stats.gla.ac.uk; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Bryant, Charlotte; Cook, Gordon T.; Gulliksen, Steinar; Harkness, Doug D.; Heinemeier, Jan; McGee, Edward; Naysmith, Philip; Possnert, Goran; Plicht, Hans van der; Strydonck, Mark van

    2004-08-01

    {sup 14}C measurement uses a number of standards and reference materials with different properties. Historically the absolute calibration of {sup 14}C measurement was tied to 1890 wood, through the 'primary' standard of NBS-OxI (produced by the National Bureau of Standards, now NIST - National Institute of Standards and technology) subsequently replaced by NBS-OxII. These are both internationally calibrated and certified materials, whose {sup 14}C activities are known absolutely. A second tier of materials, often called secondary standards or reference materials, and including internationally recognised materials such as ANU-sucrose (now also IAEA-C6), Chinese - sucrose and the IAEA C1-C6 series, augmented by additional oxalic acid samples are also used routinely. The activity of these materials has been estimated from large numbers of measurements made by many laboratories. Recently, further natural materials from the Third and Fourth International Radiocarbon Inter-comparisons (TIRI and FIRI) have been added to this list. The activities of these standards and reference materials span both the applied {sup 14}C age range and the chemical composition range of typical samples, but this is not achieved uniformly and there is a continuing need for reference materials for laboratory quality control and measurement-traceability purposes. In this paper, we review the development of {sup 14}C standards and reference materials and consider the future requirements for such materials within the {sup 14}C AMS community.

  12. Space Resource Requirements for Future In-Space Propellant Production Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Fikes, John; Roy, Stephanie; Henley, Mark W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001 studies were conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on the technical requirements and commercial potential for propellant production depots in low Earth orbit (LEO) to support future commercial, NASA, and other Agency missions. Results indicate that propellant production depots appear to be technically feasible given continued technology development, and there is a substantial growing market that depots could support. Systems studies showed that the most expensive part of transferring payloads to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is the fuel. A cryogenic propellant production and storage depot stationed in LEO could lower the cost of missions to GEO and beyond. Propellant production separates water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. This process utilizes large amounts of power, therefore a depot derived from advanced space solar power technology was defined. Results indicate that in the coming decades there could be a significant demand for water-based propellants from Earth, moon, or asteroid resources if in-space transfer vehicles (upper stages) transitioned to reusable systems using water based propellants. This type of strategic planning move could create a substantial commercial market for space resources development, and ultimately lead toward significant commercial infrastructure development within the Earth-Moon system.

  13. A Review of Engine Seal Performance and Requirements for Current and Future Army Engine Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2008-01-01

    Sand ingestion continues to impact combat ground and air vehicles in military operations in the Middle East. The T-700 engine used in Apache and Blackhawk helicopters has been subjected to increased overhauls due to sand and dust ingestion during desert operations. Engine component wear includes compressor and turbine blades/vanes resulting in decreased engine power and efficiency. Engine labyrinth seals have also been subjected to sand and dust erosion resulting in tooth tip wear, increased clearances, and loss in efficiency. For the current investigation, a brief overview is given of the history of the T-700 engine development with respect to sand and dust ingestion requirements. The operational condition of labyrinth seals taken out of service from 4 different locations of the T-700 engine during engine overhauls are examined. Collaborative efforts between the Army and NASA to improve turbine engine seal leakage and life capability are currently focused on noncontacting, low leakage, compliant designs. These new concepts should be evaluated for their tolerance to sand laden air. Future R&D efforts to improve seal erosion resistance and operation in desert environments are recommended

  14. The implications of user requirements for the functionality and content of a future EGDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Tulstrup, Jørgen

    2014-05-01

    The FP7 co-funded EGDI-Scope project is conducting analyses, which forms the basis for the development of an implementation plan for a future European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI) the aim of which will be to serve pan-European geological information from the European geological survey organisations. An important aspect of the project has been to consult stakeholders in order to deduce requirements, which is a fundamental prerequisite for making recommendations on the content and technical design of the system. It is indisputable that EGDI will have to build on international standards such as OGC and CGI and take into account legislative requirements from e.g. the INSPIRE directive. This will support the tasks of data providers and facilitate integration with other e-Infrastructures, but will not in itself lever the end user experiences. In order to make the future EGDI a successful online contributor of geological information, EGDI-Scope has therefore been looking very concretely into the needs and expectations of various user groups Most people have clear expectations anno 2014. They want to be able to search the web for information, and once found, they expect fast-performing, intuitive web applications with buttons to click, maps to navigate and reliable content to fulfil their immediate needs. In order for the EGDI to handle such requirements, a number of use cases for various thematic areas have been assessed. The use cases reveal (for example) that information about the geological composition of the ground is critical for the assessment of things like ecosystems or ground water quality. But where ecosystem assessment relies on the composition of the surface layers, groundwater geochemistry rely on the lithology of subsurface layers. For both scenarios, harmonised, pan-European geological maps are very important, but the harmonisation should not only relate to lithological classes, but also to the depth representation. The use cases also make clear

  15. Large-scale computation at PSI scientific achievements and future requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelmann, A.; Markushin, V

    2008-11-15

    and Networking' (SNSP-HPCN) is discussing this complex. Scientific results which are made possible by PSI's engagement at CSCS (named Horizon) are summarised and PSI's future high-performance computing requirements are evaluated. The data collected shows the current situation and a 5 year extrapolation of the users' needs with respect to HPC resources is made. In consequence this report can serve as a basis for future strategic decisions with respect to a non-existing HPC road-map for PSI. PSI's institutional HPC area started hardware-wise approximately in 1999 with the assembly of a 32-processor LINUX cluster called Merlin. Merlin was upgraded several times, lastly in 2007. The Merlin cluster at PSI is used for small scale parallel jobs, and is the only general purpose computing system at PSI. Several dedicated small scale clusters followed the Merlin scheme. Many of the clusters are used to analyse data from experiments at PSI or CERN, because dedicated clusters are most efficient. The intellectual and financial involvement of the procurement (including a machine update in 2007) results in a PSI share of 25 % of the available computing resources at CSCS. The (over) usage of available computing resources by PSI scientists is demonstrated. We actually get more computing cycles than we have paid for. The reason is the fair share policy that is implemented on the Horizon machine. This policy allows us to get cycles, with a low priority, even when our bi-monthly share is used. Five important observations can be drawn from the analysis of the scientific output and the survey of future requirements of main PSI HPC users: (1) High Performance Computing is a main pillar in many important PSI research areas; (2) there is a lack in the order of 10 times the current computing resources (measured in available core-hours per year); (3) there is a trend to use in the order of 600 processors per average production run; (4) the disk and tape storage growth

  16. Comparison of the force required to fracture roots vertically after ultrasonic and Masserann removal of broken instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerek, M; Başer, E D; Kayahan, M B; Sunay, H; Kaptan, R F; Bayırlı, G

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the force required to fracture roots vertically after the removal of broken instruments using ultrasonic tips and a Masserann kit. Thirty-nine extracted human anterior teeth with single and straight roots were used. The crown of each tooth was removed until the full length of the tooth was 13 mm. All canals were instrumented with the step-back technique to a size 25 K-file. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups: two experimental groups and a control group. The size 30 K-files used for the test were notched to a depth of half of the instrument with a No. 2 round bur at a point 3 mm from the tip to facilitate breakage of the file at this point. The fractured instruments were removed from the canals using ultrasonic tips or a Masserann kit. The samples were subjected to a continual vertical loading, using a universal testing machine. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The results were analysed statistically using one-way anova and Tukey HSD test. The force required to fracture the roots vertically was significantly higher in the control group than the experimental groups (P ultrasonic tips required more force to fracture than roots in the Masserann group; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Removal of a fractured instrument from the middle third of the root decreased the force required to fracture the root vertically, regardless of the technique used for instrument removal. There was not difference between the ultrasonic technique and the Masserann technique. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  17. Modeling Tractive Force Requirements of Wheel Tractors for Disc Harrowing in Loamy Sand Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Nkakini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research study, disc harrowing operations in a loamy sand soil, on an experimental plot of twenty different soil moisture levels at tillage speeds of 1.94m/s, 2.22m/s and 2.5m/s were conducted, using trace tractor techniques. The independent variables: drawbar pull force, rolling (motion resistance, wheel slip, moisture content, cone index, wheel numeric, contact pressure, speed, width of harrow, depth of harrow, and dependent variable (Tractive force were measured. Mathematical models using dimensional analysis, describing the tractor tyre-soil interaction were developed and validated. Regression analysis, was used to depict the relationships between independent variables and dependent variable. Analysis of variance using Randomized Complete Block Design in two way analysis was also used to study the effects and interactions of variables on tractive forces.Validation results of the developed tractive force models conducted, revealed that harrowing operations recorded the highest coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.995 at 2.5m/s tillage speed, while R2 =0.990 and 0. 9 were obtained at tillage speeds of 1.94m/s and 2,22m/s respectively. Analysis of variance between measured and predicted tractive forces showed correlation coefficients, R2 = 0.9308, 0.8999, 0.9958 and standard errors of 0.5844, 0.8628 and 0.78476 for harrowing at tillage speeds of 1.94m/s, 2.22m/s, and 2.5m/s respectively. The residuals analysis ranged from between – 138.95 and 48.7117, -98.6106 and 451.474, -33.3709 and 32.5384,and percentage (% errors from -0.83458466 and 0.27430385, -0.396874637 and 2.546385 and -0.191731686 and 0.189232 respectively. These indicate that there are no significant difference (P > 0.05 between the measured and predicted tractive forces, which are clear evidences of the test of goodness of fits of the models Tillage speed of 2.5m/s illustrated the highest correlation coefficient of 0.9958 in this tillage operation. The tractive force

  18. Modeling Tractive Force Requirements of Wheel tractors For Disc Ploughing in Sandy Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Nkakini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tractive force models at different tillage speeds were developed using dimensional analysis, describing the tractor tyre - soil interaction. In this research study, disc ploughing on an experimental plot at twenty different soil moisture levels in loamy sand soil was carried out using trace tractor techniques. The independent variables: drawbar pull force, rolling (motion resistance, wheel slip, moisture content, cone index, wheel numeric, contact pressure, speed, width of plough, depth of plough, and dependent variable (Tractive force were measured and compared to computed values. High coefficients of determination R2 = 0.9492, 0.9555 and 0.9447 for ploughing at tillage speeds of 1.94m/s, 2.22m/s and 2.5m/s were obtained respectively. Standard errors of 0.3672552, 0.8628 and 0.8047 and the percentage (% errors of -2.272608059 and 2.45655144,-2.304946155 and 2.523126085,-1.424947801 and 2.020155232 at minimum and maximum values, were obtained. These results are clear evidence of the test of goodness of fit of the models between predictive and measured parameters for ploughing at different tillage speeds. The models were verified and validated by comparing the predicted with the measured tractive forces, and shown to closely followed the experimental results.

  19. Spindle oscillations during asymmetric cell division require a threshold number of active cortical force generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecreaux, Jacques; Röper, Jens-Christian; Kruse, Karsten; Jülicher, Frank; Hyman, Anthony A; Grill, Stephan W; Howard, Jonathon

    2006-11-07

    Asymmetric division of the C. elegans zygote is due to the posterior-directed movement of the mitotic spindle during metaphase and anaphase. During this movement along the anterior-posterior axis, the spindle oscillates transversely. These motions are thought to be driven by a force-generating complex-possibly containing the motor protein cytoplasmic dynein-that is located at the cell cortex and pulls on microtubules growing out from the spindle poles. A theoretical analysis indicates that the oscillations might arise from mechanical coordination of the force-generating motors, and this coordination is mediated by the load dependence of the motors' detachment from the microtubules. The model predicts that the motor activity must exceed a threshold for oscillations to occur. We have tested the existence of a threshold by using RNA interference to gradually reduce the levels of dynein light intermediate chain as well as GPR-1 and GPR-2 that are involved in the G protein-mediated regulation of the force generators. We found an abrupt cessation of oscillations as expected if the motor activity dropped below a threshold. Furthermore, we can account for the complex choreography of the mitotic spindle-the precise temporal coordination of the buildup and die-down of the transverse oscillations with the posterior displacement-by a gradual increase in the processivity of a single type of motor machinery during metaphase and anaphase. The agreement between our results and modeling suggests that the force generators themselves have the intrinsic capability of generating oscillations when opposing forces exceed a threshold.

  20. Future ozone air quality and radiative forcing over China owing to future changes in emissions under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Liao, Hong

    2016-02-01

    We apply the nested grid version of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to assess 2000-2050 changes in O3 air quality and associated radiative forcing in China owing to future changes in emissions under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Changes in surface layer O3 concentrations, numbers of O3 exceedance days (days with maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) O3 exceeding 74.7 ppbv), and tropospheric O3 radiative forcing (RF) are simulated for 2000-2050. Over China, RCP8.5 is the worst scenario for near future (2020-2030) and RCP6.0 is the worst scenario over 2040-2050; the maximum increases in annual mean surface layer O3 concentrations of 6-12 ppbv relative to present day (year 2000) are found over southern China in 2020 and 2030 under RCP8.5 and in 2040 and 2050 under RCP6.0. The numbers of MDA8 O3 exceedance days are simulated to be 10, 0, 0, and 2 days over Beijing-Tianjin-Tanggu (BTT), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Sichuan Basin (SCB), respectively, in the present day (year 2000). No exceedance days are simulated in year 2050 for all the four regions under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, but extremely high numbers of exceedance days are found in 2050 under RCP6.0 (with 102, 75, 57, and 179 days in BTT, YRD, PRD, and SCB, respectively) and in 2030 under RCP8.5 (with 94, 60, 34, and 162 days in BTT, YRD, PRD, and SCB, respectively). The tropospheric O3 RF in 2050 relative to 2000 averaged over eastern China (18°-45°N, 95°-125°E) is simulated to be -0.11, 0.0, 0.01, and 0.14 W m-2 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5, respectively. When we consider both the health and climate impacts of tropospheric O3 over China in 2050, RCP2.6 is a significantly improving scenario for both air quality and climate, RCP4.5 is a significantly improving scenario for air quality but has small consequences for climate, RCP6.0 is a significantly worsening scenario for air quality

  1. Development of technology-neutral safety requirements for the regulation of future nuclear power reactors: Back to basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tronea, Madalina, E-mail: madalina.tronea@gmail.co [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-03-15

    This paper explores the current trends as regards the development of technology-neutral safety requirements to be used in the regulation of future nuclear power reactors and the role of the quantitative safety goals in the design of reactor safety systems. The use of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on protection against potential exposure could form the basis of a technology-neutral framework for safety requirements on new reactor designs and could contribute to international harmonisation of nuclear safety assessment practices as part of the licensing processes for future nuclear power plants.

  2. Large-scale computation at PSI scientific achievements and future requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelmann, A.; Markushin, V

    2008-11-15

    and Networking' (SNSP-HPCN) is discussing this complex. Scientific results which are made possible by PSI's engagement at CSCS (named Horizon) are summarised and PSI's future high-performance computing requirements are evaluated. The data collected shows the current situation and a 5 year extrapolation of the users' needs with respect to HPC resources is made. In consequence this report can serve as a basis for future strategic decisions with respect to a non-existing HPC road-map for PSI. PSI's institutional HPC area started hardware-wise approximately in 1999 with the assembly of a 32-processor LINUX cluster called Merlin. Merlin was upgraded several times, lastly in 2007. The Merlin cluster at PSI is used for small scale parallel jobs, and is the only general purpose computing system at PSI. Several dedicated small scale clusters followed the Merlin scheme. Many of the clusters are used to analyse data from experiments at PSI or CERN, because dedicated clusters are most efficient. The intellectual and financial involvement of the procurement (including a machine update in 2007) results in a PSI share of 25 % of the available computing resources at CSCS. The (over) usage of available computing resources by PSI scientists is demonstrated. We actually get more computing cycles than we have paid for. The reason is the fair share policy that is implemented on the Horizon machine. This policy allows us to get cycles, with a low priority, even when our bi-monthly share is used. Five important observations can be drawn from the analysis of the scientific output and the survey of future requirements of main PSI HPC users: (1) High Performance Computing is a main pillar in many important PSI research areas; (2) there is a lack in the order of 10 times the current computing resources (measured in available core-hours per year); (3) there is a trend to use in the order of 600 processors per average production run; (4) the disk and tape storage growth

  3. Modeling Tractive Force Requirements of Wheel Tractors for Disc Ridging in Loamy Sand Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Nkakini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency with which a soil can transmit energy from a traction device on a tractor to the drawbar has been called the tractive efficiency of soil. Experiments were conducted for disc ridging operations in a loamy sand soil, at tillage speeds of 1.94m/s, 2.22m/s and 2.5m/s, using trace tractor techniques. Tractive force models at different tillage speeds were developed using dimensional analysis, describing the tractors tyre - soil interaction. The measured independent variables such as drawbar pull force, rolling (motion resistance, wheel slip, moisture content, cone index, wheel numeric, contact pressure, speed, width of ridge and height of ridge were used in the developed models. Values of the measured dependent variable (Tractive force were compared with computed values. High coefficients of determination R2 = 0.996, 0.996 and 0.986, percentage (% errors of -0.122620038 and 0.11606597,-0.126307491 and 0.215127604 ,-0.603425382 and 0.372951166 at minimum and maximum values, for disc ridging at tillage speeds of 1.94m/s, 2.22m/s and 2.5m/s were obtained respectively. Analysis of variance between measured and predicted tractive force values indicated standard errors of 11.15346, 10.15346 and 8.24219, while correlation coefficients of R2 = 0.996, 0.768 and 0.9674 were obtained for disc ridging at tillage speeds of 1.94m/s, 2.22m/s, and 2.5m/s respectively . These results are clear evidence of the test of goodness of fit of the models between the measured and predicted tractive forces for disc ridging at the various tillage speeds. Disc ridging speed of 2.5m/s illustrated the lowest coefficient of determination R2 = 0.986. The developed models were validated by comparing the predicted with the measured tractive forces, and shown to closely followed the experimental results.

  4. Powering Future Naval Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Ground Renewable Expeditionary Energy System Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell 9  Long endurance fuel cell power (26hr flight Nov 2009)  Low noise...Near Mid Long EMRG Solid State Lights for Submarines Power Node Switching Center Perovskite - based Pyroelectrics 3 Power & Energy Technologies...Fuel Power Generation Energy Storage Distribution& Control Power Loads Fuels Chemistry Alternative Fuels Gas Turbine Generators Fuel Cells Aircraft

  5. Manning the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    Gaining Competitive Advantage: The Case for Diversity,” available from <http://www.cabrillo.edu/publications/ masterplan /EnvScan%20summary_Demogr.pdf...www.cabrillo.edu/publications/ masterplan /EnvScan%20Summary_Demogr.pdf>. Internet. Accessed 6 December 2003. Devlin, Theodore E. Recruiting and

  6. Requirements for future control room and visualization features in the Web-of-Cells framework defined in the ELECTRA project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines an overview of the general requirements for the control rooms of the future power systems (2030+). The roles and activities in the future control centres will evolve with respect to the switching, dispatching and restoration functions currently active. The control centre...... operators will supervise on the power system and intervene - when necessary - thanks to the maturation and wide scale deployment of flexible controls. For the identification of control room requirements, general trends in power system evolution are considered and mainly the outcomes of the ELECTRA IRP...... project, that proposes a new Web-of-Cell (WoC) power system control architecture. Dedicated visualization features are proposed, aimed to support the control room operators activities in a WoC oriented approach. Furthermore, the work takes into account the point of view of network operators about future...

  7. Requirements for future gasoline DI systems and respective platform solutions; Anforderungen an zukuenftige Otto DI-Einspritzsysteme und entsprechende Plattformloesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppe, Detlev; Greff, Andreas; Zhang, Hong; Frenzel, Holger; Roesel, Gerd; Achleitner, Erwin; Kapphan, Friedrich [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The spark-ignition engine is the world's most common type of engine. Its outstanding cost / benefit ratio and high performance mean it will continue to be developed and improved to meet future more stringent requirements on aspects such as ''fun to drive'' qualities, low fuel consumption and particle number emissions limits. Meeting these future requirements demands measures in the area of the air-fuel system and the ignition system. To meet these objectives, Continental can supply a range of tailored platform solutions for the different markets. A basic enabling technology for reducing fuel consumption is the turbocharged direct-injection gasoline engine, for which Continental has developed injection system technology and an innovative turbocharger which improves the dynamic behavior of the engine. In combination with variable valve train functionality, this technology opens up new scope for reducing fuel consumption by downsizing and downspeeding. A key part in meeting future emission requirements is played by the injection system. In particular, the improvements here are focused on two parameters: accurate fuel metering, particularly for very small injection quantities, and spray preparation. Innovative injection systems incorporating these features are part of the Continental portfolio. A mechatronic approach allows the performance of injection components to be improved in order to meet future requirements on accurate fuel metering and mixture formation at the injection valves. A mechatronic approach can also reduce the noise emissions of the highpressure pump. Turbocharged direct-injection engines require more ignition energy than naturally aspirated engines. These requirements are met by an innovative ignition system. The open-architecture, scalable EMS 3 engine management platform presented at last year's Vienna Engine Symposium provides a convenient way of integrating the various new functionalities for different markets and

  8. Humanitarian Assistance/Civic Action Funding Requirements for Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-07

    target areas/projects with Honduran agencies. Develops scope of work and resource/funding requirements. (F) Develops Title X funding request/forwards to...USCINCSOUTH for approval. USCINCSOUTH submits program to OASD/ISD for approval. (G) Briefs program requirements to Honduran officials, country team...ASD/ISA with rationale and estimated costs by 31 January for H/CA projects for the next five years. Include a general narrative description and cost

  9. Future Projections of Aerosol Optical Depth, Radiative Forcing, and Climate Response Due to Declining Aerosol Emissions in the Representative Concentration Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted based on human health concerns. However, the resulting decrease in atmospheric aerosol burden will have unintended climate consequences. Since aerosols generally exert a net cooling influence on the climate, their removal will lead to an unmasking of global warming as well as other changes to the climate system. Aerosol and precursor global emissions decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to projections in four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. We use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 3 (GFDL CM3) to simulate future climate over the 21st century with and without aerosol emission changes projected by the RCPs in order to isolate the radiative forcing and climate response due to the aerosol reductions. We find that up to 1 W m-2 of radiative forcing may be unmasked globally by 2100 due to reductions in aerosol and precursor emissions, leading to average global temperature increases up to 1 K and global precipitation rate increases up to 0.09 mm d-1 (3%). Regionally and locally, climate impacts are much larger, as RCP8.5 projects a 2.1 K warming over China, Japan, and Korea due to reduced aerosol emissions. Our results highlight the importance of crafting emissions control policies with both climate and air pollution benefits in mind. The expected unmasking of additional global warming from aerosol reductions highlights the importance of robust greenhouse gas mitigation policies and may require more aggressive policies than anticipated.

  10. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  11. Implications of RCP emissions on future PM2.5 air quality and direct radiative forcing over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Liao, Hong; Zhu, Jia; Moch, Jonathan M.

    2016-11-01

    Severe PM2.5 air pollution in China and the First Grand National Standard (FGNS), implemented in 2016 (annual PM2.5 concentration target of less than 35 µg m-3), necessitate urgent reduction strategies. This study applied the nested-grid version of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to quantify 2000-2050 changes in PM2.5 air quality and related direct radiative forcing (DRF) in China, based on future emission changes under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios of RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5. In the near term (2000-2030), a projected maximum increase in PM2.5 concentrations of 10-15 µg m-3 is found over east China under RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 and less than 5 µg m-3 under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5. In the long term (2000-2050), PM2.5 pollution clearly improves, and the largest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations of 15-30 µg m-3 is over east China under all RCPs except RCP6.0. Focusing particularly on highly polluted regions, we find that Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) wintertime PM2.5 concentrations meeting the FGNS occur after 2040 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5, and summertime PM2.5 concentrations reach this goal by 2030 under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5. In Sichuan Basin (SCB), wintertime PM2.5 concentrations below the FGNS occur only in 2050 under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, although future summertime PM2.5 will be well controlled. The difficulty in controlling future PM2.5 concentrations relates to unmitigated high levels of nitrate, although NOx and SO2 emissions show substantial reductions during 2020-2040. The changes in aerosol concentrations lead to positive aerosol DRF over east China (20°-45°N, 100°-125°E) by 1.22, 1.88, and 0.66 W m-2 in 2050 relative to 2000 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5, respectively. When considering both health and climate effects of PM2.5 over China, for example, PM2.5 concentrations averaged over east China under RCP4.5 (RCP2.6) decrease by 54% (43%) in 2050 relative to 2000, but at the

  12. QPS/LHC Activities requiring important Tunnel Work During a future long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K

    2011-01-01

    The MPE/circuit protection section is presently establishing a road map for its future LHC activities. The tasks comprise essential consolidation work, compulsory upgrades and extensions of existing machine facilities. The results of a first round of engineering exertion were presented and evaluated at a MPE activity review in December 2010. The technical and financial aspects of this program will be detailed in the ‘QPS Medium and Long-Term Improvement Plan’, to be published shortly. The QPS activities in the LHC tunnel during a future, long shutdown are closely related to this improvement chart. A project-package based program for the interventions has been established and will be presented in this report, together with estimates for the associated human and financial resources necessary for its implementation.

  13. What are the essential cognitive requirements for prospection (thinking about the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda eOsman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Placing the future centre stage as a way of understanding cognition is gaining attention in psychology. The general modern label for this is prospection which refers to the process of representing and thinking about possible future states of the world. Several theorists have claimed that episodic and prospective memory, as well as hypothetical thinking (mental simulation and conditional reasoning are necessary cognitive faculties that enable prospection. Given the limitations in current empirical efforts connecting these faculties to prospection, the aim of this mini review is to argue that the findings show that they are sufficient, but not necessary for prospection. As a result, the short concluding section gives an outline of an alternative conceptualisation of prospection. The proposal is that the critical characteristics of prospection are the discovery of, and maintenance of goals via causal learning.

  14. Space Weather - Current Capabilities, Future Requirements, and the Path to Improved Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ian

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of Space Weather activities and future opportunities including assessments of current status and capabilities, knowledge gaps, and future directions in relation to both observations and modeling. The review includes input from the scientific community including from SCOSTEP scientific discipline representatives (SDRs), COSPAR Main Scientific Organizers (MSOs), and SCOSTEP/VarSITI leaders. The presentation also draws on results from the recent activities related to the production of the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap "Understanding Space Weather to Shield Society" [Schrijver et al., Advances in Space Research 55, 2745 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2015.03.023], from the activities related to the United Nations (UN) Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) actions in relation to the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space (LTS), and most recently from the newly formed and ongoing efforts of the UN COPUOS Expert Group on Space Weather.

  15. Straw bale houses in a moderate climate: adaptable to meet future energy performance requirements?

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeeck, Griet; Ponet, Jolien

    2012-01-01

    The energy performance regulations for buildings, introduced in many countries during the last decade, will be tightened in the future, even up to zero energy level. Apart from that, ancient building techniques that use renewable materials, such as straw bales, have a revival, inspired by concerns about the environmental impact of building materials. However, straw bale construction related organisations are concerned whether this building technique will survive the upcoming severe energy per...

  16. Health care administration in the year 2000: practitioners' views of future issues and job requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K; Riley, P

    1993-01-01

    This research identifies the most important domains in health care administration (HCA) from now to the year 2000 and differentiates job skill, knowledge, and ability requirements necessary for successful management. Fellows of the American College of Healthcare Executives from about half of the United States responded to two iterations of a Delphi mail inquiry. Fellows identified 102 issues that were content-analyzed into nine domains by an HCA expert panel. Domains, in order of ranked importance, were cost/finance, leadership, professional staff interactions, health care delivery concepts, accessibility, ethics, quality/risk management, technology, and marketing. In the second Delphi iteration, Fellows reviewed domain results and rated job requirements on required job importance. Results indicated that while a business orientation is needed for organizational survival, an equal emphasis on person-oriented skills, knowledge, and abilities is required.

  17. A Use Case Methodology to Handle Conflicting Controller Requirements for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Uslar, Mathias; Tornelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a standards based requirements elicitation and analysis strategy tailored for smart grid control structure development. Control structures in electric power systems often span across several systems and stakeholders. Requirements elicitation for such control systems therefore...... is to describe a process starting from a tailored IEC 62559 template amended for recording controller conflicts and adapting the underlying use case management repository for collaborative work. Conflict identification is supported by Multilevel Flow Modeling providing abstracted conflict patterns....

  18. Australian Defence Force Nutritional Requirements in the 21st Century (Version 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    substantially above the mean energy requirement would promote either excessive intake—and therefore overweight/obesity—or wastage of food . Provision of...10d do not account for inevitable food discarding. As discussed above, 15% of total food available is considered a reasonable allowance for wastage ...the relevant variables that determine the types and quantities of foods necessary to support ADF training and operations—and the current state of

  19. Air Force Working Capital Fund: Actions Needed to Manage Cash Balances to Required Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    may transfer budget authority only as authorized by law. “ cash levels should be maintained at 7 to 10 days of operational cost and six months of...USTRANSCOM documentation to ascertain the reasons.6 To address the second objective, we obtained and analyzed AFWCF budget documents and cash ...requirement, we analyzed DOD budget and accounting reports to determine the dollar amount of transfers made for the period. We analyzed cash transfers

  20. Improving the Air Force’s Computation of Spares Requirements: The Effects of Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    11jIn addition to quantifying the effects of engines, this report suggests specific ways in which engines can be included in the availabilty -based...consideration is accurate portrayal of the indenture structure for engine components. Despite their physical attachment to the engine, some - notably fuel ...prorated fractions (based on usage factors) of the demands and assets applicable to the weapon systems of interest. Nondemand-based requirements, such as

  1. Aircraft modifications: Assessing the current state of Air Force aircraft modifications and the implications for future military capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Owen Jacob

    How prepared is the U.S. Air Force to modify its aircraft fleet in upcoming years? Aircraft modernization is a complex interaction of new and legacy aircraft, organizational structure, and planning policy. This research will take one component of modernization: aircraft modification, and apply a new method of analysis in order to help formulate policy to promote modernization. Departing from previous small-sample studies dependent upon weight as a chief explanatory variable, this dissertation incorporates a comprehensive dataset that was constructed for this research of all aircraft modifications from 1996 through 2005. With over 700 modification programs, this dataset is used to examine changes to the current modification policy using policy-response regression models. These changes include separating a codependent procurement and installation schedule, reducing the documentation requirements for safety modifications, and budgeting for aging aircraft modifications. The research then concludes with predictive models for the F-15 and F-16 along with their replacements: the F-22 and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.

  2. Characterization of Metering, Merging and Spacing Requirements for Future Trajectory-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) is one of the essential paradigm shifts in the NextGen transformation of the National Airspace System. Under TBO, aircraft are managed by 4-dimensional trajectories, and airborne and ground-based metering, merging, and spacing operations are key to managing those trajectories. This paper presents the results of a study of potential metering, merging, and spacing operations within a future TBO environment. A number of operational scenarios for tactical and strategic uses of metering, merging, and spacing are described, and interdependencies between concurrent tactical and strategic operations are identified.

  3. Personnel Information Requirements for the Support of Air Force Squadron Commanders’ Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    With Graphic Format Generated By A Squadron Commander Emlis+ed Monning 20 110 1807 C-198 or-ly Ju e o Feb 0p u c e 512S 1988 Jon Mar May JuI S;p Nv...I I 1988 Jon Mar’ Ma’y Jul Sep Nov Feb Apr Jun Rug Oci Dec Mo n th 61 Bibliography 1. Barros, Oscar. "Information Requirements And Alternatives In...14. Gruber , W.H. and J.S. Niles. The New Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976. 15. Hughes, David. "MAC Command and Control Center To Serve As

  4. AMTD: Update of Engineering Specifications Derived from Science Requirements for Future UVOIR Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Mosier, Gary; Smith, W. Scott; Blaurock, Carl; Ha, Kong; Stark, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND provide a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To give the science community options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. A key task is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints. A key finding of this effort is that the science requires an 8 meter or larger aperture telescope

  5. The Future of Amphibious Operations: Shaping the Expeditionary Strike Group to Fight in the Joint Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Maintenance Unit 202, Air Force Civil Engineering Squadron V’s Prime Base Engineer Emergency Force, medical personnel from the armed forces of...Admiral Jerauld Wright--Warrior Among Diplomats (Manhattan, Kan: Sunflower University Press, 2001), 222-223. 42 which created confusion for...Knopf, 1984. 67 Key, David M. Admiral Jerauld Wright--Warrior Among Diplomats. Manhattan, Kan: Sunflower University Press, 2001. Kirk, Amy

  6. Die zukünftige Ausrichtung der AGMB: ein Bericht aus der Task-Force / The future strategic concept of the AGMB: a preliminary report given by the task force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kintzel, Melanie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2008 the managing-committee of the Medical Library Association (AGMB invited the members to form a task force in order to concentrate on a new strategic concept for the association and develop corresponding recommendations and visions. Stagnating attendance at the association’s annual conferences in recent years as well as difficulties in finding future venues and new candidates for the elections to the board gave reason to this scheme. This article introduces the members of the task force and their work hitherto with a special focus on the member survey conducted in the summer of 2008 and its first results.

  7. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: The Air Force Needs to Adopt an Incremental Approach to Future Acquisition Planning to Enable Incorporation of Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Acquisitions, Technology, and Logistics directed the Air Force to introduce a competitive procurement environment for up to 14 launches.11... competition in the launch industry is a high priority for the service, and not requiring DOD-approved business systems is a key advantage of...program is the primary provider launches for military and intelligence satellites. The Air Force is working to introduce competition into the program

  8. A METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING FUTURE PHYSICAL FACILITIES REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YURKOVICH, JOHN V.

    A COMPUTERIZED METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE PHYSICAL FACILITIES REQUIREMENTS OF A LARGE UNIVERSITY WAS DEVELOPED. THE RESEARCH INCLUDED THE DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION, AND TESTING OF SYSTEMS FOR (1) CLASSIFYING SPACE, (2) MAINTAINING A PERPETUAL SPACE INVENTORY, (3) CONDUCTING ROOM UTILIZATION STUDIES, (4) PROJECTING STUDENTS BY A SET OF…

  9. LABOUR FORCE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION SYSTEM PERFORMANCES AND LABOUR MARKET REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Cristina DIMIAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate some of the educational mismatches occurred in the Romanian labour market and to try to find solutions for a more rapid adaptation of the education system to labour market transformations. The analysis is based on a quantitative research aimed at studying employers’ opinions related to the relationship between education system performances and labour market requirements.The results show that even in a crisis period when unemployment is at high values, employers have difficulties in fi nding appropriate qualifications for some jobs, or the right candidate for the vacancies. Even current employees lack some important abilities or skills such us: motivation, loyalty or responsibility.

  10. Flexicurity of Work Force from Romanian Organizations as Compared with the Requirements of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ CĂŞUNEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Labor flexicurity within the organizations from EU countries represents an important objective for the fulfillment of the provisions of the "Lisbon strategy for more and better jobs". Flexicurity concept involves two components: flexibility of workers, respectively their capacity to adapt to labor market developments and to professional transitions and safety of workers, requiring them to advance in their careers, to develop skills and be supported by social insurance systems during periods of inactivity. This study presents the basic principles to be considered in developing the national flexicurity strategies and the directions should be acted to substantiate these strategies. As well references are made to the study "New skills for new jobs", the initiative of "Youth in movement" and to the "Lifelong Learning" Program. There are presented a series of benchmark indicators for the labor flexicurity.

  11. Tissue Engineering of Blood Vessels: Functional Requirements, Progress, and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek A; Brewster, Luke P; Caves, Jeffrey M; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2011-09-01

    Vascular disease results in the decreased utility and decreased availability of autologus vascular tissue for small diameter (engineered replacement vessels represent an ideal solution to this clinical problem. Ongoing progress requires combined approaches from biomaterials science, cell biology, and translational medicine to develop feasible solutions with the requisite mechanical support, a non-fouling surface for blood flow, and tissue regeneration. Over the past two decades interest in blood vessel tissue engineering has soared on a global scale, resulting in the first clinical implants of multiple technologies, steady progress with several other systems, and critical lessons-learned. This review will highlight the current inadequacies of autologus and synthetic grafts, the engineering requirements for implantation of tissue-engineered grafts, and the current status of tissue-engineered blood vessel research.

  12. High resolution weather data for urban hydrological modelling and impact assessment, ICT requirements and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; van Riemsdijk, Birna

    2013-04-01

    Hydrological analysis of urban catchments requires high resolution rainfall and catchment information because of the small size of these catchments, high spatial variability of the urban fabric, fast runoff processes and related short response times. Rainfall information available from traditional radar and rain gauge networks does no not meet the relevant scales of urban hydrology. A new type of weather radars, based on X-band frequency and equipped with Doppler and dual polarimetry capabilities, promises to provide more accurate rainfall estimates at the spatial and temporal scales that are required for urban hydrological analysis. Recently, the RAINGAIN project was started to analyse the applicability of this new type of radars in the context of urban hydrological modelling. In this project, meteorologists and hydrologists work closely together in several stages of urban hydrological analysis: from the acquisition procedure of novel and high-end radar products to data acquisition and processing, rainfall data retrieval, hydrological event analysis and forecasting. The project comprises of four pilot locations with various characteristics of weather radar equipment, ground stations, urban hydrological systems, modelling approaches and requirements. Access to data processing and modelling software is handled in different ways in the pilots, depending on ownership and user context. Sharing of data and software among pilots and with the outside world is an ongoing topic of discussion. The availability of high resolution weather data augments requirements with respect to the resolution of hydrological models and input data. This has led to the development of fully distributed hydrological models, the implementation of which remains limited by the unavailability of hydrological input data. On the other hand, if models are to be used in flood forecasting, hydrological models need to be computationally efficient to enable fast responses to extreme event conditions. This

  13. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations.

  14. Factors that determine the necessity for developing skills required by cadets in higher education institutions of the Aerospace Forces to organize their kettlebell self-training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander Bolotin; Vladislav Bakayev; Sergey Vazhenin

    2016-01-01

      This article substantiates the factors that determine the necessity to develop skills required by cadets of higher education institutions of the Aerospace Forces to organize and conduct their self...

  15. Firefighter safety for PV systems: Overview of future requirements and protection systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2013-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic systems is that, as long as they are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters, independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch, which poses a risk...... shutdown procedures. This paper gives an overview on the most recent fire - and firefighter safety requirements for PV systems, with focus on system and module shutdown systems. Several solutions are presented, analyzed and compared by considering a number of essential characteristics, including...... for operators during maintenance or fire-fighting. One of the solutions is individual module shutdown by short-circuiting or disconnecting each PV module from the PV string. However, currently no standards have been adopted either for implementing or testing these methods, or doing an evaluation of the module...

  16. An Evaluation of Selected Communications Assemblies and Hearing Protection Systems: A Field Study Conducted for the Future Force Warrior Integrated Headgear Integrated Process Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Integrated Headgear Integrated Process Team by Angélique A. Scharine , Paula P. Henry, and Mary S. Binseel ARL-TR-3475 April 2005...the Future Force Warrior Integrated Headgear Integrated Process Team Angélique A. Scharine , Paula P. Henry, and Mary S. Binseel Human Research...Integrated Process Team 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 6102A74A 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Angélique A. Scharine

  17. "A Change of Paradigm" in Developing Land Forces Officers' Professional Skills in Accordance with Hybrid Warfare Task-Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Rizescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In future conflicts, not only traditional or asymmetric actions will be used, but also a combination of the two in order to solve the disputes involving national and international actors, materialized today in different manifestation forms called hybrid war. The hybrid threats tell about the evolution of the contemporary and future threats, about the necessity of a national effort concerted towards providing an immediate effective response to these threats. From a different perspective, the diversity and the complexity of the issues raised by the hybrid threats prove that it is necessary to go beyond the technical or sequential nowadays answers. It results first that it is required to develop an appropriate security strategy which will make possible the efficient action against hybrid risks and threats, in an effective, operational and unitary manner. Therefore, the present article aims at sequentially highlighting the aspects supporting the need to correlate the coordinates of the national security strategy to the planning, conduct and quality assessment of the process of training officers from the “change of paradigm” perspective, in order to acquire the professional skills conforming to the task-requirements specific to the hybrid war. Nothing more natural, more necessary and at the same time more current in this perspective than modernizing the military continuous education system in accordance with the strategic norm of competence.

  18. Balancing functional and nutritional quality of oils and fats: Current requirements and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Bremt Karen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oils and fats play an important role in the structure, aroma and stability of a wide variety of food products, as well as in their nutritional properties. For Puratos, a producer of ingredients for bakery, patisserie and chocolate sector, functionality and taste are of utmost importance, but the company also wants to contribute to the balanced diet of consumers. Vegetable oils and fats are used in margarines and releasing agents, vegetable creams, compound chocolate, fillings and emulsifiers. Each application requires an oil or fat with specific physicochemical properties in order to ensure the optimal structure, stability and taste of the end product. Traditionally, (partially hydrogenated vegetable oils deliver important functional characteristics concerning crystallization behaviour, directly linked with the workability, melting properties, stability and mouth feel of the food product. However, due to negative nutritional implications, trans fats are to be replaced by healthier alternatives, preferably not by saturated fats. Consumers – and in some regions, legal instances – demand transfree or hydro-free products while not compromising on taste. Alternative fats and oils will be discussed concerning their functional and nutritional properties.

  19. Simulating future supply of and requirements for human resources for health in high-income OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Birch, Stephen; MacKenzie, Adrian; Rigby, Janet

    2016-12-12

    As part of efforts to inform the development of a global human resources for health (HRH) strategy, a comprehensive methodology for estimating HRH supply and requirements was described in a companion paper. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of that methodology, using data publicly available online, to simulate the supply of and requirements for midwives, nurses, and physicians in the 32 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) up to 2030. A model combining a stock-and-flow approach to simulate the future supply of each profession in each country-adjusted according to levels of HRH participation and activity-and a needs-based approach to simulate future HRH requirements was used. Most of the data to populate the model were obtained from the OECD's online indicator database. Other data were obtained from targeted internet searches and documents gathered as part of the companion paper. Relevant recent measures for each model parameter were found for at least one of the included countries. In total, 35% of the desired current data elements were found; assumed values were used for the other current data elements. Multiple scenarios were used to demonstrate the sensitivity of the simulations to different assumed future values of model parameters. Depending on the assumed future values of each model parameter, the simulated HRH gaps across the included countries could range from shortfalls of 74 000 midwives, 3.2 million nurses, and 1.2 million physicians to surpluses of 67 000 midwives, 2.9 million nurses, and 1.0 million physicians by 2030. Despite important gaps in the data publicly available online and the short time available to implement it, this paper demonstrates the basic feasibility of a more comprehensive, population needs-based approach to estimating HRH supply and requirements than most of those currently being used. HRH planners in individual countries, working with their

  20. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  1. More than meets the eye: Using cognitive work analysis to identify design requirements for future rail level crossing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Mulvihill, Christine M; Cornelissen, Miranda; Walker, Guy H; Young, Kristie L; Stevens, Nicholas; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    An increasing intensity of operations means that the longstanding safety issue of rail level crossings is likely to become worse in the transport systems of the future. It has been suggested that the failure to prevent collisions may be, in part, due to a lack of systems thinking during design, crash analysis, and countermeasure development. This paper presents a systems analysis of current active rail level crossing systems in Victoria, Australia that was undertaken to identify design requirements to improve safety in future rail level crossing environments. Cognitive work analysis was used to analyse rail level crossing systems using data derived from a range of activities. Overall the analysis identified a range of instances where modification or redesign in line with systems thinking could potentially improve behaviour and safety. A notable finding is that there are opportunities for redesign outside of the physical rail level crossing infrastructure, including improved data systems, in-vehicle warnings and modifications to design processes, standards and guidelines. The implications for future rail level crossing systems are discussed.

  2. Future discharge drought across climate regions around the world modelled with a synthetic hydrological modelling approach forced by three General Circulation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wanders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological droughts characteristics (drought in groundwater and streamflow likely will change in the 21st century as a results of climate change. Magnitude and directionality of these changes and their dependency on climatology and catchment characteristics, however, is largely unknown. In this study a conceptual hydrological model was forced by downscaled and bias-corrected outcome from three General Circulation Models for the A2 emission scenario (GCM forced models, and the WATCH Forcing Data re-analysis dataset(reference model. The threshold level method was applied to investigate drought occurrence, duration and deficit volume. Results for the control period (1971–2000 show that the drought characteristics of each GCM forced model reasonably agree with the reference model for most of the climate types, suggesting that the climate model's results after post-processing produce realistic outcome for global drought analyses. For the near future (2021–2050 and far future (2071–2100 the GCM forced models show a decrease in drought occurrence for all major climates around the world and increase of both average drought duration and deficit volume of the remaining drought events. The largest decrease in hydrological drought occurrence is expected in cold (D-climates where global warming results in a decreased length of the snow season and an increased precipitation. In the dry B-climates the smallest decrease in drought occurrence is expected to occur, which probably will lead to even more severe water scarcity. However, in the extreme climate regions (desert and polar, the analysis for the control period showed that projections are in these regions most uncertain. On a global scale the increase in hydrological drought duration and severity will lead to a higher impact of drought events, which urges water resources managers to timely anticipate on the increased risk on more severe drought in groundwater and streamflow and to design pro

  3. Future discharge drought across climate regions around the world modelled with a synthetic hydrological modelling approach forced by three general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, N.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Hydrological drought characteristics (drought in groundwater and streamflow) likely will change in the 21st century as a result of climate change. The magnitude and directionality of these changes and their dependency on climatology and catchment characteristics, however, is uncertain. In this study a conceptual hydrological model was forced by downscaled and bias-corrected outcome from three general circulation models for the SRES A2 emission scenario (GCM forced models), and the WATCH Forcing Data set (reference model). The threshold level method was applied to investigate drought occurrence, duration and severity. Results for the control period (1971-2000) show that the drought characteristics of each GCM forced model reasonably agree with the reference model for most of the climate types, suggesting that the climate models' results after post-processing produce realistic outcomes for global drought analyses. For the near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) the GCM forced models show a decrease in drought occurrence for all major climates around the world and increase of both average drought duration and deficit volume of the remaining drought events. The largest decrease in hydrological drought occurrence is expected in cold (D) climates where global warming results in a decreased length of the snow season and an increased precipitation. In the dry (B) climates the smallest decrease in drought occurrence is expected to occur, which probably will lead to even more severe water scarcity. However, in the extreme climate regions (desert and polar), the drought analysis for the control period showed that projections of hydrological drought characteristics are most uncertain. On a global scale the increase in hydrological drought duration and severity in multiple regions will lead to a higher impact of drought events, which should motivate water resource managers to timely anticipate the increased risk of more severe drought in groundwater and streamflow

  4. Golden Legacy, Boundless Future: Essays on the United States Air Force and the Rise of Aerospace Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    both. Whatever else goes on at Air Force club bars, per capita consumption of alcohol appears to have declined. Heavy drinking in public is no longer...and stability than could have been predicted as waves of German youths tore down the Berlin Wall and images of a new millennial age of peace, freedom

  5. EFNS Task Force on Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe : present status and recommendations for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, P; Chollet, F; Paulson, O; von Kummer, R; Laihinen, A; Leenders, K; Yancheva, S

    2001-01-01

    A Task Force on 'Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe' was appointed in September 1998 by the education committee of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) in order to: (1) examine the present status of teaching of neuroimaging in the training of neurology in E

  6. A social simulation-game to explore future co-ordination in knowledge networks at the Amsterdam Police Force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Laere, J.; De Vreede, G. J.; Sol, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    The 32 autonomous neighbourhood teams of the Amsterdam Police Force need to utilise each other's knowledge and expertise to deal with the variety and complexity of their daily work assignments. However, despite the creation of organisation wide knowledge networks, communication, co-ordination and kn

  7. Future requirements. Clinical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, V.

    2002-01-01

    Biocompatability, Cariology, Clinical trials, Dental materials, Helath services research, Human, Pedodontics......Biocompatability, Cariology, Clinical trials, Dental materials, Helath services research, Human, Pedodontics...

  8. Radiative forcing due to greenhouse gas emission and sink histories in Finland and its future control potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, I.; Sinisalo, J.; Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The effective atmospheric lifetimes of the greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}),nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and many of the CFCs are of the order of 100 years. Human activities, as an example GDP, very often change at rates of a few per cents per year,corresponding time constants of some tens of years. Also the forest ecosystems have time constants of this order. Even the human population of the globe is increasing by about two percent per year. Because so many natural and human-linked processes, which are relevant to global warming, have slow change rates of about same order, a time-dependent consideration of the greenhouse warming and its control can give useful information for the understanding of the problem. The objective of the work is to study the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in Finland and their greenhouse impact as a function of time. The greenhouse impact is expressed in terms of radiative forcing which describes the perturbation in the Earth`s radiation budget. Radiative forcing allows a comparison of the impact of various greenhouse gases and their possible control options as a function of time. The idea behind the calculations is that Finland should in some way steer its share of the global radiative forcing and greenhouse effect. This presentation describes the calculation model REFUGE and the projects in which it has been used

  9. Do College Students Make Better Predictions of Their Future Income than Young Adults in the Labor Force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, John

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have considered whether American college students' hold "realistic" wage expectations. The consensus is that they do not--overestimation of future earnings is in the region of 40-50%. But is it just college students who overestimate the success they will have in the labor market, or is this something common to all…

  10. Advanced GI Surgery Training-a Roadmap for the Future: the White Paper from the SSAT Task Force on Advanced GI Surgery Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Matthew M; Behrns, Kevin E; Soper, Nathaniel J; Michelassi, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    surgery training could occupy the area between general surgery residency and further subspecialty training as seen in the graph below. Visually, we are trying to define the red hash mark area. This is challenging as the inner border with core general surgery is ill defined and interpreted differently by various stakeholders. Similarly, the outer border of the red hash marks, which defines areas that require a surgical subspecialist, is also not clear. Inevitably, overlap exists in the care of these patients and is influenced by the complexity of the underlying disease presentations. The concept is noble, but the future is unclear. Challenges and uncertainties include whether the Certificate of Focused Expertise will go forward, and what the RRC and ABS might decide on the structure of General Surgery training. Funding and the ability to offer autonomy during training are additional challenges in today's training environment. Currently, the ABS is considering a "Core Plus" concept, though what is "the Core" and what is the "Plus" are not yet determined, and these concepts have been promoted for years. Whether training becomes 4 +1, or 4 +1+1, 5+1 or some other model continues to be discussed. We, the Task Force of Advanced GI Surgery Training, have drafted a vision of what advanced GI training could/should look like to help guide the ABMS/ABS/RRC/ACGME as they contemplate surgery residency redesign goals. Despite the uncertainty, we will develop the curriculum, milestones, and case requirements for advanced GI surgery training, to not only provide this vision but so that an advanced GI training program is ready to go, to be plugged in to whatever the future structure for surgical training may be.

  11. Airpower History and the Cyber Force of the Future: How Organization for the Cyber Domain Outpaced Strategic Thinking and Forgot the Lessons of the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Graduation Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF OPERATIONAL ARTS AND SCIENCES Advisors: Lt Col Daniel A. Connelly and Dr. Panayotis...a desire to unify command, but in essence it lists a mix of what should be service and joint force component commander responsibilities. “The...the iconic image of Billy Mitchell AU/ACSC/SMITH, FI/AY16 standing before his court- martial in 1925.30 One has to question whether it was these

  12. Sensitivity analysis with regard to variations of physical forcing including two possible future hydrographic regimes for the Oeregrundsgrepen. A follow-up baroclinic 3D-model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, A. [A and I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (Sweden); Andrejev, O. [Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-02-15

    A sensitivity analysis with regard to variations of physical forcing has been performed using a 3D baroclinic model of the Oeregrundsgrepen area for a whole-year period with data pertaining to 1992. The results of these variations are compared to a nominal run with unaltered physical forcing. This nominal simulation is based on the experience gained in an earlier whole-year modelling of the same area; the difference is mainly that the present nominal simulation is run with identical parameters for the whole year. From a computational economy point of view it has been necessary to vary the time step between the month-long simulation periods. For all simulations with varied forcing, the same time step as for the nominal run has been used. The analysis also comprises the water turnover of a hypsographically defined subsection, the Bio Model area, located above the SFR depository. The external forcing factors that have been varied are the following (with their found relative impact on the volume average of the retention time of the Bio Model area over one year given within parentheses): atmospheric temperature increased/reduced by 2.5 deg C (-0.1% resp. +0.6%), local freshwater discharge rate doubled/halved (-1.6% resp. +0.01%), salinity range at the border increased/reduced a factor 2 (-0.84% resp. 0.00%), wind speed forcing reduced 10% (+8.6%). The results of these simulations, at least the yearly averages, permit a reasonably direct physical explanation, while the detailed dynamics is for natural reasons more intricate. Two additional full-year simulations of possible future hydrographic regimes have also been performed. The first mimics a hypothetical situation with permanent ice cover, which increases the average retention time 87%. The second regime entails the future hypsography with its anticipated shoreline displacement by an 11 m land-rise in the year 4000 AD, which also considerably increases the average retention times for the two remaining layers of the

  13. Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the

  14. Management and Service-aware Networking Architectures (MANA) for Future Internet - Position Paper: System Functions, Capabilities and Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galis, A.; Abramowicz, H.; Brunner, M.; Raz, D.; Chemouil, P.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Future Internet (FI) research and development threads have recently been gaining momentum all over the world and as such the international race to create a new generation Internet is in full swing: GENI, Asia Future Internet, Future Internet Forum Korea, European Union Future Internet Assembly (FIA)

  15. Management and Service-aware Networking Architectures (MANA) for Future Internet - Position Paper: System Functions, Capabilities and Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galis, A.; Abramowicz, H.; Brunner, M.; Raz, D.; Chemouil, P.; Pras, Aiko

    Future Internet (FI) research and development threads have recently been gaining momentum all over the world and as such the international race to create a new generation Internet is in full swing: GENI, Asia Future Internet, Future Internet Forum Korea, European Union Future Internet Assembly

  16. A report card on the physician work force: Israeli health care market--past experience and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Asaf; Shvarts, Shifra; Glick, Shimon; Reuveni, Haim

    2010-09-01

    The worldwide shortage of physicians is due not only to the lack of physicians, but also to complex social and economic factors that vary from country to country. To describe the results of physician workforce planning in a system with unintended policy, such as Israel, based on past experience and predicted future trends, between 1995 and 2020. A descriptive study of past (1995-2009) and future (through 2020) physician workforce trends in Israel. An actuarial equation was developed to project physician supply until 2020. In Israel a physician shortage is expected in the very near future. This finding is the result of global as well as local changes affecting the supply of physicians: change in immigration pattern, gender effect, population growth, and transparency of data on demand for physicians. These are universal factors affecting manpower planning in most industrial countries all over the world. We describe a health care market with an unintended physician workforce policy. Sharing decision makers' experience in similar health care systems will enable the development of better indices to analyze, by comparison, effective physician manpower planning processes, worldwide.

  17. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hansen

    Full Text Available We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  18. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; hide

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  19. Enabling the Future Force: The Use of Regional Alignment, Mission Command and Cultural Competence to Create an Operationally Adaptive Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    iceberg ....................................................................................... 14 Figure 3. The three aspects of inter-cultural...process using the OODA loop, that orientation is the central concept in the model . Orientation requires the decision maker to develop, maintain, and...meaningful mental model that provides values and a basis for decision-making. He described the creation of culture as “a blueprint for the production

  20. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  1. Review & Analysis: Technological Impact on Future Air Force Personnel & Training: Distributed Collaborative Decision-Making, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-14

    over time, expert decision-makers build complex associations between situational cue patterns and appropriate strategies/responses • teamwork skills...the visual scene, for example, when members of a group are not located together. More computer and other hardware resources may be available when a... teamwork skills are separate from work skills and they require, and benefit from, dedicated training. What is it that teams can learn to do? After

  2. Assessing Calorimeter Requirements for a 100 TeV Future Collider With Reference to New Physics Benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Dylewsky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Plans for a future 100 TeV circular collider require the design of detection equipment capable of measuring events at such high energy. This study examined the simulated decay of hypothetical 10 TeV excited quarks in 100 TeV pp collisions with regard to the possibility of calorimeter punch-through. Two methods of parameterizing the energy resolution in detector simulations were employed to model the effects of particles escaping the hadronic calorimeter. Varying the constant term of the energy resolution parameterization caused the dijet mass distribution to broaden up to 58% with respect to the ATLAS default. Using the assumption that the jets' makeup could be approximated by 180 GeV pions, their expected signal degradation in calorimeters of varying depths was compared to the varied constant term trials. It was found that the broadening associated with a calorimeter of thickness 7 lambda was consistent with that caused by an increase of 1\\% in the constant term (from the ATLAS default).

  3. Climate Model Simulation of Present and Future Extreme Events in Latin America and the Caribbean: What Spatial Resolution is Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, C. M.; Oglesby, R. J.; Mawalagedara, R.; Mohammad Abadi Kamarei, A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean are at risk of extreme climate events, including flooding rains, damaging winds, drought, heat waves, and in high elevation mountainous regions, excessive snowfalls. The causes of these events are numerous - flooding rains and damaging winds are often associated with tropical cyclones, but also can occur, either separately or in tandem, due to smaller, more localized storms. Similarly, heat waves and droughts can be large scale or localized, and frequently occur together (as excessive drying can lead to enhanced heating, while enhanced heating in turn promotes additional drying). Even in the tropics, extreme snow and ice events can have severe consequences due to avalanches, and also impact water resources. Understanding and modeling the climate controls behind these extreme events requires consideration of a range of time and space scales. A common strategy is to use a global climate model (GCM) to simulate the large-scale (~100km) daily atmospheric controls on extreme events. A limited area, high resolution regional climate model (RCM) is then employed to dynamically downscale the results, so as to better incorporate the influence of topography and, secondarily, the nature of the land cover. But what resolution is required to provide the necessary results, i.e., minimize biases due to improper resolution? In conjunction with our partners from participating Latin American and Caribbean nations, we have made an extensive series of simulations, both region-wide and for individual countries, using the WRF regional climate model to downscale output from a variety of GCMs, as well as Reanalyses (as a proxy for observations). The simulations driven by the Reanalyses are used for robust model verification against actual weather station observations. The simulations driven by GCMs are designed to provide projections of future climate, including importantly how the nature and number of extreme events may change through coming decades. Our

  4. Rate of decline of forced vital capacity predicts future arterial hypertension: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David R; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Hearst, Mary O; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Kalhan, Ravi; Rosenberg, Sharon; Smith, Lewis J; Barr, R Graham; Duprez, Daniel A

    2012-02-01

    Lung function studies in middle-aged subjects predict cardiovascular disease mortality. We studied whether greater loss of forced vital capacity (FVC) early in life predicted incident hypertension. The sample was 3205 black and white men and women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study examined between 1985 and 1986 (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults year 0, ages 18-30 years) and 2005-2006 and who were not hypertensive by year 10. FVC was assessed at years 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20. Proportional hazard ratios and linear regression models predicted incident hypertension at years 15 or 20 (n=508) from the change in FVC (FVC at year 10 - peak FVC, where peak FVC was estimated as the maximum across years 0, 2, 5, and 10). Covariates included demographics, center, systolic blood pressure, FVC maximum, smoking, physical activity, asthma, and body mass index. Unadjusted cumulative incident hypertension was 25% in the lowest FVC loss quartile (Q1; median loss: 370 mL) compared with 12% cumulative incident hypertension in those who achieved peak FVC at year 10 (Q4). Minimally adjusted hazard ratio for Q1 versus Q4 was 2.21 (95% CI: 1.73-2.83), and this association remained significant in the fully adjusted model (1.37; 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Decline in FVC from average age at peak (29.4 years) to 35 years old predicted incident hypertension between average ages 35 and 45 years. The findings may represent a common pathway that may link low normal FVC to cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.

  5. NK1 receptor antagonism lowers occupancy requirement for antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs in the gerbil forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelas, Snjezana; Li, Yu-Wen; Wallace-Boone, Tanya L; Taber, Matthew T; Newton, Amy E; Pieschl, Rick L; Davis, Carl D; Molski, Thaddeus F; Newberry, Kimberly S; Parker, Michael F; Gillman, Kevin W; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E; Lodge, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    The known interactions between the serotonergic and neurokinin systems suggest that serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) efficacy may be improved by neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonism. In the current studies combination of a subeffective dose of an SSRI (0.3 mg/kg fluoxetine or 0.03 mg/kg citalopram) with a subeffective dose of an NK1R antagonist (0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721) produced efficacy in the gerbil forced swim test (FST). Serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy produced by 1 mg/kg fluoxetine (lowest efficacious dose) was 52 ± 5% and was reduced to 29 ± 4% at 0.3 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious in combination with 0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721; the corresponding NK1R occupancies were 79 ± 4% and 61 ± 4% for aprepitant and CP-122,721, respectively. For citalopram, SERT occupancy at the lowest efficacious dose (0.1 mg/kg) was 50 ± 4% and was reduced to 20 ± 5% at 0.03 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious when combined with aprepitant (0.3 mg/kg). Aprepitant (10 mg/kg) augmented the serotonin elevation produced by fluoxetine (1 or 10 mg/kg) in the gerbil prefrontal cortex; i.e. NK1R antagonism can modulate serotonin responses. A novel orally-available dual-acting NK1R antagonist/SERT inhibitor BMS-795176 is described; gerbil Ki = 1.4 and 1 nM at NK1R and SERT, respectively. BMS-795176 was efficacious in the gerbil FST; efficacy was observed with 35 ± 3% SERT occupancy and 73 ± 3% NK1R occupancy. The interaction between NK1R antagonism and SERT inhibition to lower the SERT occupancy required for antidepressant-like efficacy suggests that BMS-795176 has the potential to improve efficacy with a reduction in SSRI-associated side effects.

  6. The microtubule-binding and coiled-coil domains of Kid are required to turn off the polar ejection force at anaphase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Shou; Yamada-Nomoto, Kaori; Ohsugi, Miho

    2016-10-01

    Mitotic chromosomes move dynamically along the spindle microtubules using the forces generated by motor proteins such as chromokinesin Kid (also known as KIF22). Kid generates a polar ejection force and contributes to alignment of the chromosome arms during prometaphase and metaphase, whereas during anaphase, Kid contributes to chromosome compaction. How Kid is regulated and how this regulation is important for chromosome dynamics remains unclear. Here, we address these questions by expressing mutant forms of Kid in Kid-deficient cells. We demonstrate that Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of Thr463 is required to generate the polar ejection force on Kid-binding chromosomes, whereas dephosphorylation of Thr463 prevents generation of the ejection force on such chromosomes. In addition to activation of the second microtubule-binding domain through dephosphorylation of Thr463, the coiled-coil domain is essential in suspending generation of the polar ejection force, preventing separated chromosomes from becoming recongressed during anaphase. We propose that phosphorylation of Thr463 switches the mitotic chromosome movement from an anti-poleward direction to a poleward direction by converting the Kid functional mode from polar-ejection-force-ON to -OFF during the metaphase-anaphase transition, and that both the second microtubule-binding domain and the coiled-coil domain are involved in this switching process. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Changes in forcing factors affecting coastal and shallow water erosion in the future Arctic climate change projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, Mikhail; Razumov, Sergey; Brovkin, Victor; Ilyina, Tatiana; Grigoriev, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Driving factors of seabed and coastal erosion in the Arctic can be classified as thermal and mechanical. Thermal factors such as air and ocean temperatures affect the seabed and coastal ground temperatures. Mechanical factors such as ocean currents and surface gravity waves contribute to the seabed and costal erosion due to shear stress. Due to polar amplification, the Arctic experiences strong increase in air and water temperature, sea-ice loss and changes in the ocean and atmospheric circulation, temperature and wind distribution. These climatic changes lead to changes in factors driving seabed and coastal erosion, which is expected to accelerate in the shallow Arctic regions such as the Laptev sea and East Siberian sea. In these regions, the coastal line to a large extent consists of frozen rocks, sediments and organic soils including ground ice. The increase of erosion rate of the coastal line will increase the release of organic and inorganic matter from thawed permafrost. Dynamics of thermal and mechanical drivers of seabed and coastal erosion in the present and future climate change (RCP8.5 scenario) simulated by the CMIP5 version of the MPI Earth system model and wave model WAM will be presented. Special attention will be given to changes in the air temperature, wind dynamics and development of new waves system in the ``ice-free'' Arctic and its role in the seabed and coastal erosion.

  8. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Clinical Requirements for the U.S. Air Force Otolaryngology Team (FFENT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-10

    FFNEU units provide care for trauma to the head and neck, like facial fractures involving the maxillary sinuses and fascial infections requiring...NECK, LARYNGEAL FRACTURE 100% 1 DC 818 MAXILLARY SINUSITIS-INFECTION OF SINUS AREA ACCOMPANIED BY INFLAMMATION AND DRAINAGE 10% 90% 3 DC 823 SOFT...GUEDEL SM 80MM LG PLAS 10S 6515015199161 GLOVE PT EXAM LARGE NON STER POWDER FREE 100S 6505007720157 LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE TOP VISC 4% 50 ML

  9. Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikawa, Eri; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Aerosols are harmful to human health and have both direct and indirect effects on climate. China is a major contributor to global emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), a sulfate (SO 42-) precursor, organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) aerosols. Although increasingly examined, the effect of present and potential future levels of these emissions on global premature mortality and climate change has not been well quantified. Through both direct radiative effects and indirect effects on clouds, SO 42- and OC exert negative radiative forcing (cooling) while BC exerts positive forcing (warming). We analyze the effect of China's emissions of SO 2, SO 42-, OC and BC in 2000 and for three emission scenarios in 2030 on global surface aerosol concentrations, premature mortality, and radiative forcing (RF). Using global models of chemical transport (MOZART-2) and radiative transfer (GFDL RTM), and combining simulation results with gridded population data, mortality rates, and concentration-response relationships from the epidemiological literature, we estimate the contribution of Chinese aerosols to global annual premature mortality and to RF in 2000 and 2030. In 2000, we estimate these aerosols cause approximately 470 000 premature deaths in China and an additional 30 000 deaths globally. In 2030, aggressive emission controls lead to a 50% reduction in premature deaths from the 2000 level to 240 000 in China and 10 000 elsewhere, while under a high emissions scenario premature deaths increase 50% from the 2000 level to 720 000 in China and to 40 000 elsewhere. Because the negative RF from SO 42- and OC is larger than the positive forcing from BC, Chinese aerosols lead to global net direct RF of -74 mW m -2 in 2000 and between -15 and -97 mW m -2 in 2030 depending on the emissions scenario. Our analysis indicates that increased effort to reduce greenhouse gases is essential to address climate change as China's anticipated reduction of aerosols will result in the

  10. Discussion on sea level fluctuations along the Adriatic coasts coupling to climate indices forced by solar activity: Insights into the future of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, Davide; Traverso, Pietro; Tomasino, Mario

    2006-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is a dominant circulation pattern in Northern Hemisphere winter, is known to affect sea-level variability in the Mediterranean Sea mainly through the hydrostatic response of water masses to pressure anomalies and changes in evaporation/precipitation budgets. In this study the influence of the NAO on sea levels along the Adriatic coasts is re-assessed in the attempt to uncover the potential causes of the observed high sensitivity of the northern basin to NAO fluctuations. The investigation is focused on the role of the NAO as forcing factor of the winds blowing in the area and of the freshwaters input from the Po River, both of which influence the hydrodynamics of the Northern Adriatic. In addition, some insights into the future of Venice are discussed on the basis of the hypothesis that NAO phases are modulated by the varying solar activity through the intensity of the Earth's geomagnetic activity.

  11. National Guard and Reserves: Air Force Needs to Consistently Assess Personnel Requirements to Appropriately Size Its Headquarters Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Headquarters Reserve Components Report to Congressional Committees August 2016 GAO-16-538 United States Government Accountability Office...United States Government Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-538, a report to congressional committees August 2016 NATIONAL...Report 114-49 included a provision for GAO to review DOD’s Army and Air Force Reserve Components’ headquarters. Among other things, this report (1

  12. An Investigative Study of Air Force Acquisition Management Work with the Intent of Identifying Its Nature and Required Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    11. Air Force Business Research Management Center, WPAFB OH, 1983 (AD-A37700). Fayol , Henri . ’The Importance of the Administrative Factor,’ Readings...Kotter, Stewart, Fayol . Daft, Luthans, Beer, Boulding and several others. We students struggle to climb up to their shoulders for just an instant to...Subject.............. 19 The Role of the Computer ....................... 22 The Research of Management Work.................. 23 Henry Mintzberg

  13. Passion Trumps Pay: A Study of the Future Skills Requirements of Information Professionals in Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Katherine; Partridge, Helen; Hughes, Hilary; Oliver, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper explores the current and future skills and knowledge requirements of contemporary information professionals in a converged gallery, library, archive and museum sector (also referred to as the GLAM sector) in Australia. This research forms part of a larger study that investigated the education needs of information…

  14. An Application of Multi-band Forced Photometry to One Square Degree of SERVS: Accurate Photometric Redshifts and Implications for Future Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Kristina; Lacy, Mark; Sajina, Anna; Pforr, Janine; Farrah, Duncan; Wilson, Gillian; Surace, Jason; Häußler, Boris; Vaccari, Mattia; Jarvis, Matt

    2017-05-01

    We apply The Tractor image modeling code to improve upon existing multi-band photometry for the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). SERVS consists of post-cryogenic Spitzer observations at 3.6 and 4.5 μm over five well-studied deep fields spanning 18 deg2. In concert with data from ground-based near-infrared (NIR) and optical surveys, SERVS aims to provide a census of the properties of massive galaxies out to z ≈ 5. To accomplish this, we are using The Tractor to perform “forced photometry.” This technique employs prior measurements of source positions and surface brightness profiles from a high-resolution fiducial band from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations survey to model and fit the fluxes at lower-resolution bands. We discuss our implementation of The Tractor over a square-degree test region within the XMM Large Scale Structure field with deep imaging in 12 NIR/optical bands. Our new multi-band source catalogs offer a number of advantages over traditional position-matched catalogs, including (1) consistent source cross-identification between bands, (2) de-blending of sources that are clearly resolved in the fiducial band but blended in the lower resolution SERVS data, (3) a higher source detection fraction in each band, (4) a larger number of candidate galaxies in the redshift range 5 forced photometry using The Tractor offers a means of improving the accuracy of multi-band extragalactic surveys designed for galaxy evolution studies. We will extend our application of this technique to the full SERVS footprint in the future.

  15. Induction of CXCL2 and CCL2 by pressure force requires IL-1β-MyD88 axis in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Aya; Bandow, Kenjiro; Kusuyama, Joji; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical stresses including pressure force induce chemokine expressions in osteoblasts resulting in inflammatory reactions and bone remodeling. However, it has not been well elucidated how mechanical stresses induce inflammatory chemokine expressions in osteoblasts. IL-1β has been identified as an important pathogenic factor in bone loss diseases, such as inflammatory arthritis and periodontitis. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an essential downstream adaptor molecule of IL-1 receptor signaling. This study was to examine the gene expression profiles of inflammatory chemokines and the role of MyD88 in osteoblasts stimulated by pressure force. Pressure force (10g/cm(2)) induced significant mRNA increases of CXCL2, CCL2, and CCL5, as well as prompt phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK, p38 and JNK), in wild-type primary osteoblasts. The CXCL2 and CCL2 mRNA increases and MAP kinase phosphorylation were severely impaired in MyD88(-/-) osteoblasts. Constitutive low-level expression of IL-1β mRNA was similarly observed in both wild-type and MyD88(-/-) osteoblasts, which was not altered by pressure force stimulation. Notably, neutralization of IL-1β with a specific antibody significantly impaired pressure force-induced mRNA increases of CXCL2 and CCL2, as well as MAP kinase phosphorylation, in wild-type osteoblasts. Furthermore, pre-treatment with recombinant IL-1β significantly enhanced MAP kinase phosphorylation and mRNA increases of CXCL2 and CCL2 by pressure force in wild-type but not MyD88(-/-) osteoblasts. These results have suggested that the activation of MyD88 pathway by constitutive low-level IL-1β expression is essential for pressure force-induced CXCL2 and CCL2 expression in osteoblasts. Thus MyD88 signal in osteoblasts may be required for bone resorption by pressure force through chemokine induction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Requirement Analysis for Army Forces Drilling Based on QFD%基于QFD的作战部队演练任务需求分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈墩彪; 沈迪; 贺平

    2015-01-01

    需求分析是提高作战部队演练活动质量效益的重要保障。首先对QFD方法进行了概述;其次,提出了基于QFD的演练任务需求分析方法,探讨了基于QFD的任务需求分析过程,及其关键算法;然后,以电子蓝军反导防御作战演练为例,详细论述了基于QFD的演练任务需求分析方法的运用;最后,总结分析了基于QFD的演练任务需求分析方法运用应注意的几点问题。%Requirement analysis is an important safeguard to improve the quality and effectiveness of forces drilling. Firstly, the QFD methods are outlined. Secondly, the proposed drill mission requirements analysis method based on QFD, to explore the mission requirements analysis process, critical analysis to study the correlation algorithms. Then, Blue Electronic Force anti missile defense drills, for example, discusses in detail the use of drills mission requirements analysis method based on QFD. Finally, summarize and analyze the issues related to the use of QFD methods should be noted.

  17. Charging and billing in modern communications networks : A comprehensive survey of the state of the art and future requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühne, R.; Huitema, G.B.; Carle, G.

    2012-01-01

    In mobile telecommunication networks the trend for an increasing heterogeneity of access networks, the convergence with fixed networks as well as with the Internet are apparent. The resulting future converged network with an expected wide variety of services and a possibly stiff competition between

  18. Charging and billing in modern communications networks : A comprehensive survey of the state of art and future requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehne, Ralph; Huitema, George; Carle, George

    2012-01-01

    In mobile telecommunication networks the trend for an increasing heterogeneity of access networks, the convergence with fixed networks as well as with the Internet are apparent. The resulting future converged network with an expected wide variety of services and a possibly stiff competition between

  19. Charging a renewable future: The impact of electric vehicle charging intelligence on energy storage requirements to meet renewable portfolio standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kate E.; Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-12-01

    Increased usage of renewable energy resources is key for energy system evolution to address environmental concerns. Capturing variable renewable power requires the use of energy storage to shift generation and load demand. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles, however, impacts the load demand profile and therefore the capacity of energy storage required to meet renewable utilization targets. This study examines how the intelligence of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) integration impacts the required capacity of energy storage systems to meet renewable utilization targets for a large-scale energy system, using California as an example for meeting a 50% and 80% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2030 and 2050. For an 80% RPS in 2050, immediate charging of PEVs requires the installation of an aggregate energy storage system with a power capacity of 60% of the installed renewable capacity and an energy capacity of 2.3% of annual renewable generation. With smart charging of PEVs, required power capacity drops to 16% and required energy capacity drops to 0.6%, and with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) charging, non-vehicle energy storage systems are no longer required. Overall, this study highlights the importance of intelligent PEV charging for minimizing the scale of infrastructure required to meet renewable utilization targets.

  20. Exhaust-gas aftertreatment concepts for meeting future emission requirements; Abgasnachbehandlungs-Konzepte zur Erfuellung zukuenftiger Emissionsrichtlinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, Tobias; Weiskirch, Christian; Behnk, Kai [IAV GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Nutzfahrzeuge; Mueller, Raimund [Emitec Gesellschaft fuer Emissionstechnologie mbH, Lohmar (Germany). Technischer Vertrieb Nutzfahrzeuge und Non-road Anwendungen

    2011-02-15

    Proceeding from a modern two-stage supercharged commercial-vehicle engine employing measures inside the engine to satisfy the NO{sub x} limit values for Euro V and EEV as well as a partial-flow particulate filter system for meeting the particulate limit values prescribed under Euro V and EEV, the IAV investigated potential approaches to complying with future emission standards in the on-road and off-road segments. (orig.)

  1. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: financial history and future power requirements for the VACAR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Financial data for the period 1966 to 1981 are presented for the four investor-owned electric utilities in the VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas) region. This region was selected as representative for the purpose of assessing the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power for the future in the United States. The estimated demand for power and planned additions to generating capacity for the region through the year 2000 are also given.

  2. Tools required for efficient management of municipal utilities in the future heat and power market; Zukunftsfaehiges Management von Stadtwerken braucht Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estermann, Andre S. [Strategieprojekt stadtwerke-monitor.de, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The key aspect of organizational management is the definition and implementation of goals for the future. This requires continuous reflection of the organization's position at a given moment and of the further strategy required to achieve the targeted goals. Small and medium-sized municipal utilities as a rule are reluctant to take this strategy and promote innovations. The author presents a new online platform that was developed specifically for municipal utilities, offering them the option to find new ways of business management. In the energy markets of the future, participation of municipal utilities will thus no longer be a matter of 'if' but a matter of 'how'. (orig.)

  3. An Analysis of the Requirements and Potential Opportunities for the Future Education of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    universities, that taught intelligence analysis, focused on foreign, national or business intelligence . Foreign intelligence in this thesis refers to the...coursework consists of the following classes: Fundamentals of Intelligence Analysis, Business Intelligence , National Intelligence, Criminal Intelligence...certificate programs: competitive ( business ) intelligence and intelligence analysis. The competitive intelligence analysis program requires completion of the

  4. Combat Medical Modernization: Posturing Low Supply And High Demand Assets To Meet Emerging And Future Capability Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    the Asia - Pacific .66 This shift could bring new requirements for military projection of power and therefore needed medical capability into an area...Lead Agent Medical Materiel – Pacific (TLAMM-P) as well as leading an MFST (Mobile Field Surgical Team) team in the CENTCOM Area of Operation (AOR...duty as Independent Duty Medical Technician (IDMT), Aeromedical Evacuation Technician (AET), Hyperbaric Medical Technician (HBMT); Allergy and/or

  5. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  6. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  7. Future planetary X-ray and gamma-ray remote sensing system and in situ requirements for room temperature solid state detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Trombka, J I; Starr, R; Clark, P E; Floyd, S R

    1999-01-01

    X-Ray and gamma-ray remote sensing observations find important applications in the study of the development of the planets. Orbital measurements can be carried out on solar-system bodies whose atmospheres and trapped radiation environments do not interfere significantly with the emissions. Elemental compositions can be inferred from observations of these line emissions. Future planetary missions also will involve landing both stationery and roving probes on planetary surfaces. Both X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers will be used for performing elemental analysis of surface samples. These future planetary missions will impose a number of constraints: the flight instruments must be significantly reduced in weight from those previously flown; for many missions, gravity assist will be required, greatly increasing mission duration, resulting in the passage of several years before the first scientific measurement of a solar system body. The detector systems must operate reliably after years of cosmic-ray irradiation...

  8. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 4: Future requirements of dedicated freighter aircraft to year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burby, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 fleet operations are extended to the year 1992, thus providing an evaluation of current aircraft types in meeting the ensuing increased market demand. Possible changes in the fleet mix and the resulting economic situation are defined in terms of the number of units of each type aircraft and the resulting growth in operational frequency. Among the economic parameters considered are the associated investment required by the airline, the return on investment to the airline, and the accompanying levels of cash flow and operating income. Against this background the potential for a derivative aircraft to enter fleet operations in 1985 is defined as a function of payload size and as affected by 1980 technology. In a similar manner, the size and potential for a new dedicated 1990 technology, freighter aircraft to become operational in 1995 is established. The resulting aircraft and fleet operational and economic characteristics are evaluated over the period 1994 to 2008. The impacts of restricted growth in operational frequency, reduced market demand, variations in aircraft configurations, and military participation, are assessed.

  9. What are the minimum requirements for ketogenic diet services in resource-limited regions? Recommendations from the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force for Dietary Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Al-Macki, Nabil; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Kim, Heung D; Liao, Jianxiang; Megaw, Katherine; Nathan, Janak K; Raimann, Ximena; Rivera, Rocio; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Williams, Emma; Zupec-Kania, Beth A

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of dietary therapies for children and adults with refractory epilepsy, the availability of these treatments in developing countries with limited resources remains suboptimal. One possible contributory factor may be the costs. There is often reported a significant perceived need for a large ketogenic diet team, supplements, laboratory studies, and follow-up visits to provide this treatment. The 2009 Epilepsia Consensus Statement described ideal requirements for a ketogenic diet center, but in some situations this is not feasible. As a result, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Dietary Therapy was asked to convene and provide practical, cost-effective recommendations for new ketogenic diet centers in resource-limited regions of the world.

  10. The Future of Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José

    2013-01-01

    Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011.......Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011....

  11. Photovoltaic cell and array technology development for future unique NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Curtis, H.; Piszczor, M.; Surampudi, R.; Hamilton, T.; Rapp, D.; Stella, P.; Mardesich, N.; Mondt, J.; Bunker, R.; Nesmith, B.; Gaddy, E.; Marvin, D.; Kazmerski, L.

    2002-01-01

    A technology review committee from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Air Force Research Lab, was formed to assess solar cell and array technologies required for future NASA science missions.

  12. Quantitative implications of the secondary role of carbon dioxide climate forcing in the past glacial-interglacial cycles for the likely future climatic impacts of anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcings

    CERN Document Server

    Soon, Willie

    2007-01-01

    A review of the recent refereed literature fails to confirm quantitatively that carbon dioxide (CO2) radiative forcing was the prime mover in the changes in temperature, ice-sheet volume, and related climatic variables in the glacial and interglacial periods of the past 650,000 years, even under the "fast response" framework where the convenient if artificial distinction between forcing and feedback is assumed. Atmospheric CO2 variations generally follow changes in temperature and other climatic variables rather than preceding them. Likewise, there is no confirmation of the often-posited significant supporting role of methane (CH4) forcing, which despite its faster atmospheric response time is simply too small, amounting to less than 0.2 W/m2 from a change of 400 ppb. We cannot quantitatively validate the numerous qualitative suggestions that the CO2 and CH4 forcings that occurred in response to the Milankovich orbital cycles accounted for more than half of the amplitude of the changes in the glacial/intergla...

  13. Defense Manpower Commission Staff Studies and Supporting Papers. Volume 3. Military Recruitment and Accessions and Future of the All Volunteer Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    officers of the Regular Force completing their terms of service were e0e160ed to Re- cruiting Services for their " twilight tours". Duriag the draft...departments/sections conducts a broad market communications program. Efforts range from preparation and placement of printed ads in saga - Zino

  14. Managing U.S. Air Force Aircraft Operating and Support Costs: Insights from Recent RAND Analysis and Opportunities for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ration in planning and execution processes, and specific ana - lytic questions and initiatives to pursue. The Air Force Sustain- ment Center has...Defense Spending, September 14, 2010, and Frank Kendall, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense, Memorandum: Implementing Directive for Better Buying

  15. A Heuristic FORTRAN Model of the Identification and Allocation of CONUS (Continental United States) Prime BEEF (Base Engineer Emergency Forces) Forces in Support of Theater OPlan (Operation Plan) Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Attitudes, and Crew Liking Related to Aircrew Effectiveness in Far Eastern Combat," Sociometry, 1956, pp. 141-153. Cartwright , Darwin , and Alvin...cohesiveness "as the resultant of all forces which act to keep members within a group." Cartwright and Zander (1968) grouped these cohesive forces into two

  16. Science drivers and requirements for an Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Implications for technology development and synergies with other future facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, Marc; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R Michael; Stahl, H Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Rémi; Hyde, Tupper; 10.1117/12.857044

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astronphysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 {\\mu}m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 {\\mu}m to 2.4 {\\mu}m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

  17. Meeting the future metro network challenges and requirements by adopting programmable S-BVT with direct-detection and PDM functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Laia; Svaluto Moreolo, Michela; Fàbrega, Josep M.; Vílchez, F. Javier

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced programmable sliceable-bandwidth variable transceiver (S-BVT) with polarization division multiplexing (PDM) capability as a key enabler to fulfill the requirements for future 5G networks. Thanks to its cost-effective optoelectronic front-end based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology and direct-detection (DD), the proposed S-BVT becomes suitable for next generation highly flexible and scalable metro networks. Polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and controllers (PCs), available on-demand, are included at the transceivers and at the network nodes, further enhancing the system flexibility and promoting an efficient use of the spectrum. 40G-100G PDM transmission has been experimentally demonstrated, within a 4-node photonic mesh network (ADRENALINE testbed), implementing a simplified equalization process.

  18. Future integrated design environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch

    2009-01-01

    and modeling of explicit and implicit end-user needs and requirements on both the building to be designed and the supporting design tools. The paper provides grounds to higher success rate in capture of explicit and implicit end user needs and requirements on functional performance in use and re......We are facing a probable great change in the way we carry through design in future ICT supported environments. The main driving forces are the digitalization of information handling leading to a paramount paradigm shift when information storage and access media are separated, building process...... and product systems are formalized in digital models, user environments are provided with rich adaptable multimedia access to virtual models, virtual collaboration rooms established, and new efficient and effective ICT tools defined and implemented. There are though some barriers putting strains...

  19. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  20. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  1. Special Issue on Powering the Future Force: New Power & Energy Technologies for the Warfighter (AMMTIAC Quarterly, Volume 4, Number 1 / WSTIAC Quarterly, Volume 9, Number 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    carry more fuel and munitions and have more room for crew’s quarters and weapon systems. General Atomics’ (GA) superconducting DC homopolar motor for...novel structural shapes and more efficient powerplants (engines, motors , power storage, etc.), to identify ways to reduce fuel consumption affordably...system design consists of a 2.5 liter/75 kilowatt (kW) diesel engine, a 97 kW AC induction motor , and a continuous variable transmission. The Air Force is

  2. The Armed Forces Code of Conduct: An Examination of Its Suitability and Application in the Vietnam War and in Future Armed Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    law, education (the professions) D. Industrial arts, comrcial art, clerical or programmer training, mechanic * retail/wholesale trade (vocational...Foreign language of captor D. Physical fitness or sport Z. Mechanical or engineering skills F. Teacher training G. Psychology or psychological warfare...objectives? A B C D E 105. Worried about your future or career? A B C D 106. Under the influence of alchohol or drugs? A B C D E 107. Certain of the

  3. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  4. Requirement of AMPA receptor stimulation for the sustained antidepressant activity of ketamine and LY341495 during the forced swim test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Hiroyuki; Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2014-09-01

    Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, and group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2/3) receptor antagonists produce antidepressant effects in animal models of depression, which last for at least 24h, through the transient increase in glutamate release, leading to activation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA) receptor. Both ketamine and an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist reportedly increase the expression of GluR1, an AMPA receptor subunit, within 24h, which may account for the sustained enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission following ketamine administration. However, whether the sustained increase in AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission is associated with the antidepressant effects of ketamine and mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists has not yet been investigated. In the present study, to address this question, we tested whether AMPA receptor stimulation at 24h after a single injection of ketamine or an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, (2S)-2-amino-2-[(1S,2S)-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl]-3-(xanth-9-yl)propanoic acid (LY341495) was necessary for the antidepressant effect of these compounds using a forced swim test in rats. A single injection of ketamine or LY341495 at 24h before the test significantly decreased the immobility time. An AMPA receptor antagonist, 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX), administered 30min prior to the test significantly and dose-dependently reversed the antidepressant effects of ketamine and LY341495, while NBQX itself had no effect on the immobility time. Our findings suggest that AMPA receptor stimulation at 24h after a single injection of ketamine or LY341495 is required to produce the anti-immobility effects of these compounds. Moreover, the present results provide additional evidence that an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist may share some of neural mechanisms with ketamine to exert antidepressant effects.

  5. Le travail en groupe : force du futur développement des paysans de la zone de Wamba au Zaïre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambanota, M.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Group working a force for countrymen's development in Wamba area, Zaire. This subject describes countrymen's organization of work in the township of Wamba in Zaire. Faced to the care of coffee plantations the countrymen appeal to traditional solidarity, forming a three, five, ten... group of men to work together. These groups are so organized that there is a rule about the duration of work, the taking turn in every member's field and penalties to those who don't respect the rules. A part from these groups of workers called Dynamic Mongapete, we join Likelemba which consists to giving a fixed number of coffee sacks to one member of the group in order to fulfil a plan made by the group in advance. So both Dynamic Mongapete and Likelemba increase coffee incomes, transform the structure of villages and tend to supplant waged workmanship. Unfortunately the Dynamic Mongapete is still confined to coffee plantations and supplies only individual interest. If it were introduced in the fulfilment of common development project and in subsistencial agriculture, then it would constitute a powerful method of production in Wamba township.

  6. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  7. Future integrated design environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch

    2009-01-01

    We are facing a probable great change in the way we carry through design in future ICT supported environments. The main driving forces are the digitalization of information handling leading to a paramount paradigm shift when information storage and access media are separated, building process...... on the development. Among the most important are missing ontologies both on business and Web/Internet service levels as well as their interrelations, poor user involvement in needs and requirements formulations on new ICT tools as well as in continuous user involvement in design and evaluation of new user...... environments, lack of interoperability within building process/product models, and the effects of local community behavior on global scale. The general competence level and preparedness for organizational and work change due to globalization and development of new common grounds for building design needs...

  8. Canadian Consensus Guidelines on Use of Amyloid Imaging in Canada: Update and Future Directions from the Specialized Task Force on Amyloid imaging in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforce, Robert; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Rabinovici, Gil D; Dubois, Bruno; Gauthier, S

    2016-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of brain amyloid beta is now clinically available in several countries including the United States and the United Kingdom, but not Canada. It has become an established technique in the field of neuroimaging of aging and dementia, with data incorporated in the new consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and predementia Alzheimer's disease-related conditions. At this point, there are three US Food and Drug Administration- and European Union-approved tracers. Guided by appropriate use criteria developed in 2013 by the Alzheimer's Association and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, the utility of amyloid imaging in medical practice is now supported by a growing body of research. In this paper, we aimed to provide an update on the 2012 Canadian consensus guidelines to dementia care practitioners on proper use of amyloid imaging. We also wished to generate momentum for the industry to submit a new drug proposal to Health Canada. A group of local, national, and international dementia experts and imaging specialists met to discuss scenarios in which amyloid PET could be used appropriately. Peer-reviewed and published literature between January 2004 and May 2015 was searched. Technical and regulatory considerations pertaining to Canada were considered. The results of a survey of current practices in Canadian dementia centers were considered. A set of specific clinical and research guidelines was agreed on that defines the types of patients and clinical circumstances in which amyloid PET could be used in Canada. Future research directions were also outlined, notably the importance of studies that would assess the pharmaco-economics of amyloid imaging.

  9. Physical forcing and physical/biochemical variability of the Mediterranean Sea: a review of unresolved issues and directions for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Malanotte-Rizzoli

    2013-07-01

    accessible locations, these convection cells are much more amenable to direct observational surveys and mooring arrays. An ubiquitous, energetic mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddy field is superimposed to and interacts with the sub-basin scale, wind-driven gyres that characterize the upper thermocline circulation. Three different scales of motion are therefore superimposed producing a richness of interaction processes which typify similar interactions in unexplored ocean regions. Both wide and narrow shelves are present separated by steep continental slopes from the deep interiors. Cross-shelf fluxes of physical as well biogeochemical parameters are crucial in determining the properties of the shallow versus deep local ecosystems and their trophic chain. Most importantly, the Mediterranean Sea is a basin of contrasting ecosystems, from the strongly oligotrophic deep interiors to the fully eutrophic northern Adriatic characterized by recurrent, anomalous algal blooms and related anoxia events. This review focuses on the identification of the major unresolved scientific issues and wants also to provide directions for future research which may lead to the formulation of interdisciplinary, collaborative implementation plans to address these issues both theoretically and observationally.

  10. Future Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2001-01-01

    We are emerging from a period of consolidation in particle physics. Its great, historic achievement was to establish the Theory of Matter. This Theory will serve as our description of ordinary matter under ordinary conditions -- allowing for an extremely liberal definition of "ordinary -- for the foreseeable future. Yet there are many indications, ranging from the numerical to the semi-mystical, that a new fertile period lies before us. We will discover compelling evidence for the unification of fundamental forces and for new quantum dimensions (low-energy supersymmetry). We will identify new forms of matter, which dominate the mass density of the Universe. We will achieve much better fundamental understanding of the behavior of matter in extreme astrophysical and cosmological environments. Lying beyond these expectations, we can identify deep questions that seem to call for ideas outside our present grasp. And there's still plenty of room for surprises.

  11. Future Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    We are emerging from a period of consolidation in particle physics. Its great, historic achievement was to establish the Theory of Matter. This Theory will serve as our description of ordinary matter under ordinary conditions - allowing for an extremely liberal definition of ``ordinary'' - for the foreseeable future. Yet there are many indications, ranging from the numerical to the semimystical, that a new fertile period lies before us. We will discover compelling evidence for the unification of fundamental forces and for new quantum dimensions (low-energy supersymmetry). We will identify new forms of matter, which dominate the mass density of the Universe. We will achieve much better fundamental understanding of the behavior of matter in extreme astrophysical and cosmological environments. Lying beyond these expectations, we can identify deep questions that seem to call for ideas outside our present grasp. And there is still plenty of room for surprises.

  12. The influence of frontal alignment in the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis on energy cost and crutch force requirements during paraplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten J.; Baardman, Gert; Holweg, Gerlinde G.J.; Hermens, Hermie J.; Veltink, P.H.; Boom, H.B.K.; Zilvold, G.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of energy cost and upper body load during paraplegic walking is considered to be an important criterion in future developments of walking systems. A high energy cost limits the maximum walking distance in the current devices, whereas wrist and shoulder pathology can deteriorate because of

  13. Rise and Fall of the First Financial Futures Market in China: The Case of Chinese Government Bond Futures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Chen; Zhongguo Zhou

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the rise and fall of the first financial futures market in China. We cmpare the characteristics in the Chinese Government bond futures market with those in the US T-bond futures market. They differ in market design and structure, market governance, margin requirements, position limits, delivery process, and the way in which the settlement price is calculated. Furthermore, with a unique dataset, we shaw that prior to maturities of govermnent bond futures, traders begun to accumulate significant amounts of long positions for several selected contracts without the intention to offset, forcing short position holders to either purchase deliverable bonds or offset futures at highly inflated prices, causing higher market volatility and price disequilibrium in both spot and futures markets. Arbitrage opportunity arises and the market eventually collapses. The lessons learned from the suspension of the Chinese Government bond futures market offer an invaluable learning experience.

  14. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbey, D. J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D. J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force, and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  15. Design principles and requirements for the ICT of future smart energy systems; Designprinzipien und Anforderungen an die IKT fuer intelligente Energiesysteme der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eger, Kolja [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Mohr, Werner [Nokia Siemens Networks Management International GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The information and communication technology (ICT) is a key enabling technology for Smart Grids. With respect to very short innovation cycles for ICT compared to longer innovation cycles for the transition of the energy system there is a huge challenge to develop and exploit the potential of future ICT and their application in a future intelligent energy system. Different ICT technologies, such as Internet of Things or Cloud Computing are intensively being discussed. They can be summarized under the term ''Future Internet''. The EU project FINSENY is investigating the potential of Future Internet concepts and technologies in particular for Smart Energy systems. A series of design principles and the necessary ICT are developed, which are described in this paper. These design principles such as open interfaces, security-by-design, simplicity, maintenance, auto-configuration and modularity are of general nature. They will remain despite technology developments. Furthermore, several design principles are not only applicable to ICT but they are also related to design principles of intelligent energy systems like decentralized energy generation systems. (orig.)

  16. V-22 Osprey Program: Are We Properly Protecting This Valuable Asset and Its Passengers?; Does It Meet the Full Requirement for All Future USMC Medium Lift Operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    must look to the future as it did with the Osprey. One good example of an aircraft that Gould quickly, relatively speaking , be placed in the escort...for CAS missions. The Marine -----Ge>rps-needs-te>-rnake-the-preteetien-ef-this-a-ireraft-a-tep-prierit-y-;-’Fhe-less-ef- efle -a-iferaft-eue-te-a

  17. Identifying the ICT challenges of the Agri-Food sector to define the Architectural Requirements for a Future Internet Core Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, C.A.; Wolfert, J.; Sundmaeker, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the specific challenges of the agri-food sector in the light of research carried out in the SmartAgriFood project. Using questionnaires and focus groups, our research identifies a number of business needs and drivers which enable the identification of suitable Future Internet te

  18. The flexibility requirements for power plants with CCS in a future energy system with a large share of intermittent renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A. S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; van den Broek, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34573260X; Seebregts, A.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates flexibility issues of future low-carbon power systems. The short-term power system impacts of intermittent renewables are identified and roughly quantified based on a review of wind integration studies. Next, the flexibility parameters of three types of power plants with CO2

  19. Recent Investments by NASA's National Force Measurement Technology Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) is a nationwide partnership established in 2008 and sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Evaluation and Test Capabilities (AETC) project to maintain and further develop force measurement capabilities. The NFMTC focuses on force measurement in wind tunnels and provides operational support in addition to conducting balance research. Based on force measurement capability challenges, strategic investments into research tasks are designed to meet the experimental requirements of current and future aerospace research programs and projects. This paper highlights recent and force measurement investments into several areas including recapitalizing the strain-gage balance inventory, developing balance best practices, improving calibration and facility capabilities, and researching potential technologies to advance balance capabilities.

  20. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  1. Defense Strategy and Forces: Setting Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-15

    range of maritime stakeholders imaginable. The new statement of strategy is essentially a compromise in length, in overall posture, and in de- tailed ...Andean Ridge in South America is the world’s lead- ing source of coca cultivation, and despite international efforts and record interdictions and

  2. Naval Science & Technology: Enabling the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Peer Competitors • Security of Global Commons (Cyber/Piracy) • Climate Change & Natural Disasters • Revised Defense Strategy, Re-Balance to Pacific... corn for disruptive technologies Laser Cooling Spintronics Bz 1st U.S. Intel satellite GRAB Semiconductors GaAs, GaN, SiC GPS

  3. Recruiting the Future Force: A Proactive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Overweight or Obese Juveniles Did Not Graduate High School Legal Issues Alabama X X Alaska X X Arizona X Arkansas X X California X...this dramatic increase in obesity stems from a lack of physical activity. Only 8 percent of elementary schools , 6.4 percent of middle schools , and 5.8... Overweight or Obese (Avg. 2006 - 2008) Percentage of 18 - 24 Yr Olds Overweight or Obese (Avg. 1996 - 1998)

  4. U.S. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Requirements of the EMEDS Specialty Care Augmentation Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    medical assets since 2004. Air Force medical modeling capabilities currently capture care and treatment of the sick and injured from the first...0.01 $18.67 0.36 0.01 $18.67 A 6505015781669 PENICILLIN G PROCAINE SUSP STER USP 600000 UNITS / ML PG 1 1 0.50 0.12 $135.37 0.50 0.12 $135.37 D...8.76 0.78 0.03 $17.52 A 6630015207423 TUBE BLOOD COLLECTING W/ SERUM SEPARATOR 200S PG 1 1 2.25 0.25 $142.79 2.25 0.25 $142.79 A 6515011562966 TUBE

  5. Nonlinear Dynamic Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Björnham, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information of the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear regime. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are examples of structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found th...

  6. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hofmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17 and professional clarinettists (N = 6 were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 x 2 x 2 design (register: low--high; tempo: slow--fast, dynamics: soft--loud. There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low--high of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions. The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (Fmean and peak force (Fmax were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (Fmean = 1.17 N, Fmax = 3.05 N compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g. guitar. Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (Fmean = 1.21 N.For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (Fmean = 0.54 N. Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  7. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Alex; Goebl, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17) and professional clarinettists (N = 6) were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 × 2 × 2 design (register: low-high; tempo: slow-fast, dynamics: soft-loud). There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low-high) of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions). The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast) in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (F mean ) and peak force (F max ) were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (F mean = 1.17 N, F max = 3.05 N) compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g., guitar). Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (F mean = 1.21 N). For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (F mean = 0.54 N). Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  8. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  9. Future climate and surface mass balance of Svalbard glaciers in an RCP8.5 climate scenario: a study with the regional climate model MAR forced by MIROC5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C.; Fettweis, X.; Erpicum, M.

    2015-05-01

    We have performed a future projection of the climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of Svalbard with the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) regional climate model forced by MIROC5 (Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate), following the RCP8.5 scenario at a spatial resolution of 10 km. MAR predicts a similar evolution of increasing surface melt everywhere in Svalbard followed by a sudden acceleration of melt around 2050, with a larger melt increase in the south compared to the north of the archipelago. This melt acceleration around 2050 is mainly driven by the albedo-melt feedback associated with the expansion of the ablation/bare ice zone. This effect is dampened in part as the solar radiation itself is projected to decrease due to a cloudiness increase. The near-surface temperature is projected to increase more in winter than in summer as the temperature is already close to 0 °C in summer. The model also projects a stronger winter west-to-east temperature gradient, related to the large decrease of sea ice cover around Svalbard. By 2085, SMB is projected to become negative over all of Svalbard's glaciated regions, leading to the rapid degradation of the firn layer.

  10. Optics and optronics in university courses for officers of the Federal Armed Forces - special curricula and hands-on lessons vs. academic requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    For more than two decades lessons in optics, digital image processing and optronics are compulsory optional subjects and as such integral parts of the courses in mechanical engineering at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg. They are provided by the Chair for Measurement and Information Technology. Historically, the curricula started as typical basic lessons in optics and digital image processing and related sensors. Practical sessions originally concentrated on image processing procedures in Pascal, C and later Matlab. They evolved into a broad portfolio of practical hands-on lessons in lab and field, including high-tech and especially military equipment, but also homemaker style primitive experiments, of which the paper will give a methodical overview. A special topic - as always with optics in education - is the introduction to the various levels of abstraction in conjunction with the highly complex and wide-ranging matter squeezed into only two trimesters - instead of semesters at civil universities - for an audience being subject to strains from both study and duty. The talk will be accompanied by striking multi-media material, which will be also part of the multi-media attachment of the paper.

  11. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  12. French nuclear tests in Polynesia: requirement of truth and proposals for future; Essais nucleaires francais en Polynesie: exigence de verite et propositions pour l'avenir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrillot, B.; Taroanui Doom, J

    1999-02-15

    The nuclear experimentations realised by France in Polynesia from 1966 to 1996 have constituted a real economical, social, political, ecological and sanitary trauma for the populations of this far territory. The requirements and propositions elaborated during the colloquium of the 20. february 1999 are summarized in this work. (N.C.)

  13. U.S. aerospace industry opinion of the effect of computer-aided prediction-design technology on future wind-tunnel test requirements for aircraft development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treon, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the U.S. aerospace industry in late 1977 suggests that there will be an increasing use of computer-aided prediction-design technology (CPD Tech) in the aircraft development process but that, overall, only a modest reduction in wind-tunnel test requirements from the current level is expected in the period through 1995. Opinions were received from key spokesmen in 23 of the 26 solicited major companies or corporate divisions involved in the design and manufacture of nonrotary wing aircraft. Development programs for nine types of aircraft related to test phases and wind-tunnel size and speed range were considered.

  14. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  15. Strong Force

    CERN Document Server

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?

  16. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  17. Futurism and Communication Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, James

    1973-01-01

    Organized study of possible futures of all types of communication should be initiated immediately in high schools, colleges, and advanced research institutions. Interpersonal communication particularly requires attention since scholarly predictions for future social change involve the reduction of meaningful interpersonal relationships. If…

  18. Future Naval Training Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Marine Corps for the future. By considering these future concepts relative to today’s training requirements, we were able to articulate the trends for...objective 24 research articulating what skills and behaviors simulators can, and cannot, train. We also see that the requirements for emotional...Operations, March 1995 74 [28] Coast Guard Response to Camp LeJeune request for Firing over intercostal waterway [29] Senior Study Group (co-chaired by

  19. Women in the labor force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, R H

    1994-01-01

    Unlike the rate for men, the labor force participation rate for women has increased significantly over the past three decades or so. This trend is expected to continue at least through 2005. Among the reasons for the growing role of women in the labor market are higher levels of educational attainment, improved employment opportunities, changing values in society, and economic pressures and aspirations that require women to assume dual careers as homemakers and family income producers. By the year 2005, it is estimated that women workers will number about 72 million, with more than 63 percent of all women age 16 and over either working or actively looking for work. While traditional occupations such as secretarial and clerical administrative support and professions such as nursing and teaching still predominate, about 4 million women are now in executive, administrative and managerial positions in the private sectors of the economy. As for the types of industry in which women are employed, service industries clearly predominate. Projections suggest that women workers of the future will be older on average, with the fastest growth occurring in the 45-64 age cohort. They will also be a more diverse group as the number of black, Asian and Hispanic women workers grows more rapidly than the number of white non-Hispanic labor force participants.

  20. Rectified Forces in Rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Timothy Todd

    The forces exerted on a three-level atom by a bichromatic standing-wave field are investigated. A theoretical analysis shows that the standing-wave dipole force can be rectified, i.e., maintain its sign over many optical wavelengths. Three systems in particular are studied: the lambda, the vee, and the cascade. Experimental results for the rubidium 5S --> 5P --> 5D cascade system are used to confirm the theory. The nearly coincident transition wavelengths for this system (780.0 nm and 776.0 nm) provide potential wells repeating at the beat wavelength (71 μm) which can accumulate laser cooled atoms. This force may have future applications in forming deep neutral atom traps as well as in the creation of new elements for atom optics. Two-color, two-photon spectroscopy of the 5D_{5/2}cascade system (5S --> 5P --> 5D) was also performed.

  1. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    will be a sea-battle tomorrow” could serve as standard examples. What could be called the problem of future contingents concerns how to ascribe truth-values to such statements. If there are several possible decisions out of which one is going to be made freely tomorrow, can there be a truth now about which one......, ‘future contingents’ could also refer to future contingent objects. A statement like “The first astronaut to go to Mars will have a unique experience” could be analyzed as referring to an object not yet existing, supposing that one day in the distant future some person will indeed travel to Mars......, but that person has not yet been born. The notion of ‘future contingent objects’ involves important philosophical questions, for instance the issue of ethical obligations towards future generations, quantification over ‘future contingent objects’ etc. However, this entry is confined to the study of future...

  2. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    will be a sea-battle tomorrow” could serve as standard examples. What could be called the problem of future contingents concerns how to ascribe truth-values to such statements. If there are several possible decisions out of which one is going to be made freely tomorrow, can there be a truth now about which one......, ‘future contingents’ could also refer to future contingent objects. A statement like “The first astronaut to go to Mars will have a unique experience” could be analyzed as referring to an object not yet existing, supposing that one day in the distant future some person will indeed travel to Mars......, but that person has not yet been born. The notion of ‘future contingent objects’ involves important philosophical questions, for instance the issue of ethical obligations towards future generations, quantification over ‘future contingent objects’ etc. However, this entry is confined to the study of future...

  3. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  4. The Future of Army Item-Level Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    protection and high mobility, but the reality of all our systems is that they are constrained. And the constraints are many; cost is one, weight is another...Each of these desired future force characteristics is attractive and desirable. As noted earlier, the reality of system design requires that difficult...context of a Unit-Level war game. It seems possible that such a capability can be achieved through aumentation of one of a number of extant models (e.g

  5. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  6. Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory convened the ILC Citizens' Task Force to provide guidance and advice to the laboratory to ensure that community concerns and ideas are included in all public aspects of planning and design for a proposed future accelerator, the International Linear Collider. In this report, the members of the Task Force describe the process they used to gather and analyze information on all aspects of the proposed accelerator and its potential location at Fermilab in northern Illinois. They present the conclusions and recommendations they reached as a result of the learning process and their subsequent discussions and deliberations. While the Task Force was charged to provide guidance on the ILC, it became clear during the process that the high cost of the proposed accelerator made a near-term start for the project at Fermilab unlikely. Nevertheless, based on a year of extensive learning and dialogue, the Task Force developed a series of recommendations for Fermilab to consider as the laboratory develops all successor projects to the Tevatron. The Task Force recognizes that bringing a next-generation particle physics project to Fermilab will require both a large international effort and the support of the local community. While the Task Force developed its recommendations in response to the parameters of a future ILC, the principles they set forth apply directly to any large project that may be conceived at Fermilab, or at other laboratories, in the future. With this report, the Task Force fulfills its task of guiding Fermilab from the perspective of the local community on how to move forward with a large-scale project while building positive relationships with surrounding communities. The report summarizes the benefits, concerns and potential impacts of bringing a large-scale scientific project to northern Illinois.

  7. Use of Security Forces

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2017-01-01

    This Good Practice Handbook on the Use of Security Forces: Assessing and Managing Risks and Impacts has been developed for IFC clients and other private sector companies and their consultants. The handbook provides practical, project-level guidance for companies to better understand and implement the requirements outlined in Performance Standard 4. Chapters focus on risk assessment, managi...

  8. Future greases in the future; Schmierfettkonzepte fuer die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minis, Karl-Josef [FUCHS EUROPE SCHMIERSTOFFE GMBH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The ongoing discussions concerning the reduced consumption of fossil fuels and subsequent reduction of carbon dioxide emissions finally reached the lubricating manufacturers who are now forced to raise the efficiency of industrial and automotive components. This presentation will show how lubricating manufacturers achieve higher efficiency with longterm available raw material. Besides optimizing the tribological system the lubricating manufacturer is challenged by the shortage, or even loss of existing raw materials. Furthermore, the selection of raw materials is limited by new legistations like, i.e. REACH, the European Directive on End-of-Life Vehicles, GHS (Global Health and Safety), etc. Examples with vehicle components will show how modern greases meet these new requirements. Focus will be set on dramatically higher needs, caused by increasing drive train's electrification, although car manufacturers have not yet decided on which systems they are actually going to bring on the market. However, it has already become obvious that requirements for greases concerning noise behaviour, comfort, pressure, acceleration and friction reduction become more and more important. The situation of the greases' key raw materials will be described the lubricating manufacturer is going to meet this situation. Besides the development of new greases the possibility of reactivating ''forgotten'' and formerly used greases will be examined. Here, focus must be set on appropriate thickener types. Due to the dramatic raw material situation and future increasing demands lubricating greases become more and more a basic machine element to fulfil complex requirements. (orig.)

  9. Forced Snaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponedel, Benjamin; Knobloch, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    We study spatial localization in the real subcritical Ginzburg-Landau equation ut =m0 u +m1 cos2/π l x u +uxx +d | u | 2 u -| u | 4 u with spatially periodic forcing. When d > 0 and m1 = 0 this equation exhibits bistability between the trivial state u = 0 and a homogeneous nontrivial state u =u0 with stationary localized structures which accumulate at the Maxwell point m0 = - 3d2 / 16 . When spatial forcing is included its wavelength is imprinted on u0 creating conditions favorable to front pinning and hence spatial localization. We use numerical continuation to show that under appropriate conditions such forcing generates a sequence of localized states organized within a snakes-and-ladders structure centered on the Maxwell point, and refer to this phenomenon as forced snaking. We determine the stability properties of these states and show that longer lengthscale forcing leads to stationary trains consisting of a finite number of strongly localized, weakly interacting pulses exhibiting foliated snaking.

  10. Age-dependence of the optomechanical responses of ex vivo human lenses from India and the USA, and the force required to produce these in a lens stretcher: the similarity to in vivo disaccommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusteyn, Robert C; Mohamed, Ashik; Nankivil, Derek; Veerendranath, Pesala; Arrieta, Esdras; Taneja, Mukesh; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to study the age-dependence of the optomechanical properties of human lenses during simulated disaccommodation in a mechanical lens stretcher, designed to determine accommodative forces as a function of stretch distance, to compare the results with in vivo disaccommodation and to examine whether differences exist between eyes harvested in the USA and India. Postmortem human eyes obtained in the USA (n=46, age=6-83 years) and India (n=91, age=1 day-85 years) were mounted in an optomechanical lens stretching system and dissected to expose the lens complete with its accommodating framework, including zonules, ciliary body, anterior vitreous and a segmented rim of sclera. Disaccommodation was simulated through radial stretching of the sectioned globe by 2mm in increments of 0.25 mm. The load, inner ciliary ring diameter, lens equatorial diameter, central thickness and power were measured at each step. Changes in these parameters were examined as a function of age, as were the dimension/load and power/load responses. Unstretched lens diameter and thickness increased over the whole age range examined and were indistinguishable from those of in vivo lenses as well as those of in vitro lenses freed from zonular attachments. Stretching increased the diameter and decreased the thickness in all lenses examined but the amount of change decreased with age. Unstretched lens power decreased with age and the accommodative amplitude decreased to zero by age 45-50. The load required to produce maximum stretch was independent of age (median 80 mN) whereas the change in lens diameter and power per unit load decreased significantly with age. The age related changes in the properties of human lenses, as observed in the lens stretching device, are similar to those observed in vivo and are consistent with the classical Helmholtz theory of accommodation. The response of lens diameter and power to disaccommodative (stretching) forces decreases with age

  11. Future Network Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Bozorgebrahimi, Kurosh; Belter, Bartosz;

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies key requirements for NRENs towards future network architectures that become apparent as users become more mobile and have increased expectations in terms of availability of data. In addition, cost saving requirements call for federated use of, in particular, the optical spec...

  12. Intermolecular forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, A D

    1975-11-06

    The nature of molecular interactions is examined. Intermolecular forces are divided into long-range and short-range components; the former operate at distances where the effects of electron exchange are negligible and decrease as an inverse power of the separation. The long-range interactions may be subdividied into electrostatic, induction and dispersion contributions, where the electrostatic component is the interaction of the permanent charge distributions and the others originate in the fluctuations in the distributions. Typical magnitudes of the various contributions are given. The forces between macroscopic bodies are briefly considered, as are the effects of a medium. Some of the manifestations of molecular interactions are discussed.

  13. Water as the future clash for civilizations: a fresh conceptual approach for a Global Trinity? Water Scarcity and Future Conflict- consideration of water scarcity as a primary cause of conflict in the future requiring an adjustment to the Western approach to threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    the-future-of-africas-water-security/. Figure 2 - African Continent Water Availability C6te d’lvoire Niger Benin Sudan Senegal Mauritania...quality by human influence. Water distribution. The percentages of volumes of fresh and saline water, both on and under the surface of the Earth

  14. Research Requirements for Future Visual Guidance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    20591. 5. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5340-18, Standards for Airport Sign Systems, latest edition, Washington, DC 20591. 6. Bonaventura , Vincent...Dunlap and Associates, March 1952, New York. 8. Bonaventura , Vincent E., A Proposed Method of Color Coding Airport Taxi Guidance-Sins, The Port of New

  15. From Wardens Air Force to Boyds Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    a twentieth century bureaucracy that celebrates centralized control and it can continue to propagate a manner of thinking that wishes away...command and control paradigm and restructure Air Force intelligence squadrons into multi-intelligence discipline (multi-INT) organizations. 4...To truly be prepared for the uncertainty of future battlefields the Air Force must embrace a new model of ISR command & control and the

  16. Multiphase forces on bend structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nennie, E.D.; Belfroid, S.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Piping structures are generally subjected to high dynamic loading due to multiphase forces. In particular subsea structures are very vulnerable as large flexibility is required to cope for instance with thermal stresses. The forces due to multiphase flow are characterized by a broadband spectrum wit

  17. Force.com enterprise architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Fawcett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book is for advanced Force.com developers and architects who need to understand the Salesforce platform from the perspective of enterprise-level requirements. You should have an existing understanding of Apex and Visualforce. Those familiar with other enterprise software ecosystems will also find this book ideal as they adopt Force.com.

  18. Multiphase forces on bend structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nennie, E.D.; Belfroid, S.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Piping structures are generally subjected to high dynamic loading due to multiphase forces. In particular subsea structures are very vulnerable as large flexibility is required to cope for instance with thermal stresses. The forces due to multiphase flow are characterized by a broadband spectrum wit

  19. Future food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  20. The Role of the Armys Sustainment Think Tank in Force Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Armed Forces. He is a graduate of the Defense Leadership and Man- agement Program, the Defense Sys- tems Management College Program Manager’s Course...to set the conditions for meeting future requirements across the doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel...approach for designing collaborative core and functional courses to en- sure Soldiers and leaders possess the skills and knowledge required to win in a

  1. Democratic Control of Military Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smail Ostrakovic

    2011-01-01

    The transition requirement for post communism countries, especially the part that is about military forces is to establish those civil-military relation that will have prepared projects for awareness...

  2. Future Textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Degn; Jensen, Hanne Troels Fusvad; Hansen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Magasinet Future Textiles samler resultaterne fra projektet Future Textiles, der markedsfører området intelligente tekstiler. I magasinet kan man læse om trends, drivkræfter, udfordringer samt få ideer til nye produkter inden for intelligente tekstiler. Områder som bæredygtighed og kundetilpasning...

  3. Force decomposition in robot force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The unit inconsistency in force decomposition has motivated an investigation into the force control problem in multiple-arm manipulation. Based on physical considerations, it is argued that the force that should be controlled is the internal force at the specified frame in the payload. This force contains contributions due to both applied forces from the arms and the inertial force from the payload and the arms. A least-squares scheme free of unit inconsistency for finding this internal force is presented. The force control issue is analyzed, and an integral force feedback controller is proposed.

  4. Medical informatics: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold

    2010-09-01

    To reflect about medical informatics as a discipline. To suggest significant future research directions with the purpose of stimulating further discussion. Exploring and discussing important developments in medical informatics from the past and in the present by way of examples. Reflecting on the role of IMIA, the International Medical Informatics Association, in influencing the discipline. Medical informatics as a discipline is still young. Today, as a cross-sectional discipline, it forms one of the bases for medicine and health care. As a consequence considerable responsibility rests on medical informatics for improving the health of people, through its contributions to high-quality, efficient health care and to innovative research in biomedicine and related health and computer sciences. Current major research fields can be grouped according to the organization, application, and evaluation of health information systems, to medical knowledge representation, and to the underlying signal and data analyses and interpretations. Yet, given the fluid nature of many of the driving forces behind progress in information processing methods and their technologies, progress in medicine and health care, and the rapidly changing needs, requirements and expectations of human societies, we can expect many changes in future medical informatics research. Future research fields might range from seamless interactivity with automated data capture and storage, via informatics diagnostics and therapeutics, to living labs with data analysis methodology, involving sensor-enhanced ambient environments. The role of IMIA, the International Medical Informatics Association, for building a cooperative, strongly connected, and research-driven medical informatics community worldwide can hardly be underestimated. Health care continuously changes as the underlying science and practice of health are in continuous transformation. Medical informatics as a discipline is strongly affected by these

  5. Future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Tallarida, Ronald J

    2010-01-01

    The chapters of this book summarize much of what has been done and reported regarding cancer chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment. In this chapter, we point out some future directions for investigation.

  6. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  7. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann;

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance i...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  8. Force approach to radiation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Gustavo V., E-mail: gulopez@udgserv.cencar.udg.mx

    2016-02-15

    The difficulty of the usual approach to deal with the radiation reaction is pointed out, and under the condition that the radiation force must be a function of the external force and is zero whenever the external force be zero, a new and straightforward approach to radiation reaction force and damping is proposed. Starting from the Larmor formula for the power radiated by an accelerated charged particle, written in terms of the applied force instead of the acceleration, an expression for the radiation force is established in general, and applied to the examples for the linear and circular motion of a charged particle. This expression is quadratic in the magnitude of the applied force, inversely proportional to the speed of the charged particle, and directed opposite to the velocity vector. This force approach may contribute to the solution of the very old problem of incorporating the radiation reaction to the motion of the charged particles, and future experiments may tell us whether or not this approach point is in the right direction.

  9. Force approach to radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gustavo V.

    2016-02-01

    The difficulty of the usual approach to deal with the radiation reaction is pointed out, and under the condition that the radiation force must be a function of the external force and is zero whenever the external force be zero, a new and straightforward approach to radiation reaction force and damping is proposed. Starting from the Larmor formula for the power radiated by an accelerated charged particle, written in terms of the applied force instead of the acceleration, an expression for the radiation force is established in general, and applied to the examples for the linear and circular motion of a charged particle. This expression is quadratic in the magnitude of the applied force, inversely proportional to the speed of the charged particle, and directed opposite to the velocity vector. This force approach may contribute to the solution of the very old problem of incorporating the radiation reaction to the motion of the charged particles, and future experiments may tell us whether or not this approach point is in the right direction.

  10. KC-46 Workforce Requirements for Depot Maintenance Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Community College of the Air force CFR: Code of Federal Regulation CLS: Contract Logistic Service CoF: Complex of the Future CSR : Case Study...maintain. Organization H, an organization that provides air freight transportation , overcomes this challenge by mixing seasoned technicians with new...safety and efficiency of flight in this country” (US Department of Transportation , 2013). The safe operation of aircraft requires the strict adherence

  11. Analysis 6. Component requirements, competition and export. A survey of innovation related to building components; Analyse 6. Komponentkrav, konkurrence og eksport. En kortlaegning af innovation i byggekomponenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend

    2011-02-15

    The report collates several sub-analyses about feasible developments in relation to improved energy requirements for the most important building parts, components and installations for low-energy buildings. The aim is to achieve 75% reduction of energy consumption in the future building class 2020. The findings will contribute to the plans of introducing new building component requirements to force Danish manufacturers to use innovative solutions and to force manufacturers from other countries to market the best products only. (LN)

  12. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understand the impacts of these increased emissions, scientists and modelers require high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories that can be used for regional assessment modeling. This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. Short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing; a first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing due to Arctic ships by at least 17% compared to warming from these vessels' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  13. Energy Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  14. Energy Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  15. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    will be a sea-battle tomorrow” could serve as standard examples. What could be called the problem of future contingents concerns how to ascribe truth-values to such statements. If there are several possible decisions out of which one is going to be made freely tomorrow, can there be a truth now about which one...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  16. Consolidating Air Force Maintenance Occupational Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Level Current Assigned Level (91% of Authorized Level) 11% -17% 16% -11% 23 4. Long-Run Cost and Readiness Implications of Air Force...Requirements and Readiness .............. 19 4. Long-Run Cost and Readiness Implications of Air Force Specialty Consolidation ................. 23 Cost ...Force Specialty Constructs After Taking into Account Retention ......................................................... 16 Table 4.1. Cost Impacts of

  17. Force feedback and basic laparoscopic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmarra, M.K.; Dankelman, J.; Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.; Jansen, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background - Not much is known about the exact role offorce feedback in laparoscopy. This study aimed to determine whether force feedback influences movements of instruments during training in laparoscopic tasks and whether force feedback is required for training in basic laparoscopic force applicat

  18. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    .g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e...... to the automotive sector in Wales. Specifically, the paper evaluates the "Accelerates" programme initiated by the Welsh Development Agency and elaborates on how and to what extent the Accelerate programme supports the development of a sustainable automotive industry cluster. The Accelerate programme was set up...

  19. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  20. Correct insurance of waste treatment plants. Problems and requirements resulting from the coming into force of the waste disposal ordinance of 1 June 2005; Richtiger Versicherungsschutz fuer Abfallbehandlungsanlagen. Probleme und Erfordernisse im Hinblick auf das Inkrafttreten der Abfallablagerungsverordnung zum 01.06.2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittner, E. [Risikomanagment und Versicherungsberatung, Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    In the first part of his contribution (No. 1, 2005), the author presented aspects of insurance of waste disposal and utilisation systems. This sequel updates the information and points out problems and requirements resulting from the coming into force of the waste disposal ordinance of 1 June 2005. (orig.)

  1. Cryotanks in future vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, R.

    Cryogenic storage of liquid hydrogen and oxygen is a need in future transportation systems. Therefore, MAN Technologie is studying various concepts for cryogenic tanks made of carbon reinforced plastics (CFRP) material. For space application the demand of a CFRP cryotank derives from the mechanical loads in combination with the thermal environment. Mass saving has priority for single stage launchers. In order to separate the influence of complex requirements on the tank components test samples are proposed with the help of scaling factors. For future aircraft the need for replacement of kerosene is growing. Due to the storage conditions the insulation requirement is very stringent. For ground traffic there are relatively small and cheap tanks to be produced in future. An overview on all these applications is given. The advantage of composite in relation to metallic tanks is maximum for use in spacecraft.

  2. Force Development during Target-Directed Isometric Force Production in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jin-Hoon; Stelmach, George E.

    2006-01-01

    Performing various daily activities requires precise application and control of forces, which has been well addressed in neurologically healthy individuals. Recent experiments have demonstrated that in young, normal subjects generating rapid force pulses over various force amplitudes was accomplished by linearly increasing the rate of force development while keeping time to peak force approximately constant (i.e., a pulse-height control strategy). Using Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients the p...

  3. Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)

  4. Creative Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 the National Committee for Creativity and Culture in Education (NACCCE) produced a report called "All our futures." In many respects it was and still is a seminal report; it raises issues about creativity in education and offers serious messages for Government, schools and the inspection process. The author's research into teacher…

  5. The Role of Special Forces in Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-02

    Counterdeception, Counterpropaganda, Counterintelligence, Special Information Operations and Computer Network Attack) to demonstrate the potential role of Special Forces units in future Information Operations.

  6. Force, motion & simple machines big book

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Our Combined resource includes all the required fundamentals for teaching Force, Motion & Simple Machines. Give your students a kick start on learning with our resource that has simplified language and vocabulary. We begin with a look at force, motion and work, with examples of simple machines in daily life. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance.

  7. Women's Movements and Human Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    1975-01-01

    Two strands of futurism share values of equality, development, and peace, and can catalyze each other into potentially transformational forces. The path is re-education: World order thinking provides an appropriate content for adult learning, and women's movements provide the energy of commitment and a worldwide network for communicating policies.…

  8. Innovating to integrate the intangibles into the learning Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Benjamin T; Weigel, Fred K; Overstreet, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    United States federal law and other regulations require the US military services to provide professional military education to their forces. Meeting that requirement will become increasingly difficult with the absence of a federal government budget, significant cuts to defense spending, and expected future cuts to both defense spending and manpower. Additionally, the operations tempo remains high despite the withdrawal of troops from Iraq and the planned withdrawal from Afghanistan. The resulting time and budget constraints will likely make it more difficult for the services to provide every member with the opportunity to compete for positions in coveted in-residence professional military education programs. Thus, the Air Force is considering a new lifetime learning approach to professional military education. As the Air Force seeks to develop its new paradigm, we must understand what benefits of the current system should be retained and what drawbacks should be allayed. Unfortunately, there is little research in this area. We content analyze data collected from Air Force officers attending in-residence professional military education, synthesize our findings with education and technology literature, and suggest innovative technologies that can maximize the intangible benefits and minimize the drawbacks of professional military education. The blended approach we present can create a richer, more meaningful learning experience for the service member, while simultaneously lowering the cost per member and providing greater opportunity to attend in-residence professional military education.

  9. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  10. My Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正My fellow classmates, Everyone of us is thinking about the future. What is mine? I have decided become a middle school teacher. Does it sound surprising? I had his dream when I was only a child. I love children. I don't think to deal with them all years round is just wasting time. On the contrary, to me it would mean happiness. As we all can see, teachers are badly needed in our country,

  11. THE GAMER GENERATION – FUTURE DRONE PILOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drones or unmanned piloted vehicles represent the pinnacle of ranged weapon technology that ensure a fast strike, low cost and with almost no boots on the ground. This type of new technology also brings a new requirement for governments that use these devices, a requirement that dated air force training cannot offer, but a mobile phone or controller can offer it wholesome. The idea of downplaying war to sound very hip and cool and fun for the younger crowd has been around since the 1970’s, when the Vietnam war recruiters were using the idea that war was a good investment for children and teens, because it offered them a future-proof job and access to entertaining tools, but kept out the negative aspects of participating in an armed conflict. Now we see a resurgence in the way military recruiters use such trends to draw in the crowd. In this regard, the situation of using children and teens, or more precisely ones who have video-games as a time investing hobby, has been considered by the regulated armed forces for some time now, but due to international treaties that govern child protection this has been deemed impossible to accomplish. Should child protection treaties be revised or not, and if they should, could drones be the entry point for taking part in armed conflicts or other armed situations?

  12. Measurement of the Casimir force with a ferrule-top sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Zuurbier, P; Gruca, G; Heeck, K; Iannuzzi, D

    2011-01-01

    We present a Casimir force setup based on an all-optical ferrule-top sensor. We demonstrate that the instrument can be used to measure the gradient of the Casimir force between a gold coated sphere and a gold coated plate with results that are comparable to those achieved by similar atomic force microscope experiments. Thanks to the monolithic design of the force sensor (which does not require any optical triangulation readout) and to the absence of electronics on the sensing head, the instrument represents a significant step ahead for future studies of the Casimir effect under engineered conditions, where the intervening medium or the environmental conditions might be unsuitable for the use of more standard setups.

  13. FCJ-211 Embodying a Future for the Future: Creative Robotics and Ecosophical Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Armstrong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years I have begun to integrate creative robotics into my ecosophical art practice, which I have long deployed to investigate, materialise and engage the thorny, ecological questions of the Anthropocene. I have been seeking to understand how this form of practice may promote the cultural conditions required to assure, rather than to degrade, our collective futures. When creative robotics and ecosophical practice combine forces in hybrid, strategic intervention, might this fusion further the central aim of ecosophy – to encourage cultural conditions required to assure a future for the future? Many of us would instinctively conceive of robotics as an industrially driven endeavour, shaped by the pursuit of relentless efficiencies. Instead, I indicate through my practice that the field of creative robotics is emerging with radically different frames of intention. In other words, creative practitioners might still be able to shape mainstream experiences of robotic media that retain a healthy criticality towards such productivist lineages. Will this nascent form bring forward fresh new techniques and assemblages that better spark conversations around ecosophy and, if so, which of its many approaches present the greatest opportunities? In this article I present a context for, and some examples of, prior work to give an overview of (my ecosophical practice. I then detail the recent integration of creative robotics into the practice, and analyse achievements in relation to the work’s broader aspirations in my installations Night Rage (2013, Night Fall (2013-14 and Light of Extinction(2014.

  14. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  15. Tool Forces Developed During Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, M.; Tang, W.; Schmidt, C.; McClure, J. C.; Nunes, A. C.; Murr, L. E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will describe a technique for measuring the various forces and the torque that exist on the Friction Stir Welding pin tool. Results for various plunge depths, weld speeds, rotational speed, and tool configurations will be presented. Welds made on 6061 aluminum with typical welding conditions require a downward force of 2800 lbs. (12.5 kN) a longitudinal force in the direction of motion of 300 lbs (1.33 kN), a transverse force in the omega x v direction of 30 lbs (135 N). Aluminum 2195 under typical weld conditions requires a downward force of 3100 lbs. (1.38 kN), a longitudinal force of 920 lbs. (4.1 kN), and a transverse force of 45 lbs. (200 N) in the omega x v direction.

  16. Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.

  17. Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.

  18. Is Gravity an Entropic Force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde’s argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.

  19. A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

  20. Future Talks,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Defeyt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des matériaux modernes et les difficultés qui la caractérisent étaient l’objet du colloque international Future Talks, organisé par Die Neue Sammlung, The International Design Museum, les 22 et 23 octobre 2009 à Munich. Conservateurs-restaurateurs spécialisés, représentants des  institutions muséales les plus prestigieuses d’Europe et d’outre-Atlantique ainsi que chercheurs en sciences appliquées y ont présenté leurs travaux et recherches. En matière de design, d’art moderne e...

  1. Ultrasonic Force Microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Oleg; Briggs, Andrew

    Ultrasonic Force Microscopy, or UFM, allows combination of two apparently mutually exclusive requirements for the nanomechanical probe—high stiffness for the efficient indentation and high mechanical compliance that brings force sensitivity. Somewhat inventively, UFM allows to combine these two virtues in the same cantilever by using indention of the sample at high frequency, when cantilever is very rigid, but detecting the result of this indention at much lower frequency. That is made possible due to the extreme nonlinearity of the nanoscale tip-surface junction force-distance dependence, that acts as "mechanical diode" detecting ultrasound in AFM. After introducing UFM principles, we discuss features of experimental UFM implementation, and the theory of contrast in this mode, progressing to quantitative measurements of contact stiffness. A variety of UFM applications ranging from semiconductor quantum nanostructures, graphene, very large scale integrated circuits, and reinforced ceramics to polymer composites and biological materials is presented via comprehensive imaging gallery accompanied by the guidance for the optimal UFM measurements of these materials. We also address effects of adhesion and topography on the elasticity imaging and the approaches for reducing artifacts connected with these effects. This is complemented by another extremely useful feature of UFM—ultrasound induced superlubricity that allows damage free imaging of materials ranging from stiff solid state devices and graphene to biological materials. Finally, we proceed to the exploration of time-resolved nanoscale phenomena using nonlinear mixing of multiple vibration frequencies in ultrasonic AFM—Heterodyne Force Microscopy, or HFM, that also include mixing of ultrasonic vibration with other periodic physical excitations, eg. electrical, photothermal, etc. Significant section of the chapter analyzes the ability of UFM and HFM to detect subsurface mechanical inhomogeneities, as well as

  2. Neck Muscle EMG-Force Relationship and Its Reliability During Isometric Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Martire, Riccardo; Gladh, Kristofer; Westman, Anton; Äng, Björn O

    2017-12-01

    Susceptible to injury, the neck is subject to scientific investigations, frequently aiming to elucidate possible injury mechanisms via surface electromyography (EMG) by indirectly estimating cervical loads. Accurate estimation requires that the EMG-force relationship is known and that its measurement error is quantified. Hence, this study examined the relationship between EMG and isometric force amplitude of the anterior neck (AN), the upper posterior neck (UPN), and the lower posterior neck (LPN) and then assessed the relationships' test-retest reliability across force-percentiles within and between days. EMG and force data were sampled from 18 participants conducting randomly ordered muscle contractions at 5-90% of maximal voluntary force during three trials over 2 days. EMG-force relationships were modeled with general linear mixed-effects regression. Overall fitted lines' between-trial discrepancies were evaluated. Finally, the reliability of participants' fitted regression lines was quantified by an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the standard error of measurement (SEM). A rectilinear model had the best fit for AN while positively oriented quadratic models had the best fit for UPN and LPN, with mean adjusted conditional coefficients of determination and root mean square errors of 0.97-0.98 and 4-5%, respectively. Overall EMG-force relationships displayed a maximum 6% between-trial discrepancy and over 20% of maximal force, and mean ICC was above 0.79 within day and 0.27-0.61 between days across areas. Corresponding SEM was below 12% both within and between days across areas, excluding UPN between days, for which SEM was higher. EMG-force relationships were elucidated for three neck areas, and provided models allow inferences to be drawn from EMG to force on a group level. Reliability of EMG-force relationship models was higher within than between days, but typically acceptable for all but the lowest contraction intensities, and enables adjustment

  3. Future of Transport?- Future of Cities!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bertolini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The future of transport, whatever it will be, cannot be consideredseparately from that of cities. But what, where and whenis the city today? The ability to provide opportunities for humaninteraction is the essential reason for cities to exist. In thepre-industrial past this required high-density, compact urbanforms. Modem transport and communication techniques havehowever increasingly offered human beings ways of interactingat a distance. Physical proximity is no longer needed by manytypes of urban activities. As a result, cities have decentralised,as industry first, then residences and services have fled the diseconomiesof high-density agglomerations. For the future,some even predict the advent of an entirely diffuse, 'virtual' city.Actual evidence is at best mixed. Next to ongoing decentralisation,there are also signals that point in the opposite direction,as there are activities that show a tendency to physicallyconcentrate, underscoring a persistent need for physical humaninteraction. These activities include business and financial services,the emerging sectors of culture, entertainment and themedia, but also certain types of residences and of production.As a result, rather than decentralisation or concentration, contemporarycities show a complex combination of decentralisationand concentration.How will these contrasting movements shape the cities ofthe future? Are telecommunication technologies going to radicallyalter current trends? Or will the quest for sustainability dothis? And what will the role of transp01tation- as cause and effect-be? The diffuse urban-regional accessibility warranted bythe car and the inter-metropolitan connections provided by theaeroplane have been essential conditions for the urbanisationpatterns of the recent past. But will the car and the aeroplanealso be the transportation means of the cities of the future?

  4. Robust force control of a robot manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, D.M. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States)); Lewis, F.L. (Univ. of Texas, Fort Worth (United States)); Dorsey, J.F. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (United States))

    1992-08-01

    In this article, the authors develop a robust position/force controller based on the impedance approach without requiring exact knowledge of the robot dynamics. The controller is constructed so that a desired positional trajectory can be followed along the surface of the environment while the forces exerted on the environmental surface are regulated according to a target impedance. A global uniform ultimate boundedness result is obtained for the position tracking error and the force regulation error (i.e., the error between the actual manipulator impedance and desired target impedance). The controller only requires measurement of the end-effector force, joint velocity, and joint position.

  5. Teleoperation with virtual force feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.J.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm for generating virtual forces in a bilateral teleoperator system. The virtual forces are generated from a world model and are used to provide real-time obstacle avoidance and guidance capabilities. The algorithm requires that the slaves tool and every object in the environment be decomposed into convex polyhedral Primitives. Intrusion distance and extraction vectors are then derived at every time step by applying Gilbert`s polyhedra distance algorithm, which has been adapted for the task. This information is then used to determine the compression and location of nonlinear virtual spring-dampers whose total force is summed and applied to the manipulator/teleoperator system. Experimental results validate the whole approach, showing that it is possible to compute the algorithm and generate realistic, useful psuedo forces for a bilateral teleoperator system using standard VME bus hardware.

  6. Model Testing of Forces in the Reflector Joint and Mooring Forces on Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James

    This report aims to present the results of a test series analysing the forces in the redesigned reflector joint and the forces in the main mooring link. The resluts presented are intended to be used by WD project partners, for the design and construction of the joint on the prototype Wave Dragon...... at Nissum Bredning and for future North Sea scale Wave Dragon. Lengths, forces and other dimentions presented are scaled to the North sea Wave Dragon unless otherwise specified....

  7. Model Testing of Forces in the Reflector Joint and Mooring Forces on Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James

    This report aims to present the results of a test series analysing the forces in the redesigned reflector joint and the forces in the main mooring link. The resluts presented are intended to be used by WD project partners, for the design and construction of the joint on the prototype Wave Dragon...... at Nissum Bredning and for future North Sea scale Wave Dragon. Lengths, forces and other dimentions presented are scaled to the North sea Wave Dragon unless otherwise specified....

  8. The mouse forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Adem; Dao, David T; Arad, Michal; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Piantadosi, Sean C; Gould, Todd D

    2012-01-29

    The forced swim test is a rodent behavioral test used for evaluation of antidepressant drugs, antidepressant efficacy of new compounds, and experimental manipulations that are aimed at rendering or preventing depressive-like states. Mice are placed in an inescapable transparent tank that is filled with water and their escape related mobility behavior is measured. The forced swim test is straightforward to conduct reliably and it requires minimal specialized equipment. Successful implementation of the forced swim test requires adherence to certain procedural details and minimization of unwarranted stress to the mice. In the protocol description and the accompanying video, we explain how to conduct the mouse version of this test with emphasis on potential pitfalls that may be detrimental to interpretation of results and how to avoid them. Additionally, we explain how the behaviors manifested in the test are assessed.

  9. Malaysia and forced migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of "forced migration" in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants...

  10. Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

  11. Air Force Organizational Transformation: Merging the Active and Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34Future Total Force." 18 34 Ibid. 35 Ibid. 36 John A. Tirpak, "The Blended Wing Goes to War," Air Force Magazine, October 2003. [ Jounal on-line...Space Power 3 (Fall 2004): 41-53. Tirpak, John A. "The Blended Wing Goes to War," Air Force Magazine, October 2003. Jounal on-line. Available from

  12. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  13. Malaysia and forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysi...

  14. On Biomedical Research Policy in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    0 ON BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE Albert P. Williams January 1989 DTIC ELECTE P-7520 "’T,, . The RAND Corporation Papers are issued by...BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE[l] Mr. Walden, members of the Science Policy Task Force, I am honored to be invited to appear on this panel and...to offer my thoughts on future biomedical research policy . My perspective is that of an outsider with a longstanding interest in federal biomedical

  15. Leadership Theory Taught in Air Force Distant Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the force, fundamental gaps in motivation could be an underlying cause. Sociability/ Charisma Sociability is the characteristic of a leader to be...underpin the development of our officer force. These leadership theories form the base of our leader training and drive future leader behavior. Aspects of...force. These leadership theories form the base of our leader training and drive future leader behavior. Aspects of leadership and management will

  16. Contours of a Resilient Global Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Gerst

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity confronts a daunting double challenge in the 21st century: meeting widely-held aspirations for equitable human development while preserving the bio-physical integrity of Earth systems. Extant scientific attempts to quantify futures that address these sustainability challenges are often not comprehensive across environmental and social drivers of global change, or rely on quantification methods that largely exclude deep social, cultural, economic, and technological shifts, leading to a constrained set of possibilities. In search of a broader set of trajectories, we combine three previously separate streams of inquiry: scenario analysis, planetary boundaries, and targets for human development. Our analysis indicates there are plausible, diverse scenarios that remain within Earth’s safe bio-physical operating space and achieve a variety of development targets. However, dramatic social and technological changes are required to avert the social-ecological risks of a conventional development trajectory. One identified narrative, which is predominant in the scenario literature, envisions marginal changes to the social and cultural drivers underlying conventional growth trajectories. As a result, it requires unprecedented levels of international cooperation, alignment of powerful conflicting interests, and political willpower to bend technological change in a sustainable direction. We posit that a more viable and robust scenario might lie in the coupling of transformative social-cultural and technological changes, which set the necessary conditions for a transition to a resilient global future. While clearly a first step, our analysis points to the need for more in-depth exploration of the mechanisms and determinant forces for such unconventional futures.

  17. Linear accelerators of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    Some of the requirements imposed on future linear accelerators to be used in electron-positron colliders are reviewed, as well as some approaches presently being examined for meeting those requirements. RF sources for use in these linacs are described, as well as wakefields, single bunches, and multiple-bunch trains. (LEW)

  18. Future Architectures for NREN infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Bozorgebrahimi, Kurosh; Belter, Bartosz;

    This study identifies key requirements for NRENs towards future network architectures that become apparent as users become moremobile and have increased expectations in terms of availability of data. In addition, cost saving requirements call for federated use of, inparticular, the optical spectr...

  19. Army Sociocultural Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    L., Crafts, J. L., & Brooks, J. E. (July 1995). Intercultural communication requirements for Special Forces teams. (Study Report 1683). Arlington... Communication Uses alternative, sometimes novel, methods to communicate when verbal language is not shared; conveys information about mood, intent...status, and demeanor via gestures, tone of voice, and facial expressions; improvises communication techniques as necessary. WI Works with Interpreters

  20. The Economics of van der Waals Force Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    As micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication continues on an ever-decreasing scale, new technological challenges must be successfully negotiated if Moore's Law is to be an even approximately valid model of the future of device miniaturization. Among the most significant obstacles is the existence of strong surface forces related to quantum mechanical van der Waals interatomic interactions, which rapidly diverge as the distance between any two neutral boundaries decreases. The van der Waals force is a contributing factor in several device failures and limitations, including, for instance, stiction and oscillator non-linearities. In the last decade, however, it has been conclusively shown that van der Waals forces are not just a MEMS limitation but can be engineered in both magnitude and sign so as to enable classes of proprietary inventions which either deliver novel capabilities or improve upon existing ones. The evolution of van der Waals force research from an almost exclusively theoretical field in quantum-electro-dynamics to an enabling nanotechnology discipline represents a useful example of the ongoing paradigm shift from government-centered to private-capital funded R&D in cutting-edge physics leading to potentially profitable products. In this paper, we discuss the reasons van der Waals force engineering may lead to the creation of thriving markets both in the short and medium terms by highlighting technical challenges that can be competitively addressed by this novel approach. We also discuss some notable obstacles to the cultural transformation of the academic research community required for the emergence of a functional van der Waals force engineering industry worldwide.

  1. High performance computing: Clusters, constellations, MPPs, and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack; Sterling, Thomas; Simon, Horst; Strohmaier, Erich

    2003-06-10

    Last year's paper by Bell and Gray [1] examined past trends in high performance computing and asserted likely future directions based on market forces. While many of the insights drawn from this perspective have merit and suggest elements governing likely future directions for HPC, there are a number of points put forth that we feel require further discussion and, in certain cases, suggest alternative, more likely views. One area of concern relates to the nature and use of key terms to describe and distinguish among classes of high end computing systems, in particular the authors use of ''cluster'' to relate to essentially all parallel computers derived through the integration of replicated components. The taxonomy implicit in their previous paper, while arguable and supported by some elements of our community, fails to provide the essential semantic discrimination critical to the effectiveness of descriptive terms as tools in managing the conceptual space of consideration. In this paper, we present a perspective that retains the descriptive richness while providing a unifying framework. A second area of discourse that calls for additional commentary is the likely future path of system evolution that will lead to effective and affordable Petaflops-scale computing including the future role of computer centers as facilities for supporting high performance computing environments. This paper addresses the key issues of taxonomy, future directions towards Petaflops computing, and the important role of computer centers in the 21st century.

  2. From Territorial Defence to Expeditionary Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe; Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2016-01-01

    After the Cold War the Danish Armed Forces moved away from its traditional role of territorial defense of Danish soil and towards a role as a globally deployable expeditionary force, imbedded with UK and/or US forces. This shift in national strategy amplified the requirements of the young officer......’ ability to think and act strategically in international missions. This article discusses to what extent this has been reflected in the education of the young officers....

  3. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume IV. Final report, Appendix C: identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. As a result of visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks, some useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network have been obtained. A more extensive communications and control network will be developed by utilities for control of such sources for future use. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  4. Effect of combined variation of force amplitude and rate of force development on the modulation characteristics of muscle activation during rapid isometric aiming force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hoon; Stelmach, George E

    2006-01-01

    Studies of rapid target-directed limb movements have suggested that various control schemes can be defined by the modulation pattern of the muscle activity. The present study was aimed to address the question regarding the extent to which a simultaneous control of force amplitude, and rate of force development influences the modulation characteristics of muscle activation associated with producing rapid isometric aiming forces at the elbow joint. The subjects were instructed to produce rapid isometric force pulses to three different force amplitudes (15, 35, and 55% of their maximal voluntary contractions) under systematically varied force-rate conditions ranging from a fast and accurate force-rate to the fastest force-rate possible. The results showed that larger force amplitudes were achieved by increasing the rate of force development (d F/d t) while the time to peak force remained relatively constant. The magnitude of the electromyographic (EMG) burst systematically increased as a function of force amplitude at all force-rate conditions. The primary finding was that the characteristic of the EMG burst duration associated with different force amplitudes showed a significant difference among force-rate conditions. Under a fast and accurate force-rate condition, the duration of the agonist burst increased linearly with force amplitude. A gradual transition into a fixed duration of the agonist burst then was observed over the remaining three force-rate requirements. With increasingly faster force-rates, there were no changes in the agonist burst duration over three force amplitudes. These results indicate that the combined variations in force amplitude and force-rate examined relative to the most rapid force-rate influence the control patterns for the muscle activation during the fast isometric force production. Changes in the EMG modulation patterns observed are likely due to the constraints imposed by muscle contractile properties.

  5. Flight program language requirements. Volume 2: Requirements and evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The efforts and results are summarized for a study to establish requirements for a flight programming language for future onboard computer applications. Several different languages were available as potential candidates for future NASA flight programming efforts. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of detailed language requirements was synthesized from these activities. The details of program language requirements and of the language evaluations are described.

  6. An overview of the future of non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J B

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, vast changes have occurred in the geopolitical landscape and the nature of the types of conflicts in which technologically developed countries have been involved. While the threat of conventional war remains, forces have been more frequently deployed in situations that require great restraint. Adversaries are often likely to be elusive and commingled with noncombatants. There has been some shift in public opinion away from tolerance of collateral casualties. Therefore there is a need to be able to apply force while limiting casualties. Non-lethal weapons provide part of the solution. Among the changes that will influence the future have been studies by the US and NATO concerning the use of non-lethal weapons, coincidental with increased funding for their development and testing. New concepts and policies have recently been formalized. Surprisingly, the most strident objections to the implementation of non-lethal weapons have come from organizations that are ostensibly designed to protect non-combatants. These arguments are specious and, while technically and academically challenging, actually serve to foster an environment that will result in the deaths of many more innocent civilians. They misconstrue technology with human intent. The reasons for use of force will not abate. Alternatives to bombs, missiles, tanks and artillery must therefore be found. Non-lethal weapons are not a panacea but do offer the best hope of minimizing casualties while allowing nations or alliances the means to use force in protection of national or regional interests.

  7. Protein high-force pulling simulations yield low-force results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Lichter

    Full Text Available All-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations are used to pull with extremely large constant force (750-3000 pN on three small proteins. The introduction of a nondimensional timescale permits direct comparison of unfolding across all forces. A crossover force of approximately 1100 pN divides unfolding dynamics into two regimes. At higher forces, residues sequentially unfold from the pulling end while maintaining the remainder of the protein force-free. Measurements of hydrodynamic viscous stresses are made easy by the high speeds of unfolding. Using an exact low-Reynolds-number scaling, these measurements can be extrapolated to provide, for the first time, an estimate of the hydrodynamic force on low-force unfolding. Below 1100 pN, but surprisingly still at extremely large applied force, intermediate states and cooperative unfoldings as seen at much lower forces are observed. The force-insensitive persistence of these structures indicates that decomposition into unfolded fragments requires a large fluctuation. This finding suggests how proteins are constructed to resist transient high force. The progression of [Formula: see text] helix and [Formula: see text] sheet unfolding is also found to be insensitive to force. The force-insensitivity of key aspects of unfolding opens the possibility that numerical simulations can be accelerated by high applied force while still maintaining critical features of unfolding.

  8. America's Electricity Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2006-03-01

    Where will America's future electricity supply come from? According to Vice President Cheney's energy task force, the U.S. needs to build about one 1 GW generating facilty a week in perpetuity.^(1) What sort of facilities will they be? Can the economy sustain such growth? Are there other possibilities? One possibility that strikes a chord with physicists is conservation as a source of energy. In this regard, Vice President Cheney famously said that conservation is``a sign of personal virtue, but it is not a sufficient basis---all by itself---for a sound, comprehensive energy policy,''^(2) echoing the Ayn Rand Instituite's view that ``Conservation is not a long- or short-term solution to the energy crisis. Conservation is the un-American idea of resigning oneself to doing with less.''^(3) This poster will explore the possible energy futures, their advantages and disadvantages, with and without conservation. 1. National Energy Policy Development Group (R. Cheney, C. L. Powell, P. O'Neill, G. Norton, A. M. Veneman, D. L. Evans, N. Y. Mineta, S. Abraham, J. M. Allbaugh, C. T. Whitman, J. B. Bolten, M. E. Daniels, L. B. Lindsey, and R. Barrales), National Energy Policy: Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001). 2. M. Allen, ``Bush energy plan will emphasize production,'' The Washington Post, 1 May 2001 3. R. Pool, ``Saving power deemed immoral,'' The Los Angeles Times, 12 May 2001.

  9. Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce…

  10. 49 CFR 193.2067 - Wind forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fluids with a capacity of not more than 70,000 gallons, applicable wind load data in ASCE/SEI 7-05... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wind forces. 193.2067 Section 193.2067...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2067 Wind forces. (a) LNG facilities must be...

  11. Ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Liedtke, C.B.; Droog, Adriaan; van der Kooij, Herman

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. Many applications require full ambulatory measurement of these forces, but this is not supported by current measurement systems. We propose the use of two six-degrees-of-freedom f

  12. Measurement of crossflow forces on tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    A force transducer for measuring lift and drag coefficients for a circular cylinder in turbulent water flow is presented. In addition to describing the actual design, requirements for obtaining valid fluid-force test data are discussed, and pertinent flow-test experience is related.

  13. Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters,...

  14. Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce…

  15. Air Force F-22 Fighter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    Mark D. Shackelford , Military Deputy, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition (SAF/AQ), [and] Lieutenant General Raymond E...Force Deputy Chief Of Staff For Air, Space and Information Operations, Plans And Requirements (AF/A3/5), Lieutenant General Mark D. Shackelford

  16. The Future for Curators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Coralie Edwards

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of the curator has changed and is likely to change in the future. Current issues of postmodernism have affected their authority and status, by calling on new voices and narratives. Criticisms continue to be levelled at curators for failing to change communication through display and to maintain subject-based expertise, while new technology constantly increases both the demand for and the supply of information. A survey of curatorial jobs in the 'Museums Journal 'confirms that the level of skills and knowledge required of curators has decreased. These changes will continue, as in the future curators will be affected by changes in technology, new computerised applications and competition for funding.

  17. Future of palliative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Bhatnagar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A ′need-supply′ and ′requirement-distribution mismatch′ along with a continuingneed explosion are the biggest hurdles faced by palliative medicine today. It is the need of the hour to provide an unbiased, equitable and evidence-based palliative care to those in need irrespective of the diagnosis, prognosis, social and economic status or geographical location. Palliative care as a fundamental human right, ensuring provision throughout the illness spectrum, global as well as region-specific capacity building, uniform availability of essential drugs at an affordable price, a multidisciplinary team approachand caregiver-support are some of the achievable goals for the future. This supplanted with a strong political commitment, professional dedication and ′public-private partnerships′ are necessaryto tackle the existing hurdles and the exponentially increasing future need. For effectively going ahead it is of utmost importance to integrate palliative medicine into medical education, healthcare system and societal framework.

  18. Knudsen forces on microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, A.; Wig, A.; Meriaudeau, F.; Ferrell, T. L.; Thundat, T.

    2002-11-01

    When two surfaces at two different temperatures are separated by a distance comparable to a mean-free path of the molecules of the ambient medium, the surfaces experience Knudsen force. This mechanical force can be important in microelectromechanical systems and in atomic force microscopy. A theoretical discussion of the magnitude of the forces and the conditions where they can be encountered is discussed. A potential application of the Knudsen force in designing a cantilever-based vacuum gauge is discussed.

  19. A polygonal method for haptic force generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Algorithms for computing forces and associated surface deformations (graphical and physical) are given, which, together with a force feedback device can be used to haptically display virtual objects. The Bendable Polygon algorithm, created at Sandia National Labs and the University of New Mexico, for visual rendering of computer generated surfaces is also presented. An implementation using the EIGEN virtual reality environment, and the PHANToM (Trademark) haptic interface, is reported together with suggestions for future research.

  20. Disruptive Innovations as a Driving Force for the Change of Wireless Telecommunication Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyoseva, Tsvetoslava; Poulkov, Vladimir; Mihaylov, Mihail Rumenov

    2014-01-01

    Innovations are the driving force for fundamental changes and development of future generation telecommunication networks. When considering innovations as drivers for the development of next generation telecommunication networks an important question is whether an innovative emerging technology...... would cause a disruption requiring fundamental change of the infrastructure or will it will only catalyze its evolution. This paper describes the major characteristics of disruptive innovations as a driving force for fundamental changes in existing telecommunications infrastructures. By analyzing...... the current trends in mobile communications, we reason that the emergence of new telecommunication architectures and infrastructures is inevitable. An important consideration in the analysis is the driving role of disruptive technologies for the future of telecommunications. Based on a model for evaluating...

  1. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2006-12-01

    : Cambridge Healthtech Institute 250 First Avenue, Suite 300 Needham, MA 02494 (781 972-5400 or (888 999-6288 - Fax: (781 972-5425 www.healthtech.com SCANNING 2007 “Scanning Microscopy In Forensics Science” 10-12 April 2007 CA,USA Further information S. Frank Platek, Forensic Chemistry Center, US Food and Drug Administration, 6751 Steger Drive, Cincinnati, OH Tel: 513-679-2700 x254 - Email: fplatek@ora.fda.gov Web: www.fams.org The 9th Annual Conference of BAHID 12-14 April 2007, United Kingdom University of Surrey, Guildford Further information: Web:www.bahid.org AFDIL’s International Training Course 16-20 April 2007, USA Extraction of DNA from Aged Skeletal Remains and Forensic Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Further information: The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, 1413 Research Blvd, Bldg, 101, Rockville, MD 20850 25th Annual CME Symposium in Forensic Psychiatry April 26-29, 2007 Santa Fe, New Mexico - Inn and Spa at Loretto Further information: American College of Forensic Psychiatry PO Box 5870, Balboa Island CA 92662 Tel: (949 673-7773 - www.forensicpsychonline.com Scanning Microscopy in Forensic Science - A 3-Day Symposium at SCANNING 2007 10-12 April To be held at the Portola Plaza Hotel at Monterey Bay in Monterey, CA. Mark K. Sullivan Program Planning Committee SCANNING 2007 PO Box 485 Mahwah, NJ 07430-0485 (201 818-1010 Fax: (201 818-0086 mks@fams.org - www.fams.org -www.scanning2007.org 7th Annual Proteomic and Genomic Sample Preparation Conference - Optimizing Samples for Diagnostics and Drug Discovery 11-13 April To be held at the World Trade Center in Boston, MA. Margit Eder, PhD Conference Director Cambridge Healthtech Institute (781 972-5478 - Fax: (781 972-5425 meder@healthtech.com - www.GOTSummit.com Forensic Medical Investigation Comprehensive Review Course 11-13 April To be held in Atlantic City, NJ. CONTACT: Michael Henderson or Mary Dudley, MD Forensic Medical Investigation Institute 6505 East Central; PMB#176 Wichita, KS 67206-1924 mike

  2. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2005-04-01

    Identification and Emerging Technologies Conference March 21-25 2005 Bethesda, MD, USA. To be held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Bethesda, MD. Further information: TSgt. Stephen Huntington, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000. Phone: (202 782-2637, E-mail: sutton@afip.osd.mil http://www.afip.org/Departments/edu/upcoming.htm 5th Annual International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services April 18-21 2005. Melbourne, Australia. Conference Further information: http : //www. iafmhs. org Homicide Investigation April 22-24 2005, Leeds Marriott Hotel, Leeds, UK. Further information: Information from The Forensic Science Society. E-mail: Tracey@forensic-science-society.org.uk World Police Medical Officers Seventh International Conference on Clinical Forensic Medicine May 9-13 2005 Dunblane, UK. Further information: Northern Networking, 1 Tennant Avenue, College Milton South, East Kilbride, Glasgow G74 5NA, UK. Phone: 44-1355244966. Fax: 44-1355249959; E-mail: wpmo2005@glasconf.demon.co.uk; http:/ / www.apsweb.org.uk The Mid-Atlantic Association of Forensic Scientists 2005 Meeting May 18-20 2005. Pittsburgh, PA, USA. To be held at the Sheraton Station Square Hotel in Pittsburgh, PA. Further information: Sarah L. Kinneer, PA State Police, Greensburg Regional Laboratory. Phone: (724 832-3294, www.maafs.org VI. Adli Bilimler Sempozyumu Son yasal düzenlemeler çerçevesinde hekim sorumluluğu ve yeni TCK’da yaralar 19-22 Mayıs 2005, Elazığ Fırat Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Adli Tıp Anabilim Dalı İletişim: Dr.Abdurrahim Türkoğlu Fırat Tıp Merkezi, Adli Tıp Anabilim Dalı 22119 Elazığ Tel: 0424 233 35 55 E-Posta : atugoglu@firat.edu.tr 17th ENFSI Annual Meeting May 25-28 2005 The Hague, The Netherlands. Further information: http://www.enfsi-am2005.nl Israel International Conference on Science Law Ethics 29 May-2 June, 2005 Haifa. Further information: seminars@isas.co.il Second Mediterranean Academy of Forensic Sciences June 22-25 2005

  3. Master-slave robot force telepresence technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to make the manipulators useful, some force-feedback is required to enable the operator to sense the robot's feelings. Without force-feedback, many tasks will not be able to be carried out. For these rea sons, a master-slave system with different kinematics has been developed. The system permits us to vary the ra tio of the position/attitude, to design a master manipulator without considering the kinematics of the slave ma nipulator, and so on. To overcome the difficulties, a master-slave manipulator system with different kinematics is proposed. The master manipulator is force-controlled via a force torque sensor in the handle. As to master slave manipulator system with two way force feedback is concerned, the force goes to the actuator from the oper ator, and come back to the operator from the actuator. The working situation is viewed by the stereo TV supervi sory system. The force and vision telepresence are thus achieved. In order to ensure the maneuverability, direct drive DC motors and PWM servo units are adopted to improve the response speed. It can provide force response in a wide range. A lot of experiments were performed with the master-slave manipulator system force telepres ence to study the force response under restricted environment. By two force sensors, the force-position bilateral force response system effectively decreases the affection of friction and inertia force, and increases the authen ticity of bilateral force response. When the slave manipulator ann is encountered with soft-object(sponge), in the experiments, the operator can clearly have the fine feeling as if he himself is contacted with the object.

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Linear Nanomotor Driven by Thermophoretic Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard L.

    ,7,8,9 Nanomotors are an attractive goal for nanotechnology.9-13 Such nano-scale structures capable of converting thermal energy into work will be needed in many types of nanodevices, including nanoconveyors14, memory devices15 and nano-encapsulated material delivery systems16,17. Moreover to design and manufacture...... future molecular machines a complete understanding of the friction forces involved on the transport process at the molecular level have to be addressed.18 In this work we perform Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations using the MD package FASTTUBE19 to study a molecular linear motor consisting of coaxial...... of the capsule is driven by thermophoresis we perform additional simulations in order to study the friction and thermophoretic forces acting on the inner CNT. In these simulations, we constrain the velocity of center of mass of the inner CNT and extract from the simulations the external forces required to drive...

  5. Modeling the effect of probe force on length measurements on polymer parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Measurement uncertainty at micrometer level is in the future going to be very common in dimensional measurements on polymer parts. Accurate dimensional measurement of polymer parts is becoming a key and common practice in the industry, especially when micrometer tolerances are required. When...... conducting measurements with a contact probe there is always a force applied to the part. This force (0.3N – 3.3N) leads to deformations that an influence the final result. The unknown deformation of the part under the measurement conditions can produce significant errors in the measurement. In the present...... work, Hertzian contact theory was applied to find the deformation analytically, where the measuring force was imposed to the part. Material properties of the polymer and radius of the probe tip were known parameters. The finite element software ABAQUS was then used to model the contact problem...

  6. [Methodology and Implementation of Forced Oscillation Technique for Respiratory Mechanics Measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengbo; Ni, Lu; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Deyu; Wang, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method for respiratory mechanics measurement. For the FOT, external signals (e.g. forced oscillations around 4-40 Hz) are used to drive the respiratory system, and the mechanical characteristic of the respiratory system can be determined with the linear system identification theory. Thus, respiratory mechanical properties and components at different frequency and location of the airway can be explored by specifically developed forcing waveforms. In this paper, the theory, methodology and clinical application of the FOT is reviewed, including measure ment theory, driving signals, models of respiratory system, algorithm for impedance identification, and requirement on apparatus. Finally, the future development of this technique is also discussed.

  7. Tuning Time-Domain Pseudospectral Computations of the Self-Force on a Charged Scalar Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Canizares, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    The computation of the self-force constitutes one of the main challenges for the construction of precise theoretical waveform templates in order to detect and analyze extreme-mass-ratio inspirals with the future space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA. Since the number of templates required is quite high, it is important to develop fast algorithms both for the computation of the self-force and the production of waveforms. In this article we show how to tune a recent time-domain technique for the computation of the self-force, what we call the Particle without Particle scheme, in order to make it very precise and at the same time very efficient. We also extend this technique in order to allow for highly eccentric orbits.

  8. Tuning time-domain pseudospectral computations of the self-force on a charged scalar particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canizares, Priscilla; Sopuerta, Carlos F, E-mail: pcm@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: sopuerta@ieec.uab.es [Facultat de Ciencies, Institut de Ciencies de I' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Torre C5 parells, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-07-07

    The computation of the self-force constitutes one of the main challenges for the construction of precise theoretical waveform templates in order to detect and analyze extreme-mass-ratio inspirals with the future space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA. Since the number of templates required is quite high, it is important to develop fast algorithms both for the computation of the self-force and the production of waveforms. In this paper, we show how to tune a recent time-domain technique for the computation of the self-force, what we call the particle without particle scheme, in order to make it very precise and at the same time very efficient. We also extend this technique in order to allow for highly eccentric orbits.

  9. Strategic library futures

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    This ebook focuses on the future of libraries and the strategies which they should best adopt in order to respond effectively to significantly changed circumstances and requirements. This ebook, then, looks at the significant challenges facing librarians as they adopt new technologies and adapt to a world that can never be the same again. But all the authors in this ebook are able to paint a positive picture of developments, with a wide range of descriptions of how librarianship is transforming itself to help shape and lead information and resource provision and discovery in ways unimaginable

  10. OBJECTIVITY REQUIREMENT FOR FLUID DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文楠

    2003-01-01

    A new flow theory is established through the objectivity requirement on the fluid dynamics. It was known that inhomogeneous fluid motion gave rise to viscous force while the selection of observers on different space-time points would change such an inhomogeneous character. Therefore, when the viscous force was considered as an objective existence foreign to the selection of observers, the form invariances of viscous force and momentum equation under local rotation transformation required a new dynamic field,namely the vortex field to be introduced. Then the dynamical equations of all flow fields were obtained through constructing the Lagrangian density of fluid system and using the variational approach of energy.

  11. An Overview on Gripping Force Measurement at the Micro and Nano-Scales Using Two-Fingered Microrobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrane Boudaoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-fingered micromanipulation systems with an integrated force sensor are widely used in robotics to sense and control gripping forces at the micro and nano-scales. They became of primary importance for an efficient manipulation and characterization of highly deformable biomaterials and nanostructures. This paper presents a chronological overview of gripping force measurement using two-fingered micromanipulation systems. The work summarizes the major achievements in this field from the early 90s to the present, focusing in particular on the evolution of measurement technologies regarding the requirements of microrobotic applications. Measuring forces below the microNewton for the manipulation of highly deformable materials, embedding force sensors within microgrippers to increase their dexterity, and reducing the influence of noise to improve the measurement resolution are among the addressed challenges. The paper shows different examples of how these challenges have been addressed. Resolution, operating range and signal/noise ratio of gripping force sensors are reported and compared. A discussion about force measurement technologies and gripping force control is performed and future trends are highlighted.

  12. An Overview on Gripping Force Measurement at the Micro and Nano-scales Using Two-fingered Microrobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrane Boudaoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-fingered micromanipulation systems with an integrated force sensor are widely used in robotics to sense and control gripping forces at the micro and nano-scales. They became of primary importance for an efficient manipulation and characterization of highly deformable biomaterials and nanostructures. This paper presents a chronological overview of gripping force measurement using two-fingered micromanipulation systems. The work summarizes the major achievements in this field from the early 90s to the present, focusing in particular on the evolution of measurement technologies regarding the requirements of microrobotic applications. Measuring forces below the microNewton for the manipulation of highly deformable materials, embedding force sensors within microgrippers to increase their dexterity, and reducing the influence of noise to improve the measurement resolution are among the addressed challenges. The paper shows different examples of how these challenges have been addressed. Resolution, operating range and signal/noise ratio of gripping force sensors are reported and compared. A discussion about force measurement technologies and gripping force control is performed and future trends are highlighted.

  13. BUILDING AN EFFECTIVE SALES FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Building an effective sales force starts with selecting good salespeople, but good salespeople are very difficult to find. The reason for this is that most sales jobs are very demanding and require a great deal from the salesperson. There are many different types of sales jobs. Before it can hire salespeople, each company must do a careful job analysis to see what particular types of selling and other skills are necessary for each sales job. One task of the market planner is to establish clear objectives each year for the entire sales force, for each region, each sales office, and each salesperson. Sales jobs are different from in-house jobs in some significant ways. Nevertheless, each company must continually work on building and maintaining an effective sales force using the following steps: recruitment, selection, training, compensation and evaluation of each salesperson.

  14. NATO Force Health Protection Requirements from Pre- to Post-Deployment: Population Health for the Military (Les besoins des forces de l’OTAN en matiere de soins de sante du pre-deploiement jusqu’au post-deploiement: la sante des populations militaires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Deployed Settings by K.L. Cox Military Health Care Policies in The Netherlands 2 by M.J.J. Hoejenbos Paper 3 withdrawn L’intégration de la gestion ...L’intégration de la gestion des risques de santé dans le processus de planification opérationnelle, la doctrine belge (Health Risks Management...les forces armées ont bien souvent été déterminants dans l’issue des conflits . Longtemps négligées, les maladies et blessures non dues aux actions

  15. An Energy Absorber with Force Modificator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hao; ZHANG Xiaowei; YU Tongxi

    2006-01-01

    Thin-walled tubes are extensively applied in engineering,especially in vehicle structures to resist axial or traversal impact loads,for their excellent energy absorbing capacity.However,in the axial deformation mode,the force history has an extremely high peak force which may bring not only fatal injury to occupants but also damage to structures,cargo and environment.Aiming to develop energy absorbers with impact-force modificator,square metal tube with force modificator is investigated which can monitor the force-deformation history of the tube.A small device is designed to serve as an impact-force modificator,which introduces desired imperfections to the square tube just before the impact happens between the impactor and the tube,so as to reduce the peak force.Prototypes with various governing parameters were manufactured and tested both quasi-statically and dynamically to study the effects of these parameters on the characteristics of energy absorption.The results show that the force modificator can achieve the desired reduction of the peak force well whilst remaining the specific energy absorption capacity of the original square tube.With future improvements,it could be applied to vehicles or roadside safety hardware to mitigate the consequences produced by traffic accidents.

  16. United States Army Regionally Aligned Forces: Opportunities for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    69Marlowe. 70Jamie Gayton , “Have We Finally Found the Manning Holy Grail?” Military Review (2004): 17- 20. 71For non-centrally selected personnel four year...DC: Congressional Research Service, 2013. Gayton , Jamie. “Have We Finally Found the Manning Holy Grail?” Military Review 84, no. 2 (2004): 17-20

  17. Navy Force Employment Focus--Back to the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Naval Strike Warfare Center, or "Strike U," respectively). When it comes to littoral air defense, "Are we waiting for an Iranian 12 Camilo ...1997-5 January 1998, 30-33 O’Kuinghttons, Camilo , Jr. "We Need an Air Defense Center of Excellence." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings. October 1997

  18. 2014 Texas Military Value Task Force: Preparing for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    open communications. Fort Bliss coordinates any encroachment issues with White Sands Missile Range and Holloman AFB in New Mexico . NAS Corpus...Solutions of Central Texas, and Marriage Management.1 Fort Bliss community programs and services include Freedom Fiesta , El Paso Community College

  19. Task Force on the Future of Military Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    adjusted yearly according to formulas set by statute. When care is covered by Medicare, but not by TRICARE (e.g., chiropractic care), TRICARE will not...treat chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and hypertension available at the lowest level of copayment regardless of brand or generic status

  20. Air Force Cyber Warfare: Now and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    activated Joint Task Force– Computer Network Defense under Maj Gen John “ Soup ” Campbell in December 1998, reporting directly to the secretary of defense...puter Network Operations—to reflect this change . The DOD adjusted the mission again in 2004, this time adding management as well as de- fense of the...is full of organizational changes , we have little documentation of why the military chose to organize as it did to address cyberspace challenges

  1. Future Roles and Missions of the Kosovo Security Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ..............................................................................7......Albanians’ hope for the International Community’s help, thus convincing them that ideas of peaceful resistance were utopian . Kosovar Albanians were

  2. Validating Future Force Performance Measures (Army Class): Concluding Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    dimensions important to first-term Soldier performance: Adaptability to Changing Conditions, Relating to and Supporting Peers, Teamwork , Self-Management...Openness reflects the degree to which people are open to change (positive and negative) and to workplace variations in tasks, settings, and...reports, the dimensions were re-conceptualized to emphasize teamwork and team leadership. Specifically, the dimension “facilitating peer and team

  3. The US Army and Future Security Force Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Terror,” International Journal of World Peace, 29, no. 1(March 2012): 61, in EBSCO (accessed December 10, 2012). 22 US Government Accountability Office...no. 3, (Fall 2012): 141, in EBSCO (accessed April 22, 2013). 60 Dennis Jett, U.S. Security Assistance in the Middle East: Helping Friends or...2010), in EBSCO (accessed April 20, 2013). 62 Ibid. 63 LTC Allen Pepper, International Military Affairs Chief, USARAF Security Cooperation

  4. Tactical Fuel and Energy Strategy for The Future Modular Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-18

    available to developing countries, their increasing needs will lead to a greater demand for oil. India and China will see their energy demands rise to “first...destabilize some regions. Nations such as China are already investing billions of dollars into infrastructure to produce alternative fuels such as...within the broad purview of biofuels. To date, biofuels research has focused primarily on large-scale ethanol production from corn grain ( starch ) and

  5. Naval S and T Strategy: Innovations for the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    transformational semiconductor made from gallium nitride (GaN), whose origins can be traced to basic research sponsored by ONR since the 1960s. Increased...Examples include: • Tsunami detection from the Ionosphere – a NICOP with French investigators demonstrated that scintillation in the ionosphere

  6. Naval S&T Strategy: Innovations For The Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    heart of this technology is a transformational semiconductor made from gallium nitride (GaN), whose origins can be traced to basic research...that scintillation in the ionosphere caused by major earthquakes can be connected through modeling methods to produce techniques for early detection

  7. Role of Special Forces Liaison Elements in Future Multinational Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Melayu Bangla Czech* Dari Dutch English French* Greek Hungarian* Italian Nepali Pashtu...bahasa melayu x x dari dutch x x greek hungarian italian nepali pashtu polish romanian russian turkish Ukrainian Uzbek x bahasa melayu bangla czech...dari x x x greek hungarian x nepali pashtu polish romanian russian turkish Ukrainian Uzbek arabic bahasa melayu x czech dari x english french

  8. Balancing the Israeli Defense Force for Future Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    Ibid., 77-78, 81. According to Naveh SOD was not 52 LTC L. Craig Dalton, “Systemic Operational Design: Epistemological Bumpf or the Way Ahead...complexity, it was unfortunate for the Israeli Army that it found itself in the midst of embracing an evolutionary doctrinal change while employing it...Craig. “Systemic Operational Design: Epistemological Bumpf or the Way. Ahead For Operational Design?” A Monograph, School of Advanced Military

  9. Military robots: the fighting force of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-03

    better-known science fiction authors who used military robots in their stories are Isaac ... Asimov , Robert Heinlein, and Ray Bradbury. Military robots have also played a large role in science fiction movies and television shows such as

  10. The Future Role of Army National Guard Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an... Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting agency recognized by the...also possess a working knowledge of dentistry , veterinary care, public sanitation, water quality and optometry. Finally, there is one senior and one

  11. Security Force Assistance in Afghanistan: Identifying Lessons for Future Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix, see Chapter Two. Implications of SFA in Afghanistan for the U.S. Army 113 cult. The validation training team ( VTT ) echoed these complaints.15...According to these advisors and VTT members, this type of manage- ment of the overall advisory effort hurts performance. Finally, a consistent theme...plans, including those from KMTC and CFC; and doctrine • ISAF documents • ETT and VTT documents • Congressional Research Service reports • Government

  12. The Light Armored Cavalry Regiment -- Reconnaissance Force of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    appli- que armor made this possible. The Bradely Scout Vehicle, armed with a 25 mm cannon and a wire guided missile system, could now engage and destroy...University Press. 1986 Palmer, David Richard, Summons of the Trumpet. Novato. CA. Presidio Press. 1978. Palmer, Bruce Jr., The 25 Year War. America’s Military

  13. Financial Forces and the Future of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Rizzo, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Each year over the past quarter century, undergraduate tuition and fees in the United States have increased by an average of 2.5 to 3.5 percentage points above the inflation rate. This continuous rise recently led one congressman to propose that the government penalize institutions that raise their tuition by more than twice the rate of inflation…

  14. Precipice of Parity: Future of the USAF Fighter Force Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    enemy if a counterstrike never materializes. Attacks will continue at the opponent’s leisure until the defender eventually succumbs. Thus the use...a result, F-117s operating from the southeast corner of Saudi Arabia traveled a distance of over 665 nm to reach the southern border of Iraq, while...to bring air power to bear upon the Iraqi military.90 This tactic extended travel distances and times that crews would be airborne, but provided

  15. Army Special Operations Forces Professional Military Education for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    generations have done. Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Swiss cognitive psychologist CG: Hey DCO, you’re never going to believe this; come in here and shut...with it. The conclusion is predicated on well- documented history and the widely accepted principles of organizational theory . Obviously, there are...this mission. When conducting FID, as well as all special operations, the officer leader: must approach each conflict with a distinctive theory of

  16. Future Role for Women in the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-18

    line communities . With the passage of the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act of 1948, women were authorized to serve in the Reserve and Regular...hundreds of military women served in Vietnam, Thailand, and the Philippines in such fields as communications , transportation, finance, and intelligence...and Anesthesia. Nurse midwifery in the uniformed services became a reality in the early 1970’s. Clinical practice within the hospital has become

  17. Meeting Quay 2k30's requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnants, G.H.; Toorn, A. van der; Schuylenburg, M.; Heijnen, H.P.J.; Gijt, J.G. de; Molenaar, W.F.; Ligteringen, H.; Krom, A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The requirements that a quay design should meet in order to yield a viable port infrastructure, vary widely from flexibility due to future customers requirements to durability due to owners requirements. In a Port of Rotterdam backed project, current and future requirements have been aggregated by c

  18. The Future of the Core Curriculum in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoennessen, Michael

    2006-12-01

    The recent report of the Joint AAPT/APS Task Force on Graduate Education in Pysics reported that the traditional graduate physics curriculum consists of a “core” of required courses that includes Classical Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, Classical Mechanics, and Statistical Mechanics. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some graduate physics departments have changed or eliminated these requirements, or made other changes such as the elimination or “watering down” of the comprehensive exam. It also has been argued that physics departments need to modernize the curriculum, noting that the traditional core has not changed for 50 years. A panel consisting of Prof. Ken Heller (University of Minnesota), Prof. Michael Paessler (North Carolina State) and Minesh Bacrania (LLNL) as the chair of the APS Forum on Graduate Student Affairs representing the graduate students will discuss the future of the core curriculum.

  19. Exact integral constraint requiring only the ground-state electron density as input on the exchange-correlation force - partial differential(V)(xc)(r)/partial differential(r) for spherical atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, N H; Nagy, A

    2008-11-21

    Following some studies of integral(n)(r)inverted DeltaV(r)dr by earlier workers for the density functional theory (DFT) one-body potential V(r) generating the exact ground-state density, we consider here the special case of spherical atoms. The starting point is the differential virial theorem, which is used, as well as the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg [Phys. Rev. A 18, 2399 (1978)] identity to show that the scalar quantity paralleling the above vector integral, namely, integral(n)(r) partial differential(V)(r)/partial differential(r)dr, is determined solely by the electron density n(0) at the nucleus for the s-like atoms He and Be. The force - partial differential(V)/ partial differential(r) is then related to the derivative of the exchange-correlation potential V(xc)(r) by terms involving only the external potential in addition to n(r). The resulting integral constraint should allow some test of the quality of currently used forms of V(xc)(r). The article concludes with results from the differential virial theorem and the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg identity for the exact many-electron theory of spherical atoms, as well as for the DFT for atoms such as Ne with a closed p shell.

  20. Agile manufacturing: The factory of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Joseph M.; Bossieux, Terry A.

    1994-01-01

    The factory of the future will require an operating methodology which effectively utilizes all of the elements of product design, manufacturing and delivery. The process must respond rapidly to changes in product demand, product mix, design changes or changes in the raw materials. To achieve agility in a manufacturing operation, the design and development of the manufacturing processes must focus on customer satisfaction. Achieving greatest results requires that the manufacturing process be considered from product concept through sales. This provides the best opportunity to build a quality product for the customer at a reasonable rate. The primary elements of a manufacturing system include people, equipment, materials, methods and the environment. The most significant and most agile element in any process is the human resource. Only with a highly trained, knowledgeable work force can the proper methods be applied to efficiently process materials with machinery which is predictable, reliable and flexible. This paper discusses the affect of each element on the development of agile manufacturing systems.

  1. Forced Retirement from Professional Rugby Union is Associated with Symptoms of Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike I; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Rugby has a higher injury burden than other popular sports, such as football. Athletes who are forced to retire as a result of injury are associated with poor mental health. With its high injury burden, professional rugby players might be at risk of mental health conditions associated with injury-related forced retirement. This study aimed to compare mental health between former professional rugby players who were and weren't forced to retire. A questionnaire including the 4DSQ (distress), GHQ-12 (anxiety/depression), PROMIS short-form (sleep disturbance) and AUDIT-C (alcohol misuse) was completed by retired professional players from Ireland, France and South Africa. The questionnaire asked players whether or not they were forced to retire, as well as the reason for retirement. Players forced to retire were more than twice as likely to report symptoms of distress in comparison to those that retired voluntarily (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.6, prugby players that were forced to retire may require support structures and longitudinal monitoring. Future studies should begin monitoring players during their careers to accurately assess the effect of retirement on mental health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  3. Malaysia and forced migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzura Idris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  4. AMPA Receptor-mTOR Activation Is Required for the Antidepressant-like Effects of Sarcosine during the Forced Swim Test in rats: Insertion of AMPA Receptor may Play a Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ti eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcosine, an endogenous amino acid, is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter and an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR coagonist. Recently, we found that sarcosine, an NMDAR enhancer, can improve depression-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This result differs from previous studies, which have reported antidepressant effects of NMDAR antagonists. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response of sarcosine remain unknown. This study examines the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR activation, which are involved in the antidepressant-like effects of several glutamatergic system modulators. The effects of sarcosine in a forced swim test (FST and the expression levels of phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins were examined in the absence or presence of mTOR and AMPAR inhibitors. In addition, the influence of sarcosine on AMPAR trafficking was determined by analyzing the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit GluR1 at the PKA site (often considered an indicator for GluR1 membrane insertion in neurons. A single injection of sarcosine exhibited antidepressant-like effects in rats in the FST and rapidly activated the mTOR signaling pathway, which were significantly blocked by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the AMPAR inhibitor 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(fquinoxaline (NBQX pretreatment. Moreover, NBQX pretreatment eliminated the ability of sarcosine to stimulate the phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins. Furthermore, GluR1 phosphorylation at its PKA site was significantly increased after an acute in vivo sarcosine treatment. The results demonstrated that sarcosine exerts antidepressant-like effects by enhancing AMPAR–mTOR signaling pathway activity and facilitating AMPAR membrane insertion.Highlights:- A single injection of sarcosine rapidly exerted antidepressant-like effects with a concomitant increase in the activation of the

  5. Fluid force transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  6. Hydrophobic Forces in Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Pazhianur, Rajesh R

    1999-01-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used to conduct force measurements to better understand the role of hydrophobic forces in flotation. The force measurements were conducted between a flat mineral substrate and a hydrophobic glass sphere in aqueous solutions. It is assumed that the hydrophobic glass sphere may simulate the behavior of air bubbles during flotation. The results may provide information relevant to the bubble-particle interactions occurring during flotation. The glass ...

  7. Why Security Force Assistance Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    forces is difficult, time- consuming , and requires an appreciation of the strategic picture as opposed to just the immediate operational threat. After...period. Fighting a decentralized insurgency and settling sectarian scores consumed the Iraqi government, which is now facing an existential threat in...al Assad’s brutal response to what was once a group of peaceful protesters, deepened regional sectarian animosity . The once marginalized Islamic

  8. The Falsification of Nuclear Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, R Navarro; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    We review our work on the statistical uncertainty analysis of the NN force. This is based on the Granada-2013 database where a statistically meaningful partial wave analysis comprising a total of 6713 np and pp published scattering data from 1950 till 2013 below pion production threshold has been made. We stress the necessary conditions required for a correct and self-consistent statistical interpretation of the discrepancies between theory and experiment which enable a subsequent statistical error propagation and correlation analysis

  9. The Falsification of Nuclear Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Perez, R.; Amaro, J. E.; Ruiz Arriola, E.

    2016-03-01

    We review our work on the statistical uncertainty analysis of the NN force. This is based on the Granada-2013 database where a statistically meaningful partial wave analysis comprising a total of 6713 np and pp published scattering data from 1950 till 2013 below pion production threshold has been made. We stress the necessary conditions required for a correct and self-consistent statistical interpretation of the discrepancies between theory and experiment which enable a subsequent statistical error propagation and correlation analysis

  10. Reducing Air Force Fighter Pilot Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    experienced flight leaders. New fighter pilots coming directly out of SUPT and IFF require 500 flying hours to become designated as experienced. In...rated officers—an imperfect match of human capital to requirements. Further Reductions Options to reduce requirements, listed in Chapter Two, include...progress. The hours required for OCO support are typically additive and funded by the Transportation Working Capital Fund (TWCF) rather than by Air Force

  11. Debunking Coriolis Force Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written and debated about the Coriolis force. Unfortunately, this has done little to demystify the paradoxes surrounding this fictitious force invoked by an observer in a rotating frame of reference. It is the purpose of this article to make another valiant attempt to slay the dragon of the Coriolis force! This will be done without…

  12. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  13. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  14. 80 years of IEC: Future requirements on teaching and research in the field of energy. Papers; 80 Jahre IEC: Zukuenftige Anforderungen an Lehre und Forschung auf dem Gebiet der Energie. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. [comp.

    2000-07-01

    The conference was part of the festivities of the 80{sup th} Anniversary of the Brown Coal Research Institute, that were celebrated at the Institute of Energy Processing and Chemical Engineering (IEC), Freiberg University of Mining and Technology. The Institute of Energy Processing and Chemical Engineering preserves and continues the traditional cooperation with the Brown Coal Industry in the field of the energy conversion processes. The conference proceedings give the reader an impression of the presently meaning of fossil energy sources and explain the competence of the IEC in educating and researching on fuel techniques in future. (orig.) [German] Die Tagung wurde anlaesslich des 80. Jahrestages der Gruendung des Braunkohlenforschungsinstitutes an der TU Bergakademie Freiberg durchgefuehrt. Das Institut fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen fuehrt die traditionsreiche Kooperation mit der Braunkohleindustrie auf dem Gebiet der Energiewandlungsprozesse fort. Die Beitraege charakterisieren die derzeitige Bedeutung der fossilen Energietraeger und erlaeutern die Kompetenz des IEC fuer eine zukunftsorientierte Lehre und Forschung in der Brennstofftechnik. (orig.)

  15. AMPA Receptor-mTOR Activation is Required for the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sarcosine during the Forced Swim Test in Rats: Insertion of AMPA Receptor may Play a Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuang-Ti; Tsai, Mang-Hung; Wu, Ching-Hsiang; Jou, Ming-Jia; Wei, I-Hua; Huang, Chih-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Sarcosine, an endogenous amino acid, is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter and an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist. Recently, we found that sarcosine, an NMDAR enhancer, can improve depression-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This result differs from previous studies, which have reported antidepressant effects of NMDAR antagonists. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response of sarcosine remain unknown. This study examines the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) activation, which are involved in the antidepressant-like effects of several glutamatergic system modulators. The effects of sarcosine in a forced swim test (FST) and the expression levels of phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins were examined in the absence or presence of mTOR and AMPAR inhibitors. In addition, the influence of sarcosine on AMPAR trafficking was determined by analyzing the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit GluR1 at the PKA site (often considered an indicator for GluR1 membrane insertion in neurons). A single injection of sarcosine exhibited antidepressant-like effects in rats in the FST and rapidly activated the mTOR signaling pathway, which were significantly blocked by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the AMPAR inhibitor 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) pretreatment. Moreover, NBQX pretreatment eliminated the ability of sarcosine to stimulate the phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins. Furthermore, GluR1 phosphorylation at its PKA site was significantly increased after an acute in vivo sarcosine treatment. The results demonstrated that sarcosine exerts antidepressant-like effects by enhancing AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway activity and facilitating AMPAR membrane insertion. Highlights-A single injection of sarcosine rapidly exerted antidepressant-like effects with a concomitant increase in the activation of the mammalian

  16. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Performance Parameter (NR-KPP) Products (aka Architectures )  Appendix B: References  Appendix C: Acronym List  Appendix D: Analysis methodology...Force Specialty Codes 36 HSI REQUIREMENTS GUIDE Universal Joint Task List Full Mission Trainers ( FMT ) Field Training Detachments On-the-Job...Occupational Health F3I Form-Fit-Function Interface FM Field Manual FMT Full Mission Trainers FOA Field Operating Agencies FOC Full Operational

  17. Making the Soldier Decisive on Future Battlefields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    protection. Ensuring that the tip of the spear is dominant will also better enable all forces in the operational environment. The equipment of an...Press. Rainey, MAJ J. E. 1998. Sharpening the Tip of the Spear: Is the Light Infantry Squad the Right Size for the Future Battlefield? Fort...Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Making the Soldier Decisive on Future Battlefields APPENDIX I 221 marketed by Bionic Power

  18. Future methane, hydroxyl, and their uncertainties: key climate and emission parameters for future predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Holmes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of future methane abundances following a climate scenario requires understanding the lifetime changes driven by anthropogenic emissions, meteorological factors, and chemistry-climate feedbacks. Uncertainty in any of these influences or the underlying processes implies uncertainty in future abundance and radiative forcing. We simulate methane lifetime in three chemical transport models (CTMs – UCI CTM, GEOS-Chem, and Oslo CTM3 – over the period 1997–2009 and compare the models' year-to-year variability against constraints from global methyl chloroform observations. Using sensitivity tests, we find that temperature, water vapor, stratospheric ozone column, biomass burning and lightning NOx are the dominant sources of interannual changes in methane lifetime in all three models. We also evaluate each model's response to forcings that have impacts on decadal time scales, such as methane feedback, and anthropogenic emissions. In general, these different CTMs show similar sensitivities to the driving variables. We construct a parametric model that reproduces most of the interannual variability of each CTM and use it to predict methane lifetime from 1980 through 2100 following a specified emissions and climate scenario (RCP 8.5. The parametric model propagates uncertainties through all steps and provides a foundation for predicting methane abundances in any climate scenario. Our sensitivity tests also enable a new estimate of the methane global warming potential (GWP, accounting for stratospheric ozone effects, including those mediated by water vapor. We estimate the 100-yr GWP to be 32, which is 25% larger than past assessments.

  19. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    ) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number......We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  20. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....