WorldWideScience

Sample records for forces future requirements

  1. Strategic forces: Future requirements and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  2. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  3. Assessing Leadership Potential for the Army's Future Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahue, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A transforming Army requires a corresponding transformation in its leader development and assessment methodology to enable the future force in the volatile uncertain complex and ambiguous contemporary...

  4. The Past, Present, and Future of the Air Force's Future Total Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duffy, Dennis P

    2004-01-01

    This project examines the history of the Total Force policy since its inception in 1970 through its implementation today in an effort to determine a future direction for the Air Force's Future Total Force initiative...

  5. Air Force Officer Force Development, an Analysis and Future Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davidson, William T

    2004-01-01

    .... The intent is to identify any shortcomings in the construct, highlight processes requiring change, and assist the Air Force in building the road to a more robust, better educated, and visionary officer corps...

  6. Heat pipe applications for future Air Force spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahefkey, T.; Barthelemy, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes the envisioned, future usage of high and low temperature heat pipes in advanced Air Force spacecraft. Thermal control requirements for a variety of communications, surveillance, and space defense missions are forecast. Thermal design constraints implied by survivability to potential weapons effects are outlined. Applications of heat pipes to meet potential low and high power spacecraft mission requirements and envisioned design constraints are suggested. A brief summary of past Air Force sponsored heat pipe development efforts is presented and directions for future development outlined, including those applicable to advanced photovoltaic and nuclear power subsystem applications of heat pipes

  7. Competency Based Future Leadership Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horey, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    .... A competency framework that is used consistently throughout the force and that focuses on the functions of leadership will help align training, development, and performance management processes...

  8. Tendon surveillance requirements - average tendon force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed Rev. 3 to USNRC Reg. Guide 1.35 discusses the need for comparing, for individual tendons, the measured and predicted lift-off forces. Such a comparison is intended to detect any abnormal tendon force loss which might occur. Recognizing that there are uncertainties in the prediction of tendon losses, proposed Guide 1.35.1 has allowed specific tolerances on the fundamental losses. Thus, the lift-off force acceptance criteria for individual tendons appearing in Reg. Guide 1.35, Proposed Rev. 3, is stated relative to a lower bound predicted tendon force, which is obtained using the 'plus' tolerances on the fundamental losses. There is an additional acceptance criterion for the lift-off forces which is not specifically addressed in these two Reg. Guides; however, it is included in a proposed Subsection IWX to ASME Code Section XI. This criterion is based on the overriding requirement that the magnitude of prestress in the containment structure be sufficeint to meet the minimum prestress design requirements. This design requirement can be expressed as an average tendon force for each group of vertical hoop, or dome tendons. For the purpose of comparing the actual tendon forces with the required average tendon force, the lift-off forces measured for a sample of tendons within each group can be averaged to construct the average force for the entire group. However, the individual lift-off forces must be 'corrected' (normalized) prior to obtaining the sample average. This paper derives the correction factor to be used for this purpose. (orig./RW)

  9. Telecommuters: the work force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancer, D A; Moe, J K

    1995-01-01

    Telecommuters are the work force of the future. The dawning of the information age, with its explosion of telecommunication technology, presents new opportunities for healthcare agencies to extend their borders far beyond traditional physical boundaries. The virtual workplace can become a reality and position healthcare agencies to be geographically dispersed throughout their community. The authors describe a pioneering effort to use telecommunications to retain a valuable employee and create a healthcare agency's first virtual workplace. Strategies for success in telecommuting also are provided from both the telecommuter's and the manager's viewpoints.

  10. Future survival requires competitive skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The companies that will succeed in the global power business in 25 years will be those that best understand the productivity implications of the current power game. In the competitive free market for electricity, the inefficient will be driven out. This will include the developer that is unable to achieve higher productivity in developing and financing projects, the engineer-constructor that longs for the old risk-free, cost-plus environment and the trading company that fails to enter into new relationships with the most productive companies in the world. Also in jeopardy will be the operator who can't reduce O and M costs and the manufacturer who is unable to control overhead or labor costs. Succeeding will be all about productivity. Free market competition drives productivity improvement. In a competitive environment, companies must operate at a more efficient level. The US learned this accidentally through the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, getting us a side benefit of free market competition and lower electricity prices. In other countries the practice of socialism and its final bankruptcy forced adjustments to free market policies

  11. Global mega forces: Implications for the future of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Kubik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of leading global mega forces and their importance to the future of natural resource decisionmaking, policy development, and operation. Global mega forces are defined as a combination of major trends, preferences, and probabilities that come together to produce the potential for future high-impact outcomes. These...

  12. Naval S and T Strategy: Innovations for the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    collectively paint a picture of the future naval force that today’s initiatives will help build. Scientists and engineers at the Naval Research...breakthrough solutions that shape the future force (e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS), radar, autonomous systems, graphene , QuikClot and many more

  13. The labor force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, J L

    1987-07-01

    In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.

  14. ATLAS Future Framework Requirements Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Future Frameworks Requirements Group was constituted in Summer 2013 to consider and summarise the framework requirements from trigger and offline for configuring, scheduling and monitoring the data processing software needed by the ATLAS experiment. The principal motivation for such a re-examination arises from the current and anticipated evolution of CPUs, where multiple cores, hyper-threading and wide vector registers require a shift to a concurrent programming model. Such a model requires extensive changes in the current Gaudi/Athena frameworks and offers the opportunity to consider how HLT and offline processing can be better accommodated within the ATLAS framework. This note contains the report of the Future Frameworks Requirements Group.

  15. Defense Strategy and Forces: Setting Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Howard Fireman, and Christopher Deegan , “A Question of Cost,” Armed Forces Journal, June 2007, pp. 24– 27, 47. See also Emelie Rutherford, “Affordable...2 is under construction. 24. Craig Covault, “Final Cape Titan Propels NRO’s Secret Operations,” 8 May 2005, available at http://www.aviationweek.com...aw/generic/story_generic.jsp?channel=awst&id =news/05095p04.xml (accessed November 2007); and Craig Covault, “Space Recon Dwindles as Iran, China

  16. Air Force Strategic Planning: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Raphael S. Cohen Air Force Strategic Planning Past, Present, and Future C O R P O R A T I O N Limited Print and Electronic Distribution Rights This... intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance QDR Quadrennial Defense Review TAC Tactical Air Command UAV unmanned aerial vehicles 1 1...Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000, p. 258. 5 U.S. Government Printing Office, Army Air Forces Field Manual: Employment of Aviation of the

  17. European utilities requirements for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roch, M.

    1996-01-01

    The prospect for future nuclear power plants has led the utilities of seven European countries to launch an effort to define the requirements that should be common to all utilities for the next reactors to be built in Europe. These requirements will ultimately be part of a four-volume document and will cover all aspects of a plant: performance, grid connection, codes and standards, materials, quality assurance, cost, and, of course, safety. The seven European countries - France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, and Belgium - issued revision A of Vols 1 and 2 in Nov. 1994, which deal with all the general requirements, not specific to any design, originally issued in March 1994. Comments were requested from most of the nuclear utilities as well as from reactor vendors worldwide. This gave rise to an enormous number of comments, which were duly considered by the European Union. The relevant ones were incorporated into revision B of Vols. 1 and 2, which was issued in Nov 1995, the objective of this revision B being essentially to gain approval from the safety authorities. A particular aspect of the European approach resides in the fact that these European requirements will have to be discussed and agreed on by at least nine safety authorities, i.e., the authorities of the seven counties that launched revision B, plus the authorities of two newcomers, Finland and Sweden, which have just applied for European Union membership

  18. Novel applications of the temporal kernel method: Historical and future radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, R. W.; Larson, E.; Solomon, S.; Murphy, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new estimate of the historical radiative forcing derived from the observed global mean surface temperature and a model derived kernel function. Current estimates of historical radiative forcing are usually derived from climate models. Despite large variability in these models, the multi-model mean tends to do a reasonable job of representing the Earth system and climate. One method of diagnosing the transient radiative forcing in these models requires model output of top of the atmosphere radiative imbalance and global mean temperature anomaly. It is difficult to apply this method to historical observations due to the lack of TOA radiative measurements before CERES. We apply the temporal kernel method (TKM) of calculating radiative forcing to the historical global mean temperature anomaly. This novel approach is compared against the current regression based methods using model outputs and shown to produce consistent forcing estimates giving confidence in the forcing derived from the historical temperature record. The derived TKM radiative forcing provides an estimate of the forcing time series that the average climate model needs to produce the observed temperature record. This forcing time series is found to be in good overall agreement with previous estimates but includes significant differences that will be discussed. The historical anthropogenic aerosol forcing is estimated as a residual from the TKM and found to be consistent with earlier moderate forcing estimates. In addition, this method is applied to future temperature projections to estimate the radiative forcing required to achieve those temperature goals, such as those set in the Paris agreement.

  19. Naval S&T Strategy: Innovations For The Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    promote fundamental knowledge expansion to collectively paint a picture of the future naval force that today’s initiatives will help build. Scientists and... graphene , QuikClot and many more). In fiscally austere times like today, there is great pressure to tie S&T more closely to R&D technology

  20. United States Army Regionally Aligned Forces: Opportunities for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    dispersed force, curriculum adaptability, and cost efficiency are paramount. In response to increased requirements a commercial-off-the-shelf online virtual ...actors’ perceptions and perceived realities . So the question for the regionally aligned force is how to educate and train its leadership to understand...the costs associated in doing so. Granted, there is a point of self- diminishing returns when too much specificity lurches towards myopia , but soldier

  1. Strengthening Sustainability and Resiliency of a Future Force, Phase 1. FY2010-2011 Summer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Resiliency of a Future Force: Phase I Interim Report - 48 Please Enter Custom Water factor adjustments below: m Unit Level* (Gat/Ptisan/ Dti ...cost of mov- ing the consumables in terms of the assets required to move the commodity and the security Intra Theater Resupply: 4 Legs Army...Expeditionary Force-Logistics ResupplyDetails Legl Leg 2 Leg 3 Leg 4 Resupply Trip Legs Super FOB (Div)to Base Camp (bde) Base Camp (Bde) to FOB (Bn

  2. Rangers and the Strategic Requirements for Direct Action Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zunde, Aidis

    1998-01-01

    .... This analysis indicates that the achievement of strategic ends also requires a large-scale special operations ground direct action force to accomplish direct action missions beyond the capabilities of other assets...

  3. The force required to fracture endodontically roots restored with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... Objective: To evaluate the effect of various materials as intra‑orifice barriers on the force required fracture roots. ... prepared, but not filled), filling using glass ionomer cement, nano‑hybrid composite resin, ...

  4. Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20 th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential mobility spectrometry, and amplifying fluorescence polymers. In the future the requirements for detection equipment will continue to become even more stringent. The continuing increase in the sheer number of threats that will need to be detected, the development of binary agents requiring that even the precursor chemicals be detected, the development of new types of agents unlike any of the current chemistries, and the expansion of the list of toxic industrial chemical will require new techniques with higher specificity and more sensitivity.

  5. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this study. The numerical model, previously calibrated on an olive orchard located in Sicily (Italy with a satisfactory reproduction of historical olive yield data, has been forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic weather generator and a downscaling procedure of an ensemble of climate model outputs. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of some General Circulation Models adopted in the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessment report (4AR for future scenarios. The outcomes state that climatic forcings driving potential evapotranspiration compensate for each other, resulting in a slight increase of this water demand flux; moreover, the increase of CO2 concentration leads to a potential assimilation increase and, consequently, to an overall productivity increase in spite of the growth of water stress due to the rainfall reduction.

  6. Key requirements for future control room functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    ) and the observability needs highlighted within WP5 led to the definition of the requirements with a Web of Cell (WoC) point of view. The main European Distribution System Operators (DSOs) provided a valuable contribution in the definition of the evolvDSO Use Cases. Their analysis lead to the definition of further...

  7. Visual soil evaluation - future research requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Ball, Bruce; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    A review of Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) techniques (Emmet-Booth et al., 2016) highlighted their established utility for soil quality assessment, though some limitations were identified; (1) The examination of aggregate size, visible intra-porosity and shape forms a key assessment criterion in almost all methods, thus limiting evaluation to structural form. The addition of criteria that holistically examine structure may be desirable. For example, structural stability can be indicated using dispersion tests or examining soil surface crusting, while the assessment of soil colour may indirectly indicate soil organic matter content, a contributor to stability. Organic matter assessment may also indicate structural resilience, along with rooting, earthworm numbers or shrinkage cracking. (2) Soil texture may influence results or impeded method deployment. Modification of procedures to account for extreme texture variation is desirable. For example, evidence of compaction in sandy or single grain soils greatly differs to that in clayey soils. Some procedures incorporate separate classification systems or adjust deployment based on texture. (3) Research into impacts of soil moisture content on VSE evaluation criteria is required. Criteria such as rupture resistance and shape may be affected by moisture content. It is generally recommended that methods are deployed on moist soils and quantification of influences of moisture variation on results is necessary. (4) Robust sampling strategies for method deployment are required. Dealing with spatial variation differs between methods, but where methods can be deployed over large areas, clear instruction on sampling is required. Additionally, as emphasis has been placed on the agricultural production of soil, so the ability of VSE for exploring structural quality in terms of carbon storage, water purification and biodiversity support also requires research. References Emmet-Booth, J.P., Forristal. P.D., Fenton, O., Ball, B

  8. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  9. The Force Required to Fracture Endodontically Roots Restored with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-12

    Mar 12, 2016 ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow. Objective: To evaluate the effect of various materials as intra-orifice barriers ... resin, short fiber-reinforced composite, bulk-fill flowable composite, MTA ... composite, and glass ionomer cement increased the force required ...

  10. Radiative Forcing in the ACCMIP Historical and Future Climate Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew Todd; Lamarque, J.-F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M.; Jiao, C.; Chin, M.; Young, P. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Rotstayn, L.; Mahowald, N.; hide

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model IntercomparisonProject (ACCMIP) was to characterize the short-lived drivers of preindustrial to 2100climate change in the current generation of climate models. Here we evaluate historicaland 5 future radiative forcing in the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of whichalso participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5).The models generally reproduce present-day climatological total aerosol opticaldepth (AOD) relatively well. components to this total, however, and most appear to underestimate AOD over East10 Asia. The models generally capture 1980-2000 AOD trends fairly well, though theyunderpredict AOD increases over the YellowEastern Sea. They appear to strongly underestimate absorbing AOD, especially in East Asia, South and Southeast Asia, SouthAmerica and Southern Hemisphere Africa.We examined both the conventional direct radiative forcing at the tropopause (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (adjusted forcing AF, including direct andindirect effects). The models calculated all aerosol all-sky 1850 to 2000 global meanannual average RF ranges from 0.06 to 0.49 W m(sup -2), with a mean of 0.26 W m(sup -2) and a median of 0.27 W m(sup -2. Adjusting for missing aerosol components in some modelsbrings the range to 0.12 to 0.62W m(sup -2), with a mean of 0.39W m(sup -2). Screen20ing the models based on their ability to capture spatial patterns and magnitudes ofAOD and AOD trends yields a quality-controlled mean of 0.42W m(sup -2) and range of0.33 to 0.50 W m(sup -2) (accounting for missing components). The CMIP5 subset of ACCMIPmodels spans 0.06 to 0.49W m(sup -2), suggesting some CMIP5 simulations likelyhave too little aerosol RF. A substantial, but not well quantified, contribution to histori25cal aerosol RF may come from climate feedbacks (35 to 58). The mean aerosol AF during this period is 1.12W m(sup -2) (median value 1.16W m(sup -2), range 0.72 to1.44W m

  11. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Tjiputra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long period, smaller eruptions similar to Pinatubo in amplitude, but set to occur frequently, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the global temperature by more than one degree before it returns to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades, and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. Our climate-carbon feedback analysis shows that future volcanic eruptions induce positive feedbacks (i.e., more carbon sink on both the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle. The feedback signal on the ocean is consistently smaller than the terrestrial counterpart and the feedback strength is proportionally related to the frequency of the volcanic eruption events. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45 % increase in accumulated carbon uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by a reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between the ocean and the atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean carbon uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even

  12. Evolution of Requirements and Assumptions for Future Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Sargusingh, Miriam; Perry, Jay

    2017-01-01

    NASA programs are maturing technologies, systems, and architectures to enabling future exploration missions. To increase fidelity as technologies mature, developers must make assumptions that represent the requirements of a future program. Multiple efforts have begun to define these requirements, including team internal assumptions, planning system integration for early demonstrations, and discussions between international partners planning future collaborations. For many detailed life support system requirements, existing NASA documents set limits of acceptable values, but a future vehicle may be constrained in other ways, and select a limited range of conditions. Other requirements are effectively set by interfaces or operations, and may be different for the same technology depending on whether the hard-ware is a demonstration system on the International Space Station, or a critical component of a future vehicle. This paper highlights key assumptions representing potential life support requirements and explanations of the driving scenarios, constraints, or other issues that drive them.

  13. Predicting and Supplying Human Resource Requirements for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Larry J.

    After asserting that public institutions should not provide training for nonexistent jobs, this paper reviews problems associated with the accurate prediction of future manpower needs. The paper reviews the processes currently used to project labor force needs and notes the difficulty of accurately forecasting labor market "surprises,"…

  14. Force Structure. DOD Needs to Integrate Data into Its Force Identification Process and Examine Options to Meet Requirements for High-Demand Support Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ...) will continue to meet its requirements using an all-volunteer force. The Army, in particular, has faced continuing demand for large numbers of forces, especially for forces with support skills...

  15. Joint force protection advanced security system (JFPASS) "the future of force protection: integrate and automate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Carlos E.; Fagan, Joe E.

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Defense (DoD) defines 'force protection' as "preventive measures taken to mitigate hostile actions against DoD personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information." Advanced technologies enable significant improvements in automating and distributing situation awareness, optimizing operator time, and improving sustainability, which enhance protection and lower costs. The JFPASS Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) demonstrates a force protection environment that combines physical security and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) defense through the application of integrated command and control and data fusion. The JFPASS JCTD provides a layered approach to force protection by integrating traditional sensors used in physical security, such as video cameras, battlefield surveillance radars, unmanned and unattended ground sensors. The optimization of human participation and automation of processes is achieved by employment of unmanned ground vehicles, along with remotely operated lethal and less-than-lethal weapon systems. These capabilities are integrated via a tailorable, user-defined common operational picture display through a data fusion engine operating in the background. The combined systems automate the screening of alarms, manage the information displays, and provide assessment and response measures. The data fusion engine links disparate sensors and systems, and applies tailored logic to focus the assessment of events. It enables timely responses by providing the user with automated and semi-automated decision support tools. The JFPASS JCTD uses standard communication/data exchange protocols, which allow the system to incorporate future sensor technologies or communication networks, while maintaining the ability to communicate with legacy or existing systems.

  16. Radiative forcing from particle emissions by future supersonic aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pitari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on the direct radiative forcing (RF of black carbon (BC and sulphuric acid particles emitted by future supersonic aircraft, as well as on the ozone RF due to changes produced by emissions of both gas species (NOx, H2O and aerosol particles capable of affecting stratospheric ozone chemistry. Heterogeneous chemical reactions on the surface of sulphuric acid stratospheric particles (SSA-SAD are the main link between ozone chemistry and supersonic aircraft emissions of sulphur precursors (SO2 and particles (H2O–H2SO4. Photochemical O3 changes are compared from four independent 3-D atmosphere-chemistry models (ACMs, using as input the perturbation of SSA-SAD calculated in the University of L'Aquila model, which includes on-line a microphysics code for aerosol formation and growth. The ACMs in this study use aircraft emission scenarios for the year 2050 developed by AIRBUS as a part of the EU project SCENIC, assessing options for fleet size, engine technology (NOx emission index, Mach number, range and cruising altitude. From our baseline modeling simulation, the impact of supersonic aircraft on sulphuric acid aerosol and BC mass burdens is 53 and 1.5 μg/m2, respectively, with a direct RF of −11.4 and 4.6 mW/m2 (net RF=−6.8 mW/m2. This paper discusses the similarities and differences amongst the participating models in terms of changes to O3 precursors due to aircraft emissions (NOx, HOx,Clx,Brx and the stratospheric ozone sensitivity to them. In the baseline case, the calculated global ozone change is −0.4 ±0.3 DU, with a net radiative forcing (IR+UV of −2.5± 2 mW/m2. The fraction of this O3-RF attributable to SSA-SAD changes is, however, highly variable among the models, depending on the NOx removal

  17. Developing Doctrine for the Future Joint Force:. Creating Synergy and Minimizing Seams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown Jr, Charles Q

    2005-01-01

    ..., networked, decentralized, adaptable, decision superior, and lethal. Recent contingencies displayed rapidly executable, globally and operationally distributed, simultaneous, and sequential operations characteristic of the future joint force...

  18. Overview of Biotechnology Futures: Possible Applications to Land Force Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egudo, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    This review of selected scientific and technological advances occurring in the field of biotechnology discusses their possible impact for Land Force capability development in the next decade or two...

  19. Current and Future Research Directions in Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Betty H. C.; Atlee, Joanne M.

    In this paper, we review current requirements engineering (RE) research and identify future research directions suggested by emerging software needs. First, we overview the state of the art in RE research. The research is considered with respect to technologies developed to address specific requirements tasks, such as elicitation, modeling, and analysis. Such a review enables us to identify mature areas of research, as well as areas that warrant further investigation. Next, we review several strategies for performing and extending RE research results, to help delineate the scope of future research directions. Finally, we highlight what we consider to be the “hot” current and future research topics, which aim to address RE needs for emerging systems of the future.

  20. DefenseLink Special: U.S. Forces Help Afghan Soldiers Train for Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Us Afghanistan, U.S. Forces Help Afghan Soldiers Train for Future 'Forces of Freedom, Decency Will people, defend our freedom, and send a clear message to the extremists: The forces of freedom and decency will prevail," he said in a speech at Latvia University. Story U.S. Soldiers Work With Afghan Army

  1. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Constance A; Gould, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, and true firs) and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many plants burst bud normally without chilling. Equations predicting budburst were developed for each species in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2-5.5°C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier) but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later) as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other species all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant species; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur earlier.

  2. Breaking the Status Quo: Information and the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    Bonds. Hollywood rolled out Movietone news releases before every cinema offering, and stalwarts such as Frank Capra produced films destined to stir...report commissioned by the French Joint Forces Centre for Concept Development, Doctrine, and Experimentation – recommended that France adopt this

  3. Requirements for user interaction support in future CACE environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Szymkat, M.

    1994-01-01

    Based on a review of user interaction modes and the specific needs of the CACE domain the paper describes requirements for user interaction in future CACE environments. Taking another look at the design process in CACE key areas in need of more user interaction support are pointed out. Three...

  4. Generic skills requirements (KSA model) towards future mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Statistics and Discriminant Analysis (DA) as required to achieve the objective of the study. This study will guide all future engineers, especially in the field of Mechanical Engineering in Malaysia to penetrate the job market according to the current market needs. Keywords: generic skills; KSA model; mechanical engineers; ...

  5. Global Water Availability and Requirements for Future Food Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Hoff, H.; Biemans, H.; Fader, M.; Waha, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares, spatially explicitly and at global scale, per capita water availability and water requirements for food production presently (1971-2000) and in the future given climate and population change (2070-99). A vegetation and hydrology model Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land (LPJmL) was

  6. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  7. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5. The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980–2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects. The models' all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range −0.26 W m−2; −0.06 to −0.49 W m−2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of −0.42 W m−2; −0.33 to −0.50 W m−2, including adjustment for missing aerosol components in some models. Many ACCMIP and CMIP5 models appear to produce substantially smaller aerosol RF than this best estimate. Climate feedbacks contribute substantially (35 to −58% to modeled historical aerosol RF. The 1850 to 2000 aerosol ERF is −1.17 W m−2; −0.71 to −1.44 W m−2. Thus adjustments, including clouds, typically cause greater forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global aerosol RF

  8. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindell, D. T.; Lamarque, J. -F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M.; Jiao, C.; Chin, M.; Young, P. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Rotstayn, L.; Mahowald, N.; Milly, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Collins, W. J.; Conley, A. J.; Dalsoren, S.; Easter, R.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L.; Liu, X.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S. T.; Skeie, R.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yoon, J. -H.; Lo, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980-2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects). The models’ all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range) -0.26Wm-2-2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of -0.42Wm-2-2-2-2forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global

  9. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  10. Facing the Future: Slovenian Armed Forces Officer Corps and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    United Nations WWW World Wide Web YPA Yugoslav People’s Army ix ILLUSTRATIONS Page Figure 1. Professional officer...and “profesionalni.” 56Anton Zabkar, “Ahilova Peta Sistema Izobrazevanja Castnikov (Razprava)” [The Achilles’ heels of the education system for SAF...Primerjalna Analiza Urejanja Sistema Plac Pripadnikov Obrambnih Sil” [Comparative analysis of salary systems of armed forces members], Slovenian Armed

  11. Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles and their Role in Future Nuclear Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    while minimizing collateral damage, speed of response, and in-flight survivability. Without ICBMs, the US nuclear deterrent force would probably...September 2013. Delpech, Thérèse. Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century: Lessons from the Cold War for a New Era of Strategic Piracy. Santa Monica, CA...to Minimal Deterrence : A New Nuclear Policy on the Path toward Eliminating Nuclear Weapons. Occasion Paper no. 7. Washington, DC: Natural Resources

  12. The Internet Engineering Task Force and The Future of Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Baccelli , Emmanuel; Clausen , Thomas Heide; Jacquet , Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; If one wants to identify where ideas and initiatives regarding the Internet are being confronted, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is unavoidable. Created in 1986 by US government agencies (DoD, Department of Energy, NASA, NSF) to supervise the design and deployment of Internet protocols, it was initially open only for US government funded researchers. Early 1987 saw a dozen of industry representatives invited, and in a matter of months, the IETF was opened t...

  13. Precipice of Parity: Future of the USAF Fighter Force Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    M. “Mike” Loh, gained initial support from the work of Maj Gen Arthur C. Agan’s study promoting a force comprised of maneuverable, agile-fighters...is to attack cities. —Sun Tzu You really have to have to launch out of Andersen someday and go, “Okay, where am I going next?” And nine hours...scale to the vastness of the Western Pacific, consider that the distance from Andersen AFB, Guam to the Taiwan Straits is analogous to the distance

  14. Air Force and the Cyberspace Mission: Defending the Air Force's Computer Network in the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courville, Shane P

    2007-01-01

    .... Although the Air Force and the Department of Defense (DoD) in general, have numerous safeguards in effect to protect systems and their networks, DoD relies on a system that is "passive" when encountering cyber threats...

  15. CHANGE@CERN:Task Force 2: reshaping for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Second in our series reviewing the Task Forces reports. How to lay the foundations for a more efficient organisational structure. Our present organization is based on sixteen Divisions and units under the Directorate. CERN's organization is based on a Directorate and sixteen Divisions and units, while its activities are broadly divided into four Sectors: Research, Accelerators, Technical and Administration. The mandate of Task Force 2, led by Horst Wenninger, was to identify if a structural change and a reduction of duplicated efforts could result in an increased efficiency at CERN, especially as the Laboratory continues to focus its resources on the LHC. 'This is the most difficult project ever undertaken at CERN', acknowledges Wenninger, 'a double accelerator at a temperature of 1.9 K'. For the next five years the success of the LHC must be the main priority, and CERN will have to adapt the procedures of how it works. Wenninger sees the process as an opportunity for the Laboratory to move into the 21st c...

  16. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilas, Germina; Bryan, Chris; Gehin, Jess C.

    2016-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled ''Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors'', was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor's current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  17. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bryan, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled “Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors”, was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor’s current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Role of Special Forces Liaison Elements in Future Multinational Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swatek, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    ... of variables than those experienced during the Gulf War and subsequent combined operations. Thus, US commanders will require a conduit, such as SFLEs, also referred to as coalition support teams (CSTs...

  19. Maritime Pre-Positioning Force-Future: Bill Payer or Sea Basing Enabler?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grotewold, William R

    2008-01-01

    .... The Maritime Prepositioning Force-Future (MPF-F) program, envisioned as a key enabler of sea basing, may be funded through further cuts in amphibious ships or fall victim to an untenable Navy ship building plan...

  20. Peacekeeping and the Armed Forces of the Southern Cone: Current Trends and Future Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roodettes, Jose

    2002-01-01

    .... peacekeeping forces is questionable. If Latin Amen can countries were able to support future peacekeeping operations in their region, as they do internationally, this would provide relief to the United Nations and the United States...

  1. Future CANDU nuclear power plant design requirements document executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; S. A. Usmani

    1996-03-01

    The future CANDU Requirements Document (FCRED) describes a clear and complete statement of utility requirements for the next generation of CANDU nuclear power plants including those in Korea. The requirements are based on proven technology of PHWR experience and are intended to be consistent with those specified in the current international requirement documents. Furthermore, these integrated set of design requirements, incorporate utility input to the extent currently available and assure a simple, robust and more forgiving design that enhances the performance and safety. The FCRED addresses the entire plant, including the nuclear steam supply system and the balance of the plant, up to the interface with the utility grid at the distribution side of the circuit breakers which connect the switchyard to the transmission lines. Requirements for processing of low level radioactive waste at the plant site and spent fuel storage requirements are included in the FCRED. Off-site waste disposal is beyond the scope of the FCRED. 2 tabs., 1 fig. (Author) .new

  2. The Future Nuclear Arms Control Agenda and Its Potential Implications for the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    US AIR FORCE INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL SECURITY STUDIES USAF ACADEMY, COLORADO INSS OCCASIONAL PAPER AUGUST 2015 70 Dr. Lewis A. Dunn The Future...Implications for the Air Force Dr. Lewis A. Dunn INSS Occasional Paper 70 August 2015 USAF Institute for National Security Studies USAF

  3. The future of transportation in society: Forces of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Barbara C.

    1996-01-01

    The transportation system is a critical element of the social / political / economic system of the United States. Factors influencing the use of transportation technology include technology push, market pull, and external factors. In order for new transportation technology to be successful, it must meet the needs of the market. These needs are diverse and vary almost by individual. Historical trends show great changes in transportation use by mode and origins and destinations of trips. Other important changes in society affecting transportation use include changes in the composition of society by gender, age, national origin, family composition, land use, income, and residential distribution. Changes of these factors in the future and how technology is deployed to meet the changing needs of society will affect the success of transportation technology implementation over the next twenty years.

  4. The Other Quiet Professionals: Lessons for Future Cyber Forces from the Evolution of Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    tions Command), John Mense (INSCOM), Paul Schuh (JFCC-NW), Russell Fenton (U.S. Army Network Enterprise Technology Command), and CW5 Todd Boudreau and...Surdu, 2009, pp. 16–17). Doctrine Irregular warfare and SOF doctrine lagged operational activities after the Vietnam War and prior to the...forces are, at their operating core, small teams of highly skilled specialists, and both communities value skilled personnel above all else. Irregular

  5. Investigation of Vehicle Requirements and Options for Future Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The research in support of this grant was performed by the PI, Dr. John Olds, and graduate students in the Space Systems Design Lab (SSDL) at Georgia Tech over the period December 1999 to December 2000. The work was sponsored by Dr. Ted Talay, branch chief of the Vehicle Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The objective of the project was to examine the characteristics of future space tourism markets and to identify the vehicle requirements that are necessary to enable this emerging new business segment.

  6. The future of the British deterrent force; L'avenir de la force de dissuasion britannique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y. [Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique (FRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    Of the permanent members of the UN Security Council, the United Kingdom has the smallest deterrent force, with fewer than 200 warheads and a single delivery system. Successive British governments policies for nuclear interdependence with the United States over the past 50 years have led to a growing technological dissymmetry with the Americans. This politico-strategic choice now considerably restricts Britain options for remaining a member of the club of nuclear powers into the future. (author)

  7. Wireless Technology Use Case Requirement Analysis for Future Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Ali; Wilkerson, DeLisa

    2016-01-01

    This report presents various use case scenarios for wireless technology -including radio frequency (RF), optical, and acoustic- and studies requirements and boundary conditions in each scenario. The results of this study can be used to prioritize technology evaluation and development and in the long run help in development of a roadmap for future use of wireless technology. The presented scenarios cover the following application areas: (i) Space Vehicles (manned/unmanned), (ii) Satellites and Payloads, (iii) Surface Explorations, (iv) Ground Systems, and (v) Habitats. The requirement analysis covers two parallel set of conditions. The first set includes the environmental conditions such as temperature, radiation, noise/interference, wireless channel characteristics and accessibility. The second set of requirements are dictated by the application and may include parameters such as latency, throughput (effective data rate), error tolerance, and reliability. This report provides a comprehensive overview of all requirements from both perspectives and details their effects on wireless system reliability and network design. Application area examples are based on 2015 NASA Technology roadmap with specific focus on technology areas: TA 2.4, 3.3, 5.2, 5.5, 6.4, 7.4, and 10.4 sections that might benefit from wireless technology.

  8. The Evolution in Military Affairs: Shaping the Future U.S. Armed Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lovelace, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    ... the nation will require in about 20 years. He defines national security interests, describes the future international security environment, identifies derivative future national security objectives and strategic concepts, and discerns...

  9. Projecting future solid waste management requirements on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, S.R.; Stiles, D.L.; Holter, G.M.; Anderson, B.C.

    1990-09-01

    The problem of treating and disposing of hazardous transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, and mixed waste has become a major concern of the public and the government. At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington state, the problem is compounded by the need to characterize, retrieve, and treat the solid waste that was generated and stored for retrieval during the past 20 years. This paper discusses the development and application of a Solid Waste Projection Model that uses forecast volumes and characteristics of existing and future solid waste to address the treatment, storage, and disposal requirements at Hanford. The model uses a data-driven, object-oriented approach to assess the storage and treatment throughout requirements for each operation for each of the distinct waste classes and the accompanying cost of the storage and treatment operations. By defining the elements of each alternative for the total waste management system, the same database can be used for numerous analyses performed at different levels of detail. This approach also helps a variety of users with widely varying information requirements to use the model and helps achieve the high degree of flexibility needed to cope with changing regulations and evolving treatment and disposal technologies. 2 figs

  10. Safety related requirements on future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power has the potential to significantly contribute to the future energy supply. However, this requires continuous improvements in nuclear safety. Technological advancements and implementation of safety culture will achieve a safety level for future reactors of the present generation of a probability of core-melt of less than 10 -5 per year, and less than 10 -6 per year for large releases of radioactive materials. There are older reactors which do not comply with present safety thinking. The paper reviews findings of a recent design review of WWER 440/230 plants. Advanced evolutionary designs might be capable of reducing the probability of significant off-site releases to less than 10 -7 per year. For such reactors there are inherent limitations to increase safety further due to the human element, complexity of design and capability of the containment function. Therefore, revolutionary designs are being explored with the aim of eliminating the potential for off-site releases. In this context it seems to be advisable to explore concepts where the ultimate safety barrier is the fuel itself. (orig.) [de

  11. Contribution of wind energy to future electricity requirements of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M. A.; Memon, M.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficit country. About half of the country's population has no access to electricity and per capita supply is only 520 kWh. About 67% of the conventional electricity is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan would increase at an average annual growth rate of 5% to 12% under different scenarios. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payment situation. Pakistan is becoming increasingly more dependent on a few sources of supply and its energy security often hangs on the fragile threat of imported oil that is subject to supply disruptions and price volatility. The production and consumption of fossil fuels also adversely affects the quality of the environment due to indiscriminate release of toxic substances. Pakistan spends huge amount on the degradation of the environment. This shows that Pakistan must develop alternate, indigenous and environment friendly energy resources such as wind energy to meet its future electricity requirements. This paper presents an overview of wind power generation potential and assessment of its contribution to future electricity requirements of Pakistan under different policy scenarios. The country has about 1050 km long coastline. The technical potential of centralized grid connected wind power and wind home systems in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as about 484 TWh and 0.135 TWh per year respectively. The study concludes that wind power could meet about 20% to 50% of the electricity demand in Pakistan by the year 2030. The development and utilization of wind power would reduce the pressure on oil imports, protect the environment from pollution and improve the socio-economic conditions of the people

  12. Engagement of the Slovak Armed Forces in Future Crisis Management Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (AF SR have participated in more than thirty operations under major international organizations and coalitions. Despite the political interest to sustain active engagement of the AF SR in international crisis management operations, the declining level of capabilities coupled with the urgent need to modernize most of the military equipment compels the Slovak Ministry of Defense to commence a complex optimization process. Even though the evolving security environment continues to widen the spectrum of military capabilities, AF SR will need to prioritize and optimize their capabilities selectively. The defense planners must make sure that the AF SR will develop and maintain the necessary spectrum of capabilities required for the most likely deployment scenario. The optimization process should be conducted within a long-term conceptual plan that clearly defines the future course of the AF SR development within a limited financial frame. At the same time, the optimization endeavor must include a certain degree of flexibility that will allow for necessary adjustments based on specific operational requirements. In the end, the AF SR may become a modern and flexible instrument of power that could be engaged in crisis management operations abroad, upholding national and international interests effectively.

  13. Future requirements for petroleum fuels - an environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental impacts of fuel emissions were discussed. Emissions from petroleum fuels are the largest contributor to a wide range of environmental problems including damage to the ozone layer and risks to human health. Forecasts indicate that future demand for fossil fuels for energy will continue to grow. The transportation sector is the largest single source of air emissions in Canada. The environmental requirements for all fuels will become progressively more stringent. The pollutants of primary concern include toxics, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulates. The U.S. auto-oil research program has conducted considerable research to understand the impact of fuel parameters of vehicle tailpipe emissions. In Canada, lead was removed from Canadian gas a decade ago. Since January 1998, low sulphur diesel (less than 500 ppm) is required for on-road use. Regulations have also been passed to reduce the level of benzene in gasoline to less than one per cent by mid-1999. It will be necessary to manage our fossil fuels to minimize the environmental impacts from combustion. In the longer term, it will be necessary to minimize fossil fuel use through conservation and shift to less polluting fuels

  14. Force Reduction Impacts on Resourcing Army Operational Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    profiles across multiple vignettes for personnel and equipment categories 72 months or more into the future. Figure 1. ARFORGEN Model ...an executable model that enables analysts to rapidly generate and compare monthly demand profiles across multiple vignettes for personnel and...additional constrained model runs with a decrement of new supply at 25% (C75) and 50% (C50). The results are shown below in Figures 28 through 32

  15. Understanding the requirements of self-expandable stents for heart valve replacement: Radial force, hoop force and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, María Sol; Oomens, Cees W J; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2017-04-01

    A proper interpretation of the forces developed during stent crimping and deployment is of paramount importance for a better understanding of the requirements for successful heart valve replacement. The present study combines experimental and computational methods to assess the performance of a nitinol stent for tissue-engineered heart valve implantation. To validate the stent model, the mechanical response to parallel plate compression and radial crimping was evaluated experimentally. Finite element simulations showed good agreement with the experimental findings. The computational models were further used to determine the hoop force on the stent and radial force on a rigid tool during crimping and self-expansion. In addition, stent deployment against ovine and human pulmonary arteries was simulated to determine the hoop force on the stent-artery system and the equilibrium diameter for different degrees of oversizing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Frictional Forces Required for unrestrained locomotion in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der P.P.J.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, W.; Braam, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Most free-stall housing systems in the Netherlands are equipped with slatted or solid concrete floors with manure scrapers. A slipping incident occurs when the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) exceeds the coefficient of friction (COF) at the claw–floor interface. An experiment was conducted

  17. 75 FR 62309 - Establishing a Task Force on Skills for America's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... reward excellent outcomes and true innovation that meets the needs of entrepreneurs and other employers... task force to develop skills for America's future by identifying, developing, and increasing the scale... credentials and degrees; (b) identification of opportunities to amplify, accelerate, or increase the scale of...

  18. Meeting the Organizational Needs of the National Guard as Part of Transformation to the Future Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Martha

    2005-01-01

    .... They must build and maintain U.S. defenses beyond challenge. As part of the total military force and to comply with the National Security Strategy, the National Guard also must transform from the Guard of the past to the Guard of the future...

  19. Expert judgments about transient climate response to alternative future trajectories of radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; Morgan, M Granger; Frame, David J; Keith, David W

    2010-07-13

    There is uncertainty about the response of the climate system to future trajectories of radiative forcing. To quantify this uncertainty we conducted face-to-face interviews with 14 leading climate scientists, using formal methods of expert elicitation. We structured the interviews around three scenarios of radiative forcing stabilizing at different levels. All experts ranked "cloud radiative feedbacks" as contributing most to their uncertainty about future global mean temperature change, irrespective of the specified level of radiative forcing. The experts disagreed about the relative contribution of other physical processes to their uncertainty about future temperature change. For a forcing trajectory that stabilized at 7 Wm(-2) in 2200, 13 of the 14 experts judged the probability that the climate system would undergo, or be irrevocably committed to, a "basic state change" as > or =0.5. The width and median values of the probability distributions elicited from the different experts for future global mean temperature change under the specified forcing trajectories vary considerably. Even for a moderate increase in forcing by the year 2050, the medians of the elicited distributions of temperature change relative to 2000 range from 0.8-1.8 degrees C, and some of the interquartile ranges do not overlap. Ten of the 14 experts estimated that the probability that equilibrium climate sensitivity exceeds 4.5 degrees C is > 0.17, our interpretation of the upper limit of the "likely" range given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Finally, most experts anticipated that over the next 20 years research will be able to achieve only modest reductions in their degree of uncertainty.

  20. Understanding the requirements of self-expandable stents for heart valve replacement : radial force, hoop force and equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, M.S.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2017-01-01

    A proper interpretation of the forces developed during stent crimping and deployment is of paramount importance for a better understanding of the requirements for successful heart valve replacement. The present study combines experimental and computational methods to assess the performance of a

  1. Accounting for radiative forcing from albedo change in future global land-use scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collins, William D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a new method for quantifying radiative forcing from land use and land cover change (LULCC) within an integrated assessment model, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The method relies on geographically differentiated estimates of radiative forcing from albedo change associated with major land cover transitions derived from the Community Earth System Model. We find that conversion of 1 km² of woody vegetation (forest and shrublands) to non-woody vegetation (crops and grassland) yields between 0 and –0.71 nW/m² of globally averaged radiative forcing determined by the vegetation characteristics, snow dynamics, and atmospheric radiation environment characteristic within each of 151 regions we consider globally. Across a set of scenarios designed to span a range of potential future LULCC, we find LULCC forcing ranging from –0.06 to –0.29 W/m² by 2070 depending on assumptions regarding future crop yield growth and whether climate policy favors afforestation or bioenergy crops. Inclusion of this previously uncounted forcing in the policy targets driving future climate mitigation efforts leads to changes in fossil fuel emissions on the order of 1.5 PgC/yr by 2070 for a climate forcing limit of 4.5 Wm–2, corresponding to a 12–67 % change in fossil fuel emissions depending on the scenario. Scenarios with significant afforestation must compensate for albedo-induced warming through additional emissions reductions, and scenarios with significant deforestation need not mitigate as aggressively due to albedo-induced cooling. In all scenarios considered, inclusion of albedo forcing in policy targets increases forest and shrub cover globally.

  2. SMOS and SMAP: from Lessons Learned to Future Mission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Y. H.; Wigneron, J. P.; Cabot, F.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Anterrieu, E.; Rouge, B.; Rodriguez Fernandez, N.; Bindlish, R.; Khazaal, A.; Al-Bitar, A.; Mialon, A.; Lesthievent, G.

    2017-12-01

    , vegetation water content, but also dielectric constant, are carrying a wealth of information and some interesting perspectives will be presented. More important it is now possible to draw conclusions from the lessons learnt and, with the help of the user's community, define the requirements for future missions. And, finally, from these requirement to propose mission scenarii.

  3. Deposition and interception of radionuclides. Current knowledge and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Following an accidental or routine release of radionuclides into the environment, a good knowledge of deposition processes is necessary in order to accurately predict the radiation dose to members of the public. In order to understand the environmental impact of released radionuclides and their transfer through the environment, including the food chain to man, there have been numerous studies on deposition of radionuclides to a range of surfaces such as bare soil, crops, forests, water bodies and urban surfaces. The RADREM committee provides a forum for liaison on UK research and monitoring in the areas of radioactive substances and radioactive waste management. RADREM has set up four sub-committees to cover issues related to radioactivity in the atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as those related radioactive waste management. One of the sub-committee tasks is to organise seminars and workshops on specific topics of interest. The first of these was the workshop on 'Deposition and Interception of Radionuclides: Current knowledge and future requirements' organised last year by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), acting as secretariat for the Terrestrial Environment Sub-Committee (TESC) of RADREM. The intent of this workshop was to provide an opportunity to exchange information on deposition-related aspects between representatives from various interested parties including government, regulatory bodies, industry and research organisations. Through presentations and discussions, this workshop addressed current developments in the areas of deposition and interception of radionuclides by various surfaces and served to identify areas which need further research. Papers were presented on various aspects of deposition and interception of radionuclides including deposition into grass, fruits and other crops as well as deposition into urban areas and forests

  4. Iraqi Navy: Capability Requirements and Force Structure Recommendations for 2015 and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawlor, Alison C; Thompson, Eric V

    2008-01-01

    .... The goal of this study is two-fold: to provide Iraqi and Coalition personnel with a common assessment of capability requirements and force structure recommendations for the Iraqi Navy, and to provide the Iraqi Navy leadership...

  5. Functional Fit Evaluation to Determine Optimal Ease Requirements in Canadian Forces Chemical Protective Gloves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay-Lutter, Julie

    1995-01-01

    A functional fit evaluation of the Canadian Forces (CF) chemical protective lightweight glove was undertaken in order to quantify the amount of ease required within the glove for optimal functional fit...

  6. The actual development of European aviation safety requirements in aviation medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-04-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Aviation Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them.

  7. Sharpening the Tip of the Spear: Preparing Special Forces Detachment Commanders for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-19

    Persian Farsi, Korean, and Thai ) is 24 weeks long. Soldiers must successfully pass the Defense Language Proficiency Test (DLPT) by demonstrating...Brief (Fort Bragg, NC: 2007), 2. 29 real world GWOT project in coordination with one of the Theatre Special Operation Commands (TSOC).89 Weeks 13...Forces (JSOTF) with parallel major general Division commanders within theatre ? A second suggestion for future research begins with the question

  8. Prophesy or Pie in the Sky? Canadian Forces Transformation vs the Future Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Canadian Army Colonel Peter Zielinski Project Adviser This SRP is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Strategic...Ibid. 32 Lieutenant-Colonel Dave Galea, “A Light Force Capability for the Army,” in Canadian Army Journal, 8, (Kingston, ON, Her Majesty the Queen in

  9. Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.

  10. Staffing requirements for future small and medium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, D.

    2001-01-01

    As power generators around the world grapple with the challenges of the environment, deregulation, competitions and changing prices of fuels, the economics of running a future power plant are influenced significantly by the component of labour costs. These costs, from plant staff, corporate support and purchased services, will affect the overall plant economics. To achieve improved efficiency and effectiveness of organization structures and staff, vendors and utilities are working jointly to apply lessons learned for future designs. This paper will examine the experience gained to date with Canadian CANDU 6 type reactors both in Canada and abroad. The strategies which have been very successful will be reviewed, together with the results of collaboration between Atomic Energy of Canada and the utilities. An assessment of the staffing numbers is provided as a comparison between current number at a Canadian utility and the projected number from a future plant with the improvements in the design. The influence to the overall plant economics are discussed with some broad generalities that look at the effects of increasing and reducing staff levels showing the probable impact on capacity factor. The lessons from other plants can contribute significantly to the performance improvement process. The paper points to the need for a balanced approach in the future for the distribution of operating maintenance and administration (OM and A) cost between nuclear safety studies; maintenance programs and staff training. In the future, utilities, together with the designers, will have to greatly improve plant maintenance and training. The improved design features detailed in the paper will support this strategy by utilizing operational experience. (author)

  11. The threshold force required for femoral impaction grafting in revision hip surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannery, Olivia M

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Femoral impaction grafting requires vigorous impaction to obtain adequate stability without risk of fracture, but the force of impaction has not been determined. We determined this threshold force in a preliminary study using animal femurs. METHODS: Adult sow femurs were used because of their morphological similarity to human femurs in revision hip arthroplasty. 35 sow femurs were impacted with morselized bone chips and an increasing force was applied until the femur fractured. This allowed a threshold force to be established. 5 other femurs were impacted to this force and an Exeter stem was cemented into the neomedullary canal. A 28-mm Exeter head was attached and loaded by direct contact with a hydraulic testing machine. Axial cyclic loading was performed and the position sensor of the hydraulic testing machine measured the prosthetic head subsidence. RESULTS: 29 tests were completed successfully. The threshold force was found to be 4 kN. There was no statistically significant correlation between the load at fracture and the cortex-to-canal ratio or the bone mineral density. Following impaction with a maximum force of 4 kN, the average axial subsidence was 0.28 mm. INTERPRETATION: We achieved a stable construct without fracture. Further studies using human cadaveric femurs should be done to determine the threshold force required for femoral impaction grafting in revision hip surgery.

  12. Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

  13. Deriving future oriented research and competence requirements based on scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    overnight. Consequently companies need to try to be foresighted with regards to what is required to operate successfully not only today but also tomorrow and in five and ten years. Hence, companies are faced with trying to assess how to best prepare themselves for a tomorrow that they can only guess about......The key to a company's survival lies in its ability to adapt itself to an ever changing world. A company's knowledge and competencies must be fitted to the requirements of the environment in which it operates. However, the kind of competencies that ensures a company's survival are not acquired...

  14. Cosmic Rays in the Heliosphere: Requirements for Future Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.

    2013-06-01

    Since the publication of Cosmic Rays in the Heliosphere in 1998 there has been great progress in understanding how and why cosmic rays vary in space and time. This paper discusses measurements that are needed to continue advances in relating cosmic ray variations to changes in solar and interplanetary activity and variations in the local interstellar environment. Cosmic ray acceleration and transport is an important discipline in space physics and astrophysics, but it also plays a critical role in defining the radiation environment for humans and hardware in space, and is critical to efforts to unravel the history of solar activity. Cosmic rays are measured directly by balloon-borne and space instruments, and indirectly by ground-based neutron, muon and neutrino detectors, and by measurements of cosmogenic isotopes in ice cores, tree-rings, sediments, and meteorites. The topics covered here include: what we can learn from the deep 2008-2009 solar minimum, when cosmic rays reached the highest intensities of the space era; the implications of 10Be and 14C isotope archives for past and future solar activity; the effects of variations in the size of the heliosphere; opportunities provided by the Voyagers for discovering the origin of anomalous cosmic rays and measuring cosmic-ray spectra in interstellar space; and future space missions that can continue the exciting exploration of the heliosphere that has occurred over the past 50 years.

  15. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...

  16. Comparison of the Force Required for Dislodgement Between Secured and Unsecured Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Curtis; Martin-Gill, Christian; Wang, Henry E; Mayrose, James; Carlson, Jestin N

    2018-05-01

    Airway device placement and maintenance are of utmost importance when managing critically ill patients. The best method to secure airway devices is currently unknown. We sought to determine the force required to dislodge 4 types of airways with and without airway securing devices. We performed a prospective study using 4 commonly used airway devices (endotracheal tube [ETT], laryngeal mask airway [LMA], King laryngeal tube [King], and iGel) performed on 5 different mannequin models. All devices were removed twice per mannequin in random order, once unsecured and once secured as per manufacturers' recommendations; Thomas Tube Holder (Laerdal, Stavanger, Norway) for ETT, LMA, and King; custom tube holder for iGel. A digital force measuring device was attached to the exposed end of the airway device and gradually pulled vertically and perpendicular to the mannequin until the tube had been dislodged, defined as at least 4 cm of movement. Dislodgement force was reported as the maximum force recorded during dislodgement. We compared the relative difference in the secured and unsecured force for each device and between devices using a random-effects regression model accounting for variability in the manikins. The median dislodgment forces (interquartile range [IQR]) in pounds for each secured device were: ETT 13.3 (11.6, 14.1), LMA 16.6 (13.9, 18.3), King 21.7 (16.9, 25.1), and iGel 8 (6.8, 8.3). The median dislodgement forces for each unsecured device were: ETT 4.5 (4.3, 5), LMA 8.4 (6.8, 10.7), King 10.6 (8.2, 11.5), and iGel 3.9 (3.2, 4.2). The relative difference in dislodgement forces (95% confidence intervals) were higher for each device when secured: ETT 8.6 (6.2 to 11), LMA 8.8 (4.6 to 13), King 12.1 (7.2 to 16.6), iGel 4 (1.1 to 6.9). When compared to secured ETT, the King required greater dislodgement force (relative difference 8.6 [4.5-12.7]). The secured iGel required less force than the secured ETT (relative difference -4.8 [-8.9 to -0.8]). Compared with a

  17. Social, economic, and political forces affecting the future of occupational health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A

    1989-09-01

    1. By monitoring the major social, economic, and political forces affecting health care, one can predict how these forces may impact the role of occupational health nurses. 2. Nursing can and must chart its own course in the midst of these social, economic, and political changes. 3. Changes which have major implications for occupational health nurses are: health care needs, cost containment, multi-hospital chains, alternative approaches to health care, the workplace, ethical concerns, biomedical technology, nursing shortage, and oversupply of physicians. 4. Nursing implications can also be drawn in the areas of autonomy, political skills, and education. Active involvement and a desire to shape professional change and the future of nursing are keys.

  18. Future requirements and roles of computers in aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    While faster computers will be needed to make solution of the Navier-Stokes equations practical and useful, most all of the other aerodynamic solution techniques can benefit from faster computers. There is a wide variety of computational and measurement techniques, the prospect of more powerful computers permits extension and an enhancement across all aerodynamic methods, including wind-tunnel measurement. It is expected that, as in the past, a blend of methods will be used to predict aircraft aerodynamics in the future. These will include methods based on solution of the Navier-Stokes equations and the potential flow equations as well as those based on empirical and measured results. The primary flows of interest in aircraft aerodynamics are identified, the predictive methods currently in use and/or under development are reviewed and two of these methods are analyzed in terms of the computational resources needed to improve their usefulness and practicality.

  19. Materials technology for fusion - Current status and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Bloom, E.E.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Stevenson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The general status of the materials research and development activities currently under way in support of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors in the United States is reviewed. In the area of magnetic confinement configurations, attention is given to development programs for first wall materials, which are at various stages for possible austenitic stainless steels, high-strength Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, reactive and refractory metal alloys, specially designed long-range ordered and rapidly solidified alloys, and ferritic/martensitic steels, and for tritium breeding materials, electrical insulators, ceramics, and coolants. The development of materials for inertial confinement reactors is also surveyed in relation to the protection scheme employed for the first wall and the effects of pulsed neutron irradiation. Finally, the materials requirements and selection procedures for the ETF/INTOR and Starfire tokamak reactor designs are examined. Needs for the expansion of research on nonfirst-wall materials and inertial confinement fusion reactor material requirements are pointed out

  20. Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

  1. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2007-01-01

      The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...... that the solution may be relaxed enforcement of the regulatory framework and/or self-regulation, e.g. by codes of conduct. However, the article argues that other possible solutions should be considered, e.g. the use of specific symbols and sounds that - like road traffic rules - could help the consumer to navigate...

  2. Requirements for future developments from utility point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordloef, S.; Besch, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    On the BWR side the development of fuel has continued and during the recent years many new designs have entered the market such as ABB Atom SVEA-96, Siemens Atrium, GE-12 etc. These new designs provide new possibilities to optimize the core design and also give better utilization of the uranium. The future development work should emphasize on less susceptibility to severe secondary damage and also higher resistance to debris failure. Another utility demand is to increase the thermal margins such as dryout and PCI performance in order to avoid any restrictions during load, follow up and start up conditions. For three decades the PWR fuel design and the selection of material led to a satisfying results in the overall operational behaviour, which resulted in higher utilization of the fuel and materials. At the beginning of the seventieth, the utilities started with burnups of 30 MWd/kg u . Nowadays, burnups of 42 MWd/kg u are reached and burnups of 50 MWd/kg u as transition burnups are designed. The increase of enrichment from 3.0 w/o U-235 to 4.0 w/o U-235, the change of guide thimble and spacer material from stainless steel or inconel to zircalloy alloys and the different fuel core loading strategy from out-in-in to in-in-out improved the use of fuel and reduced the number of fresh fuel assemblies for reloads. (orig./HP)

  3. Solar sorptive cooling. Technologies, user requirements, practical experience, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Hardthausen (Germany); Hertlein, H.P. [eds.] [Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sorptive cooling techniques permit the use of low-temperature solar heat, i.e. a renewable energy of low cost and world-wide availability. The Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie intends to develop solar sorptive cooling technologies to the prototype stage and, in cooperation with the solar industry and its end users, to promote practical application in air conditioning of buildings and cold storage of food. The workshop presents an outline of the state of development of solar sorptive cooling from the view of users and developers. Exemplary solar cooling systems are described, and the potential of open and closed sorptive processes is assessed. Future central activities will be defined in an intensive discussion between planners, producers, users and developers. [German] Der Einsatz von Sorptionstechniken zur Kaelteerzeugung erlaubt es, als treibende Solarenergie Niedertemperatur-Solarwaerme einzusetzen, also eine regenerative Energie mit sehr geringen Kosten und weltweiter Verfuegbarkeit. Der Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie hat sich als Aufgabe gestellt, die Techniken der solaren Sorptionskuehlung bis zum Prototyp zu entwickeln und mit Industrie und Nutzern die praktische Anwendung voranzubringen. Die Anwendungsfelder sind die Klimatisierung von Gebaeuden und die Kaltlagerung von Lebensmitteln. Der Workshop gibt einen Ueberblick zum Entwicklungsstand der solaren Sorptionskuehlung aus der Sicht der Anwender und Entwickler. Bereits ausgefuehrte Beispiele zur solaren Kuehlung werden vorgestellt und das Potential geschlossener und offener Sorptionsverfahren angegeben. In intensiver Diskussion zwischen Planern, Herstellern, Nutzern und Entwicklern sollen kuenftige Arbeitsschwerpunkte herausgearbeitet werden. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear fuel licensing requirements: present status and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantchev, T.; Vitkova, M.; Gorinov, I.; Datcheva, D.; Rashkova, N.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear fuel licensing process must be directed to establishing of criteria for licensing (fuel safety criteria) and relationship between safety limits, technical specifications and operational conditions. This paper discusses the fuel safety criteria as used by NRC and Russian vendor. A survey on the available fuel behavior, modeling and related computer codes is given with respect to help the licensing process including new safety features of general changes in fuel design and operational conditions. Several types of computer codes that are used in safety analysis are sensitive to fuel-related parameters. The need for further code development and verification has been stated on many occasions: new design elements, such as different cladding materials, higher burnup, different fuel microstructure and use of MOX fuel can affect the performance of these codes. Regulatory inspection practices during operation and refueling in different countries are also shown. Future trends are discussed in particular with regard to the coming high burnup and to new core management schemes

  5. Developing a Predictive for Unscheduled Maintenance Requirements on United States Air Force Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovich, Matthew D; Norton, J. D

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper develops one such method by using linear regression and time series analysis to develop a predictive model to forecast future year man-hour and funding requirements for unscheduled maintenance...

  6. Developing a Predictive Model for Unscheduled Maintenance Requirements on United States Air Force Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovich, Matthew D; Norton, J. D

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper develops one such method by using linear regression and time series analysis to develop a predictive model to forecast future year man-hour and funding requirements for unscheduled maintenance...

  7. How wing kinematics affect power requirements and aerodynamic force production in a robotic bat wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-01-01

    Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics. (paper)

  8. Modelling requirements for future assessments based on FEP analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, J.; Bailey, L.

    1998-01-01

    This report forms part of a suite of documents describing the Nirex model development programme. The programme is designed to provide a clear audit trail from the identification of significant features, events and processes (FEPs) to the models and modelling processes employed within a detailed safety assessment. A scenario approach to performance assessment has been adopted. It is proposed that potential evolutions of a deep geological radioactive waste repository can be represented by a base scenario and a number of variant scenarios. The base scenario is chosen to be broad-ranging and to represent the natural evolution of the repository system and its surrounding environment. The base scenario is defined to include all those FEPs that are certain to occur and those which are judged likely to occur for a significant period of the assessment timescale. The structuring of FEPs on a Master Directed Diagram (MDD) provides a systematic framework for identifying those FEPs that form part of the natural evolution of the system and those, which may define alternative potential evolutions of the repository system. In order to construct a description of the base scenario, FEPs have been grouped into a series of conceptual models. Conceptual models are groups of FEPs, identified from the MDD, representing a specific component or process within the disposal system. It has been found appropriate to define conceptual models in terms of the three main components of the disposal system: the repository engineered system, the surrounding geosphere and the biosphere. For each of these components, conceptual models provide a description of the relevant subsystem in terms of its initial characteristics, subsequent evolution and the processes affecting radionuclide transport for the groundwater and gas pathways. The aim of this document is to present the methodology that has been developed for deriving modelling requirements and to illustrate the application of the methodology by

  9. Comparison of the inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement for three gait trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleg, Ginny; Huang, Morris; Vasquez Gabela, Stephanie C; Sprigle, Stephen; Livingstone, Roslyn

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement on two different surfaces in a sample of three commonly prescribed gait trainers. Tests were conducted in a laboratory setting to compare the Prime Engineering KidWalk, Rifton Pacer, and Snug Seat Mustang with and without a weighted anthropometric test dummy configured to the weight and proportions of a 4-year-old child. The Pacer was the lightest and the KidWalk the heaviest while footprints of the three gait trainers were similar. Weight was borne fairly evenly on the four casters of the Pacer and Mustang while 85% of the weight was borne on the large wheels of the mid-wheel drive KidWalk. These differences in frame style, wheel, and caster style and overall mass impact inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement. Test results suggest that initiation forces on tile were equivalent for the Pacer and KidWalk while the Mustang had the highest initiation force. Initiation forces on carpet were lowest for the KidWalk and highest for the Mustang. This initial study of inertia and movement initiation forces may provide added information for clinicians to consider when selecting a gait trainer for their clients.

  10. Scenarios of Future Socio-Economics, Energy, Land Use, and Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Jiyong; Moss, Richard H.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Kopp, Roberrt; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Patel, Pralit L.; Thomson, Allison M.; Wise, Marshall A.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2013-04-13

    This chapter explores uncertainty in future scenarios of energy, land use, emissions and radiative forcing that span the range in the literature for radiative forcing, but also consider uncertainty in two other dimensions, challenges to mitigation and challenges to adaptation. We develop a set of six scenarios that we explore in detail including the underlying the context in which they are set, assumptions that drive the scenarios, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), used to produce quantified implications for those assumptions, and results for the global energy and land-use systems as well as emissions, concentrations and radiative forcing. We also describe the history of scenario development and the present state of development of this branch of climate change research. We discuss the implications of alternative social, economic, demographic, and technology development possibilities, as well as potential stabilization regimes for the supply of and demand for energy, the choice of energy technologies, and prices of energy and agricultural commodities. Land use and land cover will also be discussed with the emphasis on the interaction between the demand for bioenergy and crops, crop yields, crop prices, and policy settings to limit greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirements on Food-Maintained Responding in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Troy J.; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using inbred C57BL/6J mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as responses (i.e., all responses above the measurement threshold). Different, higher force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of all…

  12. A Joint Force Medical Command is Required to Fix Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not...MHS) is required to provide medical operational forces for military and contingency operations while also providing services that maintain a healthy...provide timely support of joint forcible entry or other contingencies requiring rapid response. Further, the complexity and cost of the beneficiary

  13. Energy and Security: future-oriented studies for the Swedish Armed Forces; Energi och saekerhet: framtidsinriktade omvaerldsanalyser foer Foersvarsmakten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestensson, Malin; Jonsson, Daniel K.; Magnusson, Roger; Dreborg, Karl Henrik

    2009-01-15

    combination nation with electric. 2. Liquid fuels for vehicles and for the power and heat generation with different fractions of renewable liquid fuel. 3. Fuel cells for power and operation of vehicles (hydrogen or other hydrogen-rich fuel). A more efficient use of energy should be the primary starting point for then balance the environmental, safety, cost effectiveness and operational requirements. The defense-related energy research should ultimately evolve to energy futures and environment analyses and interact with the technical research on energy, but the directions are carried out as separate project areas, since time perspectives, the interaction partners and beneficiaries of research are often different. External assessments should have a security policy focus on the longer term, but stress defense-specific challenges and requirements for new talents in the medium long term. As for Armed Forces own energy solutions, the research on one side to deal with both existing operational requirements and future challenges, the the other, both in Sweden and in international operations, which may require different approaches

  14. Security Force Assistance: Building Foreign Security Forces and Joint Doctrine for the Future of U.S. Regional Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    .... From training the Nicaraguan National Guard to the most recent efforts in Iraq, the U.S. Military has repeatedly shown a need for a coherent and comprehensive plan to develop foreign security forces. U.S...

  15. Grasping and manipulation of deformable objects based on internal force requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil Garg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of grasping and manipulation of deformable objects by a three finger robot hand has been carried out. It is proved that the required fingertip grasping forces and velocities vary with change in object size due to deformation. The variation of the internal force with the change in fingertip and object contact angle has been investigated in detail. From the results it is concluded that it is very difficult to manipulate an object if the finger contact angle is not between 30 o and 70 o, as the internal forces or velocities become very large outside this range. Hence even if the object is inside the work volume of the three fingers it would still not be possible to manipulate it. A simple control model is proposed which can control the grasping and manipulation of a deformable object. Experimental results are also presented to prove the proposed method.

  16. Where Is the Heavy-Light Organization in the Army's Future Force?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ingram, Jeffrey D

    2005-01-01

    ... force. However, the logistical relationship between the two organizations was a failure because the two forces never developed a logistical structure that would have allowed the heavy Task Force to maintain...

  17. Supporting the Future Total Force: A Methodology for Evaluating Potential Air National Guard Mission Assignments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Kristin F; Drew, John G; Sleeper, Sally; Williams, William A; Masters, James M; Luangkesorn, Louis; Tripp, Robert S; Lichter, Dahlia S; Roll, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    Manpower end-strength reductions of active duty personnel in the U.S. Air Force are making it more difficult to support the air and space expeditionary force construct using current force employment practices...

  18. Evaluation of Shipbuilding CAD/CAM/CIM Systems - Phase II (Requirements for Future Systems)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horvath, John; Ross, Jonathan M

    1997-01-01

    .... The purpose of the analysis was two fold: 1. To describe the requirements of a competitive, future-oriented computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing/computer-integrated management (CAD/CAMYCIM...

  19. Requirements for advanced decision support tools in future distribution network planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, M.O.W.; Morren, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the need and requirements for advanced decision support tools in future network planning from a distribution network operator perspective. The existing tools will no longer be satisfactory for future application due to present developments in the electricity sector that increase

  20. The interdependence of professional and physical readiness for future officers of the Air Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Krasota

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of interdependence of the initial level of formation and development of general and applied physical cadets’ qualities with the level of their preparedness for the performance of official functions and typical tasks of professional activity. Material, methods. 173 graduate cadets and 58 experts took part in the research. We used the following methods: theoretical analysis, generalization of scientific sources, ascertaining experiment, mathematical statistic. Results. Conducting of the ascertaining experiment allowed us to identify: the level of applied physical cadets' qualities formation is significantly lower than evaluative level of their general physical qualities: power by 0,27 points, speed by 0,44 points and aerobic endurance by 0,19 points; the strong straight correlation dependence (r=0,327 of the initial level of development of applied physical qualities of future officers of the Air Force with the level of their readiness to perform official functions and typical tasks of professional activity. Conclusions. The presence of significantly better formed applied physical characteristics of young officers with a high professional readiness level confirms the expediency to continue research in the chosen direction.

  1. Using Future Value Analysis to Select an Optimal Portfolio of Force Protection Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eskridge, Robert

    2003-01-01

    With the recent increase in terrorist activity, force protection has become a key issue for the Department of Defense, Leading the research for new ideas and concepts in force protection for the US...

  2. Talking and learning physics: Predicting future grades from network measures and Force Concept Inventory pretest scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Bruun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of student interactions in learning situations is a foundation of sociocultural learning theory, and social network analysis can be used to quantify student relations. We discuss how self-reported student interactions can be viewed as processes of meaning making and use this to understand how quantitative measures that describe the position in a network, called centrality measures, can be understood in terms of interactions that happen in the context of a university physics course. We apply this discussion to an empirical data set of self-reported student interactions. In a weekly administered survey, first year university students enrolled in an introductory physics course at a Danish university indicated with whom they remembered having communicated within different interaction categories. For three categories pertaining to (1 communication about how to solve physics problems in the course (called the PS category, (2 communications about the nature of physics concepts (called the CD category, and (3 social interactions that are not strictly related to the content of the physics classes (called the ICS category in the introductory mechanics course, we use the survey data to create networks of student interaction. For each of these networks, we calculate centrality measures for each student and correlate these measures with grades from the introductory course, grades from two subsequent courses, and the pretest Force Concept Inventory (FCI scores. We find highly significant correlations (p<0.001 between network centrality measures and grades in all networks. We find the highest correlations between network centrality measures and future grades. In the network composed of interactions regarding problem solving (the PS network, the centrality measures hide and PageRank show the highest correlations (r=-0.32 and r=0.33, respectively with future grades. In the CD network, the network measure target entropy shows the highest correlation

  3. The Conflicting Forces Driving Future Avionics Acquisition (Les Arguments Contradictoires pour les Futurs Achats d’Equipements d’Avionique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Sep 1983 "Reliability Parameter of Additive Plated Through Hoics," William E. Greiner , Kollmorgen Corporation, 1rAnnual "Guidelines for Surface Mounting...Militare Etat-Major delIs Force Adienne Ufficio del Delegato Nazionaic all*AGARD Quartier Reine Elisabeth Aeroporto Pratica di Mare Rue d’Evere, 1140

  4. Task forces for the European railway: trains and rail systems of the future; Task Force der EG: Zuege und Eisenbahnsysteme der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonk, W. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General VII Transport

    1999-02-01

    To achieve greatest benefit from the R and D activities of the EC, the Commission introduced the concept to task forces in 1995. One of these is concerned with 'trains and rail systems of the future'. This was to be seen as an element in a far-reaching political framework guideline, so bringing together hitherto separate strands of railway-related transport with industrial and research policy, contributing to revival of the sector. The main objective of these joint efforts was to contribute to radical structural and cultural changes on the railway so as - on the basis of market orientation, quality demands and cost efficiency - to give greater weight among the population to future transport challenges. This article reviews the main results attained by way of the task force and how these will be implemented in the 5th framework programme of the European Community. (orig.) [German] Um mit den FuE-Aktivitaeten der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft groessten Nutzen zu erzielen, richtete die Kommission im Jahre 1995 das Konzept von Task Forces ein. Eine dieser Task Forces beschaeftigte sich mit dem Thema 'Zuege und Eisenbahnsysteme der Zukunft'. Es war als ein Element einer weitgesteckten politischen Rahmenrichtlinie anzusehen, wobei es die vorher getrennten Straenge der eisenbahngebundenen Verkehre mit der Industrie- und Forschungspolitik zusammenbrachte und dadurch zur Wiederbelebung des Sektors beitragen konnte. (orig.)

  5. Report of the Census Task Force on beamline control system requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, E.J.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bogert, V.D.; Borcherding, F.O.; Butler, J.; Czarapata, P.C.; Spalding, W.J.; Thomas, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    A special task force was appointed to study the experience with the present beamline control system at Fermilab and to make recommendations in this area. The charge of the committee and the list of its members are appended. In order to carry out its assignment, the committee conducted a series of meetings in which it discussed the controls situation in general and the best way to approach the user community. The various groups of users were identified, and a letter was written to representatives of these groups asking questions concerning the present system and future needs. The committee met with each group to discuss the response to these questions. Written summaries of the discussions are appended. Conclusions are drawn regarding current problems, systematic upgrades and specific recommendations

  6. The role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M; Flanagan, Eamonn P

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide strength and conditioning practitioners with an understanding of the role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements. Specifically, the article covers 1) the nature of elasticity and its application to human participants, 2) the role of elastic energy in activities requiring a stretch-shorten cycle such as the vertical jump, 3) the role of muscular stiffness in athletic performance, 4) the control of muscular stiffness through feedforward and feedback mechanisms, and 5) factors affecting muscular stiffness. Finally, practical applications are provided. In this section, it is suggested that the storage and reuse of elastic energy is optimized at relatively higher levels of stiffness. Because stiffness decreases as fatigue ensues as well as with stretching before an event, the article emphasizes the need for proper preparation phases in a periodized cycle and the avoidance of long static stretches before high-force activities. The importance of teaching athletes to transition from eccentric to concentric movements with minimal time delays is also proposed due to the finding that time delays appear to decrease the reuse of elastic energy. In addition to teaching within the criterion tasks, evidence is provided that minimizing transitions in plyometric training, a technique demonstrated to increase musculotendinous stiffness, can optimize power output in explosive movements. Finally, evidence is provided that training and teaching programs designed to optimize muscular stiffness may protect athletes against sports-related injuries.

  7. The Combined Arms Maneuver-Force and the Stability and Support-Force: A Dual Force Concept to Meet the Challenges of Future Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Horizons” in El Salvador , the Dominican Republic, and Haiti. A critical part of these missions was the medical readiness training exercises...Sudan, rescued flood victims in Bangladesh, rushed pharmaceuticals to earthquake sites, and delivered medical teams to hundreds of major and minor...allowing rapid response to unforeseen crises. This includes sending forces to assist in the disaster relief operations after the October 2005 earthquake

  8. Development of force sensing circuit to determine the optimal force required for effective dynamic tripod grip/writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj S., S.; Kulkarni, Palash; Bokadia, Pratik; Ramanathan, Prabhu; Nageswaran, Sharmila

    2018-04-01

    Handwriting is a combination of fine motor perceptions and cognitive skills to produce words on paper. For writing, the most commonly used and recommended grip is the dynamic tripod grip. A child's handwriting starts developing during the times of pre-schooling and improves over time. While writing, children apply excessive force on the writing instrument. This force is exerted by their fingers and as per the law of reaction, the writing instruments tend to exert an equal and opposite force, that could damage the delicate soft tissue structures in their fingers and initiate cramps and pains. This condition is also prevalent in adults who tend to write for long hours under pressure. An example would be adolescence student during the exams. Clinically this condition is termed as `Writer's Cramp', which is usually characterized by muscle fatigue and pain in the fingers. By understanding and fixing the threshold of the force that should be exerted by the fingers while gripping the instrument, the pain can be controlled or avoided. This research aims in designing an electronic module which can help in understanding the threshold of pressure which is optimum enough to establish a better contact between the fingers and the instrument and should be capable of controlling or avoiding the pain. The design of FSR based electronic system is explained with its circuitry and results of initial testing is presented in this paper.

  9. The Air Force Mobile Forward Surgical Team (MFST): Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Validate Clinical Requirement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nix, Ralph E; Onofrio, Kathleen; Konoske, Paula J; Galarneau, Mike R; Hill, Martin

    2004-01-01

    .... The primary objective of the study was to provide the Air Force with the ability to validate clinical requirements of the MFST assemblage, with the goal of using NHRC's Estimating Supplies Program (ESP...

  10. Future atmospheric abundances and climate forcings from scenarios of global and regional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Guus J. M.; Fahey, David W.; Daniel, John S.; Andersen, Stephen O.; McFarland, Mack

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are manufactured for use as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. While HFCs do not deplete ozone, many are potent greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. Here, new global scenarios show that baseline emissions of HFCs could reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050. The new baseline (or business-as-usual) scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. The scenarios rely on detailed data reported by countries to the United Nations; projections of gross domestic product and population; and recent observations of HFC atmospheric abundances. In the baseline scenarios, by 2050 China (31%), India and the rest of Asia (23%), the Middle East and northern Africa (11%), and the USA (10%) are the principal source regions for global HFC emissions; and refrigeration (40-58%) and stationary air conditioning (21-40%) are the major use sectors. The corresponding radiative forcing could reach 0.22-0.25 W m-2 in 2050, which would be 12-24% of the increase from business-as-usual CO2 emissions from 2015 to 2050. National regulations to limit HFC use have already been adopted in the European Union, Japan and USA, and proposals have been submitted to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries.

  11. BUILDING THE FORCE OF THE FUTURE: A NEW CALL TO ATTRACT, HIRE AND RETAIN THE BEST AND BRIGHTEST TO AIR FORCE CIVIL SERVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Graduation Requirements Advisors: Dr . Gregory F. Intoccia and Dr . Patricia Lessane Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama 25 October 2015 DISTRIBUTION A...support while I was diverting much of my free time and attention to this graduate program. I appreciate my research advisors Dr . Greg Intoccia and Dr ...underutilized USAJOBS, the federal government job search engine, as compare to LinkedIn , Career Builders and Monster. Only 8.8 percent of the

  12. Design of a modular digital computer system, DRL 4. [for meeting future requirements of spaceborne computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design is reported of an advanced modular computer system designated the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System, which anticipates requirements for higher computing capacity and reliability for future spaceborne computers. Subjects discussed include: an overview of the architecture, mission analysis, synchronous and nonsynchronous scheduling control, reliability, and data transmission.

  13. S6K1 Is Required for Increasing Skeletal Muscle Force during Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabita, Manuela; Baraldo, Martina; Solagna, Francesca; Ceelen, Judith Johanna Maria; Sartori, Roberta; Nolte, Hendrik; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Kruger, Marcus; Pende, Mario; Blaauw, Bert

    2016-10-04

    Loss of skeletal muscle mass and force aggravates age-related sarcopenia and numerous pathologies, such as cancer and diabetes. The AKT-mTORC1 pathway plays a major role in stimulating adult muscle growth; however, the functional role of its downstream mediators in vivo is unknown. Here, we show that simultaneous inhibition of mTOR signaling to both S6K1 and 4E-BP1 is sufficient to reduce AKT-induced muscle growth and render it insensitive to the mTORC1-inhibitor rapamycin. Surprisingly, lack of mTOR signaling to 4E-BP1 only, or deletion of S6K1 alone, is not sufficient to reduce muscle hypertrophy or alter its sensitivity to rapamycin. However, we report that, while not required for muscle growth, S6K1 is essential for maintaining muscle structure and force production. Hypertrophy in the absence of S6K1 is characterized by compromised ribosome biogenesis and the formation of p62-positive protein aggregates. These findings identify S6K1 as a crucial player for maintaining muscle function during hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Experimental study on carbon fiber reinforced plastic plate--analysis of stabilizing force required for plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, H

    1990-11-01

    Plates currently in use for the management of bone fracture made of metal present with various problems. We manufactured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates from Pyrofil T/530 puriplegs overlaid at cross angles of +/- 10 degrees, +/- 20 degrees, and +/- 30 degrees for trial and carried out an experimental study on rabbit tibiofibular bones using 316L stainless steel plates of comparable shape and size as controls. The results indicate the influence of CFRP plate upon cortical bone was milder than that of stainless steel plate, with an adequate stabilizing force for the repair of fractured rabbit tibiofibular bones. CFRP has the advantages over metals of being virtually free from corrosion and fatigue, reasonably radiolucent and able to meet a wide range of mechanical requirements. This would make CFRP plate quite promising as a new devices of treating fracture of bones.

  15. Supporting the Future Total Force: A Methodology for Evaluating Potential Air National Guard Mission Assignments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Kristin F; Drew, John G; Sleeper, Sally; Williams, William A; Masters, James M; Luangkesorn, Louis; Tripp, Robert S; Lichter, Dahlia S; Roll, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ... trained, highly experienced personnel with no aircraft to operate and support. The authors develop a methodology to evaluate missions that could be transferred from the active component to the ANG without significant cost to the total force...

  16. Making Vision Reality: Preparing the Air Force to Exploit Future Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberrt, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    .... The subjective assessment includes five rating areas. For example, the study examines whether the Air Force was more committed to revolutionary technology or incremental improvements to current technical capabilities during various time frames...

  17. Reserve Forces: Observations on Recent National Guard Use in Overseas and Homeland Missions and Future Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Laurent, Janet A

    2004-01-01

    ... than an operational force designed for continued overseas deployments. Moreover, units with certain specialties military police, transportation, and combat arms have been in high demand, resulting in lengthy and repeated deployments...

  18. East African Crisis Response: Shaping Ethiopian Peace Force for Better Participation in Future Peace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amdemichael, Haile A

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis analyzes the Organization of African Unity/African Union (OAU/AU) efforts after the Cold War to restore security and ensure stability in the region and outlines the process of creating African Standby Forces (ASF...

  19. When ideals face reality: shaping the future of the South African Defence Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    of the armed forces and reflect the lessons learned from South Africa’s participation in international PSO since the transition from apartheid, as well as from the so-called “border wars” prior to 1994. This paper focuses on the influences and experiences that the SANDF has drawn from its involvement...... in the SADC Force Intervention Brigade in DR Congo and the strengthened training mission in the Central African Republic that ended up becoming involved in a battle with the SELEKA rebel movement in 2013. What lessons has the SANDF learned from these operations and how have they influenced South Africa’s view...

  20. Consequences for designer and manufacturer of mechanical components due to future requirements in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans-Joachim, Frank

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of European harmonization, a lot of changes on requirements for designer and manufacturer of mechanical components have been performed. Differed organizations are involved in preparing future requirements for nuclear application. On one side the French German cooperation on the development of EPR. At the origin of this project was the common decision in 1989 of Framatome and Siemens to cooperate through NPI, to design the Nuclear Island, which meets the future needs of utilities. EDF and a group of the main German Utilities joined this cooperation in 1991 and since then they have been totally involved to the progress of the work. In addition, all the process was backed up to the end by the strong cooperation between the French and the German. Safety Authorities, which have a long lasting cooperation to define common requirements, which have to be applied to future Nuclear Power Plants. Furthermore an organization has been set up to elaborate common codes related to the EPR design, at the level of the French design and construction rules (RCC) or the German KTA safety standards, the so-called EPR technical codes (ETC). On the other side, the European utilities co-operate on a much broader basis for the establishment of European Utilities Requirements (EUR). These requirements are prepared by a group of European utilities that represent the major European electricity generating companies that are determined to keep the nuclear option open. The technical requirements specified in the EUR document define the boundaries in which future plants need to be designed in order to be acceptable for the needs of the utilities and in order to fulfill the basic requirements of competitive power generation costs and licensability in all countries represented in the EUR group. All the new requirements have to be applied by designer and manufacturer. Siemens /SNP act as a designer of a lot of various vessels and tanks, heat exchangers and other items of process

  1. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy......It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading....... This book chapter provides the current research state of the art concepts and techniques in dealing with these potential issues. The methods provided in this chapter are based on distributed control approach, tailored and suitable particularly for the future distribution composition. The distributed control...

  2. Strategy for the Long Haul. Special Operations Forces: Future Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    College, 2006); and David Tucker and Chris- topher Lamb , “Restructuring Special Operations Forces for Emerging Threats, NDU Strategic Forum, January...Secretary of Defense Gates, SOCOM commander Admiral Eric Olson, and Assistant Secretary of Defense for SOLIC/IC Michael Vickers. See: Stew Mag- nuson

  3. Towards a Fail-Safe Air Force Culture: Creating a Resilient Future While Avoiding Past Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    implement a mindful Page 3 approach to ensuring the Air Force can achieve its mission by maximizing our ability to ―fly, fight and win … in air...space and cyberspace.‖ 9 Tolerance-Based Culture A Tolerance-Based culture fundamentally embraces a Kantian belief in the inherent goodness of man

  4. CHANGE@CERN:Task Force 3: adjusting services to future needs

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    We continue our articles on the Task Force reports The number of craftsmen and technicians could be increased with a change in the staff composition. The mandate for Task Force 3 was to make proposals for savings and new cost control procedures in the area of Industrial Support and Contracts for the period until 2009. The aim, explains the convenor, Karl-Heinz Kissler, was to keep spending under control under difficult conditions when staff numbers are decreasing and the work for the LHC becomes more demanding. The measures proposed, if implemented, could lead to savings of around 170 MCHF. The proposals involve both Industrial Services contracts, which were discussed in the Bulletin of the 22nd of April (n°17/2002) and readjustments for staff at CERN, on which we concentrate here. As with other Task Forces the principle aim was to be able to refocus resources onto the LHC project. In this respect, Task Force 3 could work within the framework of the revised programme for the LHC and the reduced non-LHC pro...

  5. Force-detected nuclear magnetic resonance: recent advances and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, M; Degen, C L

    2010-08-27

    We review recent efforts to detect small numbers of nuclear spins using magnetic resonance force microscopy. Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a scanning probe technique that relies on the mechanical measurement of the weak magnetic force between a microscopic magnet and the magnetic moments in a sample. Spurred by the recent progress in fabricating ultrasensitive force detectors, MRFM has rapidly improved its capability over the last decade. Today it boasts a spin sensitivity that surpasses conventional, inductive nuclear magnetic resonance detectors by about eight orders of magnitude. In this review we touch on the origins of this technique and focus on its recent application to nanoscale nuclear spin ensembles, in particular on the imaging of nanoscale objects with a three-dimensional (3D) spatial resolution better than 10 nm. We consider the experimental advances driving this work and highlight the underlying physical principles and limitations of the method. Finally, we discuss the challenges that must be met in order to advance the technique towards single nuclear spin sensitivity-and perhaps-to 3D microscopy of molecules with atomic resolution.

  6. The Trilateral Force: The Atlantic Alliance and the Future of Nuclear Weapons Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    Commission Report: Modernizing US. Nuclear Strategy, Force Structure and Posture, Global Zero (2012), 6. 27 Dana Johnson, et al., "Triad, Dyad, Monad...2012. Forsyth, J., B. Saltzman , and G. Schaub. "Remembrance of Things Past: The Enduring Value ofNuclear Weapons." Strategic Studies Quarterly

  7. Future Capabilities and Technologies for the Air Force in 2030. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Operation Eldorado Canyon, flew combat missions over Bosnia-Herzegovina, and commanded a special operations task force in Korea . In 1996, Colonel Geis...2007,  http://www.askasia.org/teachers/ essays/essay.php?no=38; and Robert E.  Gamer , ed., Understanding Contemporary China (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner

  8. The system of dose limitation and its optimization requirement: Present status and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Optimization of radiation protection is a relevant and controversial requirement of the system of dose limitation currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Since the first European Scientific Seminar on Experience and Methods on Optimization - held by the Commission of the European Communities in 1979 - and several related seminars and symposia organized by the IAEA, many international efforts have been made to promote the practical implementation of the requirement. Recently, the ICRP published a report of ICRP Committee 4 on cost-benefit analysis in the optimization of radiation protection (ICRP Publication 37); it provides guidance on the principles and methods of application of the requirement. Ultimately, this seminar demonstrates the continuous interest of the international community in the proper use of optimization. This paper is intended to contribute to the seminar's objective, discussing the current issues concerning the implementation of the requirement and exploring perspectives for future applications of the principles involved in optimization

  9. Section XI ASME B and PV CODE, future trends, nondestructive examination requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowfer, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    Service Induced Flaws such as intergranular stress corrosion cracking, Round Robin Programs like PISC II, and related developments in UT methodology and signal processing the past one to two years will have major impact on the Code and future NDE requirements. The performance of NDE has become a high exposure item which demands high reliability and accuracy; terms generally not used with field NDE in the past. The trend is out of ''cookbook'' requirements and into performance demonstration for personnel, procedures and equipment. This paper highlights the current major transition in the Code regarding NDE performance from the viewpoint of the author's involvement

  10. The Swedish Utilities joint approach to form common basis for design requirements for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Owners of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants have decided to form a document that should state the design principals and requirement for cost-effective and continuous development of the reactor safety in the future. The development of this document will be a part of the modernization and development of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants. The basis for this document is an evaluation of Swedish and International standards and regulations as IAEA/INSAG, US-regulations, EUR etc. (author)

  11. Air Force Officer Accession Planning: Addressing Key Gaps in Meeting Career Field Academic Degree Requirements for Nonrated Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report Air Force Officer Accession Planning Addressing Key Gaps in Meeting Career Field Academic Degree Requirements...potential performance, and how to include these quality measures in the classification process. The research sponsor asked us to focus on academic ...Andrew P., and James K. Lowe, “Decision Support for the Career Field Selection Process at the US Air Force Academy,” European Journal of Operational

  12. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants

  13. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  14. The Future of the Ballistic Missile Submarine Force in the Russian Nuclear Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    based forces are the more economical leg of the triad.61 An estimate made in 1995 by B.I. Pustovit , then the expert for the Committee for Military...Theodore Gerber, a professor of sociology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and Sarah Mendelson, a senior fellow in the Russia and Eurasia... Sarah Mendelson, “Strong Public Support for Military Reform in Russia” Program on New Approaches to Russian Security, Policy memo 288 (2003), 3. 45 In

  15. Proxy Forces, the Future of the Land Component in Coalition Operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    available to study in the context of this monograph’s specific question.32 29Niccolo Machiavelli , The Prince , Book III (London: Penguin Books, 1981...New York: Anchor Books, 1991. Machiavelli , Niccoli. The Prince . London: Penguin Books, 1981. Moore, Robin. The Hunt for Bin Laden--Task Force...long history. Academic study of the subject however has been limited. The great theorists of strategy, Niccolo Machiavelli and Carl von Clausewitz

  16. The Future of Officer Career Development System in the Slovenian Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Professors Anton Zabkar and Uros Svete, at the Faculty for Social Science at University of Ljubljana, clearly identified the deficiencies in the...short-lived solution], Slovenian Armed Forces Bulletin 10, no. 1 (May 2008): 97-120. 5Anton Zabkar and Uros Svete, “Solanje Vojaskih Profesionalcev...is based on Length of Service ( LoS ) and applies to all DE officers and the other is the LE career structure.87 85Major Al Thorp, e-mail message to

  17. Challenges to United States Tactical Air Force Aircraft Maintenance Personnel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    study f-ocuses on the most 3 recent changes faced by the TAF rraintenance organization. The last chapter comprares and contrasts the development of... forma - tions. But during the interwar years, both of these missions went into eclipse as doctrinal thinkers established the primacy of bombardment as...i.sninent" (15:4). In response to tho! USAF taskin:g, TAC activated Headquarters Nine- teenth Air force and mr- de it solely reaponsible for planning "for

  18. Competency-Based Assignment & Promotion to Meet Air Force Senior Leader Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steele, Jr., Robert G; Fletcher, Kelly E; Nadoiski, William F; Buckman, Emily A; Oliver, Jr., Stephen W

    2006-01-01

    .... The third component, competencies, are occupational skill sets and enduring leadership competencies Air Force leaders develop as they progress along the tactical, operational and strategic levels...

  19. Employers’ Perspectives on Future Roles and Skills Requirements for Australian Health Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Hamill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study, which comprises one stage of a larger project (ALIA/HLA Workforce and Education Research Project, aimed to discover employers’ views on how (or whether health librarians assist in achieving the mission-critical goals of their organizations; how health librarians contribute to the organization now and into the future; and what are the current and future skills requirements of health librarians.Methods – Each member of the project group approached between one and five individuals known to them to generate a convenience sample of 22 employers of health librarians. There were 15 semi-structured interviews conducted between October and November 2010 with employers in the hospital, academic, government, private, consumer health and not-for-profit sectors. The interview schedule was sent to each interviewee prior to the interview so that they had time to consider their responses. The researchers wrote up the interview notes using the interview schedule and submitted them to the principal researcher, who combined the data into one document. Content analysis of the data was used to identify major themes.Results – Employers expressed a clear sense of respect for the roles and responsibilities of library staff in their organizations. Areas of practice such as education and training, scientific research and clinical support were highlighted as critical for the future. Current areas of practice such as using technology and systems to manage information, providing information services to meet user needs and management of health information resources in a range of formats were identified as remaining highly relevant for the future. There was potential for health librarians to play a more active and strategic role in their organizations, and to repackage their traditional skill sets for anticipated future roles. Interpersonal skills and the role of health librarians as the interface between clinicians and information technology

  20. Future requirements for and supply of ophthalmologists for an aging population in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, John P; De Korne, Dirk; Bayer, Steffen; Pan, Chong; Jayabaskar, Thiyagarajan; Matchar, David B; Lew, Nicola; Phua, Andrew; Koh, Victoria; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Quek, Desmond

    2015-11-17

    Singapore's population, as that of many other countries, is aging; this is likely to lead to an increase in eye diseases and the demand for eye care. Since ophthalmologist training is long and expensive, early planning is essential. This paper forecasts workforce and training requirements for Singapore up to the year 2040 under several plausible future scenarios. The Singapore Eye Care Workforce Model was created as a continuous time compartment model with explicit workforce stocks using system dynamics. The model has three modules: prevalence of eye disease, demand, and workforce requirements. The model is used to simulate the prevalence of eye diseases, patient visits, and workforce requirements for the public sector under different scenarios in order to determine training requirements. Four scenarios were constructed. Under the baseline business-as-usual scenario, the required number of ophthalmologists is projected to increase by 117% from 2015 to 2040. Under the current policy scenario (assuming an increase of service uptake due to increased awareness, availability, and accessibility of eye care services), the increase will be 175%, while under the new model of care scenario (considering the additional effect of providing some services by non-ophthalmologists) the increase will only be 150%. The moderated workload scenario (assuming in addition a reduction of the clinical workload) projects an increase in the required number of ophthalmologists of 192% by 2040. Considering the uncertainties in the projected demand for eye care services, under the business-as-usual scenario, a residency intake of 8-22 residents per year is required, 17-21 under the current policy scenario, 14-18 under the new model of care scenario, and, under the moderated workload scenario, an intake of 18-23 residents per year is required. The results show that under all scenarios considered, Singapore's aging and growing population will result in an almost doubling of the number of

  1. Grid requirements applicable to future NPPs in the new European Electricity Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beato Castro, D.; Padill, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    With a view to keeping nuclear energy as an option for future power generation in a competitive market and taking advantage of the current operating experience, a group of European electric utilities have come together to define common requirements for the design and supply of future Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants connected to the electrical system. These requirements, defined with the aim of standardizing and adapting design to the conditions of the new electricity framework, are being included in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) document. Although there are different types of power plants operating appropriately in large electrical systems, the idea is to find the minimum requirements that will allow growth of this type of energy in the European electricity industry without reducing quality, safety and reliability of interconnected electrical systems. It is therefore necessary to take into account the features of the existing power systems and the operating characteristics and design of nuclear power plants so as to harmonize their respective technical peculiarities in the framework of the deregulated electricity sector. The definition of these grid requirements is based primarily on the operating conditions of the Union pour la Coordination de la Production et le Transport de L'Electricite (UCPTE) grid and takes into account the current Grid Code of the main European countries, for the forthcoming Issue C. This paper sets outs the most relevant aspects of the grid requirements, included in Chapter 2.3 of the EUR document Grid Requirements, Issue B, for the connection of future nuclear power plants in the European electricity system, and others that are being considered in the preparation of the new issue of the document that will take into account the deregulated electricity market situation and deal with the following aspects: General characteristics. Operation of a plant under normal grid conditions. Operation of a plant under disturbed grid

  2. The large contribution of projected HFC emissions to future climate forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Guus J M; Fahey, David W; Daniel, John S; McFarland, Mack; Andersen, Stephen O

    2009-07-07

    The consumption and emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are projected to increase substantially in the coming decades in response to regulation of ozone depleting gases under the Montreal Protocol. The projected increases result primarily from sustained growth in demand for refrigeration, air-conditioning (AC) and insulating foam products in developing countries assuming no new regulation of HFC consumption or emissions. New HFC scenarios are presented based on current hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) consumption in leading applications, patterns of replacements of HCFCs by HFCs in developed countries, and gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Global HFC emissions significantly exceed previous estimates after 2025 with developing country emissions as much as 800% greater than in developed countries in 2050. Global HFC emissions in 2050 are equivalent to 9-19% (CO(2)-eq. basis) of projected global CO(2) emissions in business-as-usual scenarios and contribute a radiative forcing equivalent to that from 6-13 years of CO(2) emissions near 2050. This percentage increases to 28-45% compared with projected CO(2) emissions in a 450-ppm CO(2) stabilization scenario. In a hypothetical scenario based on a global cap followed by 4% annual reductions in consumption, HFC radiative forcing is shown to peak and begin to decline before 2050.

  3. Future climate forcing potentially without precedent in the last 420 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gavin L; Royer, Dana L; Lunt, Daniel J

    2017-04-04

    The evolution of Earth's climate on geological timescales is largely driven by variations in the magnitude of total solar irradiance (TSI) and changes in the greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere. Here we show that the slow ∼50 Wm -2 increase in TSI over the last ∼420 million years (an increase of ∼9 Wm -2 of radiative forcing) was almost completely negated by a long-term decline in atmospheric CO 2 . This was likely due to the silicate weathering-negative feedback and the expansion of land plants that together ensured Earth's long-term habitability. Humanity's fossil-fuel use, if unabated, risks taking us, by the middle of the twenty-first century, to values of CO 2 not seen since the early Eocene (50 million years ago). If CO 2 continues to rise further into the twenty-third century, then the associated large increase in radiative forcing, and how the Earth system would respond, would likely be without geological precedent in the last half a billion years.

  4. Social Gaming and Learning Applications: A Driving Force for the Future of Virtual and Augmented Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörner, Ralf; Lok, Benjamin; Broll, Wolfgang

    Backed by a large consumer market, entertainment and education applications have spurred developments in the fields of real-time rendering and interactive computer graphics. Relying on Computer Graphics methodologies, Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality benefited indirectly from this; however, there is no large scale demand for VR and AR in gaming and learning. What are the shortcomings of current VR/AR technology that prevent a widespread use in these application areas? What advances in VR/AR will be necessary? And what might future “VR-enhanced” gaming and learning look like? Which role can and will Virtual Humans play? Concerning these questions, this article analyzes the current situation and provides an outlook on future developments. The focus is on social gaming and learning.

  5. An Australian Land Force for Conflict in a World Without Precedent (Future Warfare Concept Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Michael B. Ryan, Australian Army Thesis: The current pace of change in the global security environment and information technology demands that, like...information) Wave societies.6 The current pace of change in the global security environment and information technology demands that, like all...Blue, downloaded from www.defence.gov.au/navy; La Franchi , Peter, “High Level Interoperability: Future Development of t Peter, “Development Role

  6. Une force venant du futur chercherait à saboter l'expérience du LHC...

    CERN Multimedia

    Scappaticci, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    "A quelques jours de la reprise de l'expérience du LHC, on ne parle plus de la menace d'un trou noir, mais deux physicines souteinnent aujourd'hui une tout autres hypothèse: la nature, depuis le futur, va continuer de contrarier les travaux du Cern, afin d'éviter à l'Homme de mettre le doigt là où il ne faut pas..." (1.5 pages)

  7. Cultural Changes Required in the Army to Truly Achieve a Total Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    tailored to achieve anticipated objectives.”1 Honorable John M. McHugh , Secretary of the Army Army Directive 2012-08 (Army Total Force Policy...United States Soldier. 16 End Notes 1 McHugh , John M. “Army Directive 2012-08 (Army Total Force Policy).” Secretary of the Army, September 4...1 (February 2006): 40–42. McCullough, Amy. “Out of Reserve (Air Force Reserve Command)” 94, no. 12 (2011): 40. McHugh , John M. “Army Directive 2012

  8. Future changes in water requirements of Boro rice in the face of climate change in North-West Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharjee, Tapos Kumar; Ludwig, Fulco; Halsema, van Gerardo; Hellegers, Petra; Supit, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding future changes in crop water requirements and irrigation demand in the context of climate change is essential for long-term water resources management and agricultural planning. This study investigates the impacts of climate change on future water requirements of dry season Boro

  9. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Rate of change of Herrnstein's κ as a function of response-force requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J; Wood, Helena M.

    1985-01-01

    Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes (¢/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's κ were obtained at each reinforcer magnitude. The results were: (1) response rate was more sensitive to changes in reinforcement rate at the high than at the low force requirement, (2) κ increased from the beginning to the end of the magnitude range for all subjects at both force requirements, (3) the reciprocal of κ was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude for seven of the eight data sets, and (4) the rate of change of κ was greater at the high than at the low force requirement by an order of magnitude or more. The second and third findings confirm predictions made by linear system theory, and replicate the results of an earlier experiment (McDowell & Wood, 1984). The fourth finding confirms a further prediction of the theory and supports the theory's interpretation of conflicting data on the constancy of Herrnstein's κ. PMID:16812408

  10. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Rate of change of Herrnstein's kappa as a function of response-force requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Wood, H M

    1985-01-01

    Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes ( cent/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's kappa were obtained at each reinforcer magnitude. The results were: (1) response rate was more sensitive to changes in reinforcement rate at the high than at the low force requirement, (2) kappa increased from the beginning to the end of the magnitude range for all subjects at both force requirements, (3) the reciprocal of kappa was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude for seven of the eight data sets, and (4) the rate of change of kappa was greater at the high than at the low force requirement by an order of magnitude or more. The second and third findings confirm predictions made by linear system theory, and replicate the results of an earlier experiment (McDowell & Wood, 1984). The fourth finding confirms a further prediction of the theory and supports the theory's interpretation of conflicting data on the constancy of Herrnstein's kappa.

  11. Telecommuters: the stay-at-home work force of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, P.F.

    1983-06-01

    The spread of teleworkers who commute via telecommunications from their home offices will depend, despite the energy-saving and tax advantages of self-employment, on how fast the social climate accepts teleworking, whether software can be made friendlier, and whether legal issues of database networks are resolved. The societal changes associated with home offices can be either a positive reemphasis on the home or a negative electronic sweatshop and a way to export office work to low-wage areas. The author, who sees a gradual adoption of teleworking while these technological, societal, and marketing barriers are dealt with, develops a scenario for an information society of the future. (DCK)

  12. Staffing requirements for future small and medium reactors (SMRs) based on operating experience and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the time of this study there were about 160 small and medium sized nuclear power reactors (referred to as SMRs) in operation worldwide, and about 25 more under construction. Operation and maintenance costs for operating SMRs represent a substantial portion of the cost of electricity produced. Of these costs, the direct and indirect cost of staff represents the major cost component. In recent years, particularly since 1990, there has been increased interest in SMRs by many developing countries wishing to take advantage of nuclear power and several small and medium reactor designs are in various stages of development. To enhance the economic competitive position of SMRs relative to alternative methods of electricity generation, it is essential to ensure that new SMRs can be operated reliably and efficiently using the optimum number of staff. This publication reviews the lessons learned from the reactor operation, and the insights gained through the design of new SMRs, with a view to optimizing staffing in order to improve overall plant economics without compromising safety.This publication is intended to evaluate the estimated staffing size of various SMRs, the staff qualification and training required for the operation of future SMRs. and the key issues which impact the staffing requirements that should be considered in the development and deployment of future SMRs

  13. Requirements on the Redshift Accuracy for future Supernova and Number Count Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan; Kim, Alex; Broderick, Tamara

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the required redshift accuracy of type Ia supernova and cluster number-count surveys in order for the redshift uncertainties not to contribute appreciably to the dark energy parameter error budget. For the SNAP supernova experiment, we find that, without the assistance of ground-based measurements, individual supernova redshifts would need to be determined to about 0.002 or better, which is a challenging but feasible requirement for a low-resolution spectrograph. However, we find that accurate redshifts for z < 0.1 supernovae, obtained with ground-based experiments, are sufficient to immunize the results against even relatively large redshift errors at high z. For the future cluster number-count surveys such as the South Pole Telescope, Planck or DUET, we find that the purely statistical error in photometric redshift is less important, and that the irreducible, systematic bias in redshift drives the requirements. The redshift bias will have to be kept below 0.001-0.005 per redshift bin (which is determined by the filter set), depending on the sky coverage and details of the definition of the minimal mass of the survey. Furthermore, we find that X-ray surveys have a more stringent required redshift accuracy than Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect surveys since they use a shorter lever arm in redshift; conversely, SZ surveys benefit from their high redshift reach only so long as some redshift information is available for distant (zgtrsim1) clusters

  14. CaMKII effects on inotropic but not lusitropic force frequency responses require phospholamban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Hidalgo, Carlos; Yang, Jinying; Gao, Zhan; Li, Jingdong; Wehrens, Xander; Granzier, Henk; Anderson, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Increasing heart rate enhances cardiac contractility (force frequency relationship, FFR) and accelerates cardiac relaxation (frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation, FDAR). The positive FFR together with FDAR promotes rapid filling and ejection of blood from the left ventricle (LV) at higher heart rates. Recent studies indicate that the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is involved in regulating FFR and FDAR. We used isolated perfused mouse hearts to study the mechanisms of FFR and FDAR in different genetic models, including transgenic myocardial CaMKII inhibition (AC3-I) and phosphalamban knockout (PLN−/−). When the rate was increased from 360 beats/min to 630 beats/min in wild type mouse hearts, the LV developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximum rate of increase in pressure (dP/dt max) increased by 37.6 ± 4.7% and 77.0 ± 8.1%, respectively. However, hearts from AC3-I littermates showed no increase of LVDP and a relatively modest (20.4 ± 3.9 %) increase in dP/dt max. PLN−/− hearts had a negative FFR, and myocardial AC3-I expression did not change the FFR in PLN−/− mice. PLN−/− mouse hearts did not exhibit FDAR, while PLN−/−mice with myocardial AC3-I expression showed further frequency dependent reductions in cardiac relaxation, suggesting CaMKII targets in addition to PLN were critical to myocardial relaxation. We incubated a constitutively active form of CaMKII with chemically-skinned myocardium and found that several myofilament proteins were phosphorylated by CaMKII. However, CaMKII did not affect myofilament calcium sensitivity. Our study shows that CaMKII plays an important role in modulating FFR and FDAR in murine hearts and suggest that PLN is a critical target for CaMKII effects on FFR, while CaMKII effects on FDAR partially require PLN-alternative targets. PMID:22796260

  15. Reliable quantification of bite-force performance requires use of appropriate biting substrate and standardization of bite out-lever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Jones, Marc E H

    2014-12-15

    Bite-force performance is an ecologically important measure of whole-organism performance that shapes dietary breadth and feeding strategies and, in some taxa, determines reproductive success. It also is a metric that is crucial to testing and evaluating biomechanical models. We reviewed nearly 100 published studies of a range of taxa that incorporate direct in vivo measurements of bite force. Problematically, methods of data collection and processing vary considerably among studies. In particular, there is little consensus on the appropriate substrate to use on the biting surface of force transducers. In addition, the bite out-lever, defined as the distance from the fulcrum (i.e. jaw joint) to the position along the jawline at which the jaws engage the transducer, is rarely taken into account. We examined the effect of bite substrate and bite out-lever on bite-force estimates in a diverse sample of lizards. Results indicate that both variables have a significant impact on the accuracy of measurements. Maximum bite force is significantly greater using leather as the biting substrate compared with a metal substrate. Less-forceful bites on metal are likely due to inhibitory feedback from mechanoreceptors that prevent damage to the feeding apparatus. Standardization of bite out-lever affected which trial produced maximum performance for a given individual. Indeed, maximum bite force is usually underestimated without standardization because it is expected to be greatest at the minimum out-lever (i.e. back of the jaws), which in studies is rarely targeted with success. We assert that future studies should use a pliable substrate, such as leather, and use appropriate standardization for bite out-lever. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Establishing Criteria for Assigning Personnel to Air Force Jobs Requiring Heavy Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    loads (for example, carrying meat at the slaughterhouse , carrying of sacks, loading wood by hand) wood cutting in the forest by hand tools, agricultural...8217 factor history. Medical Service Digest (United States Air Force), 27(2), 1976, pp. 14-16. 186 Trimeloni, Col. B.D. The Role of Women in the Air Force...Rahden. Effect of training on maximum oxygen intake and on anaerobic metabolism in man. Int. Z. Angew Physiol., 24(2), 1967, pp. 102-110. 188 Wyndham, C.H

  17. Capital planning for operating theatres based on projecting future theatre requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Jennifer A; Tyler, Peter; Jayasinha, Hirani; Meleady, Kathleen T; Jones, Neill

    2011-05-01

    During 2006, NSW and ACT Health Departments jointly engaged KPMG to develop an Operating Theatre Requirements' Projection Model and an accompanying planning guideline. A research scan was carried out to identify drivers of surgical demand, theatre capacity and theatre performance, as well as locating existing approaches to modelling operating theatre requirements for planning purposes. The project delivered a Microsoft Excel-based model for projecting future operating theatre requirements, together with an accompanying guideline for use of the model and interpretation of its outputs. It provides a valuable addition to the suite of tools available to Health staff for service and capital planning. The model operates with several limitations, largely due to being data dependent, and the state and completeness of available theatre activity data. However, the operational flexibility built into the model allows users to compensate for these limitations, on a case by case basis, when the user has access to suitable, local data. The design flexibility of the model means that updating the model as improved data become available is not difficult; resulting in revisions being able to be made quickly, and disseminated to users rapidly.

  18. Skills and Knowledge Requirements of the Future Labour Market - Responsibility of the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Zupančič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available European economies are warning with increased intensity about the dangerous discrepancy between the skills and knowledge required by employers and the existing labour supply, which affects significantly (non-competitiveness of national economies. In the knowledge society, skills, knowledge and competences are becoming an essential condition for competitiveness on (global labour markets, a factor that has - in the time of crisis - become crucial for market survival of economic entities. In other words, for the knowledge society – the aim of the integrated Europe - it is of great importance to identify present and future requirements for skills and up-to-date knowledge. Only a holistic and systematic observation and identification of these requirements can make it possible to regulate the supply and demand situation on labour markets, as well as to increase competitiveness and bring a high degree of social cohesion. Appropriately trained workforce, comprising people of all types of qualifications and generations, pursuing life-long education, is able to adapt quicker and more successfully to the demands of today’s dynamic economic environment and (professional, industry-related and geographic mobility.

  19. Vitamin D Requirements for the Future-Lessons Learned and Charting a Path Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D

    2018-04-25

    Estimates of dietary requirements for vitamin D or Dietary Reference Values (DRV) are crucial from a public health perspective in providing a framework for prevention of vitamin D deficiency and optimizing vitamin D status of individuals. While these important public health policy instruments were developed with the evidence-base and data available at the time, there are some issues that need to be clarified or considered in future iterations of DRV for vitamin D. This is important as it will allow for more fine-tuned and truer estimates of the dietary requirements for vitamin D and thus provide for more population protection. The present review will overview some of the confusion that has arisen in relation to the application and/or interpretation of the definitions of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). It will also highlight some of the clarifications needed and, in particular, how utilization of a new approach in terms of using individual participant-level data (IPD), over and beyond aggregated data, from randomised controlled trials with vitamin D may have a key role in generating these more fine-tuned and truer estimates, which is of importance as we move towards the next iteration of vitamin D DRVs.

  20. Staffing requirements for future small and medium reactors based on projections in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonovsky, G.M.; Kodochigov, N.G.; Kurachenkov, A.V.; Novikov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering (OKBM) specializes in the development of small and medium power reactors having different purposes. They include reactor plants for NPHPP, nuclear district heating power plants and propulsion plants. Small and medium power plants have simpler processes of electricity and heat production, less systems, simpler control algorithms and considerably enhanced inherent safety properties. These plants are mainly equipped with passive safety systems. These properties are especially characteristic for reactor plants of nuclear district heating power plants and HTG reactor plants. The designs of small and medium power plants actually provide a high degree of control automation which considerably reduces workload on the personnel in both normal and abnormal operation conditions. All this allows the reduction in personnel for small and medium power reactors if compared to high capacity reactor plants. But due to objective reasons the specific number of personnel (man/MW) for average and especially small capacity reactors considerably exceeds the value for high capacity reactor plants. At the same time one can propose a set of organization - technical measures allowing the increase in this value in future. Safety requirements imposed for small and average capacity reactors are the same or more strict than those for high capacity reactors. That's why the requirements to the training of personnel for such reactor plants are not allowed to be lowered if compared to the requirements imposed to the personnel of high capacity reactors. (author)

  1. Report of the Material Control and Material Accounting Task Force: blueprint for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    A blueprint is presented for the development of improved material control and material accounting systems by integrating the goals and capabilities of material control and material accounting and recommending specific upgrading actions. An analysis is included of several specific issues and developing recommendations for future actions related to those issues. It is felt that there is a need for a program to define specific quantified goals for an integrated safeguards program, and to monitor safeguards programs in terms of these goals. NRC should give highest priority to developing regulations and guides that will enable material control to make a greater contribution to safeguards by providing greater timeliness and sensitivity in detecting and assessing material losses. It is recommended that a technical study be conducted to determine a quantitative measure or at least a figure of merit for the effectiveness of a security clearance program, based upon full field background investigations, in protecting against malevolent conspiracies involving two or more security cleared individuals. It is also recommended that a specific effort be initiated to formulate an approach to combating collusion. This effort should specifically consider the contribution that material control and material accounting programs can make to safeguards effectiveness in this area

  2. Future local and remote influences on Mediterranean ozone air quality and climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steve; Martin, Maria Val; Emmons, Louisa; Rap, Alex; Heald, Colette; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is expected to display large increases in population over the coming decades, and to exhibit strong sensitivity to projected climate change, with increasing frequency of extreme summer temperatures and decreases in precipitation. Understanding of how these changes will affect atmospheric composition in the region is limited. The eastern Mediterranean basin has been shown to exhibit a pronounced summertime local maximum in tropospheric ozone, which impacts both local air quality and the atmospheric radiation balance. In summer, the region is subject to import of pollution from Northern Europe in the boundary layer and lower troposphere, from North American sources in the large-scale westerly flow of the free mid and upper-troposphere, as well as import of pollution lofted in the Asian monsoon and carried west to the eastern Mediterranean in anticyclonic flow in the upper troposphere over north Africa. In addition, interactions with the land-surface through biogenic emission sources and dry deposition play important roles in the Mediterranean ozone budget. Here we use the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) to investigate how tropospheric ozone in the Mediterranean region responds to climate, land surface and global emissions changes between present day and 2050. We simulate climate and atmospheric composition for the year 2050, based on greenhouse gas abundances, trace gas and aerosol emissions and land cover and use from two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP4.5 & RCP8.5), designed for use by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5(CMIP5) experiments in support of the IPCC. By comparing these simulations with a present-day scenario, we investigate the effects of predicted changes in climate and emissions on air quality and climate forcing over the Mediterranean region. The simulations suggest decreases in boundary layer ozone and sulfate aerosol throughout the tropospheric column over the Mediterranean

  3. Aligning Forces for Quality multi-stakeholder healthcare alliances: do they have a sustainable future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Hearld, Larry R; Wolf, Laura J; Vanderbrink, Jocelyn M

    2016-08-01

    Multi-stakeholder healthcare alliances in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Aligning Forces for Quality (AF4Q) program brought together diverse stakeholders to work collaboratively to improve healthcare in their local communities. This article evaluates how well the AF4Q alliances were collectively positioned to sustain themselves as AF4Q program support ended. This analysis relied on a mixed-methods design using data from a survey of more than 700 participants in 15 of the 16 AF4Q alliances (1 alliance was unable to participate because it was in the process of closing down operations at the time of survey implementation), qualitative interviews with leaders in all 16 of the alliances, and secondary sources. Qualitative analysis of interview data and secondary sources were used to develop a classification of alliance strategic directions after the AF4Q program relative to their strategies during the AF4Q initiative. Descriptive analyses of survey data were conducted in the following areas: (1) alliance priorities for sustainability, (2) alliance positioning for sustainability, and (3) alliance challenges to sustainability. The likelihood of sustainability and the strategic direction of the former AF4Q alliances are both decidedly mixed. A substantial number of alliances are at risk because of an unclear strategic direction following the AF4Q program, poor financial support, and a lack of relevant community leadership. Some have a clear plan to continue on the path they set during the program. Others appear likely to continue to operate, but they plan to do so in a form that differs from the neutral convener multi-stakeholder model emphasized during the AF4Q program as they specialize, make a major shift in focus, develop fee-for-service products, or focus on particular stakeholder groups (ie, employers and providers). In most cases, preserving the organization itself, rather than its programmatic activities from the AF4Q program era, appeared to receive the

  4. Revisiting the Least Force Required to Keep a Block from Sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Subhranil

    2013-01-01

    This article pertains to a problem on static friction that concerns a block of mass "M" resting on a rough inclined plane. The coefficient of static friction is microsecond and the inclination angle theta is greater than tan[superscript -1] microsecond. This means that some force "F" must be applied (see Fig. 1) to keep the…

  5. Research, Education and Innovation Bundling Forces towards a Sustainable European Energy Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    New technologies and applied innovation in the field of sustainable energy are needed in order to achieve a competitive and climate neutral Europe. As one of the first three Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KIC) of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT), KIC InnoEnergy invests in innovation projects and new educational programmes and provides business creation service with the purpose of delivering the disruptive technologies and innovations that Europe requires to meet this ambitious goal. Its stakeholders are top European players in the industry, research institutes, universities and business schools. Six regionally bundled European hubs – Barcelona/Lisbon, Grenoble, Eindhoven, Karlsruhe, Stockholm and Krakow - lead one thematic field each in sustainable energy. The thematic fields addressed range from Intelligent “Energy-efficient Residential Buildings and Cities” over “Energy from Chemical Fuels”, “Renewable Energies”, “Clean Coal Technologies” to “European Smar...

  6. Energy Requirements by the Water Sector in the Southwestern US: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, K.; Yates, D. N.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate, energy, and water are fundamentally linked such that shifts in one sector have cascading impacts on the others. Consideration of the integrated system is necessary to fully understand the individual risk profile of each sector. In defining vulnerabilities and potential adaptations, the policy and regulatory environment must be considered alongside the biological and physical systems. Take, for example, the Southwestern U.S., a naturally arid system, where water availability is declining as a consequence of climate change and population growth. Adaptations by the water sector to convey, store, and develop new water sources (e.g. desalination, groundwater pumping, water-reuse) are strategies designed to enhance sustainability of the sector. But, the energy requirements embedded in these management techniques pose challenges to electric utilities. West wide, approximately 20% of total electricity generation goes toward supplying and heating water. If future investments made by the water sector to deal with changing supply and demand regimes continue to follow current trends, the dependence of water on energy availability will grow, meaning that the water supply will be increasingly reliant on the electricity system. Here, we use the example of long-term aridity and the recent drought in the Western US to illustrate the tradeoffs and challenges inherent at the nexus between energy and water. We present long-term trends in the energy intensity of water supplies in the Southwestern US, with a specific focus on groundwater systems. Projected energy requirements for proposed and future conveyance systems are discussed. The potential impacts of reduced flows on the Colorado River on the energy demands for groundwater pumping in the Lower Colorado River Basin are highlighted.

  7. Society of Gynecologic Oncology Future of Physician Payment Reform Task Force report: The Endometrial Cancer Alternative Payment Model (ECAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Emily M; Havrilesky, Laura J; Alvarez, Ronald D; Zivanovic, Oliver; Boyd, Leslie R; Jewell, Elizabeth L; Timmins, Patrick F; Gibb, Randall S; Jhingran, Anuja; Cohn, David E; Dowdy, Sean C; Powell, Matthew A; Chalas, Eva; Huang, Yongmei; Rathbun, Jill; Wright, Jason D

    2018-05-01

    Health care in the United States is in the midst of a significant transformation from a "fee for service" to a "fee for value" based model. The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 has only accelerated this transition. Anticipating these reforms, the Society of Gynecologic Oncology developed the Future of Physician Payment Reform Task Force (PPRTF) in 2015 to develop strategies to ensure fair value based reimbursement policies for gynecologic cancer care. The PPRTF elected as a first task to develop an Alternative Payment Model for thesurgical management of low risk endometrial cancer. The history, rationale, and conceptual framework for the development of an Endometrial Cancer Alternative Payment Model are described in this white paper, as well as directions forfuture efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CaMKII effects on inotropic but not lusitropic force frequency responses require phospholamban

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yiming; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Hidalgo, Carlos; Yang, Jinying; Gao, Zhan; Li, Jingdong; Wehrens, Xander; Granzier, Henk; Anderson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Increasing heart rate enhances cardiac contractility (force frequency relationship, FFR) and accelerates cardiac relaxation (frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation, FDAR). The positive FFR together with FDAR promotes rapid filling and ejection of blood from the left ventricle (LV) at higher heart rates. Recent studies indicate that the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is involved in regulating FFR and FDAR. We used isolated perfused mouse hearts to ...

  9. Department of Defense Manpower Requirements Report, FY 1985. Volume III. Force Readiness Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    normally on a reimburs - able basis unless they support the mission of DoD. The Army Reserve increase in FY 1985 is a result of increased support of...Normally, such cross assignment is made on a reimbursable basis. Navy Federal Agency Support Manpower (End Strength in Thousands) FY 83 FY 84 FY 85 (Actual... reimburses the Air Force Industrial Funds for depot maintenance costs with the exception of military personnel costs. For items procured from the Stock

  10. The world food situation: New driving forces and required actions [In Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    "The world food situation is currently being rapidly redefined by new driving forces. Income growth, climate change, high energy prices, globalization, and urbanization are transforming food consumption, production, and markets. The influence of the private sector in the world food system, especially the leverage of food retailers, is also rapidly increasing. Changes in food availability, rising commodity prices, and new producer–consumer linkages have crucial implications for the livelihoods...

  11. Key Technologies in the Context of Future Networks: Operational and Management Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Isabel Barona López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Future Networks is based on the premise that current infrastructures require enhanced control, service customization, self-organization and self-management capabilities to meet the new needs in a connected society, especially of mobile users. In order to provide a high-performance mobile system, three main fields must be improved: radio, network, and operation and management. In particular, operation and management capabilities are intended to enable business agility and operational sustainability, where the addition of new services does not imply an excessive increase in capital or operational expenditures. In this context, a set of key-enabled technologies have emerged in order to aid in this field. Concepts such as Software Defined Network (SDN, Network Function Virtualization (NFV and Self-Organized Networks (SON are pushing traditional systems towards the next 5G network generation.This paper presents an overview of the current status of these promising technologies and ongoing works to fulfill the operational and management requirements of mobile infrastructures. This work also details the use cases and the challenges, taking into account not only SDN, NFV, cloud computing and SON but also other paradigms.

  12. Review of the ASDEX upgrade data acquisition environment - present operation and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behler, K.; Blank, H.; Buhler, A.; Drube, R.; Friedrich, H.; Foerster, K.; Hallatschek, K.; Heimann, P.; Hertweck, F.; Maier, J.; Heimann, R.; Hertweck, F.; Maier, J.; Merkel, R.; Pacco-Duechs, M.-G.; Raupp, G.; Reuter, H.; Schneider-Maxon, U.; Tisma, R.; Zilker, M.

    1999-01-01

    The data acquisition environment of the ASDEX upgrade fusion experiment was designed in the late 1980s to handle a predicted quantity of 8 Mbytes fo data per discharge. After 7 years of operation a review of the whole data acquisition and analysis environment shows what remains of the original design ideas. Comparing the original 15 diagnostics with the present set of 250 diagnostic datasets generated per shot shows how the system has grown. Although now a vast accumulation of functional parts, the system still works in a stable manner and is maintainable. The underlying concepts affirming these qualities are modularity and compatibility. Modularity ensures that most parts of the system can be modified without affecting others. Standards for data structures and interfaces between components and methods are the prerequisites which make modularity work. The experience of the last few years shows that, besides the standards achieved, new, mainly real-time, features are needed: real-time event recognition allowing reaction to complex changing conditions; real-time wavelet analysis allowing adapted sampling rates; real-time data exchange between diagnostics and control; real-time networks allowing flexible computer coupling to permit interplay between different components; object-oriented programming concepts and databases are required for readily adaptable software modules. A final assessment of our present data processing situation and future requirements shows that modern information technology methods have to be applied more intensively to provide the most flexible means to improve the interaction of all components on a large fusion device. (orig.)

  13. Future mission opportunities and requirements for advanced space photovoltaic energy conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The variety of potential future missions under consideration by NASA will impose a broad range of requirements on space solar arrays, and mandates the development of new solar cells which can offer a wide range of capabilities to mission planners. Major advances in performance have recently been achieved at several laboratories in a variety of solar cell types. Many of those recent advances are reviewed, the areas are examined where possible improvements are yet to be made, and the requirements are discussed that must be met by advanced solar cell if they are to be used in space. The solar cells of interest include single and multiple junction cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous materials. Single crystal cells on foreign substrates, thin film single crystal cells on superstrates, and multiple junction cells which are either mechanically stacked, monolithically grown, or hybrid structures incorporating both techniques are discussed. Advanced concentrator array technology for space applications is described, and the status of thin film, flexible solar array blanket technology is reported.

  14. Identification of high-level functional/system requirements for future civil transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In order to accommodate the rapid growth in commercial aviation throughout the remainder of this century, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is faced with a formidable challenge to upgrade and/or modernize the National Airspace System (NAS) without compromising safety or efficiency. A recurring theme in both the Aviation System Capital Investment Plan (CIP), which has replaced the NAS Plan, and the new FAA Plan for Research, Engineering, and Development (RE&D) rely on the application of new technologies and a greater use of automation. Identifying the high-level functional and system impacts of such modernization efforts on future civil transport operational requirements, particularly in terms of cockpit functionality and information transfer, was the primary objective of this project. The FAA planning documents for the NAS of the 2005 era and beyond were surveyed; major aircraft functional capabilities and system components required for such an operating environment were identified. A hierarchical structured analysis of the information processing and flows emanating from such functional/system components were conducted and the results documented in graphical form depicting the relationships between functions and systems.

  15. Requirements and solutions for future pellet technology; Krav och loesningar foer framtidens pelletsteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Roennbaeck, Marie; Ryde, Daniel; Laitila, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Requirements and solutions for future pellet burning technologies Since 2006, sales of pellet burning technologies to the Swedish residential market have fallen. The main reasons for this decrease are: many of the economically favorable easy conversions from oil to pellets have been made; competition from heat pumps; warm winters; a stable electricity price; and the current structure of heating in residential buildings, where electric heating dominates. To change this falling trend pellets need to become more attractive to consumers. This project aimed to analyze the requirements for the next generation of pellets systems and to develop potential solutions, in collaboration with the pellets industry. More specifically, the study looked at consumers' attitudes toward heating choices and different heating through a survey to 2000 house owners across Sweden. The project included a market analysis of Swedish and international technologies and examines the conditions for Swedish pellet burning technology in different markets. In addition, new solutions and developments for Swedish pellets burning technology are described

  16. Joint Simulation System (JSIMS) Functional Requirements Document (FRD); A User's Perspective on the Future, Version 1.O

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define JSIMS functional requirements in a level of detail that is meaningful to both the JSIMS developmental community and the expected future users of the system...

  17. 17 CFR 1.14 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for futures commission merchants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regarding sources of funding, together with a narrative discussion by management of the liquidity of the... to any futures commission merchant which holds funds or property of or for futures customers of less...

  18. Future semiconductor material requirements and innovations as projected in the ITRS 2005 roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The international technology roadmap for semiconductors (ITRS) is a joint global effort of the semiconductor industry, the manufacturing equipment and material industry and the research community and consortia to define the future requirements and development of the semiconductor technology for the next 15 years. The ITRS started in 1992 as a US-national roadmap and became an international effort in 1998 with all major five industrial global regions (US, Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Europe) participating in its definition. The outlook in semiconductor manufacturing expects the continuous application of silicon technology for the next 15 years where complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based devices will carry the development of the industry at least for one more decade. New device architectures and concepts based on silicon wafer material are being developed to support the development of the IC industry for another one or two decade. The major section of the ITRS contains technical information about frontend processing and interconnects, device structures and memory concepts, lithography and metrology as well as factory integration and environmental issues. This paper will review the material requirements and the expected material innovations for the industry as outlined in the ITRS Version 2005. Materials to be discussed are, for example, high permittivity gate dielectrics, insulating layers with low dielectric constants for interconnects, and capacitor dielectrics for dynamic memories. In addition, the paper will address, for example, new transistor gate materials, new solutions for interconnect systems beyond copper as well as new starting materials for wafer sizes beyond 300 mm. This publication was presented as an invited paper in the Symposium V of the 2006 spring meeting of the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) in Nice, May 29th

  19. Characterizing costs and benefits of uncertain future regulatory requirements on the U.S. natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.L.; Smith, G.E.; Fitzgibbon, T.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental regulatory requirements at both the state and federal level are constantly changing, making it difficult for industry and R ampersand D program managers to project future compliance requirements and costs. Even if a company is trying to keep abreast of various proposed regulatory initiatives, the number of possible combinations of initiatives that could occur in the future seems virtually limitless. Uncertainty associated with potential future environmental compliance requirements makes the identification and evaluation of future investment and R ampersand D opportunities exceedingly difficult, and makes the process of systematic strategic planning increasingly complex. This paper describes a methodology for accounting for uncertain future environmental compliance costs in a systematic, comprehensive manner. Through analysis of proposed initiatives for making future environmental requirements more stringent, forecasting the likelihood of occurrence and potential timing of each initiative, and estimating potential future compliance costs associated with each initiative, a thorough process for incorporating regulatory uncertainty into strategic planning and project evaluation is described. This approach can be used for evaluating R ampersand D opportunities to determine where development of new technologies or assessment of risks posed by industry operations may have the greatest impact on future industry costs of compliance. This approach could also be used to account for the uncertainty of future environmental costs in corporate strategic planning or for factoring future compliance costs into project evaluation. This approach could also be enhanced through use in conjunction with other modeling and forecasting systems that could consider a broad range of impacts, including impacts on gas production, industry activity levels, and tax revenues

  20. The implications of user requirements for the functionality and content of a future EGDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Tulstrup, Jørgen

    2014-05-01

    The FP7 co-funded EGDI-Scope project is conducting analyses, which forms the basis for the development of an implementation plan for a future European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI) the aim of which will be to serve pan-European geological information from the European geological survey organisations. An important aspect of the project has been to consult stakeholders in order to deduce requirements, which is a fundamental prerequisite for making recommendations on the content and technical design of the system. It is indisputable that EGDI will have to build on international standards such as OGC and CGI and take into account legislative requirements from e.g. the INSPIRE directive. This will support the tasks of data providers and facilitate integration with other e-Infrastructures, but will not in itself lever the end user experiences. In order to make the future EGDI a successful online contributor of geological information, EGDI-Scope has therefore been looking very concretely into the needs and expectations of various user groups Most people have clear expectations anno 2014. They want to be able to search the web for information, and once found, they expect fast-performing, intuitive web applications with buttons to click, maps to navigate and reliable content to fulfil their immediate needs. In order for the EGDI to handle such requirements, a number of use cases for various thematic areas have been assessed. The use cases reveal (for example) that information about the geological composition of the ground is critical for the assessment of things like ecosystems or ground water quality. But where ecosystem assessment relies on the composition of the surface layers, groundwater geochemistry rely on the lithology of subsurface layers. For both scenarios, harmonised, pan-European geological maps are very important, but the harmonisation should not only relate to lithological classes, but also to the depth representation. The use cases also make clear

  1. Large-scale computation at PSI scientific achievements and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelmann, A.; Markushin, V.

    2008-11-01

    ' (SNSP-HPCN) is discussing this complex. Scientific results which are made possible by PSI's engagement at CSCS (named Horizon) are summarised and PSI's future high-performance computing requirements are evaluated. The data collected shows the current situation and a 5 year extrapolation of the users' needs with respect to HPC resources is made. In consequence this report can serve as a basis for future strategic decisions with respect to a non-existing HPC road-map for PSI. PSI's institutional HPC area started hardware-wise approximately in 1999 with the assembly of a 32-processor LINUX cluster called Merlin. Merlin was upgraded several times, lastly in 2007. The Merlin cluster at PSI is used for small scale parallel jobs, and is the only general purpose computing system at PSI. Several dedicated small scale clusters followed the Merlin scheme. Many of the clusters are used to analyse data from experiments at PSI or CERN, because dedicated clusters are most efficient. The intellectual and financial involvement of the procurement (including a machine update in 2007) results in a PSI share of 25 % of the available computing resources at CSCS. The (over) usage of available computing resources by PSI scientists is demonstrated. We actually get more computing cycles than we have paid for. The reason is the fair share policy that is implemented on the Horizon machine. This policy allows us to get cycles, with a low priority, even when our bi-monthly share is used. Five important observations can be drawn from the analysis of the scientific output and the survey of future requirements of main PSI HPC users: (1) High Performance Computing is a main pillar in many important PSI research areas; (2) there is a lack in the order of 10 times the current computing resources (measured in available core-hours per year); (3) there is a trend to use in the order of 600 processors per average production run; (4) the disk and tape storage growth is dramatic; (5) small HPC clusters located

  2. Large-scale computation at PSI scientific achievements and future requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelmann, A.; Markushin, V

    2008-11-15

    and Networking' (SNSP-HPCN) is discussing this complex. Scientific results which are made possible by PSI's engagement at CSCS (named Horizon) are summarised and PSI's future high-performance computing requirements are evaluated. The data collected shows the current situation and a 5 year extrapolation of the users' needs with respect to HPC resources is made. In consequence this report can serve as a basis for future strategic decisions with respect to a non-existing HPC road-map for PSI. PSI's institutional HPC area started hardware-wise approximately in 1999 with the assembly of a 32-processor LINUX cluster called Merlin. Merlin was upgraded several times, lastly in 2007. The Merlin cluster at PSI is used for small scale parallel jobs, and is the only general purpose computing system at PSI. Several dedicated small scale clusters followed the Merlin scheme. Many of the clusters are used to analyse data from experiments at PSI or CERN, because dedicated clusters are most efficient. The intellectual and financial involvement of the procurement (including a machine update in 2007) results in a PSI share of 25 % of the available computing resources at CSCS. The (over) usage of available computing resources by PSI scientists is demonstrated. We actually get more computing cycles than we have paid for. The reason is the fair share policy that is implemented on the Horizon machine. This policy allows us to get cycles, with a low priority, even when our bi-monthly share is used. Five important observations can be drawn from the analysis of the scientific output and the survey of future requirements of main PSI HPC users: (1) High Performance Computing is a main pillar in many important PSI research areas; (2) there is a lack in the order of 10 times the current computing resources (measured in available core-hours per year); (3) there is a trend to use in the order of 600 processors per average production run; (4) the disk and tape storage growth

  3. Air Force Manpower Requirements and Component Mix: A Focus on Agile Combat Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    1 Efforts are underway to revitalize parts of the process, with primary emphasis on a wartime workforce planning model, Strategic Manpower...workforces of the Air Force’s manpower requirements squadrons. xiv • Refine the policies and practices for sizing wartime requirements. A revitalized ...crm.csd.disa.mil/ app /answers/detail/a_id/7759/kw/afocd and https://gum-crm.csd.disa.mil/ app /answers/detail/a_id/7504/kw/afecd, respectively. Access to myPers is

  4. Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  5. Air Force Officials did not Consistently Comply with Requirements for Assessing Contractor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    31 Appendix B. Improvement in PAR Completion Statistics _________________________________ 33 vi...agencies must perform frequent evaluation of compliance with reporting requirements so they can readily identify delinquent past performance efforts...Reporting Program,” August 13, 2011 Appendixes DODIG-2016-043 │ 33 Appendix B Improvement in PAR Completion Statistics The Senate Armed Services Committee

  6. Helping professionals and Border Force secrecy: effective asylum-seeker healthcare requires independence from callous policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael

    2016-02-01

    To examine the Australian Border Force Act (BFA) and its context, its implications for asylum-seeker healthcare and professionals, and contemporary and historical parallels. Prolonged immigration detention and policies aiming to deter irregular migration cause maritime asylum-seekers undeniable, well-publicised harms and (notwithstanding claims about preventing drownings) show reckless indifference and calculated cruelty. Service personnel may be harmed. Such policies misuse helping professionals to underwrite state abuses and promote public numbing and indifference, resembling other state abuses in the 'war on terror' and (with qualification) historical counterparts, e.g. Nazi Germany. Human service practitioners and organisations recently denounced the BFA that forbids disclosure about these matters.Continuing asylum-seeker healthcare balances the likelihood of effective care and monitoring with lending credibility to abuses. Boycotting it might sacrifice scrutiny and care, fail to compel professionals and affect temporary overseas workers. Entirely transferring healthcare from immigration to Federal and/or State health departments, with resources augmented to adequate standard, would strengthen clinical independence and quality, minimise healthcare's being securitised and politicised, and uphold ethical codes. Such measures will not resolve detention's problems, but coupled with independent auditing, would expose and moderate detention's worst effects, promoting changes in national conversation and policy-making. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  7. Analysis of Balancing Requirements in Future Sustainable and Reliable Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frunt, J.

    2011-06-01

    This thesis elaborates on the rules for power balancing, provides a method for quantifying balancing requirements and examines the effect of future changes on balancing. Chapter 2 elaborates on system balancing and the different actors and entities in the electricity delivery system. The necessity and implementation of power balancing are explained. Also different subsequent markets (i.e., day-ahead markets, intraday markets and imbalance settlement systems) and options to trade electricity are discussed. As the research focusses mainly on the Netherlands, properties of the Dutch imbalance settlement system are analyzed. Based on this framework an in-depth analysis of imbalances and calls for balancing capacity with the corresponding prices is given. This shows the incentives to minimize the amount of imbalance in the system and to participate in the imbalance settlement system. Chapter 3 elaborates on the level of aggregation that the entities, involved in the imbalance settlement system, in electricity markets can have. Based on current market rules, incentives to either grow or shrink and by aggregating more or less entities are discussed. The level of aggregation will directly influence the functioning of the imbalance settlement system. It is shown that larger aggregations benefit more from the canceling out of imbalances. The imbalances of the Netherlands and Belgium have been aggregated to illustrate the possible benefits of aggregating multiple national imbalance settlement systems. The increased penetration of renewable generation strongly influences the planning and operation of the power system. As many renewable energy generators have a fluctuating power output, several methods are discussed in chapter 4 that can be used to classify and quantify the balancing requirements to counteract these fluctuations. Chapter 4 discusses the multiple existing classes of balancing capacity and the corresponding methods to quantify their needs. Due to the

  8. Analysis of Balancing Requirements in Future Sustainable and Reliable Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frunt, J.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the rules for power balancing, provides a method for quantifying balancing requirements and examines the effect of future changes on balancing. Chapter 2 elaborates on system balancing and the different actors and entities in the electricity delivery system. The necessity and implementation of power balancing are explained. Also different subsequent markets (i.e., day-ahead markets, intraday markets and imbalance settlement systems) and options to trade electricity are discussed. As the research focusses mainly on the Netherlands, properties of the Dutch imbalance settlement system are analyzed. Based on this framework an in-depth analysis of imbalances and calls for balancing capacity with the corresponding prices is given. This shows the incentives to minimize the amount of imbalance in the system and to participate in the imbalance settlement system. Chapter 3 elaborates on the level of aggregation that the entities, involved in the imbalance settlement system, in electricity markets can have. Based on current market rules, incentives to either grow or shrink and by aggregating more or less entities are discussed. The level of aggregation will directly influence the functioning of the imbalance settlement system. It is shown that larger aggregations benefit more from the canceling out of imbalances. The imbalances of the Netherlands and Belgium have been aggregated to illustrate the possible benefits of aggregating multiple national imbalance settlement systems. The increased penetration of renewable generation strongly influences the planning and operation of the power system. As many renewable energy generators have a fluctuating power output, several methods are discussed in chapter 4 that can be used to classify and quantify the balancing requirements to counteract these fluctuations. Chapter 4 discusses the multiple existing classes of balancing capacity and the corresponding methods to quantify their needs. Due to the

  9. United States Air Force Company Grade Officer PME and Leader Development: Establishing a Glide Path for Future Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    .... This monograph addresses the role of PME at the company grade level in the development of Air Force officers in light of ongoing Army and Air Force leader development initiatives as well as recent...

  10. 17 CFR 240.6h-1 - Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investors and the public interest, taking into account such factors as fairness to buyers and sellers of the affected security futures product, the maintenance of a fair and orderly market in such security futures... with the protection of investors. An exemption granted pursuant to this paragraph shall not operate as...

  11. 1.5 °C carbon budget dependent on carbon cycle uncertainty and future non-CO2 forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengis, Nadine; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Jalbert, Jonathan; Matthews, H Damon

    2018-04-11

    Estimates of the 1.5 °C carbon budget vary widely among recent studies, emphasizing the need to better understand and quantify key sources of uncertainty. Here we quantify the impact of carbon cycle uncertainty and non-CO 2 forcing on the 1.5 °C carbon budget in the context of a prescribed 1.5 °C temperature stabilization scenario. We use Bayes theorem to weight members of a perturbed parameter ensemble with varying land and ocean carbon uptake, to derive an estimate for the fossil fuel (FF) carbon budget of 469 PgC since 1850, with a 95% likelihood range of (411,528) PgC. CO 2 emissions from land-use change (LUC) add about 230 PgC. Our best estimate of the total (FF + LUC) carbon budget for 1.5 °C is therefore 699 PgC, which corresponds to about 11 years of current emissions. Non-CO 2 greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions represent equivalent cumulative CO 2 emissions of about 510 PgC and -180 PgC for 1.5 °C, respectively. The increased LUC, high non-CO 2 emissions and decreased aerosols in our scenario, cause the long-term FF carbon budget to decrease following temperature stabilization. In this scenario, negative emissions would be required to compensate not only for the increasing non-CO 2 climate forcing, but also for the declining natural carbon sinks.

  12. Requirements on future energy supply. Analysis on the demand of future power plant capacity and strategy for a sustainable power utilization in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This strategy paper was drawn up with a view to maximum ecological compatibility of pwer plant modernization and sustainable power generation and use. The first part of the paper analyzes the power plants to be decommissioned on a medium-term basis and - against the background of several different scenarios for future power demand - an estimate of power plant capacities required by 2020. The second part describes the goals and concrete requirements of sustainable energy use. In the final part, the available instruments are presented, and those instruments are recommended that will be best suited for making power demand and supply efficient, sustainable and environment-friend.y [de

  13. The Chief Clinical Informatics Officer (CCIO): AMIA Task Force Report on CCIO Knowledge, Education, and Skillset Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannry, Joseph; Sengstack, Patricia; Thyvalikakath, Thankam Paul; Poikonen, John; Middleton, Blackford; Payne, Thomas; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2016-01-01

    The emerging operational role of the "Chief Clinical Informatics Officer" (CCIO) remains heterogeneous with individuals deriving from a variety of clinical settings and backgrounds. The CCIO is defined in title, responsibility, and scope of practice by local organizations. The term encompasses the more commonly used Chief Medical Informatics Officer (CMIO) and Chief Nursing Informatics Officer (CNIO) as well as the rarely used Chief Pharmacy Informatics Officer (CPIO) and Chief Dental Informatics Officer (CDIO). The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) identified a need to better delineate the knowledge, education, skillsets, and operational scope of the CCIO in an attempt to address the challenges surrounding the professional development and the hiring processes of CCIOs. An AMIA task force developed knowledge, education, and operational skillset recommendations for CCIOs focusing on the common core aspect and describing individual differences based on Clinical Informatics focus. The task force concluded that while the role of the CCIO currently is diverse, a growing body of Clinical Informatics and increasing certification efforts are resulting in increased homogeneity. The task force advised that 1.) To achieve a predictable and desirable skillset, the CCIO must complete clearly defined and specified Clinical Informatics education and training. 2.) Future education and training must reflect the changing body of knowledge and must be guided by changing day-to-day informatics challenges. A better defined and specified education and skillset for all CCIO positions will motivate the CCIO workforce and empower them to perform the job of a 21st century CCIO. Formally educated and trained CCIOs will provide a competitive advantage to their respective enterprise by fully utilizing the power of Informatics science.

  14. Prediction of requirements on labor force in the fuel and power generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaveckova, R.

    1990-01-01

    One of the aspects of socio-economic assessment of development is quantification of the expected requirements on the number of personnel. Predictions are discussed for the period before the year 2005 for solid fuel mining and treatment, gas production and bitumen mining, power and heat generation and also for the production of electricity and heat by nuclear power plants. They are based on an analysis of past development and the present state, on presumed implementation of various concept variants, on the type structure of nuclear power plants, on the rules of the electric power supply system, and also on foreign materials. It is expected that in 2005, nuclear power will employ 15,654 personnel. (M.D.). 4 tabs., 16 refs

  15. Flexicurity of Work Force from Romanian Organizations as Compared with the Requirements of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ CĂŞUNEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Labor flexicurity within the organizations from EU countries represents an important objective for the fulfillment of the provisions of the "Lisbon strategy for more and better jobs". Flexicurity concept involves two components: flexibility of workers, respectively their capacity to adapt to labor market developments and to professional transitions and safety of workers, requiring them to advance in their careers, to develop skills and be supported by social insurance systems during periods of inactivity. This study presents the basic principles to be considered in developing the national flexicurity strategies and the directions should be acted to substantiate these strategies. As well references are made to the study "New skills for new jobs", the initiative of "Youth in movement" and to the "Lifelong Learning" Program. There are presented a series of benchmark indicators for the labor flexicurity.

  16. Future changes in South American biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra is dependent on applied atmospheric forcings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Liam; Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven

    2017-04-01

    It remains poorly understood why the position of the forest-savanna biome boundary, in a domain defined by precipitation and temperature, differs in South America, Africa and Australia. Process based Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are a valuable tool to investigate the determinants of vegetation distributions, however, many DGVMs fail to predict the spatial distribution or indeed presence of the South American savanna biome. Evidence suggests fire plays a significant role in mediating forest-savanna biome boundaries, however, fire alone appear to be insufficient to predict these boundaries in South America. We hypothesize that interactions between precipitation, constraints on tree rooting depth and fire, affect the probability of savanna occurrence and the position of the savanna-forest boundary. We tested our hypotheses at tropical forest and savanna sites in Brazil and Venezuela using a novel DGVM, aDGVM2, which allows plant trait spectra, constrained by trade-offs between traits, to evolve in response to abiotic and biotic conditions. Plant hydraulics is represented by the cohesion-tension theory, this allowed us to explore how soil and plant hydraulics control biome distributions and plant traits. The resulting community trait distributions are emergent properties of model dynamics. We showed that across much of South America the biome state is not determined by climate alone. Interactions between tree rooting depth, fire and precipitation affected the probability of observing a given biome state and the emergent traits of plant communities. Simulations where plant rooting depth varied in space provided the best match to satellite derived biomass estimates and generated biome distributions that reproduced contemporary biome maps well. Future projections showed that biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra will change, however, the magnitude of these changes are highly dependent on the applied atmospheric forcings.

  17. Machinery and labour force requirements for forest chip production in Finland in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K.; Strandsroem, M. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi, Email: markus.strandstrom@metsateho.fi; Lahtinen, P.; Elo, J. (Poeyry Energy Oy, Espoo (Finland)), Email: perttu.lahtinen@poyry.com, Email: juha.elo@poyry.com

    2009-07-01

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy and Poeyry Energy Oy estimated how much machinery and labour would be needed for large-scale forest chip production if the use of forest chips increases extensively in Finland during the coming decade. If the production and consumption of forest chips are 25 to 30 TWh in Finland 2020, then 1,900 to 2,200 machinery units, i.e. machines and trucks, would be needed. This would mean total investments in production machinery of 530 to 630 million euro (VAT 0 %). The labour demand would be 3,400 to 4,000 machine operators and drivers, and 4,200 to 5,100 labour years including indirect labour. Respectively, if the production and consumption of forest chips is 15 to 20 TWh in Finland in 2020, then the production machinery requirement would be 1,100 to 1,500 machines and trucks. The total machinery investment cost would be 320 to 420 million euro (VAT 0 %) and the calculated labour demand 2,000 to 2,700 machine operators and drivers (2,500 to 3,400 labour years). The results of the study indicated that forest chip production resources will be a major bottleneck in reaching the consumption target of 12 million m3, i.e. around 24 TWh of forest chips in Finland by 2020. (orig.)

  18. Impacts of Climate Change on Water Requirements of Dry Season Boro Rice: Recent Trends and Future Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, T. K.; Ludwig, F.; Halsema, G. V.; Hellegers, P.; Supit, I.

    2017-12-01

    The North-West part of Bangladesh is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, because of dry season water shortage and high water demand for rice cultivation. A study was carried out to understand the impacts of recent climate change (1980-2013) and future consequences (for 2050s and 2080s) on water requirements of Boro rice. The reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), potential crop water requirement (∑ETC), effective rainfall (ER), potential irrigation requirement for crop evapotranspiration (∑ETC-ER) and net irrigation requirement of Boro rice were estimated in CropWat using observed daily climate data for recent trends and statistically downscaled and bias corrected GCM outputs (five models and two RCPs) for future scenarios. ETo showed a significant decreasing recent trends due to increasing relative humidity and decreasing wind speed and sun shine hours instead of an increase in temperature. However, the strong future increase in temperature will lead to an insignificant increase in ETo. ∑ETC showed a decreasing recent trend and will further decrease in the future because of shortened duration of Boro growth stages as crop's phenological response to increased temperature. The variations in trends of ∑ETC-ER found among different districts, are mainly linked to the variations in trends of changes in effective rainfall. During last three decades, the net irrigation requirement has decreased by 11% at an average rate of -4.4 mm/year, instead of a decreasing effective rainfall, mainly because of high rate of decrease of crop evapotranspiration (-5.9 mm/year). In future, although daily water requirement will increase, the total net irrigation requirement of Boro rice will decrease by 1.6% in 2050s and 7.4% in 2080s for RCP 8.5 scenario on an average for five models and four districts compared to the base period (1980-2013). High variations in projected changes in rainfall bring high uncertainty for future water requirements estimation. Therefore, a

  19. Die zukünftige Ausrichtung der AGMB: ein Bericht aus der Task-Force / The future strategic concept of the AGMB: a preliminary report given by the task force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kintzel, Melanie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2008 the managing-committee of the Medical Library Association (AGMB invited the members to form a task force in order to concentrate on a new strategic concept for the association and develop corresponding recommendations and visions. Stagnating attendance at the association’s annual conferences in recent years as well as difficulties in finding future venues and new candidates for the elections to the board gave reason to this scheme. This article introduces the members of the task force and their work hitherto with a special focus on the member survey conducted in the summer of 2008 and its first results.

  20. A Use Case Methodology to Handle Conflicting Controller Requirements for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Uslar, Mathias; Tornelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a standards based requirements elicitation and analysis strategy tailored for smart grid control structure development. Control structures in electric power systems often span across several systems and stakeholders. Requirements elicitation for such control systems therefore...... requires coordination across many stakeholders and it is challenging to achieve a consistent design. To enable an iterative and distributed development we suggest a conflict management approach as a modular element of the design strategy, focusing on conflict identification and tracing. The idea...

  1. EUR, an European utility requirements documents for future LWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Lienard, Michel; Redon, Ramon; Essmann, Juergen; Taylor, David T.

    2004-01-01

    A group of the major European utilities are developing a common requirement document which will be used for the LWR nuclear power plants to be built in Europe from the beginning of the next century. This document provides harmonised policies and technical requirements that will allow the implementation of a design developed in one country into another one. The objectives and contents of the document, the organisation set up for its production and the main requirements are summarised in the paper. (author)

  2. Funds for the Future. Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on College and University Endowment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J. Peter

    The Task Force on College and University Endowment Policy examines endowment policy in a broad context. They feel that it is important to preserve private colleges and universities and develop a sense of mission about how best to pursue this objective. The Task Force reviews policy issues faced by managers of endowment funds for institutions of…

  3. An uncertain future: South Africa’s National Defence Force caught between foreign-policy ambitions and domestic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In June 2015, the South African Parliament passed the long-awaited defence review (DR2015). The aim of the review was to stop the decline of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) and to create an economical and sustainable force structure capable of continuing to fulfil its constitutio...

  4. 17 CFR 1.12 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by futures commission merchants and introducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Securities and Exchange Commission (17 CFR 240.17a-11(c)), must file written notice to that effect... futures commission merchant or as a leverage transaction merchant must be liquidated immediately... leverage transaction merchant shall be only for the purposes of liquidation, because that clearing member...

  5. Keeping an eye on reliability : The organizational requirements of future renewable energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The reliable operation of energy infrastructures is more than just a technical matter. It is also dependent upon the organizational structure that enables and constrains entities in their management of operations. Yet this lesson seems forgotten in our planning of future renewable energy systems.

  6. QPS/LHC Activities requiring important Tunnel Work During a future long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K

    2011-01-01

    The MPE/circuit protection section is presently establishing a road map for its future LHC activities. The tasks comprise essential consolidation work, compulsory upgrades and extensions of existing machine facilities. The results of a first round of engineering exertion were presented and evaluated at a MPE activity review in December 2010. The technical and financial aspects of this program will be detailed in the ‘QPS Medium and Long-Term Improvement Plan’, to be published shortly. The QPS activities in the LHC tunnel during a future, long shutdown are closely related to this improvement chart. A project-package based program for the interventions has been established and will be presented in this report, together with estimates for the associated human and financial resources necessary for its implementation.

  7. Assessment of Future Skills Requirements in the Hospitality Sector in Ireland, 2015-2020

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The hospitality sector is one of the most important employment services sectors in the Irish economy, and there is significant potential for future expansion. The objective of this study is to assess the skills demand needs arising within the Hospitality sector in Ireland – hotels, restaurants, bars, canteens and catering – over the period to 2020. The aim is to ensure that there will be the right supply of skills to help drive domestic hospitality sector business and employment growth.

  8. Health care administration in the year 2000: practitioners' views of future issues and job requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K; Riley, P

    1993-01-01

    This research identifies the most important domains in health care administration (HCA) from now to the year 2000 and differentiates job skill, knowledge, and ability requirements necessary for successful management. Fellows of the American College of Healthcare Executives from about half of the United States responded to two iterations of a Delphi mail inquiry. Fellows identified 102 issues that were content-analyzed into nine domains by an HCA expert panel. Domains, in order of ranked importance, were cost/finance, leadership, professional staff interactions, health care delivery concepts, accessibility, ethics, quality/risk management, technology, and marketing. In the second Delphi iteration, Fellows reviewed domain results and rated job requirements on required job importance. Results indicated that while a business orientation is needed for organizational survival, an equal emphasis on person-oriented skills, knowledge, and abilities is required.

  9. Future Skills Requirements of the International Digital Media Industry: Implications for Ireland, July 2006

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This report profiles the skill requirements of some of the world’s leading Digital Media firms. It details the skills required in key occupational roles across seven sub-sectors of the industry. These findings will help education and training providers in Ireland keep their curricula and programmes up-to-date with developments in the industry and thereby maximise employment opportunities for their graduates. This report will also serve as a resource for Irish firms in the industry. By identif...

  10. "A Change of Paradigm" in Developing Land Forces Officers' Professional Skills in Accordance with Hybrid Warfare Task-Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Rizescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In future conflicts, not only traditional or asymmetric actions will be used, but also a combination of the two in order to solve the disputes involving national and international actors, materialized today in different manifestation forms called hybrid war. The hybrid threats tell about the evolution of the contemporary and future threats, about the necessity of a national effort concerted towards providing an immediate effective response to these threats. From a different perspective, the diversity and the complexity of the issues raised by the hybrid threats prove that it is necessary to go beyond the technical or sequential nowadays answers. It results first that it is required to develop an appropriate security strategy which will make possible the efficient action against hybrid risks and threats, in an effective, operational and unitary manner. Therefore, the present article aims at sequentially highlighting the aspects supporting the need to correlate the coordinates of the national security strategy to the planning, conduct and quality assessment of the process of training officers from the “change of paradigm” perspective, in order to acquire the professional skills conforming to the task-requirements specific to the hybrid war. Nothing more natural, more necessary and at the same time more current in this perspective than modernizing the military continuous education system in accordance with the strategic norm of competence.

  11. AMTD: update of engineering specifications derived from science requirements for future UVOIR space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Mosier, Gary; Smith, W. Scott; Blaurock, Carl; Ha, Kong; Stark, Christopher C.

    2014-08-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND provide a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To give the science community options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. A key task is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints. A key finding of this effort is that the science requires an 8 meter or larger aperture telescope.

  12. Requirements to be made on future information systems in NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Distler, K.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of advanced operational information systems (OIS) is to support and alleviate the operator's work. Human skills and performance limits on the one hand, and the tasks of the operators during various operating states on the other hand are the bases for deriving system design requirements. The paper discusses such aspects like the dynamism of process events, the passive/active role played by the operators in normal/disturbed operation, the compatibility of information representation between OIS and conventional display configuration, parallel versus serial information presentation, team work of operators, parallel processing of tasks within the team; the resulting requirements are derived. (orig./DG) [de

  13. [Estimating the impacts of future climate change on water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat in Henan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xing-jie; Cheng, Lin; Fang, Wen-song

    2015-09-01

    Based on the analysis of water requirement and water deficit during development stage of winter wheat in recent 30 years (1981-2010) in Henan Province, the effective precipitation was calculated using the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation method, the water requirement (ETC) was estimated by using FAO Penman-Monteith equation and crop coefficient method recommended by FAO, combined with the climate change scenario A2 (concentration on the economic envelopment) and B2 ( concentration on the sustainable development) of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) , the spatial and temporal characteristics of impacts of future climate change on effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat were estimated. The climatic impact factors of ETc and WD also were analyzed. The results showed that under A2 and B2 scenarios, there would be a significant increase in anomaly percentage of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period compared with the average value from 1981 to 2010. Effective precipitation increased the most in 2030s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 33.5% and 39.2%, respectively. Water requirement increased the most in 2010s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 22.5% and 17.5%, respectively, and showed a significant downward trend with time. Water deficit increased the most under A2 scenario in 2010s by 23.6% and under B2 scenario in 2020s by 13.0%. Partial correlation analysis indicated that solar radiation was the main cause for the variation of ETc and WD in future under A2 and B2 scenarios. The spatial distributions of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period were spatially heterogeneous because of the difference in geographical and climatic environments. A possible tendency of water resource deficiency may exist in Henan Province in the future.

  14. Reforming system of professional training of future specialists by taking into account production automation requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigushev, N. Y.; Vedeneeva, O. A.; Melekhova, Yu B.

    2018-05-01

    The accelerating scientific development, equipment upgrade, emergence of new technologies and intensive growth and use of nano-, robotic, bio- and other perspective technologies require the formation of scientific and technological potential in Russia which is suitable for present-day challenges of the global technological growth.

  15. Requirements with rationale and quantitative rules for EMC on future ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leersum, B.J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the performance on equipment and subsystem level in a naval environment, the conventional approach has been to strictly require national and international military standards on equipment and installations. This approach made Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) a cost driver in naval

  16. Microbiological Monitoring for the Constellation Program: Current Requirements and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological requirements for spaceflight are based on assessments of infectious disease risk which could impact crew health or mission success. The determination of risk from infectious disease is composed of several factors including (1) crew susceptibility, (2) crew exposure to the infectious disease agent, (3) the concentration of the infectious agent, and (4) the characteristics of the infectious agent. As a result of the Health Stabilization Program, stringent monitoring, and cleaning protocols, in-flight environmental microbial monitoring is not necessary for short-duration spaceflights. However, risk factors change for long-duration missions, as exemplified by the presence of medically significant organisms in the environments of both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Based upon this historical evidence, requirements for short duration usage aboard the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Lander Vehicle will not require in-flight monitoring; however, as mission duration increases with a Lunar Outpost, an ability to detect microbial hazard will be necessary. The nature of the detection requirements will depend on the maturity of technology in a rapidly evolving marketplace. Regardless, the hardware will still need to maximize information to discipline experts and the crew, while minimizing the size, mass, power consumption, and crew time usage. The refinement of these monitors will be a major goal in our efforts to travel successfully to Mars.

  17. Software to support planning for future waste treatment, storage, transport, and disposal requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Shay, M.R.; Stiles, D.L.

    1990-04-01

    Planning for adequate and appropriate treatment, storage, transport and disposal of wastes to be generated or received in the future is a complex but critical task that can be significantly enhanced by the development and use of appropriate software. This paper describes a software system that has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to aid in such planning. The basic needs for such a system are outlined, and the approach adopted in developing the software is described. The individual components of the system, and their integration into a unified system, are discussed. Typical analytical applications of this type of software are summarized. Conclusions concerning the development of such software systems and the necessary supporting data are then presented. 2 figs

  18. The development of the world's population as a factor determining future energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossebrecker, H.; Henssen, H.

    1988-01-01

    Urgently desired economic developments improving the conditions of living in the developing countries and, in the long term, introducing a stabilization of the world's population, result in a considerable rise in world energy requirement. This, in turn, causes conflicts and raises major ecological dangers because of the accelerated depletion of fossil sources of energy it entails. The severity of the CO 2 problem emerges clearly only when seen in connection with the population growth of the developing countries. Undoubtedly, therefore, the fossil sources of energy will have to give up their present leading role in world energy supply because of the intolerable environmental pollution they produce and because of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. The only hope remaining for the present is the possibility of nuclear power and renewable energies pointly being able to meet requirements, while all economically reasonable conservation potentials are being exploited. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Tissue Engineering of Blood Vessels: Functional Requirements, Progress, and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek A; Brewster, Luke P; Caves, Jeffrey M; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2011-09-01

    Vascular disease results in the decreased utility and decreased availability of autologus vascular tissue for small diameter (requires combined approaches from biomaterials science, cell biology, and translational medicine to develop feasible solutions with the requisite mechanical support, a non-fouling surface for blood flow, and tissue regeneration. Over the past two decades interest in blood vessel tissue engineering has soared on a global scale, resulting in the first clinical implants of multiple technologies, steady progress with several other systems, and critical lessons-learned. This review will highlight the current inadequacies of autologus and synthetic grafts, the engineering requirements for implantation of tissue-engineered grafts, and the current status of tissue-engineered blood vessel research.

  20. High resolution weather data for urban hydrological modelling and impact assessment, ICT requirements and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; van Riemsdijk, Birna

    2013-04-01

    Hydrological analysis of urban catchments requires high resolution rainfall and catchment information because of the small size of these catchments, high spatial variability of the urban fabric, fast runoff processes and related short response times. Rainfall information available from traditional radar and rain gauge networks does no not meet the relevant scales of urban hydrology. A new type of weather radars, based on X-band frequency and equipped with Doppler and dual polarimetry capabilities, promises to provide more accurate rainfall estimates at the spatial and temporal scales that are required for urban hydrological analysis. Recently, the RAINGAIN project was started to analyse the applicability of this new type of radars in the context of urban hydrological modelling. In this project, meteorologists and hydrologists work closely together in several stages of urban hydrological analysis: from the acquisition procedure of novel and high-end radar products to data acquisition and processing, rainfall data retrieval, hydrological event analysis and forecasting. The project comprises of four pilot locations with various characteristics of weather radar equipment, ground stations, urban hydrological systems, modelling approaches and requirements. Access to data processing and modelling software is handled in different ways in the pilots, depending on ownership and user context. Sharing of data and software among pilots and with the outside world is an ongoing topic of discussion. The availability of high resolution weather data augments requirements with respect to the resolution of hydrological models and input data. This has led to the development of fully distributed hydrological models, the implementation of which remains limited by the unavailability of hydrological input data. On the other hand, if models are to be used in flood forecasting, hydrological models need to be computationally efficient to enable fast responses to extreme event conditions. This

  1. Envisioning a Future Decision Support System for Requirements Engineering : A Holistic and Human-centred Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alenljung, Beatrice

    2008-01-01

    Complex decision-making is a prominent aspect of requirements engineering (RE) and the need for improved decision support for RE decision-makers has been identified by a number of authors in the research literature. The fundamental viewpoint that permeates this thesis is that RE decision-making can be substantially improved by RE decision support systems (REDSS) based on the actual needs of RE decision-makers as well as the actual generic human decision-making activities that take place in th...

  2. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K.; Kersey, Paul J.; Maslen, Gareth L.; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Oliva, Clelia F.; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F. Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector–pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations. PMID:27677378

  3. Gap analysis of Mycoplasma bovis disease, diagnosis and control: An aid to identify future development requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, M J; Lysnyansky, I; Sachse, K; Fox, L K; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2018-05-01

    There is a worldwide problem of disease caused by Mycoplasma (M.) bovis in cattle; it has a significant detrimental economic and animal welfare impact on cattle rearing. Infection can manifest as a plethora of clinical signs including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, otitis media and genital disorders that may result in infertility and abortion. Current diagnosis and control information are reviewed and analysed to identify gaps in knowledge of the causative organism in respect of the disease pathology, diagnosis and control methods. The main considerations are as follows: no vaccines are commercially available; antimicrobial resistance is increasing; diagnostic and antimicrobial sensitivity testing needs to be improved; and a pen-side test would facilitate more rapid diagnosis and implementation of treatment with antimicrobials. More data on host susceptibility, stress factors, immune response and infectious dose levels are required. The impact of asymptomatic carriers, M. bovis survival in the environment and the role of wildlife in transmitting the disease also needs investigation. To facilitate development of vaccines, further analysis of more M. bovis genomes, its pathogenic mechanisms, including variable surface proteins, is required, along with reproducible disease models. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. EFNS Task Force on Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe : present status and recommendations for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, P; Chollet, F; Paulson, O; von Kummer, R; Laihinen, A; Leenders, K; Yancheva, S

    A Task Force on 'Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe' was appointed in September 1998 by the education committee of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) in order to: (1) examine the present status of teaching of neuroimaging in the training of neurology in

  5. EFNS Task Force on Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe : present status and recommendations for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, P; Chollet, F; Paulson, O; von Kummer, R; Laihinen, A; Leenders, K; Yancheva, S

    2001-01-01

    A Task Force on 'Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe' was appointed in September 1998 by the education committee of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) in order to: (1) examine the present status of teaching of neuroimaging in the training of neurology in

  6. Future discharge drought across climate regions around the world modelled with a synthetic hydrological modelling approach forced by three general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, N.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Hydrological drought characteristics (drought in groundwater and streamflow) likely will change in the 21st century as a result of climate change. The magnitude and directionality of these changes and their dependency on climatology and catchment characteristics, however, is uncertain. In this study a conceptual hydrological model was forced by downscaled and bias-corrected outcome from three general circulation models for the SRES A2 emission scenario (GCM forced models), and the WATCH Forcing Data set (reference model). The threshold level method was applied to investigate drought occurrence, duration and severity. Results for the control period (1971-2000) show that the drought characteristics of each GCM forced model reasonably agree with the reference model for most of the climate types, suggesting that the climate models' results after post-processing produce realistic outcomes for global drought analyses. For the near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) the GCM forced models show a decrease in drought occurrence for all major climates around the world and increase of both average drought duration and deficit volume of the remaining drought events. The largest decrease in hydrological drought occurrence is expected in cold (D) climates where global warming results in a decreased length of the snow season and an increased precipitation. In the dry (B) climates the smallest decrease in drought occurrence is expected to occur, which probably will lead to even more severe water scarcity. However, in the extreme climate regions (desert and polar), the drought analysis for the control period showed that projections of hydrological drought characteristics are most uncertain. On a global scale the increase in hydrological drought duration and severity in multiple regions will lead to a higher impact of drought events, which should motivate water resource managers to timely anticipate the increased risk of more severe drought in groundwater and streamflow

  7. Lowering social security's duration-of-marriage requirement: distributional effects for future female retirees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Christopher R; Whitman, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A number of alternatives to Social Security's auxiliary benefit system have been proposed in the context of changes in American family and work patterns. This article focuses on one modification therein-lowering the 10-year duration-of-marriage requirement for divorced spouses. Using a powerful microsimulation model (MINT), we examine the distributional effects of extending spouse and survivor benefit eligibility to 5- and 7-year marriages ending in divorce among female retirees in 2030, a population largely comprised of baby boomers. Results show that the options would increase benefits for a small share of female retirees, around 2 to 4%, and would not affect the vast majority of low-income divorced older women. However, of those affected, the options would substantially increase benefits and lower incidence of poverty and near poor. Low-income divorced retirees with marriages between 5 and 9 years in length and a deceased former spouse face the greatest potential gains.

  8. Requirement analysis for autonomous systems and intelligent agents in future Danish electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    we review innovative control architectures in electric power systems such as Microgrids, Virtual power plants and Cell based systems. We evaluate application of autonomous systems and intelligent agents in each of these control architectures particularly in the context of Denmark's strategic energy...... plans. The second part formulates a flexible control architecture for electric power systems with very high penetration of distributed generation. This control architecture is based upon the requirements identified in the first part. We also present development of a software framework to test......Denmark has already achieved a record of 20% penetration of wind power and now moving towards even higher targets with an increasing part of the electricity produced by distributed generators (DGs). In this paper we report work from a sub activity "subgrid design" of the EcoGrid.dk project. First...

  9. Firefighter safety for PV systems: Overview of future requirements and protection systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    for operators during maintenance or fire-fighting. One of the solutions is individual module shutdown by short-circuiting or disconnecting each PV module from the PV string. However, currently no standards have been adopted either for implementing or testing these methods, or doing an evaluation of the module...... shutdown procedures. This paper gives an overview on the most recent fire - and firefighter safety requirements for PV systems, with focus on system and module shutdown systems. Several solutions are presented, analyzed and compared by considering a number of essential characteristics, including......An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic systems is that, as long as they are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters, independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch, which poses a risk...

  10. Balancing functional and nutritional quality of oils and fats: Current requirements and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Bremt Karen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oils and fats play an important role in the structure, aroma and stability of a wide variety of food products, as well as in their nutritional properties. For Puratos, a producer of ingredients for bakery, patisserie and chocolate sector, functionality and taste are of utmost importance, but the company also wants to contribute to the balanced diet of consumers. Vegetable oils and fats are used in margarines and releasing agents, vegetable creams, compound chocolate, fillings and emulsifiers. Each application requires an oil or fat with specific physicochemical properties in order to ensure the optimal structure, stability and taste of the end product. Traditionally, (partially hydrogenated vegetable oils deliver important functional characteristics concerning crystallization behaviour, directly linked with the workability, melting properties, stability and mouth feel of the food product. However, due to negative nutritional implications, trans fats are to be replaced by healthier alternatives, preferably not by saturated fats. Consumers – and in some regions, legal instances – demand transfree or hydro-free products while not compromising on taste. Alternative fats and oils will be discussed concerning their functional and nutritional properties.

  11. Current trends and future requirements for the mass spectrometric investigation of microbial, mammalian and plant metabolomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Warwick B

    2008-01-01

    The functional levels of biological cells or organisms can be separated into the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. Of these the metabolome offers specific advantages to the investigation of the phenotype of biological systems. The investigation of the metabolome (metabolomics) has only recently appeared as a mainstream scientific discipline and is currently developing rapidly for the study of microbial, plant and mammalian metabolomes. The metabolome pipeline or workflow encompasses the processes of sample collection and preparation, collection of analytical data, raw data pre-processing, data analysis and data storage. Of these processes the collection of analytical data will be discussed in this review with specific interest shown in the application of mass spectrometry in the metabolomics pipeline. The current developments in mass spectrometry platforms (GC–MS, LC–MS, DIMS and imaging MS) and applications of specific interest will be highlighted. The current limitations of these platforms and applications will be discussed with areas requiring further development also highlighted. These include the detectable coverage of the metabolome, the identification of metabolites and the process of converting raw data to biological knowledge. (review article)

  12. Global climate targets and future consumption level: an evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef Peter; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of the strictest IPCC representative concentration pathway for key consumption categories (food, travel, shelter, goods, services). We use IPAT style identities to account for possible growth in global consumption levels and indicate the required change in GHG emission intensity for each category (i.e. GHG emission per calorie, person kilometer, square meter, kilogram, US dollar). The proposed concept provides guidance for product developers, consumers and policymakers. To reach the 2 °C climate target (2.1 tCO 2 -eq. per capita in 2050), the GHG emission intensity of consumption has to be reduced by a factor of 5 in 2050. The climate targets on consumption level allow discussion of the feasibility of this climate target at product and consumption level. In most consumption categories products in line with this climate target are available. For animal food and air travel, reaching the GHG intensity targets with product modifications alone will be challenging and therefore structural changes in consumption patterns might be needed. The concept opens up possibilities for further research on potential solutions on the consumption and product level to global climate mitigation. (letter)

  13. Multi-Stage ADRs for Current and Future Astronomy Missions: Performance and Requirements for Cryogen-Free Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter; Kimball, Mark; Vlahacos, Kosta

    2010-01-01

    The cooling requirements for current (e.g. Astro-H) and future (e.g. IXO and ASP) astronomy missions pose significant challenges for the sub-Kelvin Cooler. In particular, the use of large detector arrays increases the cooling power needed, and the variety of cryocoolers that can be used for pre-cooling greatly expands the range of temperatures at which the sub-Kelvin cooler can be designed to reject heat. In most cases, there is also a need for a stable higher temperature stage for cooling amplifiers or telescope components. NASA/GSFC is currently building a 3-stage ADR for the Astro-H mission, and is developing a 5-stage ADR suitable for IXO and ASP, as well as many other missions in the early planning stages. The architecture of these ADRs allows them to be adapted rather easily for different cooling requirements and to accommodate different cryocooler capabilities (operating temperature and cooling power). This paper will discuss the performance of these ADRs, which operate in both continuous, and single-shot cooling modes, and the minimum cryocooler capabilities needed to meet the requirements of future missions.

  14. Radiative forcing due to greenhouse gas emission and sink histories in Finland and its future control potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, I; Sinisalo, J; Pipatti, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The effective atmospheric lifetimes of the greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}),nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and many of the CFCs are of the order of 100 years. Human activities, as an example GDP, very often change at rates of a few per cents per year,corresponding time constants of some tens of years. Also the forest ecosystems have time constants of this order. Even the human population of the globe is increasing by about two percent per year. Because so many natural and human-linked processes, which are relevant to global warming, have slow change rates of about same order, a time-dependent consideration of the greenhouse warming and its control can give useful information for the understanding of the problem. The objective of the work is to study the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in Finland and their greenhouse impact as a function of time. The greenhouse impact is expressed in terms of radiative forcing which describes the perturbation in the Earth`s radiation budget. Radiative forcing allows a comparison of the impact of various greenhouse gases and their possible control options as a function of time. The idea behind the calculations is that Finland should in some way steer its share of the global radiative forcing and greenhouse effect. This presentation describes the calculation model REFUGE and the projects in which it has been used

  15. Radiative forcing due to greenhouse gas emission and sink histories in Finland and its future control potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, I.; Sinisalo, J.; Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The effective atmospheric lifetimes of the greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}),nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and many of the CFCs are of the order of 100 years. Human activities, as an example GDP, very often change at rates of a few per cents per year,corresponding time constants of some tens of years. Also the forest ecosystems have time constants of this order. Even the human population of the globe is increasing by about two percent per year. Because so many natural and human-linked processes, which are relevant to global warming, have slow change rates of about same order, a time-dependent consideration of the greenhouse warming and its control can give useful information for the understanding of the problem. The objective of the work is to study the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in Finland and their greenhouse impact as a function of time. The greenhouse impact is expressed in terms of radiative forcing which describes the perturbation in the Earth`s radiation budget. Radiative forcing allows a comparison of the impact of various greenhouse gases and their possible control options as a function of time. The idea behind the calculations is that Finland should in some way steer its share of the global radiative forcing and greenhouse effect. This presentation describes the calculation model REFUGE and the projects in which it has been used

  16. An Observation-based Assessment of Instrument Requirements for a Future Precipitation Process Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Wood, N.; Smalley, M.; Kulie, M.; Hahn, W.

    2017-12-01

    Global models exhibit substantial biases in the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial scales of precipitation systems. Much of this uncertainty stems from an inadequate representation of the processes by which water is cycled between the surface and atmosphere and, in particular, those that govern the formation and maintenance of cloud systems and their propensity to form the precipitation. Progress toward improving precipitation process models requires observing systems capable of quantifying the coupling between the ice content, vertical mass fluxes, and precipitation yield of precipitating cloud systems. Spaceborne multi-frequency, Doppler radar offers a unique opportunity to address this need but the effectiveness of such a mission is heavily dependent on its ability to actually observe the processes of interest in the widest possible range of systems. Planning for a next generation precipitation process observing system should, therefore, start with a fundamental evaluation of the trade-offs between sensitivity, resolution, sampling, cost, and the overall potential scientific yield of the mission. Here we provide an initial assessment of the scientific and economic trade-space by evaluating hypothetical spaceborne multi-frequency radars using a combination of current real-world and model-derived synthetic observations. Specifically, we alter the field of view, vertical resolution, and sensitivity of a hypothetical Ka- and W-band radar system and propagate those changes through precipitation detection and intensity retrievals. The results suggest that sampling biases introduced by reducing sensitivity disproportionately affect the light rainfall and frozen precipitation regimes that are critical for warm cloud feedbacks and ice sheet mass balance, respectively. Coarser spatial resolution observations introduce regime-dependent biases in both precipitation occurrence and intensity that depend on cloud regime, with even the sign of the bias varying within a

  17. Aircraft Loss-of-Control: Analysis and Requirements for Future Safety-Critical Systems and Their Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex, resulting from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or more often in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper summarizes recent analysis results in identifying worst-case combinations of loss-of-control accident precursors and their time sequences, a holistic approach to preventing loss-of-control accidents in the future, and key requirements for validating the associated technologies.

  18. Application of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) to Compare Legacy and Future Forces in Mine Warfare (MIW) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    indicate that the satisfaction of these requirements had been addressed. 108 Table 8. MOP to Requirement Mapping Matrix MOP(s) REQUIREMENT 1.1...GUIs) to modify their behaviors. ExtendSim also has an equation editor for creating custom algorithms to add functionality not already present in the...Expeditionary Warfare Conference, Wyndham Bay Point Hotel , Panama City, FL, October 24. http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2011expwar/MondayAmador.pdf. Bahr

  19. A collaboration on development of requirements and guidelines for proliferation resistance of future nuclear system in the IAEA INPRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Kim, Hyun Jun; Jeong, Ik; Yang, Myung Seung; Ko, Won Il

    2003-10-01

    This study surveyed and analyzed the existing activities and international status concerning proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems, reviewed the features of proliferation resistance, and derived the requirements of future innovative nuclear energy systems. In IAEA INPRO, guidance for the evaluation of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles on proliferation resistance was finalized through collaboration of member countries including Korea in reviewing technological status and developing the methodology for evaluation of proliferation resistance. This report, first, describes the progress of INPRO and the participation status of Korea in the project, and briefly summarizes the report of phase IA of INPRO. Next, features of proliferation resistance of nuclear systems, collaboration in the GIF and the INPRO for development of requirements and guidelines for proliferation resistance, and the final result of guidance for the evaluation of proliferation resistance were described. Finally, this study proposed measures for participation of further progress of the INPRO

  20. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants

  1. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  2. Aircraft Modifications: Assessing the Current State of Air Force Aircraft Modifications and the Implications for Future Military Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    J IVF MNA M J J DA S 0 TM C J JV A i KIT DELIVERYO TYS h. KIT INSTALL OTYS-DEPOT JI I- - - 1. KIT INSTALL OTYS-TEAM 24. INFLATED COST SUMMgARIES BY...as a part of a study examining the costing of modifying Air Force weapon systems. Over the same time that the concept for this dissertation was...planning and modernization. The project documented here was conducted within the Costing of Modifications and Upgrades program of RAND’s Project AIR

  3. Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the

  4. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Clinical Requirements for the U.S. Air Force Otolaryngology Team (FFENT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-10

    mapped to supplies required to complete those tasks, linking each supply with a clinical requirement. ESP was used to develop Marine Corps medical...description of ESP’s background, capabilities, uses, frequently asked questions, and a download link is available at http://www.nhrc.navy.mil...MIRROR MOUTH EXAM PLANE GLASS FRONT REFLEC 6520011253245 PROP MOUTH DEN RUBBER M PEDO 30MM OPENING A-31 6520011253246 PROP MOUTH DENTAL RUBBER ADULT

  5. Advanced GI Surgery Training-a Roadmap for the Future: the White Paper from the SSAT Task Force on Advanced GI Surgery Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Matthew M; Behrns, Kevin E; Soper, Nathaniel J; Michelassi, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    surgery training could occupy the area between general surgery residency and further subspecialty training as seen in the graph below. Visually, we are trying to define the red hash mark area. This is challenging as the inner border with core general surgery is ill defined and interpreted differently by various stakeholders. Similarly, the outer border of the red hash marks, which defines areas that require a surgical subspecialist, is also not clear. Inevitably, overlap exists in the care of these patients and is influenced by the complexity of the underlying disease presentations. The concept is noble, but the future is unclear. Challenges and uncertainties include whether the Certificate of Focused Expertise will go forward, and what the RRC and ABS might decide on the structure of General Surgery training. Funding and the ability to offer autonomy during training are additional challenges in today's training environment. Currently, the ABS is considering a "Core Plus" concept, though what is "the Core" and what is the "Plus" are not yet determined, and these concepts have been promoted for years. Whether training becomes 4 +1, or 4 +1+1, 5+1 or some other model continues to be discussed. We, the Task Force of Advanced GI Surgery Training, have drafted a vision of what advanced GI training could/should look like to help guide the ABMS/ABS/RRC/ACGME as they contemplate surgery residency redesign goals. Despite the uncertainty, we will develop the curriculum, milestones, and case requirements for advanced GI surgery training, to not only provide this vision but so that an advanced GI training program is ready to go, to be plugged in to whatever the future structure for surgical training may be.

  6. Sensitivity analysis with regard to variations of physical forcing including two possible future hydrographic regimes for the Oeregrundsgrepen. A follow-up baroclinic 3D-model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, A.; Andrejev, O.

    2000-02-01

    A sensitivity analysis with regard to variations of physical forcing has been performed using a 3D baroclinic model of the Oeregrundsgrepen area for a whole-year period with data pertaining to 1992. The results of these variations are compared to a nominal run with unaltered physical forcing. This nominal simulation is based on the experience gained in an earlier whole-year modelling of the same area; the difference is mainly that the present nominal simulation is run with identical parameters for the whole year. From a computational economy point of view it has been necessary to vary the time step between the month-long simulation periods. For all simulations with varied forcing, the same time step as for the nominal run has been used. The analysis also comprises the water turnover of a hypsographically defined subsection, the Bio Model area, located above the SFR depository. The external forcing factors that have been varied are the following (with their found relative impact on the volume average of the retention time of the Bio Model area over one year given within parentheses): atmospheric temperature increased/reduced by 2.5 deg C (-0.1% resp. +0.6%), local freshwater discharge rate doubled/halved (-1.6% resp. +0.01%), salinity range at the border increased/reduced a factor 2 (-0.84% resp. 0.00%), wind speed forcing reduced 10% (+8.6%). The results of these simulations, at least the yearly averages, permit a reasonably direct physical explanation, while the detailed dynamics is for natural reasons more intricate. Two additional full-year simulations of possible future hydrographic regimes have also been performed. The first mimics a hypothetical situation with permanent ice cover, which increases the average retention time 87%. The second regime entails the future hypsography with its anticipated shoreline displacement by an 11 m land-rise in the year 4000 AD, which also considerably increases the average retention times for the two remaining layers of the

  7. A report card on the physician work force: Israeli health care market--past experience and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Asaf; Shvarts, Shifra; Glick, Shimon; Reuveni, Haim

    2010-09-01

    The worldwide shortage of physicians is due not only to the lack of physicians, but also to complex social and economic factors that vary from country to country. To describe the results of physician workforce planning in a system with unintended policy, such as Israel, based on past experience and predicted future trends, between 1995 and 2020. A descriptive study of past (1995-2009) and future (through 2020) physician workforce trends in Israel. An actuarial equation was developed to project physician supply until 2020. In Israel a physician shortage is expected in the very near future. This finding is the result of global as well as local changes affecting the supply of physicians: change in immigration pattern, gender effect, population growth, and transparency of data on demand for physicians. These are universal factors affecting manpower planning in most industrial countries all over the world. We describe a health care market with an unintended physician workforce policy. Sharing decision makers' experience in similar health care systems will enable the development of better indices to analyze, by comparison, effective physician manpower planning processes, worldwide.

  8. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  9. Future requirements. Clinical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, V.

    2002-01-01

    Biocompatability, Cariology, Clinical trials, Dental materials, Helath services research, Human, Pedodontics......Biocompatability, Cariology, Clinical trials, Dental materials, Helath services research, Human, Pedodontics...

  10. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Requirements of the Air Force Ophthalmology Augmentation Team (FFEYE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    453.08 A 6530014667131 STRETCHER SURGICAL EASY ROLLING CASTERS 4 WHEEL BRAKE & STEER EA 1 1 500.00 30.00 $10,193.72 500.00 30.00 $10,193.72 A...required equipment and consumable items. Review of the output informs the appropriate modifications to the 917F line list for the Air Combat Command

  11. Resource-Efficient Digital Communications: Research and Testbed Development in Support of Future Force Warrior and Joint Tactical Radio Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fuja, Thomas; Collins, Oliver; Costello, Daniel; Huang, Yih-Fang

    2007-01-01

    .... The result is compared with another using continuous phase modulation (CPM). It is shown that the amplifier backoff required for QAM puts it at a disadvantage to CPM at spectral efficiencies where both are feasible - below 2.0 bits/sec/Hz...

  12. Meeting report: Ocean ‘omics science, technology and cyberinfrastructure: current challenges and future requirements (August 20-23, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jack A; Dick, Gregory J.; Jenkins, Bethany; Heidelberg, John; Allen, Eric; Mackey, Katherine R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Foundation’s EarthCube End User Workshop was held at USC Wrigley Marine Science Center on Catalina Island, California in August 2013. The workshop was designed to explore and characterize the needs and tools available to the community that is focusing on microbial and physical oceanography research with a particular emphasis on ‘omic research. The assembled researchers outlined the existing concerns regarding the vast data resources that are being generated, and how we will deal with these resources as their volume and diversity increases. Particular attention was focused on the tools for handling and analyzing the existing data, on the need for the construction and curation of diverse federated databases, as well as development of shared, interoperable, “big-data capable” analytical tools. The key outputs from this workshop include (i) critical scientific challenges and cyber infrastructure constraints, (ii) the current and future ocean ‘omics science grand challenges and questions, and (iii) data management, analytical and associated and cyber-infrastructure capabilities required to meet critical current and future scientific challenges. The main thrust of the meeting and the outcome of this report is a definition of the ‘omics tools, technologies and infrastructures that facilitate continued advance in ocean science biology, marine biogeochemistry, and biological oceanography. PMID:25197495

  13. Meeting report: Ocean 'omics science, technology and cyberinfrastructure: current challenges and future requirements (August 20-23, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jack A; Dick, Gregory J; Jenkins, Bethany; Heidelberg, John; Allen, Eric; Mackey, Katherine R M; DeLong, Edward F

    2014-06-15

    The National Science Foundation's EarthCube End User Workshop was held at USC Wrigley Marine Science Center on Catalina Island, California in August 2013. The workshop was designed to explore and characterize the needs and tools available to the community that is focusing on microbial and physical oceanography research with a particular emphasis on 'omic research. The assembled researchers outlined the existing concerns regarding the vast data resources that are being generated, and how we will deal with these resources as their volume and diversity increases. Particular attention was focused on the tools for handling and analyzing the existing data, on the need for the construction and curation of diverse federated databases, as well as development of shared, interoperable, "big-data capable" analytical tools. The key outputs from this workshop include (i) critical scientific challenges and cyber infrastructure constraints, (ii) the current and future ocean 'omics science grand challenges and questions, and (iii) data management, analytical and associated and cyber-infrastructure capabilities required to meet critical current and future scientific challenges. The main thrust of the meeting and the outcome of this report is a definition of the 'omics tools, technologies and infrastructures that facilitate continued advance in ocean science biology, marine biogeochemistry, and biological oceanography.

  14. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  15. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  16. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hansen

    Full Text Available We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  17. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; hide

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  18. Work Requirements in Transformation, Competence for the Future: A Critical Look at the Consequences of Current Positions. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Hans-Eberhard

    In Germany and elsewhere, the literature on current and future work requirements rarely discusses the effects of globalization, internationalization, computerization, and other factors from the point of view of workers. Some have suggested that a blurring of limits will be one of the main changes in work in the future. This blurring will involve…

  19. Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikawa, Eri; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Aerosols are harmful to human health and have both direct and indirect effects on climate. China is a major contributor to global emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), a sulfate (SO 42-) precursor, organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) aerosols. Although increasingly examined, the effect of present and potential future levels of these emissions on global premature mortality and climate change has not been well quantified. Through both direct radiative effects and indirect effects on clouds, SO 42- and OC exert negative radiative forcing (cooling) while BC exerts positive forcing (warming). We analyze the effect of China's emissions of SO 2, SO 42-, OC and BC in 2000 and for three emission scenarios in 2030 on global surface aerosol concentrations, premature mortality, and radiative forcing (RF). Using global models of chemical transport (MOZART-2) and radiative transfer (GFDL RTM), and combining simulation results with gridded population data, mortality rates, and concentration-response relationships from the epidemiological literature, we estimate the contribution of Chinese aerosols to global annual premature mortality and to RF in 2000 and 2030. In 2000, we estimate these aerosols cause approximately 470 000 premature deaths in China and an additional 30 000 deaths globally. In 2030, aggressive emission controls lead to a 50% reduction in premature deaths from the 2000 level to 240 000 in China and 10 000 elsewhere, while under a high emissions scenario premature deaths increase 50% from the 2000 level to 720 000 in China and to 40 000 elsewhere. Because the negative RF from SO 42- and OC is larger than the positive forcing from BC, Chinese aerosols lead to global net direct RF of -74 mW m -2 in 2000 and between -15 and -97 mW m -2 in 2030 depending on the emissions scenario. Our analysis indicates that increased effort to reduce greenhouse gases is essential to address climate change as China's anticipated reduction of aerosols will result in the

  20. The Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT): Using the Estimating Supplies Program (ESP) to Validate Clinical Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-05

    Disease, Severe. 0249 Peptic Ulcer , Gastric or Duodenal, Penetrating and/or Perforating . 0250 Peptic Ulcer , Gastric or Duodenal, Uncomplicated. 0251...in US Air Force (USAF) Allowance Standard (AS) development and management . The Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) Unit Type Code (UTC) AS was...tasks enabling the management of the critically ill or injured en route to the appropriate level of care (LOC) or medical treatment facility (MTF

  1. ESTIMATES OF CURRENT AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF LABOUR FORCE AND MIGRATION RELATIONS OF RUSSIAN ARCTIC’S REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Korovkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of balance of labour resources and population and labour resources movements balance for the assessment of the current and future state of regional labor markets and migration linkages in the regions of the Russian Arctic. The purpose of this article is to obtain projections of the dynamics of the main indicators of balance of labour resources, structure and dynamics of population and labor resources of the Russian Arctic regions. The study was performed in the methodology of balance of labour resources and population and labour resources movements balance. The model of population and labor resources movement, taking into account the repeated displacement of people is used. With account of the historical period we forecast the main parameters of population movements structure. The results of calculations on the example for the regions of the Asian and European parts of the Russian Arctic is given. The main problems of the Arctic regions labor resources are identifi ed. The resulting estimates of prospective changes in the structure of balance of labour resources, the most signifi cant sources of additional labor resources, changes to the importance of these sources. The article considers the trends of inter-regional movement of population and labor resources. The analysis of the main areas of origin and regions of arrival is made. The main donor regions and the recipient regions for regions of the Russian Arctic are named. The analysis of structural imbalances on the regional labour markets is made. The contribution the Arctic regions in the magnitude of structural unemployment is measured. Its shown, which regions can be conventionally considered labor-surplus and-defi cient. The results of the study can be used in the development of regional employment programmes, the development and implementation of migration policy, the development of the forecast of labour resources balance sheet, and especially

  2. Assessing Calorimeter Requirements for a 100 TeV Future Collider With Reference to New Physics Benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Dylewsky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Plans for a future 100 TeV circular collider require the design of detection equipment capable of measuring events at such high energy. This study examined the simulated decay of hypothetical 10 TeV excited quarks in 100 TeV pp collisions with regard to the possibility of calorimeter punch-through. Two methods of parameterizing the energy resolution in detector simulations were employed to model the effects of particles escaping the hadronic calorimeter. Varying the constant term of the energy resolution parameterization caused the dijet mass distribution to broaden up to 58% with respect to the ATLAS default. Using the assumption that the jets' makeup could be approximated by 180 GeV pions, their expected signal degradation in calorimeters of varying depths was compared to the varied constant term trials. It was found that the broadening associated with a calorimeter of thickness 7 lambda was consistent with that caused by an increase of 1\\% in the constant term (from the ATLAS default).

  3. The Future of the U.S. Navy in the Persian Gulf

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Austin

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyzes a range of possible future scenarios governing security conditions in the Persian Gulf, in order to determine future requirements for forward-deployed Naval forces in the region...

  4. An Application of Multi-band Forced Photometry to One Square Degree of SERVS: Accurate Photometric Redshifts and Implications for Future Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyland, Kristina; Lacy, Mark [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Sajina, Anna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Pforr, Janine [ESA/ESTEC SCI-S, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Wilson, Gillian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA, 92521 (United States); Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Häußler, Boris [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Vaccari, Mattia [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, 7535 Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa); Jarvis, Matt, E-mail: knyland@nrao.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    We apply The Tractor image modeling code to improve upon existing multi-band photometry for the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). SERVS consists of post-cryogenic Spitzer observations at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m over five well-studied deep fields spanning 18 deg{sup 2}. In concert with data from ground-based near-infrared (NIR) and optical surveys, SERVS aims to provide a census of the properties of massive galaxies out to z  ≈ 5. To accomplish this, we are using The Tractor to perform “forced photometry.” This technique employs prior measurements of source positions and surface brightness profiles from a high-resolution fiducial band from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations survey to model and fit the fluxes at lower-resolution bands. We discuss our implementation of The Tractor over a square-degree test region within the XMM Large Scale Structure field with deep imaging in 12 NIR/optical bands. Our new multi-band source catalogs offer a number of advantages over traditional position-matched catalogs, including (1) consistent source cross-identification between bands, (2) de-blending of sources that are clearly resolved in the fiducial band but blended in the lower resolution SERVS data, (3) a higher source detection fraction in each band, (4) a larger number of candidate galaxies in the redshift range 5 <  z  < 6, and (5) a statistically significant improvement in the photometric redshift accuracy as evidenced by the significant decrease in the fraction of outliers compared to spectroscopic redshifts. Thus, forced photometry using The Tractor offers a means of improving the accuracy of multi-band extragalactic surveys designed for galaxy evolution studies. We will extend our application of this technique to the full SERVS footprint in the future.

  5. Measured and Modeled Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiances in Very Dry Environments and Calibration Requirements for Future Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    Downwelling radiances measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed to 5.38 km on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October 2009. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2. Water vapor and temperature profiles from an optimal-estimation-based physical retrieval algorithm (using simultaneous radiosonde and multichannel 183 GHz microwave radiometer measurements) are input to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute radiances for comparison with FIRST. The AER v3.4 line parameter database is used. The low water vapor amounts and relatively cold atmosphere result in extremely small far-IR radiances (1.5 mW/m2/sr/cm-1) with corresponding brightness temperatures of 120 K. The residual LBLRTM minus FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in the comparison. A goal of the deployment and subsequent analysis is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. While agreement is found between measured and modeled radiances within the combined uncertainties across all spectra, uncertainties in the measured water vapor profiles and from the laboratory calibration exceed those associated with water vapor spectroscopy in this very low radiance environment. Consequently, no improvement in water vapor spectroscopy is afforded by these measurements. However, we use these results to place requirements on instrument calibration accuracy and water vapor profile accuracy for future campaigns to similarly dry environments. Instrument calibration uncertainty needs to be at 2% (1-sigma) of measured radiance

  6. The Air Force Mobile Forward Surgical Team (MFST): Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Validate Clinical Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    4LB NO.19 1 BG 1 BG 1.00 BG 0.08 0.008 0.4 0.080 0.008 0.400 Increase 6515012714894 SENSOR SPO2 MONITORING FINGER WRAP PROPAQ 24S 5 EA 6 EA 0.25 PG...prescribed for life-threatening infections , and was called for in 3 of the patients, resulting in an 18-g requirement should the patients stay at the MFST...MONITOR PATIENT 206EL Task 032 Set Up Pulse Oximeter 6515012714894 SENSOR OXYGEN MONITORING NON-INVAS ARTERIAL F/ADULT FINGERS 24S

  7. Passion Trumps Pay: A Study of the Future Skills Requirements of Information Professionals in Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Katherine; Partridge, Helen; Hughes, Hilary; Oliver, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper explores the current and future skills and knowledge requirements of contemporary information professionals in a converged gallery, library, archive and museum sector (also referred to as the GLAM sector) in Australia. This research forms part of a larger study that investigated the education needs of information…

  8. OBSERVATIONS (NEW AND OLD ON THE ARMED FORCES IN THE THE ATLANTIC WORLD: CURRENT AND FUTURE THREATS AND CHALLENGES IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDERICK M. NUNN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Confrontations with threats and challenges to the existence of governments and societies have marked the flow of time throughout history. Present and future threats associated, as they are, with historical and traditional challenge are, in many places, of such complexity that they already require new forms of relations between civilian authorities and the leadership of professional institutions dedicated to defense and security. These new relations will have to be based on an understanding of the processes of democratization and globalization as much as on the complex nature of conflicts that affect the security, sovereignty and stability of 21st century nation-states. As formidable as they appear, these threats and challenges may be considered current reiterations of others that mark our histories. In the Atlantic World, nowhere more so than in Latin America, the literature of the military profession has always demonstrated the recognition of lessons of the past applied to problems of the presentation aid in preparation for the future. A principal reason for this is that said literature is in and of itself the product of civil-military collaborations.

  9. Requirements for future control room and visualisation features in the Web-of-Cells framework defined in the ELECTRA project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinell, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    project, that proposes a new Web-of-Cell (WoC) power system control architecture. Dedicated visualisation features are proposed, aimed to support the control room operators activities in a WoC-oriented approach. Furthermore, the work takes into account the point of view of network operators about future...

  10. 17 CFR 1.47 - Requirements for classification of purchases or sales of contracts for future delivery as bona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Management and Budget under control number 3038-0013) [42 FR 42751, Aug. 8, 1977, as amended at 46 FR 63035... and positions for future delivery and the offsetting cash positions; (2) Set forth in detail... of risk exposure attendant to the conduct and management of a commercial enterprise; (3) Contain, and...

  11. Charging and billing in modern communications networks : A comprehensive survey of the state of art and future requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehne, Ralph; Huitema, George; Carle, George

    2012-01-01

    In mobile telecommunication networks the trend for an increasing heterogeneity of access networks, the convergence with fixed networks as well as with the Internet are apparent. The resulting future converged network with an expected wide variety of services and a possibly stiff competition between

  12. Charging and billing in modern communications networks : A comprehensive survey of the state of the art and future requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühne, R.; Huitema, G.B.; Carle, G.

    2012-01-01

    In mobile telecommunication networks the trend for an increasing heterogeneity of access networks, the convergence with fixed networks as well as with the Internet are apparent. The resulting future converged network with an expected wide variety of services and a possibly stiff competition between

  13. Ice-sheet model sensitivities to environmental forcing and their use in projecting future sea level (the SeaRISE project)

    OpenAIRE

    Bindschadler, Robert A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Aschwanden, Andy; Choi, Hyeungu; Fastook, Jim; Granzow, Glen; Greve, Ralf; Gutowski, Gail; Herzfeld, Ute; Jackson, Charles; Johnson, Jesse; Khroulev, Constantine; Levermann, Anders; Lipscomb, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggestin...

  14. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  15. [Expectations, requirements and limitations of future task sharing between the nursing profession and the medical profession: results from the Care-N Study M-V].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Adina; Rogalski, Hagen; Homeyer, Sabine; Oppermann, Roman Frank; Hingst, Peter; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    The aging population causes a sustained increase in demand of medical and nursing care services. At the same time health care professionals are aging, too. This leads to a growing number of health care gaps. Therefore, the health care system needs to be reformed. This includes a reallocation of task between some of the health care professions. This article addresses developments, potentials and limitations in the context of the future allocation of tasks between the nursing and the medical profession. Aim is to specify the future task sharing between nurses and physicians regarding expectations, requirements and limitations. We conducted questionnaire based Delphi interviews with an interdisciplinary group of experts. (type aggregation of ideas). In the future, to expert’s point of view, nurses will take over routine tasks in the medical and nursing health care supply. Task sharing by substitution is regarded with skepticism by experts. It requires a long time perspective and an early involvement of all stakeholders. Germany is at the beginning of the process of the future task sharing between nurses and physicians. The realization requires a comprehensive political support and further development of concepts including scientific implementation and evaluation.

  16. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: financial history and future power requirements for the VACAR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Financial data for the period 1966 to 1981 are presented for the four investor-owned electric utilities in the VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas) region. This region was selected as representative for the purpose of assessing the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power for the future in the United States. The estimated demand for power and planned additions to generating capacity for the region through the year 2000 are also given

  17. What are the minimum requirements for ketogenic diet services in resource-limited regions? Recommendations from the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force for Dietary Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Al-Macki, Nabil; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Kim, Heung D; Liao, Jianxiang; Megaw, Katherine; Nathan, Janak K; Raimann, Ximena; Rivera, Rocio; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Williams, Emma; Zupec-Kania, Beth A

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of dietary therapies for children and adults with refractory epilepsy, the availability of these treatments in developing countries with limited resources remains suboptimal. One possible contributory factor may be the costs. There is often reported a significant perceived need for a large ketogenic diet team, supplements, laboratory studies, and follow-up visits to provide this treatment. The 2009 Epilepsia Consensus Statement described ideal requirements for a ketogenic diet center, but in some situations this is not feasible. As a result, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Dietary Therapy was asked to convene and provide practical, cost-effective recommendations for new ketogenic diet centers in resource-limited regions of the world. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlson, R J; Schwartz, S E; Hales, J M; Cess, R D; Coakley, Jr, J A; Hansen, J E; Hofmann, D J [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (USA). Inst. for Environmental Studies, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    1992-01-24

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square metre, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes. 73 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, R J; Schwartz, S E; Hales, J M; Cess, R D; Coakley, J A; Hansen, J E; Hofmann, D J

    1992-01-24

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of shortwavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.

  20. Present capabilities and future requirements for computer-aided geometric modeling in the design and manufacture of gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, E.; Propen, M.; Hoffman, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gas turbine engine design requires the ability to rapidly develop complex structures which are subject to severe thermal and mechanical operating loads. As in all facets of the aerospace industry, engine designs are constantly driving towards increased performance, higher temperatures, higher speeds, and lower weight. The ability to address such requirements in a relatively short time frame has resulted in a major thrust towards integrated design/analysis/manufacturing systems. These computer driven graphics systems represent a unique challenge, with major payback opportunities if properly conceived, implemented, and applied.

  1. Adaption of the LHC cold mass cooling system to the requirements of the Future Circular Collider (FCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnig, C.; Tavian, L.; Brenn, G.

    2017-12-01

    The cooling of the superconducting magnet cold masses with superfluid helium (He II) is a well-established concept successfully in operation for years in the LHC. Consequently, its application for the cooling of FCC magnets is an obvious option. The 12-kW heat loads distributed over 10-km long sectors not only require an adaption of the magnet bayonet heat exchangers but also present new challenges to the cryogenic plants, the distribution system and the control strategy. This paper recalls the basic LHC cooling concept with superfluid helium and defines the main parameters for the adaption to the FCC requirements. Pressure drop and hydrostatic head are developed in the distribution and pumping systems; their impact on the magnet temperature profile and the corresponding cooling efficiency is presented and compared for different distribution and pumping schemes.

  2. Airpower History and the Cyber Force of the Future: How Organization for the Cyber Domain Outpaced Strategic Thinking and Forgot the Lessons of the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    why the airplane led to the reorganization of air forces within the military. Furthermore, cyberspace forces were organized around a functional...emergence of new technology, the airplane , once opened an entirely new domain in the air that revolutionized warfare. The countries that figured out how to...newspaper articles , courts martial, and press conferences about airpower, and because of these theatrics, senior officials may have become weary of

  3. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  4. Making media work in space: an interdisciplinary perspective on media and communication requirements for current and future space communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babidge, S.; Cokley, J.; Gordon, F.; Louw, E.

    2005-10-01

    As humans expand into space communities will form. These have already begun to form in small ways, such as long-duration missions on the International Space Station and the space shuttle, and small-scale tourist excursions into space. Social, behavioural and communications data emerging from such existing communities in space suggest that the physically-bounded, work-oriented and traditionally male-dominated nature of these extremely remote groups present specific problems for the resident astronauts, groups of them viewed as ‘communities’, and their associated groups who remain on Earth, including mission controllers, management and astronauts’ families. Notionally feminine group attributes such as adaptive competence, social adaptation skills and social sensitivity will be crucial to the viability of space communities and in the absence of gender equity, ‘staying in touch’ by means of ‘news from home’ becomes more important than ever. A template of news and media forms and technologies is suggested to service those needs and enhance the social viability of future terraforming activities.

  5. Requirements on read-out electronics for future keV-scale sterile neutrino search with KATRIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolde, Kai [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recent publications show the great potential of the KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment in the search for sterile neutrinos in the mass range of a few keV down to active-to-sterile mixing angles at least one order of magnitude smaller than current laboratory limits of sin{sup 2}θ < 10{sup -3}. In order to be sensitive to the tiny kink-like signature of sterile neutrinos in tritium beta decay, KATRIN requires a novel sophisticated detector and read-out system. Several silicon prototype detectors are under construction at the moment to explore the most suitable detector design for this purpose. The selection of appropriate read-out electronics is strongly triggered by the requirements of allowing only very small systematic uncertainties due to ADC Non-Linearities to reach the expected sensitivity. This talk investigates the impact of ADC Non-Linearities on the tritium beta decay spectrum, depending on the digitization method of analogue signals of a multi-pixel silicon detector, peak sensing or waveform digitization. The simulations show a higher achievable sensitivity using waveform digitizers and moreover strongly favor additional variable post-acceleration of the electrons to smear out the periodic structure of the ADC Non-Linearities.

  6. The injection equipment of future high-speed DI diesel engines with respect to power and pollution requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolenc, A. (Monobloc Dieselmotoren GmbH, Vienna (AT))

    1990-01-01

    The development of high specific output DI diesel engines started at the low-speed end some 50 years ago primarily for marine and traction applications. Movement towards the high-speed end has been slow but steady with the majority of truck engines being very conservatively rated. There has been recent major effort on the automotive car and light commercial vehicle diesel application leading to lightweight DI diesel engines with an engine speed of 4000-5000 r/min and a rated power of 50 kW/litre displacement. These are expected to be on the market in a short period of time. The key point of this development has been the injection equipment including combustion control. In this area the use of modulated injection has the possibility of solving power and pollution requirements. (author).

  7. Future planetary X-ray and gamma-ray remote sensing system and in situ requirements for room temperature solid state detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Trombka, J I; Starr, R; Clark, P E; Floyd, S R

    1999-01-01

    X-Ray and gamma-ray remote sensing observations find important applications in the study of the development of the planets. Orbital measurements can be carried out on solar-system bodies whose atmospheres and trapped radiation environments do not interfere significantly with the emissions. Elemental compositions can be inferred from observations of these line emissions. Future planetary missions also will involve landing both stationery and roving probes on planetary surfaces. Both X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers will be used for performing elemental analysis of surface samples. These future planetary missions will impose a number of constraints: the flight instruments must be significantly reduced in weight from those previously flown; for many missions, gravity assist will be required, greatly increasing mission duration, resulting in the passage of several years before the first scientific measurement of a solar system body. The detector systems must operate reliably after years of cosmic-ray irradiation...

  8. Crossflow force transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1982-05-01

    A force transducer for measuring lift and drag coefficients for a circular cylinder in turbulent water flow is presented. In addition to describing the actual design and construction of the strain-gauged force- ring based transducer, requirements for obtained valid fluid force test data are discussed, and pertinent flow test experience is related

  9. Future Job Openings: Australia in the Knowledge Economy. Project 2000-02: Changing Skill Requirements in the Australian Labour Force in a Knowledge Economy. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    Forecasts of Australian labor market growth, net replacement needs, and net job openings to 2006 are presented using the nine-way grouping of occupations described by (Maglen and Shah, 1999). Analysis is based on classifying occupations by whether they are advantaged by globalization and technological change, relatively insulated, or vulnerable.…

  10. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  11. Transforming Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertsen, Tom A

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the transformation of Norwegian Special Operation Forces (NORSOF), raising the hypothesis that its current organizational structure is inconsistent with its future roles and missions...

  12. Photovoltaic cell and array technology development for future unique NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Curtis, H.; Piszczor, M.; Surampudi, R.; Hamilton, T.; Rapp, D.; Stella, P.; Mardesich, N.; Mondt, J.; Bunker, R.; hide

    2002-01-01

    A technology review committee from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Air Force Research Lab, was formed to assess solar cell and array technologies required for future NASA science missions.

  13. The never ending road: improving, adapting and refining a needs-based model to estimate future general practitioner requirements in two Australian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Caroline O; Heywood, Troy; Bell, Janice; Atkinson, Kaye; Karnon, Jonathan

    2018-03-27

    Health workforce planning models have been developed to estimate the future health workforce requirements for a population whom they serve and have been used to inform policy decisions. To adapt and further develop a need-based GP workforce simulation model to incorporate current and estimated geographic distribution of patients and GPs. A need-based simulation model that estimates the supply of GPs and levels of services required in South Australia (SA) was adapted and applied to the Western Australian (WA) workforce. The main outcome measure was the differences in the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) GPs supplied and required from 2013 to 2033. The base scenario estimated a shortage of GPs in WA from 2019 onwards with a shortage of 493 FTE GPs in 2033, while for SA, estimates showed an oversupply over the projection period. The WA urban and rural models estimated an urban shortage of GPs over this period. A reduced international medical graduate recruitment scenario resulted in estimated shortfalls of GPs by 2033 for WA and SA. The WA-specific scenarios of lower population projections and registrar work value resulted in a reduced shortage of FTE GPs in 2033, while unfilled training places increased the shortfall of FTE GPs in 2033. The simulation model incorporates contextual differences to its structure that allows within and cross jurisdictional comparisons of workforce estimations. It also provides greater insights into the drivers of supply and demand and the impact of changes in workforce policy, promoting more informed decision-making.

  14. Subatomic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    1989-01-01

    Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)

  15. Experimental studies of the magnetized friction force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A. V.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Gaalnander, B.; Lofnes, T.; Ziemann, V.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as an essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires an accurate description of the friction force which ions experience by passing through an electron beam. Present low-energy electron coolers can be used for a detailed study of the friction force. In addition, parameters of a low-energy cooler can be chosen in a manner to reproduce regimes expected in future high-energy operation. Here, we report a set of dedicated experiments in CELSIUS aimed at a detailed study of the magnetized friction force. Some results of the accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented

  16. Meeting the future metro network challenges and requirements by adopting programmable S-BVT with direct-detection and PDM functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Laia; Svaluto Moreolo, Michela; Fàbrega, Josep M.; Vílchez, F. Javier

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced programmable sliceable-bandwidth variable transceiver (S-BVT) with polarization division multiplexing (PDM) capability as a key enabler to fulfill the requirements for future 5G networks. Thanks to its cost-effective optoelectronic front-end based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology and direct-detection (DD), the proposed S-BVT becomes suitable for next generation highly flexible and scalable metro networks. Polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and controllers (PCs), available on-demand, are included at the transceivers and at the network nodes, further enhancing the system flexibility and promoting an efficient use of the spectrum. 40G-100G PDM transmission has been experimentally demonstrated, within a 4-node photonic mesh network (ADRENALINE testbed), implementing a simplified equalization process.

  17. Army - Air Force Cooperation: Looking Backward to Move Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    and spirit of cooperation between the Army and the Air Force over the years to uncover a framework for compromise based on historical precedence that...Force competition will increase requiring even more compromise in the future. This monograph examines the relationship and spirit of cooperation...achieved similar results following the Army’s move to AirLand battle provides a glimpse of what a new round of service-level compromise might produce. iii

  18. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  19. Le travail en groupe : force du futur développement des paysans de la zone de Wamba au Zaïre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambanota, M.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Group working a force for countrymen's development in Wamba area, Zaire. This subject describes countrymen's organization of work in the township of Wamba in Zaire. Faced to the care of coffee plantations the countrymen appeal to traditional solidarity, forming a three, five, ten... group of men to work together. These groups are so organized that there is a rule about the duration of work, the taking turn in every member's field and penalties to those who don't respect the rules. A part from these groups of workers called Dynamic Mongapete, we join Likelemba which consists to giving a fixed number of coffee sacks to one member of the group in order to fulfil a plan made by the group in advance. So both Dynamic Mongapete and Likelemba increase coffee incomes, transform the structure of villages and tend to supplant waged workmanship. Unfortunately the Dynamic Mongapete is still confined to coffee plantations and supplies only individual interest. If it were introduced in the fulfilment of common development project and in subsistencial agriculture, then it would constitute a powerful method of production in Wamba township.

  20. Effects of Cement, Abutment Surface Pretreatment, and Artificial Aging on the Force Required to Detach Cantilever Fixed Dental Prostheses from Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Chepura, Taras; Schmitter, Marc; Rammelsberg, Peter; Rues, Stefan

    To examine the in vitro effects of different cements, abutment surface preconditioning, and artificial aging on the maximum tensile force needed to detach cantilever fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) from dental implants with titanium abutments. A total of 32 tissue-level implants were combined with standardized titanium abutments. For each test group, eight cantilever FDPs were fabricated using selective laser melting (cobalt-chromium [CoCr] alloy). The inner surfaces of the cantilever FDPs and half of the abutments were sandblasted and then joined by use of four different cements (two permanent and two semi-permanent) in two different amounts per cement. Subgroups were tested after either artificial aging (thermocycling and chewing simulation) or 3 days of water storage. Finally, axial pull off-tests were performed for each abutment separately. Cement type and surface pretreatment significantly affected decementation behavior. The highest retention forces (approximately 1,200 N) were associated with sandblasted abutments and permanent cements. With unconditioned abutments, temporary cements (Fu cement (Fu ≈ 100 N), resulted in rather low retention forces. Zinc phosphate cement guaranteed high retention forces. After aging, retention was sufficient only for cementation with zinc phosphate cement and for the combination of sandblasted abutments and glass-ionomer cement. When glass-ionomer cement is used to fix cantilever FDPs on implants, sandblasting of standard titanium abutments may help prevent loss of retention. Retention forces were still high for FDPs fixed with zinc phosphate cement, even when the abutments were not pretreated. Use of permanent cements only, however, is recommended to prevent unwanted loosening of cantilever FDPs.

  1. Essential equivalence: the objectives and requirements of a stategic nuclear policy: a perspective on the evolution of US strategic nuclear policy, and an assessment of present and emerging US strategic policy and force stucture options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    This study provides a discussion of the origins and evolution of US strategic nuclear policy, the objectives an requirements of US nuclear forces, and an assessment of present and emerging US stategic nuclear policy and force structure options. It identifies the distinctive phases of US strategic nuclear policy, the conditions of the military environments in which those policies were developed, the interaction of US-Soviet strategic force and arms control processes during these phases, and the domestic debates which have accompanied US strategic nuclear policy developments. In particular, the study focuses on the major contending views which continue to characterize the debate concerning US strategic nuclear policy. The study assesses the implications of the contending views represented in what is commonly referred to as the counterforce-countervalue debate, particularly as they relate to the perception of what constitutes a credible US deterrent posture, and the corresponding alternatives that these views bring with them for making US strategic nuclear policy and force structure decisions. The arms control process, in general, and SALT I and SALT II in particular, is discussed as an integral and dynamic component of the strategic debate, fundamentally affecting the nation's security policies. The implications of modern weapons technology, and the problems inherent in preserving strategic stability between adversary nations with asymmetries in military force structures and doctrines, are also discussed. Further, the study focuses on the question of whether or not nuclear superiority can be considered relevant under the contemporary international conditions

  2. Nuclear energy research initiative, an overview of the cooperative program for the risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, Stanley E.

    2000-01-01

    EPRI sstudies have shown that nuclear plant capital costs will have to decrease by about 35% to 40% to be competitive with fossil-generated electricity in the Unite States. Also, the ''first concrete'' to fuel load construction schedule will have to be decreased to less than 40 months. Therefore, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiate the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) and ABB CENP proposed a cooperative program with Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and Duke Engineering and Services (DE and S) to begin an innovative research effort to drastically cut the cost of new nuclear power plant construction for the U. S. de-regulated market place. This program was approved by the DOE through three separate but coordinated ''cooperative agreements.'' They are the ''Risk-Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants'' (Risk-Informed NPP), the ''Smart Nuclear Power Plant Program'' (Smart-NPP), and ''Design, Procure, Construct, Install and Test'' (DPCIT) Program. DOE funded the three cooperative agreements at a level of $2.6 million for the first year of the program. Funding for the complete program is durrently at a level $6.9 million, however, ABB CENP and all partners anticipate that the scope of the NERI program will be increased as a result of the overall importance of NERI to the U. S. Government. The Risk-Informed NPP program, which is aimed at revising costly regularory and design requirements without reducing overall plant safety, has two basic tasks: ''development of Risk-Informed Methods'' and ''strengthening the Reliability Database.'' The overall objective of the first task is to develop a scientific, risk-informed approach for identifying and simplifying deterministic industry standards, regulatory requirements, and safety systems that do not significantly contribute to nuclear power plant reliability and safety. The second basic task is to develop a means for strengthening the reliability database

  3. Principles and applications of force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Kim, Woong; Park, Joon Won [Dept. of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful technique for addressing single molecules. Unseen structures and dynamics of molecules have been elucidated using force spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy studies have provided picoNewton force resolution, subnanometer spatial resolution, stiffness of substrates, elasticity of polymers, and thermodynamics and kinetics of single-molecular interactions. In addition, AFM has enabled mapping the distribution of individual molecules in situ, and the quantification of single molecules has been made possible without modification or labeling. In this review, we describe the basic principles, sample preparation, data analysis, and applications of AFM-based force spectroscopy and its future.

  4. Hydrostatic force sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.S.; Stoughton, R.S.; Kazerooni, H.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of a new kind of force sensor which detects forces by measuring an induced pressure change in a material of large Poisson's ratio. In this investigation we develop mathematical expressions for the sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth, and show that its sensitivity can be much larger and its bandwidth is usually smaller than those of existing strain-gage-type sensors. This force sensor is well-suited for measuring large but slowly varying forces. It can be installed in a space smaller than that required by existing sensors

  5. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  6. A Heuristic FORTRAN Model of the Identification and Allocation of CONUS (Continental United States) Prime BEEF (Base Engineer Emergency Forces) Forces in Support of Theater OPlan (Operation Plan) Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Group Schein’s (1970) definition of "group" is: A psychological group is any number of people who (1) interact with one another, (2) are... psychologically aware of one another, and (3) perceive themselves to be a group. From the perspective of task design and group processes, Griffin (1982) defines...requirements (Bartlow, 1983). This is done with no planned consideration for deploying base Alevel resources to the same deployed location. Although

  7. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  8. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play String......Force two or four physically collocated tablets are required. These tablets are connected to form one large shared game area. The game can only be played by collaborating. StringForce extends previous work, both technologically and regarding social-emotional training. We believe String......Force to be an interesting demo for the IDC community, as it intertwines several relevant research fields, such as mobile interaction and collaborative gaming in the special education context....

  9. Future Irrigation Requirement of Rice Under Irrigated Area - Uncertainty through GCMs and Crop Models : A Case Study of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, S. N.; Singh, H.; Ruane, A. C.; Boote, K. G.; Porter, C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Panwar, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), the food basket of South Asia, characterised by predominantly cereal-based farming systems where livestock is an integral part of farm economy. Climate change is projected to have significant effects on agriculture production and hence on food and livelihood security because more than 90 per cent farmers fall under small and marginal category. The rising temperatures and uncertainties in rainfall associated with global warming may have serious direct and indirect impacts on crop production. A loss of 10-40% crop production is predicted in different crops in India by the end of this century by different researchers. Cereal crops (mainly rice and wheat) are crucial to ensuring the food security in the region, but sustaining their productivity has become a major challenge due to climate variability and uncertainty. Under AgMIP Project, we have analysed the climate change impact on farm level productivity of rice at Meerut District, Uttar Pradesh using 29 GCMs under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 during mid-century period 2041-2070. Two crop simulation models DSSAT4.6 and APSIM7.7 were used for impact study. There is lot of uncertainty in yield level by different GCMs and crop models. Under RCP4.5, APSIM showed a declining yield up to 14.5 % while DSSAT showed a declining yield level of 6.5 % only compared to the baseline (1980-2010). However, out of 29 GCMs, 15 GCMs showed negative impact and 14 showed positive impact under APSIM while it showed 21 and 8 GCMs, respectively in the case of DSSAT. DSSAT and APSIM simulated irrigation water requirement in future of the order of 645±75 mm and 730±107 mm, respectively under RCP4.5. However, the same will be of the order of 626 ± 99 mm and 749 ± 147 mm, respectively under RCP8.5. Projected irrigation water productivity showed a range of 4.87-12.15 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 6.77-12.63 kg ha-1 mm-1 through APSIM and DSSAT, respectively under RCP4.5, which stands an average of 7.81 and 8.53 kg ha-1 mm-1 during the

  10. Future Force Warrior: Insights from Air Assault Expeditionary Force Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Daniel D; Carstens, Christian B

    2007-01-01

    .... Each system included the FFW uniform and helmet, body armor chassis, global positioning system tracking receivers, radio communication equipment, a computer system with operating software, and voice-activated controls...

  11. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  12. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hofmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17 and professional clarinettists (N = 6 were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 x 2 x 2 design (register: low--high; tempo: slow--fast, dynamics: soft--loud. There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low--high of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions. The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (Fmean and peak force (Fmax were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (Fmean = 1.17 N, Fmax = 3.05 N compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g. guitar. Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (Fmean = 1.21 N.For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (Fmean = 0.54 N. Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  13. Recent Investments by NASA's National Force Measurement Technology Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) is a nationwide partnership established in 2008 and sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Evaluation and Test Capabilities (AETC) project to maintain and further develop force measurement capabilities. The NFMTC focuses on force measurement in wind tunnels and provides operational support in addition to conducting balance research. Based on force measurement capability challenges, strategic investments into research tasks are designed to meet the experimental requirements of current and future aerospace research programs and projects. This paper highlights recent and force measurement investments into several areas including recapitalizing the strain-gage balance inventory, developing balance best practices, improving calibration and facility capabilities, and researching potential technologies to advance balance capabilities.

  14. The future of PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Paul G.

    2007-01-01

    How will the future of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) look, and how will this future affect the practice of radiology? We are currently experiencing disruptive innovations that will force an architectural redesign, making the majority of today’s commercial PACS obsolete as the field matures and expands to include imaging throughout the medical enterprise. The common architecture used for PACS cannot handle the massive amounts of data being generated by even current versions of computed tomography and magnetic resonance scanners. If a PACS cannot handle today’s technology, what will happen as the field expands to encompass pathology imaging, cone-beam reconstruction, and multispectral imaging? The ability of these new technologies to enhance research and clinical care will be impaired if PACS architectures are not prepared to support them. In attempting a structured approach to predictions about the future of PACS, we offer projections about the technologies underlying PACS as well as the evolution of standards development and the changing needs of a broad range of medical imaging. Simplified models of the history of the PACS industry are mined for the assumptions they provide about future innovations and trends. The physicist frequently participates in or directs technical assessments for medical equipment, and many physicists have extended these activities to include imaging informatics. It is hoped that by applying these speculative but experienced-based predictions, the interested medical physicist will be better able to take the lead in setting information technology strategies that will help facilities not only prepare for the future but continue to enjoy the benefits of technological innovations without disruptive, expensive, and unexpected changes in architecture. A good PACS strategy can help accelerate the time required for innovations to go from the drawing board to clinical implementation.

  15. The Air Force Global Reach Laydown (GR1): An Allowance Standard Review Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop a Requirements-Based Materiel Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-02

    abscess Requiring Major Excision 213 Cyst/ abscess All cases Including Minor Incision 214 Ingrown Toenails Bilateral w/ Secondary Infections...6520010056888 CURETTE PERIODONTAL GRACEY 13&14 6.250IN DBLE-ENDED EA 1 1 0.130 0.002 $19.70 0.130 0.002 $19.70 C A = Quantity Unchanged E

  16. A force-sensing surgical tool with a proximally located force/torque sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalb, W; Shirinzadeh, B; Smith, J

    2017-03-01

    Robotic surgery has seen a rapid increase in popularity in the last few decades because advantages such as increased accuracy and dexterity can be realized. These systems still lack force-feedback, where such a capability is believed to be beneficial to the surgeon and can improve safety. In this paper a force-feedback enabled surgical robotic system is described in which the developed force-sensing surgical tool is discussed in detail. The developed surgical tool makes use of a proximally located force/torque sensor, which, in contrast to a distally located sensor, requires no miniaturization or sterilizability. Experimental results are presented, and indicate high force sensing accuracies with errors <0.09 N. It is shown that developing a force-sensing surgical tool utilizing a proximally located force/torque sensor is feasible, where a tool outer diameter of 12 mm can be achieved. For future work it is desired to decrease the current tool outer diameter to 10 mm. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Optics and optronics in university courses for officers of the Federal Armed Forces - special curricula and hands-on lessons vs. academic requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    For more than two decades lessons in optics, digital image processing and optronics are compulsory optional subjects and as such integral parts of the courses in mechanical engineering at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg. They are provided by the Chair for Measurement and Information Technology. Historically, the curricula started as typical basic lessons in optics and digital image processing and related sensors. Practical sessions originally concentrated on image processing procedures in Pascal, C and later Matlab. They evolved into a broad portfolio of practical hands-on lessons in lab and field, including high-tech and especially military equipment, but also homemaker style primitive experiments, of which the paper will give a methodical overview. A special topic - as always with optics in education - is the introduction to the various levels of abstraction in conjunction with the highly complex and wide-ranging matter squeezed into only two trimesters - instead of semesters at civil universities - for an audience being subject to strains from both study and duty. The talk will be accompanied by striking multi-media material, which will be also part of the multi-media attachment of the paper.

  18. (Some) Computer Futures: Mainframes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Earl C.

    Possible futures for the world of mainframe computers can be forecast through studies identifying forces of change and their impact on current trends. Some new prospects for the future have been generated by advances in information technology; for example, recent United States successes in applied artificial intelligence (AI) have created new…

  19. Shaping Air Mobility Forces for Future Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    King Air University Press 600 Chennault Circle, Building 1405 Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6010 afri.aupress@us.af.mil http://aupress.au.af.mil...the congressional study’s Persian Gulf scenario.37 Later Defense Department air mobility plans continued the CMMS pat- tern of paring down air mobility

  20. Naval Science & Technology: Enabling the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    corn for disruptive technologies Laser Cooling Spintronics Bz 1st U.S. Intel satellite GRAB Semiconductors GaAs, GaN, SiC GPS...Payoff • Innovative and game-changing • Approved by Corporate Board • Delivers prototype Innovative Naval Prototypes (5-10 Year) Disruptive ... Technologies Free Electron Laser Integrated Topside EM Railgun Sea Base Enablers Tactical Satellite Large Displacement UUV AACUS Directed

  1. Exploring Programmatic Interoperability: Army Future Force Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith , II., James D; Meyers, B. C

    2005-01-01

    .... It describes the background and motivation for the workshop, provides a brief overview of the workshop activities, and highlights the key observations and conclusions obtained through the course...

  2. Clock force. Universe, time, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karb, W.

    2005-01-01

    In a dialog full of esprite two protagonists of the sides of physics and philosophy struggle about answers on great questions. As witnesses occur the great phsicists and philosophers, the theories and discoveries of them Karb recapitulates in easily understandable form and puts together into relation. Karb advertizes for pragmatic and responsible ethics in the sciences. Always within the great theories themselves Karb argumentates that theoretical physics is indeed not at the end, but it should have an end with always new billions expensive collider facilities, which serve lonely for the hybris of scientists

  3. Flexible Methods for Future Force Concept Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gossman, J. R; Mauzy, Rebecca P; Heiden, Charles G; Campbell, Charlotte H; Flynn, Michael R; Lussier, James W; Shadrick, Scott B

    2005-01-01

    .... The Army needs a means to generate, elaborate, refine, describe, test, and validate new concepts relating to doctrine, tactics, techniques, procedures, unit and team organization, job allocation...

  4. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  5. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  6. Command in the Objective Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbeck, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer what type of command will best serve the Army's Objective Force in gaining the initiative, building momentum, and exploiting success to achieve land dominance in the future...

  7. Future climate and surface mass balance of Svalbard glaciers in an RCP8.5 climate scenario: a study with the regional climate model MAR forced by MIROC5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C.; Fettweis, X.; Erpicum, M.

    2015-05-01

    We have performed a future projection of the climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of Svalbard with the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) regional climate model forced by MIROC5 (Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate), following the RCP8.5 scenario at a spatial resolution of 10 km. MAR predicts a similar evolution of increasing surface melt everywhere in Svalbard followed by a sudden acceleration of melt around 2050, with a larger melt increase in the south compared to the north of the archipelago. This melt acceleration around 2050 is mainly driven by the albedo-melt feedback associated with the expansion of the ablation/bare ice zone. This effect is dampened in part as the solar radiation itself is projected to decrease due to a cloudiness increase. The near-surface temperature is projected to increase more in winter than in summer as the temperature is already close to 0 °C in summer. The model also projects a stronger winter west-to-east temperature gradient, related to the large decrease of sea ice cover around Svalbard. By 2085, SMB is projected to become negative over all of Svalbard's glaciated regions, leading to the rapid degradation of the firn layer.

  8. Harmonized Constraints in Software Engineering and Acquisition Process Management Requirements are the Clue to Meet Future Performance Goals Successfully in an Environment of Scarce Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reich, Holger

    2008-01-01

    This MBA project investigates the importance of correctly deriving requirements from the capability gap and operational environment, and translating them into the processes of contracting, software...

  9. The flexibility requirements for power plants with CCS in a future energy system with a large share of intermittent renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A. S.; van den Broek, M.; Seebregts, A.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates flexibility issues of future low-carbon power systems. The short-term power system impacts of intermittent renewables are identified and roughly quantified based on a review of wind integration studies. Next, the flexibility parameters of three types of power plants with CO2

  10. Identifying the ICT challenges of the Agri-Food sector to define the Architectural Requirements for a Future Internet Core Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, C.A.; Wolfert, J.; Sundmaeker, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the specific challenges of the agri-food sector in the light of research carried out in the SmartAgriFood project. Using questionnaires and focus groups, our research identifies a number of business needs and drivers which enable the identification of suitable Future Internet

  11. Design principles and requirements for the ICT of future smart energy systems; Designprinzipien und Anforderungen an die IKT fuer intelligente Energiesysteme der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eger, Kolja [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Mohr, Werner [Nokia Siemens Networks Management International GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The information and communication technology (ICT) is a key enabling technology for Smart Grids. With respect to very short innovation cycles for ICT compared to longer innovation cycles for the transition of the energy system there is a huge challenge to develop and exploit the potential of future ICT and their application in a future intelligent energy system. Different ICT technologies, such as Internet of Things or Cloud Computing are intensively being discussed. They can be summarized under the term ''Future Internet''. The EU project FINSENY is investigating the potential of Future Internet concepts and technologies in particular for Smart Energy systems. A series of design principles and the necessary ICT are developed, which are described in this paper. These design principles such as open interfaces, security-by-design, simplicity, maintenance, auto-configuration and modularity are of general nature. They will remain despite technology developments. Furthermore, several design principles are not only applicable to ICT but they are also related to design principles of intelligent energy systems like decentralized energy generation systems. (orig.)

  12. Modular Structures in a Multinational Force Headquarters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, K; Christie, M

    2004-01-01

    .... It is proposed that future Multinational Force (MNF) military headquarters (HQ) can achieve this flexibility through a modular organizational structure enabled by networked information management and communication technologies...

  13. Innovation for creating a smart future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang M. Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, we live in a dynamic and turbulent global community. The wave of mega-trends, including rapid change in globalization and technological advances, is creating new market forces. For any organization to survive and prosper in such an environment, innovation is imperative. However, innovation is no longer just for creating value to benefit individuals, organizations, or societies. The ultimate purpose of innovation should be much more far reaching, helping create a smart future where people can enjoy the best quality of life possible. Thus, innovation must search for intelligent solutions to tackle major social ills, seek more proactive approaches to predict the uncertain future, and pursue strategies to remove barriers to the smart future. This study explores the detailed requirements of a smart future, including both hardware types and soft social/cultural components.

  14. Big Blue Arrows: Lines of Information and the Transformation Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viall, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    .... Since future forces expect information superiority, the monograph seeks to determine whether future transformation forces can apply the lessons of history to better focus information support during operational maneuver...

  15. Rise and Fall of the First Financial Futures Market in China: The Case of Chinese Government Bond Futures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Chen; Zhongguo Zhou

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the rise and fall of the first financial futures market in China. We cmpare the characteristics in the Chinese Government bond futures market with those in the US T-bond futures market. They differ in market design and structure, market governance, margin requirements, position limits, delivery process, and the way in which the settlement price is calculated. Furthermore, with a unique dataset, we shaw that prior to maturities of govermnent bond futures, traders begun to accumulate significant amounts of long positions for several selected contracts without the intention to offset, forcing short position holders to either purchase deliverable bonds or offset futures at highly inflated prices, causing higher market volatility and price disequilibrium in both spot and futures markets. Arbitrage opportunity arises and the market eventually collapses. The lessons learned from the suspension of the Chinese Government bond futures market offer an invaluable learning experience.

  16. Nuclear Forces from Effective Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, H.

    2011-01-01

    Chiral effective field theory allows for a systematic and model-independent derivation of the forces between nucleons in harmony with the symmetries of the quantum chromodynamics. After a brief review on the current status in the development of the chiral nuclear forces I will focus on the role of the Δ-resonance contributions in the nuclear dynamics.We find improvement in the convergence of the chiral expansion of the nuclear forces if we explicitly take into account the Δ-resonance degrees of freedom. The overall results for two-nucleon forces with and without explicit Δ-resonance degrees of freedom are remarkably similar. We discussed the long- and shorter-range N 3 LO contributions to chiral three-nucleon forces. No additional free parameters appear at this order. There are five different topology classes which contribute to the forces. Three of them describe long-range contributions which constitute the first systematic corrections to the leading 2π exchange that appear at N 2 LO. Another two contributions are of a shorter range and include, additionally to an exchange of pions, also one short-range contact interaction and all corresponding 1/m corrections. The requirement of renormalizability leads to unique expressions for N 3 LO contributions to the three-nucleon force (except for 1/m-corrections). We presented the complete N 2 LO analysis of the nuclear forces with explicit Δ-isobar degrees of freedom. Although the overall results in the isospin-conserving case are very similar in the Δ-less and Δ-full theories, we found a much better convergence in all peripheral partial waves once Δ-resonance is explicitly taken into account. The leading CSB contributions to nuclear forces are proportional to nucleon- and Δ-mass splittings. There appear strong cancellations between the two contributions which at leading order yield weaker V III potentials. This effect is, however, entirely compensated at subleading order such that the results in the theories

  17. Veterinary applications of ionising radiation HERCA Task Force on Veterinary Applications. Main results of the Questionnaire 'National regulatory requirements with regard to veterinary medical applications of ionising radiation' and conclusions of the TF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Berlamont, Jolien; Michalczak, Herbert; Balogh, Lajos; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-11-01

    In the fall of 2012, the subject of radiation protection in veterinary medicine was raised during the meeting of the HERCA Board. Issues with regard to this subject had been brought to the attention of HERCA by the European College of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging (ECVDI). In October 2012, the Board decided to charge a small Task Force (TF) to further explore the issues in this field. This TF drew up a questionnaire which looked at the general radiation protection regulatory requirements in veterinary medicine applications of ionizing radiation. The results of this study showed large differences in the requirements applicable in the HERCA member countries. The TF also noticed the increasing use of more complex imaging procedures and of different radio-therapeutic modalities, which may imply greater risks of exposure of humans to ionising radiation. These results were presented during the HERCA Board meeting in Berlin, Germany and on which the Board decided to establish a Working Group on veterinary applications of ionising radiations (WG Vet). The main results of the Questionnaire 'National regulatory requirements with regard to veterinary medicine applications of ionising radiation' is attached in Appendix

  18. United States Air Force Unmanned Aircraft Systems Flight Plan 2009-2047

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-18

    future challenges facing the USAF and the Joint Force through 2047. Michael B. Donley Secretary of the Air Force - 3 - AJI ¥-Jcf2c .~~~ Norton A...is depicted along a DOTMLPF-P stratified timeline as a colored triangle. Red triangles represent actions that require senior leader involvement to...Flag, and Red Flag. Joint UAS training may lead to greater training efficiencies and standardization. Training standards may be applied based on the

  19. 24 CFR 266.505 - Regulatory agreement requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... force for the duration of the insured mortgage and note or bond. The Regulatory Agreement must include a... Project Management and Servicing § 266.505 Regulatory agreement requirements. (a) General. (1) The HFA... payments due under the mortgage and note/bond. (2) Where necessary, establish a sinking fund for future...

  20. Nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinde, K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the present status of the meson theory of nuclear forces is reviewed. After some introductory remarks about the relevance of the meson exchange concept in the era of QCD and the empirical features of the NN interaction, the exciting history of nuclear forces is briefly outlined. In the main part, the author gives the basic physical ideas and sketch the derivation of the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force, in the Feynman approach. Secondly we describe, in a qualitative way, various necessary extensions, leading to the Bonn model of the N interaction. Finally, points to some interesting pen questions connected with the extended quark structure of the hadrons, which are topics of current research activity

  1. Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters......, and validate the final force field, Alternatives to force field derivation are discussed briefly....

  2. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, R.

    1996-06-01

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico

  3. U.S. aerospace industry opinion of the effect of computer-aided prediction-design technology on future wind-tunnel test requirements for aircraft development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treon, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the U.S. aerospace industry in late 1977 suggests that there will be an increasing use of computer-aided prediction-design technology (CPD Tech) in the aircraft development process but that, overall, only a modest reduction in wind-tunnel test requirements from the current level is expected in the period through 1995. Opinions were received from key spokesmen in 23 of the 26 solicited major companies or corporate divisions involved in the design and manufacture of nonrotary wing aircraft. Development programs for nine types of aircraft related to test phases and wind-tunnel size and speed range were considered.

  4. Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory convened the ILC Citizens' Task Force to provide guidance and advice to the laboratory to ensure that community concerns and ideas are included in all public aspects of planning and design for a proposed future accelerator, the International Linear Collider. In this report, the members of the Task Force describe the process they used to gather and analyze information on all aspects of the proposed accelerator and its potential location at Fermilab in northern Illinois. They present the conclusions and recommendations they reached as a result of the learning process and their subsequent discussions and deliberations. While the Task Force was charged to provide guidance on the ILC, it became clear during the process that the high cost of the proposed accelerator made a near-term start for the project at Fermilab unlikely. Nevertheless, based on a year of extensive learning and dialogue, the Task Force developed a series of recommendations for Fermilab to consider as the laboratory develops all successor projects to the Tevatron. The Task Force recognizes that bringing a next-generation particle physics project to Fermilab will require both a large international effort and the support of the local community. While the Task Force developed its recommendations in response to the parameters of a future ILC, the principles they set forth apply directly to any large project that may be conceived at Fermilab, or at other laboratories, in the future. With this report, the Task Force fulfills its task of guiding Fermilab from the perspective of the local community on how to move forward with a large-scale project while building positive relationships with surrounding communities. The report summarizes the benefits, concerns and potential impacts of bringing a large-scale scientific project to northern Illinois.

  5. 78 FR 75334 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... of the Air Force AGENCY: Director of Administration and Management, DoD. ACTION: Notice of advisory... requirements of 41 CFR 102-3.150(a) were not met. Accordingly, the Advisory Committee Management Officer for... are to (1) assess the advantages and disadvantages of contending approaches to the future structure of...

  6. Force.com enterprise architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Fawcett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book is for advanced Force.com developers and architects who need to understand the Salesforce platform from the perspective of enterprise-level requirements. You should have an existing understanding of Apex and Visualforce. Those familiar with other enterprise software ecosystems will also find this book ideal as they adopt Force.com.

  7. Jobs: Ohio's Future. Creating a High Performance Workforce for Ohio. A Comprehensive Workforce Development Strategy Developed by the Governor's Human Resources Advisory Council. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Bureau of Employment Services, Columbus.

    For a competitive advantage, Ohio must be sensitive to three national trends that will reshape its work force: the growing gap between the skill requirements of jobs and workers' capabilities, the slow growth of the labor force, and demands of a global economy. The future competitiveness of Ohio's economy will depend on its capacity to support the…

  8. Evaluation of New Chemical Entities as Substrates of Liver Transporters in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Response to Regulatory Requirements and Future Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudaira, Noriko

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of drug candidates as hepatic transporter substrates. Recently, research on the applications of hepatic transporters in the pharmaceutical industry has improved to meet the requirements of the regulatory guidelines for the evaluation of drug interactions. To identify the risk of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions at an early stage of drug development, we used a strategy of reviewing the in vivo animal pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution data obtained in the discovery stage together with the in vitro data obtained for regulatory submission. In the context of nonclinical evaluation of new chemical entities as medicines, we believe that transporter studies are emerging as a key strategy to predict their pharmacological and toxicological effects. In combination with the recent progress in systems approaches, the estimation of effective concentrations in the target tissues, by using mathematical models to describe the transporter-mediated distribution and elimination, has enabled us to identify promising compounds for clinical development at the discovery stage. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Blocking of Brute Force Attack

    OpenAIRE

    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it co...

  10. Thermal insulation with glazings and windows. Implementation of requirements and outlook on future development; Waermeschutz mit Verglasungen und Fenstern. Umsetzung der Anforderungen und Ausblick auf Weiterentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, H. [Institut fuer Fenstertechnik e.V., Rosenheim (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    In the past, windows and glazings were often considered as being a weak point as regards thermal insulation in the external envelope of a building. Increasing demands on thermal insulation in construction have been seen as a challenge by all those involved. The development of new glazings and of improved frames made it possible to use large sized windows and glazed facade elements even after the new Heat Loss Regulation (Waermeschutzverordnung) dated 1st January 1995 came into effect. In this connection, the possible consideration of energy gain from the outside via transparent building elements is very important. The individual components of windows, window elements and light facades such as frames, glazings, panels and additional components e.g. roller shutters have to be designed very precisely now. Apart from thermal properties the other criteria such as fire resistance, sound insulation, solar protection and safety have to be taken into account. The new Building Regulations of the Laender (Landesbauordnung) and the Building Products Regulation (Bauregelliste) of the Deutsches Institut fuer Bautechnik regulate which evidence of usability and conformity are necessary for the various building products such as frame, glass, window, roller shutter, radiator guards, etc. For the time being, it is still mainly referred to national regulations. In future, an increasing number of European standards will be completed and also implemented. There will also be some decisive changes as regards windows and glazings. To a larger extent the effects of thermal bridges will be taken into account. For determining thermal properties there increasingly exists the possibility of carrying out calculations. As regards thermal insulation today, windows and glazings are highly developed building products when correctly designed and manufactured. These building products enable energy saving construction also of large sized dimensions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fenster und Verglasungen wurden in

  11. Low force cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P R

    1996-07-01

    The marginal adaptation of full coverage restorations is adversely affected by the introduction of luting agents of various minimum film thicknesses during the cementation process. The increase in the marginal opening may have long-term detrimental effects on the health of both pulpal and periodontal tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of varying seating forces (2.5, 12.5, 25 N), venting, and cement types on post-cementation marginal elevation in cast crowns. A standardized cement space of 40 microns was provided between a machined gold crown and a stainless steel die. An occlusal vent was placed that could be opened or closed. The post-cementation crown elevation was measured, following the use of two commercially available capsulated dental cements (Phosphacap, and Ketac-cem Applicap). The results indicate that only the combination of Ketac-Cem Applicap and crown venting produced post-cementation crown elevation of less than 20 microns when 12.5 N seating force was used. Higher forces (25 N) and venting were required for comparable seating when using Phosphacap (19 microns). The amount of force required to allow maximum seating of cast crowns appears to be cement specific, and is reduced by effective venting procedures.

  12. Energy futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides fifteen of the futures industry's leading authorities with broader background in both theory and practice of energy futures trading in this updated text. The authors review the history of the futures market and the fundamentals of trading, hedging, and technical analysis; then they update you with the newest trends in energy futures trading - natural gas futures, options, regulations, and new information services. The appendices outline examples of possible contracts and their construction

  13. Water as the future clash for civilizations: a fresh conceptual approach for a Global Trinity? Water Scarcity and Future Conflict- consideration of water scarcity as a primary cause of conflict in the future requiring an adjustment to the Western approach to threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    conflicts of recent years have arguably become an ideological obsession for some, whilst perhaps fuelled as more than this as demonstrated by the ready...dairy, requiring more water. Producing 1kg of rice requires approximately 3500L of water, 1kg of beef requires circa 15000L, and a cup of coffee 140L

  14. Futuring for Future Ready Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Miguel A.

    2018-01-01

    Futurists and foresight professionals offer several guiding principles for thinking about the future. These principles can help people to think about the future and become more powerful players in shaping the preferred futures they want for themselves and their communities. The principles also fit in well as strategies to support the Future Ready…

  15. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  16. Invisible force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Astronomers have compiled evidence that what we always thought of as the actual universe- all the planets, stars, galaxies and matter in space -represents a mere 4% of what's out there. The rest is dark: 23% is called dark matter, 73% dark energy. Scientists have ideas about what dark matter is, but hardly any understanding about dark energy. This has led to rethinking traditional physics and cosmology. Assuming the existence of dark matter and that the law of gravitation is universal, two teams of astrophysicists, from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Australian National University, analysed the universe's growth and to their surprise both concluded that the universe expansion is not slowing but speeding up. If the dominant force of evolution isn't gravity what is it?

  17. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D

    2018-01-30

    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  18. PRN 94-9: Announcing the Formation of Two Industry-Wide Task Forces: Agricultural Reentry Task Force and Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice announces two industry-wide Task Forces being formed in response to generic exposure data requirements. It contains EPA's policy on a registrant's options for, and responsibilities when joining Task Force as a way to satisfy data requirements.

  19. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  20. Integrating Contractors into the Logistics Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrell, Ronald G

    2006-01-01

    ... a panacea. For a combatant commander to effectively integrate them with his military force requires an understanding of the operational environment, contractor capabilities, acceptable levels of risk...

  1. Direct measurements of intermolecular forces by chemical force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezenov, Dmitri Vitalievich

    1999-12-01

    changes in ionization state on SAM surfaces. The phase contrast in tapping mode AFM between chemically distinct monolayer regions and corresponding adhesion forces were found to be directly correlated. Thus, both friction and intermittent contact CFM images could be interpreted in terms of the strength of intermolecular interactions. CFM was also used to probe biomolecular interactions. Separation forces between complementary oligonucleotide strands were significantly larger than the forces measured between noncomplementary strands and were consistent with the unbinding of a single DNA duplex. CFM data provided a direct measure of the forces required to elastically deform, structurally-transform and separate well-defined, synthetic duplexes into single strand oligonucleotides.

  2. Future Computer Requirements for Computational Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in computational aerodynamics are discussed as well as motivations for and potential benefits of a National Aerodynamic Simulation Facility having the capability to solve fluid dynamic equations at speeds two to three orders of magnitude faster than presently possible with general computers. Two contracted efforts to define processor architectures for such a facility are summarized.

  3. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  4. Offshore petroleum engineering task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelokke, M.

    1999-05-01

    The Offshore Petroleum Engineering Task Force was established in July 1998 in response to concerns about Newfoundland and Labrador's share of offshore petroleum engineering activity, with the aim of determining the current capability of the local sector, the demand for such companies and individuals until the year 2010, their capability to grow over that time-frame, and requirements in order to achieve that growth. The report summarizes the analysis undertaken by the Task Force as well as the conclusions it reached and associated recommendations. Section two provides an overview of the offshore engineering activity, including its origins, structure, and key success factors, and its also provides a profile of the industry, internationally, in Canada and in Newfoundland. Section three presents an analysis of the future demand for offshore engineering in Newfoundland until 2010, based on three development scenarios. Section four based on a Consulting Engineers of Newfoundland and Labrador (CENL) survey, establishes the present offshore engineering capacity and capabilities within the province. Section five examines current education and training programs and their ability to respond to future demands. Section six summarizes the conclusions of the analysis and presents recommendations designed to facilitate and promote the development of the local offshore engineering industry. 6 figs

  5. From Territorial Defence to Expeditionary Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe; Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2016-01-01

    After the Cold War the Danish Armed Forces moved away from its traditional role of territorial defense of Danish soil and towards a role as a globally deployable expeditionary force, imbedded with UK and/or US forces. This shift in national strategy amplified the requirements of the young officer...

  6. Force feedback and basic laparoscopic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmarra, M.K.; Dankelman, J.; Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.; Jansen, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background - Not much is known about the exact role offorce feedback in laparoscopy. This study aimed to determine whether force feedback influences movements of instruments during training in laparoscopic tasks and whether force feedback is required for training in basic laparoscopic force

  7. The task force process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several open-quotes big pictureclose quotes issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald

  8. A Systematic Review of HIV Risk Behaviors and Trauma Among Forced and Unforced Migrant Populations from Low and Middle-Income Countries: State of the Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy; Aifah, Angela; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current systematic review is to examine the relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors among both forced and unforced migrant populations from low and middle income countries (LMIC). We conducted a review of studies published from 1995 to 2014. Data were extracted related to (1) the relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors, (2) methodological approach, (3) assessment methods, and (4) differences noted between forced and unforced migrants. A total of 340 records were retrieved with 24 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Our review demonstrated an overall relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors among migrant populations in LMIC, specifically with sexual violence and sexual risk behavior. However, findings from 10 studies were not in full support of the relationship. Findings from the review suggest that additional research using more rigorous methods is critically needed to understand the nature of the relationship experienced by this key-affected population.

  9. The Future of Gravity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.

  10. Molecular Force Spectroscopy on Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Molecular force spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study how mechanics regulates biology, especially the mechanical regulation of molecular interactions and its impact on cellular functions. This force-driven methodology has uncovered a wealth of new information of the physical chemistry of molecular bonds for various biological systems. The new concepts, qualitative and quantitative measures describing bond behavior under force, and structural bases underlying these phenomena have substantially advanced our fundamental understanding of the inner workings of biological systems from the nanoscale (molecule) to the microscale (cell), elucidated basic molecular mechanisms of a wide range of important biological processes, and provided opportunities for engineering applications. Here, we review major force spectroscopic assays, conceptual developments of mechanically regulated kinetics of molecular interactions, and their biological relevance. We also present current challenges and highlight future directions.

  11. Dynamic Commitment: Wargaming Projected Forces Against the QDR Defense Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Clarence

    1997-01-01

    .... The Dynamic Commitment Wargame Series informed participants regarding the expected future demand on forces, such that Services were better able to articulate the effect of the examined force options...

  12. Spatially Refined Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is an important metric for assessing potential climate impacts of future emissions changes. However, the radiative consequences of emissions perturbations are not readily quantified nor well understood at the level of detail necessary...

  13. Growing the Idaho economy : moving into the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    A report on transportation and the possible future economy of the State of Idaho from 2010 to 2030, including : current assets to leverage, driving forces shaping the future, long-range economic opportunities for Idaho including : four future scenari...

  14. Future Network Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Bozorgebrahimi, Kurosh; Belter, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies key requirements for NRENs towards future network architectures that become apparent as users become more mobile and have increased expectations in terms of availability of data. In addition, cost saving requirements call for federated use of, in particular, the optical...

  15. Space and Air Force: Rhetoric or Reality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cashin, James

    1999-01-01

    ... to meet requirements set forth in the National Security Strategy (NSS). Joint Vision 2010, the Air Force's Global Engagement, and several long-range plans all establish requirements that can only be fulfilled through the application of spacepower...

  16. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  17. Future food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  18. 12th Air Force > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force AOR Travel Info News prevnext Slide show 76,410 pounds of food delivered to Haiti 12th Air Force the French Air Force, Colombian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Belgian Air Force, Brazilian Air Force

  19. Toward Unity of Command for Multinational Air Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asjes, David

    1998-01-01

    To assure unity of command in future multinational air operations, combatant commanders must embrace the necessity of multinational air forces, maximize the integration of allied officers within air...

  20. Future Textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Degn; Jensen, Hanne Troels Fusvad; Hansen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Magasinet Future Textiles samler resultaterne fra projektet Future Textiles, der markedsfører området intelligente tekstiler. I magasinet kan man læse om trends, drivkræfter, udfordringer samt få ideer til nye produkter inden for intelligente tekstiler. Områder som bæredygtighed og kundetilpasning...

  1. Innovating to integrate the intangibles into the learning Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Benjamin T; Weigel, Fred K; Overstreet, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    United States federal law and other regulations require the US military services to provide professional military education to their forces. Meeting that requirement will become increasingly difficult with the absence of a federal government budget, significant cuts to defense spending, and expected future cuts to both defense spending and manpower. Additionally, the operations tempo remains high despite the withdrawal of troops from Iraq and the planned withdrawal from Afghanistan. The resulting time and budget constraints will likely make it more difficult for the services to provide every member with the opportunity to compete for positions in coveted in-residence professional military education programs. Thus, the Air Force is considering a new lifetime learning approach to professional military education. As the Air Force seeks to develop its new paradigm, we must understand what benefits of the current system should be retained and what drawbacks should be allayed. Unfortunately, there is little research in this area. We content analyze data collected from Air Force officers attending in-residence professional military education, synthesize our findings with education and technology literature, and suggest innovative technologies that can maximize the intangible benefits and minimize the drawbacks of professional military education. The blended approach we present can create a richer, more meaningful learning experience for the service member, while simultaneously lowering the cost per member and providing greater opportunity to attend in-residence professional military education.

  2. Manufacturing Technology (MATES) II. Task Order 0006: Air Force Technology and Industrial Base Research Sub-Task 07: Future Advances in Electronic Materials and Processes-Flexible Hybrid Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    of Michigan has tuned the optical capabilities of graphene for future military applications to create infrared ( IR ) contact lenses. In a paper ...combination of liquid ink and rubber printed in channels that allowed the ink to dry in place on the paper . [332] Various types of previously...printing on to a web (reel/roll) of paper is commonly used for high speed printing of newspapers and magazines. Often called offset printing, offset

  3. Futures Brokerages Face uncertain Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2005 was a quiet year for China's futures market.After four new trading products, including cotton, fuel oil and corn, were launched on the market in 2004, the development of the market seemed to stagnate. The trade value of the futures market totaled 13.4 trillion yuan (US$ 1.67 trillion) in 2005, down 8.5 percent year-on-year. Although the decrease is quite small and the trade value was still the second highest in the market's history, the majority of futures brokerage firms were running in the red. In some areas, up to 80 percent of futures companies made losses.

  4. Analysis 6. Component requirements, competition and export. A survey of innovation related to building components; Analyse 6. Komponentkrav, konkurrence og eksport. En kortlaegning af innovation i byggekomponenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend

    2011-02-15

    The report collates several sub-analyses about feasible developments in relation to improved energy requirements for the most important building parts, components and installations for low-energy buildings. The aim is to achieve 75% reduction of energy consumption in the future building class 2020. The findings will contribute to the plans of introducing new building component requirements to force Danish manufacturers to use innovative solutions and to force manufacturers from other countries to market the best products only. (LN)

  5. Construction plant requirements for nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.; Harris, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and developing the temporary construction plant facilities for a nuclear project is equivalent to providing utility services for a small city. Provision of adequate facilities is an important factor in the productivity of both the manual and non-manual work force. This paper summarizes construction facility requirements for a two unit (1300 MWe each) nuclear project. Civil, mechanical and electrical facilities are described, including design, installation and operation. Assignment of responsibility for specific work tasks regarding the construction plant is also discussed. In presenting this data, the authors seek to transfer experience and assist in the provision of adequate facilities on future projects

  6. Is Gravity an Entropic Force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde’s argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.

  7. Forced cooling of a nuclear waste repository mine drift - a scoping analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R D [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1982-12-01

    Nuclear waste repositories, with decay heat generation beneath the mine drift floors, are force-cooled with air so that re-entrance is possible many years after the waste has been buried. A numerical model has been developed which uses heat transfer coefficients as input. It has been demonstrated that mixed (forced and free) convective and surface roughness effects are significant and must be included in future experiments if reliable predictions are to be made of the time required to cool the repository. For example, when repository mine drifts in volcanic tuff are force-cooled, with forced convection being the only energy transport mechanism, it takes approx.= 0.1 year to cool the mine surface to a safe temperature. However, when mixed convection is the primary transport mechanism it takes approx.= 1.0 year to cool the mine. In addition to mixed convection, other effects are delineated.

  8. Air pollution radiative forcing from specific emissions sectors at 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Nadine; Shindell, Drew T.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Streets, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of short-lived air pollutants can contribute to mitigate global warming in the near-term with ancillary benefits to human health. However, the radiative forcings of short-lived air pollutants depend on the location and source type of the precursor emissions. We apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies atmospheric composition-climate model to quantify near-future (2030 A1B) global annual mean radiative forcing by ozone (O3) and sulfate from six emissions sectors in seven geographic regions. At 2030 the net forcings from O3, sulfate, black and organic carbon, and indirect CH4 effects for each emission sector are (in mWm-2) biomass burning, +95; domestic, +68; transportation, +67; industry, -131; and power, -224. Biomass burning emissions in East Asia and central and southern Africa, domestic biofuel emissions in East Asia, south Asia, and central and southern Africa, and transportation emissions in Europe and North America have large net positive forcings and are therefore attractive targets to counter global warming. Power and industry emissions from East Asia, south Asia, and north Africa and the Middle East have large net negative forcings. Therefore air quality control measures that affect these regional sectors require offsetting climate measures to avoid a warming impact. Linear relationships exist between O3 forcing and biomass burning and domestic biofuel CO precursor emissions independent of region with sensitivity of +0.2 mWm-2/TgCO. Similarly, linear relationships exist between sulfate forcing and SO2 precursor emissions that depend upon region but are independent of sector with sensitivities ranging from -3 to -12 mWm-2/TgS.

  9. Perspective: Ab initio force field methods derived from quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Guidez, Emilie B.; Bertoni, Colleen; Gordon, Mark S.

    2018-03-01

    It is often desirable to accurately and efficiently model the behavior of large molecular systems in the condensed phase (thousands to tens of thousands of atoms) over long time scales (from nanoseconds to milliseconds). In these cases, ab initio methods are difficult due to the increasing computational cost with the number of electrons. A more computationally attractive alternative is to perform the simulations at the atomic level using a parameterized function to model the electronic energy. Many empirical force fields have been developed for this purpose. However, the functions that are used to model interatomic and intermolecular interactions contain many fitted parameters obtained from selected model systems, and such classical force fields cannot properly simulate important electronic effects. Furthermore, while such force fields are computationally affordable, they are not reliable when applied to systems that differ significantly from those used in their parameterization. They also cannot provide the information necessary to analyze the interactions that occur in the system, making the systematic improvement of the functional forms that are used difficult. Ab initio force field methods aim to combine the merits of both types of methods. The ideal ab initio force fields are built on first principles and require no fitted parameters. Ab initio force field methods surveyed in this perspective are based on fragmentation approaches and intermolecular perturbation theory. This perspective summarizes their theoretical foundation, key components in their formulation, and discusses key aspects of these methods such as accuracy and formal computational cost. The ab initio force fields considered here were developed for different targets, and this perspective also aims to provide a balanced presentation of their strengths and shortcomings. Finally, this perspective suggests some future directions for this actively developing area.

  10. Nuclear forces and high-performance computing: The perfect match

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, T; Walker-Loud, A

    2009-01-01

    High-performance computing is now enabling the calculation of certain hadronic interaction parameters directly from Quantum Chromodynamics, the quantum field theory that governs the behavior of quarks and gluons and is ultimately responsible for the nuclear strong force. In this paper we briefly describe the state of the field and show how other aspects of hadronic interactions will be ascertained in the near future. We give estimates of computational requirements needed to obtain these goals, and outline a procedure for incorporating these results into the broader nuclear physics community.

  11. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  12. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  13. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  14. Sexy is what you make it: organizational culture and U.S. Army Special Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Hawk, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) are the most highly trained, best equipped, and most seasoned soldiers to which the United States can turn to achieve national security objectives. The future, however, will require more indirect application of SF, through special warfare operations (e.g., UW, FID, etc.), in a host of hostile and undefined areas around the globe. This manner of employment is a change in emphasis from the direct combat ...

  15. Force and Directional Force Modulation Effects on Accuracy and Variability in Low-Level Pinch Force Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangsoo; Spirduso, Waneen; Eakin, Tim; Abraham, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    The authors investigated how varying the required low-level forces and the direction of force change affect accuracy and variability of force production in a cyclic isometric pinch force tracking task. Eighteen healthy right-handed adult volunteers performed the tracking task over 3 different force ranges. Root mean square error and coefficient of variation were higher at lower force levels and during minimum reversals compared with maximum reversals. Overall, the thumb showed greater root mean square error and coefficient of variation scores than did the index finger during maximum reversals, but not during minimum reversals. The observed impaired performance during minimum reversals might originate from history-dependent mechanisms of force production and highly coupled 2-digit performance.

  16. Model Testing of Forces in the Reflector Joint and Mooring Forces on Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James

    This report aims to present the results of a test series analysing the forces in the redesigned reflector joint and the forces in the main mooring link. The resluts presented are intended to be used by WD project partners, for the design and construction of the joint on the prototype Wave Dragon...... at Nissum Bredning and for future North Sea scale Wave Dragon. Lengths, forces and other dimentions presented are scaled to the North sea Wave Dragon unless otherwise specified....

  17. Future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    International involvement in particle physics is what the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) is all about. At the latest Future Perspectives meeting at Brookhaven from 5-10 October (after a keynote speech by doyen Viktor Weisskopf, who regretted the emergence of 'a nationalistic trend'), ICFA reviewed progress and examined its commitments in the light of the evolving world particle physics scene. Particular aims were to review worldwide accelerator achievements and plans, to survey the work of the four panels, and to discuss ICFA's special role in future cooperation in accelerator construction and use, and in research and development work for both accelerators and for detectors

  18. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  19. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  20. Future Savvy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Adam

    There's no shortage of predictions available to organizations looking to anticipate and profit from future events or trends. Apparently helpful forecasts are ubiquitous in everyday communications such as newspapers and business magazines, and in specialized sources such as government and think......-tank forecasts, consultant reports, and stock-market guides. These resources are crucial, but they are also of very mixed quality. How can decision-makers know which predictions to take seriously, which to be wary of, and which to throw out entirely? Future Savvy provides analytical filters to judging predictive...... systematic "forecast filtering" to reveal strengths and weakness in the predictions they face. Future Savvy empowers both business and policy/government decision-makers to use forecasts wisely and so improve their judgment in anticipating opportunities, avoiding threats, and managing uncertainty....

  1. Energy Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  2. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1998-01-01

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  3. Bitcoin futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Søren Bundgaard

    2018-01-01

    Med introduktionen af et futures-marked er Bitcoin-eksponering blevet tilgængelig for en bredere gruppe af investorer, som hidtil ikke har kunnet eller villet tilgå det underliggende marked for Bitcoin. Artiklen finder, at kontrakterne umiddelbart favoriserer spekulanter på bekostning af hedgers og...

  4. Future of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented by the Ad Hoc Panel on the Future of Nuclear Science on its assessment of the scientific objectives and unexplored questions of nuclear science and recommendations of the manpower, funding, and facilities required to realize its full potential. Nuclear research and its facilities and budgetary, sociological, and application aspects of this research are considered

  5. Estimation of excitation forces for wave energy converters control using pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalik, O.; Zou, S.; Robinett, R.; Bacelli, G.; Wilson, D.

    2017-08-01

    Most control algorithms of wave energy converters require prediction of wave elevation or excitation force for a short future horizon, to compute the control in an optimal sense. This paper presents an approach that requires the estimation of the excitation force and its derivatives at present time with no need for prediction. An extended Kalman filter is implemented to estimate the excitation force. The measurements in this approach are selected to be the pressures at discrete points on the buoy surface, in addition to the buoy heave position. The pressures on the buoy surface are more directly related to the excitation force on the buoy as opposed to wave elevation in front of the buoy. These pressure measurements are also more accurate and easier to obtain. A singular arc control is implemented to compute the steady-state control using the estimated excitation force. The estimated excitation force is expressed in the Laplace domain and substituted in the control, before the latter is transformed to the time domain. Numerical simulations are presented for a Bretschneider wave case study.

  6. Development of a Refined Space Vehicle Rollout Forcing Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, George; Tucker, Jon-Michael; Valle, Gerard; Grady, Robert; Schliesing, John; Fahling, James; Emory, Benjamin; Armand, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, American manned spaceflight vehicles and the associated launch platforms have been transported from final assembly to the launch pad via a pre-launch phase called rollout. The rollout environment is rich with forced harmonics and higher order effects can be used for extracting structural dynamics information. To enable this utilization, processing tools are needed to move from measured and analytical data to dynamic metrics such as transfer functions, mode shapes, modal frequencies, and damping. This paper covers the range of systems and tests that are available to estimate rollout forcing functions for the Space Launch System (SLS). The specific information covered in this paper includes: the different definitions of rollout forcing functions; the operational and developmental data sets that are available; the suite of analytical processes that are currently in-place or in-development; and the plans and future work underway to solve two immediate problems related to rollout forcing functions. Problem 1 involves estimating enforced accelerations to drive finite element models for developing design requirements for the SLS class of launch vehicles. Problem 2 involves processing rollout measured data in near real time to understand structural dynamics properties of a specific vehicle and the class to which it belongs.

  7. THE GAMER GENERATION – FUTURE DRONE PILOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drones or unmanned piloted vehicles represent the pinnacle of ranged weapon technology that ensure a fast strike, low cost and with almost no boots on the ground. This type of new technology also brings a new requirement for governments that use these devices, a requirement that dated air force training cannot offer, but a mobile phone or controller can offer it wholesome. The idea of downplaying war to sound very hip and cool and fun for the younger crowd has been around since the 1970’s, when the Vietnam war recruiters were using the idea that war was a good investment for children and teens, because it offered them a future-proof job and access to entertaining tools, but kept out the negative aspects of participating in an armed conflict. Now we see a resurgence in the way military recruiters use such trends to draw in the crowd. In this regard, the situation of using children and teens, or more precisely ones who have video-games as a time investing hobby, has been considered by the regulated armed forces for some time now, but due to international treaties that govern child protection this has been deemed impossible to accomplish. Should child protection treaties be revised or not, and if they should, could drones be the entry point for taking part in armed conflicts or other armed situations?

  8. Dental work force strategies during a period of change and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L J

    2001-12-01

    Both supply and demand influence the ability of the dental work force to adequately and efficiently provide dental care to a U.S. population growing in size and diversity. Major changes are occurring on both sides of the dental care market. Among factors shaping the demand for dental care are changing disease patterns, shifting population demographics, the extent and features of third-party payment, and growth of the economy and the population. The capacity of the dental work force to provide care is influenced by enhancements of productivity and numbers of dental health personnel, as well as their demographic and practice characteristics. The full impact of these changes is difficult to predict. The dentist-to-population ratio does not reflect all the factors that must be considered to develop an effective dental work force policy. Nationally, the dental work force is likely to be adequate for the next several years, but regional work force imbalances appear to exist and may get worse. Against this backdrop of change and uncertainty, future dental work force strategies should strive for short-term responsiveness while avoiding long-term inflexibility. Trends in the work force must be continually monitored. Thorough analysis is required, and action should be taken when necessary.

  9. Interfacial force measurements using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can not only image the topography of surfaces at atomic resolution, but can also measure accurately the different interaction forces, like repulsive, adhesive and lateral existing between an AFM tip and the sample surface. Based on AFM, various extended techniques have

  10. High Cable Forces Deteriorate Pinch Force Control in Voluntary-Closing Body-Powered Prostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hichert

    Full Text Available It is generally asserted that reliable and intuitive control of upper-limb prostheses requires adequate feedback of prosthetic finger positions and pinch forces applied to objects. Body-powered prostheses (BPPs provide the user with direct proprioceptive feedback. Currently available BPPs often require high cable operation forces, which complicates control of the forces at the terminal device. The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of high cable forces on object manipulation with voluntary-closing prostheses.Able-bodied male subjects were fitted with a bypass-prosthesis with low and high cable force settings for the prehensor. Subjects were requested to grasp and transfer a collapsible object as fast as they could without dropping or breaking it. The object had a low and a high breaking force setting.Subjects conducted significantly more successful manipulations with the low cable force setting, both for the low (33% more and high (50% object's breaking force. The time to complete the task was not different between settings during successful manipulation trials.High cable forces lead to reduced pinch force control during object manipulation. This implies that low cable operation forces should be a key design requirement for voluntary-closing BPPs.

  11. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  12. Future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Topics presented concerning the future developments in risk analysis are: safety goals, US severe accident policy, code developments, research programs, analyses and operation action, linking with the deterministic analyses. Principle consideration in risk is defined as protection of both general population, and nearby residents. The principal goal should be consistent with risk of other man-caused activities, the cost benefit after minimum safety levels are achieved, and proportional to benefits to be gained

  13. BUILDING AN EFFECTIVE SALES FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building an effective sales force starts with selecting good salespeople, but good salespeople are very difficult to find. The reason for this is that most sales jobs are very demanding and require a great deal from the salesperson. There are many different types of sales jobs. Before it can hire salespeople, each company must do a careful job analysis to see what particular types of selling and other skills are necessary for each sales job. One task of the market planner is to establish clear objectives each year for the entire sales force, for each region, each sales office, and each salesperson. Sales jobs are different from in-house jobs in some significant ways. Nevertheless, each company must continually work on building and maintaining an effective sales force using the following steps: recruitment, selection, training, compensation and evaluation of each salesperson.

  14. Developing Adaptive Proficiency in Special Forces Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Susan S; Mueller-Hanson, Rose A; Dorsey, David W; Pulakos, Elaine D; Wisecarver, Michelle M; Deagle, Edwin A., III; Mendini, Kip G

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive proficiency is critical for operating in the dynamic Special Forces (SF) mission environment and a recent focus on this requirement has resulted in a greater emphasis on adaptability in current training for SF...

  15. Effectively Managing the Air Force Enterprise Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharkey, Jamie P

    2005-01-01

    The Air Force is developing and implementing an enterprise architecture to meet the Clinger-Cohen Act's requirement that all federal agencies use an architecture to guide their information technology (IT) investments...

  16. The Canadian Forces Recruitment/Attrition Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wait, Tracey

    1998-01-01

    ...). This model is designed to look at both demand, that is what recruitment is required to meet a Canadian Forces human resource scenario, and supply, that is what is the potential recruitable population...

  17. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 4, Spring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Martin J. Peters, Jr. Calvin B. Kelley Art Direction Typography and Design Division Government Printing Office Joint Force Quarterly is published by...within larger organizations. For example, the concept 6 JFQ / Spring 1994 of the combined joint task force for Europe is designed to provide just such...or financial, may be the shared outcome for all parties to future conflicts. The image of war, shaped over centuries, is precise, graphic , and

  18. Effects of force reflection on servomanipulator task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Moore, W.E.; Herndon, J.N.; Weil, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports results of a testing program that assessed the impact of force reflection on servomanipulator task performance. The testing program compared three force-reflection levels: 4 to 1 (four units of force on the slave produce one unit of force at the master controller), 1 to 1, and infinity to 1 (no force reflection). Time required to complete tasks, rate of occurrence of errors, the maximum force applied to task components, and variability in forces during completion of representative remote handling tasks were used as dependent variables. Operators exhibited lower error rates, lower peak forces, and more consistent application of forces using force reflection than they did without it. These data support the hypothesis that force reflection provides useful information for servomanipulator operators

  19. Forces in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  20. Future climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Croce, A.

    1991-01-01

    According to George Woodwell, founder of the Woods Hole Research Center, due the combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation and accelerated respiration, the net annual increase of carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, to the 750 billion tonnes already present in the earth's atmosphere, is in the order of 3 to 5 billion tonnes. Around the world, scientists, investigating the probable effects of this increase on the earth's future climate, are now formulating coupled air and ocean current models which take account of water temperature and salinity dependent carbon dioxide exchange mechanisms acting between the atmosphere and deep layers of ocean waters

  1. Malaysia and forced migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzura Idris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  2. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  3. Three-nucleon forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, P.U.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries toward calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian. They represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from genuine two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the description of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces. (author)

  4. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark

    1998-01-01

    .... This runs counter to the popular belief that strategic lift is the limiting constraint. The study begins by highlighting the genesis of the military's current force projection strategy and the resulting importance of rapid force deployments...

  5. Artificial intelligence: the future in nuclear plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgate, G.

    1984-01-01

    The role of robotics and remote handling equipment in future nuclear power plant maintenance activities is discussed in the context of artificial intelligence applications. Special requirements manipulators, control systems, and man-machine interfaces for nuclear applications are noted. Tasks might include inspection with cameras, eddy current probes, and leak detectors; the collection of material samples; radiation monitoring; and the disassembly, repair and reassembly of a variety of system components. A robot with vision and force sensing and an intelligent control system that can access a knowledge base is schematically described. Recent advances in image interpretation systems are also discussed

  6. Understrength Air Force Officer Career Fields. A Force Management Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    LtCol John Crown (DPSA). In addition, we had very helpful interviews with Mr. Vaughan Blackstone (DPAPP) and Mr. Dennis Miller (DPPAO). Also at...problems in managing personnel assignments. First, there is a high " tax " for special-duty jobs that requires them to place personnel officers into...targeted year-groups populated above the ideal force- structure line (called TOPLINE), in the run up to the RIF of 1992, the desire to avoid or

  7. Imagining flood futures: risk assessment and management in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stuart N; Landström, Catharina; Whatmore, Sarah J

    2011-05-13

    The mantra that policy and management should be 'evidence-based' is well established. Less so are the implications that follow from 'evidence' being predictions of the future (forecasts, scenarios, horizons) even though such futures define the actions taken today to make the future sustainable. Here, we consider the tension between 'evidence', reliable because it is observed, and predictions of the future, unobservable in conventional terms. For flood risk management in England and Wales, we show that futures are actively constituted, and so imagined, through 'suites of practices' entwining policy, management and scientific analysis. Management has to constrain analysis because of the many ways in which flood futures can be constructed, but also because of commitment to an accounting calculus, which requires risk to be expressed in monetary terms. It is grounded in numerical simulation, undertaken by scientific consultants who follow policy/management guidelines that define the futures to be considered. Historical evidence is needed to deal with process and parameter uncertainties and the futures imagined are tied to pasts experienced. Reliance on past events is a challenge for prediction, given changing probability (e.g. climate change) and consequence (e.g. development on floodplains). So, risk management allows some elements of risk analysis to become unstable (notably in relation to climate change) but forces others to remain stable (e.g. invoking regulation to prevent inappropriate floodplain development). We conclude that the assumed separation of risk assessment and management is false because the risk calculation has to be defined by management. Making this process accountable requires openness about the procedures that make flood risk analysis more (or less) reliable to those we entrust to produce and act upon them such that, unlike the 'pseudosciences', they can be put to the test of public interrogation by those who have to live with their consequences

  8. Future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.; Hetherington, C.

    1997-01-01

    Issues regarding future development by oil and gas companies in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were discussed. It was suggested in the Berger report that Northern development should be under the control of the people whose lives and economy are being changed. Aboriginal people are now much more sophisticated politically, and have a better understanding of what is involved. Most of them would like the financial benefits from development, but the development would have to be on their terms. Most people involved with Arctic oil exploration feel that there is enough oil in the Arctic to warrant production. (Reserves in the Beaufort Sea are estimated at two billion barrels of good quality oil). If development were to continue, there exist two methods of transportation to move the oil to market. Gulf, Imperial Oil and Panarctic favour the use of pipelines, whereas Dome Petroleum Ltd. favours the use of ice-breaking tankers. In each case the favored option seems to depend upon the location of the company's leases, the capital and operating costs, and the potential environmental impacts. Undoubtedly, any future development will be guided by the scientific information and technical expertise of oil industry pioneers of the 1960s and the 1970s, and the wisdom gained from the experiences of the many participants whose views and insights are recorded in this book

  9. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  10. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  11. Air Force Senior Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force TV Radio Week in Photos About Us Air Force Senior Leaders SECAF CSAF CMSAF Biographies Adjunct Professors Senior Mentor Biographies Fact Sheets Commander's Call Topics CCT Archive CSAF Reading List 2017 Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search AF.mil: Home > About Us > Air Force Senior Leaders

  12. TRIGA forced shutdowns analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Laslau, Florica

    2008-01-01

    The need for improving the operation leads us to use new methods and strategies. Probabilistic safety assessments and statistical analysis provide insights useful for our reactor operation. This paper is dedicated to analysis of the forced shutdowns during the first reactor operation period, between 1980 to 1989. A forced shutdown data base was designed using data on forced shutdowns collected from the reactor operation logbooks. In order to sort out the forced shutdowns the records have the following fields: - current number, date, equipment failed, failure type (M for mechanical, E for electrical, D for irradiation device, U for human factor failure; - scram mode, SE for external scram, failure of reactor cooling circuits and/or irradiation devices, SR for reactor scram, exceeding of reactor nuclear parameters, SB for reactor scram by control rod drop, SM for manual scram required by the abnormal reactor status; - scram cause, giving more information on the forced shutdown. This data base was processed using DBase III. The data processing techniques are presented. To sort out the data, one of the criteria was the number of scrams per year, failure type, scram mode, etc. There are presented yearly scrams, total operation time in hours, total unavailable time, median unavailable time period, reactor availability A. There are given the formulae used to calculate the reactor operational parameters. There are shown the scrams per year in the 1980 to 1989 period, the reactor operation time per year, the reactor shutdown time per year and the operating time versus down time per year. Total number of scrams in the covered period was 643 which caused a reactor down time of 4282.25 hours. In a table the scrams as sorted on the failure type is shown. Summarising, this study emphasized some problems and difficulties which occurred during the TRIGA reactor operation at Pitesti. One main difficulty in creating this data base was the unstandardized scram record mode. Some times

  13. Detecting chameleons through Casimir force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Bruck, Carsten van de; Davis, Anne-Christine; Shaw, Douglas; Mota, David F.

    2007-01-01

    The best laboratory constraints on strongly coupled chameleon fields come not from tests of gravity per se but from precision measurements of the Casimir force. The chameleonic force between two nearby bodies is more akin to a Casimir-like force than a gravitational one: The chameleon force behaves as an inverse power of the distance of separation between the surfaces of two bodies, just as the Casimir force does. Additionally, experimental tests of gravity often employ a thin metallic sheet to shield electrostatic forces; however, this sheet masks any detectable signal due to the presence of a strongly coupled chameleon field. As a result of this shielding, experiments that are designed to specifically test the behavior of gravity are often unable to place any constraint on chameleon fields with a strong coupling to matter. Casimir force measurements do not employ a physical electrostatic shield and as such are able to put tighter constraints on the properties of chameleons fields with a strong matter coupling than tests of gravity. Motivated by this, we perform a full investigation on the possibility of testing chameleon models with both present and future Casimir experiments. We find that present-day measurements are not able to detect the chameleon. However, future experiments have a strong possibility of detecting or rule out a whole class of chameleon models

  14. Future Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    relevant to TWV is focused on permanent magnet motors , often wheel mounted. Wound rotor motors provide substantially different design and control...options than permanent magnet motors , at the expense of additional cooling requirements. Their benefits include higher peak torque and less sensitivity

  15. Future colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    The high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, pp), of lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders are considered. Technical arguments for increased energy in each type of machine are presented. Their relative size, and the implications of size on cost are discussed

  16. An Overview on Gripping Force Measurement at the Micro and Nano-Scales Using Two-Fingered Microrobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrane Boudaoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-fingered micromanipulation systems with an integrated force sensor are widely used in robotics to sense and control gripping forces at the micro and nano-scales. They became of primary importance for an efficient manipulation and characterization of highly deformable biomaterials and nanostructures. This paper presents a chronological overview of gripping force measurement using two-fingered micromanipulation systems. The work summarizes the major achievements in this field from the early 90s to the present, focusing in particular on the evolution of measurement technologies regarding the requirements of microrobotic applications. Measuring forces below the microNewton for the manipulation of highly deformable materials, embedding force sensors within microgrippers to increase their dexterity, and reducing the influence of noise to improve the measurement resolution are among the addressed challenges. The paper shows different examples of how these challenges have been addressed. Resolution, operating range and signal/noise ratio of gripping force sensors are reported and compared. A discussion about force measurement technologies and gripping force control is performed and future trends are highlighted.

  17. A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

  18. Settlements of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Current ongoing societal processes allow me to say that all humanity must foresee the great opportunity to change direction from market driven development to human scale sustainable development as the only way to achieve whole scale growth. In the achievement of this transition the most important observation is that it could be achieved without miraculous technologies or drastic transformations of human societies. The main requirement is the translation of basic knowledge to the people, especially in less developed countries and to the younger generations. Without sincere political will our common future cannot be reached. In my essay I tried to demonstrate what may happen in the future, if the no-dialogue community develops. Sustainable development is the only correct route if we want to get where we are going – the future well being of all human kind.

  19. Design and fabrication stable LNF contact for future IC application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, M M I; Bhuiyan, M; Rashid, M M; Ahmed, Sayem; Kajihara, M

    2013-01-01

    Enable the design of a small contact spring for applications requiring high density, high speed and high durability. A low normal force (LNF) contact spring with high performance is fabricated using a unique combined MEMS photo resist lithography and electro fine forming (EFF) technology. Reducing a total contact material cost of a connector, a high-Hertz stress with LNF contact will be a key technology in the future. Only radius R 5μm tip with 0.1N force contact provides an excellent electrical performance which is much sharper than conventional contact. 0.30million cycle's durability test was passed at 300μm displacement and the contact resistance was ≤50mΩ

  20. Future Talks,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Defeyt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des matériaux modernes et les difficultés qui la caractérisent étaient l’objet du colloque international Future Talks, organisé par Die Neue Sammlung, The International Design Museum, les 22 et 23 octobre 2009 à Munich. Conservateurs-restaurateurs spécialisés, représentants des  institutions muséales les plus prestigieuses d’Europe et d’outre-Atlantique ainsi que chercheurs en sciences appliquées y ont présenté leurs travaux et recherches. En matière de design, d’art moderne e...

  1. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  2. Towards bridging the gap from molecular forces to the movement of organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Muscles are responsible for generating the forces required for the movement of multicellular organisms. Microscopically, these forces arise as a consequence of motor proteins (myosin) pulling and sliding along actin filaments. Current knowledge states that the molecular forces between actin...

  3. Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

  4. Analysis of forces on core structures during a loss-of-coolant accident. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, D.P.; Vilim, R.B.; Wang, C.H.; Meyer, J.E.

    1980-08-01

    There are several design requirements related to the emergency core cooling which would follow a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). One of these requirements is that the core must retain a coolable geometry throughout the accident. A possible cause of core damage leading to an uncoolable geometry is the action of forces on the core and associated support structures during the very early (blowdown) stage of the LOCA. An equally unsatisfactory design result would occur if calculated deformations and failures were so extensive that the geometry used for calculating the next stages of the LOCA (refill and reflood) could not be known reasonably well. Subsidiary questions involve damage preventing the operation of control assemblies and loss of integrity of other needed safety systems. A reliable method of calculating these forces is therefore an important part of LOCA analysis. These concerns provided the motivation for the study. The general objective of the study was to review the state-of-the-art in LOCA force determination. Specific objectives were: (1) determine state-of-the-art by reviewing current (and projected near future) techniques for LOCA force determination, and (2) consider each of the major assumptions involved in force determination and make a qualitative assessment of their validity

  5. Method for lateral force calibration in atomic force microscope using MEMS microforce sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekoński, Cezary; Dera, Wojciech; Jarząbek, Dariusz M

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a simple and direct method for the lateral force calibration constant determination. Our procedure does not require any knowledge about material or geometrical parameters of an investigated cantilever. We apply a commercially available microforce sensor with advanced electronics for direct measurement of the friction force applied by the cantilever's tip to a flat surface of the microforce sensor measuring beam. Due to the third law of dynamics, the friction force of the equal value tilts the AFM cantilever. Therefore, torsional (lateral force) signal is compared with the signal from the microforce sensor and the lateral force calibration constant is determined. The method is easy to perform and could be widely used for the lateral force calibration constant determination in many types of atomic force microscopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Forced Retirement from Professional Rugby Union is Associated with Symptoms of Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike I; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Rugby has a higher injury burden than other popular sports, such as football. Athletes who are forced to retire as a result of injury are associated with poor mental health. With its high injury burden, professional rugby players might be at risk of mental health conditions associated with injury-related forced retirement. This study aimed to compare mental health between former professional rugby players who were and weren't forced to retire. A questionnaire including the 4DSQ (distress), GHQ-12 (anxiety/depression), PROMIS short-form (sleep disturbance) and AUDIT-C (alcohol misuse) was completed by retired professional players from Ireland, France and South Africa. The questionnaire asked players whether or not they were forced to retire, as well as the reason for retirement. Players forced to retire were more than twice as likely to report symptoms of distress in comparison to those that retired voluntarily (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.6, prugby players that were forced to retire may require support structures and longitudinal monitoring. Future studies should begin monitoring players during their careers to accurately assess the effect of retirement on mental health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-06

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  8. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 4, appendix C: Identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks yielded useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  9. Future trends in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper about future trends in reprocessing essentially reflects French experience and points of view as an example of countries which, like England and Japan, consider that reprocessing is the best solution for the back end of the fuel cycle. In order to know what the future will be, it is necessary to look back at the past and try to find what have been the main reasons for evolution in that period. For reprocessing, it appears that these motivations have been 'safety and economics'. They will remain the motivations for the future. In addition, new motivations for development are starting to appear which are still imprecise but can be expressed as follows: 'which guarantees will public opinion require in order to be convinced that solutions for waste management, proposed by specialists shall ensure that a healthy environment is preserved for the use of future generations'. Consequently the paper examines successively the evolution of reprocessing in the recent past, what the immediate future could be and finally what should be necessary in the long term. (Author)

  10. Enlisted Force Management: Past Practices and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-22

    8217 asm I 11 ree i~t emeneti v ate (ftilly ’Iinsme nusn. ti mmt Ie wiso, knik Ipt~lailt’tI aimist not om nll (oaisidea. t~t Fo fta’t’ s o 01 todny. bill...most recent military actuarial model data available, we then applied a monetary cost to each enlisted grade and year-of-service level based on annual

  11. Reimaging The Chaplain Corps For The Force Of The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    also wear “two hats” as military officers and ordained clergy--those set apart for a sacred duty. Their role as religious leaders obliges them to...competencies found in Joint Publication 1-05, Religious Affairs in Joint Operations, of religious support and religious advisement. Regarding religious ...support, the transformation will including moving from HC members serving as the terminal end of ministry to managers of religious support. As for

  12. Building Future Transatlantic Interoperability Around a Robust NATO Response Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    than already traveled . However, this accrued wealth of interoperable capa- bility may be at its apogee, soon to decline as the result of two looming...and Bydgo- szcz, Poland, as well as major national training centers such as the bilateral U.S.- Romanian Joint Task Force– East at Kogalniceanu...operations. Increase U.S. and Allied Exchange Students at National and NATO military schools. Austerity measures may eventually affect the investment

  13. The Future of Additive Manufacturing in Air Force Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-22

    heal, if not cure, the acquisition woes and financial death spiral . 7 Additive Manufacturing as a Partial Solution to Acquisition Woes “As we... methodologies .”7 Additive manufacturing starts with a 3D model, derived either from a 3D scanner or created via software such as a Computer Aided Design (CAD

  14. Looking to the Future of the Air Force Nuclear Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    SAC bred a sense of urgency into its members and ensured that no one was complacent with the job, instead everyone worked to achieve perfection as the...steps from Kotter’s process in this category are: Establishing a Sense of Urgency , Creating the Guiding Coalition, and Developing a Vision and...mentality. To help combat the status quo Kotter takes the first step by creating a sense of urgency in an organization. Most organization look at

  15. Robotic Technologies for the Future Force - The ART STO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaster, Jeffrey F

    2005-01-01

    .... The US Army's ARV Robotic Technologies (ART) Science and Technology Objective (STO) will develop a surrogate platform that will be used as a technology demonstrator for such robotic technologies...

  16. The Future of Modular Logistics in Force Projection Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kibben, Charles

    1999-01-01

    Rapid change in the world political environment since the end of the Cold War has resulted in significant reduction in military spending and a fundamental shift in the United States Military Strategy...

  17. The Irish Defense Forces: Options for Future Humanitarian Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durnin, John

    2001-01-01

    .... These operations have been unorthodox in that they have deployed unarmed troops, who are on special leave, in civilian attire and under the auspices of international organizations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs...

  18. Managing the transcription revolution. Industry forces shape future of field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Scott D

    2003-01-01

    You may be struggling with contract issues with a vendor. Or maybe you're contemplating the pros and cons of working with outsource, at-home, or overseas transcriptionists. It's a fact: if transcription processes aren't working efficiently, the entire HIM department may be adversely affected. Factor in additional concerns such as data capture for electronic health records, compliance, and patient safety, and the importance of ensuring quality and cost-efficient transcription becomes even more apparent. To help you answer some of these questions, the Journal of AHIMA is launching a four-part series dedicated to transcription issues from the HIM professional's point of view. In this issue, we begin with MTIA president Scott Faulkner's overview of the industry and where it's going next. In upcoming issues, other experts will look at controlling cost and monitoring quality, navigating new technologies, and dealing with contract-related issues.

  19. The Influence of Demography on European and Future Armed Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stemmer, Ekkehard

    2005-01-01

    ... dramatically decline over the next thirty years. In comparison to Europe, the trend of aging in developing counties, for example in the Middle East and Northern Africa, presents a stark contrast...

  20. Tactical Fuel and Energy Strategy for The Future Modular Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-18

    Environmental Protection Agency ESSP Energy Strategic Security Plan EV Electric Vehicle FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Appendix...1992. Methanol can be used to make methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), oxygenate that is blended with gasoline to enhance octane and create cleaner...Military Occupation Specialty MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether MW Megawatt NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NATO North

  1. Validating Future Force Performance Measures (Army Class): Concluding Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    32 Table 3.10. Descriptive Statistics and Intercorrelations for LV Final Predictor Factor Scores...55 Table 4.7. Descriptive Statistics for Analysis Criteria...Soldier attrition and performance: Dependability (Non- Delinquency ), Adjustment, Physical Conditioning, Leadership, Work Orientation, and Agreeableness

  2. 2014 Texas Military Value Task Force: Preparing for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    mission. Expand NASA and Federal Agency aviation presence. - The SpaceX facility at Boca Chica Beach in South Texas will be operational sometime in...communications, natural gas, fuel, trash , and sewer. With utilities, there are two fundamental components: reliability and cost. Reliability is a

  3. Employee Warriors and the Future of the American Fighting Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vest, Hugh

    2002-01-01

    .... One element of this dynamic relationship is the military's adoption of commercial business paradigms and identities, resulting in the institutionalization of what one can describe as a business...

  4. Military robots: the fighting force of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-03

    propaganda films of World War II, culminating with Walt Disney’s Victory Through Air Power, based on de Seversky’s book. After World War II, the number of...combat aviation films dwindled, with some notable exceptions. This was due in part to the plateauing of military aviation’s capabilities, along with...Military Robot Theorists The theory of military robots has its origin in science fiction. Some of the greatest authors of the genre have written about

  5. Task Force on the Future of Military Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Ibid. 17 32 C.F.R. §199.17(p)(5)(ii) (2005). 18 See http://mytoc.tma.osd.mil/AccessToCare/ TOC /ATC.htm. 19 File name “AccessToCareSummary_MHS.xls...on Healthy People’s leading health indicators: physical activity; overweight and obesity; tobacco use; substance abuse; responsible sexual behavior

  6. The National Guard: Recommendations to Develop the Joint Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Health, Sexual Assault Prevention and Response, and Warrior Support programs.109 This joint support concept is distinctive to the NG, and provides an...National Defense Strategy (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, June 2008), TOC . Available online at http://www.defense.gov/news/2008%20 National

  7. Future Role for Women in the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-18

    third very dramatic change in the United States military establishment today. We feel it in the Army as a matter of urgency , and that is a very...FOR OTHER INTRAMURAL OF INTERCOLLEGIATE CONTACT SPORTS SUCH AS FOOTBALL OR LACROSSE. HOWEVER, INTRAMURAL SOCCER IS A CONTACT SPORT WHICH HAS BEEN...itttOitAJION A,-ECUI 1 . ." (IO.VN 1 SO-PA) DEPARMENT OF OEENSE Dear Colonel Dion: Enclosed in opy of my rport on my visit to the U.S. Nval Academy whichI

  8. The Influence of Demography on European and Future Armed Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stemmer, Ekkehard

    2005-01-01

    Such demographic factors in Europe as low fertility rates, high life expectancy, and the restricted immigration policy have caused European societies to age rapidly and the population of Europe will...

  9. Employee Warriors and the Future of the American Fighting Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vest, Hugh

    2002-01-01

    ...-scientific /management-professional culture that surrounds the warrior of the 1990s. This culture seems to contrast and often times openly conflict with the values and traditional culture that once embraced the professional military...

  10. Information Superiority: Outsourcing an Air Force Core Competency?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McTerman, Hugh

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis explores the perceived relationship between the core competency requirements for information superiority and the tasks defined for the Air Force communication, computer, and information career field...

  11. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  12. Quantum anticentrifugal force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirone, M.A.; Schleich, W.P.; Straub, F.; Rzazewski, K.; Wheeler, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-dimensional world, a free quantum particle of vanishing angular momentum experiences an attractive force. This force originates from a modification of the classical centrifugal force due to the wave nature of the particle. For positive energies the quantum anticentrifugal force manifests itself in a bunching of the nodes of the energy wave functions towards the origin. For negative energies this force is sufficient to create a bound state in a two-dimensional δ-function potential. In a counterintuitive way, the attractive force pushes the particle away from the location of the δ-function potential. As a consequence, the particle is localized in a band-shaped domain around the origin

  13. The Optical Bichromatic Force in Molecular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Leland; Galica, Scott; Eyler, E. E.

    2015-05-01

    The optical bichromatic force has been demonstrated to be useful for slowing atomic beams much more rapidly than radiative forces. Through numerical simulations, we examine several aspects of applying the bichromatic force to molecular beams. One is the unavoidable existence of out-of-system radiative decay, requiring one or more repumping beams. We find that the average deceleration varies strongly with the repumping intensity, but when using optimal parameters, the force approaches the limiting value allowed by population statistics. Another consideration is the effect of fine and hyperfine structure. We examine a simplified multlevel model based on the B X transition in calcium monofluoride. To circumvent optical pumping into coherent dark states, we include two possible schemes: (1) a skewed dc magnetic field, and (2) rapid optical polarization switching. Our results indicate that the bichromatic force remains a viable option for creating large forces in molecular beams, with a reduction in the peak force by approximately an order of magnitude compared to a two-level atom, but little effect on the velocity range over which the force is effective. We also describe our progress towards experimental tests of the bichromatic force on a molecular beam of CaF. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  14. Future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotska, L; Armstrong, H

    2000-11-01

    Despite progress in promotion and support of breastfeeding over the past decade, the HIV pandemic necessitates new actions based on human rights, such as voluntary and confidential testing and counseling, offering HIV-positive women objective information on the risks and costs of all infant feeding options, and providing appropriate support for their decisions. Implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and the International Code of Marketing are essential components of a rights-based policy response to HIV and will lessen spillover of replacement feeding among HIV-negative women. Protective effects of nevirapine and exclusive breastfeeding, as well as the listed additional topics, require further research. We have yet to make exclusive breastfeeding easy and common when mothers choose to breastfeed.

  15. Forces Between a Permanent Magnet and a Soft Magnetic Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Vokoun, David; De Graef, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Forces between a hard/permanent magnet of arbitrary shape and an ideally soft magnetic plate in close proximity are derived analytically from the image method applied to magnetostatics. We found that the contact force, defined as the force required to detach the hard magnet from the plate, coinci...

  16. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  17. Force induced DNA melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K

    2009-01-01

    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f m , at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  18. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  19. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This study uses The Theory Of Constraints (TOC) management methodology and recent military missions to show that RSOI operations are generally the limiting constraint to force deployment operations...

  20. Air Force Academy Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communications Focal Point Contracting Squadron Force Support Squadron Mortuary Affairs Logistics Readiness Squadron Cadet Logistics Deployment and Distribution Material Management Operations PM Equipment Lab