WorldWideScience

Sample records for food vacuole localization

  1. The role of Plasmodium falciparum food vacuole plasmepsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Gluzman, Ilya Y; Drew, Mark E; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2005-01-14

    Plasmepsins (PMs) are thought to have an important function in hemoglobin degradation in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum and have generated interest as antimalarial drug targets. Four paralogous plasmepsins reside in the food vacuole of P. falciparum. Targeted gene disruption by double crossover homologous recombination has been employed to study food vacuole plasmepsin function in cultured parasites. Parasite clones with deletions in each of the individual PM I, PM II, and HAP genes as well as clones with a double PM IV/PM I disruption have been generated. All of these clones lack the corresponding PMs, are viable, and appear morphologically normal. PM II and PM IV/I disruptions have longer doubling times than the 3D7 parental line in rich RPMI medium. This appears to be because of a decreased level of productive progeny rather than an increased cell cycle time. In amino acid-limited medium, all four knockouts exhibit slower growth than the parental strain. Compared with 3D7, knock-out clone sensitivity to aspartic and cysteine protease inhibitors is changed minimally. These results suggest substantial functional redundancy and have important implications for the design of antimalarial drugs. The slow growth phenotype may explain why P. falciparum has maintained four plasmepsin genes with overlapping functions.

  2. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions consist...... are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more...

  3. Plasmodium falciparum PfA-M1 aminopeptidase is trafficked via the parasitophorous vacuole and marginally delivered to the food vacuole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyalwidhe Julius

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum PfA-M1 aminopeptidase, encoded by a single copy gene, displays a neutral optimal activity at pH 7.4. It is thought to be involved in haemoglobin degradation and/or invasion of the host cells. Although a series of inhibitors developed against PfA-M1 suggest that this enzyme is a promising target for therapeutic intervention, the biological function(s of the three different forms of the enzyme (p120, p96 and p68 are not fully understood. Two recent studies using PfA-M1 transfections have also provided conflicting results on PfA-M1 localization within or outside the food vacuole. Alternative destinations, such as the nucleus, have also been proposed. Methods By using a combination of techniques, such as cellular and biochemical fractionations, biochemical analysis, mass-spectrometry, immunofluorescence assays and live imaging of GFP fusions to various PfA-M1 domains, evidence is provided for differential localization and behaviour of the three different forms of PfA-M1 in the infected red blood cell which had not been established before. Results The high molecular weight p120 form of PfA-M1, the only version of the protein with a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, is detected both inside the parasite and in the parasitophorous vacuole while the processed p68 form is strictly soluble and localized within the parasite. The transient intermediate and soluble p96 form is localized at the border of parasitophorous vacuole and within the parasite in a compartment sensitive to high concentrations of saponin. Upon treatment with brefeldin A, the PfA-M1 maturation is blocked and the enzyme remains in a compartment close to the nucleus. Conclusions The PfA-M1 trafficking/maturation scenario that emerges from this data indicates that PfA-M1, synthesized as the precursor p120 form, is targeted to the parasitophorous vacuole via the parasite endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi, where it is converted into the transient p96

  4. Food vacuole associated enolase in plasmodium undergoes multiple post-translational modifications: evidence for atypical ubiquitination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudamini Shevade

    Full Text Available Plasmodium enolase localizes to several sub-cellular compartments viz. cytosol, nucleus, cell membrane, food vacuole (FV and cytoskeleton, without having any organelle targeting signal sequences. This enzyme has been shown to undergo multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs giving rise to several variants that show organelle specific localization. It is likely that these PTMs may be responsible for its diverse distribution and moonlighting functions. While most variants have a MW of ~50 kDa and are likely to arise due to changes in pI, food vacuole (FV associated enolase showed three forms with MW~50, 65 and 75 kDa. Evidence from immuno-precipitation and western analysis indicates that the 65 and 75 kDa forms of FV associated enolase are ubiquitinated. Using mass spectrometry (MS, definitive evidence is obtained for the nature of PTMs in FV associated variants of enolase. Results showed several modifications, viz. ubiquitination at K147, phosphorylation at Y148 and acetylation at K142 and K384. MS data also revealed the conjugation of three ubiquitin (Ub molecules to enolase through K147. Trimeric ubiquitin has a linear peptide linkage between the NH2-terminal methionine of the first ubiquitin (Ub1 and the C-terminal G76 of the second (Ub2. Ub2 and third ubiquitin (Ub3 were linked through an atypical isopeptide linkage between K6 of Ub2 and G76 of Ub3, respectively. Further, the tri-ubiquitinated form was found to be largely associated with hemozoin while the 50 and 65 kDa forms were present in the NP-40 soluble fraction of FV. Mass spectrometry results also showed phosphorylation of S42 in the cytosolic enolase from P. falciparum and T337 in the cytoskeleton associated enolase from P. yoelii. The composition of food vacuolar proteome and likely interactors of enolase are also being reported.

  5. Electron tomography characterization of hemoglobin uptake in Plasmodium chabaudi reveals a stage-dependent mechanism for food vacuole morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Camila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Miranda, Kildare

    2016-05-01

    In the course of their intraerythrocytic development, malaria parasites incorporate and degrade massive amounts of the host cell cytoplasm. This mechanism is essential for parasite development and represents a physiological step used as target for many antimalarial drugs; nevertheless, the fine mechanisms underlying these processes in Plasmodium species are still under discussion. Here, we studied the events of hemoglobin uptake and hemozoin nucleation in the different stages of the intraerythrocytic cycle of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi using transmission electron tomography of cryofixed and freeze-substituted cells. The results showed that hemoglobin uptake in P. chabaudi starts at the early ring stage and is present in all developmental stages, including the schizont stage. Hemozoin nucleation occurs near the membrane of small food vacuoles. At the trophozoite stage, food vacuoles are found closely localized to cytostomal tubes and mitochondria, whereas in the schizont stage, we observed a large food vacuole located in the central portion of the parasite. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the mechanisms of hemoglobin uptake and degradation in rodent malaria parasites.

  6. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  7. Local food and tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Morten; Sundbo, Donna; Sundbo, Jon

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the question: Why local food networks succeed or fail in collaborating with local tourism actors to create more tourism based on local food? The article focuses on entrepreneurial local food networks and their collaboration with local tourism actors. Emphasis...... is on the actions and attitude logics of local food networks and tourism actors, and whether their respective logics fit as a factor to explain why or why not development of local food concepts lead to increased local tourism. Six local food networks and their collaboration with local tourism actors are studied...... by using observation supplemented with other qualitative methods. Analysis of these networks reveals that successful collaboration is characterised by the food networks and tourism actors having at least one logic in common. The fitting logics that lead to success are primarily celebrity and civic logics...

  8. Immunofluorescent localization of ubiquitin and proteasomes in nucleolar vacuoles of soybean root meristematic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Stępiński, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, using the immunofluorescent method, the immunopositive signals to ubiquitin and proteasomes in nucleoli of root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings have been observed. In fact, those signals were present exclusively in nucleolar vacuoles. No signals were observed in the nucleolar territory out of the nucleolar vacuoles or in the nucleoli without vacuoles. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) may act within the nucleoli of plants with high metabolic activities and may provi...

  9. Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter, PfCRT, enlarge the parasite's food vacuole and alter drug sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Serena; Staines, Henry M; Lee, Andrew H; Shafik, Sarah H; Bouyer, Guillaume; Moore, Catherine M; Daley, Daniel A; Hoke, Matthew J; Altenhofen, Lindsey M; Painter, Heather J; Mu, Jianbing; Ferguson, David J P; Llinás, Manuel; Martin, Rowena E; Fidock, David A; Cooper, Roland A; Krishna, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter, PfCRT, are the major determinant of chloroquine resistance in this lethal human malaria parasite. Here, we describe P. falciparum lines subjected to selection by amantadine or blasticidin that carry PfCRT mutations (C101F or L272F), causing the development of enlarged food vacuoles. These parasites also have increased sensitivity to chloroquine and some other quinoline antimalarials, but exhibit no or minimal change in sensitivity to artemisinins, when compared with parental strains. A transgenic parasite line expressing the L272F variant of PfCRT confirmed this increased chloroquine sensitivity and enlarged food vacuole phenotype. Furthermore, the introduction of the C101F or L272F mutation into a chloroquine-resistant variant of PfCRT reduced the ability of this protein to transport chloroquine by approximately 93 and 82%, respectively, when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These data provide, at least in part, a mechanistic explanation for the increased sensitivity of the mutant parasite lines to chloroquine. Taken together, these findings provide new insights into PfCRT function and PfCRT-mediated drug resistance, as well as the food vacuole, which is an important target of many antimalarial drugs.

  10. Enzymatic Characterization of Recombinant Food Vacuole Plasmepsin 4 from the Rodent Malaria Parasite Plasmodium berghei.

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    Peng Liu

    Full Text Available The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei is a practical model organism for experimental studies of human malaria. Plasmepsins are a class of aspartic proteinase isoforms that exert multiple pathological effects in malaria parasites. Plasmepsins residing in the food vacuole (FV of the parasite hydrolyze hemoglobin in red blood cells. In this study, we cloned PbPM4, the FV plasmepsin gene of P. berghei that encoded an N-terminally truncated pro-segment and the mature enzyme from genomic DNA. We over-expressed this PbPM4 zymogen as inclusion bodies (IB in Escherichia coli, and purified the protein following in vitro IB refolding. Auto-maturation of the PbPM4 zymogen to mature enzyme was carried out at pH 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5. Interestingly, we found that the PbPM4 zymogen exhibited catalytic activity regardless of the presence of the pro-segment. We determined the optimal catalytic conditions for PbPM4 and studied enzyme kinetics on substrates and inhibitors of aspartic proteinases. Using combinatorial chemistry-based peptide libraries, we studied the active site preferences of PbPM4 at subsites S1, S2, S3, S1', S2' and S3'. Based on these results, we designed and synthesized a selective peptidomimetic compound and tested its inhibition of PbPM4, seven FV plasmepsins from human malaria parasites, and human cathepsin D (hcatD. We showed that this compound exhibited a >10-fold selectivity to PbPM4 and human malaria parasite plasmepsin 4 orthologs versus hcatD. Data from this study furthesr our understanding of enzymatic characteristics of the plasmepsin family and provides leads for anti-malarial drug design.

  11. Localization of acid hydrolases in protoplasts. Examination of the proposed lysosomal function of the mature vacuole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, H.C.; Wagner, G.J.; Siegelman, H.W.

    1977-06-01

    The development of techniques to isolate and purify relatively large quantities of intact vacuoles from mature tissues permits direct biochemical analysis of this ubiquitous mature plant cell organelle. Vacuoles and a fraction enriched in soluble cytoplasmic constituents were quantitatively prepared from Hippeastrum flower petal protoplasts. Vacuolar lysate and soluble cytoplasmic fractions were examined for acid hydrolase activities commonly associated with animal lysosomes, and pH optima were determined. Esterase, protease, carboxypeptidase, ..beta..-galactosidase, ..cap alpha..-glycosidase and ..beta..-glycosidase, not found in the vacuole lysate fraction, were components of the soluble cytoplasmic fraction. Acid phosphatase, RNase and DNase were present in both fractions. Vacuolar enzyme activities were also examined as a function of flower development from bud through senescent stages. The data obtained are not consistent with the concept that the mature plant cell vacuole functions as a generalized lysosome.

  12. Formation of the food vacuole in Plasmodium falciparum: a potential role for the 19 kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19.

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    Anton R Dluzewski

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP1 is synthesized during schizogony as a 195-kDa precursor that is processed into four fragments on the parasite surface. Following a second proteolytic cleavage during merozoite invasion of the red blood cell, most of the protein is shed from the surface except for the C-terminal 19-kDa fragment (MSP1(19, which is still attached to the merozoite via its GPI-anchor. We have examined the fate of MSP1(19 during the parasite's subsequent intracellular development using immunochemical analysis of metabolically labeled MSP1(19, fluorescence imaging, and immuno-electronmicroscopy. Our data show that MSP1(19 remains intact and persists to the end of the intracellular cycle. This protein is the first marker for the biogenesis of the food vacuole; it is rapidly endocytosed into small vacuoles in the ring stage, which coalesce to form the single food vacuole containing hemozoin, and persists into the discarded residual body. The food vacuole is marked by the presence of both MSP1(19 and the chloroquine resistance transporter (CRT as components of the vacuolar membrane. Newly synthesized MSP1 is excluded from the vacuole. This behavior indicates that MSP1(19 does not simply follow a classical lysosome-like clearance pathway, instead, it may play a significant role in the biogenesis and function of the food vacuole throughout the intra-erythrocytic phase.

  13. Assessment of local food distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmark, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in local food, as consumers feel confidence in such food. Local food has good opportunities to fulfil quality aspects/requirements of transparency and traceability in the supply chain due to the possibilities for direct interaction between producers and consumers. However, local food producers often face logistics challenges due to their small scale, decentralisation and integration difficulties with larger supply chains. This necessitates analysis of specific log...

  14. Business Models for Local Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Pedersen, Maja; Pederson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Interest in local foods is growing, but there has been limited research on who and why producers of local foods thrive or struggle. A particularly important problem for local food producers is how to reach end consumers, as they often find it difficult to work with the retail chains that dominate...... sales of food products (and vice versa) and therefore have to develop alternative marketing channels. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practices of different small and medium-sized Danish producers of locally grown and/or processed foods in relation to developing marketing channels...

  15. Local food systems: a sustainability review

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of global food systems has led to industrial food production processes that have environmental and social external costs. Consumer awareness about sustainability issues brings a heightened awareness of general consumption impacts in our food choices. This paper explores sustainability factors within local food systems in order to understand the impact on sustainability issues within the local food economy. A review of environmental, economic, and social issues within a sustai...

  16. Disseminating knowledge about 'Local Food Plants' and 'Local Plant Foods'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Heinrich, Michael; Obón, Concepción; Inocencio, Cristina; Nebel, Sabine; Verde, Alonso; Fajardo, José

    2006-01-01

    Ethnobotanical approaches to the study of Mediterranean food plants offer novel ways for analyzing and preserving traditional knowledge and agrobiodiversity in the Mediterranean area. This article highlights our strategy to increase the awareness within traditional knowledge systems and encourage the continuous evolution of it, avoiding the loss of substantial parts of the local cultural and biological diversity. The strategy is part of a broader stream of thought, which does attempt to disseminate information locally in a multitude of ways, e.g. through a range of publications in rural or urban zones, to people with or without formal education, to children or the elderly. This article is a very personal account of the experience of the authors, but there is an urgent need to assess the impact of such activities on a broader level, and, also, to reassess the impact researchers have on the communities. Our clear impression in all field sites has been that the simple fact that such traditional knowledge systems are the focus of scientific investigation are an essential element of giving renewed sociocultural value to such knowledge and that activities like the ones described here are of great interest to the communities we worked in.

  17. Local foods meet global foodways: tasting history

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawrance, Benjamin N; Peña, Carolyn Thomas de la

    2012-01-01

    ... considers movements in context, and, in doing so, complicates the notions that food ' shapes ' culture as it crosses borders or that culture ' adapts ' foods to its neo-local or global contexts. By analysing the dynamics of contact between mobile foods and/or people and the speci fi c cultures of consumption they provoke, these case st...

  18. Back to Local Food in Urban Environment

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    Turiničová Zuzana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Post is focused on problems of activities aimed at local food in urban environment. The theme is studied in the view of cultural changes in nutrition in Slovakia after 1989, affecting of global phenomena, incoming of giant international companies and importing foreign food. On the other side, there is also globalizations and glolocation view as an impulse for return to local food. Post is focused on different organizations, civic associations, activities and shops, through wich people in urban environment can gain local food.

  19. Development Strategy 0f Local Food Diversification

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    Imelda Imelda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop strategies that can be applied in the development of local food diversification in West Kalimantan. The data used are primary data and secondary data. Variables examined included internal factors (strengths and weaknesses and external factors (opportunities and threats in the development of local food diversification in West Kalimantan. Data analysis were conducted in qualitative descriptive to describe the pattern of food consumption in West Kalimantan and continued with a SWOT analysis to carry out the development strategy of the local food diversification in West Kalimantan. The analysis result showed that the strategy for the development of local food diversification in West Kalimantan is SO strategy (Strengths - Opportunities those are: 1 the increase in synergy between the government and the micro, small and medium enterprises for the development of local food products, 2 the utilization of communications and market information system in improving the marketing of local food products on micro, small and medium enterprises, and 3 the utilization of unutilized agricultural land to improve the quality and quantity of local food products.

  20. Globalization vs. localization: global food challenges and local sollutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Jongerden, J.P.; Essegbey, G.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of global-local interactions on food production and consumption in Ghana, and identify possible local solutions. Primary data were collected using a combination of quantitative-qualitative methods, which included focus group discussions and

  1. Receiving Assistance and Local Food System Participation

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    Rebecca L. Som Castellano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A body of literature has noted that local food systems (LFSs may not involve active participation by individuals with lower incomes. This is, in part, a function of racial and class hegemony, as well as physical and financial accessibility of LFSs. LFS institutions, such as farmers’ markets, have been working to facilitate receipt of food assistance programs, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP. Charitable assistance programs, such as food banks, have also been actively working to engage in LFSs, for example, by making local foods available. However, little research has explored the role that receiving public or charitable assistance can play in influencing LFS participation. In this article, I utilize quantitative and qualitative data collected from across the state of Ohio to examine the relationship between receiving assistance and LFS participation for women, who remain predominately responsible for food provisioning in the U.S., including among those who participate in LFSs. Quantitative results suggest that receiving assistance can increase participation in LFSs. Qualitative data provides more nuanced information about the importance of food assistance for women who want to participate in LFSs, and suggest that it is essential that food cooperatives and farmers’ markets are equipped to receive food assistance programs, such as SNAP, in order for women with lower incomes to participate in LFSs.

  2. Emerging localized food networks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Hansen, Mette Weinreich

    2012-01-01

    One of the fastest growing food related social movements are citizen driven food networks. The Danish initiatives emerged in Copenhagen from an open culinary, social, environmental and organic oriented network. The theories and strategies of the original initiative is presented in this paper......, together with an analysis of how this has evolved and expanded. The challenges this rapid expansion puts on the internal network and organisation, and on the local food supplieres - the organic farmers - are elaborated in this paper. Also – from a rural sociology perspective – the interaction...

  3. Emerging localized food networks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Hansen, Mette Weinreich

    2012-01-01

    One of the fastest growing food related social movements are citizen driven food networks. The Danish initiatives emerged in Copenhagen from an open culinary, social, environmental and organic oriented network. The theories and strategies of the original initiative is presented in this paper......, together with an analysis of how this has evolved and expanded. The challenges this rapid expansion puts on the internal network and organisation, and on the local food supplieres - the organic farmers - are elaborated in this paper. Also – from a rural sociology perspective – the interaction...

  4. Molecular cloning, immunochemical localization to the vacuole, and expression in transgenic yeast and tobacco of a putative sugar transporter from sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, T J; Bush, D R

    1996-02-01

    Several plant genes have been cloned that encode members of the sugar transporter subgroup of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. Here we report the cloning, expression, and membrane localization of one of these porters found in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). This clone, cDNA-1, codes for a protein with 490 amino acids and an estimated molecular mass of 54 kD. The predicted membrane topology and sequence homology suggest that cDNA-1 is a member of the sugar transporter family. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that this putative sugar transporter is expressed in all vegetative tissues and expression increases with development in leaves. DNA gel blot analysis indicated that multiple gene copies exist for this putative sugar transporter in the sugar beet genome. Antibodies directed against small peptides representing the N- and C-terminal domains of the cDNA1 protein identified a 40-kD polypeptide in microsomes isolated from cDNA-1-transformed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Moreover, the same protein was identified in sugar beet and transgenic tobacco (Nicotaina tobacum L.) membrane fractions. Detailed analysis of the transporter's distribution across linear sucrose gradients and flotation centrifugations showed that it co-migrates with tonoplast membrane markers. We conclude that this carrier is located on the tonoplast membrane and that it may mediate sugar partitioning between the vacuole and cytoplasmic compartments.

  5. Expression of a vacuole-localized BURP-domain protein from soybean (SALI3-2 enhances tolerance to cadmium and copper stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Tang

    Full Text Available The plant-specific BURP family proteins play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses, but the function mechanism of these proteins is still poorly understood. Proteins in this family are characterized by a highly conserved BURP domain with four conserved Cys-His repeats and two other Cys, indicating that these proteins potentially interacts with metal ions. In this paper, an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC assay showed that the soybean BURP protein SALI3-2 could bind soft transition metal ions (Cd(2+, Co(2+, Ni(2+, Zn(2+ and Cu(2+ but not hard metal ions (Ca(2+ and Mg(2+ in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the SALI3-2-GFP fusion protein was localized to the vacuoles. Physiological indexes assay showed that Sali3-2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were more tolerant to Cu(2+ or Cd(2+ stresses than the wild type. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES analysis illustrated that, compared to the wild type seedlings the Sali3-2-transgenic seedlings accumulated more cadmium or copper in the roots but less in the upper ground tissues when the seedlings were exposed to excessive CuCl2 or CdCl2 stress. Therefore, our findings suggest that the SALI3-2 protein may confer cadmium (Cd(2+ and copper (Cu(2+ tolerance to plants by helping plants to sequester Cd(2+ or Cu(2+ in the root and reduce the amount of heavy metals transported to the shoots.

  6. Local food and alternative food networks: a communication perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose de développer un cadre d’analyse fondé sur le pouvoir « transformationnel » des produits locaux, afin d’interpréter, et de supporter, la mise en place de stratégies de relocalisation alimentaire. Dans un premier temps nous présenterons un modèle sémiotique, servant de base à l’analyse de la qualité des produits alimentaires, et permettant d’interpréter les changements qui apparaissent quand les produits alimentaires acquièrent un nouveau sens. Ce modèle sera ensuite adapté au procédé de qualification de Callom et al., puis appliqué à des exemples donnés, afin d’interpréter et d’évaluer certaines stratégies de relocalisation, dont par exemple Slow Food, mouvement né en Italie il y a une vingtaine d’années. Cet article s’achèvera sur une discussion des possibilités et des limitations du cadre d’analyse proposé.The article sets out to develop a framework based on the ‘transformational’ power of local food, in a bid to interpret, and support the active building of, food relocalization strategies. The article starts by illustrating a semiotic model for the analysis of food quality, aimed at interpreting changes in the food system that come about as food acquires new meaning. This model is then applied to the process of qualification as proposed by Michel Callon and others. An application of the model to interpret and to evaluate food relocalization strategies follows. The activities of Slow Food, a food movement born in Italy about 20 years ago, are given as illustration and analysed. The article concludes with a discussion of the framework’s possibilities and limitations

  7. Meanings of Local Food in Danish Print Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to find empirical evidence that can verify the seemingly new and growing interest in local food in Denmark, and shed light on what meanings the concept of local food holds in Danish print media. A content analysis of Danish print media is undertaken of articles...... reporting on local food over a 10-year period. A total of 993 articles are collected from national, regional and local newspapers as well as trade journals and magazines. Incorporating print media as agents in the construction of meanings of local food is a relatively understudied field of research....... The article finds six major themes, which are central to the understanding of local food in Danish print media, namely ‘local food networks’, ‘food values’, ‘food system’, ‘food tourism’, ‘food events’ and ‘local food in supermarkets’. It concludes that there are important differences between print media...

  8. AN ANALYSIS OF MARKETING CHANNELS OF LOCAL FOOD IN SCOTLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Watts, D.; Leat, Philip M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Local food and its possibilities for addressing sustainable regional growth, food availability, accessibility and affordability has received considerable attention in the discussion on and development of the National Food Policy in Scotland. In terms of methodology, the paper continues the analysis of the local food database for Scotland constructed in Watts et al (2010) by exploring the marketing outlets used by the local food enterprises. This subject is important because it may provide inf...

  9. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Per Engelseth

    2016-01-01

    The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Finding...

  10. The enchained potential of the local food market

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising demand for local food which traveled only short distances and is marketed directly by the producer. With growing importance of local food also the amount of literature in this field increased. Yet, literature is lacking to examine the challenges and burdens consumers face while trying to purchase local food. Evidence is shown that a gap exists between the intention of consumers who would like to purchase local food and their actual behavior. However, reasons for this gap are...

  11. Education for local sustainable food supply

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    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at local sustainable food supplies from the aspect of education and youth awareness. Through analysis of the present circumstances, the authors offer suggestions of how to implement the chosen theme into a geography lesson within primary and secondary schools. They are convinced the implementation of a chosen theme into a compulsory educational programme proves its importance in everyday life, in the development of an individual and for society as a whole, thereby offering us an assurance that the main ideas will reach the majority of the population.

  12. The Role of Marketing in Local Food Networks

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    Margrete Haugum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Local food producers are often advised to collaborate with other local food producers to jointly participate in marketing and sales activities. Local food producers are often small and must operate many different activities to run their company, so the idea to collaborate may help them to become more efficient. We explore the role of marketing in local food networks through an analysis of marketing strategies and marketing mix in six local food networks in central Norway. When producers participate in food networks, they disconnect from direct relationships with their consumers. The value of this relationship must be considered in addition to costs related to sales and distribution in the network. The networks rely on regional products and regional branding as the main marketing strategy and promote local and localized products.

  13. Consuming nostalgia? The appreciation of authenticity in local food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autio, M.; Collins, R.; Wahlen, S.; Anttila, M.

    2013-01-01

    Many consumers consider local food a more sustainable choice than conventional food because of the shorter transport distances involved as well as the support provided to local economies. In addition, consumers value the perceived safety benefits, ethical associations and improved taste of local foo

  14. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL FOOD CONSUMPTION AND INTENTIONAL LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoon ALLAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the pertinent literature on tourism supply, the relative importance of local food tourism has been subject to considerable discussion. Despite the breadth of such literature, there is a general lack of research on role of local food in tourism in the Middle East, in general and Jordan, in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the local food consumption motivations  and their relationship with intentional loyalty for international tourists. The study indicated that the cultural experience is the central motivation for respondents to experience local food. In addition, it showed that the excitement motivation was the high significant predictor of the behavioural intention (loyalty. On the basis of the findings, tourism management in Jordan should add local food to its tourism discourse and improve the nature and scope of the current marketing and promotion strategies of local food.

  15. Uighur Local Food in China and Its English Translation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Liao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to study Uighur diet culture and Chinese-English translation of its local food names. After deeply analyzing Uighur diet structure, content, pattern and nutrient functions of Uighur local foods, this study concludes several practical strategies based on Chinese-English translation of local food names, including functional equivalence and formal equivalence, domestication and foreignization, borrowing translation, transliteration, free translation and combination of transliteration and free translation. All strategies mentioned above are according to cultural comprehension, which maintains the originality of Sinkiang foods to widely spread Chinese food culture.

  16. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. Design and subjects: In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and −10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Results: Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32–0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00–1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Conclusion: Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing. PMID:23208414

  17. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  18. Local, national and imported foods: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Lobb, Alexandra; Butler, Laurie; Harvey, Kate; Traill, W Bruce

    2007-07-01

    The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products.

  19. Development of a Malian food exchange system based on local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on local foods and dishes for the assessment of nutrient and food ... To develop exchange lists for the assessment of food and nutrient intakes for people with diabetes in Mali. ..... ways that are difficult for low-literacy patients to understand and.

  20. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Engelseth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Findings reveal that since these chains are transparent, reciprocal interdependency is abundant mainly because human perception creates a sufficient understanding of the operations management issues pertinent within this simple inter-organisational structure. Local foods supply chains are similar to service supply chains. This includes that both are short in nature and associated with bi-directional interaction between the customer and supplier. Developing short supply chains in local foods supply is associated with improving the exchange economy found in short supply chains. This also implies that development of local foods supply is associated with two paths which may be complementary. First, the use of improved intensive technology associated with reciprocal interdependency to develop efficiencies in the bi-directional and somewhat complex interaction. Alternatively local foods suppliers may seek to reduce this form of reciprocal interdependency thereby increasing the impact of pooled interdependencies and enabling using mediating technology involving standardising interaction such as through increased standardised products and packaging as well as automation of information connectivity.

  1. The circular economy of a local organic food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuexian; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Egelyng, H.

    2008-01-01

    The local organic food market in China is growing and socalled leisure agriculture has been widely accepted and advocated in urban areas as a positive means of relaxation. This paper presents an analysis of a local organic food chain based on leisure agriculture and seeks to explain development...... of organic food in Urban China using the theoretical frame of the Circular Economy. The study uses a local organic food chain involving Xiedao Ecological Holiday Village as a case. In conclusion, the paper provides an estimate of the energy use efficiency of the chain....

  2. The circular economy of a local organic food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuexian; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Egelyng, H.

    2008-01-01

    The local organic food market in China is growing and socalled leisure agriculture has been widely accepted and advocated in urban areas as a positive means of relaxation. This paper presents an analysis of a local organic food chain based on leisure agriculture and seeks to explain development...... of organic food in Urban China using the theoretical frame of the Circular Economy. The study uses a local organic food chain involving Xiedao Ecological Holiday Village as a case. In conclusion, the paper provides an estimate of the energy use efficiency of the chain....

  3. Food availability and accessibility in the local food distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spaza shops stocked sweetened products, basic staples and processed food. ... not kept because of spoilage, space limitations, storage issues and lack of transport. ... with residents indicated a need for fruit, vegetables and meat outlets within ...

  4. A moveable feast: Contemporary relational food cultures emerging from local food networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Gabrielle

    2016-10-01

    Although the globalised food system delivers unparalleled food variety and quantity to most in the developed world it also disconnects consumers from where, how and by whom food is grown. This change in the food system has resulted in an acceptance of an anonymous and homogeneous food supply, which has contributed to over-consumption and the rise in diet-related diseases. 'Nutritionism' responds to this issue by maintaining that a 'healthy diet' can be achieved by consuming the correct balance of energy and nutrients, but with limited success. Yet, some food cultures can moderate the effects of the environmental drivers of increasing global obesity rates. This paper draws on this premise and presents an alternative eco-dietetic response, exploring people's meaning-making of food and food culture through local food networks. This research used narrative inquiry methodology and purposive sampling to gather stories through focus group conversations. Twenty people attended focus groups comprised of food procurers from one of three local food networks in the Canberra region: community gardens, a modified Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) and farmers' markets. The findings showed that those using local food networks enjoyed a 'contemporary relational food culture' that highlighted the importance of people, place and time, in their visceral experiences of food. The community gardeners made meaning of food through their connections to the earth and to others. The farmers' market and CSA food procurers valued the seasonal, local and ethical food produced by their beloved farmer(s). This paper provides qualitative evidence that local food networks enable people to enjoy multi-dimensional relationships to food. Further research is required to examine whether experiencing a contemporary relational food culture can lead to improved health outcomes for people and the planet.

  5. Local food supply chain: a case of rural food processing firms and catering business in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Sari; Paananen, Jaana

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the integration of food production and processing, distribution, and consumption on local markets in rural areas. We approach this integration from the point of view of an alternative food supply chain, a local food system as an example. The data were gathered through semistructured interviews with 12 entrepreneurs and 9 representatives of institutional food service units and restaurants in Eastern Finland.

  6. How important is local food to organic-minded consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with German consumers' attitudes towards organic food and local food, their food purchase behaviour and their personal characteristics. The purpose is to investigate the differences in attitudes and willingness-to-pay values between consumers who consider the organic production of food (very) important and those who consider it less important. This study combines a consumer survey with an in-store, discrete choice experiment. In the analysis, findings from the consumer survey were related to the choices made by consumers in the experiment. Consumers' preferences and willingness-to-pay values were estimated through random parameter logit modelling. Organic-minded consumers (i.e. those who regarded organic food production as (very) important in the survey) have stronger preferences and estimated willingness-to-pay values for organic as well as local products. Locally produced food, as opposed to food from neighbouring countries or non-EU countries, is preferred over organically produced food by both consumer groups which demonstrates that organic-minded consumers do not only consider organic food production as important, but also value local food production in a purchase situation. Hence, it can be assumed that local food production complements organic food production for the group of organic-minded consumers. This contribution is the first study dealing with local and organic food purchase behaviour in Germany that examines four different products and is carried out in rural as well as urban locations in four different regions. Due to the application of a choice experiment including no-choice options and binding purchase decisions, the results are expected to be closer to real purchase situations than results of direct questioning and choice experiments in online applications.

  7. Policies Supporting Local Food in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. Martinez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Local food has been the subject of federal, state, and local government policies in recent years throughout the United States as consumer demand has grown. Local foods have been linked to several government priorities—including enhancing the rural economy, the environment, and supporting agricultural producers. This article provides an overview of U.S. Federal, State and regional policies designed to support local food systems. It details the latest economic information on policy, relying on findings from several national surveys and a synthesis of recent literature. Federal policies related to local food systems were greatly expanded by the 2008 Farm Bill, and are further expanded in the Agricultural Act of 2014. United States policies address several barriers to the further expansion of local food markets, including scaling up output of small farms to address the needs of larger commercial outlets, lack of infrastructure for increasing local food sales, ability to trace product source, and producer education regarding local food expansion.

  8. Local public food strategies as a social innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, Dorte; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2013-01-01

    innovation. This is primarily because it improves social capital by bringing together new actors to address important societal challenges. Achieving sustainable school food systems is considered a challenge, and research-based knowledge is in demand in relation to multi-component interventions....... This perspective article reports on early insights from a pilot case within the local food project LOMA-Nymarkskolen in Svendborg (DK). The findings of this project are used to evaluate whether local food strategies are an effective method of social innovation. The pilot case is a whole school, workshop...... to students' food literacy, health and quality of life in a way that qualifies to the notion of social innovation....

  9. Wastewater irrigation, unobservable food quality and the efficiency of local food markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengenbach, M.F.; Weikard, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Food irrigated with untreated wastewater is considered low quality because of health hazards that they can produce. When consumers cannot distinguish food qualities, asymmetric information threatens the efficiency of local food markets. We examine in a sequential game whether prices can credibly

  10. Local Staple Food Price Indices in the Age of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    In many poor, food insecure regions, agriculture is a primary source of income and farmers are reliant both on their own production and on purchasing food in the market to feed their families. Large local food price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation and may be the consequence of weather-related food production declines, Dr can simply be the result of price transmission from the international commodity market. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets far from the places where the chronically food insecure live. A much better understanding of how local staple food prices in isolated regions such as West Africa that grow most of the food they eat to better understand the impact of global commodity market transformations on sensitive communities at the margin. This information will also enable improved strategies for these farmers who are extraordinarily sensitive to climate change impacts on agricultural growing conditions.

  11. Adoption of Enriched Local Complementary Food in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption of Enriched Local Complementary Food in Osun State: Combating Micronutrient Deficiency in the First Two Years of Life. ... It is concluded that for sustainability, interventions must be continued for longer periods of time to reach late ...

  12. Local food policies can help promote local foods and improve health: a case study from the Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Lorens, Adelino; Pretrick, Moses; Tara, Mona J; Johnson, Emihner

    2011-11-01

    The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) and other countries throughout the Pacific are facing an epidemic of non-communicable disease health problems. These are directly related to the increased consumption of unhealthy imported processed foods, the neglect of traditional food systems, and lifestyle changes, including decreased physical activity. The FSM faces the double burden of malnutrition with both non-communicable diseases and micronutrient deficiencies, including vitamin A deficiency and anemia. To help increase the use of traditional island foods and improve health, the Island Food Community of Pohnpei has initiated a program in the FSM to support and promote local food policies, along with its Go Local awareness campaign. Such local food policies are defined broadly and include individual and family commitments, community group local food policies and policies established by government, including presidential proclamations and increased taxation on soft drinks. The aim of this paper is to describe this work. An inter-agency, community- and research-based, participatory and media approach was used. Partners are both non-governmental and governmental. The use of continuing awareness work along with local food policy establishment and the acknowledgement of the individuals and groups involved are essential. The work is still in the preliminary stage but ad hoc examples show that this approach has had success in increased awareness on health issues and improving dietary intake on both an individual and group basis. This indicates that further use of local food policies could have an instrumental impact in FSM as well as other Pacific Island countries in promoting local foods and improving dietary intake and health, including the control of non-communicable diseases and other dietary-related health problems.

  13. Organic production potentials for sustainable local food supply in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Slabe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is presenting the assessment of organic production potentials for sustainable local food supply. Using the results of extensive field research among organic farmers, we analyzed the existing organic production for the market by the type of products and marketing channels. We defined the main strengths and weaknesses critical to the development of the Slovenian market for organic food, and highlighted spatial differences. We estimate that, especially in the organic production, there is a large untapped potential for sustainable local food supply in Slovenia.

  14. Local Food Marketing as a Development Opportunity for Small UK Agri-Food Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hingley

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available  The study explores local food as a marketing opportunity for small food producers and identifies barriers to development. Research was conducted primarily through depth interviews, supplemented by a survey of food marketing group members in North-West England. The results of this local study were consistent with national survey data showing increasing consumer interest in food provenance, traceability and support for the local economy. Lack of an official and recognised definition of the term "local food" hindered marketing. Restricted access to finance and the burden of regulations were identified as barriers. Further, small business success was subjective and difficult to identify, since goals may be based on sustaining a lifestyle rather than profit.

  15. Local foods and local markets: strategies to grow the local sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available L’intérêt pour une économie alimentaire alternative est de plus en plus marqué depuis une dizaine d’années. Le développement parallèle de travaux académiques et d’activités administrées par des organisations gouvernementales ou non-gouvernementales, conduit à un amalgame de théories et de pratiques diverses en matière de produits locaux. L’objectif de cet article est d’explorer les réseaux et les discours consernant la production et la consommation de produits locaux en Grande-Bretagne. L’analyse, entre autre fondée sur des interviews approfondies avec des représentants de l’industrie agro-alimentaire et d’organisations de base, révèle des differences dans le language et la conceptualisation du “local” qui influencent le rôle joué par les produits locaux aux niveaux économique et diététique. L’article s’achève sur l’importance et la priorité à donner aux politiques du secteur publique qui soutiennent les producteurs et entreprises de produits locaux, à la fois en milieu rural et urbain.Interest in an alternative food economy has been growing over the last decade. Parallel developments in academia and the activities of government and non-government organisations have led to a fusion of theory and practice under an umbrella of local food. The purpose of this article is to explore the networks and discourses that surround the production and consumption of local food in the UK. This is achieved through the analysis of a series of in-depth interviews with industry and grassroots organisations set against a background of consumer opinion deriving from focus groups. The analysis demonstrates that differences in the language and conceptualisation of local reveal different roles for local food in the economy and in the diet. The article concludes that policies to support public sector procurement through a hinterland of small-scale producer marketing and processing enterprises should be a priority in

  16. Opportunities for Local for Local Food Production: A Case in the Dutch Fruit and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriaan Visser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the opportunities for farmers to produce for local consumers, based on a case study in the Dutch horticulture sector. Main requirements for the set-up of a local chain of supply chain actors are investigated. Producer requirements are added value, availability of time, infrastructure and training. Retailer requirements are quality of food, purchasing volumes, food safety, communication to consumers and traceability of products. For consumers taste/freshness, sustainability, health benefits and authenticity are important attributes of local foods. Based on literature review and interviews with stakeholders four possible strategies for local food chains are defined. The ‘keep it local’ strategy means that the local food supply chains will not make use of the current infrastructure of the marketing coop that acts as chain coordinator. Deliveries are directly between farmer and retail outlet. The local products - conventional supply chain strategy implies that current (non-local supply chains are used to distribute local products. The supply chain planning will be more complex since products need to be separated per grower and distributed to several local supermarkets. In the ‘enabling producers’ strategy the marketing coop/chain coordinator is going to enable its member producers to sell their products locally. The marketing coop can support producers in for instance, billing and payments, marketing, logistics. The fourth strategy aims at strengthening current consumer communication strategies. It is argued that connecting producers and consumers, regardless of where they live is advantageous.Conclusion is that strategy 3; ‘Enabling producers’, in combination with strategy 4; ‘Strengthening current consumer communication strategies’ are the most promising options in setting up local food supply chains. Strategies 1 and 2, where the marketing coop/chain coordinator itself takes on the challenge of setting up

  17. Can Increasing Fuel Costs Make Locally Produced Food More Competitive?

    OpenAIRE

    Grigsby, Chuck; Hellwinckel, Chad; Lambert, Dayton; Yu, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce in the United States often travels thousands of miles in diesel operated semi-trucks before arriving to market. Under a high fuel cost scenario, the current low cost, efficient supply chain could become a high cost organizational structure for US food distribution. Rising transportation costs of food sourced from distant locations may provide competitive opportunities for small- and mid-sized local producers if transportation costs are a smaller portion of their total costs. Far...

  18. Local Food Systems Supported by Communities Nationally and Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Mária Bakos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concerns about the long-term sustainability of globalized retail trade as well as the more and more determining health-conscious food-consuming attitude the systems of government respectively the groups of conscious consumers all over the world put emphasis on the popularization and development of local food chains and small-scale supply chains simultaneously they connect the retailers producing highquality, local foods with the direct markets. In my study, I would like to present an overview of the development and current state of community supported agricultural systems on the international and Hungarian level and on the basis of the results of my questionnaire survey. I will indicate whether there are any demand for local food in Hungary and about how much the population of the six investigated settlements are familiar with it. Within this type of alternative local food systems, farmers and their buyers form a community based on social capital (co-operation, mutual trust and mutual responsibility, a direct sales channel, in such a way that cooperation is also beneficial to the producer and the consumer. The producer is in an advantageous position as he can form a direct and long-term relationship with his consumers selling his high-quality products locally consequently he can work in a cost-effective and optimal way. However, the advantage of the consumer is that he can obtain healthy foods from reliable sources contributing to the maintenance of his health respectively to the development of local economy.

  19. Ecological Citizenship and Sustainable Consumption: Examining Local Organic Food Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is gaining in currency as a new environmental policy objective. This paper presents new research findings from a mixed-method empirical study of a local organic food network to interrogate the theories of both sustainable consumption and ecological citizenship. It describes a mainstream policy model of sustainable…

  20. Ecological Citizenship and Sustainable Consumption: Examining Local Organic Food Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is gaining in currency as a new environmental policy objective. This paper presents new research findings from a mixed-method empirical study of a local organic food network to interrogate the theories of both sustainable consumption and ecological citizenship. It describes a mainstream policy model of sustainable…

  1. State Support in Brazil for a Local Turn to Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Matei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The local turn to food is often claimed to be a way to increase the value-added component retained by primary producers and to provide healthy, fresh and affordable food to consumers. Rio do Grande do Sul in Brazil has several governmental support programs that aim to empower family farmers and open up new market opportunities for them. This article examines these programs, investigates how small-scale farmers engage with them and the resultant changes in farming and marketing practices that ensue. The article uses cluster and content analysis to identify and interpret the extent, and the different ways, in which these farmers engage with and make use of the local knowledge and innovation system. The results provide useful insights into how policy instruments improve the performance of family agribusinesses, helping them to make better use of the resources available to them, encouraging farm diversification, and strengthening local interrelations between producers and consumers.

  2. Local, organic food initiatives and their potentials for transforming the conventional food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Lieblein

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est de discuter l’importance des initiatives locales dans la distribution de produits biologiques. Le sujet est abordé d’une part en fonction de la relation entre ce type d’initiatives et le système agroalimentaire conventionnel et d’autre part en fonction de la possibilité du développement d’un système agroalimentaire plus durable. Basé sur trois études scandinaves, concernant des produits biologiques en Norvège et au Danemark, cet article souligne le fait que les différents acteurs intreviewés jouent à la fois sur le tableau du local et du biologique et sur le tableau du conventionnel. En dépit de différences structurelles distinctes, les deux systèmes, et les conventions qui leur sont rattachées, s’influencent mutuellement. Afin de mettre au point une agriculture plus durable, il semble donc important de mettre en valeur le fondement global de l’agriculture écologique, qui repose non seulement sur des valeurs biologiques et locales, mais encore sur des aspects économiques, sociaux et culturels qui doivent être pris en considération.The aim of this article is to discuss the importance of local initiatives for distribution of organic food. This subject is discussed both in relation to how such initiatives may affect the overall conventional food system and the possible implications for development of a more sustainable food system. The article is based on findings from three different cases of local, organic food in Norway and Denmark. We found that actors within the cases are both involved with local, organic food initiatives and at the same time part of the overall conventional food system. Even though there are distinctive structural differences between these distribution systems, they mutually affect each other. This means that conventions normally associated with local, organic food systems may ‘rub off’ to the conventional food system and vice versa. In order to develop

  3. Do Local Food Networks Foster Socio-Ecological Transitions towards Food Sovereignty? Learning from Real Place Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on transition theory, we conceptualize local food networks as innovations that initially function and develop in local niches within a given food regime. As niche-innovations local food networks induce socio-ecological changes on the local level and they have the potential to foster wider transformations of the dominant food regime. Many local food networks adopt the concept of food sovereignty as a kind of “leitmotif”. At the core of this concept lies the question of how to create an agro-food system that, (i allows for democratic participation and civic engagement in food production, and (ii sets up new relationships that avoid social inequity and the exploitation of both humans and nature. In this paper we shed light on how the Austrian local food network “SpeiseLokal” addresses the challenge of operationalizing the concept of food sovereignty. The case study captures the strategies which local food networks embark on and depicts the difficulties they encounter. The paper aims to identify critical points of intersection that either strengthen or constrain local food networks from becoming established, operating, and up-scaling in the ways they wish; that is, in accordance with the principles and aims of food sovereignty, while avoiding a later assimilation into the dominant food regime.

  4. Lifestyle segmentation of US food shoppers to examine organic and local food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Cong; Zepeda, Lydia

    2011-08-01

    The food related lifestyle (FRL) model, widely used on European data, is applied to US data using a modified survey instrument to examine organic and local food consumption. Since empirical studies indicate these shoppers are motivated by environmental and health concerns and limited by access, the conceptual framework employs an environmental behavior model, Attitude Behavior Context (ABC), which is consistent with means-end chain theory, the Health Belief (HB) model, and the FRL model. ABC theory incorporates contextual factors that may limit consumers' ability to act on their intentions. US food shopper data was collected in 2003 (n=956) utilizing an instrument with variables adapted from the FRL, ABC, and HB models. Cluster analysis segmented food shoppers into four FRL groups: rational, adventurous, careless, and a fourth segment that had some characteristics of both conservative and uninvolved consumers. The segments exhibited significant differences in organic and local food consumption. These were correlated with consumers' environmental concerns, knowledge and practices, health concerns and practices, as well as some demographic characteristics (race, gender, age, education), income, and variables that measured access to these foods. Implications for marketing and public policy strategies to promote organic and local foods include: emphasizing taste, nutrition, value, children, and enjoyment of cooking for rational consumers; and emphasizing health, fitness, and freshness, and providing ethnic foods for adventurous consumers. While both careless and conservative/uninvolved consumers valued convenience, the former tended to be in the highest income group, while the latter were in the lowest, were more likely to be either in the youngest or oldest age groups, and were very concerned about food safety and health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Local food in European supply chains: reconnection and electronic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle central et l’article observe l’équilibre entre les composants historiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits locaux/localisés. A partir de ces terrains de recherche et de ces expériences il s’est avéré possible de déterminer différentes compréhensions de « produits locaux » en relation avec le concept de « distance alimentaire/ food miles ». En se référant à six cas donnés, cet article souligne l’importance des systèmes localisés en matière de durabilité alimentaire, et met en valeur le poids des qualités humaines et sociales dans la balance commerciale.After giving an overview of the market for local food in the UK, as well as a definition of the concept in relation to short supply chains, organic agriculture and fair trade, the article draws on cases encountered through EC-funded research and networking to identify different types of network concerned with the concept of sustaining local food. Historical uses of shopping habits play here a central role and the article observes the balance between historical, social and environmental components of local food. From these researches and experiences, it has been possible to demonstrate a range of understandings in relation to the concept of ‘food miles’. With reference to six cases, the article underlines the importance of local food systems within food sustainability, and highlights the weight of human and social qualities in the market balance.

  6. Overcoming limits set by scarce resources - role of local food production and food imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkka, Miina; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Gerten, Dieter; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    There is a fundamental tension between population growth and carrying capacity, i.e. the population that could potentially be supported using the resources and technologies available at a given time. This makes the assessments of resource use and agricultural productivity central to the debate on future food security. Local carrying capacity can be increased by expanding (e.g. through land conversion and irrigation infrastructure) or intensifying (e.g. through technologies and practices that increase efficiency) the resource use in agriculture. Food imports can be considered another way of overcoming current local limits and continuing growth beyond the local human-carrying capacity. Focusing on water as the key limiting resource, we performed a global assessment of the capacity for food self-sufficiency at sub-national and national scale for 1961-2009, taking into account the availability of both green and blue water as well as technology and management practices affecting water productivity at a given time, and using the hydrology and agriculture model LPJmL as our primary tool. Furthermore, we examined the use of food imports as a strategy to increase carrying capacity in regions where the potential for food self-sufficiency was limited by water availability and productivity. We found that the capacity for food self-sufficiency reduced notably during the study period due to the rapid population growth that outpaced the substantial improvements in water productivity. In 2009 more than a third (2.2 billion people) of the world's population lived in areas where sufficient food production to meet the needs of the population was not possible, and some 800 million people more were approaching this threshold. Food imports have nearly universally been used to overcome these local limits to growth, though the success of this strategy has been highly dependent on economic purchasing power. In the unsuccessful cases, increases in imports and local productivity have not

  7. Toxicological evaluation of some Malaysian locally processed raw food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, R; Ghazali, A R; Rajab, N F; Haron, H; Osman, F

    2008-01-01

    Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 h incubation. Findings showed all methanol extracts caused a tremendous drop in the percentage of cell viability at 2000 microg/ml (shrimp paste - 41.69+/-3.36%, salted fish - 37.2+/-1.06%, dried shrimp - 40.32+/-1.8%, pfood showed that shrimp paste did not comply with the protein requirement (Food Act 1983. Salt was found in every sample with the highest percentage being detected in shrimp paste which exceeded 20%. Following heavy metal analysis (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), arsenic was found in every sample with dried shrimps showing the highest value as compared to the other samples (6.16 mg/kg). In conclusion, several food extracts showed cytotoxic effect but did not cause DNA damage against Chang liver cells. Salt was found as the main additive and arsenic was present in every sample, which could be the probable cause of the toxicity effects observed.

  8. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  9. [Local food production for school feeding programmes in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Panmela; Martínez-Mián, Maria Asunción; Caballero, Pablo; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen

    2017-04-19

    To identify and characterize initiatives that promote the purchase of locally-sourced foods to supply schools and the school centres carrying out the initiatives. Exploratory, descriptive study based on secondary data and key informant reports. A search of governmental and non-governmental initiatives was carried out at the autonomous community level. Government initiatives were located through school feeding programmes in the different autonomous communities, their nutritional guides and representatives of the councils for education and agriculture. Non-governmental initiatives were found through their own websites and the snowball technique. Initiatives were analysed by their geographic distribution, organizational area (government vs. non-government), number of school centres carrying out the initiatives, management style and organic food purchase. A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out. 12 initiatives carried out by 318 schools (2.16% of all the schools with food service in Spain) were identified. Among these, 6 are governmental initiatives with a scope of 274 schools (1.86%), and 6 are non-governmental initiatives with a scope of 44 schools (0.30%). Most of these schools have a public management system in place (n=284). All the initiatives provide for the purchase of organic food. Local food purchase initiatives in Spain have a limited reach. However, the existence of a state directive could support and strengthen the development of such initiatives, given that school commitment is greater when initiatives are driven by the public sector. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Vps1 in the late endosome-to-vacuole traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jacob Hayden; Michelle Williams; Ann Granich; Hyoeun Ahn; Brandon Tenay; Joshua Lukehart; Chad Highfill; Sarah Dobard; Kyoungtae Kim

    2013-03-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 1 (Vps1), the yeast homolog to human dynamin, is a GTP hydrolyzing protein, which plays an important role in protein sorting and targeting between the Golgi and late endosomal compartments. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of Vps1 in the membrane traffic towards the vacuole. We show here that vps1 cells accumulated FM4-64 to a greater extent than wild-type (WT) cells, suggesting slower endocytic degradation traffic toward the vacuole. In addition, we observed that two endosome-to-vacuole traffic markers, DsRed-FYVE and Ste2-GFP, were highly accumulated in Vps1-deficient cells, further supporting Vps1’s implication in efficient trafficking of endocytosed materials to the vacuole. Noteworthy, a simultaneous imaging analysis in conjunction with FM4-64 pulse-chase experiment further revealed that Vps1 plays a role in late endosome to the vacuole transport. Consistently, our subcellular localization analysis showed that Vps1 is present at the late endosome. The hyperaccumulation of endosomal intermediates in the vps1 mutant cells appears to be caused by the disruption of integrity of HOPS tethering complexes, manifested by mislocalization of Vps39 to the cytoplasm. Finally, we postulate that Vps1 functions together with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) complex at the late endosomal compartments, based on the observation that the double mutants, in which VPS1 along with singular ESCRT I, II and III genes have been disrupted, exhibited synthetic lethality. Together, we propose that Vps1 is required for correct and efficient trafficking from the late endosomal compartments to the vacuole.

  11. Protein dynamics and proteolysis in plant vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntz, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Plant cells cannot live without their vacuoles. The tissues and organs of a plant contain a wide variety of differentiated and specialized vacuoles -- even a single plant cell can possess two or more types of vacuoles. Vacuolar proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and synthesized in the cytoplasm. Their transport into the vacuolar compartment is under cytoplasmic control. Transcription seems to be a major control level for differential protein supply to the vacuoles. It is at this level that vacuole differentiation and functions are mainly integrated into cellular processes. Recycling amino acids generated by protein degradation is a major function of the vacuole. This is most evident when storage proteins are mobilized in storage tissues of generative or vegetative organs in order to nourish the embryo of germinating seeds or sprouting buds. When specific proteins are transferred to the vacuole for immediate degradation this compartment contributes to the adaptation of protein complexes in response to changes in developmental or environmental conditions. Vacuolar proteases are involved in protein degradation during reversible senescence and programmed cell death, which is also called irreversible senescence. Vacuoles contribute to defence against pathogens and herbivores by limited and unlimited proteolysis. Our present knowledge on functions and processes of vacuolar protein dynamics in plants is reviewed. Research perspectives are deduced.

  12. New insights into the tonoplast architecture of plant vacuoles and vacuolar dynamics during osmotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Francis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vegetative plant vacuole occupies >90% of the volume in mature plant cells. Vacuoles play fundamental roles in adjusting cellular homeostasis and allowing cell growth. The composition of the vacuole and the regulation of its volume depend on the coordinated activities of the transporters and channels localized in the membrane (named tonoplast surrounding the vacuole. While the tonoplast protein complexes are well studied, the tonoplast itself is less well described. To extend our knowledge of how the vacuole folds inside the plant cell, we present three-dimensional reconstructions of vacuoles from tobacco suspension cells expressing the tonoplast aquaporin fusion gene BobTIP26-1::gfp. Results 3-D reconstruction of the cell vacuole made possible an accurate analysis of large spanning folds of the vacuolar membrane under both normal and stressed conditions, and suggested interactions between surrounding plastids. Dynamic, high resolution 3-D pictures of the vacuole in tobacco suspension cells monitored under different growth conditions provide additional details about vacuolar architecture. The GFP-decorated vacuole is a single continuous compartment transected by tubular-like transvacuolar strands and large membrane surfaces. Cell culture under osmotic stress led to a complex vacuolar network with an increased tonoplast surface area. In-depth 3-D realistic inspections showed that the unity of the vacuole is maintained during acclimation to osmotic stress. Vacuolar unity exhibited during stress adaptation, coupled with the intimate associations of vacuoles with other organelles, suggests a physiological role for the vacuole in metabolism, and communication between the vacuole and organelles, respectively, in plant cells. Desiccation stress ensuing from PEG treatment generates "double" membrane structures closely linked to the tonoplast within the vacuole. These membrane structures may serve as membrane reservoirs for

  13. Calcium Signals from the Vacuole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schönknecht

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The vacuole is by far the largest intracellular Ca2+ store in most plant cells. Here, the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of vacuolar Ca2+ release and Ca2+ uptake is summarized, and how different vacuolar Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ pumps may contribute to Ca2+ signaling in plant cells is discussed. To provide a phylogenetic perspective, the distribution of potential vacuolar Ca2+ transporters is compared for different clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. There are several candidates for vacuolar Ca2+ channels that could elicit cytosolic [Ca2+] transients. Typical second messengers, such as InsP3 and cADPR, seem to trigger vacuolar Ca2+ release, but the molecular mechanism of this Ca2+ release still awaits elucidation. Some vacuolar Ca2+ channels have been identified on a molecular level, the voltage-dependent SV/TPC1 channel, and recently two cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channels. However, their function in Ca2+ signaling still has to be demonstrated. Ca2+ pumps in addition to establishing long-term Ca2+ homeostasis can shape cytosolic [Ca2+] transients by limiting their amplitude and duration, and may thus affect Ca2+ signaling.

  14. Drivers and barriers to the development of local food networks in rural Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann; Sundbo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the growing interest in local food by focusing on local food networks. The objective is to explore what factors drive or hinder the development of local food networks in rural Denmark. For this purpose, we have combined three bodies of theory: local food networks; entrepreneur....... The findings demonstrate that the main drivers of the development of local food networks are the pursuance of transparency and knowledge of origin, the existence of entrepreneurship potential, the coordination of networks by means of joint strategies, and the overcoming of conflict patterns. However...

  15. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C. Dreyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic designs and control principles for local food producers.

  16. Associations between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Elsury; Roncarolo, Federico; Potvin, Louise

    2017-04-20

    To examine the association between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed baseline data from 785 adults aged 18-65 years enrolled in the evaluation of the effects of organizations delivering community food security interventions in Montreal. The dependent variable was household food insecurity, while the independent variable was the local food environment, assessed through: location of the most frequently used grocery store, distance between the participant's residence and the community organization used, mode of transportation, walking time to the most frequently used grocery store, satisfaction with the acceptability and affordability of food available at the most frequently used grocery store, and self-reported difficulties in accessing food. We used polytomous logistic regression to estimate the association between household food insecurity and the local food environment. In all the models, we coded food security status in three categories: food security, moderate food insecurity and severe food insecurity. The last group was used as a reference group. Our data suggest that compared to households with severe food insecurity, those with moderate food insecurity (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.28-0.62) and those with food security (OR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.06-0.26) were less likely to report difficulties in accessing food due to food affordability. Food-secure households also had lower odds of reporting difficulties in accessing food due to transportation constraints (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.55) compared with severe food-insecure households. Living a distance of between 1 and 2 km from the organization used was significantly correlated with moderate food insecurity (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.12-2.88). The local food environment is associated with severity of household food insecurity among new families using community food security

  17. Local food environment interventions to improve healthy food choice in adults: a systematic review and realist synthesis protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Penney, Tarra L.; Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Maguire, Eva R.; Kuhn, Isla; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from the British Medical Journal via http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007161 Introduction Local food environments have been linked with dietary intake and obesity in adults. However, overall evidence remains mixed with calls for increased theoretical and conceptual clarity related to how availability of neighbourhood food outlets, and within-outlet food options, influence food purchasing and consumption. The purpose of this ...

  18. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-11-01

    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  19. Safety Aspects of Local Tropical Food Production: Essential Oil Incorporation as a Safe Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The local food production can be seen worldwide and there are several local wisdoms on food production. The problem on the local food production can be seen and the problem of microbiological contamination is the great concern. The safety consideration is required. In the tropical world, the problem of local tropical food production should be specially discussed. There are many cases of problematic microbiological contamination and the quality management is still the issue for further development.A safe and acceptable approach to increase safety and shelf life of the tropical foods is application of essential oil.

  20. Role of gastronomic, externality and feasibility attributes in consumer demand for organic and local foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    Local food systems providing high-value products are seen as a tool to sustain economic activity on family farms in rural areas. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of gastronomic, externality and feasibility characteristics in consumers’ demand for local and for organic foods....... important determinant for food choice, but externality and feasibility aspects are also important correlates....

  1. Effect of the Vacuolation of Helicobacter Pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cytotoxic test in vitro combined with cytochemical stain, fluorescent stain, transmission electronmicrograph was used to study the vacuolated effect by helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) (Toxin+) and its pathological mechanism. 78.26 % patients with peptic ulcer associated with H.pylori was infected with H.pylori (Toxin+), while 42.86 % patients with gastritis was infected with H.pylori (Toxin+). It was positive in vacuole with acridine orange and acid phosphatase stain. Transmission electronmicrograph of vacuole revealed the presence of abounding membrane. There was a closed relationship between infection with H.pylori (Toxin+) and peptic ulcer disease. The vacuole induced by H.pylori (Toxin+) was autophagosome, which was pathological phenomenon induced by toxin.

  2. THE TONOPLAST TRANSPORT SYSTEMS OF PLANT VACUOLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Isayenkov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The pivotal role of plant vacuoles in plant survival was discussed in the review. Particularly, the providing of cellular turgor, accumulation of inorganic osmolytes and nutrients are the primary tasks of these cellular organelles. The main mechanisms of tonoplast transport systems were described. The known transport pathways of minerals, heavy metals, vitamins and other organic compounds were classified and outlined. The main systems of membrane vacuolar transport were reviewed. The outline of the physiological functions and features of vacuolar membrane transport proteins were performed. The physiological role of transport of minerals, nutrients and other compounds into vacuoles were discussed. This article reviews the main types of plant vacuoles and their functional role in plant cell. Current state and progress in vacuolar transport research was outlined. The examples of application for rinciples and mechanisms of vacuolar membrane transport in plant biotechnology were iven. The perspectives and approaches in plant and food biotechnology concerning transport and physiology of vacuoles are discussed.

  3. Fast-food intake and perceived and objective measures of the local fast-food environment in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    low-income families (OR=1·46; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·04) had higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake compared with those from high-income backgrounds. Girls attending schools with canteens (OR=1·47; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·15) had higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake than girls at schools without...... canteens. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that perceived food outlets may impact fast-food intake in boys while proximity impacts intake in girls. Public health planning could target food environments that emphasize a better understanding of how adolescents use local resources....

  4. Local food environment interventions to improve healthy food choice in adults: a systematic review and realist synthesis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Tarra L; Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Maguire, Eva R; Kuhn, Isla; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-03

    Local food environments have been linked with dietary intake and obesity in adults. However, overall evidence remains mixed with calls for increased theoretical and conceptual clarity related to how availability of neighbourhood food outlets, and within-outlet food options, influence food purchasing and consumption. The purpose of this work is to develop a programme theory of food availability, supported by empirical evidence from a range of local food environment interventions. A systematic search of the literature will be followed by duplicate screening and quality assessment (using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool). Realist synthesis will then be conducted according to the Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards (RAMESES) publication standards, including transparent appraisal, synthesis and drawing conclusions via consensus. The final synthesis will propose an evidence-based programme theory of food availability, including evidence mapping to demonstrate contextual factors, pathways of influence and potential mechanisms. With the paucity of empirically supported programme theories used in current local food environment interventions to improve food availability, this synthesis may be used to understand how and why interventions work, and thus inform the development of theory-driven, evidence-based interventions to improve healthy food choice and future empirical work. PROSPERO CRD42014009808. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Pohnpei, FSM case study in a global health project documents its local food resources and successfully promotes local food for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, L; Kuhnlein, H V; Lorens, A; Pedrus, P; Albert, K; Currie, J; Pretrick, M; Jim, R; Kaufer, L

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a summary of Pohnpei, Federated States Micronesia's involvement in a global health study focused on documenting traditional food systems in different parts of the world and providing evidence that local resources are critical for food security, nutrition and health. The Pohnpei study was based in Mand Community, Madolenihmw. The study found that there was a great diversity of foods locally available (381 food items documented), but these were underused. Overweight, obesity, diabetes, and vitamin A deficiency were identified as serious problems. Interventions included community meetings, school activities, and agriculture workshops, cooking classes, charcoal oven development, weight loss and planting competitions, poster campaigns and other relevant mass media. Significant dietary improvements were achieved following the intervention efforts, as well as positive changes in attitude towards local food including: decrease in average daily rice consumption from 846 g/person in 2005 to 544 g/person in 2007 (p = 0.0002); increase in provitamin A carotenoid intake from 227 microg/person in 2005 to 475 microg/person in 2007 (p = 0.02); increased frequency of consumption of local banana (53%), giant swamp taro (476%), local vegetables (130%); and increased dietary diversity (4.8 local food groups consumed in 2005 to 5.5 in 2007). Another positive outcome in Pohnpei was the popularization of the slogan "Let's Go Local."

  6. Cellular vacuoles induced by Mycoplasma pneumoniae CARDS toxin originate from Rab9-associated compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coreen Johnson

    Full Text Available Recently, we identified an ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin in Mycoplasma pneumoniae designated Community Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS toxin. In this study we show that vacuoles induced by recombinant CARDS (rCARDS toxin are acidic and derive from the endocytic pathway as determined by the uptake of neutral red and the fluid-phase marker, Lucifer yellow, respectively. Also, we demonstrate that the formation of rCARDS toxin-associated cytoplasmic vacuoles is inhibited by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin A1, and the ionophore, monensin. To examine the ontogeny of these vacuoles, we analyzed the distribution of endosomal and lysosomal membrane markers during vacuole formation and observed the enrichment of the late endosomal GTPase, Rab9, around rCARDS toxin-induced vacuoles. Immunogold-labeled Rab9 and overexpression of green fluorescent-tagged Rab9 further confirmed vacuolar association. The late endosomal- and lysosomal-associated membrane proteins, LAMP1 and LAMP2, also localized to the vacuolar membranes, while the late endosomal protein, Rab7, and early endosomal markers, Rab5 and EEA1, were excluded. HeLa cells expressing dominant-negative (DN Rab9 exhibited markedly reduced vacuole formation in the presence of rCARDS toxin, in contrast to cells expressing DN-Rab7, highlighting the importance of Rab9 function in rCARDS toxin-induced vacuolation. Our findings reveal the unique Rab9-association with rCARDS toxin-induced vacuoles and its possible relationship to the characteristic histopathology that accompanies M. pneumoniae infection.

  7. Factors Constraining Local Food Crop Production in Indonesia: Experiences from Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADEN RIJANTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local food crops are believed to be important alternatives in facing the problems of continuously growing price of food stuff worldwide. There has been a strong bias in national agricultural development policy towards the production of rice as staple food in Indonesia. Local food crops have been neglected in the agricultural development policy in the last 50 years, leading to the dependency on imported commodities and creating a vulnerability in the national food security. This paper aims at assessing the factors constraining local food production in Indonesia based on empirical experiences drawn from a research in Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta Province. The government of Kulon Progo Regency has declared its commitment in the development of local food commodities as a part of its agricultural development policy, as it is mentioned in the long-term and medium-term development planning documents. There is also a head regency decree mandating the use of local food commodities in any official events organized by the government organisations. The research shows that there are at least six policy-related problems and nine technical factors constraining local food crops production in the regency. Some of the policy-related and structural factors hampering the production of local food crops consist of (1 long-term policy biases towards rice, (2 strong biases on rice diet in the community, (3 difficulties in linking policy to practices, (4 lack of information on availability of local food crops across the regency and (5 external threat from the readily available instant food on local market and (6 past contra-productive policy to the production of local food crops. The technical factors constraining local food production comprises (1 inferiority of the food stuff versus the instantly prepared food, (2 difficulty in preparation and risk of contagion of some crops, lack of technology for processing, (3 continuity of supply (some crops are seasonally

  8. Are Local Food Chains More Sustainable than Global Food Chains? Considerations for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main findings of the GLAMUR project which starts with an apparently simple question: is “local” more sustainable than “global”? Sustainability assessment is framed within a post-normal science perspective, advocating the integration of public deliberation and scientific research. The assessment spans 39 local, intermediate and global supply chain case studies across different commodities and countries. Assessment criteria cover environmental, economic, social, health and ethical sustainability dimensions. A closer view of the food system demonstrates a highly dynamic local–global continuum where actors, while adapting to a changing environment, establish multiple relations and animate several chain configurations. The evidence suggests caution when comparing “local” and “global” chains, especially when using the outcomes of the comparison in decision-making. Supply chains are analytical constructs that necessarily—and arbitrarily—are confined by system boundaries, isolating a set of elements from an interconnected whole. Even consolidated approaches, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, assess only a part of sustainability attributes, and the interpretation may be controversial. Many sustainability attributes are not yet measurable and “hard” methodologies need to be complemented by “soft” methodologies which are at least able to identify critical issues and trade-offs. Aware of these limitations, our research shows that comparing local and global chains, with the necessary caution, can help overcome a priori positions that so far have characterized the debate between “localists” and “globalists”. At firm level, comparison between “local” and “global” chains could be useful to identify best practices, benchmarks, critical points, and errors to avoid. As sustainability is not a status to achieve, but a never-ending process, comparison and deliberation can be the basis of a

  9. The influence of local food environments on adolescents' food purchasing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students' home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students' food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students' food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p fast-food outlet density in both home and school neighborhoods was associated with increased fast-food purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p food environment surrounding children and youth's home and school.

  10. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810 at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p < 0.05. High fast-food outlet density in both home and school neighborhoods was associated with increased fast-food purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05. In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school.

  11. Enhancing the design and management of a local organic food supply chain with Soft Systems Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain partners for local organic food face uncertainties such as poor collaboration and communication that cannot be reduced through the application of traditional supply chain design and management techniques. Such techniques are known to improve supply chain coordination, but they do...... not adequately consider major aspects of local organic food supply chains such as ethics, sustainability and human values. Supply chain design and management approaches suita-ble to small-scale, local organic food enterprises are lacking and need to be developed. The aim of this paper is to suggest Soft Systems...... Methodology (SSM) as a new and suitable ap-proach to design and manage local organic food supply chains. We illustrate how SSM can be used to reduce uncertainties within local organic food supply chains based on a German case. This illustration serves to identify the benefits of using SSM, compared with ad...

  12. Enhancing the design and management of a local organic food supply chain with Soft Systems Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain partners for local organic food face uncertainties such as poor collaboration and communication that cannot be reduced through the application of traditional supply chain design and management techniques. Such techniques are known to improve supply chain coordination, but they do...... not adequately consider major aspects of local organic food supply chains such as ethics, sustainability and human values. Supply chain design and management approaches suita-ble to small-scale, local organic food enterprises are lacking and need to be developed. The aim of this paper is to suggest Soft Systems...... Methodology (SSM) as a new and suitable ap-proach to design and manage local organic food supply chains. We illustrate how SSM can be used to reduce uncertainties within local organic food supply chains based on a German case. This illustration serves to identify the benefits of using SSM, compared with ad...

  13. ER and vacuoles: never been closer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado eViotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER represents the gateway for intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins, soluble cargoes and lipids. In all eukaryotes, the best described mechanism of exiting the ER is via COPII-coated vesicles, which transport both membrane proteins and soluble cargo to the cis-Golgi. The vacuole, together with the plasma membrane, is the most distal point of the secretory pathway, and many vacuolar proteins are transported from the ER through intermediate compartments. However, past results and recent findings demonstrate the presence of alternative transport routes from the ER towards the tonoplast, which are independent of Golgi- and post-Golgi trafficking. Moreover, the transport mechanism of the vacuolar proton pumps VHA-a3 and AVP1 challenges the current model of vacuole biogenesis, pointing to the endoplasmic reticulum for being the main membrane source for the biogenesis of the plant lytic compartment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge on the transport routes towards the vacuole and discusses the possible mechanism of vacuole biogenesis in plants.

  14. Competitiveness of Small Farms and Innovative Food Supply Chains: The Role of Food Hubs in Creating Sustainable Regional and Local Food Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berti, Giaime; Mulligan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    .... One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri...

  15. Farm to institution: creating access to healthy local and regional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Diane; Lott, Megan; Lakins, Velma; Bowden, Brian; Kimmons, Joel

    2012-05-01

    Farm to Institution (FTI) programs are one approach to align food service operations with health and sustainability guidelines, such as those recently developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and General Services Administration. Programs and policies that support sourcing local and regional foods for schools, hospitals, faith-based organizations, and worksites may benefit institutional customers and their families, farmers, the local community, and the economy. Different models of FTI programs exist. On-site farmer's markets at institutions have been promoted on federal government property, healthcare facilities, and private institutions nationwide. Farm to School programs focus on connecting schools with local agricultural production with the goal of improving school meals and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in children. Sourcing food from local farms presents a number of challenges including cost and availability of local products, food safety, and liability considerations and lack of skilled labor for food preparation. Institutions utilize multiple strategies to address these barriers, and local, state, and federal polices can help facilitate FTI approaches. FTI enables the purchasing power of institutions to contribute to regional and local food systems, thus potentially affecting social, economic, and ecological systems. Local and state food policy councils can assist in bringing stakeholders together to inform this process. Rigorous research and evaluation is needed to determine and document best practices and substantiate links between FTI and multiple outcomes. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers can help communities work with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate programs and policies supporting FTI.

  16. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Edwards, Joy; Raine, Kim D; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen

    2009-06-18

    Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older) conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI) was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 - 0.95) if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0) in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above). These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity.

  17. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Kim D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Methods Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. Results The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 – 0.95 if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0 in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above. These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. Conclusion The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity.

  18. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  19. LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor MOROZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge of the food sector in the Republic of Moldova is to identify specific needs and opportunities for agriculture and rural development throughout food supply chains, and focusing investment in areas where the most impact will be made. The identification and allocation of resources requires analysis of main dimensions of food supply chains, in order to establish links and determine local factors. In small transition economies the diagnosis of the food supply chains, is typically based on limited data and incomplete information. In order to investigate the actual state of food supply chains were used specific methods and techniques: statistical and economic analysis of macro-economic indicators, semi-structured interviews of key stakeholders, analysis of the impact of public policies on the agro-food sector. In the article is analyzed the process of food systems formation and integration at the local and global level. Although it is a small part of the overall agricultural sector, various local food systems are under development in the Republic of Moldova. These systems bring consumers in close contact with farmers and mobilize them to support local farms and sustainable farming practices. While local food systems continue to face many barriers, many of them show considerable potential for growth.

  20. Food Security Framings within the UK and the Integration of Local Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, James; Maye, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical interpretation of food security politics in the UK. It applies the notion of food security collective action frames to assess how specific action frames are maintained and contested. The interdependency between scale and framing in food security discourse is also scrutinised. It does this through an examination of…

  1. Food Security Framings within the UK and the Integration of Local Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, James; Maye, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical interpretation of food security politics in the UK. It applies the notion of food security collective action frames to assess how specific action frames are maintained and contested. The interdependency between scale and framing in food security discourse is also scrutinised. It does this through an examination of…

  2. Does school size affect interest for purchasing local foods in the midwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sylvia; Wleklinski, Danielle; Roth, Sara Long; Tragoudas, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    Due to the recent surge in environmental consciousness and the need to address childhood obesity, Farm to School programs have gained momentum. Even though Farm to School programs have increased in popularity, many schools still fail to take advantage of the benefits from such programs. School food service employees' lack of familiarity with the benefits of Farm to School programs or the means to overcome obstacles to implement such programs, along with school size, may represent key variables that serve to explain why more schools do not purchase more local foods for their schools. This study used a convenience sampling methodology to gather information regarding food service employees' perceptions of the benefits and obstacles and their attitudes to purchasing and serving local foods in their schools. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from school food service employees in southern Illinois. Data (n=151) were collected from 60 schools, representing 16 counties during the month of December, 2009. Purchasers from large- and medium-size schools perceived the "ability to know product sources" as a greater benefit to purchasing local food and perceived "cost of food," "adequate volume," "reliable supply of food quantity," "payment arrangement," and "packing material" as greater obstacles (p<0.05) compared to small schools. In addition, results indicated that food service employees were interested in receiving training to prepare and serve more local foods. Findings from this study indicate a need for continued education, development, and training to better prepare school food service purchasers in southern Illinois for how to buy more local foods to meet the 2020 legislation requiring schools to purchase at least 10% locally.

  3. Local fall-out and the animal food chain; Retombees locales et chaine alimentaire animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [French] Les consequences locales des retombees fraiches, notamment dans le cas d'explosions nucleaires atmospheriques, sont passees en revue en ce qui concerne les problemes de contamination interne du consommateur de denrees d'origine animale. La comestibilite des aliments provenant de betes de boucherie ayant pature sous les retombees est evaluee au double point de vue de la salubrite et de la radiotoxicologie. Le niveau de contamination de ces denrees est calcule en fonction de la retombee au sol, des parametres agronomiques et ecologiques pour chaque radioelement de la chaine alimentaire animale. La contamination interne du consommateur humain est calculee a partir de ce niveau en fonction des modalites d'ingestion et de divers parametres, notamment temporels. L'equivalent de dose au niveau de chaque organe critique, y compris le tube digestif, est deduit

  4. Local and Sustainable Food Supply: The Role of European Retail Consumer Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hingley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper investigates the rationale for local and sustainable food systems and retailer co-operatives as their entry points within local conditions. Emphasis is on localised food networks and connection between socially as well as environmentally sustainable production, distribution and consumption. Investigated is the premise that co-operative organisational structures, for reasons of their long-term socially responsible origins are at the forefront of development of local and sustainable food systems and are thereby in a position to offer a specific contribution to market development. Two key research questions are proposed: Firstly, is there a pre-determination of co-operatives to issues of sustainable and local food sourcing given the historical and practical context of their ethical/socially responsible and stakeholder-based business model? Secondly, do co-ops express support for re-localising food systems and what contribution do they make concerning sustainable food and their relationships with local food suppliers? The method of investigation is through a two country retailer co-operative sector analysis and comparison (Finland and Italy. The enquiry is qualitative and exploratory in nature in the form of an embedded, multiple case design. The paper makes practical and theoretical contribution to knowledge concerning interpretation of ‘localness’ in food, the role of co-operatives and the co-operative ethos in sustainable food systems and the development of the local food economy. Results of the study show a positive relationship between co-operative ethos and (social sustainability in local food, but the de-centralised nature of retailer co-operation also provides a barrier to replication of good practice.

  5. Adjustment of host cells for accommodation of symbiotic bacteria: vacuole defunctionalization, HOPS suppression, and TIP1g retargeting in Medicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, Aleksandr; Kaiser, Brent N; Geiger, Dietmar; Tyerman, Stephen D; Wen, Zhengyu; Bisseling, Ton; Fedorova, Elena E

    2014-09-01

    In legume-rhizobia symbioses, the bacteria in infected cells are enclosed in a plant membrane, forming organelle-like compartments called symbiosomes. Symbiosomes remain as individual units and avoid fusion with lytic vacuoles of host cells. We observed changes in the vacuole volume of infected cells and thus hypothesized that microsymbionts may cause modifications in vacuole formation or function. To examine this, we quantified the volumes and surface areas of plant cells, vacuoles, and symbiosomes in root nodules of Medicago truncatula and analyzed the expression and localization of VPS11 and VPS39, members of the HOPS vacuole-tethering complex. During the maturation of symbiosomes to become N2-fixing organelles, a developmental switch occurs and changes in vacuole features are induced. For example, we found that expression of VPS11 and VPS39 in infected cells is suppressed and host cell vacuoles contract, permitting the expansion of symbiosomes. Trafficking of tonoplast-targeted proteins in infected symbiotic cells is also altered, as shown by retargeting of the aquaporin TIP1g from the tonoplast membrane to the symbiosome membrane. This retargeting appears to be essential for the maturation of symbiosomes. We propose that these alterations in the function of the vacuole are key events in the adaptation of the plant cell to host intracellular symbiotic bacteria. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Food deserts or food swamps?: A mixed-methods study of local food environments in a Mexican city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle-Fitzpatrick, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in eating behaviors and health outcomes. While food deserts have been researched extensively in developed Anglophone countries, evidence from low- and middle-income countries is still scarce. In Mexico, prevalence of obesity is among the highest worldwide. As obesity has increased nationally and become a widespread public health issue, it is becoming concentrated in the low-income population. This mixed-methods study uses a multidimensional approach to analyze food environments in a low-, middle-, and high-income community in a Mexican city. The study advances understanding of the role that food environments may play in shaping eating patterns by analyzing the density and proximity of food outlet types as well as the variety, quantity, quality, pricing, and promotion of different foods. These measures are combined with in-depth qualitative research with families in the communities, including photo elicitation, to assess perceptions of food access. The central aims of the research were to evaluate physical and economic access and exposure to healthy and unhealthy foods in communities of differing socioeconomic status as well as participants' subjective perceptions of such access and exposure. The findings suggest a need to reach beyond a narrow focus on food store types and the distance from residence to grocery stores when analyzing food access. Results show that excessive access and exposure to unhealthy foods and drinks, or "food swamps," may be a greater concern than food deserts for obesity-prevention policy in Mexico.

  7. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Tyler E; Schauber, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference.

  8. Competitiveness of Small Farms and Innovative Food Supply Chains: The Role of Food Hubs in Creating Sustainable Regional and Local Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaime Berti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the conventional agri-food system has and continues to be contested within both academic and public institutions. For small farms, the unsustainability of the food system is even more serious; farms’ declining share of profit and the cost-price squeeze of commodity production has increased barriers to market access with the inevitable effect of agricultural abandonment. One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri-food systems, aligning with Kramer and Porter’s concept of shared value strategy. Through a critical literature review, this paper presents “regional and local food hubs” as innovative organizational arrangements capable of bridging structural holes in the agri-food markets between small producers and the consumers—individuals and families as well as big buyers. Food hubs respond to a supply chain (or supply network organizational strategy aiming at re-territorialising the agri-food systems through the construction of what in the economic literature are defined as values-based food supply chains.

  9. "Closing the Loop": Overcoming barriers to locally sourcing food in Fort Collins, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a focal point for many communities in recent years, and restaurants are seeking creative ways to become more sustainable. As many chefs realize, sourcing food locally is an important step towards sustainability and towards building a healthy, resilient community. Review of literature on sustainability in restaurants and the local food movement revealed that chefs face many barriers to sourcing their food locally, but that there are also many solutions for overcoming these barriers that chefs are in the early stages of exploring. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify barriers to local sourcing and investigate how some restaurants are working to overcome those barriers in the city of Fort Collins, Colorado. To do this, interviews were conducted with four subjects who guide purchasing decisions for restaurants in Fort Collins. Two of these restaurants have created successful solutions and are able to source most of their food locally. The other two are interested in and working towards sourcing locally but have not yet been able to overcome barriers, and therefore only source a few local items. Findings show that there are four barriers and nine solutions commonly identified by each of the subjects. The research found differences between those who source most of their food locally and those who have not made as much progress in local sourcing. Based on these results, two solution flowcharts were created, one for primary barriers and one for secondary barriers, for restaurants to assess where they are in the local food chain and how they can more successfully source food locally. As there are few explicit connections between this research question and climate change, it is important to consider the implicit connections that motivate and justify this research. The question of whether or not greenhouse gas emissions are lower for locally sourced food is a topic of much debate, and while there are major developments

  10. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Jennifer D; Paul Hess; Kristian Larsen; Jason Gilliland; Patricia Tucker; Meizi He

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighbor...

  11. Modeling Local vs. Global Dimensions of Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.; Estes, L. D.; McCord, P. F.; Attari, S.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    Food security remains a daunting challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa despite dramatic efforts to foster innovation in the agricultural sector. Food security is complicated by a diversity of factors whose relative influence varies across scales, such as the nature of transportation infrastructure, the variety of agricultural practices, and the relative importance of food production versus food access. Efforts to model food security often focus on local-level dynamics (agricultural decision-making) or regional/coarse scale dynamics (e.g. GCM output + generalized equilibrium models of food trade) - both scales are of paramount importance to food security. Yet models of food security rarely span this scale divide. We present work linking agent-based models of agricultural decision-making to regional and global dynamics of environmental change, food movement and virtual water trade in sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically we investigate the heterogeneity of environmental factors and agricultural decisions within the context of droughts of different duration and spatial extent. Drivers of meteorological drought manifest in agricultural drought through the complexity inherent in agricultural management. But efforts to model food security are often challenged by a lack of local-level empirical data to characterize the relationship between meteorological drought and agricultural drought. Our agent-based model is built using detailed information on household farm assets and individual farmer decisions, combined with crop yield estimated developed using the DSSAT cropping system model run with bias-corrected meteorological data. We then address food access through a analysis of food trade data given the increasing relevance of food movement to mitigate local and regional drought. We discuss the analytical challenges and opportunities in linking these cross-scale dynamics in food security modeling.

  12. Awareness of pesticide residues in locally available food and condiments among food sellers: a case study of Osun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Ayo Deji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives are: i to determine the level of awareness of pesticide residue in locally available food among food sellers in Ile Ife area of Osun state, Nigeria; ii to identify the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of food sellers who use pesticides, natural means in preserving their foodstuff from getting spoilt; iii to determine the level of understanding of food sellers who use pesticides about the likely health implications that could result. The design of the study is cross sectional. Structured open-ended questionnaires were administered to 98 randomly selected food sellers in Ile Ife area Osun state, Nigeria. This includes males and female. The inference from the study shows that majority of the food sellers were between ages 21 and 30 years, suggesting that more of the young people are involved in the selling of foodstuff in the area of study. Most of the food sellers used phostozin, an organophosphate compound as preservatives for cereals. The majority of those that were aware of the health hazards associated with the usage of pesticides as preservative were literate school leavers. Among respondents to the questionnaire, it was expected that many of those food sellers likely to demonstrate caution in the usage of pesticide would be the literate school leavers. This is because they are more aware of the possible associated health hazards than their fellow food sellers who are not literate. The level of awareness of health implications associated with use of pesticides on consumable food items is higher among school certificate holders who are food sellers. Phostozin, an organophosphate, is a common preservative pesticide used on cereals foodstuff (e.g., bean, rice, maize in the area of study, especially among the age group between 21 and 30 years.

  13. Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates survive intracellularly without replication within acidic vacuoles of Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Julie; Thyssen, Sandra; Valvano, Miguel A

    2004-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia complex can survive intracellularly in murine macrophages and in free-living Acanthamoeba. In this work, we show that the clinical isolates B. vietnamiensis strain CEP040 and B. cenocepacia H111 survived but did not replicate within vacuoles of A. polyphaga. B. cepacia-containing vacuoles accumulated the fluid phase marker Lysosensor Blue and displayed strong blue fluorescence, indicating that they had low pH. In contrast, the majority of intracellular bacteria within amoebae treated with the V-ATPse inhibitor bafilomycin A1 localized in vacuoles that did not fluoresce with Lysosensor Blue. Experiments using bacteria fluorescently labelled with chloromethylfluorescein diacetate demonstrated that intracellular bacteria remained viable for at least 24 h. In contrast, Escherichia coli did not survive within amoebae after 2 h post infection. Furthermore, intracellular B. vietnamiensis CEP040 retained green fluorescent protein within the bacterial cytoplasm, while this protein rapidly escaped from the cytosol of phagocytized heat-killed bacteria into the vacuolar lumen. Transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed that intracellular Burkholderia cells were structurally intact. In addition, both Legionella pneumophila- and B. vietnamiensis-containing vacuoles did not accumulate cationized ferritin, a compound that localizes within the lysosome. Thus, our observations support the notion that B. cepacia complex isolates can use amoebae as a reservoir in the environment by surviving without intracellular replication within an acidic vacuole that is distinct from the lysosomal compartment.

  14. Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin A and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassow Joachim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract VacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin A of Helicobacter pylori, induces apoptosis in epithelial cells of the gastic mucosa and in leukocytes. VacA is released by the bacteria as a protein of 88 kDa. At the outer surface of host cells, it binds to the sphingomyelin of lipid rafts. At least partially, binding to the cells is facilitated by different receptor proteins. VacA is internalized by a clathrin-independent mechanism and initially accumulates in GPI-anchored proteins-enriched early endosomal compartments. Together with early endosomes, VacA is distributed inside the cells. Most of the VacA is eventually contained in the membranes of vacuoles. VacA assembles in hexameric oligomers forming an anion channel of low conductivity with a preference for chloride ions. In parallel, a significant fraction of VacA can be transferred from endosomes to mitochondria in a process involving direct endosome-mitochondria juxtaposition. Inside the mitochondria, VacA accumulates in the mitochondrial inner membrane, probably forming similar chloride channels as observed in the vacuoles. Import into mitochondria is mediated by the hydrophobic N-terminus of VacA. Apoptosis is triggered by loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, recruitment of Bax and Bak, and release of cytochrome c.

  15. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.; Linnemann, A.R.; Sybesma, W.; Kort, R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First,

  16. Resource for Evaluating the Economic Impact of Local Food System Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Becca B. R.; O'Hara, Jeffrey K.; McFadden, Dawn Thilmany; Tropp, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Local food system stakeholders are confronted with challenges when attempting to ascertain the economic impacts of food system investments. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service commissioned a team of economists to develop a resource to provide support to stakeholders interested in understanding the economic impacts of…

  17. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk

  18. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk wit

  19. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk wit

  20. Benchmarking the online services of local and organic food in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Suorsa, Essi

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable living, locality and doing together are currently some of the top lifestyle trends. Alongside with the lifestyle development, online retail has increased its share and online food shopping is booming in various countries. This report binds all these themes together and the target country is Austria. When it comes to organic farming, Austria is the leading country in Europe. Also the local origin of the food supplies is currently rated high in this Alpine country. This report p...

  1. Consumers’ Sustainability Perceptions of the Supply Chain of Locally Produced Food

    OpenAIRE

    Ari Paloviita

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative focus group study regarding consumer perceptions about the sustainability of locally produced food supply chains. Sustainability perceptions were analyzed through thematic content analysis, where the most important economic, environmental and social themes of the supply chain were emphasized. According to the research findings, the socio-cultural aspects encompassing locally produced food form the most important sustainability dimension for consumers. Al...

  2. The use of food imports to overcome local limits to growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkka, Miina; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Siebert, Stefan; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    There is a fundamental tension between population growth and carrying capacity, i.e., the population that could potentially be supported using the resources and technologies available at a given time. When population growth outpaces improvements in food production locally, food imports can avoid local limits and allow growth to continue. This import strategy is central to the debate on food security with continuing rapid growth of the world population. This highlights the importance of a quantitative global understanding of where the strategy is implemented, whether it has been successful, and what drivers are involved. We present an integrated quantitative analysis to answer these questions at sub-national and national scale for 1961-2009, focusing on water as the key limiting resource and accounting for resource and technology impacts on local carrying capacity. According to the sub-national estimates, food imports have nearly universally been used to overcome local limits to growth, affecting 3.0 billion people—81% of the population that is approaching or already exceeded local carrying capacity. This strategy is successful in 88% of the cases, being highly dependent on economic purchasing power. In the unsuccessful cases, increases in imports and local productivity have not kept pace with population growth, leaving 460 million people with insufficient food. Where the strategy has been successful, food security of 1.4 billion people has become dependent on imports. Whether or not this dependence on imports is considered desirable, it has policy implications that need to be taken into account.

  3. EPA and Gloucester Officials Celebrate Local Food Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Regional Administrator Curt Spalding visited Gloucester on Wednesday June 15 to applaud the commencement of a workshop to help the City of Gloucester promote use of underutilized fish species as a way to enhance & make the local economy more robust...

  4. Farm to Institution: Creating Access to Healthy Local and Regional Foods12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Diane; Lott, Megan; Lakins, Velma; Bowden, Brian; Kimmons, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Farm to Institution (FTI) programs are one approach to align food service operations with health and sustainability guidelines, such as those recently developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and General Services Administration. Programs and policies that support sourcing local and regional foods for schools, hospitals, faith-based organizations, and worksites may benefit institutional customers and their families, farmers, the local community, and the economy. Different models of FTI programs exist. On-site farmer’s markets at institutions have been promoted on federal government property, healthcare facilities, and private institutions nationwide. Farm to School programs focus on connecting schools with local agricultural production with the goal of improving school meals and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in children. Sourcing food from local farms presents a number of challenges including cost and availability of local products, food safety, and liability considerations and lack of skilled labor for food preparation. Institutions utilize multiple strategies to address these barriers, and local, state, and federal polices can help facilitate FTI approaches. FTI enables the purchasing power of institutions to contribute to regional and local food systems, thus potentially affecting social, economic, and ecological systems. Local and state food policy councils can assist in bringing stakeholders together to inform this process. Rigorous research and evaluation is needed to determine and document best practices and substantiate links between FTI and multiple outcomes. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers can help communities work with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate programs and policies supporting FTI. PMID:22585910

  5. The local food environment and diet: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Sorensen, Glorian; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-09-01

    Despite growing attention to the problem of obesogenic environments, there has not been a comprehensive review evaluating the food environment-diet relationship. This study aims to evaluate this relationship in the current literature, focusing specifically on the method of exposure assessment (GIS, survey, or store audit). This study also explores 5 dimensions of "food access" (availability, accessibility, affordability, accommodation, acceptability) using a conceptual definition proposed by Penchansky and Thomas (1981). Articles were retrieved through a systematic keyword search in Web of Science and supplemented by the reference lists of included studies. Thirty-eight studies were reviewed and categorized by the exposure assessment method and the conceptual dimensions of access it captured. GIS-based measures were the most common measures, but were less consistently associated with diet than other measures. Few studies examined dimensions of affordability, accommodation, and acceptability. Because GIS-based measures on their own may not capture important non-geographic dimensions of access, a set of recommendations for future researchers is outlined.

  6. Contribution of Female Entrepreneurs in Promoting Local Food to Support Tourism in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Sucita Yanthy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the contributions of Balinese female entrepreneurs in the culinary industry in promoting local food to support tourism in Bali. Research was undertaken in the area of Bali province and data were obtained from observations, interviews and study of literature supported by the theory of invented tradition. Eight Balinese warrior of culinaries were interviewed supported by food bloggers, literature reviews and documentation. Data were analyzed based on descriptive qualitative. The results show that Balinese female entrepreneurs have: (1 popularized Balinese food, (2 preserved the existence of Balinese food, (3 strengthened the Balinese culinary identity, and (4 supported tourism in Bali.

  7. The consumer-producer relationship on local food systems: analysis of practices and narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papaoikonomou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Local food systems have gained popularity over the last years. Previous research discusses the counter hegemonic potential of these initiatives placing emphasis on the reconnection of the producer and consumer of food and against the anonymous and disconnected production model offered by industrial agriculture. However, such romantic discourses do not always apply according to empirical evidence. In this paper we carry out an empirical comparison between two local food systems: the Community Supported Agriculture in Manhattan, New York and the the Responsible Consumption Cooperatives in Catalonia, Spain. Using a qualitative methodology we explore practices and narratives that surround the consumer-producer relationship, also defined by the orientation and raison d’être of the local food system.

  8. An NPF transporter exports a central monoterpene indole alkaloid intermediate from the vacuole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Richard; Xu, Deyang; Foureau, Emilien

    2017-01-01

    /peptide family (NPF) transporter from Catharanthus roseus, CrNPF2.9, that exports strictosidine, the central intermediate of this pathway, into the cytosol from the vacuole. This discovery highlights the role that intracellular localization plays in specialized metabolism, and sets the stage for understanding...

  9. Contributing to the Food Sovereignty Debate: Re-Linking Local Production and Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Agri-based economies especially those in developing countries are becoming increasingly dependent on foreign markets and losing their autonomy in food production and distribution. However, there are possibilities to re-link local production and consumption. That is reconnecting local productive reso

  10. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  11. Local food between direct sale, short distance and collective action. Interview of Bertil Sylvander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Amilien

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available VA: Bertil Sylvander, you are one of the fathers of the quality conventions concept concerning products of origin, and you have a great knowledge of socio-economic aspects of agriculture and local food systems, including products with specific origin and labels…this is why you accepted this interview for our Anthropology of Food Issue on Local products. I’ll just start with the plain question: when I say “local products”, what do you think of? BS: well…, in order to answer this question I’d h...

  12. Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level.

  13. Obesity and diabetes, the built environment, and the 'local' food economy in the United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salois, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are increasingly attributed to environmental factors, however, little attention has been paid to the influence of the 'local' food economy. This paper examines the association of measures relating to the built environment and 'local' agriculture with U.S. county-level prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Key indicators of the 'local' food economy include the density of farmers' markets and the presence of farms with direct sales. This paper employs a robust regression estimator to account for non-normality of the data and to accommodate outliers. Overall, the built environment is associated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes and a strong local' food economy may play an important role in prevention. Results imply considerable scope for community-level interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes through macroautophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Shen, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang-Nan [Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China); Wang, Guang-Hui [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Chen, Zhong, E-mail: chenzhong@zju.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China)

    2012-04-15

    H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in vascular smooth muscle cells, which may contribute to their cardiovascular toxicity. The CNS toxicity of H1-antihistamines may also be related to their non-receptor-mediated activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes and the mechanism involved. The H1-antihistamines induced large numbers of giant vacuoles in astrocytes. Such vacuoles were marked with both the lysosome marker Lysotracker Red and the alkalescent fluorescence dye monodansylcadaverine, which indicated that these vacuoles were lysosome-like acidic vesicles. Quantitative analysis of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence showed that the effect of H1-antihistamines on vacuolation in astrocytes was dose-dependent, and was alleviated by extracellular acidification, but aggravated by extracellular alkalization. The order of potency to induce vacuolation at high concentrations of H1-antihistamines (diphenhydramine > pyrilamine > astemizole > triprolidine) corresponded to their pKa ranking. Co-treatment with histamine and the histamine receptor-1 agonist trifluoromethyl toluidide did not inhibit the vacuolation. Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor, which inhibits intracellular vacuole or vesicle acidification, clearly reversed the vacuolation and intracellular accumulation of diphenhydramine. The macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely reversed the percentage of LC3-positive astrocytes induced by diphenhydramine, while only partly reversing the number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled vesicles. In Atg5{sup −/−} mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which cannot form autophagosomes, the number of vacuoles induced by diphenhydramine was less than that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that H1-antihistamines induce V-ATPase-dependent acidic vacuole formation in astrocytes, and this is partly mediated by macroautophagy. The pKa and alkalescent characteristic of H1-antihistamines may be the

  15. Standardization of Thermal Processes for Local Foods with Emphasis on Low-Acid Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Alabastro

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum process for selected low acid foods was established based on the thermal death time (TDT of P.A. 3679 in the food and the heat penetration characteristics of the food products. The products studied were: (a vegetable products - green papaya, langka, sitao, mushroom, waterchestnut and baby corn; (b meat products - lechon, paksiw, dinuguan, longaniza and caldereta; and (c seafood products - squid adobo. The integrated lethality approach was adopted for process calculations recommended by Stumbo (1973.The minimum thermal process was tested by a pilot scale production followed by microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory evaluation tests to check the soundness of the product.Preliminary research on the effect of the minimum process established on the retention of nutrients, particularly thiamine, was also carried out for lechon paksiw and sitao.

  16. Tourism, Place Branding and the Local-turn in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng; Strandgaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    . This allows relevant stakeholders—e.g. attraction managers, tourism promotion authorities, restaurants and tour operators—to frame their tourism services and products, and make their offerings stand-out against those in competing destinations. Branding a destination as part of a ‘bloc’, in this case ‘New......, and means different things to different people. New meanings are inserted into the unclear term, for instance the NNC go-local values are packaged, marketed and celebrated as part of a Nordic-identity. The tourism authorities did not attempt to refine the term but instead perpetuate the broad understanding...

  17. Environmental impact of panela food-processing industry: sustainable agriculture and local agri-food production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Requier Desjardins, D. [Versailles Univ. (France). Centre for Economics and Ethics in the Environment and Development; Borray, G.R. [CORPOICA, Columbia (Colombia)

    2004-07-01

    Environmental valuation ''multi-stakeholder'' processes, as advocated by ecological economics, often have a strong local character. Critical Natural Capital cannot be defined without referring to a given geographical scale, very often local in terms of the definition of the environmental resource at stake and the relevant stakeholders involved in the evaluation and decision process. In this setting, environmental valuation processes cannot be disentangled from socio-economic dimensions of local social development, as shown by various examples and especially by the one of local agri-food systems of panela production in specific areas of Colombia. While there exist cost-effective technological innovations that can reduce the ecological impact of the panela commodity chain, these innovations can be fully implemented only if the producers can rely on anticipations of the development of a market for quality biological panela that can be traced back to specific areas of production. (author)

  18. Pathogen vacuole purification from legionella-infected amoeba and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christine; Finsel, Ivo; Hilbi, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila replicates intracellularly in environmental and immune phagocytes within a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Formation of LCVs is strictly dependent on the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and the translocation of "effector" proteins into the cell. Some effector proteins decorate the LCV membrane and subvert host cell vesicle trafficking pathways. Here we describe a method to purify intact LCVs from Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. The method comprises a two-step protocol: first, LCVs are enriched by immuno-magnetic separation using an antibody against a bacterial effector protein specifically localizing to the LCV membrane, and second, the LCVs are further purified by density gradient centrifugation. The purified LCVs can be characterized by proteomics and other biochemical approaches.

  19. Locally harvested foods support serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D sufficiency in an indigenous population of Western Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret Luick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low serum vitamin D is associated with higher latitude, age, body fat percentage and low intake of fatty fish. Little documentation of vitamin D concentrations is available for Alaska Native populations. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations of the Yup'ik people of southwestern Alaska in relation to demographic and lifestyle variables, particularly with the use of locally harvested (local foods. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We estimated 25(OHD, dietary vitamin D and calcium, percent of energy from local foods and demographic variables in 497 Yup'ik people (43% males aged 14–92 residing in southwestern Alaska. Sampling was approximately equally divided between synthesizing and non-synthesizing seasons, although the preponderance of samples were drawn during months of increasing daylight. Results: Mean vitamin D intake was 15.1±20.2 µg/d, while local foods accounted for 22.9±17.1% of energy intake. The leading sources of vitamin D were local fish (90.1% followed by market foods. Mean 25(OHD concentration was 95.6±40.7 nmol/L. Participants in the upper 50th percentile of 25(OHD concentration tended to be older, male, of lower body mass index, sampled during the synthesizing season, and among the upper 50th percentile of local food use. Conclusions: A shift away from locally harvested foods will likely increase the risk for serum 25(OHD insufficiency in this population.

  20. Opportunities for Local for Local Food Production. A Case in the Dutch Fruit and Vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Beek, van P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunities for farmers to produce for local consumers, based on a case study in the Dutch horticulture sector. Main requirements for the set-up of a local chain of supply chain actors are investigated. Producer requirements are added value, availability of time, infras

  1. Opportunities for Local for Local Food Production. A Case in the Dutch Fruit and Vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Beek, van P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunities for farmers to produce for local consumers, based on a case study in the Dutch horticulture sector. Main requirements for the set-up of a local chain of supply chain actors are investigated. Producer requirements are added value, availability of time,

  2. Vacuolation induced by unfavorable pH in cyanobacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵以军; 吴红艳; 郭厚良; 许敏; 程凯; 祝海燕

    2001-01-01

    Six species or strains of cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. 595, Plectonema boryanum 246, Scytonema hofmanni 248, Nostoc sp. 96, Oscillatoria animlis 284 and Spirulina maxima 438, were cultured in unfavorable pH conditions for vacuole induction. At pH 5.0, 6.5, or 7.0, vacuoles were observed to form in both Anabaena sp. 595 and Plectonema boryanum 246, especially in the former. The vacuolation took place with some morphological changes, such as the cells being inflated, spherical and vacuolated, and with unequalized division. The induced vacuoles in An- abaena sp. 595 and Plectonema boryanum 246 were in spherical shape and in rather transparent appearance under a phase microscope. For Scytonema hofmanni 248, it was less sensitive to pH, its vacuole formation was found only at pH 6.5. No vacuolization occurred in the cells of Nostoc sp. 96, Oscillatoria animlis 284 and Spirulina maxima 438 at all pH conditions we used. Vacuolization under unfavorable pH provides a new proof for the existence of vacuole in cells of cyanobacteria and reflects the prokaryote's function in ecological environment.

  3. The Local Food Environment and Body Mass Index among the Urban Poor in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Fidelia A A; Thompson, Amanda L; Ng, Shu Wen; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Codjoe, Samuel N A

    2016-06-01

    Obesity in the sub-Saharan Africa region has been portrayed as a problem of affluence, partly because obesity has been found to be more common in urban areas and among the rich. Recent findings, however, reveal rising prevalence among the poor particularly the urban poor. A growing body of literature mostly in Western countries shows that obesity among the poor is partly the result of an obesogenic-built environment. Such studies are lacking in the African context. This study examines the characteristics of the local food environment in an urban poor setting in Accra, Ghana and further investigates the associated risk of obesity for residents. Data on the local food environment was collected using geographic positioning system (GPS) technology. The body mass indices (BMI) of females (15-49 years) and males (15-59 years) were calculated from measured weight and height. Data on the socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors of respondents was also collected through a household survey. Spatial analysis tools were used to examine the characteristics of the local food environment while the influence of the food environment on BMI was examined using a two-level multilevel model. The measures of the food environment constituted the level 2 factors while individual socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors constituted the level 1 factors. The local food environment in the study communities is suggestive of an obesogenic food environment characterized by an abundance of out-of-home cooked foods, convenience stores, and limited fruits and vegetables options. The results of the multilevel analysis reveal a 0.2 kg/m(2) increase in BMI for every additional convenience store and a 0.1 kg/m(2) reduction in BMI for every out-of-home cooked food place available in the study area after controlling for individual socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, and community characteristics. The findings of this study indicate that the local

  4. The Role of Multicultural Marketing on Malay Consumers Perceptions towards Global vs. Local Ethnic Food Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Umair, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation combines two different elements of interest in International Marketing Research. The objective of this research is the comparison of global versus local brand within the context of ethnic marketing in the multicultural society of Malaysia. The product instant noodle in the category of ethnic food was chosen in the variant of Asam Laksa as the target sample focused specifically on Malay consumers. Comparison was done between Maggi (global) and Mamee (local). The sample compri...

  5. Chemical and physical characteristics of local lecithin in comparison with some other food emulsifiers

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shattory, Y.; El-Magoli, Salwa B.; Abu-Ria, S. H.; Magahed, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of local lecithin and other food emulsifiers (Emulfuid E, Triodan R 90, Panodan 150 and Glycerol mono stéarate) were studied. The characteristics of these emulsifiers studied were solubility, hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), stability index (SI), fatty acid composition and infrared spectrum. The results obtained showed that Emulfuid E and local lecithin were mixture of lecithins and phosphatidyl ethanol-amine. In addition, Triodan R 90 was a polygl...

  6. Eating à la Criolla : Global and Local Foods in Argentina, Cuba, and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    PILCHER, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the changing meanings of local and global foods in Argentina, Cuba, and Mexico. Nineteenth-century Latin America is often viewed as a period of liberal ascendancy when imported goods were highly valued, while on the contrary, the twentieth century is seen as a time of populist nationalism that embraced local culture and, at least until the neoliberal era, rejected European and North American imports. Nevertheless, liberals sought to balance their international sophisticati...

  7. Role of Information in an SME in a Local Food Supply Chain - Case Study of a Norwegian Craft Beer Retailer

    OpenAIRE

    Vallandingham, Logan Reed; Sangachhen, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    Demand for locally produced food is increasing and the industry is gaining increased attention. But, many challenges are present for actors in local food supply chains (LFSC), and are especially related to limited capacity. Balancing supply and demand of their products is thusly extremely important in regards to inventory management and replenishment decisions. Local food actors, often small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially need to reduce costs in order to be competitive. Supply chai...

  8. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Nout, M J R; Smid, Eddy J

    2014-05-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First, a process to produce probiotic mutandabota was designed. Raw cow milk was boiled and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature (25°C). Next, dry pulp from the fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) was added to the milk at a concentration of 4% (wt/vol). This mixture was inoculated with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba and left to ferment for 24h, while the growth of the bacterial culture was monitored. Final ingredients were then added to produce probiotic mutandabota that had 14% (wt/vol) baobab fruit pulp and 7% (wt/vol) sugar in cow milk. The pH of probiotic mutandabota was pH 3.5, which ensures that the product is microbiologically safe. The viable plate count of L. rhamnosus yoba increased from 5.8 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL at the point of inoculation to 8.8 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL at the moment of consumption, thereby meeting the criterion to have a viable count of the probiotic bacterium in excess of 6 log cfu/mL of a product. Baobab fruit pulp at 4% promoted growth of L. rhamnosus yoba with a maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of 0.6 ± 0.2/h at 30°C. The developed technology, though specific for this particular product, has potential to be applied for the delivery of probiotics through a variety of indigenous foods in different regions of the world. Upon consumption, probiotic mutandabota is expected to improve the population's intestinal health, which is especially relevant for vulnerable target groups such as children and elderly people. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effort Optimization in Minimizing Food Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions, a look at "Organic" and "Local"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, E.; Martin, P. A.; Eshel, G.

    2008-12-01

    The adverse environmental effects, especially energy use and resultant GHG emissions, of food production and consumption are becoming more widely appreciated and increasingly well documented. Our insights into the thorny problem of how to mitigate some of those effects, however, are far less evolved. Two of the most commonly advocated strategies are "organic" and "local", referring, respectively, to growing food without major inputs of fossil fuel based synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and to food consumption near its agricultural origin. Indeed, both agrochemical manufacture and transportation of produce to market make up a significant percentage of energy use in agriculture. While there can be unique environmental benefits to each strategy, "organic" and "local" each may potentially result in energy and emissions savings relative to conventionally grown produce. Here, we quantify the potential energy and greenhouse gas emissions savings associated with "organic" and "local". We take note of energy use and actual GHG costs of the major synthetic fertilizers and transportation by various modes routinely employed in agricultural distribution chains, and compare them for ~35 frequently consumed nutritional mainstays. We present new, current, lower-bound energy and greenhouse gas efficiency estimates for these items and compare energy consumption and GHG emissions incurred during producing those food items to consumption and emissions resulting from transporting them, considering travel distances ranging from local to continental and transportation modes ranging from (most efficient) rail to (least efficient) air. In performing those calculations, we demonstrate the environmental superiority of either local or organic over conventional foods, and illuminate the complexities involved in entertaining the timely yet currently unanswered, and previously unanswerable, question of "Which is Environmentally Superior, Organic or Local?". More broadly, we put forth a

  10. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation for Food Security in the AIMS SIDS: Integrating External and Local Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mercer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA approaches for food security under climate change, specifically for the Small Island Developing States (SIDS comprising the Africa, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea (AIMS region. The focus is on integrating different knowledge forms. An analysis of current EbA approaches for food security is undertaken, alongside a review of methodologies for integrating local and external knowledge. Key gaps and actions for EbA for food security in the AIMS region, and potentially further afield, are identified. The gaps indicate the lack of coherence in AIMS SIDS approaching food security, in terms of policies and actions not reflecting the ecosystem-food-climate nexus, the lack of a regional framework despite similarities amongst the SIDS, and the infrequency with which knowledge integration occurs. To fill these gaps, suggested actions highlight knowledge identification and combination, learning from others and from history, using local champions, and regularly monitoring and evaluating progress. These actions will push forward the EbA agenda through improved development and use of knowledge, better connections amongst the AIMS SIDS and farther afield, and more local-national-regional collaboration.

  11. Global effects of local food-production crises: a virtual water perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    By importing food and agricultural goods, countries cope with the heterogeneous global water distribution and often rely on water resources available abroad. The virtual displacement of the water used to produce such goods (known as virtual water) connects together, in a global water system, all countries participating to the international trade network. Local food-production crises, having social, economic or environmental origin, propagate in this network, modifying the virtual water trade and perturbing local and global food availability, quantified in terms of virtual water. We analyze here the possible effects of local crises by developing a new propagation model, parsimonious but grounded on data-based and statistically-verified assumptions, whose effectiveness is proved on the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09. The model serves as the basis to propose indicators of crisis impact and country vulnerability to external food-production crises, which highlight that countries with largest water resources have the highest impact on the international trade, and that not only water-scarce but also wealthy and globalized countries are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis reveals that global average vulnerability has increased over time and that stronger effects of crises are now found in countries with low food (and water) availability.

  12. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone "apps" are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called "SmartAPPetite," which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to "nudge" users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the "triple bottom line" of health, economy, and environment.

  13. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gilliland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment.

  14. Local social environmental factors are associated with household food insecurity in a longitudinal study of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Megan Ann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data from a population-based survey conducted in Québec, Canada, to determine if five local environmental factors: material and social deprivation, social cohesion, disorder, and living location were associated with changes in household food insecurity over a period of 6 years, while adjusting for household socioeconomic status (SES and other factors. Methods Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, following same-aged children from 4–10 y of age, were analyzed using generalized estimating equations, to determine the longitudinal association between these environmental factors and food insecurity over a period of 6 years. Results Of the 2120 children originally included in the cohort, 1746 (82% were included in the present analysis. The prevalence of food insecurity was 9.2% when children were 4 y of age (95% CI: 7.8 – 10.6% but no significant changes were observed over time. On average over the 6 year period, three environmental factors were positively related to food insecurity: high social deprivation (OR 1.62, 95%CI: 1.16 – 2.26, low social cohesion (OR 1.45 95%CI: 1.10 – 1.92, and high disorder (OR 1.76, 95%CI: 1.37 – 2.27, while living location and material deprivation were not related to food insecurity. These associations were independent of household SES and other social variables. Conclusion These results highlight the potential role of the local social environment in preventing and ameliorating food insecurity at the household level. Stakeholders providing food security interventions at the community level should consider interactions with local social

  15. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Local Food Procurement in Publicly Funded Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew J.; Chopra, Hema

    2013-01-01

    Community-Based Social Marketing is presented as a technique to add to Extension's community economic development toolbox by examining perceived benefits and barriers to local food procurement at publicly funded institutions. Data were gathered through 86 in-person interviews with representatives across the supply chain. The findings revealed that…

  16. Acceptability of locally produced ready-to-use therapeutic foods in Ethiopia, Ghana, Pakistan and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful treatment of severe acute malnutrition has been achieved with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), but only 15% of children with severe acute malnutrition receive RUTF. The objective of this study was to determine whether new formulations of RUTF produced using locally available ingredie...

  17. Keeping local foods on the menu: a study on the small-scale processing of cowpea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madodé, Y.E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture plays a significant role in the economy of most African countries. Yet malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies occur regularly. Concomitantly, many carbohydrate rich staple foods and meat products are dumped on the African market and compet strongly with local products. The present t

  18. Generating better evidence to engage local food outlets in obesity prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N

    2013-10-01

    Participation from the business community is critical to effectively addressing the problem of obesity. This commentary builds on the recent Institute of Medicine report - Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention - which calls for participation from the business community, particularly food outlets, to effectively address the problem of obesity. This commentary specifically discusses the importance of collecting information on fiscal-related outcomes (e.g., revenue) in order to better engage local food outlets in obesity prevention activities in the community. The routine collection of fiscal indicators in obesity prevention studies is critical so that the argument for more involvement from local food outlets, particularly for those interventions which are revenue positive or revenue neutral, can be more persuasively made.

  19. A functional connection of Dictyostelium paracaspase with the contractile vacuole and a possible partner of the vacuolar proton ATPase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Entsar Saheb; Ithay Biton; Katherine Maringer; John Bush

    2013-09-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum possesses only one caspase family member, paracaspase (pcp). Two separate mutant cell lines were first analysed: one cell line was an over-expressed GFP-tagged Pcp (GFP-Pcp), while the other cell line was a pcp-null (pcp-). Microscopic analysis of cells expressing GFP-Pcp revealed that Pcp was associated with the contractile vacuole membrane consisting of bladder-like vacuoles. This association was disrupted when cells were exposed to osmotic stress conditions. Compared with wild-type cells, the GFP-Pcp-over-expressing cells were susceptible to osmotic stress and were seen to be very rounded in hypo-osmotic conditions and contained more abnormally swollen contractile vacuole. Cells with pcp- were also rounded but had few, if any, contractile vacuoles. These observations suggest that Pcp is essential for Dictyostelium osmotic regulation via its functioning in the contractile vacuole system. Subjecting these cells to selected contractile vacuole inhibitor provided additional support for these findings. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid system identified vacuolar proton ATPase (VatM) as the protein interacting with Pcp. Taken together, this work gives evidence for an eukaryotic paracaspase to be associated with both localization in and regulation of the contractile vacuolar system, an organelle critical for maintaining the normal morphology of the cell.

  20. Energy and Protein Consumption of Manggadong Rice as Local Wisdom and Effort of Staple Food Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evawany Aritonang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates as one of the macro nutrients have significant role in the food pattern in which 60-70% of the recommended energy requirement comes from carbohydrates, and generally being a staple food. It is unfortunate that almost all people in Indonesia have made rice as the main source of carbohydrates and became a staple food. This situation affects the high dependence on rice. This study aims to modify manggadong as local wisdom into manggadong rice that is rice mixed with 4 types of cassava flour in cooking rice and analyze energy consumption and protein from manggadong rice. Intervention has 100 mothers as a sample. The results showed that the consumption of energy and protein manggadong rice of 4 types of cassava are arround 691 kcal - 729 kcal and 12.7 to 12.9 g. Manggadong rice consumption can reduce the consumption of energy and protein than rice without cassava flour. It recommended socialization of manggadong rice in society in order to be applied in staple food consumption to support food diversification program as an effort to create a household food security. Food industry must be support to provide cassava flour to facilitate the application of manggadong rice.

  1. Local food environment and fruit and vegetable consumption: An ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Mariana Carvalho; Costa, Bruna Vieirade Lima; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2017-03-01

    Ecological studies are essential for understanding the environment-diet relationship. The purpose of this study was to describe environmental conditions and their relationship with fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among Brazilian public health service users in the city of Belo Horizonte. We evaluated food stores contained within 1600 m buffer zones at 18 Health Academy Programme sites, from 2013 to 2014. Variables at the community (density, proximity and type) and the consumer (sectional location of FV; availability, quality, variety, price and advertising of FV and ultra-processed foods) nutrition environment were measured by direct observation, while aggregate data from users (income and FV consumption) were obtained by interview. Data were analysed using the Kernel intensity estimator, average nearest neighbour value and Local Moran's Index for local spatial autocorrelation. We interviewed 3414 users and analysed 336 food stores. Major geographical variations in the FV consumption were identified. Average consumption was higher (site 2A: 410.5 ± 185.7 g vs. site 4B: 311.2 ± 159.9 g) in neighbourhoods with higher income and concentration of food stores, and better index of access to healthy foods. Sites with poor FV consumption had the most stores with poor access to healthy foods (index in the first tertile, ≤ 10). In conclusion, negative characteristics of the food environment, as seen in the present study, may contribute to low FV consumption, suggesting the need for the development and consolidation of public policies aimed at creating healthy environments through built environment interventions that increase access to and consumption of healthy foods like FV.

  2. Local food environment and fruit and vegetable consumption: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carvalho Menezes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies are essential for understanding the environment-diet relationship. The purpose of this study was to describe environmental conditions and their relationship with fruit and vegetable (FV consumption among Brazilian public health service users in the city of Belo Horizonte. We evaluated food stores contained within 1600 m buffer zones at 18 Health Academy Programme sites, from 2013 to 2014. Variables at the community (density, proximity and type and the consumer (sectional location of FV; availability, quality, variety, price and advertising of FV and ultra-processed foods nutrition environment were measured by direct observation, while aggregate data from users (income and FV consumption were obtained by interview. Data were analysed using the Kernel intensity estimator, average nearest neighbour value and Local Moran's Index for local spatial autocorrelation. We interviewed 3414 users and analysed 336 food stores. Major geographical variations in the FV consumption were identified. Average consumption was higher (site 2A: 410.5 ± 185.7 g vs. site 4B: 311.2 ± 159.9 g in neighbourhoods with higher income and concentration of food stores, and better index of access to healthy foods. Sites with poor FV consumption had the most stores with poor access to healthy foods (index in the first tertile, ≤10. In conclusion, negative characteristics of the food environment, as seen in the present study, may contribute to low FV consumption, suggesting the need for the development and consolidation of public policies aimed at creating healthy environments through built environment interventions that increase access to and consumption of healthy foods like FV.

  3. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ethnobotanical relevance Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. Methods A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant’s categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The

  4. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-12-24

    Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant's categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The three categories were divided in 27

  5. Multifunctional Peri-Urban Agriculture and Local Food Access in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreema Rana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the threatening global challenge of increasing urban population with decreasing resources to feed them, the existing literature is reviewed in this paper to highlight; i the urban food supply chain, and ii food security as a benefit of Peri-Urban Agriculture. This is deployed to fit the context of the developing regions of the world where urbanization does not occur in an organized manner. It is known that food grown in peri-urban areas (defined as the fastest growing areas that surround cities but are neither urban nor rural in the conventional sense is easily available to urban inhabitants. Such peri-urban areas have the least adverse effects on the environment from a food transportation perspective and are more resilient in times of uncertain physical (disaster and socioeconomic (fuel and food price rise pressures. Today, much fertile peri-urban land is converted haphazardly without considering its environmental value and agricultural potential. Likewise, peri-urban agriculture is still in the process of being acknowledged by both locals and policy-makers despite being an accepted mode of achieving food security. Therefore, this paper seeks to orient the review literature and underline the gaps that prevail at the grass-roots level of local preferences and values and at the policy-maker level. Using extensive literature review as the methodology, this study draws recent ideas on the multi-functionality of peri-urban agriculture and the sustainable contribution it makes to both developed and developing countries around the world. The findings of the review highlight the significance of peri-urban areas in the Kathmandu Valley for a sustainable and a reliable food chain. It also shows the existing but unrecognized features of peri-urban agriculture both at local and policy-making levels. It discusses the point of interest and possible extension of the multifunctional peri-urban agriculture for local food access, inviting further

  6. Gender and food, a study of attitudes in the USA towards organic, local, U.S. grown, and GM-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Anne C; Alcaraz V, Gabriela; Hallman, William K

    2010-12-01

    Food choice is influenced by consumer attitudes towards food attributes. This U.S.-based study (n = 601) simultaneously compares attitudes towards selected food attributes of organic, locally grown, U.S. grown, and GM-free food in relation to other food attributes. Exploratory factor analysis identifies underlying constructs that determine, together and separately, female and male food choice decisions. Gendered analysis of the value of food in life and food behaviours (cooking and shopping) support the investigation of the highlighted food attributes. Respondents generally assigned greater importance to the U.S. grown, followed by GM-free, locally grown, and organically produced food attributes in deciding what to eat. Analysis of the female and male subsamples yielded similar factor results. All four main attributes were captured in a single factor, associated with respondents in both the female and male subsamples who are older, have lower incomes, and who are religiously observant. Additionally, among females, this factor was associated with higher education; and among males, living in households with children and/or with partners. Additional studies should further explore the interaction of food attributes now becoming increasingly important and prevalent in current food products.

  7. Linking Local Food Systems and the Social Economy? Future Roles for Farmers' Markets in Alberta and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Hannah; Beckie, Mary; Hergesheimer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Often organized as grassroots, nonprofit organizations, many farmers' markets serve as strategic venues linking producers and consumers of local food while fulfilling multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. This article examines the potential of farmers' markets to play a catalyst role in linking local food systems to the social…

  8. Linking Local Food Systems and the Social Economy? Future Roles for Farmers' Markets in Alberta and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Hannah; Beckie, Mary; Hergesheimer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Often organized as grassroots, nonprofit organizations, many farmers' markets serve as strategic venues linking producers and consumers of local food while fulfilling multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. This article examines the potential of farmers' markets to play a catalyst role in linking local food systems to the social…

  9. V-ATPase, ScNhxlp and Yeast Vacuole Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan-Sheng Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Membrane fusion is the last step in trafficking pathways during which membrane vesicles fuse with target organelles to deliver cargos.It is a central cellular reaction that plays important roles in signal transduction,protein sorting and subcellular compartmentation.Recent progress in understanding the roles of ion transporters in vacuole fusion in yeast is summanzed in this article.It is becoming increasingly evident that the vacuolar proton pump V-ATPase and vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter ScNhxlp are key components of the vacuole fusion machinery in yeast.Yeast ScNhxlp regulates vacuole fusion by controlling the luminal pH.V-ATPases serve a dual role in vacuolar integrity in which they regulate both vacuole fusion and fission reactions in yeast.Fission defects are epistatic to fusion defects.Vacuole fission depends on the proton translocation activity of the V-ATPase; by contrast,the fusion reaction does not need the transport activity but requires the physical presence of the proton pump.Vo,the membrane-integral sector of the V-ATPase,forms trans-complexes between the opposing vacuoles in the terminal phase of vacuole fusion where the Vo trans-complexes build a continuous proteolipid channel at the fusion site to mediate the bilayer fusion.

  10. The Application of Local Wisdom for Production of Condiment Isan' Food Ingredient into Commercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitchapanrawee Phengphol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of the research derives from a lack of study and understanding about the production of condiment Isan food and ingredients being introduced into commercial, even though Isan food is popular among consumers widespread both inside and outside the country. The government introduced a policy to expand trade to create an export value of Isan products. The purpose of the research is to study the local wisdom in the field of the application of the ingredients used in Isan food. In addition, the purpose is to study about the problems of applying local wisdom to produce Isan food for consumption into commercial. Approach: The fields of study are Kalasin, Khon kaen, Maha Sarakham and Roi-Et. These are the places of Isan food local culture and original application of Isan food that have been producing to the present and also popular among the consumers widespread. There are 5 types of food that are chosen to be the proposition; Kaeng Wai (Curry Wai, Kai Yang (Roasting chicken, Tom Kai Ban (Boiled chicken, Mok Lab Pla Thong (Grilled Lab Pla Thong and Om Pla (Fish soup from 9 restaurants. Using Qualitative Research for data gathering from the concerning document, the data will be collected from fieldwork, survey, observation, interviews and focus group discussion from a group of totally 71 informants, presenting the result by using analytical descriptive. Results: The local wisdom of application of Isan food ingredients is a herb that is easy to find in the local area. It is used for the deodorizing of meat and as a garnish to give taste and flavor to the consumer. Isan food is highlighted as spicy and salty. A Spicy taste is from hot chili and dried chili. A Salty taste can be regarded as an important deliciousness that is an identity of Isan food from pickled fish and salt. A Sour test derives from tamarinds. Ya Nang (Tiliacora triandra is used in order to reduce uric acid of Wai (Calamus caesius Blume. Adding ginger, Kha

  11. Vegetable Consumption, Dietary Guidelines and Agricultural Production in New York State—Implications for Local Food Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Christian; Bills, Nelson L.; Wilkins, Jennifer; Smith, R. David

    2002-01-01

    ocal food economies where local producers respond to regional consumers’ needs are gaining attention as a means for boosting agriculture and food production in New York State. Concurrent with this interest in local agriculture is a national concern over the health effects of American food consumption patterns and the capacity of agriculture to support nutritious diets. This study merges these areas of inquiry in the context of a nutritionally and economically important agricultural sector, na...

  12. Local basic food producer facing the challenge of working with multinational supermarket chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lóránt BUCS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to outline the challenges faced by a local basic food producer in his battle to stay on the market. We will reveal the challenges he’s facing in his own production lines and also the way he has to adapt to the changing world of the multinational companies. We will present a short history of the founding and evolution of the company on the Romanian pastry food market pointing out the relevant events which have marked the company life during the years. We will also make a short review of the competition on the market of the pastry food products and we will present the marketing strategy and policies the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.

  13. Cdc42p and Rho1p are sequentially activated and mechanistically linked to vacuole membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Michael R.; Jones, Lynden [Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2H7 (Canada); Eitzen, Gary, E-mail: gary.eitzen@ualberta.ca [Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2H7 (Canada)

    2010-03-26

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches, regulating many biological functions via activation of membrane localized signaling cascades. Activation of their switch function is controlled by GTP binding and hydrolysis. Two Rho GTPases, Cdc42p and Rho1p, are localized to the yeast vacuole where they regulate membrane fusion. Here, we define a method to directly examine vacuole membrane Cdc42p and Rho1p activation based on their affinity to probes derived from effectors. Cdc42p and Rho1p showed unique temporal activation which aligned with distinct subreactions of in vitro vacuole fusion. Cdc42p was rapidly activated in an ATP-independent manner while Rho1p activation was kinetically slower and required ATP. Inhibitors that are known to block vacuole membrane fusion were examined for their effect on Cdc42p and Rho1p activation. Rdi1p, which inhibits the dissociation of GDP from Rho proteins, blocked both Cdc42p and Rho1p activation. Ligands of PI(4,5)P{sub 2} specifically inhibited Rho1p activation while pre-incubation with U73122, which targets Plc1p function, increased Rho1p activation. These results define unique activation mechanisms for Cdc42p and Rho1p, which may be linked to the vacuole membrane fusion mechanism.

  14. Territorial resources, limits and strategies of local development processes and agri-food productions of quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Romano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyse the role that typical products can play in the local development process. Territorial resources involved, limits and strategies for their enhancement are analysed; this analysis will permit both to define the results that have been achieved since nowadays in the local development process and to point out future themes for the research in the field of agricultural economics. The typicality of an agri-food product regards qualitative characteristics that derive from its tie with the territory, this tie becomes a relevant element for the differentiation of the typical product from the others. In this context, the typical product maintains all the specificities associated to its origin, involving also aspects related to the traditions and the culture of the territories, to the collective dimension and to the local knowledge. Consumers tent to look for good which are differentiated and to connect authenticity and local specificity of food with healthiness. Due to the strong socio-economic ties that typical products have with the territory, they play a crucial role in the economy of the local systems and can promote development in lagging areas.

  15. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  16. Strategies and Tools for Eco-Efficient Local Food Supply Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide demand for daily meals, the issue of the institutional food system has become very important in highly developed societies and, also, how it affects the flow of energy and matter within a territory. This research originates from a wide multi-disciplinary project aimed at developing a self-sufficient approach to improve the institutional food system in an area of Northern Italy. Thus, the aim of this research is to give some guidelines to implement ideal scenarios of food production, processing, consumption, and waste management at the local level. To that end, the organization of the supply and demand within the local institutional food system is inquired. A methodology has been developed to analyze the main energy flows and matter related to this catering, and to outline possible optimal scenarios. This methodology also allows to analyze case studies and to formulate improvements in order to reduce their energy consumption while exploring all the steps of the supply chain (considering the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach. The use of quantitative indicators allows a comparison of the impacts related to the different steps characterizing the suggested scenarios. This paper presents results related to a test in the context of institutional catering in public schools.

  17. GLOBAL AND LOCAL DRIVERS IN THE GLOBALIZATION OF FOOD INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF MILK POWDER

    OpenAIRE

    Dio, Debora

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a comparative discussion of the interaction between environmental, cultural, economic, social, and political conditions of local and global actors, which are responsible for limiting or encouraging the globalization of milk powder. By contesting the statement made by Morgan et al. (2006) that globalization of the food sector is uniquely constrained by nature and culture, the research evidence presented in this paper will argue that other factors play a role and a...

  18. Sustainability of Local and Global Food Chains: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment is one of the keys to competition by food supply chains over sustainability. The way it is conceived and embodied into decision-makers’ choices affects the competitiveness of local and global chains. Science-based assessment methodologies have made substantial progress, but uncertainties—as well as interests at stake—are high. There are no science-based methods that are able to give an unchallenged verdict over the sustainability performance of a firm, let alone a supply chain. Assessment methods are more suited for medium-large firm dimensions, as planning, monitoring, and reporting are costly. Moreover, the availability of data affects the choice of parameters to be measured, and many claims of local food are not easily measurable. To give local chains a chance to operate on a level playing field, there is the need to re-think sustainability assessment processes and tailor them to the characteristics of the analysed supply chains. We indicate seven key points on which we think scholars should focus their attention when dealing with food supply chain sustainability assessment.

  19. Connected Community and Household Food-Based Strategy (CCH-FBS): its importance for health, food safety, sustainability and security in diverse localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that Connected Community and Household Food-Based Strategy (CCH-FBS) could contribute to the resolution of outstanding nutritionally-related health problems. The 1995 Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) have been customized in regions and nations, encouraging integrated food systems and culturally-sensitive food-health relationships with economic development. Climate change and diminishing fuel and food affordability have made their role in promoting food security critical. Localities with their eco-systems, communities and households, could apply FBDGs to correct mismatches between food systems, individual health needs, and environmental integrity. Improved infrastructure should allow communities and households to be usefully connected and operate with CCH-FBSs.

  20. The power of place: embeddedness and local food systems in Italy and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sonnino

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article, reposant sur l’étude de deux produits locaux émergeants, le safran de Toscane et les charcuteries et viandes de Steve Turton dans le sud ouest de l’Angleterre, s’intéresse aux sens et aux implications de la notion d’« entrelacement social » (embeddedness. Fondé sur l’analyse de données et d’interviews avec les acteurs clés investis dans ces deux réseaux (qui représentent des mentalités alimentaires très différentes cet article montre que, contrairement à ce qui prévaut dans la littérature scientifique des systèmes agro-alimentaires, la notion d’« entrelacement social » n’est pas une caractéristique donnée. Elle résulte d’un procédé dynamique d’attribution de sens à travers lequel les acteurs sociaux construisent et défendent la relation entre le produit et le lieu. Cette perspective met en valeur l’aspect compliqué des notions de « territorialité » et de « localisation », et soulève d’importantes questions à propos de la durabilité des systèmes alimentaires locaux.This article explores the meanings and implications of the notion of embeddedness through a focus on two emerging local food systems: saffron in Tuscany and Steve Turton meats in the South West of England. Based on the analysis of documentary material and of the narratives of key actors operating within two different food cultures, the article shows that, contrary to prevailing interpretations in the agri-food literature, embeddedness is not a given characteristic of some food systems. Quite the contrary, embeddedness of local food products results from a dynamic process of attribution of meanings through which social actors construct and defend the connection between a product and a place. In addition to complicating notions of ‘territoriality’ and food ‘relocalization’, this perspective raises important questions about the sustainability of local food systems.

  1. Using Personal Water Footprints to Identify Consumer Food Choices that Influence the Conservation of Local Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    As the global demand for water and food escalates, the emphasis is on supply side factors rather than demand side factors such as consumers, whose personal water footprints are dominated (>90%) by food. Personal footprints include the water embedded in foods that are produced locally as well as those imported, raising the question of whether local shifts in people's food choices and habits could assist in addressing local water shortages. The current situation in California is interesting in that drought has affected an agriculturally productive region where a substantial portion of its food products are consumed by the state's large population. Unlike most agricultural regions where green water is the primary source of water for crops, California's arid climate demands an enormous volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports many of its food products, enough is consumed in-state so that residents making relatively minor shifts their food choices could save as much local blue water as their implementing more drastic reductions in household water use (comprising food group on both a caloric and gravimetric basis. Another change is wasting less food, which is a shared responsibility among consumers, producers and retailers; however, consumers' actions and preferences ultimately drive much of the waste. Personal water footprints suggest a role for individuals in conserving local water resources that is neither readily obvious nor a major focus of most conservation programs.

  2. Survey of physicochemical characteristics and microbial contamination in selected food locally vended in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Mutakyawa, Eliud; Nyahinga, Gabriel Busungu; William, Robert; Mwadini, Mtumwa Mohd

    2015-11-26

    Raw milk, raw fruit juice and raw fish are enriched with essential nutrients for human diet but are prone to microbial contamination along the value chain. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and microbial quality of raw milk, fruit juice and fish from food vendors in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. The physicochemical assessment of food samples was done by smell, colour, presence of debris, turbidity, consistence, pH and clot on alcohol test. Hygiene of food containers, personnel and the vending environment was also assessed. Qualitative and quantitative microbial assessment of food was done using standard laboratory protocols as described by Tanzania Bureau of Standards and International Systems of Standards. Raw milk sold in Morogoro was of poor quality since was adulterated with water, contained sediments and clotted on alcohol test. Up to 63 % of the milk samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli and 60 % had higher total viable count (TVC) than the recommended values. Raw fruit juice was stored in dirty containers and sold under unhygienic environment. Seventy-three percent of juice samples had TVC beyond the recommendations while E. coli contamination rate was 63.3 %. The raw fish samples had started spoiling as depicted through sensory evaluation. E. coli contamination rate was 55 % and that of Campylobacter jejuni was 0.5 %. The mean TVC of raw fish was 8.1 (Log cfu/g) and 96.2 % of the fish samples had TVC beyond the recommended limits of 5.0 Log cfu/g. The physicochemical characteristics of food vended in Morogoro Municipality were of poor quality. The food had high bacterial contaminations. This situation poses health risks to the public and losses to food vendors due to spoilage. Stakeholders in food value chain should be educated on safe production and good hygienic practices. Routine quality and safety assessment of locally vended food, inspection of selling premises and regular health check-up of

  3. Understanding differences in the local food environment across countries: A case study in Madrid (Spain) and Baltimore (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Julia; Bilal, Usama; Cebrecos, Alba; Buczynski, Amanda; Lawrence, Robert S; Glass, Thomas; Escobar, Francisco; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Places where we buy food influence dietary patterns, making local food environments a good example of a mass influence on population diets. Cross-cultural studies, using reliable methods, may help understanding the relationship between food environments and diet-related health outcomes. We aimed to understand cross-national differences in the local food environment between Madrid and Baltimore by comparing an average neighborhood in each city in terms of food store types, healthy food availability, and residents' pedestrian access. During 2012-2013, we assessed one neighborhood (~15,000 residents) in each city selecting median areas in terms of socio-demographic characteristics (segregation, education, aging, and population density). We collected on-field data on (a) number and types of all food stores, (b) overall healthy food availability and (c) specific availability of fruits & vegetables. Throughout a street network analysis (200m, 400m and 800m) of food stores with high healthy food availability, we estimated residents' pedestrian accessibility. We found 40 stores in Madrid and 14 in Baltimore. Small food stores carrying fresh foods in Madrid contrasted with the high presence of corner and chain convenience stores in Baltimore. In Madrid, 77% of the residents lived within less than 200m from a food store with high healthy food availability. In contrast, 95% of Baltimore's residents lived further than 400m from these stores. Our results may help promoting interventions from local city agencies to allocate resources to existing small-sized food stores, and to improve walkable urban environments. These actions may influence food choices, especially for those residents lacking access to private vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular markers for granulovacuolar degeneration are present in rimmed vacuoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakamori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rimmed vacuoles (RVs are round-oval cytoplasmic inclusions, detected in muscle cells of patients with myopathies, such as inclusion body myositis (IBM and distal myopathy with RVs (DMRV. Granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD bodies are spherical vacuoles containing argentophilic and hematoxyphilic granules, and are one of the pathological hallmarks commonly found in hippocampal pyramidal neurons of patients with aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These diseases are common in the elderly and share some pathological features. Therefore, we hypothesized that mechanisms of vacuolar formation in RVs and GVD bodies are common despite their role in two differing pathologies. We explored the components of RVs by immunohistochemistry, using antibodies for GVD markers. METHODS: Subjects included one AD case, eight cases of sporadic IBM, and three cases of DMRV. We compared immunoreactivity and staining patterns for GVD markers. These markers included: (1 tau-modifying proteins (caspase 3, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 [CDK5], casein kinase 1δ [CK1δ], and c-jun N-terminal kinase [JNK], (2 lipid raft-associated materials (annexin 2, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 [LRRK2], and flotillin-1, and (3 other markers (charged multi-vesicular body protein 2B [CHMP2B] and phosphorylated transactive response DNA binding protein-43 [pTDP43] in both GVD bodies and RVs. Furthermore, we performed double staining of each GVD marker with pTDP43 to verify the co-localization. RESULTS: GVD markers, including lipid raft-associated proteins and tau kinases, were detected in RVs. CHMP2B, pTDP43, caspase 3, LRRK2, annexin 2 and flotillin-1 were detected on the rim and were diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of RV-positive fibers. CDK5, CK1δ and JNK were detected only on the rim. In double staining experiments, all GVD markers colocalized with pTDP43 in RVs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that RVs of muscle

  5. Retargeting a maize β-glucosidase to the vacuole--evidence from intact plants that zeatin-O-glucoside is stored in the vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Nagavalli S; Benková, Eva; Reková, Alena; Dubová, Jaroslava; Malbeck, Jiří; Palme, Klaus; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2012-07-01

    Cytokinin (CK) activity is regulated by the complex interplay of their metabolism, transport, stability and cellular/tissue localization. O-glucosides of zeatin-type CKs are postulated to be storage and/or transport forms. Active CK levels are determined in part by their differential distribution of CK metabolites across different subcellular compartments. We have previously shown that overexpressing chloroplast-localized Zm-p60.1, a maize β-glucosidase capable of releasing active cytokinins from their O- and N3-glucosides, perturbs CK homeostasis in transgenic tobacco. We obtained tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv Petit Havana SR1) plants overexpressing a recombinant Zm-p60.1 that is targeted to the vacuole. The protein is correctly processed and localized to the vacuole. When grown on medium containing exogenous zeatin, transgenic seedlings rapidly accumulate fresh weight due to ectopic growths at the base of the hypocotyl. The presence of the enzyme in these ectopic structures is shown by histochemical staining. CK quantification reveals that these transgenic seedlings are unable to accumulate zeatin-O-glucoside to levels similar to those observed in the wild type. When crossed with tobacco overexpressing the zeatin-O-glucosyltransferase gene from Phaseolus, the vacuolar variant shows an almost complete reversion in the root elongation assay. This is the first evidence from intact plants that the vacuole is the storage organelle for CK O-glucosides and that they are available to attack by Zm-p60.1. We propose the use of Zm-p60.1 as a robust molecular tool that exploits the reversibility of O-glucosylation and enables delicate manipulations of active CK content at the cellular level.

  6. Identification of Genes Affecting Vacuole Membrane Fragmentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaillat, Lydie; Mayer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission influences the volume and copy number of organelles. Fusion of yeast vacuoles has been well characterized but their fission and the mechanisms determining vacuole size and abundance remain poorly understood. We therefore attempted to systematically characterize factors necessary for vacuole fission. Here, we present results of an in vivo screening for deficiencies in vacuolar fragmentation activity of an ordered collection deletion mutants, representing 4881 non-essential genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen identified 133 mutants with strong defects in vacuole fragmentation. These comprise numerous known fragmentation factors, such as the Fab1p complex, Tor1p, Sit4p and the V-ATPase, thus validating the approach. The screen identified many novel factors promoting vacuole fragmentation. Among those are 22 open reading frames of unknown function and three conspicuous clusters of proteins with known function. The clusters concern the ESCRT machinery, adaptins, and lipases, which influence the production of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. A common feature of these factors of known function is their capacity to change membrane curvature, suggesting that they might promote vacuole fragmentation via this property. PMID:23383298

  7. The vacuole model: new terms in the second order deflection of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Amrita; Nandi, Kamal K. [Department of Mathematics, University of North Bengal, Raja Rammohunpur, Siliguri 734 013 (India); Garipova, Guzel M. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Sterlitamak State Pedagogical Academy, 49, Lenin Street, Sterlitamak 453103 (Russian Federation); Laserra, Ettore [DMI, Università di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Bhadra, Arunava, E-mail: amrita852003@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: goldberg144@gmail.com, E-mail: elaserra@unisa.it, E-mail: aru_bhadra@yahoo.com, E-mail: kamalnandi1952@yahoo.co.in [High Energy and Cosmic Ray Research Center, University of North Bengal, Raja Rammohunpur, Siliguri 734 013 (India)

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is an extension of a recent work (Bhattacharya et al. 2010) to the Einstein-Strauss vacuole model with a cosmological constant, where we work out the light deflection by considering perturbations up to order M{sup 3} and confirm the light bending obtained previously in their vacuole model by Ishak et al. (2008). We also obtain another local coupling term −5πM{sup 2}Λ/8 related to Λ, in addition to the one obtained by Sereno (2008, 2009). We argue that the vacuole method for light deflection is exclusively suited to cases where the cosmological constant Λ disappears from the path equation. However, the original Rindler-Ishak method (2007) still applies even if a certain parameter γ of Weyl gravity does not disappear. Here, using an alternative prescription, we obtain the known term −γR/2, as well as another new local term 3πγM/2 between M and γ. Physical implications are compared, where we argue that the repulsive term −γR/2 can be masked by the Schwarzschild term 2M/R in the halo regime supporting attractive property of the dark matter.

  8. Potential Transmission of Human Fascioliasis Through Traditional Local Foods, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ashrafi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of infective metacercariae, attached to watercress or other various species of water and terrestrial plants, has been implicated as the main source of human contamination by fasciolid flukes. Presence of several species of aromatic wild grown plants, which are eaten fresh on the table or used for preparation of some plant-made foods (Delar, mixture of salt and ground local plants, as a paste and Zeitoon-Parvardeh , olives in walnut sauce, as an appetizer have been suggested to play a role in human contamination in the endemic zone of fascioliasis, in Gilan province, northern Iran. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of ingredients using for preparation of these local foods on viability and infectivity of liver fluke metacercariae. Metacercariae for this study were obtained by experimental infections of Lymnaea gedrosiana, collected from Bandar Anzali endemic zone. The viability and infectivity of metacercariae kept in Zeitoon-Parvardeh and Delar was checked by microscopical analyses and animal infection assays. The results indicate the possibility of human contamination following consumption of these traditional foods when prepared with fresh vegetables presenting attached metacercariae.

  9. Innovation in rural development: “neo-rural” farmers branding local quality of food and territory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigida Orria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the case of “neo-rurality” in inner areas in the Campania region (southern Italy. Inner areas are the scenery of innovative development processes, founded on structural and territorial resources, as well as on individuals and social capitals. Neo-rural exponents promote a new relationship between production and consumption. They are not only anti-consumerist: they articulate in a different way sustainability, visions of market relations, values and practices. Neo-rurality as a narrative-based brand collects various ideals, values and marketing behaviours, representing different economic actors in a common narrative. Based on fieldwork and interviews, undertaken in Campania during 2015, our study points out that, through the collective narrative, farmers are constructing a “neo-rurality” brand of local quality food and promotion of territory. We highlight how neo-rural farmers propose a novel combination of economic practices and value production in Alternative Agri-food Movements. Producers promote a combined approach to local development towards increasing food quality and cultural and environmental resources of territory. Furthermore, this is in line with recent studies on how agriculture and rural life have changed their role in post-modern society, and there we see also a trajectory for the future of inner areas.

  10. The Porta Palazzo farmers’ market: local food, regulations and changing traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Eden Black

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à l’impact des réglementations sur les marchés de producteurs en Italie, ainsi qu’à l’approvisionnement local et les choix du consommateur. En regardant la vie quotidienne du marché, on réalise que les réglementations ne sont pas seulement imposées, mais aussi négociées et interprétées en fonction des besoins locaux. Des changements dans les attitudes concernant l’hygiène des aliments dévoilent un discours sur la modernité et met en valeur la lutte de la nouvelle Italie pour s’adapter à une société de plus en plus « consumériste »tout en cherchant à garder les traditions et l’ alimentation locale. Malgré la compétition des hypermarchés et les réglementations de plus en plus restrictives, les marchés de producteurs ont une clientèle très fidèle et la plus jeune génération a commencé à s’intéresser à l’alimentation produite localement. Ce nouveau groupe a en plus un grand désir de participer à la vie sociale du marché, aspect qui rend ces institutions publiques uniques.This article looks at the impact of regulations on farmers’ markets in Italy, local food supply and provisioning choices. By exploring the everyday running of the market, it becomes clear that regulations are not just imposed, but rather negotiated and interpreted to fit local needs. Changing attitudes towards food hygiene also uncover discourses of modernity and struggles to adapt to the new Italian ‘consumer society’ while holding onto tradition and local food. Despite competition from supermarkets and increasingly restrictive regulations, farmers’ markets in Italy have a faithful core group of clients and interest is slowly growing on the part of a young generation who want to eat locally and share in the social life of the market.

  11. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  12. Global product development interaction between local networks: A study of the Danish food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products largely ignore home marekt demand in their product development activities. They have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently......, the Danish agro-industrial complex has been singled out in other studies as a paradigmatic example of how crucial a sophisticated home demand is for the development of an industrial complex. The apparen contradiction arises from the complex's ability to utilize a complemntarity between companies' equidistant...... view of actors in the global end-user customer market and companies' euclidean view of actors in thelocal business-to-business market. In pr companies combine these two market views by interacting in networks: The global industrial network links various functions which again are each part of a local...

  13. Nutritional value of locally produced foods and potential for developing age-appropriate complementary foods for children under 2 years of age in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Kodio, Joseph; Iknane, Akory Ag; Sodjinou, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Promotion of dietary diversity using locally available nutritious foods is an effective approach in low-income areas to improve the quality of young children's diet and, hence, their growth and development. To identify the nutritional values of locally acceptable, feasible, affordable, and sustainable foods and develop a number of recipes that could be used to complement effectively nutrient intakes provided through breastfeeding to children 6 to 23 months of age in Bandiagara, Mali. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain lists of all locally available foods during village assembly meetings and identify the food basket of households and child feeding practices during interviews with mothers and fathers. The nutritional values of the foods were estimated, and the Malian food composition table was used to identify the combinations that would result in the most nutritious recipes. Breastfeeding was widely practiced, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life was extremely low (7%). The practice of early introduction of water and complementary foods was a problem. Forty recipes for improved dishes, including puddings, drinks and juices, purees, salads, and soups, were proposed. The nutritional values of the 10 most nutritious of these recipes, the types and quantities of the ingredients, and the method of preparation of each recipe are described. Locally produced indigenous foods in rural Mali were used to develop energy- and nutrient-dense complementary foods for children. Further research is needed to test the short- and long-term effects of consuming these dishes on the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age in Mali.

  14. Analyzing Factors to Improve Service Quality of Local Specialties Restaurants: A Comparison with Fast Food Restaurants in Southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lai Wang Wang; Thanh Tuyen Tran

    2014-01-01

    The top fast food restaurant brands like KFC and MacDonald?s have gone global and demonstrated their successful business strategies through providing quick-service and convenience for customers. Meanwhile, local specialty food has recently emerged as a phenomenon attracting customers? attention on traditional value of ethnic food culture. The purpose of this study is to conduct a regional survey in Vietnamese restaurant companies to identify some key factors that make customers interested in ...

  15. Putting Place on the Menu: The Negotiation of Locality in UK Food Tourism, from Production to Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a case study of tourism in the Lake District and Exmoor to explore the relationship between "local food" and sustainable rural tourism in the UK. Drawing on qualitative interviews with tourists, food producers and cafe, pub and restaurant owners, I use an approach based upon the commodity chain to trace the shifts in the…

  16. Putting Place on the Menu: The Negotiation of Locality in UK Food Tourism, from Production to Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a case study of tourism in the Lake District and Exmoor to explore the relationship between "local food" and sustainable rural tourism in the UK. Drawing on qualitative interviews with tourists, food producers and cafe, pub and restaurant owners, I use an approach based upon the commodity chain to trace the shifts in the…

  17. Levels of PCDD/Fs in local and non-local food samples collected from a highly polluted area in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Seda; Kemal Korucu, M; Karademir, Aykan; Durmusoglu, Ertan

    2010-08-01

    A sampling and analysis program were conducted to determine the PCDD/F levels in various food samples collected in Kocaeli, one of the highly polluted areas in Turkey. Several food samples including animal (egg, chicken, meat and cow's milk) and plant (fruits, leafy vegetables, fruiting vegetables, rooty vegetables and flour) products were collected from both local and non-local (commercial) sources. The local food samples were taken from 20 sampling points selected by taking into account the location of the possible PCDD/F sources, dominant wind directions and representing the major part of the Turkish daily diet The PCDD/F concentrations in local eggs and milk samples were ranged from meat samples and 0.15-2.92 pg TEQ g(-1) fat in local chicken samples. The PCDD/F concentrations in the plant products were relatively low and most of the congeners were measured below the detection limits except for the leafy vegetables. In addition, several commercial samples were analyzed in order to evaluate the differences of PCDD/F levels in samples collected from both the local and non-local sources. The results showed that the local animal products have higher PCDD/F concentrations than the non-local ones. Moreover, the commercial plant products showed undetectable concentrations for most of the congeners. Finally, the PCDD/F levels in some animal products were found to be higher than the national limit values. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The vacuolar V1/V0-ATPase is involved in the release of the HOPS subunit Vps41 from vacuoles, vacuole fragmentation and fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Kozue; Cabrera, Margarita; Rohde, Jan

    2008-01-01

    At yeast vacuoles, phosphorylation of the HOPS subunit Vps41 depends on the Yck3 kinase. In a screen for mutants that mimic the yck3Delta phenotype, in which Vps41 accumulates in vacuolar dots, we observed that mutants in the V0-part of the V0/V1-ATPase, in particular in vma16Delta, also accumulate...... Vps41. This accumulation is not due to a phosphorylation defect, but to reduced release of Vps41 from vma16Delta vacuoles. One reason could be a connection to vacuole fission, which is blocked in V-ATPase mutants. Vacuole fusion is not impaired between vacuoles lacking the V0-subunits Vma16 or Vma6...... and wild-type vacuoles, whereas fusion between mutant vacuoles is reduced. Our data suggest a connection between vacuole biogenesis and membrane fusion....

  19. Effect of Helicobacter pylori's vacuolating cytotoxin on the autophagy pathway in gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebiznik, Mauricio R; Raju, Deepa; Vázquez, Cristina L; Torbricki, Karl; Kulkarni, Reshma; Blanke, Steven R; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Colombo, María I; Jones, Nicola L

    2009-04-01

    Host cell responses to Helicobacter pylori infection are complex and incompletely understood. Here, we report that autophagy is induced within human-derived gastric epithelial cells (AGS) in response to H. pylori infection. These autophagosomes were distinct and different from the large vacuoles induced during H. pylori infection. Autophagosomes were detected by transmission electron microscopy, conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, GFP-LC3 recruitment to autophagosomes, and depended on Atg5 and Atg12. The induction of autophagy depended on the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and, moreover, VacA was sufficient to induce autophagosome formation. The channel-forming activity of VacA was necessary for inducing autophagy. Intracellular VacA partially co-localized with GFP-LC3, indicating that the toxin associates with autophagosomes. The inhibition of autophagy increased the stability of intracellular VacA, which in turn resulted in enhanced toxin-mediated cellular vacuolation. These findings suggest that the induction of autophagy by VacA may represent a host mechanism to limit toxin-induced cellular damage.

  20. Organelle acidification negatively regulates vacuole membrane fusion in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfougères, Yann; Vavassori, Stefano; Rompf, Maria; Gerasimaite, Ruta; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The V-ATPase is a proton pump consisting of a membrane-integral V0 sector and a peripheral V1 sector, which carries the ATPase activity. In vitro studies of yeast vacuole fusion and evidence from worms, flies, zebrafish and mice suggested that V0 interacts with the SNARE machinery for membrane fusion, that it promotes the induction of hemifusion and that this activity requires physical presence of V0 rather than its proton pump activity. A recent in vivo study in yeast has challenged these interpretations, concluding that fusion required solely lumenal acidification but not the V0 sector itself. Here, we identify the reasons for this discrepancy and reconcile it. We find that acute pharmacological or physiological inhibition of V-ATPase pump activity de-acidifies the vacuole lumen in living yeast cells within minutes. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that de-acidification induces vacuole fusion rather than inhibiting it. Cells expressing mutated V0 subunits that maintain vacuolar acidity were blocked in this fusion. Thus, proton pump activity of the V-ATPase negatively regulates vacuole fusion in vivo. Vacuole fusion in vivo does, however, require physical presence of a fusion-competent V0 sector. PMID:27363625

  1. PIKfyve Regulates Vacuole Maturation and Nutrient Recovery following Engulfment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Shefali; Palm, Wilhelm; Lee, Yongchan; Yang, Wendy; Bandyopadhyay, Urmi; Xu, Haoxing; Florey, Oliver; Thompson, Craig B; Overholtzer, Michael

    2016-09-12

    The scavenging of extracellular macromolecules by engulfment can sustain cell growth in a nutrient-depleted environment. Engulfed macromolecules are contained within vacuoles that are targeted for lysosome fusion to initiate degradation and nutrient export. We have shown that vacuoles containing engulfed material undergo mTORC1-dependent fission that redistributes degraded cargo back into the endosomal network. Here we identify the lipid kinase PIKfyve as a regulator of an alternative pathway that distributes engulfed contents in support of intracellular macromolecular synthesis during macropinocytosis, entosis, and phagocytosis. We find that PIKfyve regulates vacuole size in part through its downstream effector, the cationic transporter TRPML1. Furthermore, PIKfyve promotes recovery of nutrients from vacuoles, suggesting a potential link between PIKfyve activity and lysosomal nutrient export. During nutrient depletion, PIKfyve activity protects Ras-mutant cells from starvation-induced cell death and supports their proliferation. These data identify PIKfyve as a critical regulator of vacuole maturation and nutrient recovery during engulfment.

  2. Vacuole-targeting fungicidal activity of amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOgita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are recognized as major threats to patients with immune depression as well as those with cancer chemotherapy. Amphotericin B (AmB, a classical antifungal agent with a polyene macrolide structure, is widely used for the control of serious fungal infections. However, the clinical use of this antibiotic is limited by the treatment-associated side effects and the appearance of resistant strains. AmB lethality has been generally elucidated by the alteration of plasma membrane ion permeability due to its specific binding to plasma membrane ergosterol. While, the recent studies with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans reveals the vacuole disruptive action as another cause of AmB lethality on the basis of its marked amplification in combination with allicin, an allyl sulfur compound from garlic. Indeed, AmB causes a serious structural damage to the vacuole membrane at a lethal concentration, and even at a non-lethal concentration in combination with allicin. Such an enhancement effect of allicin is dependent on an inhibition of ergosterol-trafficking from the plasma membrane to the vacuole membrane, which is considered to be a cellular response to protect against the vacuole membrane disintegration. Allicin can also decrease the minimum fungicidal concentration of AmB against the pathogenic fungi C. albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, as is the case of S. cerevisiae. The synergistic fungicidal activities of AmB and allicin may have significant implications in the development of the vacuole-targeting chemotherapy against fungal infections.

  3. Reducing methylmercury accumulation in the food webs of San Francisco Bay and its local watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.A., E-mail: jay@sfei.org [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Looker, R.E. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Yee, D. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Marvin-Di Pasquale, M. [U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division/MS 480, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grenier, J.L. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Austin, C.M. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); McKee, L.J.; Greenfield, B.K. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Brodberg, R. [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95812 (United States); Blum, J.D. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads

  4. Successfully Changing the Landscape of Information Distribution: Extension Food Website Reaches People Locally and Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Henneman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the Food website was to develop Internet-based content that was relevant and reached the general public and multiplier groups, such as educators, health professionals, and media outlets. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether a multi-modal approach to information delivery through increases in and changes to content, electronic mailing list creation, and social media posting impacted user access, traffic channels, and referrals from 2010 to 2014. When comparing 2010-2011 versus 2013-2014, there was a 150% increase in total pageviews, 197% increase in unique pageviews, and a 39% increase in average time spent on a page. Since 2010, the website had over 5.2 million total pageviews, 3.1 million sessions, and 2.6 million users. In 2014, top social media referrals included Pinterest, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter. Age of visitors ranged from 18 to 65+, with 45% being 18-34 years old. Approximately 70% were female. Visitors came from 229 countries/territories and 18,237 different cities. The website connects Nebraska and the world to the exciting food research and information generated at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and is playing an increasingly important role in shaping the future of food in the local and global community.

  5. Applying a nutribusiness approach to increase animal source food consumption in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maretzki, Audrey N; Mills, Edward W

    2003-11-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) in the diets of schoolchildren are beneficial for supporting optimal physical and cognitive development. Nevertheless, behavioral change and economic development are needed to increase and sustain adequate meat product consumption by schoolchildren in developing countries. A NutriBusiness enterprise may be one way for local communities to promote economic development while increasing the availability of meat for children. This work evaluates the feasibility of a NutriBusiness enterprise involving the production of rabbits and the manufacture of solar dried snack food. Some rabbits would be kept for home use, whereas others would be used in the manufacture of a rabbit-sweet potato dried snack food that could be fed to children or sold for income. The NutriBusiness enterprise would be composed of participants from the community contributing to a cooperative effort for setting up a manufacturing facility and organizing production, manufacturing and marketing functions. A unit operation for rabbit-sweet potato Chiparoos, based on full-capacity operation of a single solar drier would involve up to 110 shareholder families, each producing 240 rabbits/y with 120 used at home and 120 sold for Chiparoos manufacture. Participation in the enterprise would increase the availability to children of iron, zinc and vitamin B-12, and other nutrients, and provide approximately 350 dollars/y additional income for the family.

  6. Chemical and physical characteristics of local lecithin in comparison with some other food emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and physical characteristics of local lecithin and other food emulsifiers (Emulfuid E, Triodan R 90, Panodan 150 and Glycerol mono stéarate were studied. The characteristics of these emulsifiers studied were solubility, hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB, stability index (SI, fatty acid composition and infrared spectrum. The results obtained showed that Emulfuid E and local lecithin were mixture of lecithins and phosphatidyl ethanol-amine. In addition, Triodan R 90 was a polyglycerol ester of ricinoleic acid, Panodan 150 was a blend of mono and diglycerides, and G.M.S. was a monoglycerol ester of stearic acid.

    Se estudiaron las características químicas y físicas de lecitina local y otros emulsionantes alimentarios (Emulfuid E, Triodan R 90, Panodan 150 y Monoestearato de glicerol. Las características de estos emulsionantes estudiados fueron solubilidad, balance hidrófilo-lipófilo (HLB, índice de estabilidad (SI, composición en ácidos grasos y espectros de infrarrojo. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que Emulfuid E y lecitina local fueron mezclas de lecitinas y fosfatidil etanolamina. Por otro lado, Triodan R 90 fue ester poliglicerídico del ácido ricinoleico, Panodan 150 una mezcla de mono y diglicéridos y G.M.S. un éster monoglicerídico del ácido esteárico.

  7. Global Climate Change, Food Security, and Local Sustainability: Increasing Climate Literacy in Urban Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, R. A.; Low, R.; Gorokhovich, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Three higher education institutions, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), Brooklyn College, and Lehman College, are working together to share expertise and resources to expand climate change topics offered to undergraduate and graduate students in New York City (NYC). This collaboration combines existing UNL educational learning resources and infrastructure in virtual coursework. It will supply global climate change education and locally-based research experiences to the highly diverse undergraduate students of Brooklyn and Lehman Colleges and to middle and high school teachers in NYC. Through the university partnership, UNL materials are being adapted and augmented to include authentic research experiences for undergraduates and teachers using NASA satellite data, geographic information system (GIS) tools, and/or locally collected microclimate data from urban gardens. Learners download NASA data, apply an Earth system approach, and employ GIS in the analysis of food production landscapes in a dynamically changing climate system. The resulting course will be offered via Blackboard courseware, supported by Web 2.0 technologies designed specifically to support dialogue, data, and web publication sharing between partners, teachers and middle school, high school and undergraduate student researchers. NYC is in the center of the urban farming movement. By exploring water and food topics of direct relevance to students' lives and community, we anticipate that students will be motivated and more empowered to make connections between climate change and potential impacts on the health and happiness of people in their community, in the United States and around the world. Final course will be piloted in 2012.

  8. Geographies of Origin and Proximity: Approaches to Local Agro-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Cañada, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to provide a critical review with respect to the literature on Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS in America and Europe over the last two decades, devoted to investigating the geographies of the relationships between territory and identity-based food products. In studies on LAFS, the concept of origin of food products is based upon a historical and bio-cultural analysis of food identity. Debates on territorial anchorage focus on the causal factors —natural, cultural and socio-economic— that a distinctive territory imprints on the specific attributes of identity-based foods. Moreover, the notion of geographical and organisational proximity aligns with a socio-cultural and economic approach to collective action aiming at rural development. A LAFS implies a certain spatial density and a network of mutually cooperating farms, firms and institutions, specialised in producing and marketing an identity-based food product, what can in turn be used to valorise the food identity both on the markets and also by contributing to the creation of common and public goods. A transdisciplinary view is required both for comprehending the emergence and evolution over centuries of the identity-based foods and also for understanding the role they play in constructing more sustainable rural development in the future.El artículo tiene como objetivo efectuar una revisión crítica de la literatura aparecida en las dos últimas décadas sobre los Sistemas Agroalimentarios Locales (SIAL en América y en Europa, que investiga la geografía de las relaciones existentes entre el territorio y los productos alimentarios identitarios. En los estudios sobre SIAL, el concepto de origen está basado en un análisis histórico y bio-cultural de la identidad de los alimentos. Los debates sobre el anclaje territorial se focalizan en los factores causales —naturales, culturales y socioeconómicos— que un territorio distintivo incide en los atributos espec

  9. A genome-wide immunodetection screen in S. cerevisiae uncovers novel genes involved in lysosomal vacuole function and morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florante Ricarte

    Full Text Available Vacuoles of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are functionally analogous to mammalian lysosomes. Both are cellular organelles responsible for macromolecular degradation, ion/pH homeostasis, and stress survival. We hypothesized that undefined gene functions remain at post-endosomal stage of vacuolar events and performed a genome-wide screen directed at such functions at the late endosome and vacuole interface - ENV genes. The immunodetection screen was designed to identify mutants that internally accumulate precursor form of the vacuolar hydrolase carboxypeptidase Y (CPY. Here, we report the uncovering and initial characterizations of twelve ENV genes. The small size of the collection and the lack of genes previously identified with vacuolar events are suggestive of the intended exclusive functional interface of the screen. Most notably, the collection includes four novel genes ENV7, ENV9, ENV10, and ENV11, and three genes previously linked to mitochondrial processes - MAM3, PCP1, PPE1. In all env mutants, vesicular trafficking stages were undisturbed in live cells as assessed by invertase and active α-factor secretion, as well as by localization of the endocytic fluorescent marker FM4-64 to the vacuole. Several mutants exhibit defects in stress survival functions associated with vacuoles. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed the collection to be significantly enriched in vacuolar morphologies suggestive of fusion and fission defects. These include the unique phenotype of lumenal vesicles within vacuoles in the novel env9Δ mutant and severely fragmented vacuoles upon deletion of GET4, a gene recently implicated in tail anchored membrane protein insertion. Thus, our results establish new gene functions in vacuolar function and morphology, and suggest a link between vacuolar and mitochondrial events.

  10. Cell-free reconstitution of vacuole membrane fragmentation reveals regulation of vacuole size and number by TORC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaillat, Lydie; Baars, Tonie Luise; Mayer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Size and copy number of organelles are influenced by an equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission. We studied this equilibrium on vacuoles—the lysosomes of yeast. Vacuole fusion can readily be reconstituted and quantified in vitro, but it had not been possible to study fission of the organelle in a similar way. Here we present a cell-free system that reconstitutes fragmentation of purified yeast vacuoles (lysosomes) into smaller vesicles. Fragmentation in vitro reproduces physiological aspects. It requires the dynamin-like GTPase Vps1p, V-ATPase pump activity, cytosolic proteins, and ATP and GTP hydrolysis. We used the in vitro system to show that the vacuole-associated TOR complex 1 (TORC1) stimulates vacuole fragmentation but not the opposing reaction of vacuole fusion. Under nutrient restriction, TORC1 is inactivated, and the continuing fusion activity then dominates the fusion/fission equilibrium, decreasing the copy number and increasing the volume of the vacuolar compartment. This result can explain why nutrient restriction not only induces autophagy and a massive buildup of vacuolar/lysosomal hydrolases, but also leads to a concomitant increase in volume of the vacuolar compartment by coalescence of the organelles into a single large compartment. PMID:22238359

  11. Stimulus effects on local preference: stimulus-response contingencies, stimulus-food pairing, and stimulus-food correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a procedure in which concurrent-schedule food ratios changed unpredictably across seven unsignaled components after 10 food deliveries. Additional green-key stimulus presentations also occurred on the two alternatives, sometimes in the same ratio as the component food ratio, and sometimes in the inverse ratio. In eight experimental conditions, we varied the contingencies surrounding these additional stimuli: In two conditions, stimulus onset and offset were noncontingent; in another two, stimulus onset was noncontingent, and offset was response contingent. In four conditions, both stimulus onset and offset were contingent, and in two of these conditions the stimulus was simultaneously paired with food delivery. Sensitivity to component food ratios was significantly higher when stimulus onset was response contingent compared to when it was noncontingent. Choice changes following food delivery were similar in all eight conditions. Choice changes following stimuli were smaller than those following food, and directionally were completely determined by the food-ratio:stimulus-ratio correlation, not by the stimulus contingency nor by whether the stimulus was paired with food or not. These results support the idea that conditional reinforcers may best be viewed as signals for next-food location rather than as stimuli that have acquired hedonic value, at least when the signals are differential with respect to future conditions.

  12. An audit of local government planning tools for their potential use in addressing community food and nutrition issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Elizabeth; Hammond, Melinda; Martin, Caroline; Burns, Catherine; Groos, Anita

    2010-04-01

    This project aimed to identify how local government planning tools could be used to influence physical and policy environments to support healthy eating behaviours in communities. An audit of Queensland's legislative and non-legislative local government planning tools was conducted by a public health nutritionist to assess their potential use in addressing strategies to achieve positive nutrition outcomes. Ten strategies were identified and covered the following themes: improving access to healthy foods and drinks; increasing access to breastfeeding facilities; decreasing fast food outlet density; and unhealthy food advertising. The audit found that all of the 10 strategies to achieve positive nutrition outcomes could be considered through three or more of the planning tools. Based on the findings of this audit, local government planning tools provide opportunities to address food and nutrition issues and contribute toward creating physical and policy environments that support healthy eating behaviours.

  13. Do US Consumers’ Perceive Local and Organic Food Differently? An Analysis Based on Means‐End Chain Analysis and Word Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Haas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The market of local and organic food is still a niche market in the USA, despite its strong growth rates. Both offer consumers an alternative to a globalized anonymous food supply chain. Yet local food and organic food seem to beoverlapping and to some degree competing food concepts. While the organic food market somehow has managed to “mature”, being widely distributed in national supermarket chains, local food in the US still seems to be tied to a“grassroots food movement”, being mainly distributed over short food supply chains. With several trends indicating sustained growth for local and organic consumption, this paper first addresses different connotations of local foodand compares them to standard definitions of organic food. The main focus is to explore the perception of US consumers towards local and organic food, using results from two different studies. Both studies use laddering techniques and word association tests, which were undertaken at Cornell University in New York State and at the University of Florida in the city of Gainesville. These findings are used to achieve a better understanding of the image of local and organic food, and the motives and values of local and organic food consumers.

  14. Rimmed vacuoles in Becker muscular dystrophy have similar features with inclusion myopathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunari Momma

    Full Text Available Rimmed vacuoles in myofibers are thought to be due to the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, and can be characteristic in certain myopathies with protein inclusions in myofibers. In this study, we performed a detailed clinical, molecular, and pathological characterization of Becker muscular dystrophy patients who have rimmed vacuoles in muscles. Among 65 Becker muscular dystrophy patients, we identified 12 patients who have rimmed vacuoles and 11 patients who have deletions in exons 45-48 in DMD gene. All patients having rimmed vacuoles showed milder clinical features compared to those without rimmed vacuoles. Interestingly, the rimmed vacuoles in Becker muscular dystrophy muscles seem to represent autophagic vacuoles and are also associated with polyubiquitinated protein aggregates. These findings support the notion that rimmed vacuoles can appear in Becker muscular dystrophy, and may be related to the chronic changes in muscle pathology induced by certain mutations in the DMD gene.

  15. Rimmed vacuoles in Becker muscular dystrophy have similar features with inclusion myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, Kazunari; Noguchi, Satoru; Malicdan, May Christine V; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Minami, Narihiro; Kamakura, Keiko; Nonaka, Ikuya; Nishino, Ichizo

    2012-01-01

    Rimmed vacuoles in myofibers are thought to be due to the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, and can be characteristic in certain myopathies with protein inclusions in myofibers. In this study, we performed a detailed clinical, molecular, and pathological characterization of Becker muscular dystrophy patients who have rimmed vacuoles in muscles. Among 65 Becker muscular dystrophy patients, we identified 12 patients who have rimmed vacuoles and 11 patients who have deletions in exons 45-48 in DMD gene. All patients having rimmed vacuoles showed milder clinical features compared to those without rimmed vacuoles. Interestingly, the rimmed vacuoles in Becker muscular dystrophy muscles seem to represent autophagic vacuoles and are also associated with polyubiquitinated protein aggregates. These findings support the notion that rimmed vacuoles can appear in Becker muscular dystrophy, and may be related to the chronic changes in muscle pathology induced by certain mutations in the DMD gene.

  16. Explaining the differences in household food waste collection and treatment provisions between local authorities in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees, A D; Williams, I D

    2017-09-14

    Separate household food waste collection for anaerobic digestion is one method used in the sustainable management of biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW). Recycling of food waste contributes to the UK's reuse, recycling and composting targets and can help local authorities boost plateauing rates whilst encouraging landfill diversion. This study explored the reasons for differences in the provision of food waste collections, using two comparable local authorities, one with a collection in Wales (Cardiff), and the other absent of such service in England (Southampton). A PESTLE analysis investigated the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental impacts of separate food waste collections. The greenhouse gas impacts of the collection and treatment systems of MSW in both cities were estimated for 2012/13. Results showed significant policy and legislative differences between devolved governments, that separate food waste collections can save local authorities significant sums of money and substantially reduce greenhouse gas impacts. A survey of one hundred respondents in each city aimed to understand attitudes and behaviours towards recycling, food waste segregation, cooking and purchasing habits. The number of frequent recyclers and levels of satisfaction were higher in the authority which provided a separate food waste collection. In the area which lacked a separate collection service, over three-quarters of respondents would participate in such a scheme if it were available. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Pathogen-Occupied Vacuoles of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Interact with the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchan, Hilary K; Cockburn, Chelsea L; Hebert, Kathryn S; Magunda, Forgivemore; Noh, Susan M; Carlyon, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin, and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER membrane marker, derlin-1, were pronouncedly recruited to the peripheries of both POVs. ApV association with the ER initiated early and continued throughout the infection cycle. Both the ApV and AmV interacted with the rough ER and smooth ER. However, only derlin-1-positive rough ER derived vesicles were delivered into the ApV lumen where they localized with intravacuolar bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy identified multiple ER-POV membrane contact sites on the cytosolic faces of both species' vacuoles that corresponded to areas on the vacuoles' lumenal faces where intravacuolar Anaplasma organisms closely associated. A. phagocytophilum is known to hijack Rab10, a GTPase that regulates ER dynamics and morphology. Yet, ApV-ER interactions were unhindered in cells in which Rab10 had been knocked down, demonstrating that the GTPase is dispensable for the bacterium to parasitize the ER. These data establish the ApV and AmV as pathogen-host interfaces that directly

  18. Genes controlling the development and function of plant vacuoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2017-01-01

    All plant cells contain numerous organelles, like mitochondria chloroplasts, with specific functions that are generally very similar among cell types and species. However, vacuoles, which are by far the largest compartments in plant cells, show a broad diversification in shape, dimensions, content

  19. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dianna; Cummins, Steven; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2013-01-24

    The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001-2005 n=757) approaches. Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (pproximity to takeaways and unhealthy diet scores also resulted in small parameter estimates. The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents' food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent

  20. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757 approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents’ food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent, overly simple

  1. Protein delivery to vacuole requires SAND protein-dependent Rab GTPase conversion for MVB-vacuole fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, M.K.; Krüger, F.; Beckmann, H.; Brumm, S.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Munnik, T.; Mayer, U.; Stierhof, Y.D.; Grefen, C.; Schumacher, K.; Jürgens, G.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-membrane proteins such as ligand-binding receptor kinases, ion channels, or nutrient transporters are turned over by targeting to a lytic compartment--lysosome or vacuole--for degradation. After their internalization, these proteins arrive at an early endosome, which then matures into a late

  2. Comparison of School Food Policies and Food Preparation Practices before and after the Local Wellness Policy among Indiana High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Federal legislation requires local education agencies or school districts to develop a local wellness policy. No data-based research using a prospective cohort of a representative sample of secondary schools has been conducted to investigate the impact of the local wellness policy. Purpose: To investigate changes in school food…

  3. Local food web management increases resilience and buffers against global change effects on freshwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo; Ekvall, Mattias K.; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2016-07-01

    A major challenge for ecological research is to identify ways to improve resilience to climate-induced changes in order to secure the ecosystem functions of natural systems, as well as ecosystem services for human welfare. With respect to aquatic ecosystems, interactions between climate warming and the elevated runoff of humic substances (brownification) may strongly affect ecosystem functions and services. However, we hitherto lack the adaptive management tools needed to counteract such global-scale effects on freshwater ecosystems. Here we show, both experimentally and using monitoring data, that predicted climatic warming and brownification will reduce freshwater quality by exacerbating cyanobacterial growth and toxin levels. Furthermore, in a model based on long-term data from a natural system, we demonstrate that food web management has the potential to increase the resilience of freshwater systems against the growth of harmful cyanobacteria, and thereby that local efforts offer an opportunity to secure our water resources against some of the negative impacts of climate warming and brownification. This allows for novel policy action at a local scale to counteract effects of global-scale environmental change, thereby providing a buffer period and a safer operating space until climate mitigation strategies are effectively established.

  4. Responsive feeding and child interest in food vary when rural Malawian children are fed lipid-based nutrient supplements or local complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Mäkinen, Samppa; Ashorn, Ulla; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-07-01

    Caregiver and child behaviours during feeding have been used to measure responsiveness, which has been recognised as important for child growth and development. The aims of this study were to understand how caregiver and child behaviours differ when feeding lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) vs. local complementary food and to detect associations between behaviours and child interest in food. Sixteen moderately underweight 6-17-month-old Malawian children receiving 50 g/day of supplementary LNS for 12 weeks were videotaped during LNS (n = 32) and local complementary feeding (n = 28) episodes. Behaviours were coded at the level of the intended bite (1674 total bites). The analysis used regression models adjusted for within-subject correlation. Caregivers were less likely to allow children to self-feed and more likely to use physical pressure during LNS vs. complementary food bites. Positive caregiver verbalization was infrequent and did not differ by type of food. Higher odds of accepting a bite were associated with the bite containing LNS, odds ratio (OR) 3.05; 90% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 4.71), the child self-feeding, OR 5.70; 90% CI (2.77, 11.69), and positive caregiver verbalization, OR 2.46; 90% CI (1.26, 4.80), while lower odds of acceptance were associated with negative child verbalization during feeding, OR 0.27; 90% CI (0.17, 0.42). In this sample, caregivers used more responsive feeding practices during bites of local complementary food and were more controlling when feeding LNS. Responsive caregiver behaviours predicted child acceptance of food. These results could be used to design interventions in Malawi to improve responsive feeding practices in general and during LNS use.

  5. Four Perspectives of Sustainability Applied to the Local Food Strategy of Ghent (Belgium: Need for a Cycle of Democratic Participation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Crivits

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of cities’ increasing commitment to sustainable development, local food systems are becoming a policy priority. In this article we focus on the case of a local food system in Ghent, Belgium. We adopt the notion of Hajer et al. (2015 that top-down steering of environmental issues (so-called “cockpit-ism” is insufficient, incomplete and in need of revision. Using their four perspectives on sustainable development (Hajer et al., 2015, we explore, analyze and valorize the potential of the actors, motives and logics for change within the agriculture and food system in the Ghent region. Applying these four perspectives, we have mapped the current positive developments as well as identified the weaknesses, pitfalls and opportunities of a local food strategy. The discussion section contains two important strategies for good governance of sustainable urban development: first, a governance approach to stimulate participation and representation in a complex, unequal and rapidly changing context; and second, a reflection on how local food strategies can drive global sustainability. In conclusion, we argue for the integration of a global sustainability approach within sustainable urban development.

  6. Determination of Synthetic Colors in Some Locally Available Foods of Kashan City, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafati Chaleshtori R.* PhD,; Golsorkhi F. BSc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The synthetic colors are preferred by the food industry because of the variety of shades, intensity, uniformity, excellent solubility and stability. They are used in a variety of food products such as dairy products, beverages, baked products, confections and pet foods. Food colors may have toxic effects on the human body. This study aimed to examine the amount of synthetic colors in some ready to use foods in Kashan, Iran. Instrument & Methods: In this cro...

  7. Comparing the Sustainability of Local and Global Food Chains: A Case Study of Cheese Products in Switzerland and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Schmitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Local food has recently gained popularity under the assumption that it is more sustainable than food from distant locations. However, evidence is still lacking to fully support this assumption. The goal of this study is to compare local and global food chains in five dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, social, ethical and health, covering all stages of the chain. In particular, four cheese supply chains are compared in detail: a local (L’Etivaz and global (Le Gruyère case in Switzerland and a local (Single Gloucester and global (Cheddar case in the UK. A multi-dimensional perspective is adopted to compare their sustainability performance. Eight attributes of performance (affordability, creation and distribution of added value, information and communication, consumer behaviour, resource use, biodiversity, nutrition and animal welfare are used to frame the comparative analysis. The results suggest that local cheese performs better in the field of added value creation and distribution, animal welfare and biodiversity. Global chains, by contrast, perform better in terms of affordability and efficiency and some environmental indicators. This analysis needed to be expressed in qualitative terms rather than quantified indicators and it has been especially useful to identify the critical issues and trade-offs that hinder sustainability at different scales. Cheese supply chains in Switzerland and the UK also often present hybrid arrangements in term of local and global scales. Comparison is therefore most meaningful when presented on a local (farmhouse/global (creamery continuum.

  8. The local knowledge of food plants used by Karo ethnic in Semangat Gunung Village, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisyawati, Aini, R. N.; Silalahi, M.; Purba, E. C.; Avifah, N.

    2017-07-01

    Research on the local knowledge of food plants used by Karo ethnic in the Semangat Gunung Village, North Sumatra has been done. The aim of this study is to reveal plant species that used by the people of Karo ethnic as food. We used the ethnobotanical approach which included open-ended, semi-structural interview, and exploration method. One eldervillage, 2 traditional healers, and 30 respondents have been selected as sources of information. Descriptive statistics have been used to analyze the gathered data. A number of 109 species which belong to 83 genus and 45 families known to be used as food sources by Karo people. Four families have the highest number of food plant species, which are Solanaceae (8 species), Poaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species), and Zingiberaceae (6 species). All of those families are found in the village, both wild and Cultivated. Solanaceae is used as source of fruits, vegetables, and spices. Poaceae is used as the source of the staple food, alternative food sources, snacks, spices, and traditional foods. Fabaceae is used as source of vegetables and traditional foods. Zingiberaceae is used as source of spices.

  9. Food System Sustainability across Scales: A Proposed Local-To-Global Approach to Community Planning and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Carlsson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in food systems sustainability is growing, but progress toward them is slow. This research focuses on three interrelated challenges that hinder progress. First, prevailing visions lack a concrete definition of sustainability. Second, global level conceptions fail to guide responses at the local level. Third, these deficiencies may lead to conflicting initiatives for addressing sustainable food systems at the community level that slow collective progress. The purpose of this article is to (1 describe the development of a framework for assessing food system sustainability which accommodates local-level measurement in the context of broader national and global scale measures; and (2 to propose a process that supports community determinacy over localized progress toward sustainable food systems. Using a modified Delphi Inquiry process, we engaged a diverse, global panel of experts in describing “success” with respect to sustainable food systems, today’s reality, and identifying key indicators for tracking progress towards success. They were asked to consider scale during the process in order to explore locally relevant themes. Data were analyzed using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD to facilitate a comprehensive and systematic exploration of key themes and indicators. Key results include a framework of indicator themes that are anchored in a concrete definition of sustainability, stable at national and global scales while remaining flexible at the local scale to accommodate contextual needs. We also propose a process for facilitating community-level planning for food system sustainability that utilizes this indicator framework. The proposed process is based on insights from the research results, as well as from previous research and experience applying the FSSD at a community level; it bears promise for future work to support communities to determine their own pathways, while contributing to a more

  10. KERAGAMAN PANGAN LOKAL DI PULAU LOMBOK UNTUK MENUNJANG PENGEMBANGAN PARIWISATA (Diversity of Local Foods in Lombok Island to Support Tourism Development)

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuri Zainuri; Abbas Zaini; Wiharyani Werdiningsih; Taslim Sjah

    2016-01-01

    Lombok Island is potential in providing agricultural raw materials that can be developed into local food products that in turn support the development of tourism in this island. This study aimed at identifying kinds of local food products available in Lombok Island, and their quantity. To achieve these purposes, research was designed in descriptive method such that the study revealed the picture of the situation of local food in Lombok Island. Data analyses were follow-on, and rev...

  11. Characteristics of weak base-induced vacuoles formed around individual acidic organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Hiromi; Kawakami, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We have previously found that the weak base 4-aminopyridine induces Brownian motion of acidic organelles around which vacuoles are formed, causing organelle traffic disorder in neurons. Our present study investigated the characteristics of vacuoles induced by weak bases (NH(4)Cl, aminopyridines, and chloroquine) using mouse cells. Individual vacuoles included acidic organelles identified by fluorescent protein expression. Mitochondria and actin filaments were extruded outside the vacuoles, composing the vacuole rim. Staining with amine-reactive fluorescence showed no protein/amino acid content in vacuoles. Thus, serous vacuolar contents are probably partitioned by viscous cytosol, other organelles, and cytoskeletons, but not membrane. The weak base (chloroquine) was immunochemically detected in intravacuolar organelles, but not in vacuoles. Early vacuolization was reversible, but long-term vacuolization caused cell death. The vacuolization and cell death were blocked by the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor and Cl--free medium. Staining with LysoTracker or LysoSensor indicated that intravacuolar organelles were strongly acidic and vacuoles were slightly acidic. This suggests that vacuolization is caused by accumulation of weak base and H(+) in acidic organelles, driven by vacuolar H(+)-ATPase associated with Cl(-) entering, and probably by subsequent extrusion of H(+) and water from organelles to the surrounding cytoplasm.

  12. A blind spot in food and nutrition security: where culture and social change shape the local food plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noack, A.L.; Pouw, N.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that over 800 million people are hungry each day and two billion are suffering from the consequences of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. While a paradigm shift towards a multi-dimensional and multi-sectoral approach to food and nutrition insecurity is emerging, technical approaches

  13. Local Food Prices: Effects on Child Eating Patterns, Food Insecurity, and Overweight. Fast Focus. No. 16-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Jacknowitz, Alison; Vinopal, Katie

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this research brief were co-principal investigators on a grant awarded by the IRP RIDGE Center for National Food and Nutrition Assistance Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in partnership with the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Their project, summarized here, was one of five proposals…

  14. A blind spot in food and nutrition security: where culture and social change shape the local food plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noack, A.L.; Pouw, N.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that over 800 million people are hungry each day and two billion are suffering from the consequences of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. While a paradigm shift towards a multi-dimensional and multi-sectoral approach to food and nutrition insecurity is emerging, technical approaches

  15. The lack of influence of food and local alcoholic brew on the blood level of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeida, Mamoun M; Malcolm, Stephen B; ElTayeb, A Z; Eversole, Rob R; Elassad, Asma S; Geary, Timothy G; Ali, Magdi M; Mackenzie, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that extraneous factors, such as food and drink, may alter the pharmacodynamics of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin) in patients receiving this important anti-parasitic drug, and thus might put such individuals in danger of serious adverse events. The effects of a common local alcohol-containing beverage and a local food on plasma levels of ivermectin were studied in Sudanese volunteers after administration of the standard dose used in mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and filariasis. Plasma levels of ivermectin at various time points (0-48h) after administration of ivermectin were ascertained by HPLC assay in ten volunteers given 150μgkg(-1) ivermectin together with either a local sorghum-based food ('assida'), or a locally brewed alcoholic beverage ('arangi' made from sorghum grain) or in those who were fasting. Maximum mean (±SD) plasma levels of ivermectin (67±49ngml(-1)) were reached within 2h in fasting patients, and had dropped to 26±20ngml(-1) after 30h. The coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause an increase in ivermectin plasma levels above those observed in people who were fasting. However, at 2h after ivermectin administration, patients given alcohol had significantly lower plasma ivermectin levels than fed patients or fasting patients. There were no significant differences among treatments for AUC0-30, Cmax, or tmax, and so the coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause any change in pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin in the plasma in comparison with fasting. None of the measured levels of plasma ivermectin were greater than those reported in previous studies with this compound. These findings do not support the hypothesis that acute intake of alcohol is an important factor in the development of the serious adverse reactions that can occur during the treatment of loaisis patients with ivermectin (Mectizan(®)).

  16. Vitrification Increased Vacuolization of Human Spematozoa: Application of MSOME Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherzadeh, Sara; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Agha-Rahimi, Azam; Anbari, Fateme; Ghazali, Shahin; Macchiarelli, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Sperm vitrification is a technique of ice and cryoprotectant free cryopreservation by direct plunging of sperm suspension into liquid nitrogen (LN2). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cryoprotectant free-vitrification on human sperm fine structure by MSOME technology and the fertility potential by zona binding assay (ZBA). 20 normo-ejaculates were prepared by swim up technique, and supernatants were divided into two parts of fresh and vitrified groups. For vitrification, sperm was dropped into LN2. Sperm motility, morphology, viability and MSOME were evaluated for each sample. In MSOM morphologically normal sperm (class 1), ≤2 small vacuoles (class 2), and one large vacuole or >2 small vacuoles (class 3) were evaluated. Also, fertility potential was evaluated by zona binding assay. Data was analyzed using paired t-test or Willcoxon's test and p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Vitrification significantly reduced both progressive motility, viability and morphology. Also, normal morphology of spermatozoa decreased significantly after vitrification. In MSOME evaluation, normal motile spermatozoa (Class 1) decreased from 23.00±12.44 to 16.00.56±10.79 after vitrification (p=0.008). Although spermatozoa classes 2 and 3 were increased, the difference was not significant. Moreover, fertility potential of motile spermatozoa was reduced after vitrification (9.0±13.87 vs. 13.40±22.73; p=0.07). Vitrification increased the rate of vacuolization in motile sperm head. Therefore, MSOME technology is recommended for assessment of sperm fine morphology in ICSI program used cryopreserved spermatozoa.

  17. Influence of Consumer Demographics on the Demand for Locally Grown Ethnic Greens and Herbs Because of Food Miles Concerns: A Logit Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Govindasamy, Ramu; Purduri, Venkata; Kelley, Kathleen; Simon, James E.

    2012-01-01

    This project was supported by the Specialty Crop Research Initiative of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA, Grant # 2009-51181-06035. Trade in fresh fruits and vegetables has raised concerns about the distance food travels, food cost, freshness, and climate change associated with the transport. The term food mile refers to the distance or the number of miles that food travels from producer to consumer through its supply chain. Purchasing directly from local farmers may reduc...

  18. Local food supplementation and psychosocial stimulation improve linear growth and cognitive development among Indonesian infants aged 6 to 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmizar, Helmizar; Jalal, Fasli; Lipoeto, Nur Indrawati; Achadi, Endang L

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of culturally-relevant food supplementation and psychosocial stimulation on infant growth and development. A community-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 clusters from 5 selected villages in Tanah Datar District of West Sumatera, Indonesia. We assessed 355 infants aged 6 to 9 months at the beginning of the study. The infants were divided into 4 groups: 1) Food Supplementation (FS); 2) Psychosocial Stimulation (PS); 3) Food Supplementation and Psychosocial Stimulation (FS+PS); and 4) Control Group (CG). The formula food supplement was comprised of a variety of local food sources (local MP-ASI) and adjusted for the local habits. The quality of psychosocial stimulation was assessed with the Infant HOME inventory method. Progress at 6 months was assessed by anthropometry and the Bayley scores of cognition, language and motor function. There were improvements in linear growth, cognitive and motor development of children in the FS (pcognitive development increased to 21.4±12.2 points (effect size 0.56) (pdevelopment increased to 20.7±18.4 points (effect size 0.50) (pcognitive and motor development.

  19. The role of the local retail food environment in fruit, vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ana Clara; de Almeida, Samuel Luna; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2016-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the local retail food environment and consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in São Paulo, Brazil, as well as the moderation effects of income in the studied relationships. Cross-sectional study design that drew upon neighbourhood- and individual-level data. For each participant, community (density and proximity) and community food environment (availability, variety, quality and price) measures of FV and SSB were assessed in retail food stores and specialized fresh produce markets within 1·6 km of their homes. Poisson generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to model the associations of food consumption with food environment measures, adjusted by individual-level characteristics. São Paulo, Brazil. Adults (n 1842) residing in the same census tracts (n 52) in São Paulo, Brazil as those where the neighbourhood-level measures were taken. FV availability in neighbourhoods was associated with regular FV consumption (≥5 times/week; prevalence ratio=1·41; 95 % CI 1·19, 1·67). Regular FV consumption prevalence was significantly lower among lower-income individuals living in neighbourhoods with fewer supermarkets and fresh produce markets (P-interaction consumption (≥5 times/week) prevalence, after adjustment for confounding variables. Our findings suggest that the local retail food environment is associated with FV and SSB consumption in a Brazilian urban sample.

  20. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-08

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion.

  1. Leishmania amazonensis Engages CD36 to Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Okuda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania amastigotes manipulate the activity of macrophages to favor their own success. However, very little is known about the role of innate recognition and signaling triggered by amastigotes in this host-parasite interaction. In this work we developed a new infection model in adult Drosophila to take advantage of its superior genetic resources to identify novel host factors limiting Leishmania amazonensis infection. The model is based on the capacity of macrophage-like cells, plasmatocytes, to phagocytose and control the proliferation of parasites injected into adult flies. Using this model, we screened a collection of RNAi-expressing flies for anti-Leishmania defense factors. Notably, we found three CD36-like scavenger receptors that were important for defending against Leishmania infection. Mechanistic studies in mouse macrophages showed that CD36 accumulates specifically at sites where the parasite contacts the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Furthermore, CD36-deficient macrophages were defective in the formation of the large parasitophorous vacuole typical of L. amazonensis infection, a phenotype caused by inefficient fusion with late endosomes and/or lysosomes. These data identify an unprecedented role for CD36 in the biogenesis of the parasitophorous vacuole and further highlight the utility of Drosophila as a model system for dissecting innate immune responses to infection.

  2. Quality Certification, Institutions and Innovation in Local Agro-Food Systems: Protected Designations of Origin of Olive Oil in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Javier Sanz; Vazquez, Alfredo Macias

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the interrelations between establishment of territorial quality certification systems (Protected Designations of Origin or PDOs), diffusion of innovations through local agro-food chains, and the role of the institutions overseeing geographical designations. Empirical analysis is applied to olive oil PDOs in Spain and entails…

  3. Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

  4. Quality Certification, Institutions and Innovation in Local Agro-Food Systems: Protected Designations of Origin of Olive Oil in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Javier Sanz; Vazquez, Alfredo Macias

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the interrelations between establishment of territorial quality certification systems (Protected Designations of Origin or PDOs), diffusion of innovations through local agro-food chains, and the role of the institutions overseeing geographical designations. Empirical analysis is applied to olive oil PDOs in Spain and entails…

  5. Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

  6. Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53-94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression models. Participants were classified as consuming organic produce if they reported eating organic fruits and vegetables either "sometimes" or "often or always". Women were 21% more likely to consume organic produce than men (confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.30), and the likelihood of organic produce consumption was 13% less with each additional 10 years of age (CI: 0.84-0.91). Participants with higher education were significantly more likely to consume organic produce (prevalence ratios [PR] were 1.05 with a high school education, 1.39 with a bachelor's degree and 1.68 with a graduate degree, with less than high school as the reference group [1.00]). Per capita household income was marginally associated with produce consumption (p = 0.06), with the highest income category more likely to consume organic produce. After adjustment for these individual factors, organic produce consumption was significantly associated with self-reported assessment of neighborhood produce availability (PR: 1.07, CI: 1.02-1.11), with an aggregated measure of community perception of the local food environment (PR: 1.08, CI: 1.00-1.17), and, to a lesser degree, with supermarket density (PR: 1.02: CI: 0.99-1.05). This research suggests that both individual-level characteristics and qualities of the local food environment are associated with having a diet that includes organic food.

  7. Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L Curl

    Full Text Available Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53-94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression models. Participants were classified as consuming organic produce if they reported eating organic fruits and vegetables either "sometimes" or "often or always". Women were 21% more likely to consume organic produce than men (confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.30, and the likelihood of organic produce consumption was 13% less with each additional 10 years of age (CI: 0.84-0.91. Participants with higher education were significantly more likely to consume organic produce (prevalence ratios [PR] were 1.05 with a high school education, 1.39 with a bachelor's degree and 1.68 with a graduate degree, with less than high school as the reference group [1.00]. Per capita household income was marginally associated with produce consumption (p = 0.06, with the highest income category more likely to consume organic produce. After adjustment for these individual factors, organic produce consumption was significantly associated with self-reported assessment of neighborhood produce availability (PR: 1.07, CI: 1.02-1.11, with an aggregated measure of community perception of the local food environment (PR: 1.08, CI: 1.00-1.17, and, to a lesser degree, with supermarket density (PR: 1.02: CI: 0.99-1.05. This research suggests that both individual-level characteristics and qualities of the local food environment are associated with having a diet that includes organic food.

  8. Deregulation, Distrust, and Democracy: State and Local Action to Ensure Equitable Access to Healthy, Sustainably Produced Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2015-01-01

    Environmental, public health, alternative food, and food justice advocates are working together to achieve incremental agricultural subsidy and nutrition assistance reforms that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. When it comes to targeting food and beverage products for increased regulation and decreased consumption, however, the priorities of various food reform movements diverge. This article argues that foundational legal issues, including preemption of state and local authority to protect the public's health and welfare, increasing First Amendment protection for commercial speech, and eroding judicial deference to legislative policy judgments, present a more promising avenue for collaboration across movements than discrete food reform priorities around issues like sugary drinks, genetic modification, or organics. Using the Vermont Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Labeling Act litigation, the Kauai GMO Cultivation Ordinance litigation, the New York City Sugary Drinks Portion Rule litigation, and the Cleveland Trans Fat Ban litigation as case studies, I discuss the foundational legal challenges faced by diverse food reformers, even when their discrete reform priorities diverge. I also 'explore the broader implications of cooperation among groups that respond differently to the "irrationalities" (from the public health perspective) or "values" (from the environmental and alternative food perspective) that permeate public risk perception for democratic governance in the face of scientific uncertainty.

  9. Comparing Perception-Based and Geographic Information System (GIS)-based characterizations of the local food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brines, Shannon

    2008-03-01

    Measuring features of the local food environment has been a major challenge in studying the effect of the environment on diet. This study examined associations between alternate ways of characterizing the local food environment by comparing Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived densities of various types of stores to perception-based measures of the availability of healthy foods. Survey questions rating the availability of produce and low-fat products in neighborhoods were aggregated into a healthy food availability score for 5,774 residents of North Carolina, Maryland, and New York. Densities of supermarkets and smaller stores per square mile were computed for 1 mile around each respondent's residence using kernel estimation. The number of different store types in the area was used to measure variety in the food environment. Linear regression was used to examine associations of store densities and variety with reported availability. Respondents living in areas with lower densities of supermarkets rated the selection and availability of produce and low-fat foods 17% lower than those in areas with the highest densities of supermarkets (95% CL, -18.8, -15.1). In areas without supermarkets, low densities of smaller stores and less store variety were associated with worse perceived availability of healthy foods only in North Carolina (8.8% lower availability, 95% CL, -13.8, -3.4 for lowest vs. highest small-store density; 10.5% lower 95% CL, -16.0, -4.7 for least vs. most store variety). In contrast, higher smaller store densities and more variety were associated with worse perceived healthy food availability in Maryland. Perception- and GIS-based characterizations of the environment are associated but are not identical. Combinations of different types of measures may yield more valid measures of the environment.

  10. Local food between nature and culture: from neighbour farm to terroir. Interview of Laurence Bérard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Techoueyres

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available V.A.: Laurence Bérard, you stand for one half of the famous Bérard and Marchenay duo whose works on terroir products in France simply cannot be ignored ; this is the reason why you accepted this interview for our AOF issue on local food products. I’ll just start with the plain question: when I say local products, what do you think of? L.B.: you’re not saying terroir products, for a change…I.T: That’s the point, is there a difference between the French expression terroir products and local pro...

  11. An NPF transporter exports a central monoterpene indole alkaloid intermediate from the vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard M E; Xu, Deyang; Foureau, Emilien; Teto Carqueijeiro, Marta Ines Soares; Oudin, Audrey; Bernonville, Thomas Dugé de; Novak, Vlastimil; Burow, Meike; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Jones, D Marc; Tatsis, Evangelos C; Pendle, Ali; Ann Halkier, Barbara; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Courdavault, Vincent; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2017-01-13

    Plants sequester intermediates of metabolic pathways into different cellular compartments, but the mechanisms by which these molecules are transported remain poorly understood. Monoterpene indole alkaloids, a class of specialized metabolites that includes the anticancer agent vincristine, antimalarial quinine and neurotoxin strychnine, are synthesized in several different cellular locations. However, the transporters that control the movement of these biosynthetic intermediates within cellular compartments have not been discovered. Here we present the discovery of a tonoplast localized nitrate/peptide family (NPF) transporter from Catharanthus roseus, CrNPF2.9, that exports strictosidine, the central intermediate of this pathway, into the cytosol from the vacuole. This discovery highlights the role that intracellular localization plays in specialized metabolism, and sets the stage for understanding and controlling the central branch point of this pharmacologically important group of compounds.

  12. "Buying Local" Means "Selling Local" - Using a Transportation Alliance of environmental and Food Horticulture Producers in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Stegelin, Forrest E.; Houston, Jack E.; Compte, Javier Mantilla; Thomas, Paul A.; Chappell, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The costs of transporting agricultural products to market and of the acquisition of production inputs are of concern to environmental and food horticulture crops producers. This study is to determine if transportation alliances would reduce shipping costs, increase distribution efficiencies and reduce carbon dioxide emissions among floriculture, ornamental plants, and fruit and vegetable producers in Georgia. Using data from surveys and the ArcLogistics 9.3 GIS software, routing systems were ...

  13. Campylobacter jejuni actively invades the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and survives within non digestive vacuoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Olofsson

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is able to enter, survive and multiply within the free living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but the molecular mechanisms behind these events are still unclear. We have studied the uptake and intracellular trafficking of viable and heat killed bacterial cells of the C. jejuni strain 81-176 in A. polyphaga. We found that viable bacteria associated with a substantially higher proportion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites than heat killed bacteria. Furthermore, the kinetics of internalization, the total number of internalized bacteria as well as the intracellular localization of internalized C. jejuni were dramatically influenced by bacterial viability. Viable bacteria were internalized at a high rate already after 1 h of co-incubation and were observed in small vacuoles tightly surrounding the bacteria. In contrast, internalization of heat killed C. jejuni was low at early time points and did not peak until 96 h. These cells were gathered in large spacious vacuoles that were part of the degradative pathway as determined by the uptake of fluorescently labeled dextran. The amount of heat killed bacteria internalized by A. polyphaga did never reach the maximal amount of internalized viable bacteria. These results suggest that the uptake and intracellular survival of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga is bacterially induced.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni actively invades the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and survives within non digestive vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Jenny; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Brudin, Lars; Olsen, Björn; Ellström, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is able to enter, survive and multiply within the free living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but the molecular mechanisms behind these events are still unclear. We have studied the uptake and intracellular trafficking of viable and heat killed bacterial cells of the C. jejuni strain 81-176 in A. polyphaga. We found that viable bacteria associated with a substantially higher proportion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites than heat killed bacteria. Furthermore, the kinetics of internalization, the total number of internalized bacteria as well as the intracellular localization of internalized C. jejuni were dramatically influenced by bacterial viability. Viable bacteria were internalized at a high rate already after 1 h of co-incubation and were observed in small vacuoles tightly surrounding the bacteria. In contrast, internalization of heat killed C. jejuni was low at early time points and did not peak until 96 h. These cells were gathered in large spacious vacuoles that were part of the degradative pathway as determined by the uptake of fluorescently labeled dextran. The amount of heat killed bacteria internalized by A. polyphaga did never reach the maximal amount of internalized viable bacteria. These results suggest that the uptake and intracellular survival of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga is bacterially induced.

  15. Cell vacuolation induced by Haemophilus influenzae supernatants in HEp-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Rosario Espinoza-Mellado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae belongs to respiratory tract microbiota. We observed vacuoles formation in previous studies with H. influenzae culture supernatants, so in this work we characterised that cytotoxic effect. We observed an abundant production of acidic cytoplasmic vacuoles due to the presence of a “vacuolating factor” in H. influenzae supernatants which was characterised as thermolabile. Greatest vacuolating activity was observed when utilizing the fraction > 50 kDa. The presence of a large number of vacuoles in HEp-2 cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy and some vacuoles were identified with a double membrane and/or being surrounded by ribosomes. These results suggest similar behaviour to that of vacuolating effects described by autotransporter proteins an undescribed cytotoxic effect induced by H. influenzae .

  16. Interactions between Salmonella typhimurium and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and observation of a new mode of intracellular growth within contractile vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, W H; Burroughs, N; Gallagher, M P; Wellington, E M H

    2003-10-01

    Acanthamoeba polyphaga feeding on Salmonella typhimurium in a simple model biofilm were observed by light microscopy and a detailed record of interactions kept by digital image capture and image analysis. A strain of S. typhimurium SL1344 carrying a fis: gfp reporter construct (pPDT105) was used to assess intracellular growth in A. polyphaga on non-nutrient agar (NNA) plates. Invasion of the contractile vacuole (CV) was observed at a frequency of 1:100-1000 acanthamoebae at 35 degrees C. The salmonellae contained in CVs illustrated significant up-regulation of fis relative to extracellular bacteria, indicating that they were in the early stages of logarithmic growth, and reached numbers of 100-200 cells per vacuole after 4 days. This is the first report of this mode of intracellular growth. Up-regulation of fis was also observed in a proportion of S. typhimurium cells contained within food vacuoles. Filamentation of S. typhimurium and E. coli cells was frequently observed in coculture with A. polyphaga on NNA plates, with bacterial cells reaching lengths of up to 500 microm after 10 days' incubation at 35 degrees C. A. polyphaga was also seen to mediate bacterial translocation over the agar surface; egested salmonellae subsequently formed microcolonies along amoebal tracks. This illustrated intracellular survival of a fraction of the S. typhimurium population. These phenomena suggest that protozoa such as A. polyhaga may play an important role in the ecology of S. typhimurium in soil and aquatic environments.

  17. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Local Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kazakh Traditional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serik Shaikhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptidoglycan (PG is a major component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria and is essential for maintaining the integrity of the bacterial cell and its shape. The bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases, which are capable of cleaving the covalent bonds of PG. They also play an important role in modeling PG, which is required for bacterial growth and division. In an era of increasing antibiotic-resistant pathogens, PG hydrolases that destroy these important structures of the cell wall act as a potential source of new antimicrobials. The aim of this study is to identify the main PG hydrolases of local lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional foods that enhance probiotic activity of a biological preparation. Methods. Lactococcus lactis 17А and Lactococcus garvieae 19А were isolated from the traditional sausage-like meat product called kazy. They were isolated according to standards methods of microbiology. Genetic identification of the isolates were tested by determining the nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA. The Republican collection of microorganisms took strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. Rhamnosus 13-P, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CG-1 B-RKM 0044 from cheese, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei B-RKM 0202 from homemade butter. They used the standard technique of renaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect PG hydrolases activity. Results. According to the profiles of PG hydrolase activity on zymograms, the enzymes of Lactococci 17A and 19A in kazy are similar in electrophoretic mobility to major autolysin AcmA, while the lactobacilli of industrial and home-made dairy products have enzymes similar to extracellular proteins p40 and p75, which have probiotic activity. Conclusions. Use of peptidoglycan hydrolases seems to be an interesting approach in the fight against multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria and could be a valuable tool for the treatment of diseases caused by these microorganisms in Kazakhstan.

  18. Protected meat products in Hungary – local foods and hungaricums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Kovács

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs de cette étude présentent une vue d'ensemble sur la production locale des produits carnés en Hongrie, en tenant compte de la législation de l'UE, les indications géographiques protégées (IGP et la désignation de l'origine. La collection des produits carnés Régionaux Hongrois conforme avec le programme national « Traditions – Goûts – Régions » (TGR, en abréviation hongroise: HÍR, est listée. Ce programme fut entamé en 1998, sous l'égide du Ministère de l'Agriculture et du Développement Rural. L’inventaire réalisé comprend 300 produits agricoles, provenant de 9 régions différentes de la Hongrie. Après l'accession de la Hongrie à L'UE, 11 produits ont été soumis à la Commission de la Protection de l'Origine. Actuellement, ces produits se trouvent provisoirement sous une protection nationale.The authors present an overview of the development of Hungarian high quality regional meat products under EU legislation for protection of geographical indications and designation of origin, and conforming to Hungary’s national program – Traditions, Tastes, Regions (TTR, Hungarian abbreviation: HÍR, launched in 1998 by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and covering 300 agricultural products from nine regions. After Accession, 11 products were submitted for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, four of which are meat products. A categorization of Hungarian consumers shows that there is a remarkable heritage of agricultural products and traditional manufacturing methods that offers considerable potential for producers within an increasingly diverse and quality-oriented EU food market.

  19. MRP2, a human conjugate export pump, is present and transports fluo 3 into apical vacuoles of Hep G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantz, T; Nies, A T; Brom, M; Hofmann, A F; Keppler, D

    2000-04-01

    The multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2, symbol ABCC2) transports anionic conjugates and certain amphiphilic anions across the apical membrane of polarized cells. Human hepatoma Hep G2 cells retain hepatic polarity and form apical vacuoles into which cholephilic substances are secreted. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that human MRP2 was expressed in the apical vacuole membrane of polarized Hep G2 cells, whereas the isoform MRP3 was localized to the lateral membrane. Expression of both MRP2 and MRP3 was confirmed by immunoblotting and reverse transcription PCR. Fluo 3 secretion into the apical vacuoles was inhibited by cyclosporin A but not by selective inhibitors of multidrug resistance 1 P-glycoprotein. In addition, carboxyfluorescein, rhodamine 123, and the fluorescent bile salt derivatives ursodeoxycholyl-(Nepsilon-nitrobenzoxadiazolyl)-lysine and cholylglycylamido-fluorescein were secreted into the apical vacuoles; the latter two probably via the bile salt export pump. We conclude that MRP2 mediates fluo 3 secretion into the apical vacuoles of polarized Hep G2 cells. Thus the function of human MRP2 and the action of inhibitors can be analyzed by the secretion of fluorescent anions such as fluo 3.

  20. Thioploca spp: filamentous sulfur bacteria with nitrate vacuoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Gallardo, VA

    1999-01-01

    communities of large Thioploca species live along the Pacific coast of South America and in other upwelling areas of high organic matter sedimentation with bottom waters poor in oxygen and rich in nitrate. Each cell of these thioplocas harbors a large liquid vacuole which is used as a storage for nitrate...... with a concentration of lip to 506 mM. The nitrate is used as an electron acceptor for sulfide oxidation and the bacteria may grow autotrophically or mixotrophically using acetate or other organic molecules as carbon source. The filaments stretch up into the overlying seawater, from which they take up nitrate...

  1. DTU International Energy Report 2016: The Energy-Water-Food Nexus - from local to global aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil......-users. The waste water is often returned to the environment after energy requiring waste water management....

  2. Determination of Synthetic Colors in Some Locally Available Foods of Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharafati Chaleshtori R.* PhD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: The synthetic colors are preferred by the food industry because of the variety of shades, intensity, uniformity, excellent solubility and stability. They are used in a variety of food products such as dairy products, beverages, baked products, confections and pet foods. Food colors may have toxic effects on the human body. This study aimed to examine the amount of synthetic colors in some ready to use foods in Kashan, Iran. Instrument & Methods: In this cross sectional study, conducted in Kashan City, Iran, in March to October 2015, a total of 52 samples of meat products, 33 samples of sweets, 43 samples of drinks and 21 samples of miscellaneous foods were collected. The coloring agents were extracted of samples and purified using the hydrochloric acid extraction method. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyze the samples. Findings: 72 samples (48.30% contained no coloring and 77 samples (51.7% contained artificial colors. The most coloring agents were in sweets (72.7%, drinks (51.2% and meat products samples (48.10%. The quinoline yellow, tartrazine and sunset yellow were the most common coloring used in the various foods. Conclusion: About 52% of examined foods contained artificial colors that have been banned by the national Iranian standards organization.

  3. New challenges for the design of high value plant products: stabilization of anthocyanins in plant vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina ePasseri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade plant biotechnologists and breeders have made several attempt to improve the antioxidant content of plant-derived food. Most efforts concentrated on increasing the synthesis of antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins, by inducing the transcription of genes encoding the synthesizing enzymes. We present here an overview of economically interesting plant species, both food crops and ornamentals, in which anthocyanin content was improved by traditional breeding or transgenesis. Old genetic studies in petunia and more recent biochemical work in brunfelsia, have shown that after synthesis and compartmentalization in the vacuole, anthocyanins need to be stabilized to preserve the color of the plant tissue over time. The final yield of antioxidant molecules is the result of the balance between synthesis and degradation. Therefore the understanding of the mechanism that determine molecule stabilization in the vacuolar lumen is the next step that needs to be taken to further improve the anthocyanin content in food.In several species a phenomenon known as fading is responsible for the disappearance of pigmentation which in some case can be nearly complete. We discuss the present knowledge about the genetic and biochemical factors involved in pigment preservation/destabilization in plant cells.The improvement of our understanding of the fading process will supply new tools for both biotechnological approaches and marker-assisted breeding.

  4. New Challenges for the Design of High Value Plant Products: Stabilization of Anthocyanins in Plant Vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Valentina; Koes, Ronald; Quattrocchio, Francesca M

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade plant biotechnologists and breeders have made several attempt to improve the antioxidant content of plant-derived food. Most efforts concentrated on increasing the synthesis of antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins, by inducing the transcription of genes encoding the synthesizing enzymes. We present here an overview of economically interesting plant species, both food crops and ornamentals, in which anthocyanin content was improved by traditional breeding or transgenesis. Old genetic studies in petunia and more recent biochemical work in brunfelsia, have shown that after synthesis and compartmentalization in the vacuole, anthocyanins need to be stabilized to preserve the color of the plant tissue over time. The final yield of antioxidant molecules is the result of the balance between synthesis and degradation. Therefore the understanding of the mechanism that determine molecule stabilization in the vacuolar lumen is the next step that needs to be taken to further improve the anthocyanin content in food. In several species a phenomenon known as fading is responsible for the disappearance of pigmentation which in some case can be nearly complete. We discuss the present knowledge about the genetic and biochemical factors involved in pigment preservation/destabilization in plant cells. The improvement of our understanding of the fading process will supply new tools for both biotechnological approaches and marker-assisted breeding.

  5. Observation of sperm-head vacuoles and sperm morphology under light microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Seog; Park, Sol; Ko, Duck Sung; Park, Dong Wook; Seo, Ju Tae; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2014-09-01

    The presence of sperm-head vacuoles has been suspected to be deleterious to the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). It is difficult to accurately distinguish morphologically abnormal sperm with vacuoles under a light microscope. This study was performed to analyze the result of the observation of sperm-head vacuoles using Papanicolaou staining under a light microscope and whether the male partner's age affects these vacuoles. Sperm morphology with vacuoles was evaluated using Papanicolaou staining and observed under a light microscope (400×) in 980 men. The normal morphology was divided into three categories (group A, 14% of normal morphology). The criteria for the sperm-head vacuoles were those given in the World Health Organization manual. For the analysis of the age factor, the participants were divided into the following groups: 26-30 years, 31-35 years, 36-40 years, 41-45 years, and 46-50 years. The percentage of sperm-head vacuoles increased with normal sperm morphology (group A vs. groups B, C) (p<0.05). In the case of the age factor, a statistically significant difference was not observed across any of the age groups. A majority of the sperm-head vacuoles showed a statistically significant difference among normal morphology groups. Therefore, we should consider the probability of the percentage of sperm-head vacuoles not increasing with age but with abnormal sperm morphology. A further study is required to clarify the effect of the sperm-head vacuoles on ART outcomes.

  6. Creating Best Practices for the Submission of Actionable Food and Feed Testing Data Generated in State and Local Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, Kathryn; Salfinger, Yvonne; Randolph, Robyn; Shea, Shari; Larson, Kirsten

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory accreditation provides a level of standardization in laboratories and confidence in generated food and feed testing results. For some laboratories, ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accreditation may not be fiscally viable, or a requested test method may be out of the scope of the laboratory's accreditation. To assist laboratories for whom accreditation is not feasible, the Association of Public Health Laboratories Data Acceptance Work Group developed a white paper entitled "Best Practices for Submission of Actionable Food and Feed Testing Data Generated in State and Local Laboratories." The basic elements of a quality management system, along with other best practices that state and local food and feed testing laboratories should follow, are included in the white paper. It also covers program-specific requirements that may need to be addressed. Communication with programs and end data users is regarded as essential for establishing the reliability and accuracy of laboratory data. Following these suggested best practices can facilitate the acceptance of laboratory data, which can result in swift regulatory action and the quick removal of contaminated product from the food supply, improving public health nationally.

  7. Adaptation of locally available portion sizes for food frequency questionnaires in nutritional epidemiological studies: How much difference does it make?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is need for employing strategies to minimize measurement errors while administering semi-quantitative FFQ. The current study was planned to adapt and standardize locally available portion sizes for semi-quantitative FFQ to improve its validity and document the process of standardization of portion sizes. Methodology: The study was conducted in 9 villages of the INCLEN-SOMAARTH DDESS (Demographic, Development and Environmental Surveillance Site, Palwal district, Haryana, India. The subjects in these nine villages are part of a cohort study to assess the interaction between societal and household factors with food intake and physical activity of children. Systematic utensil survey was undertaken in 3 randomly chosen households per village i.e. 27 households and the portion sizes were derived from a total of 74 serving utensils. The derived sizes were classified as small (240 ml, medium (320 ml and large (600 ml. The semi-quantitative FFQ with locally derived portion sizes was then administered to 63 children in 6-12 year age group. Results: The volume of food measured by the reference portion sizes generally being employed in the national surveys, would have been underestimated the food consumed by the child by 55-60% as compared to what was being consumed by the children in the study area. The correlation between food intake assessed by 24-hr recall method and FFQ using derived (local portion sizes was better as compared to that obtained with the semi-quantitative FFQ done with reference portions. Conclusion: In conclusion, local portion size adaptation of FFQ for semi-quantification is useful to mitigate measurement errors associated with this technique.

  8. Redox Enzymes of Red Beetroot Vacuoles (Beta vulgaris L.

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    E.V. Pradedova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Years of research have shown that some of the redox elements (enzymes, coenzymes, and co-substrate are isolated from each other kinetic and spatial manner (compartmentalization in the eukaryotic cells. The redox elements forming the "highly" and "widely" specialized redox system are found in all cell structures: mitochondria, plastids, peroxisomes, apoplast, nucleus etc. In recent years the active involvement of the central vacuole in the maintenance of the plant cell redox homeostasis is discussed, actually the information about the vacuolar redox system is very small. The high-priority redox processes and "redox-specialization" of the vacuolar compartment are not known. We have begun a study of red beet-root vacuole redox systems (Beta vulgaris L. and have identified redox enzymes such as: phenol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7, superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1 and glutathione reductase (EC 1.8.1.7. This paper presents some of the characteristics of these enzymes and considers the probable ways of their functioning in vacuolar redox chains.

  9. Enzymic and protein character of tonoplast from Hippeastrum vacuoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The membrane of anthocyanin containing Hippeastrum petal vacuoles was examined for protein and enzyme content after purification by equilibrium density centrifugation. Light scattering, protein, and a Mg/sup 2 +/ -dependent nucleotide specific ATPase were associated with membrane having a density of 1.08 to 1.12 grams per cubic centimeter. A small amount of acid phosphatase was also present in this region of the gradient, but this activity peaked at about 1.12 grams per cubic centimeter. A component of yeast tonoplast, ..cap alpha..-mannosidase, was not significantly present. UDP-glucose, anthocyanidin-3-O-glucosyltransferase, thought to be a cytosol enzyme in Hippeastrum, was absent from tonoplast of vacuoles isolated by osmotic shock in 0.2 molar K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/ or 0.35 molar mannitol. Vacuolar acid phosphatase was insensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetate but was 80% inhibited by 10 millimolar KF, while ATPase was inactivated by 2 millimolar ethylenediaminetetraacetate and only 50% inhibited by 10 millimolar KF,. Five major and about 9 minor polypeptides were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane protein on 5 to 30 and 6 to 16% gradient gels.

  10. Purification and proteomics of pathogen-modified vacuoles and membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Ana eHerweg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain pathogenic bacteria adopt an intracellular lifestyle and proliferate in eukaryotic host cells. The intracellular niche protects the bacteria from cellular and humoral components of the mammalian immune system, and at the same time, allows the bacteria to gain access to otherwise restricted nutrient sources. Yet, intracellular protection and access to nutrients comes with a price, i.e. the bacteria need to overcome cell-autonomous defense mechanisms, such as the bactericidal endocytic pathway. While a few bacteria rupture the early phagosome and escape into the host cytoplasm, most intracellular pathogens form a distinct, degradation-resistant and replication-permissive membranous compartment. Intracellular bacteria that form unique pathogen vacuoles include Legionella, Mycobacterium, Chlamydia, Simkania and Salmonella species. In order to understand the formation of these pathogen niches on a global scale and in a comprehensive and quantitative manner, an inventory of compartment-associated host factors is required. To this end, the intact pathogen compartments need to be isolated, purified and biochemically characterized. Here, we review recent progress on the isolation and purification of pathogen-modified vacuoles and membranes, as well as their proteomic characterization by mass spectrometry and different validation approaches. These studies provide the basis for further investigations on the specific mechanisms of pathogen-driven compartment formation.

  11. Mitochondrial Extrusion through the cytoplasmic vacuoles during cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Akihito; Kurihara, Hidetake; Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko; Nakano, Hiroyasu

    2008-08-29

    Under various conditions, noxious stimuli damage mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial fragmentation; however, the mechanisms by which fragmented mitochondria are eliminated from the cells remain largely unknown. Here we show that cytoplasmic vacuoles originating from the plasma membrane engulfed fragmented mitochondria and subsequently extruded them into the extracellular spaces in undergoing acute tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell death in a caspase-dependent fashion. Notably, upon fusion of the membrane encapsulating mitochondria to the plasma membrane, naked mitochondria were released into the extracellular spaces in an exocytotic manner. Mitochondrial extrusion was specific to tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell death, because a genotoxic stress-inducing agent such as cisplatin did not elicit mitochondrial extrusion. Moreover, intact actin and tubulin cytoskeletons were required for mitochondrial extrusion as well as membrane blebbing. Furthermore, fragmented mitochondria were engulfed by cytoplasmic vacuoles and extruded from hepatocytes of mice injected with anti-Fas antibody, suggesting that mitochondrial extrusion can be observed in vivo under pathological conditions. Mitochondria are eliminated during erythrocyte maturation under physiological conditions, and anti-mitochondrial antibody is detected in some autoimmune diseases. Thus, elucidating the mechanism underlying mitochondrial extrusion will open a novel avenue leading to better understanding of various diseases caused by mitochondrial malfunction as well as mitochondrial biology.

  12. The Local Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake: A Geographically Weighted Regression Approach in the ORiEL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Christelle; Lewis, Daniel J; Flint, Ellen; Smith, Neil R; Kestens, Yan; Cummins, Steven

    2016-12-01

    Studies that explore associations between the local food environment and diet routinely use global regression models, which assume that relationships are invariant across space, yet such stationarity assumptions have been little tested. We used global and geographically weighted regression models to explore associations between the residential food environment and fruit and vegetable intake. Analyses were performed in 4 boroughs of London, United Kingdom, using data collected between April 2012 and July 2012 from 969 adults in the Olympic Regeneration in East London Study. Exposures were assessed both as absolute densities of healthy and unhealthy outlets, taken separately, and as a relative measure (proportion of total outlets classified as healthy). Overall, local models performed better than global models (lower Akaike information criterion). Locally estimated coefficients varied across space, regardless of the type of exposure measure, although changes of sign were observed only when absolute measures were used. Despite findings from global models showing significant associations between the relative measure and fruit and vegetable intake (β = 0.022; P environment and diet. It further challenges the idea that a single measure of exposure, whether relative or absolute, can reflect the many ways the food environment may shape health behaviors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. χ(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (Pfiber (Pproduction practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (Pproduction practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond Rab GTPases Legionella activates the small GTPase Ran to promote microtubule polymerization, pathogen vacuole motility, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbi, Hubert; Rothmeier, Eva; Hoffmann, Christine; Harrison, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Legionella spp. are amoebae-resistant environmental bacteria that replicate in free-living protozoa in a distinct compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Upon transmission of Legionella pneumophila to the lung, the pathogens employ an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to grow in LCVs within alveolar macrophages, thus triggering a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. LCV formation is a complex and robust process, which requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and involves the amazing number of 300 different translocated effector proteins. LCVs interact with the host cell's endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking pathway. Accordingly, in a proteomics approach as many as 12 small Rab GTPases implicated in endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking were identified and validated as LCV components. Moreover, the small GTPase Ran and its effector protein RanBP1 have been found to decorate the pathogen vacuole. Ran regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, spindle assembly, and cytokinesis, as well as the organization of non-centrosomal microtubules. In L. pneumophila-infected amoebae or macrophages, Ran and RanBP1 localize to LCVs, and the small GTPase is activated by the Icm/Dot substrate LegG1. Ran activation by LegG1 leads to microtubule stabilization and promotes intracellular pathogen vacuole motility and bacterial growth, as well as chemotaxis and migration of Legionella-infected cells.

  15. Glucose alleviates cadmium toxicity by increasing cadmium fixation in root cell wall and sequestration into vacuole in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Zhi Shi; Xiao-Fang Zhu; Jiang-Xue Wan; Gui-Xin Li; Shao-Jian Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Glucose (Glu) is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental events but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we found that the exogenous Glu improved root and shoot growth, reduced shoot cadmium (Cd) concentration, and rescued Cd-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype, Col-0) under Cd stressed conditions. Glucose increased Cd retained in the roots, thus reducing its translocation from root to shoot significantly. The most Cd retained in the roots was found in the hemicellulose 1. Glucose combined with Cd (Glu þ Cd) treatment did not affect the content of pectin and its binding capacity of Cd while it increased the content of hemicelluloses 1 and the amount of Cd retained in it significantly. Furthermore, Leadmium Green staining indicated that more Cd was compartmented into vacuoles in Glu þ Cd treatment compared with Cd treatment alone, which was in accordance with the significant upregulation of the expression of tonoplast-localized metal transporter genes, suggesting that com-partmentation of Cd into vacuoles also contributes to the Glu-alleviated Cd toxicity. Taken together, we demonstrated that Glu-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through increas-ing Cd fixation in the root cell wall and sequestration into the vacuoles.

  16. Small Convenience Stores and the Local Food Environment: An Analysis of Resident Shopping Behavior Using Multilevel Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Ryan Richard; Akhund, Ali; Adjoian, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Local food environments can influence the diet and health of individuals through food availability, proximity to retail stores, pricing, and promotion. This study focused on how small convenience stores, known in New York City as bodegas, influence resident shopping behavior and the food environment. Using a cross-sectional design, 171 bodegas and 2118 shoppers were sampled. Small convenience stores in New York City. Any bodega shopper aged 18+ who purchased food or beverage from a participating store. Data collection consisted of a store assessment, a health and behavior survey given to exiting customers, and a bag check that recorded product information for all customer purchases. Descriptive statistics were generated for bodega store characteristics, shopper demographics, and purchase behavior. Multilevel models were used to assess the influence of product availability, placement, and advertising on consumer purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), water, and fruits and vegetables. Seventy-one percent of participants reported shopping at bodegas five or more times per week, and 35% reported purchasing all or most of their monthly food allotment at bodegas. Model results indicated that lower amounts of available fresh produce were significantly and independently associated with a higher likelihood of SSB purchases. A second, stratified multilevel model showed that the likelihood of purchasing an SSB increased with decreasing varieties of produce when produce was located at the front of the store. No significant effects were found for water placement and beverage advertising. Small convenience stores in New York City are an easily accessible source of foods and beverages. Bodegas may be suitable for interventions designed to improve food choice and diet.

  17. Sustainable supply chain management : The influence of local stakeholder expectations in China's agri-food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Pao T.; Redekop, William; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Multinational food processing corporations are facing rapid growth in emerging markets like China and a concurrent need for sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). These firms attempt to address supply risk and threat to the triple bottom line through managing suppliers and inputs, and at the same time need to overcome the uncertainty raised by the unfamiliar host environment. An exploratory qualitative case study of two multinational food processing corporations in China finds their SSCM...

  18. From famine to food crisis: what history can teach us about local and global subsistence crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaute, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The number of famine prone regions in the world has been shrinking for centuries. It is currently mainly limited to sub-Saharan Africa. Yet the impact of endemic hunger has not declined and the early twenty-first century seems to be faced with a new threat: global subsistence crises. In this essay I question the concepts of famine and food crisis from different analytical angles: historical and contemporary famine research, food regime theory, and peasant studies. I will argue that only a more integrated historical framework of analysis can surpass dualistic interpretations grounded in Eurocentric modernization paradigms. This article successively debates historical and contemporary famine research, the contemporary food regime and the new global food crisis, the lessons from Europe's 'grand escape' from hunger, and the peasantry and 'depeasantization' as central analytical concepts. Dualistic histories of food and famine have been dominating developmentalist stories for too long. This essay shows how a blending of historical and contemporary famine research, food regime theory and new peasant studies can foster a more integrated perspective.

  19. Determinants of GBP recruitment to Toxoplasma gondii vacuoles and the parasitic factors that control it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Virreira Winter

    Full Text Available IFN-γ is a major cytokine that mediates resistance against the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs are strongly induced by IFN-γ. We studied the behavior of murine GBP1 (mGBP1 upon infection with T. gondii in vitro and confirmed that IFN-γ-dependent re-localization of mGBP1 to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV correlates with the virulence type of the parasite. We identified three parasitic factors, ROP16, ROP18, and GRA15 that determine strain-specific accumulation of mGBP1 on the PV. These highly polymorphic proteins are held responsible for a large part of the strain-specific differences in virulence. Therefore, our data suggest that virulence of T. gondii in animals may rely in part on recognition by GBPs. However, phagosomes or vacuoles containing Trypanosoma cruzi did not recruit mGBP1. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed mGBP2, mGBP4, and mGBP5 as binding partners of mGBP1. Indeed, mGBP2 and mGBP5 co-localize with mGBP1 in T. gondii-infected cells. T. gondii thus elicits a cell-autonomous immune response in mice with GBPs involved. Three parasitic virulence factors and unknown IFN-γ-dependent host factors regulate this complex process. Depending on the virulence of the strains involved, numerous GBPs are brought to the PV as part of a large, multimeric structure to combat T. gondii.

  20. A Legionella pneumophila effector protein encoded in a region of genomic plasticity binds to Dot/Icm-modified vacuoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Ninio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. In the environment, L. pneumophila is found in fresh water reservoirs in a large spectrum of environmental conditions, where the bacteria are able to replicate within a variety of protozoan hosts. To survive within eukaryotic cells, L. pneumophila require a type IV secretion system, designated Dot/Icm, that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. In recent years, a number of Dot/Icm substrate proteins have been identified; however, the function of most of these proteins remains unknown, and it is unclear why the bacterium maintains such a large repertoire of effectors to promote its survival. Here we investigate a region of the L. pneumophila chromosome that displays a high degree of plasticity among four sequenced L. pneumophila strains. Analysis of GC content suggests that several genes encoded in this region were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Protein translocation studies establish that this region of genomic plasticity encodes for multiple Dot/Icm effectors. Ectopic expression studies in mammalian cells indicate that one of these substrates, a protein called PieA, has unique effector activities. PieA is an effector that can alter lysosome morphology and associates specifically with vacuoles that support L. pneumophila replication. It was determined that the association of PieA with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila requires modifications to the vacuole mediated by other Dot/Icm effectors. Thus, the localization properties of PieA reveal that the Dot/Icm system has the ability to spatially and temporally control the association of an effector with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila through activities mediated by other effector proteins.

  1. In Vivo Biotinylation of the Toxoplasma Parasitophorous Vacuole Reveals Novel Dense Granule Proteins Important for Parasite Growth and Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadipuram, Santhosh M.; Kim, Elliot W.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Lin, Andrew H.; Bell, Hannah N.; Coppens, Isabelle; Wohlschlegel, James A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that invades host cells and replicates within a unique parasitophorous vacuole. To maintain this intracellular niche, the parasite secretes an array of dense granule proteins (GRAs) into the nascent parasitophorous vacuole. These GRAs are believed to play key roles in vacuolar remodeling, nutrient uptake, and immune evasion while the parasite is replicating within the host cell. Despite the central role of GRAs in the Toxoplasma life cycle, only a subset of these proteins have been identified, and many of their roles have not been fully elucidated. In this report, we utilize the promiscuous biotin ligase BirA* to biotinylate GRA proteins secreted into the vacuole and then identify those proteins by affinity purification and mass spectrometry. Using GRA-BirA* fusion proteins as bait, we have identified a large number of known and candidate GRAs and verified localization of 13 novel GRA proteins by endogenous gene tagging. We proceeded to functionally characterize three related GRAs from this group (GRA38, GRA39, and GRA40) by gene knockout. While Δgra38 and Δgra40 parasites showed no altered phenotype, disruption of GRA39 results in slow-growing parasites that contain striking lipid deposits in the parasitophorous vacuole, suggesting a role in lipid regulation that is important for parasite growth. In addition, parasites lacking GRA39 showed dramatically reduced virulence and a lower tissue cyst burden in vivo. Together, the findings from this work reveal a partial vacuolar proteome of T. gondii and identify a novel GRA that plays a key role in parasite replication and pathogenesis. PMID:27486190

  2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is not a promotor of taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingrui; Chen, Tongsheng

    2009-02-01

    we have previously reported that taxol, a potent anticancer agent, induces caspase-independent cell death and cytoplasmic vacuolization in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells. However, the mechanisms of taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization are poorly understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been reported to be involved in the taxol-induced cell death. Here, we employed confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging to explore the role of ROS in taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization. We found that ROS inhibition by addition of N-acetycysteine (NAC), a total ROS scavenger, did not suppress these vacuolization but instead increased vacuolization. Take together, our results showed that ROS is not a promotor of the taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization.

  3. Simplification of vacuole structure during plant cell death triggered by culture filtrates of Erwinia carotovora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumi Hirakawa; Toshihisa Nomura; Seiichiro Hasezawa; Takumi Higaki

    2015-01-01

    Vacuoles are suggested to play crucial roles in plant defense-related cel death. During programmed cel death, previous live cel imaging studies have observed vacuoles to become simpler in structure and have implicated this simplification as a prelude to the vacuole’s rupture and consequent lysis of the plasma membrane. Here, we examined dynamics of the vacuole in cel cycle-synchronized tobacco BY-2 (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yel ow 2) cel s during cel death induced by application of culture filtrates of Erwinia carotovora. The filtrate induced death in about 90%of the cel s by 24 h. Prior to cel death, vacuole shape simplified and endoplasmic actin filaments disassembled;however, the vacuoles did not rupture until after plasma membrane integrity was lost. Instead of facilitating rupture, the simplification of vacuole structure might play a role in the retrieval of membrane components needed for defense-related cel death.

  4. Co-occurrence of tannin and tannin-less vacuoles in sensitive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Béré, Emile; Lallemand, Magali; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Roblin, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    Vacuoles of different types frequently coexist in the same plant cell, but the duality of the tannin/tannin-less vacuoles observed in Mimosa pudica L. is rare. In this plant, which is characterized by highly motile leaves, the development and original features of the double vacuolar compartment were detailed in primary pulvini from the young to the mature leaf stage. In young pulvini, the differentiation of tannin vacuoles first occurred in the epidermis and progressively spread toward the inner cortex. In motor cells of nonmotile pulvini, tannin deposits first lined the membranes of small vacuole profiles and then formed opaque clusters that joined together to form a large tannin vacuole (TV), the proportion of which in the cell was approximately 45%. At this stage, transparent vacuole profiles were rare and small, but as the parenchyma cells enlarged, these profiles coalesced to form a transparent vacuole with a convexity toward the larger-sized tannin vacuole. When leaf motility began to occur, the two vacuole types reached the same relative proportion (approximately 30%). Finally, in mature cells displaying maximum motility, the large transparent colloidal vacuole (CV) showed a relative proportion increasing to approximately 50%. At this stage, the proportion of the tannin vacuole, occurring in the vicinity of the nucleus, decreased to approximately 10%. The presence of the condensed type of tannins (proanthocyanidins) was proven by detecting their fluorescence under UV light and by specific chemical staining. This dual vacuolar profile was also observed in nonmotile parts of M. pudica (e.g., the petiole and the stem). Additional observations of leaflet pulvini showing more or less rapid movements showed that this double vacuolar structure was present in certain plants (Mimosa spegazzinii and Desmodium gyrans), but absent in others (Albizzia julibrissin, Biophytum sensitivum, and Cassia fasciculata). Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that a

  5. Pengembangan Diversifikasi Produk Pangan Olahan Lokal Bengkulu untuk Menun- jang Ketahanan Pangan Berkelanjutan Development of Bengkulu Local Food Processing Products Diversity to Support Sustainable Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuri Marsigit

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to inventory and identify Bengkulu Local Food Processing Products diversity and the prospect to support sustainable food security. The study was conducted for about 9 months, from March to November 2009 in 10 regencies in Bengkulu Province. Respondents included 107 and met the following criteria: the owners of food home industry, restaurant, catering, cafeteria, and housewives who produce and sell food processing products. The respondents were interviewed using a structure questionnaire and randomly selected as a representation of coastal, downhill and uphill area. Collected data were analyzed descriptively. The results indicated that the raw materials of the products in costal area were dominated by fish and seafood (62.86 %, in downhill area were cereals, tubers and beans (61.11 %, and in uphill area were horticulture. Nutrient contents were dominated by carbohydrates (42.06 %. Majority of food producers had lack of knowledge and application of good manufacturing practices (93.46 %. Some of the products could be recommended to support the improvement of nutritional status for the community (39.25 % and the others were promoted as food packaging products (34.76 %. ABSTRAK Penelitian  ini  bertujuan  untuk  menginventarisir  dan  mengidentifikasi  jenis-jenis  pangan  olahan  lokal  Bengkulu, serta potensinya dalam menunjang ketahanan pangan berkelanjutan. Penelitian dilaksanakan selama lebih kurang8 bulan, yakni mulai Bulan Maret hingga Oktober 2009. Lokasi Penelitian meliputi 10 Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Bengkulu representasi wilayah pesisir, dataran rendah, dan dataran tinggi. Sebanyak 107 responden yang memenuhi kriteria yang ditentukan dijadikan sampel dalam penelitian ini. Data primer dikumpulkan dengan wawancara meng- gunakan kuesioner yang telah dipersiapkan, observasi dan dokumentasi produk. Pengolahan data dilakukan dengan tabulasi silang dan dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil Penelitian

  6. Dot/Icm Effector Translocation by Legionella longbeachae Creates a Replicative Vacuole Similar to That of Legionella pneumophila despite Translocation of Distinct Effector Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rebecca E; Newton, Patrice; Latomanski, Eleanor A; Newton, Hayley J

    2015-10-01

    Legionella organisms are environmental bacteria and accidental human pathogens that can cause severe pneumonia, termed Legionnaires' disease. These bacteria replicate within a pathogen-derived vacuole termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Our understanding of the development and dynamics of this vacuole is based on extensive analysis of Legionella pneumophila. Here, we have characterized the Legionella longbeachae replicative vacuole (longbeachae-LCV) and demonstrated that, despite important genomic differences, key features of the replicative LCV are comparable to those of the LCV of L. pneumophila (pneumophila-LCV). We constructed a Dot/Icm-deficient strain by deleting dotB and demonstrated the inability of this mutant to replicate inside THP-1 cells. L. longbeachae does not enter THP-1 cells as efficiently as L. pneumophila, and this is reflected in the observation that translocation of BlaM-RalFLLO (where RalFLLO is the L. longbeachae homologue of RalF) into THP-1 cells by the L. longbeachae Dot/Icm system is less efficient than that by L. pneumophila. This difference is negated in A549 cells where L. longbeachae and L. pneumophila infect with similar entry dynamics. A β-lactamase assay was employed to demonstrate the translocation of a novel family of proteins, the Rab-like effector (Rle) proteins. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that these proteins enter the host cell during infection and display distinct subcellular localizations, with RleA and RleC present on the longbeachae-LCV. We observed that the host Rab GTPase, Rab1, and the v-SNARE Sec22b are also recruited to the longbeachae-LCV during the early stages of infection, coinciding with the LCV avoiding endocytic maturation. These studies further our understanding of the L. longbeachae replicative vacuole, highlighting phenotypic similarities to the vacuole of L. pneumophila as well as unique aspects of LCV biology.

  7. Detection of lead (pb and aluminum (Al metal as contaminant in food prepared by using locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala in Kosti City, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EI Salah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to assess the quantities of Aluminu m; lead released into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots (Aluminium pots in Kosti market. Seven types of pots (Pistons, Cartels, Kettles, Kettles + trays, Pepsi cans, Atmonia and Steel which is locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala were used. Amount of Al and Pb that leaked into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots were assessed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results were indicated that highly significance amount of Aluminum and lead which were leaked into the food that prepared by locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala.The analysis of urine for 10 selected randomly individuals that used locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala for preparation their food were indicated highly amount of Aluminum and Lead in their urine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12621 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 19-26

  8. Sense of mastery and metabolic risk: moderating role of the local fast-food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; Dubé, Laurette; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark

    2010-04-01

    To test the moderating role of the extent of fast-food restaurants in one's immediate environment in the association between mastery and metabolic risk. Higher sense of mastery (perceived control over one's circumstances) has been associated with better metabolic outcomes. Mastery may be instrumental in resisting unhealthful environmental food cues when these become ubiquitous, resulting in a greater health impact of mastery. Blood samples were obtained from 344 individuals (50% men), aged 18 to 57 years (mean, 34.9 years), sampled from seven census tracts representing the spectrum of census tract-level socioeconomic status and language (French/English) in Montreal. Risk factors based on standards for high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, waist circumference, body mass index, triglycerides, and glycated hemoglobin were summed to obtain a cumulative metabolic risk score. Mastery was self-reported, using a validated scale. The proportion of restaurants classified as fast-food within 500 m of participants' residences was determined, using a geographic information system. Main and interactive effects were tested with Poisson regression, accounting for clustering of observations and participants' age, gender, education, and income. Mastery interacted with fast-food exposure in relation to metabolic risk (p = .03). Higher mastery was significantly associated with lower metabolic risk for participants surrounded by a high proportion of fast food (relative risk, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.84; p restaurants (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.08; p = .37). A positive relationship between mastery and lower metabolic risk was most apparent in environments with higher fast-food exposure.

  9. The Cytoplasm-to-Vacuole Targeting Pathway: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Umekawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From today's perspective, it is obvious that macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy is an important pathway that is connected to a range of developmental and physiological processes. This viewpoint, however, is relatively recent, coinciding with the molecular identification of autophagy-related (Atg components that function as the protein machinery that drives the dynamic membrane events of autophagy. It may be difficult, especially for scientists new to this area of research, to appreciate that the field of autophagy long existed as a “backwater” topic that attracted little interest or attention. Paralleling the development of the autophagy field was the identification and analysis of the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt pathway, the only characterized biosynthetic route that utilizes the Atg proteins. Here, we relate some of the initial history, including some never-before-revealed facts, of the analysis of the Cvt pathway and the convergence of those studies with autophagy.

  10. Pleiotropic actions of Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomoto, Hajime; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori produces a vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, and most virulent H. pylori strains secrete VacA. VacA binds to two types of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP), RPTPalpha and RPTPbeta, on the surface of host cells. VacA bound to RPTPbeta, relocates and concentrates in lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. VacA causes vacuolization, membrane anion-selective channel and pore formation, and disruption of endosomal and lysosomal activity in host cells. Secreted VacA is processed into p33 and p55 fragments. The p55 domain not only plays a role in binding to target cells but also in the formation of oligomeric structures and anionic membrane channels. Oral administration of VacA to wild-type mice, but not to RPTPbeta knockout mice, resulted in gastric ulcers, in agreement with the clinical effect of VacA. VacA with s1/m1 allele has more potent cytotoxic activity in relation to peptic ulcer disease and appears to be associated with human gastric cancer. VacA activates pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, and induces apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway. VacA can disrupt other signal transduction pathways; VacA activates p38 MAPK, enhancing production of IL-8 and PGE(2), and PI3K/Akt, suppressing GSK-3beta activity. VacA has immunomodulatory actions on T cells and other immune cells, possibly contributing to the chronic infection seen with this organism. H. pylori virulence factors including VacA and CagA, which is encoded by cytotoxin-associated gene A, along with host genetic and environmental factors, constitute a complex network to regulate chronic gastric injury and inflammation, which is involved in a multistep process leading to gastric carcinogenesis.

  11. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  12. Evolution of defense against depletion of local food resources in a mechanistic foraging model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsch, Martin; Pen, Ido; Komdeur, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Models of resource defense are usually based on the assumption that individuals fight over the possession of discrete food items. In many territorial species, however, conflicts occur over access to an area in space that contains resources rather than the resources themselves. We investigate under

  13. Xerophiles and other fungi associated with cereal baby foods locally produced in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady A. Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifty samples from five baby food products mainly made of cereal flour(s were analyzed. The moisture contents of these products were between 11.14% and 11.9%, a level below 14.0%, the recommended level for safe storage of cereal grains and their products. The mycological analysis was carried out using the dilution plate method and two isolation media (DG18 for isolation of xerophilic fungi and DRBC for fungi in general. A total of 80 species related to 37 genera in addition to some unidentified fungal and yeast species were recorded on both media from the five products. The products were contaminated abundantly by xerophilic fungi which were occurring in 88% of food samples and accounting for 18.1% of the total CFU as recorded on DG18. The highest contamination level by xerophiles was registered in Mwebaza rice porridge (a component of rice flour and the lowest in Mukuza (a product of maize, soyabean and sorghum flours. 11 xerophilic species were recorded of which Aspergillus and Eurotium (4 species each were the predominant giving rise to 9.1% and 8.9% of the total CFU, with A. wentii, A. candidus, E. cristatum and E. repens were the most contaminating species. Of the fungi recorded other than xerophiles, species of Aspergillus (particularly A. flavus followed by A. niger, Penicillium (P. citrinum, P. oxalicum, Fusarium (F. solani, F. tricinctum, Cladosporium (C. sphaerospermum and yeasts were the most predominant. Contamination of such foods is a matter of health hazard as these foods are for babies. So, the use of fresh, well-dried and uncontaminated flours for production of such foods is recommended.

  14. [Purchase of local foods for school meals in Andalusia, the Canary Islands and the Principality of Asturias (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Panmela; Caballero, Pablo; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen

    2017-08-23

    To explore and compare the characteristics of Primary Education Centres (PEC) in Andalusia, the Canary Islands and the Principality of Asturias depending on whether or not they make local food purchases (LFP) for school meals and to explore the opinion of cafeteria managers about the benefits and challenges of this type of purchase. Information on the characteristics of 186 PECs and opinions of cafeteria managers about the benefits/challenges of LFP was collected through an electronic questionnaire. Data were stratified according to how the products were purchased (LFP: yes/no), and the chi square test was applied. 38.2% of the PECs studied make LFP. This is more frequent in rural areas (51.0 with self-managed cafeterias (80.0%), and their own kitchen (65.5%). These centres have less expensive menus than their peers (69.8%), participate more frequently in healthy eating programmes (81.5%) and purchase more organic food products (65.8%). According to the majority of the participants whose centres engage in LFP, the benefits include: supporting the local economy (97.2%), the offer of fresh foods (97.2%) and environmental sustainability (93.0%). The challenges include: productive capacity of the region (50.7%), the seasonal variation in food production (71.8%), and the lack of support (42.3%) and information from the government (46.5%). The location of the centres, the management of the cafeteria and the availability of a kitchen on site can influence the development of LFP in schools. Government support could help to integrate LFP in schools, improving school meals at a lower economic and environmental cost. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The application of protein concentrates from locally available legumes in the development of weaning foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashakin, J B; Awoyefa, M B; Fürst, P

    1986-12-01

    The effect of mixing different sources of vegetable proteins from legumes in the preparation of infant weaning foods was investigated. Melon, cowpea and soya as sole protein sources or as a mixture were fed to 60 albino rats. A milk powder-based commercial product (Cerelac) was used as control diet. The mixture of the vegetable protein diet compared favorably with the control diet in terms of growth rate, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) and also ensured optimum nitrogen content in liver, kidney and muscle tissues. In contrast the use of individual protein sources failed to support satisfactory growth and were inferior to those in animals fed with the control or mixed diets. It was thus concluded that in the developing countries an application of such a mixture of vegetable proteins may be suitable in the preparation of weaning foods.

  16. Application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point in the local manufacture of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C Jeya K; Xin, Janice Lim Wen

    2014-06-01

    The local manufacture of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) is increasing, and there is a need to develop methods to ensure their safe production. We propose the application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles to achieve this goal. The basic principles of HACCP in the production of RUTFs are outlined. It is concluded that the implementation of an HACCP system in the manufacture of RUTFs is not only feasible but also attainable. The introduction of good manufacturing practices, coupled with an effective HACCP system, will ensure that RUTFs are produced in a cost-effective, safe, and hygienic manner.

  17. Chemical evaluation of multimixes formulated from some local staples for use as complementary foods in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnam, N M

    2000-01-01

    The nutrient compositions of eight multimixes formulated for use as complementary foods from processed soybeans, cowpeas, maize, sorghum, yams, cocoyams, plantains and sweet potatoes were examined. The foods were processed by sprouting, cooking and fermentation. The samples were separately dried and milled to fine flours. A ratio of 65% cereal, 30% legume and 5% starchy staple (65:30:5) calculated on a protein basis was used to formulate the multimixes. The blends were chemically analyzed using standard procedures. The mixtures containing soybeans had higher protein, lipid, energy, crude fiber and calcium levels but lower carbohydrate content than those mixtures without soybean. The protein and energy levels of the multimixes were higher than those of some commercial infant foods (Cerelac, Farex and Nestrum) in Nigeria but were comparable to that of 'soy-ogi'. The multimixes contained fair quantities of calcium and phosphorus and an adequate amount of some of the essential amino acids. Methionine was the most limiting amino acid in all the mixtures. Blending cowpeas with maize produced a higher protein score than blending cowpeas or soybeans with sorghum. The cowpea/maize/sweet potato mixture had the highest protein score.

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi Differentiates and Multiplies within Chimeric Parasitophorous Vacuoles in Macrophages Coinfected with Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Carina Carraro; Ferreira, Éden Ramalho; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Rabinovitch, Michel; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Real, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The trypanosomatids Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi are excellent models for the study of the cell biology of intracellular protozoan infections. After their uptake by mammalian cells, the parasitic protozoan flagellates L. amazonensis and T. cruzi lodge within acidified parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs). However, whereas L. amazonensis develops in spacious, phagolysosome-like PVs that may enclose numerous parasites, T. cruzi is transiently hosted within smaller vacuoles from which it soon escapes to the host cell cytosol. To investigate if parasite-specific vacuoles are required for the survival and differentiation of T. cruzi, we constructed chimeric vacuoles by infection of L. amazonensis amastigote-infected macrophages with T. cruzi epimastigotes (EPIs) or metacyclic trypomastigotes (MTs). These chimeric vacuoles, easily observed by microscopy, allowed the entry and fate of T. cruzi in L. amazonensis PVs to be dynamically recorded by multidimensional imaging of coinfected cells. We found that although T. cruzi EPIs remained motile and conserved their morphology in chimeric vacuoles, T. cruzi MTs differentiated into amastigote-like forms capable of multiplying. These results demonstrate that the large adaptive vacuoles of L. amazonensis are permissive to T. cruzi survival and differentiation and that noninfective EPIs are spared from destruction within the chimeric PVs. We conclude that T. cruzi differentiation can take place in Leishmania-containing vacuoles, suggesting this occurs prior to their escape into the host cell cytosol.

  19. Preparative Procedures Markedly Influence the Appearance and Structural Integrity of Protein Storage Vacuoles in Soybean Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    In legumes, vacuoles serve as the final depository for storage proteins. The protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) of soybean contain electron-transparent globoid regions in which phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) is sequestered. Here, I report the effect of preparative procedures o...

  20. A Framework for Using Rural Markets to Analyze Local Food Shortage Resilience and Mitigation Potential in sub-Saharan Africa based on Evidence from Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, M. J.; Baylis, K.; Evans, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to have negative impacts on agriculture and food security in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Regional and temporal climate variability will disburse these effects, creating opportunities to mitigate food shortages through well-studied international, regional, and national food flows and associated food prices. However, most food products consumed and traded by rural smallhold farmers rely on local market exchanges that take place outside the scope of prevalent regional and national market analysis. There is little empirical evidence on these rural markets outside of their potential for smallholder agribusiness. However, they offer an unopened window into local food supply and the nuances of food movements in rural areas. Our research explores how to analyze the cost and availability of food products in rural markets and their connection with each other, as well as with nearby households' food security. This new approach of using food markets as a unit of analysis necessitates a new framework that groups markets based on a hierarchy of variables relevant to their role as food movers and suppliers. In our research, we collected price and source data for 22 commodities bought and sold within 52 rural markets in 12 districts spatially distributed throughout Zambia. We continue to collect data via phone interviews with 206 traders and market managers within these markets each month. We used this data to develop a typology of stationary rural food markets based on their size in terms of traders and buyers, the diversity of commodities available year-round and seasonally, their price transmission with other markets, and their trading scheme and governance. The result is a dynamic framework with varying weights on each variable that classifies which characteristic of markets under which conditions increase their potential for local food shortage resilience and mitigation. We also allocate for commodity-specific scenarios to allow for modeling

  1. Local descriptive body weight and dietary norms, food availability, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Niyonsenga, Theo; Daniel, Mark

    2017-02-02

    Individual-level health outcomes are shaped by environmental risk conditions. Norms figure prominently in socio-behavioural theories yet spatial variations in health-related norms have rarely been investigated as environmental risk conditions. This study assessed: 1) the contributions of local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and dietary behaviour to 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), accounting for food resource availability; and 2) whether associations between local descriptive norms and HbA1c were moderated by food resource availability. HbA1c, representing cardiometabolic risk, was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Residential environmental exposures were defined using 1600 m participant-centred road-network buffers. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake (proportion of residents with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) [n = 1890] or fruit intake of descriptive norm and either fast-food or healthful food resource availability, with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status). Interactions between local descriptive norms and food resource availability were tested. HbA1c concentration rose over time. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake predicted greater rates of increase in HbA1c. Neither fast-food nor healthful food resource availability were associated with change in HbA1c. Greater healthful food resource availability reduced the rate of increase in HbA1c concentration attributed to the overweight/obesity norm. Local descriptive health-related norms, not food resource availability, predicted 10-year change in HbA1c. Null findings for food resource availability may reflect a sufficiency or minimum threshold level of resources such that availability poses no barrier to obtaining healthful or

  2. The nature of human sperm head vacuoles: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitrelle, Florence; Guthauser, Bruno; Alter, Laura; Bailly, Marc; Wainer, Robert; Vialard, François; Albert, Martine; Selva, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) involves the use of differential interference contrast microscopy (also called Nomarski contrast) at high magnification (at least 6300x) to improve the observation of live human spermatozoa. In fact, this technique evidences sperm head vacuoles that are not necessarily seen at lower magnifications - particularly if the vacuoles are small (i.e. occupying nature. In an attempt to clarify this debate, we performed a systematic literature review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The PubMed database was searched from 2001 onwards with the terms "MSOME", "human sperm vacuoles", "high-magnification, sperm". Out of 180 search results, 21 relevant English-language publications on the nature of human sperm head vacuoles were finally selected and reviewed. Our review of the literature prompted us to conclude that sperm-head vacuoles are nuclear in nature and are related to chromatin condensation failure and (in some cases) sperm DNA damage.

  3. Early cytoplasmic vacuolization of African green monkey kidney cells by SV40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, T; Kitahara, T

    1975-01-01

    As early as 3--4 hours after infection with SV40 at a high input multiplicity, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cells developed cytoplasmic vacuolization. At 10--20 hours after infection, the vacuolization reached its maximal level, then disappeared and SV40 specific cytopathic change followed. This vacuolization developed before the synthesis of the specific T and V antigens. This early cytoplasmic vacuolization (ECV) was prevented by preincubating the virus with specific antiserum, or by heating the virus with MgCl2. The ECV could be induced by UV-irradiated SV40. Addition of metabolic inhibitors had no effect on the induction of the ECV. These results suggest that the capacity to induce the ECV resides in a structural component(s) of SV40 virion and the vacuolization is not associated with the replication of SV40.

  4. Early cytoplasmic vacuolization of African green monkey kidney cells by SV40. [uv radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamura, T.; Kitahara, T.

    1975-01-01

    As early as 3 to 4 hours after infection with SV 40 at a high input multiplicity, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cells developed cytoplasmic vacuolization. At 10 to 20 hours after infection, the vacuolization reached its maximal level, then disappeared and SV 40 specific cytopathic change followed. This vacuolization developed before the synthesis of the specific T and V antigens. This early cytoplasmic vacuolization (ECV) was prevented by pre-incubating the virus with specific antiserum, or by heating the virus with MgCl/sub 2/. The ECV could be induced by uv-irradiated SV 40. Addition of metabolic inhibitors had no effect on the induction of the ECV. These results suggest that the capacity to induce the ECV resides in a structural component(s) of SV 40 virion and the vacuolization is not associated with the replication of SV 40.

  5. Motile tubular vacuoles in extramatrical mycelium and sheath hyphae of ectomycorrhizal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, W G; Ashford, A E

    2001-01-01

    Extramatrical mycelium and outer hyphae of the sheath of Eucalyptus pilularis-Pisolithus tinctorius mycorrhizas contain abundant motile tubular vacuoles which accumulate the carboxyfluorescein analogue Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid. The fluorochrome accumulates in a system of small vacuoles, tubules, and larger vacuoles, which are interlinked, motile, and pleiomorphic, in external hyphae, cords, and hyphae of the outer sheath. There is often a difference in fluorescence between two neighbouring cells, indicating that the dolipore septum exercises control on the movement of material between cells. Generally the motile tubular vacuole system in mycorrhizas resembles that previously found in isolated mycelium. The majority of fungal cells in the sheath contain no fluorochrome even after long exposure of the mycorrhiza to the solution, but with differential interference optics the cells are clearly seen to be alive and to contain vacuoles resembling those in the outer hyphae. In translocation experiments, long-distance transport of the fluorochrome is slow and slight, or even nonexistent in some cases.

  6. Enhancing Linkages Between Healthy Diets, Local Agriculture, and Sustainable Food Systems: The School Meals Planner Package in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi; Galloway, Rae; Gelli, Aulo; Mumuni, Daniel; Hamdani, Salha; Kiamba, Josephine; Quarshie, Kate; Bhatia, Rita; Aurino, Elisabetta; Peel, Francis; Drake, Lesley

    2016-12-01

    Interventions that enhance linkages between healthy diets and local agriculture can promote sustainable food systems. Home-grown school feeding programs present a promising entry point for such interventions, through the delivery of nutritious menus and meals. To describe the adaptation of the School Meals Planner Package to the programmatic and environmental reality in Ghana during the 2014 to 2015 school year. Guided by a conceptual framework highlighting key considerations and trade-offs in menu design, an open-source software was developed that could be easily understood by program implementers. Readily available containers from markets were calibrated into "handy measures" to support the provision of adequate quantities of food indicated by menus. Schools and communities were sensitized to the benefits of locally sourced, nutrient-rich diets. A behavior change communication campaign including posters and songs promoting healthy diets was designed and disseminated in schools and communities. The School Meals Planner Package was introduced in 42 districts in Ghana, reaching more than 320 000 children. Monitoring reports and feedback on its use were positive, demonstrating how the tool can be used by planners and implementers alike to deliver nutritious, locally-sourced meals to schoolchildren. The value of the tool has been recognized at the highest levels by Ghana's government who have adopted it as official policy. The School Meals Planner Package supported the design of nutritious, locally sourced menus for the school feeding program in Ghana. The tool can be similarly adapted for other countries to meet context-specific needs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Organelle Size Scaling of the Budding Yeast Vacuole by Relative Growth and Inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee-Hung M; Reyes, Lorena; Sohail, Saba M; Tran, Nancy K; Marshall, Wallace F

    2016-05-09

    It has long been noted that larger animals have larger organs compared to smaller animals of the same species, a phenomenon termed scaling [1]. Julian Huxley proposed an appealingly simple model of "relative growth"-in which an organ and the whole body grow with their own intrinsic rates [2]-that was invoked to explain scaling in organs from fiddler crab claws to human brains. Because organ size is regulated by complex, unpredictable pathways [3], it remains unclear whether scaling requires feedback mechanisms to regulate organ growth in response to organ or body size. The molecular pathways governing organelle biogenesis are simpler than organogenesis, and therefore organelle size scaling in the cell provides a more tractable case for testing Huxley's model. We ask the question: is it possible for organelle size scaling to arise if organelle growth is independent of organelle or cell size? Using the yeast vacuole as a model, we tested whether mutants defective in vacuole inheritance, vac8Δ and vac17Δ, tune vacuole biogenesis in response to perturbations in vacuole size. In vac8Δ/vac17Δ, vacuole scaling increases with the replicative age of the cell. Furthermore, vac8Δ/vac17Δ cells continued generating vacuole at roughly constant rates even when they had significantly larger vacuoles compared to wild-type. With support from computational modeling, these results suggest there is no feedback between vacuole biogenesis rates and vacuole or cell size. Rather, size scaling is determined by the relative growth rates of the vacuole and the cell, thus representing a cellular version of Huxley's model.

  8. Sea lamprey carcasses exert local and variable food web effects in a nutrient-limited Atlantic coastal stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Daniel M.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Resource flows from adjacent ecosystems are critical in maintaining structure and function of freshwater food webs. Migrating sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) deliver a pulsed marine-derived nutrient subsidy to rivers in spring when the metabolic demand of producers and consumers are increasing. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of these nutrient subsidies are not well characterized. We used sea lamprey carcass additions in a small stream to examine changes in nutrients, primary productivity, and nutrient assimilation among consumers. Algal biomass increased 57%–71% immediately adjacent to carcasses; however, broader spatial changes from multiple-site carcass addition may have been influenced by canopy cover. We detected assimilation of nutrients (via δ13C and δ15N) among several macroinvertebrate families including Heptageniidae, Hydropsychidae, and Perlidae. Our research suggests that subsidies may evoke localized patch-scale effects on food webs, and the pathways of assimilation in streams are likely coupled to adjacent terrestrial systems. This research underscores the importance of connectivity in streams, which may influence sea lamprey spawning and elicit varying food web responses from carcass subsidies due to fine-scale habitat variables.

  9. Local agriculture traditional knowledge to avoid erosion in a changing climate: Ensuring agricultural livelihoods and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe Rivera Ferré, Marta; Di Masso, Marina; Vara, Isabel; Mailhost, Mara; Bhatta, Goppal; Cuellar, Mamem; López-i-Gelats, Feliu; Gallar, Donald

    2015-04-01

    In the regions that experience substantial climatic risks, considerable traditional expertise exists that is underutilized and that could be valuable as a starting point to build more effective strategies for adapting to climate change and ensure food availability. Some of these are agronomic strategies for soil conservation targeting erosion avoidance as a form to ensure soil fertility and thus, crop production and food availability. Following an extensive literature review in the Indogangetic Plans, we have identified many different practices derived from local traditional knowledge that can be classified as i) Reshaping the landscape (terracing, bunding, efficient distribution of land uses); ii) Stream diversion to reduce flood impact (channels along the edges of the fields, embankments, dams, network of ponds, outlets, walls and fencing); and iii) Others (agroforesty, use of specific trees as indicators of soil erosion, crop-fallow rotation, preservation of patches of forests, reforestation, collective management of forests). These endogenous-based practices have a great potential for adaptation since they are more easily adopted by communities, they require of minimum or not external expertise and aid, and usually, are cheaper than other strategies. A combination of local knowledge with other scientific knowledge may be the most effective way to face climate change. This work was performed as part of the CCAFS-Program of the CGIAR in South Asia.

  10. Role of endodermal cell vacuoles in shoot gravitropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takehide; Morita, Miyo Terao; Tasaka, Masao

    2002-06-01

    In higher plants, shoots and roots show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. Data from surgical ablation experiments and analysis of starch deficient mutants have led to the suggestion that columella cells in the root cap function as gravity perception cells. On the other hand, endodermal cells are believed to be the statocytes (that is, gravity perceiving cells) of shoots. Statocytes in shoots and roots commonly contain amyloplasts which sediment under gravity. Through genetic research with Arabidopsis shoot gravitropism mutants, sgr1/scr and sgr7/shr, it was determined that endodermal cells are essential for shoot gravitropism. Moreover, some starch biosynthesis genes and EAL1 are important for the formation and maturation of amyloplasts in shoot endodermis. Thus, amyloplasts in the shoot endodermis would function as statoliths, just as in roots. The study of the sgr2 and zig/sgr4 mutants provides new insights into the early steps of shoot gravitropism, which still remains unclear. SGR2 and ZIG/SGR4 genes encode a phospholipase-like and a v-SNARE protein, respectively. Moreover, these genes are involved in vacuolar formation or function. Thus, the vacuole must play an important role in amyloplast sedimentation because the sgr2 and zig/sgr4 mutants display abnormal amyloplast sedimentation.

  11. Possible Involvement of the Local Renin-Angiotensin System in Exocrine Pancreas Responses to Food Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas is strictly co-ordinated through an interdependent array of neural and endocrine, paracrine and autocrine hormonal factors. The responses of the exocrine pancreas to food are primarily initiated via hormones secreted by neuroendocrine cells in the gut. No role for the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system in these mechanisms has so far been established. However, because of its distribution throughout the pancreas, the renin-angiotensin system could have a function in fine-tuning of secretory responses or in integrating some of the actions of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. In the normal diet, we are exposed to an array of bioactive (lectins, protease inhibitors, hormone-mimics, tannins, etc. Some can profoundly alter pancreas metabolism both in a beneficial or detrimental manner. Others could have beneficial effects on the pancreas renin-angiotensin system. The effects of these compounds need to be evaluated.

  12. Phytochelatin-metal(loid) transport into vacuoles shows different substrate preferences in barley and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Yong; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Lee, Youngsook; Schroeder, Julian I; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Wicker, Thomas; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are toxic to all living organisms, including plants and humans. In plants, Cd and As are detoxified by phytochelatins (PCs) and metal(loid)-chelating peptides and by sequestering PC-metal(loid) complexes in vacuoles. Consistent differences have been observed between As and Cd detoxification. Whereas chelation of Cd by PCs is largely sufficient to detoxify Cd, As-PC complexes must be sequestered into vacuoles to be fully detoxified. It is not clear whether this difference in detoxification pathways is ubiquitous among plants or varies across species. Here, we have conducted a PC transport study using vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis and barley. Arabidopsis vacuoles accumulated low levels of PC2 -Cd, and vesicles from yeast cells expressing either AtABCC1 or AtABCC2 exhibited negligible PC2 -Cd transport activity compared with PC2 -As. In contrast, barley vacuoles readily accumulated comparable levels of PC2 -Cd and PC2 -As. PC transport in barley vacuoles was inhibited by vanadate, but not by ammonium, suggesting the involvement of ABC-type transporters. Interestingly, barley vacuoles exhibited enhanced PC2 transport activity when essential metal ions, such as Zn(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II), were added to the transport assay, suggesting that PCs might contribute to the homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification of non-essential toxic metal(loid)s.

  13. The Water to Solute Permeability Ratio Governs the Osmotic Volume Dynamics in Beetroot Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Victoria; Sutka, Moira; Amodeo, Gabriela; Chara, Osvaldo; Ozu, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf) is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous) osmolality change occurs. When aquaporins are present, it is accepted that initial volume changes are only due to water movements. However, in living cells osmotic changes are not necessarily abrupt but gradually imposed. Under these conditions, water flux might not be the only relevant driving force shaping the vacuole volume response. In this study, we quantitatively investigated volume dynamics of isolated Beta vulgaris root vacuoles under progressively applied osmotic gradients at different pH, a condition that modifies the tonoplast Pf. We followed the vacuole volume changes while simultaneously determining the external osmolality time-courses and analyzing these data with mathematical modeling. Our findings indicate that vacuole volume changes, under progressively applied osmotic gradients, would not depend on the membrane elastic properties, nor on the non-osmotic volume of the vacuole, but on water and solute fluxes across the tonoplast. We found that the volume of the vacuole at the steady state is determined by the ratio of water to solute permeabilites (Pf/Ps), which in turn is ruled by pH. The dependence of the permeability ratio on pH can be interpreted in terms of the degree of aquaporin inhibition and the consequently solute transport modulation. This is relevant in many plant organs such as root, leaves, cotyledons, or stems that perform extensive rhythmic growth movements

  14. The water to solute permeability ratio governs the osmotic volume dynamics in beetroot vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vitali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous osmolality change occurs. When aquaporins are present, it is accepted that initial volume changes are only due to water movements. However, in living cells osmotic changes are not necessarily abrupt but gradually imposed. Under these conditions, water flux might not be the only relevant driving force shaping the vacuole volume response. In this study, we quantitatively investigated volume dynamics of isolated Beta vulgaris root vacuoles under progressively applied osmotic gradients at different pH, a condition that modifies the tonoplast Pf. We followed the vacuole volume changes while simultaneously determining the external osmolality time-courses and analyzing these data with mathematical modelling. Our findings indicate that vacuole volume changes, under progressively applied osmotic gradients, would not depend on the membrane elastic properties, nor on the non-osmotic volume of the vacuole, but on water and solute fluxes across the tonoplast. We found that the volume of the vacuole at the steady state is determined by the ratio of water to solute permeabilites (Pf/Ps, which in turn is ruled by pH. The dependence of the permeability ratio on pH can be interpreted in terms of the degree of aquaporin inhibition and the consequently solute transport modulation. This is relevant in many plant organs such as root, leaves, cotyledons or stems that perform extensive rhythmic

  15. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  16. 76 FR 33307 - Strengthen and Promote the Role of Local Health Departments in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... support of a cooperative agreement between the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) and.... Salsbury, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-320), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint...

  17. Content and vacuole extravacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanin in protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1979-07-01

    Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. ..gamma..-methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal and vacuole organic acids indicated the presence of oxalic, malic, citric, and isocitric acids. Data are presented which indicate that vacuoles obtained by gentle osmotic shock of protoplasts in dibasic phosphate have good purity and retain their contents.

  18. Healthy gardens/healthy lives: Navajo perceptions of growing food locally to prevent diabetes and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Kevin A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Ornelas, India J; Topaha, Carmelita; Becenti, Tonia; Thomas, Dustin; Vela, Jaime G

    2014-03-01

    Poor access to nutritious foods, departure from traditional diets, and reduced physical activity are associated with a rise in type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancers among the Navajo. Diabetes in particular is of concern because of its increased prevalence among Navajo youth. Gardening can successfully address issues of poor availability of fruits and vegetables and offer many other social and health benefits. Our assessment aimed to determine Navajo attitudes about gardening and health in San Juan County, New Mexico. We conducted seven focus groups (including 31 people) to assess knowledge and attitudes related to gardening and uncover barriers and facilitators to participation in a garden project. Each group session was moderated by two Navajo students. Transcripts revealed that many Navajo are aware of adverse health issues that occur on the reservation, predominantly obesity and diabetes. Participants expressed a preference for educational approaches that incorporated cultural traditions, respect for elders, use of visual aids, and experiential learning. Several social and agronomic barriers to gardening were also mentioned. Results suggested a broad interest in promoting gardening especially to reduce the risk of diabetes with the added value of enhancing social capital in Navajo communities.

  19. Biomonitoring of trace metal contamination in the Potengi estuary, Natal (Brazil), using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae, a local food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A; Rainbow, P S; Smith, B D; Santos, Z L

    2001-12-01

    The oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae was collected in September 1997 from 10 stations along the Potengi estuary, Natal, Brazil, a mangrove-lined estuary receiving anthropogenic inputs of trace metals. C. rhizophorae is a net accumulator of trace metals and can be used as a biomonitor, the accumulated soft tissue concentrations representing integrated records of bioavailable metal fractions over the life of the oyster. Significant differences in oyster accumulated concentrations (and hence bioavailabilities) of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni and Ag (but not Mn) were found between stations, and attributed to anthropogenic inputs including discharges of sewage and industrial effluent. The oysters are also a local food source, and concentrations of zinc, copper and lead in some of the oysters are above typical public health recommended limits.

  20. Mismatch in microbial food webs: predators but not prey perform better in their local biotic and abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parain, Elodie C; Gravel, Dominique; Rohr, Rudolf P; Bersier, Louis-Félix; Gray, Sarah M

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how trophic levels respond to changes in abiotic and biotic conditions is key for predicting how food webs will react to environmental perturbations. Different trophic levels may respond disproportionately to change, with lower levels more likely to react faster, as they typically consist of smaller-bodied species with higher reproductive rates. This response could cause a mismatch between trophic levels, in which predators and prey will respond differently to changing abiotic or biotic conditions. This mismatch between trophic levels could result in altered top-down and bottom-up control and changes in interaction strength. To determine the possibility of a mismatch, we conducted a reciprocal-transplant experiment involving Sarracenia purpurea food webs consisting of bacterial communities as prey and a subset of six morphologically similar protozoans as predators. We used a factorial design with four temperatures, four bacteria and protozoan biogeographic origins, replicated four times. This design allowed us to determine how predator and prey dynamics were altered by abiotic (temperature) conditions and biotic (predators paired with prey from either their local or non-local biogeographic origin) conditions. We found that prey reached higher densities in warmer temperature regardless of their temperature of origin. Conversely, predators achieved higher densities in the temperature condition and with the prey from their origin. These results confirm that predators perform better in abiotic and biotic conditions of their origin while their prey do not. This mismatch between trophic levels may be especially significant under climate change, potentially disrupting ecosystem functioning by disproportionately affecting top-down and bottom-up control.

  1. Hyper-real territories and urban markets: changing conventions for local food – case studies from France and Norway –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Fort

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Fondé sur deux types de données différentes et complémentaires, cet article propose de comparer des conventions sur lesquelles reposent les produits locaux et localisés, à travers une analyse comparée de la façon dont le concept de local est perçu en France et en Norvège à travers les signes de qualité des produits d’une origine donnée. Le consommateur étant l’objet premier des campagnes de marketing, après une rapide présentation des cadres institutionnels dans les deux pays, nous nous intéresserons dans un premier temps à la façon dont l’idée de local est présentée dans les réclames concernant les produits. Dans un second temps nous présenterons la perception du local dans les interviews approfondies réalisées auprès de consommateurs de produits choisis en France et en Norvège. Finalement nous interpréterons les conceptions que les consommateurs ont des produits locaux dans une perspective inspirée des mondes possibles de production de Salais et Storper et du concept d’hyper-réalité développé par Baudrillard. Cette approche met en valeur l’importance et la nature dynamique des conventions de qualité locale ainsi que la nécessité de reconsidérer les terminologies courantes, comme proximité ou local, dont la pluralité reflète la tension inhérente entre identité locale rurale et existence urbaine.Based on case studies in France and Norway, this article compares the conventions of local foods through an analysis of the meanings and representations of Signs of Identification of Quality and Origin (SIQO in institutional frameworks, marketing claims and consumer perceptions. Because consumers are the ultimate target of most marketing campaigns, we investigated the ways in which advertisements convey the idea of ‘local’ to the consumer. We then analysed consumer conceptions of two currently popular local cheeses, chosen to highlight differences and similarities between the two countries

  2. Analysis of nutritional adequacy of local foods for meeting dietary requirements of children aged 6-23 months in rural central Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jofrey; Agaba, Morris; Mollay, Clara; Rose, Jerman W; Kassim, Neema

    2017-01-01

    Under nutrition remains a serious problem among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Analysing how diets composed of local foods could achieve nutritional goals for infants and young children in low-income settings is essential. The objective of this study was to analyse how local foods can be used rationally and to what extent these foods can be supplemented to achieve nutrient requirements for children aged 6 - 23 months in resource-poor settings. A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate dietary intakes of 400 children aged 6-23 months using a 12-h weighed dietary record, 24-h dietary recalls, and 7-days food records. Anthropometric measurements on each subject were also taken. Analyses were done to establish the level of nutrient intake, and nutritional status of the study population using Microsoft Excel 2013 and ProPAN software version 2.0. The results showed that the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight for children aged 6-23 months was 30-41%, 1.5-3% and 4-9%, respectively. In addition, the results showed that diets that were consumed by the subjects comprised of local foods met vitamin A, vitamin C, protein and energy requirements for children aged 6-23 months. However, the extent of deficit in iron, zinc and calcium in baseline diets was large and difficult to meet under the existing feeding practices. The study shows that local foods in the study area have a potential to achieve recommended dietary intakes of some essential nutrients, and that interventions are needed to meet the required amount of iron, zinc and calcium for children aged 6-23 months. The interventions we propose here may encourage changes in traditional feeding habits and practices of the target population. Possible intervention options are (1) supplementation of local foods with nutrient-dense foods that are not normally consumed in the locality (2) providing new avenues for increasing the production and wide consumption of local nutrient-dense foods, or optimizing

  3. A soluble acid invertase is directed to the vacuole by a signal anchor mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Anne L; Casu, Rosanne E; Perroux, Jai M; Jackson, Mark A; Grof, Christopher P L

    2011-06-15

    Enzyme activities in the vacuole have an important impact on the net concentration of sucrose. In sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid), immunolabelling demonstrated that a soluble acid invertase (β-fructofuranosidase; EC 3.2.1.26) is present in the vacuole of storage parenchyma cells during sucrose accumulation. Examination of sequences from sugarcane, barley and rice showed that the N-terminus of the invertase sequence contains a signal anchor and a tyrosine motif, characteristic of single-pass membrane proteins destined for lysosomal compartments. The N-terminal peptide from the barley invertase was shown to be capable of directing the green fluorescent protein to the vacuole in sugarcane cells. The results suggest that soluble acid invertase is sorted to the vacuole in a membrane-bound form.

  4. Characterization of the anion sensitive ATPase in intact vacuoles of Kalanchoe diagremontiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobza, J.; Uribe, E.G.

    1986-04-01

    A method for the isolation of intact vacuoles from K. daigremontiana was developed which produced high yields of relatively pure vacuoles as determined by marker enzyme contamination. Upon isolation, the vacuoles were stabilized by the inclusion of 5% (w/v) ficoll. Enzyme activity was insensitive to vanadate and azide but was strongly inhibited by DCCD. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the inclusion of Mg/sup 2 +/ and was stimulated by anions as depicted by the series, NO/sub 3//sup -/ < Br/sup -/ < SO/sub 4//sup -/ < HCO/sub 3//sup -/ < Cl/sup -/. It was found that in intact vacuoles the ATPase activity was stimulated by phosphate to a level equivalent to that found with the chloride. The enzyme exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km for Mg-ATP complex of 0.51 mM.

  5. Oculopharyngeal Weakness, Hypophrenia, Deafness, and Impaired Vision: A Novel Autosomal Dominant Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We reported a novel autosomal dominant myopathy with rimmed vacuoles characterized by dysarthria, dysphagia, external ophthalmoplegia, limb weakness, hypophrenia, deafness, and impaired vision, but the causative gene has not been found and needs further study.

  6. Active vacuolar H+ ATPase and functional cycle of Rab5 are required for the vacuolation defect triggered by PtdIns(3,5)P2 loss under PIKfyve or Vps34 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Lauren M; Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Garg, Puneet; Shisheva, Assia

    2016-09-01

    The two evolutionarily conserved mammalian lipid kinases Vps34 and PIKfyve are involved in an important physiological relationship, whereby the former produces phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3P that is used as a substrate for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis by the latter. Reduced production of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in proliferating mammalian cells is phenotypically manifested by the formation of multiple translucent cytoplasmic vacuoles, readily rescued upon exogenous delivery of PtdIns(3,5)P2 or overproduction of PIKfyve. Although the aberrant vacuolation phenomenon has been frequently used as a sensitive functional measure of localized PtdIns(3,5)P2 reduction, cellular factors governing the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles under PtdIns3P-PtdIns(3,5)P2 loss remain elusive. To gain further mechanistic insight about the vacuolation process following PtdIns(3,5)P2 reduction, in this study we sought for cellular mechanisms required for manifestation of the aberrant endomembrane vacuoles triggered by PIKfyve or Vps34 dysfunction. The latter was achieved by various means such as pharmacological inhibition, gene disruption, or dominant-interference in several proliferating mammalian cell types. We report here that inhibition of V-ATPase with bafilomycin A1 as well as inactivation of the GTP-GDP cycle of Rab5a GTPase phenotypically rescued or completely precluded the cytoplasmic vacuolization despite the continued presence of inactivated PIKfyve or Vps34. Bafilomycin A1 also restored the aberrant EEA1-positive endosomes, enlarged upon short PIKfyve inhibition with YM201636. Together, our work identifies for the first time that factors such as active V-ATPase or functional Rab5a cycle are acting coincidentally with the PtdIns(3,5)P2 reduction in triggering formation of aberrant cytoplasmic vacuoles under PIKfyve or Vps34 dysfunction.

  7. Assessing local water quality in Saudi Arabia and its impact on food safety

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.

  8. Enhanced Membrane Fusion in Sterol-enriched Vacuoles Bypasses the Vrp1p RequirementD⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Tedrick, Kelly; Trischuk, Tim; Lehner, Richard; Eitzen, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Organization of lipids into membrane microdomains is a vital mechanism of protein processing. Here we show that overexpression of ERG6, a gene involved in ergosterol synthesis, elevates sterol levels 1.5-fold on the vacuole membrane and enhances their homotypic fusion. The mechanism of sterol-enhanced fusion is not via more efficient sorting, but instead promotes increased kinetics of fusion subreactions. We initially isolated ERG6 as a suppressor of a vrp1Δ growth defect selective for vacuol...

  9. Enhanced Membrane Fusion in Sterol-enriched Vacuoles Bypasses the Vrp1p RequirementD⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Tedrick, Kelly; Trischuk, Tim; Lehner, Richard; Eitzen, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Organization of lipids into membrane microdomains is a vital mechanism of protein processing. Here we show that overexpression of ERG6, a gene involved in ergosterol synthesis, elevates sterol levels 1.5-fold on the vacuole membrane and enhances their homotypic fusion. The mechanism of sterol-enhanced fusion is not via more efficient sorting, but instead promotes increased kinetics of fusion subreactions. We initially isolated ERG6 as a suppressor of a vrp1Δ growth defect selective for vacuol...

  10. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval: vismodegib for recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Michael; Liu, Ke; Jiang, Xiaoping; He, Kun; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Hong; Kufrin, Dubravka; Palmby, Todd; Dong, Zedong; Russell, Anne Marie; Miksinski, Sarah; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The data and regulatory considerations leading to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) January 30, 2012 approval of Erivedge (vismodegib) capsules for the treatment of patients with recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are described. The FDA's approval decision was based primarily on the results observed in a single-arm, parallel cohort, international trial of vismodegib, administered orally at 150 mg daily until disease progression, in patients with pathologically confirmed, recurrent, locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (laBCC) or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (mBCC). An independent review committee confirmed an overall response rate (ORR) of 30.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.6-48.2] in 33 patients with mBCC and an ORR of 42.9% (95% CI: 30.5-56.0) in 63 patients with laBCC; median response durations were 7.6 months and 7.6 months for patients with mBCC and laBCC, respectively. The most common adverse reactions were muscle spasms, alopecia, dysgeusia, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, constipation, cough, arthralgias, vomiting, headache, ageusia, insomnia, and upper respiratory tract infection. Animal toxicology studies confirmed that vismodegib is a potent teratogenic agent. Approval was based on durable objective tumor responses supported by knowledge of the pathologic role of Hedgehog signaling in BCC and acceptable toxicity in a population without effective alternative therapies.

  11. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident.

  12. Rab GTPases and the Autophagy Pathway: Bacterial Targets for a Suitable Biogenesis and Trafficking of Their Own Vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Milagros López de Armentia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular process that comprises degradation of damaged organelles, protein aggregates and intracellular pathogens, having an important role in controlling the fate of invading microorganisms. Intracellular pathogens are internalized by professional and non-professional phagocytes, localizing in compartments called phagosomes. To degrade the internalized microorganism, the microbial phagosome matures by fusion events with early and late endosomal compartments and lysosomes, a process that is regulated by Rab GTPases. Interestingly, in order to survive and replicate in the phagosome, some pathogens employ different strategies to manipulate vesicular traffic, inhibiting phagolysosomal biogenesis (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis or surviving in acidic compartments and forming replicative vacuoles (e.g., Coxiella burnetti and Legionella pneumophila. The bacteria described in this review often use secretion systems to control the host’s response and thus disseminate. To date, eight types of secretion systems (Type I to Type VIII are known. Some of these systems are used by bacteria to translocate pathogenic proteins into the host cell and regulate replicative vacuole formation, apoptosis, cytokine responses, and autophagy. Herein, we have focused on how bacteria manipulate small Rab GTPases to control many of these processes. The growing knowledge in this field may facilitate the development of new treatments or contribute to the prevention of these types of bacterial infections.

  13. Local resources, foreign influences, value creation, tradition and modernity. The case of a Local Agro-food System in Jämtland, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rytkönen, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980’s collective action was initiated with the purpose of saving the remnants of traditional livestock farming in Jämtland. This led to the articulation of a local agro-food system (LAFS that managed to commercialize important elements of traditional agriculture by adding elements of modernity. Farm diversification was an important strategy that led to the forward integration of farms that includes the start of small scale farm dairies, farm cafes, direct sales, at the farm, through markets and other local channels, B&Bs and outdoor tourism operations. In the mentioned process, foreign knowledge and experience led to the opening of a new market for traditional products. This case shows that the localization and appropriation of foreign elements can be a fruitful strategy to promote territorial development in regions like Jämtland. This article highlights how a LAFS was articulated within the frame of the birth of a new industry, composed by small, semi-artisan dairy firms and which institutional side effects that this experience has led to.Durante la década de los 80, un proceso de acción colectiva se inició con el propósito de salvar los restos de la ganadería tradicional en Jämtland. Esto resultó en la creación de un sistema agroalimentario local que logró comercializar elementos importantes de la agricultura tradicional, añadiendo elementos de modernidad. La diversificación de las fincas fue la estrategia más importante, dentro de la cual se promovió la creación de un sector de pequeñas industrias lácteas en las fincas, cafés rurales y asimismo la venta directa a los consumidores en dichas fincas, en mercados y otros canales de comercialización, servicios de alojamiento y desayuno y operaciones turísticas al aire libre. En este proceso, conocimiento y experiencias extranjeras jugaron un papel clave en la apertura de un nuevo mercado para los productos lácteos tradicionales. Este caso demuestra que la

  14. Membrane-bound ATPase of intact vacuoles and tonoplasts isolated from mature plant tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W.; Wagner, G.J.; Siegelman, H.W.; Hind, G.

    1977-01-01

    Intact vacuoles were isolated from petals of Hippeastrum and Tulipa (Wagner, G. J. and Siegelman, H. W. (1975) Science 190, 1298 to 1299). The ATPase activity of fresh vacuole suspensions was found to be 2 to 3 times that of protoplasts from the same tissue. 70 to 80% of the ATPase activity of intact vacuoles was recovered in tonoplast preparations. The antibiotic Dio-9 at 6 ..mu..g/10/sup 6/ vacuoles or protoplasts causes 40% inhibition. However, only the protoplast ATPase is sensitive to oligomycin. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbondiimide (DCCD) slightly stimulates ATPase activity in both vacuole and protoplast suspensions, whereas ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide) (EDAC) strongly inhibits. Spectrophotometric studies show that in the petal the vacuolar contents have a pH of 4.0 for Tulipa and 4.3 for Hippeastrum, whereas the intact isolated vacuole has an internal pH of 7.0 (in pH 8.0 buffer) for Tulipa and about 7.3 for Hippeastrum. Internal ion concentrations of 150, 46, 30, 30 and 6 mM were found for K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Cl/sup -/, and Ca/sup 2 +/ respectively, which are about the same as those in protoplasts.

  15. Potenciali ekološke pridelave za trajnostno lokalno oskrbo s hrano v Sloveniji = Organic production potentials for sustainable local food supply in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Slabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is presenting the assessment of organic production potentials for sustainablelocal food supply. Using the results of extensive field research among organic farmers,we analyzed the existing organic production for the market by the type of products andmarketing channels. We defined the main strengths and weaknesses critical to the developmentof the Slovenian market for organic food, and highlighted spatial differences. Weestimate that, especially in the organic production, there is a large untapped potential forsustainable local food supply in Slovenia.

  16. Understanding the temporal ambiguity of local foods through ‘polytemporality’: the case of Norwegian gamalost fra vik (old cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atle Wehn Hegnes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Ces dernières années, les produits locaux, dans le sens général du terme, ont stimulé discussions et mises en valeur d’un certain nombre «d’ambiguïtés». Ces traits ambigus sont souvent décrits comme émergents d’une tension entre deux, ou plusieurs, pôles opposés. Néanmoins, fonder l’analyse des ambiguïtés sur une polarité, conduit à simplifier la complexité émanant des produits locaux et à amoindrir le potentiel explicatif d’une analyse reposant sur une unification des dimensions polarisées. Cet article propose une approche analytique fondée sur le concept de polytempolarité exprimé par Bruno Latour (1993, afin de comprendre l’ambiguïté d’un produit local norvégien, le Gamalost (vieux fromage. Basé sur des données empiriques, cet article s’intéresse d’abord aux tensions et fusions entre des méthodes de productions traditionnelles et modernes, puis à la façon dont cette ambiguïté peut être interprétée, à travers les discours dépendants des conditions naturelles, culturelles, économiques et politiques qui ont influencé l’évolution de ce produit.In recent years, a range of ‘ambiguities’ has been identified and discussed in relation to what, in a broad sense, is denoted ‘local food’. Such ambiguous traits are often described as emerging in the tension between two or more opposing poles. However, using polarity as a basis for describing ambiguities simplifies the complexity of local food, and undermines the power of explanation to be found in analytical concepts that could instead unite the polarised dimensions. This article proposes an analytical approach for understanding the temporal ambiguity of a local Norwegian product using Bruno Latour’s (1993 concept of polytemporality. Drawing on case-study material about Gamalost (literal translation, “Old cheese”, the article focuses on the tension and fusion between traditional and modern production methods, and how this

  17. Expression, characterization, and cellular localization of knowpains, papain-like cysteine proteases of the Plasmodium knowlesi malaria parasite.

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    Rajesh Prasad

    Full Text Available Papain-like cysteine proteases of malaria parasites degrade haemoglobin in an acidic food vacuole to provide amino acids for intraerythrocytic parasites. These proteases are potential drug targets because their inhibitors block parasite development, and efforts are underway to develop chemotherapeutic inhibitors of these proteases as the treatments for malaria. Plasmodium knowlesi has recently been shown to be an important human pathogen in parts of Asia. We report expression and characterization of three P. knowlesi papain-like proteases, termed knowpains (KP2-4. Recombinant knowpains were produced using a bacterial expression system, and tested for various biochemical properties. Antibodies against recombinant knowpains were generated and used to determine their cellular localization in parasites. Inhibitory effects of the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 were assessed on P. knowlesi culture to validate drug target potential of knowpains. All three knowpains were present in the food vacuole, active in acidic pH, and capable of degrading haemoglobin at the food vacuolar pH (≈5.5, suggesting roles in haemoglobin degradation. The proteases showed absolute (KP2 and KP3 to moderate (KP4 preference for peptide substrates containing leucine at the P2 position; KP4 preferred arginine at the P2 position. While the three knowpains appear to have redundant roles in haemoglobin degradation, KP4 may also have a role in degradation of erythrocyte cytoskeleton during merozoite egress, as it displayed broad substrate specificity and was primarily localized at the parasite periphery. Importantly, E64 blocked erythrocytic development of P. knowlesi, with enlargement of food vacuoles, indicating inhibition of haemoglobin hydrolysis and supporting the potential for inhibition of knowpains as a strategy for the treatment of malaria. Functional expression and characterization of knowpains should enable simultaneous screening of available cysteine protease

  18. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of the role of nucleolar vacuoles in soybean root meristem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Stepiński

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of nucleoli in soybean root meristematic cells in seedlings: (1 grown for 3 days at 25 degrees C (control, (2 grown for three days at 25 degrees C and for 4 days at 10 degrees C, and (3 grown as in (2 and recovered for 1 day at 25 degrees C were carried out. Control nucleoli had dense structure and a few small nucleolar vacuoles. Chilled plant nucleoli had less dense structure and no vacuoles. Nucleoli of plants recovered at 25 degrees C had big nucleolar vacuoles. In autoradiograms of squashed preparations, the labeling of nucleoli and cytoplasm after 20-min incubation in 3H-uridine was 5- and 6-fold stronger, respectively, in control than in chilled roots. Following recovery, the labeling of nucleoli and cytoplasm was much stronger than after chilling or even than in control roots. After 80-min postincubation in non-radioactive medium, average labeling of particular areas of cells was the highest in recovered plants which indicated intensification of rRNA synthesis, maturation and transport into cytoplasm resulting from the resumption of optimal conditions which was correlated with the appearance of big nucleolar vacuoles. In autoradiograms of semi-thin sections from roots of seedlings chilled for 4 days then recovered and incubated for 20 min in 3H-uridine, practically only extravacuolar parts of nucleoli were labeled. After 80-min postincubation, the labeling of nucleolar vacuoles was observed. Thus, during postincubation the labeled molecules were translocated from the nucleolar periphery into nucleolar vacuoles in cells where intensive transport of these molecules to the cytoplasm takes place. On the basis of these results, a hypothesis has been put forward that nucleolar vacuoles may be involved in the intensification of pre-ribosome transport outside nucleolus.

  19. Patterns of serum PCDD/Fs affected by vegetarian regime, consumption of locally produced food, and resident places of residents living near incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hsiu-Ling; Lee Chang-Ching; Su Hue-Jen; Liao Pao-Chi [Inst. of Basic Medical Science, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Previous reports have been estimated that more than 90% of serum PCDD/Fs can be accounted for by the consumption of various food groups. Nouwen et al. suggested residents living near incinerators with the elevated dioxin exposure while they ate locally produced food compared to the general population from other areas. PCDD/Fs usually abound in fatty meats and marine foods, and consumption of which is the major pathway of human expose to PCDD/Fs. However, no distinct association was shown between vegetarian regime of human and their corresponding serum PCDD/Fs concentration. In addition, the resident region is associated to their corresponding dietary consumption and ambient exposure of PCDD/Fs, especially for subjects consumed the local foods with special dioxin-like contamination. The current study, therefore, was set to examine how dietary habits, including vegetarian regime and consumption of local food original for residents living near the incinerators are associated to serum PCDD/F concentrations. In addition, the further aim is to assess the influence on the serum PCDD/Fs levels resulting from subjects living in the alternative resident regions, even all of them exposed to PCDD/Fs emission from incinerators.

  20. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary sourc

  1. Antagonism influences assembly of a Bacillus guild in a local community and is depicted as a food-chain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Rocío-Anaís; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Islas, África; Alcaraz, Luis David; Hernández-González, Ismael; Olivera, Beatriz Carely Luna; Santillán, Moisés; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria; Travisano, Michael; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the principles that govern community assemblages is a central goal of ecology. There is limited experimental evidence in natural settings showing that microbial assembly in communities are influenced by antagonistic interactions. We, therefore, analyzed antagonism among bacterial isolates from a taxonomically related bacterial guild obtained from five sites in sediments from a fresh water system. We hypothesized that if antagonistic interactions acted as a shaping force of the community assembly, then the frequency of resistance to antagonism among bacterial isolates originating from a given site would be higher than the resistance to conspecifics originating from a different assemblage. Antagonism assays were conducted between 78 thermoresistant isolates, of which 72 were Bacillus spp. Sensitive, resistant and antagonistic isolates co-occurred at each site, but the within-site frequency of resistance observed was higher than that observed when assessed across-sites. We found that antagonism results from bacteriocin-like substances aimed at the exclusion of conspecifics. More than 6000 interactions were scored and described by a directed network with hierarchical structure that exhibited properties that resembled a food chain, where the different Bacillus taxonomic groups occupied specific positions. For some tested interacting pairs, the unidirectional interaction could be explained by competition that inhibited growth or completely excluded one of the pair members. This is the first report on the prevalence and specificity of Bacillus interactions in a natural setting and provides evidence for the influence of bacterial antagonist interactions in the assemblage of a taxonomically related guild in local communities.

  2. Human lung epithelial cells contain Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a late endosomal vacuole and are efficiently recognized by CD8⁺ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Harriff

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is transmitted via inhalation of aerosolized particles. While alveolar macrophages are thought to play a central role in the acquisition and control of this infection, Mtb also has ample opportunity to interact with the airway epithelium. In this regard, we have recently shown that the upper airways are enriched with a population of non-classical, MR1-restricted, Mtb-reactive CD8⁺ T cells (MAIT cells. Additionally, we have demonstrated that Mtb-infected epithelial cells lining the upper airways are capable of stimulating IFNγ production by MAIT cells. In this study, we demonstrate that airway epithelial cells efficiently stimulate IFNγ release by MAIT cells as well as HLA-B45 and HLA-E restricted T cell clones. Characterization of the intracellular localization of Mtb in epithelial cells indicates that the vacuole occupied by Mtb in epithelial cells is distinct from DC in that it acquires Rab7 molecules and does not retain markers of early endosomes such as Rab5. The Mtb vacuole is also heterogeneous as there is a varying degree of association with Lamp1 and HLA-I. Although the Mtb vacuole shares markers associated with the late endosome, it does not acidify, and the bacteria are able to replicate within the cell. This work demonstrates that Mtb infected lung epithelial cells are surprisingly efficient at stimulating IFNγ release by CD8⁺ T cells.

  3. Identification of a Peptide-Pheromone that Enhances Listeria monocytogenes Escape from Host Cell Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Alonzo, Francis; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades mammalian cells and escapes from membrane-bound vacuoles to replicate within the host cell cytosol. Gene products required for intracellular bacterial growth and bacterial spread to adjacent cells are regulated by a transcriptional activator known as PrfA. PrfA becomes activated following L. monocytogenes entry into host cells, however the signal that stimulates PrfA activation has not yet been defined. Here we provide evidence for L. monocytogenes secretion of a small peptide pheromone, pPplA, which enhances the escape of L. monocytogenes from host cell vacuoles and may facilitate PrfA activation. The pPplA pheromone is generated via the proteolytic processing of the PplA lipoprotein secretion signal peptide. While the PplA lipoprotein is dispensable for pathogenesis, bacteria lacking the pPplA pheromone are significantly attenuated for virulence in mice and have a reduced efficiency of bacterial escape from the vacuoles of nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Mutational activation of PrfA restores virulence and eliminates the need for pPplA-dependent signaling. Experimental evidence suggests that the pPplA peptide may help signal to L. monocytogenes its presence within the confines of the host cell vacuole, stimulating the expression of gene products that contribute to vacuole escape and facilitating PrfA activation to promote bacterial growth within the cytosol. PMID:25822753

  4. Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii parasitophorous vacuoles by the mouse p47-resistance GTPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Martens

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The p47 GTPases are essential for interferon-gamma-induced cell-autonomous immunity against the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, in mice, but the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood. We show that the p47 GTPases, including IIGP1, accumulate at vacuoles containing T. gondii. The accumulation is GTP-dependent and requires live parasites. Vacuolar IIGP1 accumulations undergo a maturation-like process accompanied by vesiculation of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. This culminates in disruption of the parasitophorous vacuole and finally of the parasite itself. Over-expression of IIGP1 leads to accelerated vacuolar disruption whereas a dominant negative form of IIGP1 interferes with interferon-gamma-mediated killing of intracellular parasites. Targeted deletion of the IIGP1 gene results in partial loss of the IFN-gamma-mediated T. gondii growth restriction in mouse astrocytes.

  5. Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii Parasitophorous Vacuoles by the Mouse p47-Resistance GTPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The p47 GTPases are essential for interferon-gamma-induced cell-autonomous immunity against the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, in mice, but the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood. We show that the p47 GTPases, including IIGP1, accumulate at vacuoles containing T. gondii. The accumulation is GTP-dependent and requires live parasites. Vacuolar IIGP1 accumulations undergo a maturation-like process accompanied by vesiculation of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. This culminates in disruption of the parasitophorous vacuole and finally of the parasite itself. Over-expression of IIGP1 leads to accelerated vacuolar disruption whereas a dominant negative form of IIGP1 interferes with interferon-gamma-mediated killing of intracellular parasites. Targeted deletion of the IIGP1 gene results in partial loss of the IFN-gamma-mediated T. gondii growth restriction in mouse astrocytes.

  6. The Expression of VacA in BCF of Helicobacter Pylori and Its Relationship to Vacuolated Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施理; 侯晓华; 易粹琼; 张锦坤

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The vacuolated effect of Helicobacter (H. Pylori) and its relationship to vacuolated cyto toxin antigen (VacA) were investigated by the method of cytotoxic test and SDS-pobyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Of the 62 clinical isolates, the broth culture filter (BCF) of 43 strains causecl the Vero cell intracytoplasmically vacuolated. H. Pylori strains were divided into H. Pylori (Toxin+) group with vacuolated effect and H. Pylori (Toxin-) group without vacuolated effect. The analysis of the BCF of H. Pylori (Toxin+) and that of H. Pylori (Toxin-) was studied by SDS-PAGE and Scan reader. A kind of protein with 87 ku molecular weight was recognized in the BCF of 30.23 % (13/43) H. Pylori (Toxin+) strains but in none of that of H. Pylori (Toxin-) strains, the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 05). There was a significant and concordant relation ship between OD of the protein band with 87 ku molecular weight and titer of vacuolated activity of H. Pylori(Toxin+) (r=0. 67 and P<0. 05 by linear regression analysis). H. Pylori strains were di-vided into H. Pylori (Toxin+) group with vacuolated effect and H. Pylori (Toxin-) group without vacuolated effect. The vacuolated effect of H. Pylori (Toxin+) was caused by the protein with 87 ku molecular weight (VacA).

  7. Intratumoral injection of taxol in vivo suppresses A549 tumor showing cytoplasmic vacuolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyang; Chen, Tongsheng

    2012-04-01

    Based on our recent in vitro studies, this report was designed to explore the mechanism by which high concentration of taxol (70 µM) induced paraptosis-like cell death in human lung carcinoma (A549) cells, and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of taxol using A549 tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Exposure of cells to taxol induced time-dependent cytotoxicity and cytoplasmic vacuolization without the involvement of Bax, Bak, Mcl-1, Bcl-XL, and caspase-3. Although taxol treatment induced activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) cleavage indicative of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, silencing ATF6 by shATF6 did not prevent taxol-induced both cytotoxcity and cytoplasmic vacuolization, suggesting that taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell death were not due to ER stress. Moreover, taxol-treated cells did not show DNA fragmentation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the typical characteristics of apoptosis. In addition, taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization did not show the cellular lysis, the characteristics of oncosis, and positive of β-galactosidase, the characteristic of senescence, indicating that taxol induced paraptosis-like cell death is neither oncosis nor senescence. Moreover, our in vivo data showed that intratumoral injection of taxol (50 mg/kg) in A549 tumor xenograft mice on day 1 and day 19 potently suppressed tumor growth showing significant ER vacuolization without toxicity. In conclusion, high concentration of taxol exhibits a significant anticancer activity by inducing paraptosis-like cell death in vitro and in vivo, without significant toxicity, suggesting a promising therapeutic strategy for apoptosis-resistance cancer by inducing ER vacuolization.

  8. Development of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in United Arab Emirates and Kuwait based on local foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Salim

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ is one of the most commonly used tools in epidemiologic studies to assess long-term nutritional exposure. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of a culture specific FFQ for Arab populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE and Kuwait. Methods We interviewed samples of Arab populations over 18 years old in UAE and Kuwait assessing their dietary intakes using 24-hour dietary recall. Based on the most commonly reported foods and portion sizes, we constructed a food list with the units of measurement. The food list was converted to a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ format following the basic pattern of SFFQ using usual reported portions. The long SFFQ was field-tested, shortened and developed into the final SFFQ. To estimate nutrients from mixed dishes we collected recipes of those mixed dishes that were commonly eaten, and estimated their nutritional content by using nutrient values of the ingredients that took into account method of preparation from the US Department of Agriculture's Food Composition Database. Results The SFFQs consist of 153 and 152 items for UAE and Kuwait, respectively. The participants reported average intakes over the past year. On average the participants reported eating 3.4 servings/d of fruits and 3.1 servings/d of vegetables in UAE versus 2.8 servings/d of fruits and 3.2 servings/d of vegetables in Kuwait. Participants reported eating cereals 4.8 times/d in UAE and 5.3 times/d in Kuwait. The mean intake of dairy products was 2.2/d in UAE and 3.4 among Kuwaiti. Conclusion We have developed SFFQs to measure diet in UAE and Kuwait that will serve the needs of public health researchers and clinicians and are currently validating those instruments.

  9. The Agri-food Sector's Response to the Triple Crisis: Sustaining local social initiatives in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumbamu

    2012-01-01

    While global capital uses various mechanisms to control and govern the agri-food system, counter-movements have been rising with self-protecting measures against the intrusion of the market system and development. Ashok Kumbamu critically examines this ‘double movement’ in the agri-food sector at a time of convergence of three global crises of food, energy, and climate. He looks at the organizational strategies and alternative development initiatives of the Deccan Development Society in south...

  10. What role do local grocery stores play in urban food environments? A case study of Hartford-Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katie S; Ghosh, Debarchana; Page, Martha; Wolff, Michele; McMinimee, Kate; Zhang, Mengyao

    2014-01-01

    Research on urban food environments emphasizes limited access to healthy food, with fewer large supermarkets and higher food prices. Many residents of Hartford, Connecticut, which is often considered a food desert, buy most of their food from small and medium-sized grocery stores. We examined the food environment in greater Hartford, comparing stores in Hartford to those in the surrounding suburbs, and by store size (small, medium, and large). We surveyed all small (over 1,000 ft2), medium, and large-sized supermarkets within a 2-mile radius of Hartford (36 total stores). We measured the distance to stores, availability, price and quality of a market basket of 25 items, and rated each store on internal and external appearance. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used for mapping distance to the stores and variation of food availability, quality, and appearance. Contrary to common literature, no significant differences were found in food availability and price between Hartford and suburban stores. However, produce quality, internal, and external store appearance were significantly lower in Hartford compared to suburban stores (all plower prices than small or large supermarkets (pquality (pprices that exist within small and medium-sized groceries common in inner cities. Improving produce quality and store appearance can potentially impact the food purchasing decisions of low-income residents in Hartford.

  11. What Role Do Local Grocery Stores Play in Urban Food Environments? A Case Study of Hartford-Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katie S.; Ghosh, Debarchana; Page, Martha; Wolff, Michele; McMinimee, Kate; Zhang, Mengyao

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Research on urban food environments emphasizes limited access to healthy food, with fewer large supermarkets and higher food prices. Many residents of Hartford, Connecticut, which is often considered a food desert, buy most of their food from small and medium-sized grocery stores. We examined the food environment in greater Hartford, comparing stores in Hartford to those in the surrounding suburbs, and by store size (small, medium, and large). Methods We surveyed all small (over 1,000 ft2), medium, and large-sized supermarkets within a 2-mile radius of Hartford (36 total stores). We measured the distance to stores, availability, price and quality of a market basket of 25 items, and rated each store on internal and external appearance. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used for mapping distance to the stores and variation of food availability, quality, and appearance. Results Contrary to common literature, no significant differences were found in food availability and price between Hartford and suburban stores. However, produce quality, internal, and external store appearance were significantly lower in Hartford compared to suburban stores (all pgroceries common in inner cities. Improving produce quality and store appearance can potentially impact the food purchasing decisions of low-income residents in Hartford. PMID:24718579

  12. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of the role of nucleolar vacuoles in soybean root meristem.

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Stepiński

    2004-01-01

    Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of nucleoli in soybean root meristematic cells in seedlings: (1) grown for 3 days at 25 degrees C (control), (2) grown for three days at 25 degrees C and for 4 days at 10 degrees C, and (3) grown as in (2) and recovered for 1 day at 25 degrees C were carried out. Control nucleoli had dense structure and a few small nucleolar vacuoles. Chilled plant nucleoli had less dense structure and no vacuoles. Nucleoli of plants recovered at 25 degrees C had b...

  13. What role do local grocery stores play in urban food environments? A case study of Hartford-Connecticut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie S Martin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on urban food environments emphasizes limited access to healthy food, with fewer large supermarkets and higher food prices. Many residents of Hartford, Connecticut, which is often considered a food desert, buy most of their food from small and medium-sized grocery stores. We examined the food environment in greater Hartford, comparing stores in Hartford to those in the surrounding suburbs, and by store size (small, medium, and large. METHODS: We surveyed all small (over 1,000 ft2, medium, and large-sized supermarkets within a 2-mile radius of Hartford (36 total stores. We measured the distance to stores, availability, price and quality of a market basket of 25 items, and rated each store on internal and external appearance. Geographic Information System (GIS was used for mapping distance to the stores and variation of food availability, quality, and appearance. RESULTS: Contrary to common literature, no significant differences were found in food availability and price between Hartford and suburban stores. However, produce quality, internal, and external store appearance were significantly lower in Hartford compared to suburban stores (all p<0.05. Medium-sized stores had significantly lower prices than small or large supermarkets (p<0.05. Large stores had better scores for internal (p<0.05, external, and produce quality (p<0.01. Most Hartford residents live within 0.5 to 1 mile distance to a grocery store. DISCUSSION: Classifying urban areas with few large supermarkets as 'food deserts' may overlook the availability of healthy foods and low prices that exist within small and medium-sized groceries common in inner cities. Improving produce quality and store appearance can potentially impact the food purchasing decisions of low-income residents in Hartford.

  14. Role of Waterborne Pathogens in the Food Supply Chain: Implications to Risk Management with Local and Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial risk assessment (MRA) in the food industry is used to support HACCP – which largely focuses on bacterial pathogen control in processing foodstuffs Potential role of microbially-contaminated water used in food production is not as well understood Emergence...

  15. Anaplasma phagocytophilum APH0032 Is Exposed on the Cytosolic Face of the Pathogen-Occupied Vacuole and Co-opts Host Cell SUMOylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Aminat T.; Huang, Bernice; Beyer, Andrea R.; May, Levi J.; Truchan, Hilary K.; Walker, Naomi J.; Galloway, Nathan L.; Borjesson, Dori L.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a member of the family Anaplasmataceae and the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, resides in a host cell-derived vacuole. Bacterial proteins that localize to the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole membrane (AVM) are critical host-pathogen interfaces. Of the few bacterial AVM proteins that have been identified, the domains responsible for AVM localization and the host cell pathways that they co-opt are poorly defined. APH0032 is an effector that is expressed and localizes to the AVM late during the infection cycle. Herein, the APH0032 domain that is essential for associating with host cell membranes was mapped. Immunofluorescent labeling of infected cells that had been differentially permeabilized confirmed that APH0032 is exposed on the AVM's cytosolic face, signifying its potential to interface with host cell processes. SUMOylation is the covalent attachment of a member of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) family of proteins to lysines in target substrates. Previous work from our laboratory determined that SUMOylation is important for A. phagocytophilum survival and that SUMOylated proteins decorate the AVM. Algorithmic prediction analyses identified APH0032 as a candidate for SUMOylation. Endogenous APH0032 was precipitated from infected cells using a SUMO affinity matrix, confirming that the effector co-opts SUMOylation during infection. APH0032 pronouncedly colocalized with SUMO1, but not SUMO2/3 moieties on the AVM. Ectopic expression of APH0032 in A. phagocytophilum infected host cells significantly boosted the bacterial load. This study delineates the first domain of any Anaplasmataceae protein that is essential for associating with the pathogen-occupied vacuole membrane, demonstrates the importance of APH0032 to infection, and identifies it as the second A. phagocytophilum effector that co-opts SUMOylation, thus underscoring the relevance of this post-translational modification to

  16. Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains of Different Ribotypes have Similar hlyA RFLP Patterns but Different Vacuolating Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Vidal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation on Vero and HeLa cells in vitro by the Vibrio cholerae pore forming toxin HlyA, has been previously reported by our group. Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 pathogenic strains show differences in the potential to induce vacuolation, here we study occurring variations on vacuolating cytotoxic ability, related to changes in the nucleotide sequence of the hlyA-orf. A collection of eight toxigenic strains of V. cholerae O1 El Tor and a non-toxigenic one, all belonging to different ribotypes was tested for their vacuolating ability, and hlyA-orf similarity based on PCR and RFLPs. The strains had extremely different vacuolating capacities, those from the ribotype 2 isolated from the US Gulf Coast, showed the highest vacuolating titer (10240 dil, and the rest of the collection had considerably lower titers ranging among 40 to 360 dilutions. PCR of hlyA-orf, was performed and RFLPs were generated using seven restriction enzymes, this approach later revealed small changes of restriction maps, among the strains. The phenogram constructed from the RFLPs, showed two major branches, one of them included most of the strains, the other separates the only Mexican wild type non-O1 Vibrio cholerae. To test for vacuolating ability out of the Vibrio genetic context, the amplified hlyA-orfs from the collection of strains were cloned in pGEMT- vector system and supernatants from the recombinant E coli DH5-, showed no differences on vacuolating titers, the clones always were low producers. Results from the cloning, together with those from the phenogram indicated that the hlyA gene is mainly conserved and the differences on vacuolating activity are unrelated to minute changes seen in the hlyA-orf. Production of high vacuolating titers on Vibrio strains could be due to transcriptional regulation. Whether the high vacuolating titer would be related to increased virulence, is still to be found.

  17. Evaluation of HACCP plans of food industries: case study conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the local health authority of Foggia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panunzio, Michele F; Antoniciello, Antonietta; Pisano, Alessandra; Rosa, Giovanna

    2007-09-01

    With respect to food safety, many works have studied the effectiveness of self-monitoring plans of food companies, designed using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) method. On the other hand, indepth research has not been made concerning the adherence of the plans to HACCP standards. During our research, we evaluated 116 self-monitoring plans adopted by food companies located in the territory of the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Foggia, Italy. The general errors (terminology, philosophy and redundancy) and the specific errors (transversal plan, critical limits, hazard specificity, and lack of procedures) were standardized. Concerning the general errors, terminological errors pertain to half the plans examined, 47% include superfluous elements and 60% have repetitive subjects. With regards to the specific errors, 77% of the plans examined contained specific errors. The evaluation has pointed out the lack of comprehension of the HACCP system by the food companies and has allowed the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service), in its capacity as a control body, to intervene with the companies in order to improve designing HACCP plans.

  18. Evaluation of HACCP Plans of Food Industries: Case Study Conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Rosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available With respect to food safety, many works have studied the effectiveness of self-monitoring plans of food companies, designed using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP method. On the other hand, indepth research has not been made concerning the adherence of the plans to HACCP standards. During our research, we evaluated 116 self-monitoring plans adopted by food companies located in the territory of the Local Health Authority (LHA of Foggia, Italy. The general errors (terminology, philosophy and redundancy and the specific errors (transversal plan, critical limits, hazard specificity, and lack of procedures were standardized. Concerning the general errors, terminological errors pertain to half the plans examined, 47% include superfluous elements and 60% have repetitive subjects. With regards to the specific errors, 77% of the plans examined contained specific errors. The evaluation has pointed out the lack of comprehension of the HACCP system by the food companies and has allowed the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service, in its capacity as a control body, to intervene with the companies in order to improve designing HACCP plans.

  19. Mi “Mocafle” Peningkatan Kadar Gizi Mie Kering Berbasis Pangan Lokal Fungsional (Mocafle Noodle to Increase the Nutritional Level of Dry Noodles as Fuctional Local Food Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisana Shidiq Aliya

    2016-07-01

    Based on Riskesdas 2010, the prevalence of toddler’s Protein Energy Deficiency (PEM was accounting for 17.9%. Indonesian people consume under the minimal requirements as much as 40.7% for energy and 37% for protein. One of the ways to overcome PEM is food diversification, especially in food insecure areas and has low purchasing power. Local functional foods that could be secured are mocaf because of its high carbohydrate and catfish because of its high protein. The availability of mocaf and catfish is relatively abundant and easily obtained. The purpose of this research is to prove mocaf flour and catfish flour formulations on dried noodles "Mocafle" acceptable in their physical quality and organoleptic quality and to increase the nutritional quality. Research methods were completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 5 replications. Treatment was based on the proportion of wheat flour, mocaf flour, tapioca flour, and catfish flour with comparison P0 (100%:0%:0%:0%, P1 (40%: 40%: 20%: 0%, P2 (35%: 40%: 20%: 5%, P3 (30%: 40%: 20%: 10%, and P4 (25%: 40%: 20%: 15%. Parameters measured were breaking power of noodle, taste, color, flavor, texture, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and water content. The results showed that the best assessment based panelists was that "Mocafle" noodle with formulation of 35% wheat flour, 40% mocaf flour, 20% tapioca flour, and 5% catfish flour is relatively the same as standard noodles in their physical quality and organoleptic quality, while in their nutritional quality it has lower protein level. The conclusion of this study is that local functional food can be produced which can be accepted by the society and reduces wheat flour dependence. Keywords : mocaf flour,catfish fluor, dry noodles, local food

  20. Rimmed vacuoles and the added value of SMI-31 staining in diagnosing sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, M F; Hoogendijk, J E; Moons, K G; Veldman, H; Badrising, U A; Wokke, J H

    2001-07-01

    Problems in diagnosing sporadic inclusion body myositis may arise if all clinical features fit a diagnosis of polymyositis, but the muscle biopsy shows some rimmed vacuoles. Recently, immunohistochemistry with an antibody directed against phosphorylated neurofilament (SMI-31) has been advocated as a diagnostic test for sporadic inclusion body myositis. The aims of the present study were to define a quantitative criterion to differentiate sporadic inclusion body myositis from polymyositis based on the detection of rimmed vacuoles in the haematoxylin-eosin staining and to evaluate the additional diagnostic value of the SMI-31 staining. Based on clinical criteria and creatine kinase levels in patients with endomysial infiltrates, 18 patients complied with the diagnosis of sporadic inclusion body myositis, and 17 with the diagnosis of polymyositis. A blinded observer counted the abnormal fibres in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and in SMI-31-stained sections. The optimal cut-off in the haematoxylin-eosin test was 0.3% vacuolated fibres. Adding the SMI-31 staining significantly increased the positive predictive value from 87 to 100%, but increased the negative predictive value only to small extent. We conclude that (1) patients with clinical and laboratory features of polymyositis, including response to treatment, may show rimmed vacuoles in their muscle biopsy and that (2) adding the SMI-31 stain can be helpful in differentiating patients who respond to treatment from patients who do not.

  1. Essential domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTPbeta) for interaction with Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Wada, Akihiro; Yamasaki, Eiki

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori produces a potent exotoxin, VacA, which causes progressive vacuolation as well as gastric injury. Although VacA was able to interact with two receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases, RPTPbeta and RPTPalpha, RPTPbeta was found to be responsible for gastric damage caused...

  2. PAS-positive lymphocyte vacuoles can be used as diagnostic screening test for Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemans, Marloes L C; Stigter, Rolinda L; van Capelle, Carine I; van der Beek, Nadine A M E; Winkel, Leon P F; van Vliet, Laura; Hop, Wim C J; Reuser, Arnold J J; Beishuizen, Auke; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2010-04-01

    Screening of blood films for the presence of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive lymphocyte vacuoles is sometimes used to support the diagnosis of Pompe disease, but the actual diagnostic value is still unknown. We collected peripheral blood films from 65 untreated Pompe patients and 51 controls. Lymphocyte vacuolization was quantified using three methods: percentage vacuolated lymphocytes, percentage PAS-positive lymphocytes, and a PAS score depending on staining intensity. Diagnostic accuracy of the tests was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. All three methods fully discerned classic infantile patients from controls. The mean values of patients with milder forms of Pompe disease were significantly higher than those of controls, but full separation was not obtained. The area under the ROC curve was 0.98 for the percentage vacuolated lymphocytes (optimal cutoff value 3; sensitivity 91%, specificity 96%) and 0.99 for the percentage PAS-positive lymphocytes and PAS score (optimal cutoff value 9; sensitivity 100%, specificity 98%). Our data indicate that PAS-stained blood films can be used as a reliable screening tool to support a diagnosis of Pompe disease. The percentage of PAS-positive lymphocytes is convenient for use in clinical practice but should always be interpreted in combination with other clinical and laboratory parameters.

  3. Retromer and the dynamin Vps1 cooperate in the retrieval of transmembrane proteins from vacuoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlt, Henning; Reggiori, Fulvio; Ungermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Endosomes are dynamic organelles that need to combine the ability to successfully deliver proteins and lipids to the lysosome-like vacuole, and recycle others to the Golgi or the plasma membrane. We now show that retromer, which is implicated in retrieval of proteins from endosomes to the Golgi or t

  4. Effects of lysosomal membrane protein depletion on the Salmonella-containing vacuole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett A Roark

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole in host cells. The major lysosomal membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are recruited to the Salmonella-containing vacuole as well as Salmonella- associated filaments (Sifs that emerge from the vacuole. LAMP-1 is a dominant membrane marker for the vacuole and Sifs. Its colocalization with both is dependent on a major secreted bacterial virulence protein, SifA. Here, we show that SifA is required for the recruitment of LAMP-2 and can be used as a second independent marker for both the bacterial vacuolar membrane and Sifs. Further, RNAi studies revealed that in LAMP-1 depleted cells, the bacteria remain membrane bound as measured by their association with LAMP-2 protein. In contrast, LAMP-2 depletion increased the amount of LAMP-1 free bacteria. Together, the data suggests that despite its abundance, LAMP-1 is not essential, but LAMP-2 may be partially important for the Salmonella-containing vacuolar membrane.

  5. Caspase-11 activation requires lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles by IFN-induced GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Etienne; Dick, Mathias S; Dreier, Roland F; Schürmann, Nura; Kenzelmann Broz, Daniela; Warming, Søren; Roose-Girma, Merone; Bumann, Dirk; Kayagaki, Nobuhiko; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Broz, Petr

    2014-05-15

    Lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria is sensed in the host cell cytoplasm by a non-canonical inflammasome pathway that ultimately results in caspase-11 activation and cell death. In mouse macrophages, activation of this pathway requires the production of type-I interferons, indicating that interferon-induced genes have a critical role in initiating this pathway. Here we report that a cluster of small interferon-inducible GTPases, the so-called guanylate-binding proteins, is required for the full activity of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome during infections with vacuolar Gram-negative bacteria. We show that guanylate-binding proteins are recruited to intracellular bacterial pathogens and are necessary to induce the lysis of the pathogen-containing vacuole. Lysis of the vacuole releases bacteria into the cytosol, thus allowing the detection of their lipopolysaccharide by a yet unknown lipopolysaccharide sensor. Moreover, recognition of the lysed vacuole by the danger sensor galectin-8 initiates the uptake of bacteria into autophagosomes, which results in a reduction of caspase-11 activation. These results indicate that host-mediated lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles is an essential immune function and is necessary for efficient recognition of pathogens by inflammasome complexes in the cytosol.

  6. Retromer and the dynamin Vps1 cooperate in the retrieval of transmembrane proteins from vacuoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlt, Henning; Reggiori, Fulvio; Ungermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Endosomes are dynamic organelles that need to combine the ability to successfully deliver proteins and lipids to the lysosome-like vacuole, and recycle others to the Golgi or the plasma membrane. We now show that retromer, which is implicated in retrieval of proteins from endosomes to the Golgi or t

  7. Vacuoles in sperm head are not associated with head morphology, DNA damage and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Adriana; Boni, Raffaele; Leo, Rita; Nacchia, Giuseppina; Liguori, Francesca; Casale, Sofia; Bonassisa, Paolo; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2016-02-01

    In this retrospective study of 873 men enrolled for assisted reproduction techniques, relationships between sperm quality parameters, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), DNA damage and live birth rate were evaluated. The presence of vacuoles in the sperm heads was detected by MSOME. Either chromatin decondensation or DNA fragmentation was used to study DNA damage. Results show that age significantly affected some of the examined parameters. In particular, sperm concentration was positively correlated (R = 0.088; P = 0.01) and chromatin decondensation was negatively correlated (R = -0.102; P = 0.003) with age. Furthermore, live birth rate was significantly lower in men aged 40 years or older (P fragmentation and live birth rate. Considering sperm heads in relation to the shape (normal/abnormal) and vacuoles (presence/absence), no significant variations in the occurrence of vacuoles in either normal or abnormal heads were found. These data suggest that vacuoles are physiological features that do not alter sperm functionality, and it seems that MSOME is not necessary for increasing the success of assisted reproduction techniques.

  8. PAS-positive lymphocyte vacuoles can be used as diagnostic screening test for Pompe disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.C. Hagemans (Marloes); R.L. Stigter; C.I. van Capelle (Carine); N.A.M.E. van der Beek (Nadine); L.P.F. Winkel (Léon); L. van Vliet (Laura); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); A. Beishuizen (Auke); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractScreening of blood films for the presence of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive lymphocyte vacuoles is sometimes used to support the diagnosis of Pompe disease, but the actual diagnostic value is still unknown. We collected peripheral blood films from 65 untreated Pompe patients and 51

  9. Dictyostelium discoideum RabS and Rab2 colocalize with the Golgi and contractile vacuole system and regulate osmoregulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Katherine Maringer; Azure Yarbrough; Sunder Sims-Lucas; Entsar Saheb; Sanaa Jawed; John Bush

    2016-06-01

    Small-molecular-weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and is required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex; however, Rab2 has yet to be characterized in Dictyostelium discoideum. DdRabS is a Dictyostelium Rab that is 80% homologous to DdRab1 which is required for protein transport between the ER and Golgi. Expression of GFP-tagged DdRab2 and DdRabS proteins showed localization to Golgi membranes and to the contractile vacuole system (CV) in Dictyostelium. Microscopic imaging indicates that the DdRab2 and DdRabS proteins localize at, and are essential for, the proper structure of Golgi membranes and the CV system. Dominant negative (DN) forms show fractionation of Golgi membranes, supporting their role in the structure and function of it. DdRab2 and DdRabS proteins, and their dominant negative and constitutively active (CA) forms, affect osmoregulation of the cells, possibly by the influx and discharge of fluids, which suggests a role in the function of the CV system. This is the first evidence of GTPases being localized to both Golgi membranes and the CV system in Dictyostelium.

  10. Adjustment of host cells for accommodation of symbiotic bacteria: vacuole defunctionalization, HOPS suppression, and TIP1g retargeting in Medicago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrin, A.Y.; Kaiser, B.N.; Geiger, D.; Tyerman, S.D.; Wen, Z.; Bisseling, T.; Fedorova, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    In legume–rhizobia symbioses, the bacteria in infected cells are enclosed in a plant membrane, forming organelle-like compartments called symbiosomes. Symbiosomes remain as individual units and avoid fusion with lytic vacuoles of host cells. We observed changes in the vacuole volume of infected

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae depend on vesicular traffic between Golgi and vacuole when Inositolphosphorylceramide synthase Aur1 is inactivated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voynova, Natalia S; Roubaty, Carole; Vazquez, Hector M

    2015-01-01

    that vesicle mediated transport between Golgi, endosomes and vacuole becomes crucial for survival when Aur1 is repressed, irrespective of the mode of repression. In addition, vacuolar acidification becomes essential when cells are acutely stressed by AbA, and Quinacrine uptake into vacuoles shows that Ab...

  12. Adjustment of host cells for accommodation of symbiotic bacteria: vacuole defunctionalization, HOPS suppression, and TIP1g retargeting in Medicago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrin, A.Y.; Kaiser, B.N.; Geiger, D.; Tyerman, S.D.; Wen, Z.; Bisseling, T.; Fedorova, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    In legume–rhizobia symbioses, the bacteria in infected cells are enclosed in a plant membrane, forming organelle-like compartments called symbiosomes. Symbiosomes remain as individual units and avoid fusion with lytic vacuoles of host cells. We observed changes in the vacuole volume of infected cell

  13. Natural Diversity in the N Terminus of the Mature Vacuolating Cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori Determines Cytotoxin Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Letley, D. P.; Atherton, J C

    2000-01-01

    Naturally occurring noncytotoxic vacA type s2 strains of Helicobacter pylori have a 12-residue extension to the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) compared with cytotoxic type s1 strains. We show that adding the region encoding this extension to type s1 vacA completely abolishes vacuolating cytotoxin activity but has no effect on VacA production.

  14. From local food to terroir product ? - Some views about Tjukkmjølk, the traditional thick sour milk from Røros, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Vittersø

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente différentes visions du Tjukkmjølk, un produit épais lacté traditionnel de la région de Røros, lancé il y a une dizaine d’années sous le label “Alimentation de la montagne”. L’objectif de cet article est de mieux comprendre comment un produit local peut devenir produit de terroir, en déterminant les valeurs culturelles qui se trouvent derrière le produit en question dans le territoire donné. Après avoir observé l’évolution du produit ces 10 dernières années, nous décrirons le matériel utilisé, puis donnerons la parole aux consommateurs locaux. Cela nous permettra de mieux comprendre les valeurs mythiques et symboliques du produit local, ainsi que les raisons pour lesquelles nos informateurs l’apprécient . Cet aspect culturel constituera la troisième partie de l’article, dans laquelle nous comparerons les différentes visions exprimées à propos du tjukkmjølk . Finalement nous considérerons l’aspect global de cette expression locale, par le biais du régional, du national, et de l’international.This article presents different views expressed by focus group participants about Tjukkmjølk, a traditional, thick sour milk from Røros, a precursory product launched ten years ago under the “Food from the Moutain” logo. The aim of this article is to better understand how local food may become a terroir product, by determining the cultural values related to this very product. We will in the first part of this paper describe the evolution of the product during the last 10 years. In the second part we will describe the data material and the way it was collected, before giving the word to our informants. The focus group conversations helped to better understand the symbolic and mythic value of the local food product and the reasons why our informants liked this type of food. This cultural aspect will make up the third part of this paper, where we will compare the different views expressed

  15. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.fernandez@bordeaux.inra.fr [Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33175 Gradignan (France); INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33883 Villenave d' Ornon (France); Nesme, Thomas [Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Pellerin, Sylvain [INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33883 Villenave d' Ornon (France)

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as “Agro-Industrial Ecology”, is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale. - Highlights: • An Agro-Industrial Ecology perspective is essential to model local agro-food systems. • We provide a classification of nutrient (N, P) models, methods and assessment tools. • We distinguished Environmental Assessment, Stock and flow and Agent-based approaches. • The pros and cons of these nutrient cycle models, methods and tools are discussed.

  16. Functional analysis of Plasmodium falciparum parasitophorous vacuole membrane protein (Pfs16) during gametocytogenesis and gametogenesis by targeted gene disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkasuriyachai, Darin; Fujioka, Hisashi; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2004-02-01

    Gametocytogenesis is a tightly regulated process marked by differentiation through distinct morphological forms and coordinated expression of sexual stage gene products. The earliest known gene product expressed at the onset of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytogenesis is Pfs16 localized on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). Targeted gene disruption was undertaken to disrupt expression of Pfs16 and examine its potential role during sexual development. Three independent clones were demonstrated to have the coding sequence of Ps16 gene disrupted by the targeting plasmid by homologous recombination. No full-length transcripts and PVM localized 16 kDa protein were detected. Instead, all three "16ko" clones expressed a protein of 14 kDa recognized by Pfs16 specific antibodies that was mislocalized to an unidentified double membrane compartment in the parasites. Disruption of Pfs16 gene resulted in a significant reduction in gametocyte production, although the small number of gametocytes produced appeared to be normal by molecular and phenotypic evidences. Preliminary observation also suggested impaired ability of male gametocytes to exflagellate in vitro. Pfs16 does not appear to be essential for sexual development, instead may be required for optimal production of sexual parasites. Understanding mechanisms involved in the development of sexual stages of P. falciparum may identify novel targets for drugs and vaccines effective in reducing malaria transmission.

  17. Interactions between the introduced Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the indigenous blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Local-scale food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, I.W.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if food competition between mussels and oysters occurs, and how mussel and oyster growth is affected by this interaction. This was done by relating mussel growth to oyster density relating oyster growth to oyster biomass and perform a field control, by inventor

  18. Perceived health properties of wild and cultivated food plants in local and popular traditions of Italy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2013-04-19

    Many wild and cultivated plants are rich in mineral elements and bioactive compounds and are consumed for health purposes. Studies have demonstrated the curative properties of many of these food plants. In this paper, we discuss the properties of several plants with potential health benefits that have previously received little attention. This review provides an overview and critical discussion of food plants perceived by informants (emic view) as healthy or used as 'food medicine' in Italy. Pharmacological activity of these plants is explored, based upon published scientific research (etic view). Preparation methods, taste perception, toxicity and various potentialities of some food plants are also discussed. The present review includes literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected from books, scientific papers, and abstracts that reported any plants used as food medicine in Italy. The perceived health properties were analyzed in the framework of recent international phytochemical and phytopharmacological literature. A total of 67 edible wild plants and 18 cultivated vegetables, distributed into 20 families, were reported by informants (in literature). Several plants were highly cited (e.g., Taraxacum officinale Webb., Crepis vesicaria L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.). The most frequent health properties attributed to edible plants by the informants were: laxative (22 species), diuretic (15), digestive (11), galactagogue (8), antitussive (cough) (8), hypotensive (7), tonic (7), sedative (7), hypoglycemic (6). Some edible plants are promising for their potential health properties, such as Crepis vesicaria L., Sanguisorba minor Scop. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Several wild species were perceived by informants to maintain health but have never been studied from a phytochemical or pharmacological point of view: e.g., Asparagus albus L., Crepis leontodontoides All., Hyoseris radiata L. subsp. radiata, Phyteuma spicatum L. Copyright © 2013

  19. Official control through AUDIT: implementation and responses in food industries falling within a Local Health Unit of Turin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Civera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports the results of audit activity on a number of food processing plants pertaining to ASLTO5. The activities, undertaken between 2008 and 2010, are related to an audit programme planning, implemented with 2 official controls for each plant, in 48 premises recognized under the Regulation (CE 854/2004, among those, 34 processing plants (cutting and processing of food of animal origin and 14 abattoirs. Data included in audit reports have been analyzed with Excel software, classifying detected non compliances (n.c. in 8 categories linked to specific food safety risk factors (structure, operative hygiene, personnel hygiene, pest control, temperature control, management of by-products, traceability, HACCP/records. By the time of the audit 83% of the inspected premises showed structural n.c.; structural aspects are the most critical point (121 n.c. out of 264, followed by operative hygiene (25% of total n.c. and pest control (13.6%. By the time of the second audit series, however, occurred a significant reduction of n.c. in both processing plants and abattoirs, falling from 264 to152, with a reduction of n.c. detection of more than 40%. The best response capacity among operators is related to pest control and HACCP plan/records. The audit procedure implemented, a part from providing a comprehensive and objective evaluation method of the food safety management system put in place by the operators, allowed, if compared to former procedures, a more objective and comprehensive evaluation of the n.c. trend and therefore of the food safety risk factors, estimating the efficacy of the control activity.

  20. Myelin vacuolation, optic neuropathy and retinal degeneration after closantel overdosage in sheep and in a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lugt, J J; Venter, I

    2007-01-01

    Toxicity of closantel, a halogenated salicylanilide anthelmintic, is described in 11 sheep and a goat, humanely killed 4-70 days after accidental overdosage. Status spongiosis of the cerebrum and cerebellum was present, its severity decreasing with time after treatment. Ultrastructurally, vacuoles in the cerebral white matter were seen to be intramyelinic due to splitting of myelin lamellae at the intraperiod lines, indicating myelin oedema. In the optic nerves, Wallerian degeneration and eventual fibrosis and atrophy of the nerves followed myelin vacuolation. Lesions in the optic nerves were particularly advanced in the intracanalicular portion, indicating a compressive neuropathy within the optic canal. Acute retinal lesions consisted of papilloedema, necrosis of the outer retinal layers (especially the photoreceptor layer), and retinal separation in tapetal and non-tapetal areas. In more chronic cases, the outer nuclear layer was diffusely attenuated and generally reduced to a single row of cells.

  1. Vacuole/extravacuole distribution of soluble protease in Hippeastrum petal and Triticum leaf protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.; Mulready, P.; Cutt, J.

    1981-11-01

    The subcellular distribution of soluble protease in anthesis-stage, anthocyanin-containing Hippeastrum cv. Dutch Red Hybrid petal protoplasts has been reevaluated and that of Triticum aestivum L. var. Red Coat leaf protoplasts determined using /sup 125/I-fibrin as a protease substrate and improved methods for protoplast and vacuole volume estimation. Results indicate that about 20% of the Hippeastrum petal-soluble protease and about 90% of the wheat leaf-soluble protease can be assigned to the vacuole. Protoplast isolation enzyme labeled with /sup 125/I has been used to assess the efficiency of removing isolation enzyme from protoplasts by repeated washing and by separation of protoplasts from debris using density centrifugation. Results of these studies suggest that protoplasts prepared by both methods retain low levels of isolation enzyme. However, when protoplasts prepared by either method were lysed with washing medium lacking osmoticum, little isolation enzyme contaminated the lysates.

  2. Organization of the cytoplasmic reticulum in the central vacuole of parenchyma cells in Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An elaborate and complex cytoplasmic reticulum composed of fine filaments and lamellae ranging from 0.1 to 4 microns in size is revealed by viewing the central vacuole of onion bulb parenchyma cells with the scanning election microscope. The larger cytoplasmic strands, visible with the light microscope, are composed of numerous smaller filaments (some tubular which might explain the observed bidirectional movement of particles in these larger strands. The finely divided cytoplasmic network of filaments is continuous with the parietal cytoplasm inclosing the vacuolar sap. In these highly vacuolated cells the mass of the protoplast is in the form of an intravacuolar reticulum immersed in the cell sap. The probable significance of the vacuolar sap in relation to physiological processes of the cell is discussed.

  3. An Acanthamoeba castellanii metacaspase associates with the contractile vacuole and functions in osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb, Entsar; Trzyna, Wendy; Bush, John

    2013-03-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living protozoan. Some strains are opportunistic pathogens. A type-I metacaspase was identified in A. castellanii (Acmcp) and was shown to be expressed through the encystation process. The model organism, Dictyostelium discoideum, has been used here as a model for studying these caspase-like proteins. Separate cell lines expressing a GFP-tagged version of the full length Acmcp protein, as well as a deletion proline region mutant of Acmcp protein (GFP-Acmcp-dpr), have been introduced into D. discoideum. Both mutants affect the cellular metabolism, characterized by an increase in the growth rate. Microscopic imaging revealed an association between Acmcp and the contractile vacuole system in D. discoideum. The treatment of cells with selected inhibitors in different environments added additional support to these findings. This evidence shows that Acmcp plays an important role in contractile vacuole regulation and mediated membrane trafficking in D. discoideum. Additionally, the severe defect in contractile vacuole function in GFP-Acmcp-dpr mutant cells suggests that the proline-rich region in Acmcp has an essential role in binding this protein with other partners to maintain this process. Furthermore, Yeast two-hybrid system identified there are weak interactions of the Dictyostelium contractile vacuolar proteins, including Calmodulin, RabD, Rab11 and vacuolar proton ATPase, with Acmcp protein. Taken together, our findings suggest that A. castellanii metacaspase associate with the contractile vacuole and have an essential role in cell osmoregulation, which contributes to its attractiveness as a possible target for treatment therapies against A. castellanii infection.

  4. Neospora caninum Recruits Host Cell Structures to Its Parasitophorous Vacuole and Salvages Lipids from Organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Sabrina J; Romano, Julia D; Luechtefeld, Thomas; Coppens, Isabelle

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, which cause the diseases toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, respectively, are two closely related apicomplexan parasites. They have similar heteroxenous life cycles and conserved genomes and share many metabolic features. Despite these similarities, T. gondii and N. caninum differ in their transmission strategies and zoonotic potential. Comparative analyses of the two parasites are important to identify the unique biological features that underlie the basis of host preference and pathogenicity. T. gondii and N. caninum are obligate intravacuolar parasites; in contrast to T. gondii, events that occur during N. caninum infection remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the capability of N. caninum (Liverpool isolate) to interact with host organelles and scavenge nutrients in comparison to that of T. gondii (RH strain). N. caninum reorganizes the host microtubular cytoskeleton and attracts endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and Golgi vesicles to its vacuole though with some notable differences from T. gondii. For example, the host ER gathers around the N. caninum parasitophorous vacuole (PV) but does not physically associate with the vacuolar membrane; the host Golgi apparatus surrounds the N. caninum PV but does not fragment into ministacks. N. caninum relies on plasma lipoproteins and scavenges cholesterol from NPC1-containing endocytic organelles. This parasite salvages sphingolipids from host Golgi Rab14 vesicles that it sequesters into its vacuole. Our data highlight a remarkable degree of conservation in the intracellular infection program of N. caninum and T. gondii. The minor differences between the two parasites related to the recruitment and rearrangement of host organelles around their vacuoles likely reflect divergent evolutionary paths.

  5. Interorganelle interactions and inheritance patterns of nuclei and vacuoles in budding yeast meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, I-Ting; Lin, Jyun-Liang; Chiang, Yi-Hsuan; Chuang, Yu-Chien; Liang, Shu-Shan; Chuang, Chi-Ning; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Wang, Ting-Fang

    2014-02-01

    Many of the mechanisms by which organelles are inherited by spores during meiosis are not well understood. Dramatic chromosome motion and bouquet formation are evolutionarily conserved characteristics of meiotic chromosomes. The budding yeast bouquet genes (NDJ1, MPS3, CSM4) mediate these movements via telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope (NE). Here, we report that during meiosis the NE is in direct contact with vacuoles via nucleus-vacuole junctions (NVJs). We show that in meiosis NVJs are assembled through the interaction of the outer NE-protein Nvj1 and the vacuolar membrane protein Vac8. Notably, NVJs function as diffusion barriers that exclude the nuclear pore complexes, the bouquet protein Mps3 and NE-tethered telomeres from the outer nuclear membrane and nuclear ER, resulting in distorted NEs during early meiosis. An increase in NVJ area resulting from Nvj1-GFP overexpression produced a moderate bouquet mutant-like phenotype in wild-type cells. NVJs, as the vacuolar contact sites of the nucleus, were found to undergo scission alongside the NE during meiotic nuclear division. The zygotic NE and NVJs were partly segregated into 4 spores. Lastly, new NVJs were also revealed to be synthesized de novo to rejoin the zygotic NE with the newly synthesized vacuoles in the mature spores. In conclusion, our results revealed that budding yeast nuclei and vacuoles exhibit dynamic interorganelle interactions and different inheritance patterns in meiosis, and also suggested that nvj1Δ mutant cells may be useful to resolve the technical challenges pertaining to the isolation of intact nuclei for the biochemical study of meiotic nuclear proteins.

  6. Determination of Glutathione and Its Redox Status in Isolated Vacuoles of Red Beetroot Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione of the red beetroot vacuoles (Beta vulgaris L. was measured using three well-known methods: the spectrofluorimetric method with orthophthalic aldehyde (OPT; the spectrophotometric method with 5.5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB; the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The content of reduced (GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG differed depending on the research method. With OPT the concentration of glutathione was: GSH – 0.059 µmol /mg protein; GSSG – 0.019 µmol/mg protein and total glutathione (GSHtotal – 0.097 µmol/mg protein. In the case of determining with DTNB the concentration of glutathione was: GSH – 0.091 µmol/mg protein; GSSG – 0.031 µmol/mg protein; GSHtotal – 0.153 µmol/mg protein. HPLC-defined concentration of glutathione was lower: GSH – 0.039 µmol/mg protein; GSSG – 0.007 µmol/mg protein; GSHtotal – 0.053 µmol/mg protein. Redox ratio of GSH/GSSG was also dependent on the method of determination: with OPT – 3.11; with DTNB – 2.96 and HPLC – 5.57. Redox ratio of glutathione in vacuoles was much lower than the tissue extracts of red beetroot, which, depending on the method of determination, was: 7.23, 7.16 and 9.22. The results showed the vacuoles of red beetroot parenchyma cells contain glutathione. Despite the low value of the redox ratio GSH/GSSG, in vacuoles the pool of reduced glutathione prevailed over the pool of oxidized glutathione.

  7. Oculopharyngeal Weakness, Hypophrenia, Deafness, and Impaired Vision: A Novel Autosomal Dominant Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Chen; Xiang-Hui Lu; Hui-Fang Wang; Rui Ban; Hua-Xu Liu; Qiang Shi; Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Myopathies with rimmed vacuoles are a heterogeneous group of muscle disorders with progressive muscle weakness and varied clinical manifestations but similar features in muscle biopsies.Here,we describe a novel autosomal dominant myopathy with rimmed vacuoles in a large family with 11 patients of three generations affected.Methods:A clinical study including family history,obstetric,pediatric,and development history was recorded.Clinical examinations including physical examination,electromyography (EMG),serum creatine kinase (CK),bone X-rays,and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in this family.Open muscle biopsies were performed on the proband and his mother.To find the causative gene,the whole-exome sequencing was carried out.Results:Disease onset was from adolescence to adulthood,but the affected patients of the third generation presented an earlier onset and more severe clinical manifestations than the older generations.Clinical features were characterized as dysarthria,dysphagia,external ophthalmoplegia,limb weakness,hypophrenia,deafness,and impaired vision.However,not every patient manifested all symptoms.Serum CK was mildly elevated and EMG indicated a myopathic pattern.Brain MRI showed cerebellum and brain stem mildly atrophy.Rimmed vacuoles and inclusion bodies were observed in muscle biopsy.The whole-exome sequencing was performed,but the causative gene has not been found.Conclusions:We reported a novel autosomal dominant myopathy with rimmed vacuoles characterized by dysarthria,dysphagia,external ophthalmoplegia,limb weakness,hypophrenia,deafness,and impaired vision,but the causative gene has not been found and needs further study.

  8. Characterization of the Vacuolating Cytotoxin in Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Oghalaie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori cytotoxin and its heterogeneity amongst strains hasbeen closely linked to the varying infection-associated clinical outcomes. In order to determinethe decisive role of the vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA gene mosaicism in its corresponding geneexpression and phenotype, we aimed to characterize vacA alleles of different H. pylori strainsin addition to the resulting protein and its vacuolating activity in epithelial cell culture.Materials and Methods: vacA gene polymorphism was determined for 80 H. pylori strainsisolated from dyspeptic patients, using multiplex gene-specific polymerase chain reaction(PCR. VacA protein was detected by immuno-blotting assay using a polyclonal anti-VacAantibody. In vitro cytotoxicity assay was conducted on HeLa cells in order to evaluate thevacuolating cytotoxin activity.Results: Genotyping revealed the following strain distribution: 26 (32.5% s1m1, 35(43.8% s1m2, and 19 (23.8% s2m2 subtypes. Infection with s1m1 type strain was significantlyassociated with gastric cancer as compared to non-ulcer dyspepsia (p=0.005and peptic ulcer disease (p=0.008. A 95-kDa immuno-reactive band that represented thevacuolating toxin was demonstrated in SDS-PAGE analysis of concentrated culture filtrate(CCF of H. pylori strains. H. pylori CCFs induced HeLa cell vacuolation which correlatedwith the strain genotype; s1m1 strains demonstrated higher levels of vacuolation as comparedto s1m2 strains, whereas s2m2 strains showed no detectable cytotoxic activity.Conclusion: The current study confirmed the relatively high cytotoxic activity of s1m1type H. pylori strains which infect the majority of patients suffering from gastric cancer andmay be partly responsible for the pathogenesis of this mortal disease.

  9. Mitochondrial Extrusion through the Cytoplasmic Vacuoles during Cell Death*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Akihito; Kurihara, Hidetake; Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko; Nakano, Hiroyasu

    2008-01-01

    Under various conditions, noxious stimuli damage mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial fragmentation; however, the mechanisms by which fragmented mitochondria are eliminated from the cells remain largely unknown. Here we show that cytoplasmic vacuoles originating from the plasma membrane engulfed fragmented mitochondria and subsequently extruded them into the extracellular spaces in undergoing acute tumor necrosis factor α-induced cell death in a caspase-dependent f...

  10. Large nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa negatively affect pregnancy rate in IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Shahin; Talebi, Ali Reza; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Esfandiari, Navid

    2015-07-01

    Recently, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) criteria as a new real time tool for evaluation of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles has been considered. The aim was to investigate the predictive value of MSOME in in vitro fertilization (IVF) in comparison to ICSI cycles and evaluation of the association between MSOME parameters and traditional sperm parameters in both groups. This is a cross sectional prospective analysis of MSOME parameters in IVF (n=31) and ICSI cycles (n=35). MSOME parameters were also evaluated as the presence of vacuole (none, small, medium, large or mix); head size (normal, small or large); cytoplasmic droplet; head shape and acrosome normality. In sub-analysis, MSOME parameters were compared between two groups with successful or failed clinical pregnancy in each group. In IVF group, the rate of large nuclear vacuole showed significant increase in failed as compared to successful pregnancies (13.81±9.7vs7.38±4.4, respectively, p=0.045) while MSOME parameters were the same between successful and failed pregnancies in ICSI group. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between LNV and sperm shape normalcy. In ICSI group, a negative correlation was established between cytoplasmic droplet and sperm shape normalcy. In addition, there was a positive correlation between sperm shape normalcy and non-vacuolated spermatozoa. The high rate of large nuclear vacuoles in sperm used in IVF cycles with failed pregnancies confirms that MSOME, is a helpful tool for fine sperm morphology assessment, and its application may enhance the assisted reproduction technology success rates.

  11. Large nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa negatively affect pregnancy rate in IVF cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Ghazali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME criteria as a new real time tool for evaluation of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles has been considered. Objective: The aim was to investigate the predictive value of MSOME in in vitro fertilization (IVF in comparison to ICSI cycles and evaluation of the association between MSOME parameters and traditional sperm parameters in both groups. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional prospective analysis of MSOME parameters in IVF (n=31 and ICSI cycles (n=35. MSOME parameters were also evaluated as the presence of vacuole (none, small, medium, large or mix; head size (normal, small or large; cytoplasmic droplet; head shape and acrosome normality. In sub-analysis, MSOME parameters were compared between two groups with successful or failed clinical pregnancy in each group. Results: In IVF group, the rate of large nuclear vacuole showed significant increase in failed as compared to successful pregnancies (13.81±9.7vs7.38±4.4, respectively, p=0.045 while MSOME parameters were the same between successful and failed pregnancies in ICSI group. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between LNV and sperm shape normalcy. In ICSI group, a negative correlation was established between cytoplasmic droplet and sperm shape normalcy. In addition, there was a positive correlation between sperm shape normalcy and non-vacuolated spermatozoa. Conclusion: The high rate of large nuclear vacuoles in sperm used in IVF cycles with failed pregnancies confirms that MSOME, is a helpful tool for fine sperm morphology assessment, and its application may enhance the assisted reproduction technology success rates.

  12. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA-containing vacuoles (VCVs), VacA intracellular trafficking and interference with calcium signalling in T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Beate; Jain, Utkarsh; Utsch, Ciara; Otto, Andreas; Busch, Benjamin; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa; Becher, Dörte; Haas, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the global population. Residing at the stomach epithelium, it contributes to the development of diseases such as gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer. A major factor is the secreted vacuolating toxin VacA, which forms anion-selective channels in the endosome membrane that cause the compartment to swell, but the composition and purpose of the resulting VacA-containing vacuoles (VCVs) are still unknown. VacA exerts influence on the host immune response in various ways, including inhibition of T-cell activation and proliferation and suppression of the host immune response. In this study, for the first time the composition of VCVs from T cells was comprehensively analysed to investigate VCV function. VCVs were successfully isolated via immunomagnetic separation, and the purified vacuoles were analysed by mass spectrometry. We detected a set of 122 VCV-specific proteins implicated among others in immune response, cell death and cellular signalling processes, all of which VacA is known to influence. One of the individual proteins studied further was stromal interaction molecule (STIM1), a calcium sensor residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is important in store-operated calcium entry. Live cell imaging microscopy data demonstrated colocalization of VacA with STIM1 in the ER and indicated that VacA may interfere with the movement of STIM1 towards the plasma membrane-localized calcium release activated calcium channel protein ORAI1 in response to Ca(2+) store depletion. Furthermore, VacA inhibited the increase of cytosolic-free Ca(2+) in the Jurkat E6-1 T-cell line and human CD4(+) T cells. The presence of VacA in the ER and its trafficking to the Golgi apparatus was confirmed in HeLa cells, identifying these two cellular compartments as novel VacA target structures.

  13. Mutations that affect vacuole biogenesis inhibit proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ann J; Larson, Lynnelle L; Cadera, Emily J; Parrish, Mark L; Wright, Robin L

    2002-04-01

    In yeast, increased levels of the sterol biosynthetic enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase isozyme, Hmg1p, induce assembly of nuclear-associated ER membranes called karmellae. To identify additional genes involved in karmellae assembly, we screened temperature-sensitive mutants for karmellae assembly defects. Two independently isolated, temperature-sensitive strains that were also defective for karmellae biogenesis carried mutations in VPS16, a gene involved in vacuolar protein sorting. Karmellae biogenesis was defective in all 13 other vacuole biogenesis mutants tested, although the severity of the karmellae assembly defect varied depending on the particular mutation. The hypersensitivity of 14 vacuole biogenesis mutants to tunicamycin was well correlated with pronounced defects in karmellae assembly, suggesting that the karmellae assembly defect reflected alteration of ER structure or function. Consistent with this hypothesis, seven of eight mutations causing defects in secretion also affected karmellae assembly. However, the vacuole biogenesis mutants were able to proliferate their ER in response to Hmg2p, indicating that the mutants did not have a global defect in the process of ER biogenesis.

  14. [Effect of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase on the activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh, 1 microM) stimulates activity of the contractile vacuole of proteus. The effect of ACh is not mimicked by its analogs which are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), i. e., carbacholine and 5-methylfurmethide. The effect of ACh is not sensitive to the blocking action of M-cholinolytics, atropine and mytolone, but is suppressed by N-cholinolytic, tubocurarine. The inhibitors of AChE, eserine (0.01 microM) and armine (0.1 microM), suppress the effect of ACh on amoeba contractile vacuole. ACh does not affect activation of contractile vacuole induced by arginine-vasopressin (1 microM), but it blocks such effect of opiate receptors agonist, dynorphin A1-13 (0.01 microM). This effect of ACh is also suppressed by the inhibitors of AChE. These results suggest that, in the above-described effects of ACh, AChE acts not as an antagonist, but rather as a synergist.

  15. Vacuolization and apoptosis induced by nano-selenium in HeLa cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Selenium(Se),a potential drug candidate for cancer prevention,has a special property:Its nutritional dosage and tolerable upper intake level appear in a narrow range,while the therapeutic use of this mineral may depend on a higher body intake level.Nano-selenium(nano-Se) particles,however,preserve the selenium element’s low toxicity characteristic but give a high biochemical activity effect of selenium compounds.In the present study different morphologies of synthesized nano-Se were evaluated concerning its anti-proliferation and apoptosis-inducing effect.Then nano-Se(sphere) were picked out to investigate its influence on two significant events involved in apoptosis,cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption.Furthermore,massive vacuolization of HeLa cells treated by nano-Se(sphere) was observed and more methods were used to measure the level of vacuolization.Such vacuolization needs energy supply and has been demonstrated to be related to Se endocytosis.These results suggest a possible mechanism to trigger apoptosis initiation.

  16. Vacuole import and degradation pathway:Insights into a specialized autophagy pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas; A; Alibhoy; Hui-Ling; Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Glucose deprivation induces the synthesis of pivotagluconeogenic enzymes such as fructose-1,6-bisphos-phatase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxykinase and isocitrate lyase in Saccharomycescerevisiae. However, following glucose replenishment,these gluconeogenic enzymes are inactivated and de-graded. Studies have characterized the mechanismsby which these enzymes are inactivated in response toglucose. The site of degradation of these proteins hasalso been ascertained to be dependent on the dura-tion of starvation. Glucose replenishment of short-termstarved cells results in these proteins being degradedin the proteasome. In contrast, addition of glucose tocells starved for a prolonged period results in theseproteins being degraded in the vacuole. In the vacuoledependent pathway, these proteins are sequestered inspecialized vesicles termed vacuole import and degra-dation (Vid). These vesicles converge with the endo-cytic pathway and deliver their cargo to the vacuolefor degradation. Recent studies have identified thatinternalization, as mediated by actin polymerization, isessential for delivery of cargo proteins to the vacuolefor degradation. In addition, components of the targetof rapamycin complex 1 interact with cargo proteins during glucose starvation. Furthermore, Tor1p dissoci-ates from cargo proteins following glucose replenish-ment. Future studies will be needed to elaborate on the importance of internalization at the plasma membrane and the subsequent import of cargo proteins into Vid vesicles in the vacuole dependent degradation pathway.

  17. Methods to monitor autophagy in H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA)-treated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Deepa; Jones, Nicola L

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative pathogen that infects at least half of the world's population and is associated not only with gastric cancer but also with other diseases such as gastritis and peptic ulcers. Indeed, H. pylori is considered the single most important risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. The vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, secreted by H. pylori, promotes intracellular survival of the bacterium and modulates host immune responses. In a recent study, we reported that VacA induces autophagy. Multilamellar autophagosomes are detected in gastric epithelial cells that are distinct from the large vacuoles formed by VacA. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy stabilizes VacA and reduces vacuolation in the cells indicating that the toxin is being degraded by autophagy, thus limiting toxin-induced host cell damage. Many of the methods that were used for this study are commonly employed techniques that were adapted for H. pylori infection and VacA intoxication. In this paper, we describe the various methods and specific protocols used for the assessment and monitoring of autophagy during H. pylori infection.

  18. Ergosteryl-β-glucosidase (Egh1) involved in sterylglucoside catabolism and vacuole formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Tani, Motohiro; Ishibashi, Yohei; Endo, Ikumi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Sterylglucosides (SGs) are composed of a glucose and sterol derivatives, and are distributed in fungi, plants and mammals. We recently identified EGCrP1 and EGCrP2 (endoglycoceramidase-related proteins 1 and 2) as a β-glucocerebrosidase and steryl-β-glucosidase, respectively, in Cryptococcus neoformans. We herein describe an EGCrP2 homologue (Egh1; ORF name, Yir007w) involved in SG catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The purified recombinant Egh1 hydrolyzed various β-glucosides including ergosteryl β-glucoside (EG), cholesteryl β-glucoside, sitosteryl β-glucoside, para-nitrophenyl β-glucoside, 4-methylumberifellyl β-glucoside and glucosylceramide. The disruption of EGH1 in S. cerevisiae BY4741 (egh1Δ) resulted in the accumulation of EG and fragmentation of vacuoles. The expression of EGH1 in egh1Δ (revertant) reduced the accumulation of EG, and restored the morphology of vacuoles. The accumulation of EG was not detected in EGH1 and UGT51(ATG26) double-disrupted mutants (ugt51Δegh1Δ), indicating that EG was synthesized by Ugt51(Atg26) and degraded by Egh1 in vivo. These results clearly demonstrated that Egh1 is an ergosteryl-β-glucosidase that is functionally involved in the EG catabolic pathway and vacuole formation in S. cerevisiae.

  19. Effect of the local microenvironment on survival and thermal inactivation of Salmonella in low- and intermediate-moisture multi-ingredient foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiping; Fu, Xiaowen; Bima, Yige; Koontz, John; Megalis, Christina; Yang, Fei; Fleischman, Gregory; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Multi-ingredient foods having low- or intermediate-moisture characteristics may pose a special challenge to process design and validation. Ingredients of these foods can create local microenvironments that may have a distinct impact on pathogen survival and processing requirements. In this study, two model systems, each consisting of 80% commercial peanut butter (P) and 20% nonfat dry milk powder (M), were formulated to be identical in composition, but different in the source of the Salmonella contamination as originating in either the ingredient P or M. Immediately after inoculation, Salmonella showed a 2.0-log reduction when M was the contaminated ingredient compared with a 0.6-log reduction when P was the contaminated ingredient. This pattern of survival was consistent with the single-ingredient control containing only M (2.5-log reduction) or only P (0.7-log reduction), suggesting that the immediate proximity of cells is determined by the contaminated ingredient in the model system. After 5 weeks of storage, the survival rates of Salmonella in the two systems remained different, i.e.a 4- and 2-log reduction resulted in the system with M or P as the contaminated ingredient, respectively. Furthermore, thermal inactivation efficacies also differed significantly between the two systems. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the nonhomogeneous distribution of water, lipid, and protein, indicating that varied local microenvironments were present and likely affected the behavior of the pathogen. The impact of the microenvironment on inactivation and survival of Salmonella was further confirmed in a butter cookie formulation in which Salmonella was inoculated via four different ingredients. This study shows that the local microenvironment in low- and intermediate-moisture foods affects Salmonella survival and thermal inactivation. The ingredient source of the contamination should be taken into account for process design and validation to ensure the

  20. Associations of the local food environment with diet quality--a comparison of assessments based on surveys and geographic information systems: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Jacobs, David R

    2008-04-15

    There is growing interest in understanding how food environments affect diet, but characterizing the food environment is challenging. The authors investigated the relation between global diet measures (an empirically derived "fats and processed meats" (FPM) dietary pattern and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)) and three complementary measures of the local food environment: 1) supermarket density, 2) participant-reported assessments, and 3) aggregated survey responses of independent informants. Data were derived from the baseline examination (2000-2002) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a US study of adults aged 45-84 years. A healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top or bottom quintile of AHEI or FPM, respectively. The probability of having a healthy diet was modeled by each environment measure using binomial regression. Participants with no supermarkets near their homes were 25-46% less likely to have a healthy diet than those with the most stores, after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic indicators: The relative probability of a healthy diet for the lowest store density category versus the highest was 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.95) for the AHEI and 0.54 (95% confidence interval: 0.42, 0.70) for FPM. Similarly, participants living in areas with the worst-ranked food environments (by participants or informants) were 22-35% less likely to have a healthy diet than those in the best-ranked food environments. Efforts to improve diet may benefit from combining individual and environmental approaches.

  1. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardini, Maria Pia; Carli, Marco; del Vecchio, Nicola; Rovati, Ariele; Cova, Ottavia; Valigi, Francesco; Agnetti, Gaia; Macconi, Martina; Adamo, Daniela; Traina, Mario; Laudini, Francesco; Marcheselli, Ilaria; Caruso, Nicolò; Gedda, Tiziano; Donati, Fabio; Marzadro, Alessandro; Russi, Paola; Spaggiari, Caterina; Bianco, Marcella; Binda, Riccardo; Barattieri, Elisa; Tognacci, Alice; Girardo, Martina; Vaschetti, Luca; Caprino, Piero; Sesti, Erika; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Coletto, Erika; Belzer, Gabriele; Pieroni, Andrea

    2007-05-04

    A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.). One taxon (Borago officinalis) in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having a continued effort on

  2. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binda Riccardo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.. One taxon (Borago officinalis in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having

  3. Proteolytic Activation of the Essential Parasitophorous Vacuole Cysteine Protease SERA6 Accompanies Malaria Parasite Egress from Its Host Erythrocyte*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Andrea; Shea, Michael; Hackett, Fiona; Suarez, Catherine; Hirst, Elizabeth M. A.; Milutinovic, Katarina; Withers-Martinez, Chrislaine; Blackman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The malaria parasite replicates within an intraerythrocytic parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV and host cell membranes eventually rupture, releasing merozoites in a process called egress. Certain inhibitors of serine and cysteine proteases block egress, indicating a crucial role for proteases. The Plasmodium falciparum genome encodes nine serine-repeat antigens (SERAs), each of which contains a central domain homologous to the papain-like (clan CA, family C1) protease family. SERA5 and SERA6 are indispensable in blood-stage parasites, but the function of neither is known. Here we show that SERA6 localizes to the PV where it is precisely cleaved just prior to egress by an essential serine protease called PfSUB1. Mutations that replace the predicted catalytic Cys of SERA6, or that block SERA6 processing by PfSUB1, could not be stably introduced into the parasite genomic sera6 locus, indicating that SERA6 is an essential enzyme and that processing is important for its function. We demonstrate that cleavage of SERA6 by PfSUB1 converts it to an active cysteine protease. Our observations reveal a proteolytic activation step in the malarial PV that may be required for release of the parasite from its host erythrocyte. PMID:22984267

  4. Polyketide synthase (PKS) reduces fusion of Legionella pneumophila-containing vacuoles with lysosomes and contributes to bacterial competitiveness during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, Olga; Pägelow, Dennis; Rasch, Janine; Döhrmann, Simon; Günther, Gabriele; Hoppe, Julia; Ünal, Can Murat; Bronietzki, Marc; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel; Steinert, Michael

    2014-11-01

    L. pneumophila-containing vacuoles (LCVs) exclude endocytic and lysosomal markers in human macrophages and protozoa. We screened a L. pneumophila mini-Tn10 transposon library for mutants, which fail to inhibit the fusion of LCVs with lysosomes by loading of the lysosomal compartment with colloidal iron dextran, mechanical lysis of infected host cells, and magnetic isolation of LCVs that have fused with lysosomes. In silico analysis of the mutated genes, D. discoideum plaque assays and infection assays in protozoa and U937 macrophage-like cells identified well established as well as novel putative L. pneumophila virulence factors. Promising candidates were further analyzed for their co-localization with lysosomes in host cells using fluorescence microscopy. This approach corroborated that the O-methyltransferase, PilY1, TPR-containing protein and polyketide synthase (PKS) of L. pneumophila interfere with lysosomal degradation. Competitive infections in protozoa and macrophages revealed that the identified PKS contributes to the biological fitness of pneumophila strains and may explain their prevalence in the epidemiology of Legionnaires' disease.

  5. TcPho91 is a contractile vacuole phosphate sodium symporter that regulates phosphate and polyphosphate metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Veronica; Docampo, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    We have identified a phosphate transporter (TcPho91) localized to the bladder of the contractile vacuole complex (CVC) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. TcPho91 has 12 transmembrane domains, an N-terminal regulatory SPX (named after SYG1, Pho81 and XPR1) domain and an anion permease domain. Functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by two-electrode voltage clamp showed that TcPho91 is a low-affinity transporter with a Km for Pi in the millimolar range, and sodium-dependency. Epimastigotes overexpressing TcPho91-green fluorescent protein have significantly higher levels of pyrophosphate (PPi ) and short-chain polyphosphate (polyP), suggesting accumulation of Pi in these cells. Moreover, when overexpressing parasites were maintained in a medium with low Pi , they grew at higher rates than control parasites. Only one allele of TcPho91 in the CL strain encodes for the complete open reading frame, while the other one is truncated encoding for only the N-terminal domain. Taking advantage of this characteristic, knockdown experiments were performed resulting in cells with reduced growth rate as well as a reduction in PPi and short-chain polyP levels. Our results indicate that TcPho91 is a phosphate sodium symporter involved in Pi homeostasis in T. cruzi.

  6. Mediterranean diet as a nutrition education and dietary guide: misconceptions and the neglected role of locally consumed foods and wild green plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Detopoulou, Vivian; Visioli, Francesco; Galli, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    In the middle of the previous century the Seven Countries Study first revealed the health benefits of the traditional Cretan diet. The Cretan diet was subsequently used as a basis to form the worldwide known 'Mediterranean diet'. This dietary scheme was visualized as a food pyramid, aimed to constitute a nutrition education tool and guide for the general public and scientific community. However, the way this dietary guide has been perceived by both the public and in certain cases by the scientific community may be oversimplified. From the nutritional point of view, some of the neglected parts of this diet concern the role of locally consumed wild greens, herbs, walnuts, figs and snails, all sources of n-3 fatty acids. The above foods with the addition of fish provide a n-6:n-3 ratio of 2:1 whereas in Northern Europe and the USA the same ratio is 10-20:1. Moreover, the flavonoid and antioxidant content of the traditional Cretan diet may have been underestimated. Despite the increasing knowledge on the bioprotective profile of the traditional Cretan diet, there is a need to revisit the way this knowledge is transferred to the public emphasizing the importance of some neglected food items and nutrients.

  7. Low-cost, ready-to-use therapeutic foods can be designed using locally available commodities with the aid of linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibari, Filippo; Diop, El Hadji I; Collins, Steven; Seal, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    According to the United Nations (UN), 25 million children linear programming (LP) analysis was developed and piloted in the design of a RUTF prototype for the treatment of wasting in East African children and adults. The LP objective function and decision variables consisted of the lowest formulation price and the weights of the chosen commodities (soy, sorghum, maize, oil, and sugar), respectively. The LP constraints were based on current UN recommendations for the macronutrient content of therapeutic food and included palatability, texture, and maximum food ingredient weight criteria. Nonlinear constraints for nutrient ratios were converted to linear equations to allow their use in LP. The formulation was considered accurate if laboratory results confirmed an energy density difference <10% and a protein or lipid difference <5 g · 100 g(-1) compared to the LP formulation estimates. With this test prototype, the differences were 7%, and 2.3 and -1.0 g · 100 g(-1), respectively, and the formulation accuracy was considered good. LP can contribute to the design of ready-to-use foods (therapeutic, supplementary, or complementary), targeting different forms of malnutrition, while using commodities that are cheaper, regionally available, and meet local cultural preferences. However, as with all prototype feeding products for medical use, composition analysis, safety, acceptability, and clinical effectiveness trials must be conducted to validate the formulation.

  8. Food allergy alters jejunal circular muscle contractility and induces local inflammatory cytokine expression in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovanen Petri T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that food allergy causes a state of non-specific jejunal dysmotility. This was tested in a mouse model. Methods Balb/c mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin and challenged with 10 intragastric ovalbumin administrations every second day. Smooth muscle contractility of isolated circular jejunal sections was studied in organ bath with increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol. Smooth muscle layer thickness and mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1 positive cell density were assayed histologically. Serum MMCP-1 and immunoglobulins were quantified by ELISA, and mRNA expressions of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and TGFβ-1 from jejunal and ileal tissue segments were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Results Ovalbumin-specific serum IgE correlated with jejunal MMCP-1+ cell density. In the allergic mice, higher concentrations of carbachol were required to reach submaximal muscular stimulation, particularly in preparations derived from mice with diarrhoea. Decreased sensitivity to carbachol was associated with increased expression of IL-4 and IL-6 mRNA in jejunum. Smooth muscle layer thickness, as well as mRNA of IFN-γ and TGF-β1 remained unchanged. Conclusion In this mouse model of food allergy, we demonstrated a decreased response to a muscarinic agonist, and increased levels of proinflammatory IL-6 and Th2-related IL-4, but not Th1-related IFN-γ mRNAs in jejunum. IgE levels in serum correlated with the number of jejunal MMCP-1+ cells, and predicted diarrhoea. Overall, these changes may reflect a protective mechanism of the gut in food allergy.

  9. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits and also the maximum residue limits (MRL regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015. MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice. This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets and 99% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets and 100% (supermarkets for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets and 97% (supermarkets for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets and 35% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets and 55% (supermarkets for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets and 49% (supermarkets for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold

  10. Land Use Dynamics, Climate Change, and Food Security in Vietnam: A Global-to-local Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.; Dijk, van M.; Rooij, van W.; Hilderink, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present an innovative global-to-local modeling approach to analyze impacts of uncertain and complex futures on Vietnam’s economy via changes in land use patterns. Socio-economic changes are shown to have major implications for the Vietnamese landscape, including natural forest losses with

  11. Land Use Dynamics, Climate Change, and Food Security in Vietnam: A Global-to-local Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.; Dijk, van M.; Rooij, van W.; Hilderink, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present an innovative global-to-local modeling approach to analyze impacts of uncertain and complex futures on Vietnam’s economy via changes in land use patterns. Socio-economic changes are shown to have major implications for the Vietnamese landscape, including natural forest losses with negativ

  12. Research on the Making of Local Food Safety Standard%地方食品安全标准制定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕怡

    2014-01-01

    地方食品安全标准制定既要强调其合法性又要强调其合理性,合法性的实现多仰赖于行政机关的规范守法;合理性的实现,则着重于以多元化的视角对各种观点加以整合平衡。针对实践中食品安全中较为常见的问题,食品安全标准的制定须注重标准制定与标准执行的连贯性,提升食品安全标准的公信力,强化非政府组织的作用,引导公民对市场作用的理性思考。%The making of local food safety standard should necessarily emphasize its legitimacy and rational-ity. The legitimacy relies more on the specification and compliance of administrative organs and the ratio-nality focuses on the integrative balance of diverse perspectives and various viewpoints. Based on these principles and treated at common problems in food safety in practice, the paper proposes that the making of the food safety standard must focus on the consistency of standard making and standard implementation, en-hance the credibility of the food safety standard, strengthen the role of NGO and guide citizens to think the role of the market rationally.

  13. The PIP training programme: building of ACP experts capacities in crop protection and food safety to support local companies to comply with EU regulations on pesticides residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffers, B C; Schubert, A; Schiffers, C; Fontaine, S; Gumusboga, N; Werner, B; Webb, M; Lugros, H; Stinglhamber, G

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory requirements, and in particular phytosanitary quality standards change rapidly. As ACP producers/exporters race to become more competitive, to keep their market share and to satisfay their customers' commercial demands (e.g. EUREP-GAP certification), the need for competent staff who are aware of the company's quality objectives and trained to follow instructions is crucial. Mastering sanitary quality is only possible if matched with a programme to build the skills of companies' human resources. The Pesticide Initiative Programme (PIP), mindful of the importance of making operators autonomous and of training them to monitor EU food safety regulations and technology on their own, has successfully developed a training programme while building a quality network of local/ACP service providers. By building the capacities of ACP experts and then securing their services as trainers, PIP also guarantees companies' access to expertise and the sustainability of their efforts to comply with new EU regulations. The training strategy developed by PIP rests on two pilars: instructor training and collective training. Instructor training consists in reinforcing the technical knowledge of local experts (agronomists, hygienists, etc.) by providing them with active teaching methods. Once the ACP experts have gained enough technical knowledge of the key areas of crop protection--mainly pesticides management--and food safety, and have demonstrated their capacity to train the technical staff of local companies, the PIP has carried out a collective training programme in 2004, 2005 and 2006. To date, more than 130 consultants covering about 15 ACP countries have received instructor training, and more than 700 people have participated in collective and in-company training sessions.

  14. OsGAP1 functions as a positive regulator of OsRab11-mediated TGN to PM or vacuole trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae Bok; Rho, Hee Sun; Kim, Se Won; Hwang, Sung Min; Kwon, Hyun Jin; Nahm, Min Yeop; Bang, Woo Young; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2005-12-01

    The Ypt/Rab family of small G-proteins is important in regulating vesicular transport. Rabs hydrolyze GTP very slowly on their own and require GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Here we report the identification and characterization of OsGAP1, a Rab-specific rice GAP. OsGAP1 strongly stimulated OsRab8a and OsRab11, which are homologs of the mammalian Rab8 and Rab11 proteins that are essential for Golgi to plasma membrane (PM) and trans-Golgi network (TGN) to PM trafficking, respectively. Substitution of two invariant arginines within the catalytic domain of Oryza sativa GTPase-activating protein 1 (OsGAP1) with alanines significantly inhibited its GAP activity. In vivo targeting experiments revealed that OsGAP1 localizes to the TGN or pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC). A yeast expression system demonstrated that wild-type OsGAP1 facilitates O. sativa dissociation inhibitor 3 (OsGDI3)-catalyzed OsRab11 recycling at an early stage, but the OsGAP1(R385A) and (R450A) mutants do not. Thus, GTP hydrolysis is essential for Rab recycling. Moreover, expression of the OsGAP1 mutants in Arabidopsis protoplasts inhibited the trafficking of some cargo proteins, including the PM-localizing H+-ATPase-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Ca2+-ATPase8-GFP and the central vacuole-localizing Arabidopsis aleurain-like protein (AALP)-GFP. The OsGAP1 mutants caused these proteins to accumulate at the Golgi apparatus. Surprisingly, OsRab11 overproduction relieved the inhibitory effect of the OsGAP1 mutants on vesicular trafficking. OsRab8a had no such effect. Thus, the OsGAP1 mutants may inhibit TGN to PM or central vacuole trafficking because they induce the sequestration of endogenous Rab11. We propose that OsGAP1 facilitates vesicular trafficking from the TGN to the PM or central vacuole by both stimulating the GTPase activity of OsRab11 and increasing the recycling of inactive OsRab11.

  15. Changes in vacuolation in the root apex cells of soybean seedlings in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Kordyum, E. L.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Chapman, D. K.; Brown, C. S.

    2003-05-01

    Changes in the vacuolation in root apex cells of soybean ( Glycine max L. [Merr.]) seedlings grown in microgravity were investigated. Spaceflight and ground control seedlings were grown in the absence or presence of KMnO 4 (to remove ethylene) for 6 days. After landing, in order to study of cell ultrastructure and subcellular free calcium ion distribution, seedling root apices were fixed in 2.5% (w/v) glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer and 2% (w/v) glutaraldehyde, 2.5% (w/v) formaldehyde, 2% (w/v) potassium antimonate K[Sb(OH) 6] in 0.1 M K 2HPO 4 buffer with an osmolarity (calculated theoretically) of 0.45 and 1.26 osmol. The concentrations of ethylene in all spaceflight canisters were significantly higher than in the ground control canisters. Seedling growth was reduced in the spaceflight-exposed plants. Additionally, the spaceflight-exposed plants exhibited progressive vacuolation in the root apex cells, particularly in the columella cells, to a greater degree than the ground controls. Plasmolysis was observed in columella cells of spaceflight roots fixed in solutions with relatively high osmolarity (1.26 osmol). The appearance of plasmolysis permitted the evaluation of the water status of cells. The water potential of the spaceflight cells was higher than the surrounding fixative solution. A decrease in osmotic potential and/or an increase in turgor potential may have induced increases in cell water potential. However, the plasmolysed (i.e. nonturgid) cells implied that increases in water potential were accompanied with a decrease in osmotic potential. In such cells changes in vacuolation may have been involved to maintain turgor pressure or may have been a result of intensification of other vacuolar functions like digestion and storage

  16. The Vtc proteins in vacuole fusion: coupling NSF activity to V(0) trans-complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Oliver; Bayer, Martin J; Peters, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    vacuole system has revealed two subsequent molecular events: trans-complex formation of V-ATPase proteolipid sectors (V(0)) and release of LMA1 from the membrane. We have now identified a hetero-oligomeric membrane integral complex of vacuolar transporter chaperone (Vtc) proteins integrating these events......, LMA1 release, but dispensible for all preceding steps, including V(0) trans-complex formation. This suggests that Vtc3p might act close to or at fusion pore opening. We propose that Vtc proteins may couple ATP-dependent NSF activity to a subset of V(0) sectors in order to activate them for V(0) trans...

  17. Static Clathrin Assemblies at the Peripheral Vacuole-Plasma Membrane Interface of the Parasitic Protozoan Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumthor, Jon Paulin; Cernikova, Lenka; Rout, Samuel; Kaech, Andres; Faso, Carmen; Hehl, Adrian B

    2016-07-01

    Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protozoan that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. Trophozoites are non-invasive but associate tightly with the enterocyte surface of the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive morphological and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution, including a distinctly polarized array of endocytic organelles termed peripheral vacuoles (PVs), which are confined to the dorsal cortical region exposed to the gut lumen and are in close proximity to the plasma membrane (PM). Here, we investigated the molecular consequences of these adaptations on the Giardia endocytic machinery and membrane coat complexes. Despite the absence of canonical clathrin coated vesicles in electron microscopy, Giardia possesses conserved PV-associated clathrin heavy chain (GlCHC), dynamin-related protein (GlDRP), and assembly polypeptide complex 2 (AP2) subunits, suggesting a novel function for GlCHC and its adaptors. We found that, in contrast to GFP-tagged AP2 subunits and DRP, CHC::GFP reporters have no detectable turnover in living cells, indicating fundamental differences in recruitment to the membrane and disassembly compared to previously characterized clathrin coats. Histochemical localization in electron tomography showed that these long-lived GlCHC assemblies localized at distinctive approximations between the plasma and PV membrane. A detailed protein interactome of GlCHC revealed all of the conserved factors in addition to novel or highly diverged proteins, including a putative clathrin light chain and lipid-binding proteins. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence for giardial CHC as a component of highly stable assemblies at PV-PM junctions that likely have a central role in organizing continuities between the PM and PV membranes for controlled sampling of the fluid environment. This suggests a novel function for CHC in Giardia and the extent of molecular remodeling of

  18. Evaluation of global sequence comparison and one-to-one FASTA local alignment in regulatory allergenicity assessment of transgenic proteins in food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping; Herman, Rod A; Kumpatla, Siva

    2014-09-01

    To address the high false positive rate using >35% identity over 80 amino acids in the regulatory assessment of transgenic proteins for potential allergenicity and the change of E-value with database size, the Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment and a one-to-one (1:1) local FASTA search (one protein in the target database at a time) using FASTA were evaluated by comparing proteins randomly selected from Arabidopsis, rice, corn, and soybean with known allergens in a peer-reviewed allergen database (http://www.allergenonline.org/). Compared with the approach of searching >35%/80aa+, the false positive rate measured by specificity rate for identification of true allergens was reduced by a 1:1 global sequence alignment with a cut-off threshold of ≧30% identity and a 1:1 FASTA local alignment with a cut-off E-value of ≦1.0E-09 while maintaining the same sensitivity. Hence, a 1:1 sequence comparison, especially using the FASTA local alignment tool with a biological relevant E-value of 1.0E-09 as a threshold, is recommended for the regulatory assessment of sequence identities between transgenic proteins in food crops and known allergens.

  19. Isolation of bacteriocin - producing lactic acid bacteria from 'Ugba' and 'Okpiye', two locally fermented nigerian food condiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, 100 samples each of 'ugba' and 'okpiye' were evaluated for the presence of bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria. Thirty strains showing antibacterial activity against at least one of the indicator organisms were selected from a total of 752 colonies isolated from the condiments. Out of the 30, only five strains retained activity after the pH of the broth supernatant was adjusted to 6.5. When evaluated by the agar-well diffusion assay, the spectra of inhibitory activity showed that Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive indicator organism tested, while Listeria monocytogenes was the most resistant. One strain (UG 2 was active against Escherichia coli. The assays using the cell-free supernatant of the cultures showed that the bacteriocins were completely inactivated by the proteolyses as well as by the chloroform treatment. In ethanol, the activity of the compounds was only partially modified. When incubated in a water bath at 80°C for 30 min, no significant activity loss was recorded. The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocins produced by the lactic acid bacteria has potential for use in biopreservation of condiments against the spoilage and food - borne pathogens.

  20. Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador: representações sociais de gestores locais Workers' Food Program: local managers' social representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Bandoni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o conhecimento e a representação social sobre promoção de alimentação saudável e saúde de gestores do Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado com empresas cadastradas no Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador na cidade de São Paulo. Foram aplicados aos gestores locais (responsáveis pela alimentação do trabalhador questionários semi-estruturados. Os dados foram tabulados por meio da técnica do discurso do sujeito coletivo, utilizando-se três figuras metodológicas: idéia central, expressões-chave e o discurso do sujeito coletivo. RESULTADOS: Os discursos dos gestores de 70 empresas indicaram que 60% das idéias centrais expressaram desconhecimento sobre o Programa e seus objetivos, ou tinham como representação os benefícios para empresa. Entretanto, observou-se que a idéia central mais freqüente foi: "é um programa para fornecer alimentação balanceada para o trabalhador", representando um discurso com ênfase na promoção de alimentação saudável e saúde, que se aproxima dos objetivos do Programa. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos discursos não teve ênfase na promoção de alimentação saudável e saúde. Para que o Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador possa atingir seus objetivos, é necessário que os gestores locais conheçam o Programa e sejam conscientizados do seu objetivo de promoção de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To assess local managers' knowledge and social representations of a healthy diet and health promotion in the Workers' Food Program. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with companies registered in the Workers' Food Program in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to local managers involved with workers' food. Data were tabulated through the Discourse of the Collective Subject using three methodological approaches: central idea, key expressions and discourse of the collective

  1. Programa integral para la producción de alimentos en el contexto del Desarrollo Local.: La experiencia del municipio Yaguajay, Cuba. Integral program for food production in the context of Local Development: The experience of the Yaguajay municipality, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinaí Boffill

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo brinda la experiencia de un programa para la producción local de alimentos en el municipio Yaguajay, provincia de Sancti Spíritus, que puede servir de referencia a otros municipios con similares características. Dicho programa abarca las empresas pecuaria y de cultivos varios, la empresa agropecuaria y forestal, así como las cooperativas campesinas. Se desarrolla en el contexto del Macroproyecto Yaguajay, a partir del complejo ECOCIST, que integra Educación Superior-Conocimiento-Tecnología-Innovación-Sociedad para fortalecer las interrelaciones con instituciones del conocimiento en el proceso de su apropiación social en un territorio. El programa integral para la producción local de alimentos surge en el año 2004, posee 29 tareas, insertadas en cuatro subprogramas (Pecuario, Cultivos Varios, Forestal y Frutal, e Industrial, se ejecuta mediante proyectos y prioriza la adopción de tecnologías y la capacitación, a partir de la interacción con universidades, centros de investigación y otras organizaciones. Entre los resultados se destacan el autoabastecimiento de leche fresca, la mejora del rebaño vacuno y de su base alimentaria, el desarrollo de la ganadería ovina, porcina y cunícola, municipio de Referencia Nacional en Agricultura Urbana, producción de biopesticidas y la estrategia de eliminación de plantas leñosas indeseables.The paper presents the experience of a program for local food production in the Yaguajay municipality, Sancti Spiritus province, which can be reference for other municipalities with similar characteristics. Such program involves the livestock production and mixed crops enterprises, livestock production and forestry enterprise, as well as farmer cooperatives. It is developed in the context of the Yaguajay Macroproject, from the ECOCIST complex, which integrates Higher Education-Knowledge-Technology-Innovation-Society to enhance the interrelations with knowledge institutions in the process of

  2. Hitchhiking vesicular transport routes to the vacuole: amyloid recruitment to the Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Neuser, Nicole; Tyedmers, Jens

    2017-03-09

    Sequestration of aggregates into specialized deposition sites occurs in many species across all kingdoms of life ranging from bacteria to mammals and is commonly believed to have a cytoprotective function. Yeast cells possess at least three different spatially separated deposition sites, one of which is termed "Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD)" and harbors amyloid aggregates. We have recently discovered that recruitment of amyloid aggregates to the IPOD employs an actin cable based recruitment machinery that also involves vesicular transport (1) . Here we discuss how different proteins known to be involved in vesicular transport processes to the vacuole might act to guide amyloid aggregates to the IPOD. These factors include the Myosin V motor protein Myo2 involved in transporting vacuolar vesicles along actin cables, the transmembrane protein Atg9 involved in the recruitment of large precursor hydrolase complexes to the vacuole, the phosphatidylinositol/ phosphatidylcholine (PI/PC) transfer protein Sec 14 and the SNARE chaperone Sec 18. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that the yeast dynamin homolog Vps1 is also crucial for faithful delivery of the amyloid model protein PrD-GFP to the IPOD. This is in agreement with a previously identified role for Vps1 in recruitment of heat-denatured aggregates to a perivacuolar deposition site (2) .

  3. The Rice RMR1 Associates with a Distinct Prevacuolar Compartment for the Protein Storage Vacuole Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Shen; Junqi Wang; Yu Ding; SzeWan Lo; Guillaume Gouzerh; Jean-Marc Neuhaus; Liwen Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Transport of vacuolar proteins from Golgi apparatus or trans-Golgi network (TGN) to vacuoles is a receptormediated process via an intermediate membrane-bound prevacuolar compartment (PVC) in plant cells.Both vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) and receptor homology region-transmembrane domain-RING-H2 (RMR) proteins have been shown to function in transporting storage proteins to protein storage vacuole (PSV),but little is known about the nature of the PVC for the PSV pathway.Here,we use the rice RMR1 (OsRMR1) as a probe to study the PSV pathway in plants.Immunogold electron microscopy (EM) with specific OsRMR1 antibodies showed that OsRMR1 proteins were found in the Golgi apparatus,TGN,and a distinct organelle with characteristics of PVC in both rice culture cells and developing rice seeds,as well as the protein body type Ⅱ (PBII) or PSV in developing rice seeds.This organelle,also found in both tobacco BY-2 and Arabidopsis suspension cultured cells,is morphologically distinct from the VSR-positive multivesicular lytic PVC or multivesicular body (MVB) and thus represent a PVC for the PSV pathway that we name storage PVC (sPVC).Further in vivo and in vitro interaction studies using truncated OsRMR1 proteins secreted into the culture media of transgenic BY-2 suspension cells demonstrated that OsRMR1 functions as a sorting receptor in transporting vicilin-like storage proteins.

  4. Identification and characterization of receptors for vacuolating activity of subtilase cytotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Morinaga, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Matsuura, Gen; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Nomura, Fumio; Moss, Joel; Noda, Masatoshi

    2006-10-01

    Some shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli secrete a novel AB5 cytotoxin, named subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), which induces vacuole formation in addition to cytotoxicity in susceptible cells. By immunoprecipitation with SubAB from Vero cells, we discovered proteins of 100 kDa, 135 kDa and 155 kDa as potential candidates for its receptor. These proteins were N-glycosylated in their extracellular domains, a modification that was necessary for interaction with SubAB. Biotinylated receptors were partially purified by Datura stramonium agglutinin affinity chromatography and avidin-agarose and analysed by TOF mass spectroscopy. The peptide sequences of p135 were identical to beta1 integrin, and its identification was confirmed with anti-integrin beta1 antibody. The p155 protein was identified as alpha2 integrin using anti-integrin alpha2 antibody. In addition, treatment of Vero cells with beta1 integrin RNAi before exposure to SubAB prevented vacuolating activity. These results suggested that SubAB recognizes alpha2beta1 integrin as a functional receptor; this first interaction may be an important key step leading to the SubAB-induced morphological changes in Vero cells.

  5. Preparative procedures markedly influence the appearance and structural integrity of protein storage vacuoles in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B

    2008-05-14

    In legumes, vacuoles serve as the final depository for storage proteins. The protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) of soybean contain electron-transparent globoid regions in which phytic acid ( myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) is sequestered. This paper reports the effect of preparative procedures on the appearance and ultrastructural integrity of PSVs in soybeans. Electron microscopy examination of both developing and mature soybean seeds that were postfixed with osmium tetroxide revealed PSVs that had a homogeneous appearance with very few globoid crystals dispersed in them. Numerous electron-dense lipid bodies were readily seen in these cells. Omission of osmium tetroxide strikingly altered the appearance of PSVs and aided the visualization of the location of the globoids in the PSVs. In contrast to the osmicated tissue, lipid bodies appeared as electron-transparent spheres. The choice of dehydration reagent or staining procedure had little influence on the appearance of the PSVs. The results of this study demonstrate the profound effect of osmium tetroxide on the appearance and structural integrity of PSVs in soybean.

  6. Methuosis: nonapoptotic cell death associated with vacuolization of macropinosome and endosome compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, William A; Overmeyer, Jean H

    2014-06-01

    Apoptosis is the most widely recognized form of physiological programmed cell death. During the past three decades, various nonapoptotic forms of cell death have gained increasing attention, largely because of their potential importance in pathological processes, toxicology, and cancer therapy. A recent addition to the panoply of cell death phenotypes is methuosis. The neologism is derived from the Greek methuo (to drink to intoxication) because the hallmark of this form of cell death is displacement of the cytoplasm by large fluid-filled vacuoles derived from macropinosomes. The demise of the cell resembles many forms of necrosis, insofar as there is a loss of metabolic capacity and plasma membrane integrity, without the cell shrinkage and nuclear fragmentation associated with apoptosis. Methuosis was initially defined in glioblastoma cells after ectopic expression of activated Ras, but recent reports have described small molecules that can induce the features of methuosis in a broad spectrum of cancer cells, including those that are resistant to conventional apoptosis-inducing drugs. This review summarizes the available information about the distinguishing morphological characteristics and underlying mechanisms of methuosis. We compare and contrast methuosis with other cytopathological conditions in which accumulation of clear cytoplasmic vacuoles is a prominent feature. Finally, we highlight key questions that need to be answered to determine whether methuosis truly represents a unique form of regulated cell death.

  7. LegC3, an effector protein from Legionella pneumophila, inhibits homotypic yeast vacuole fusion in vivo and in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L Bennett

    Full Text Available During infection, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila causes an extensive remodeling of host membrane trafficking pathways, both in the construction of a replication-competent vacuole comprised of ER-derived vesicles and plasma membrane components, and in the inhibition of normal phagosome:endosome/lysosome fusion pathways. Here, we identify the LegC3 secreted effector protein from L. pneumophila as able to inhibit a SNARE- and Rab GTPase-dependent membrane fusion pathway in vitro, the homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles (lysosomes. This vacuole fusion inhibition appeared to be specific, as similar secreted coiled-coiled domain containing proteins from L. pneumophila, LegC7/YlfA and LegC2/YlfB, did not inhibit vacuole fusion. The LegC3-mediated fusion inhibition was reversible by a yeast cytosolic extract, as well as by a purified soluble SNARE, Vam7p. LegC3 blocked the formation of trans-SNARE complexes during vacuole fusion, although we did not detect a direct interaction of LegC3 with the vacuolar SNARE protein complexes required for fusion. Additionally, LegC3 was incapable of inhibiting a defined synthetic model of vacuolar SNARE-driven membrane fusion, further suggesting that LegC3 does not directly inhibit the activity of vacuolar SNAREs, HOPS complex, or Sec17p/18p during membrane fusion. LegC3 is likely utilized by Legionella to modulate eukaryotic membrane fusion events during pathogenesis.

  8. The re-discovered Maculinea rebeli (Hirschke, 1904: Host ant usage, parasitoid and initial food plant around the type locality with taxonomical aspects (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Tartally

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the myrmecophilous Maculinea alcon group (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae is highly debated. The host-plant and host-ant usage of these butterflies have conventionally been important in their identification. Maculinea ‘rebeli’ has generally been considered to be the xerophilous form of Ma. alcon (Ma. alcon X hereafter with Gentiana cruciata as initial food plant. However, the type locality and all other known sites of Ma. rebeli are found above the coniferous zone, and are well separated from the lower regions where Ma. alcon X sites are found. Furthermore, no food plant and host ant data for the nominotypic Ma. rebeli have yet been published. Our aim was therefore to identify the host ant(s of Ma. rebeli around the type locality and compare this with the host ant usage of nearby Ma. alcon X. Nests of Myrmica spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae close to the host plants were opened on one Ma. alcon X (host plant: Gentiana cruciata and two Ma. rebeli (host plant: Gentianella rhaetica, first record, confirmed by oviposition and emerging larvae sites just before the flying period, to find prepupal larvae and pupae. Three Myrmica species (My. lobulicornis, My. ruginodis, My. sulcinodis were found on the two Ma. rebeli sites, which parasitized exclusively My. sulcinodis (22 individuals in 7 nests. On the Ma. alcon X site Myrmica sabuleti and My. lonae were found, with My. sabuleti the exclusive host (51 individuals in 10 nests. Ichneumon cf. eumerus parasitized both butterflies. The results highlight the differentiation of Maculinea rebeli from Ma. alcon X, from both conservation biological and ecological points of view. Thus, it should be concluded that Ma. rebeli does not simply represent an individual form of Ma. alcon but it can be considered as at least an ecological form adapted to high mountain conditions both in its initial food plant and host ant species. In addition, it should be emphasized that Ma. alcon X (= Ma. rebeli auct. nec

  9. Acyl-CoA-binding protein, Acb1p, is required for normal vacuole function and ceramide synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Feddersen, Søren; Christiansen, Janne K

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we show that depletion of acyl-CoA-binding protein, Acb1p, in yeast affects ceramide levels, protein trafficking, vacuole fusion and structure. Vacuoles in Acb1p-depleted cells are multi-lobed, contain significantly less of the SNAREs (soluble N -ethylmaleimide......-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors) Nyv1p, Vam3p and Vti1p, and are unable to fuse in vitro. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed a dramatic reduction in the content of ceramides in whole-cell lipids and in vacuoles isolated from Acb1p-depleted cells. Maturation of yeast aminopeptidase I...... be compartmentalized. We suggest that the reduced ceramide synthesis in Acb1p-depleted cells leads to severely altered vacuole morphology, perturbed vacuole assembly and strong inhibition of homotypic vacuole fusion....

  10. Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12-23-month-old Myanmar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Fahmida, Umi; Htet, Min Kyaw; Utomo, Budi; Firmansyah, Agus; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices result in inadequate nutrient intakes in young children in developing countries. To improve practices, local food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are needed. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe current food consumption patterns of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children (n 106) from Ayeyarwady region in order to identify nutrient requirements that are difficult to achieve using local foods and to formulate affordable and realistic CFR to improve dietary adequacy. Weekly food consumption patterns were assessed using a 12-h weighed dietary record, single 24-h recall and a 5-d food record. Food costs were estimated by market surveys. CFR were formulated by linear programming analysis using WHO Optifood software and evaluated among mothers (n 20) using trial of improved practices (TIP). Findings showed that Ca, Zn, niacin, folate and Fe were 'problem nutrients': nutrients that did not achieve 100 % recommended nutrient intake even when the diet was optimised. Chicken liver, anchovy and roselle leaves were locally available nutrient-dense foods that would fill these nutrient gaps. The final set of six CFR would ensure dietary adequacy for five of twelve nutrients at a minimal cost of 271 kyats/d (based on the exchange rate of 900 kyats/USD at the time of data collection: 3rd quarter of 2012), but inadequacies remained for niacin, folate, thiamin, Fe, Zn, Ca and vitamin B6. TIP showed that mothers believed liver and vegetables would cause worms and diarrhoea, but these beliefs could be overcome to successfully promote liver consumption. Therefore, an acceptable set of CFR were developed to improve the dietary practices of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children using locally available foods. Alternative interventions such as fortification, however, are still needed to ensure dietary adequacy of all nutrients.

  11. The Development of Local Fast-food Franchise Companies in China%中国本土快餐连锁企业发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯冬梅; 何鑫

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties facing China's local fast-food franchise companies include serious food safety problems, low price threats from foreign fast food, the block to the development of indigenous markets, and the deficiency of brand recognition and consumer loyalty. To overcome these difficulties, fast-food companies need to prioritize target customers' requirement, envisage the product quality defects, ensure product quality, price reasonably, build networks of diversified channels, take advantage of the power of the strong, and improve marketing projects by means of advertisements and public relation strategies. In addition, they need to select strategies suitable to their own conditions, refine the target markets and the products with proper detail management, learn from and utilize the power of the strong to promote themselves on the giant's shoulders.%中国本土快餐连锁企业的困境主要有:严重的食品安全问题;洋快餐的低价优势构成的威胁;自主市场开发受阻;消费者对品牌认知度和忠诚度的缺失等。快餐连锁企业应以目标顾客的需求为前提,正视产品质量缺陷,保证产品质量。合理调整定价,构建多样化渠道网络建设,学会向强者借势。用广告与公共关系策略打造完美促销攻势。同时,还要结合自身发展状况选用适合自己的策略。将目标市场细化,将产品细化,做好细节管理;在向强者学习的同时还要学会向强者借势。要学会站在巨人的肩膀上推销自己。

  12. New insights into globoids of protein storage vacuoles in wheat aleurone using synchrotron soft X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regvar, Marjana; Eichert, Diane; Kaulich, Burkhard; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Kreft, Ivan

    2011-07-01

    Mature developed seeds are physiologically and biochemically committed to store nutrients, principally as starch, protein, oils, and minerals. The composition and distribution of elements inside the aleurone cell layer reflect their biogenesis, structural characteristics, and physiological functions. It is therefore of primary importance to understand the mechanisms underlying metal ion accumulation, distribution, storage, and bioavailability in aleurone subcellular organelles for seed fortification purposes. Synchrotron radiation soft X-ray full-field imaging mode (FFIM) and low-energy X-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) spectromicroscopy were applied to characterize major structural features and the subcellular distribution of physiologically important elements (Zn, Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, and P). These direct imaging methods reveal the accumulation patterns between the apoplast and symplast, and highlight the importance of globoids with phytic acid mineral salts and walls as preferential storage structures. C, N, and O chemical topographies are directly linked to the structural backbone of plant substructures. Zn, Fe, Na, Mg, Al, and P were linked to globoid structures within protein storage vacuoles with variable levels of co-localization. Si distribution was atypical, being contained in the aleurone apoplast and symplast, supporting a physiological role for Si in addition to its structural function. These results reveal that the immobilization of metals within the observed endomembrane structures presents a structural and functional barrier and affects bioavailability. The combination of high spatial and chemical X-ray microscopy techniques highlights how in situ analysis can yield new insights into the complexity of the wheat aleurone layer, whose precise biochemical composition, morphology, and structural characteristics are still not unequivocally resolved.

  13. Vps13-Mcp1 interact at vacuole-mitochondria interfaces and bypass ER-mitochondria contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Peter, Arun T; Herrmann, Beatrice; Antunes, Diana; Rapaport, Doron; Dimmer, Kai Stefan; Kornmann, Benoît

    2017-10-02

    Membrane contact sites between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, mediated by the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex, are critical for mitochondrial homeostasis and cell growth. Defects in ERMES can, however, be bypassed by point mutations in the endosomal protein Vps13 or by overexpression of the mitochondrial protein Mcp1. How this bypass operates remains unclear. Here we show that the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mcp1 functions in the same pathway as Vps13 by recruiting it to mitochondria and promoting its association to vacuole-mitochondria contacts. Our findings support a model in which Mcp1 and Vps13 work as functional effectors of vacuole-mitochondria contact sites, while tethering is mediated by other factors, including Vps39. Tethered and functionally active vacuole-mitochondria interfaces then compensate for the loss of ERMES-mediated ER-mitochondria contact sites. © 2017 John Peter et al.

  14. Effect of NaCl and Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin on cytokine expression and viability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Sun; Kazuo Aoki; Jin-Xu Zheng; Bing-Zhong Su; Xiao-Hui Ouyang; Junichi Misumi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) regulates release of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-6)or alters gastric epithelial cell viability and to determine whether NaCl affects these VacA-induced changes.METHODS: Vacuolating activity was determined by measuring the uptake of neutral red into vacuoles of VacA-treated human gastric epithelial (AGS) cells. AGS cell viability was assessed by direct cell counting. Specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)were performed to examine the effects of Hpylori VacA and NaCl on cell pro-inflammatory cytokine production in AGS cells. Immunohistochemical staining of gastric tissue from Mongolian gerbils was used to confirm VacA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and the effects of NaCl on this VacA-induced response.RESULTS: Addition of VacA alone reduced AGS cell viability (P< 0.05), and this reduction was enhanced by high doses of NaCl (P< 0.05). VacA alone induced expression of TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-1β, while NaCl alone induced expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. Changes in mRNA levels in the presence of both VacA and NaCl were more complicated. For the case of TNF-a, expression was dosedependent on NaCl. IL-6 mRNA was not detected. However, low levels of IL-6 were detected by ELISA. Positive immunohistochemical staining of IL- 1, IL-6, and TNF-αwas found in gastric tissue of H pylori-infected gerbils fed with either a normal diet or a high salt diet. However,the staining of these three cytokines was stronger in H pylori-infected animals fed with a 5g/kg NaCl diet.CONCLUSION: VacA decreases the viability of AGS cells, and this effect can be enhanced by NaCl. NaCl also affects the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by Vac A, suggesting that NaCl plays an important role in Hpylori-induced gastric epithelial cell cytotoxicity.

  15. Mucolipin co-deficiency causes accelerated endolysosomal vacuolation of enterocytes and failure-to-thrive from birth to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, Natalie N; Wiwatpanit, Teerawat; Castiglioni, Andrew J; Flores, Emma N; Cantú, Jorge A; García-Añoveros, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    During the suckling period, intestinal enterocytes are richly endowed with endosomes and lysosomes, which they presumably utilize for the uptake and intracellular digestion of milk proteins. By weaning, mature intestinal enterocytes replace those rich in lysosomes. We found that mouse enterocytes before weaning express high levels of two endolysosomal cation channels, mucolipins 3 and 1 -products of Trpml3 and Trpml1 genes; moreover neonatal enterocytes of mice lacking both mucolipins (Trpml3-/-;Trpml1-/-) vacuolated pathologically within hours of birth and remained so until weaning. Ultrastructurally and chemically these fast-forming vacuoles resembled those that systemically appear in epithelial cells of mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) patients, which bear mutations in Trpml1. Hence, lack of both mucolipins 1 and 3 causes an accelerated MLIV-type of vacuolation in enterocytes. The vacuoles were aberrant hybrid organelles with both endosomal and lysosomal components, and were not generated by alterations in endocytosis or exocytosis, but likely by an imbalance between fusion of lysosomes and endosomes and their subsequent scission. However, upon extensive vacuolation enterocytes displayed reduced endocytosis from the intestinal lumen, a defect expected to compromise nutrient uptake. Mice lacking both mucolipins suffered a growth delay that began after birth and continued through the suckling period but recovered after weaning, coinciding with the developmental period of enterocyte vacuolation. Our results demonstrate genetic redundancy between lysosomal mucolipins 3 and 1 in neonatal enterocytes. Furthermore, our Trpml3-/-;Trpml1-/- mice represent a polygenic animal model of the poorly-understood, and often intractable, neonatal failure-to-thrive with intestinal pathology. Our results implicate lysosomes in neonatal intestinal pathologies, a major cause of infant mortality worldwide, and suggest transient intestinal dysfunction might affect newborns with lysosomal

  16. Mucolipin co-deficiency causes accelerated endolysosomal vacuolation of enterocytes and failure-to-thrive from birth to weaning.

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    Natalie N Remis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the suckling period, intestinal enterocytes are richly endowed with endosomes and lysosomes, which they presumably utilize for the uptake and intracellular digestion of milk proteins. By weaning, mature intestinal enterocytes replace those rich in lysosomes. We found that mouse enterocytes before weaning express high levels of two endolysosomal cation channels, mucolipins 3 and 1 -products of Trpml3 and Trpml1 genes; moreover neonatal enterocytes of mice lacking both mucolipins (Trpml3-/-;Trpml1-/- vacuolated pathologically within hours of birth and remained so until weaning. Ultrastructurally and chemically these fast-forming vacuoles resembled those that systemically appear in epithelial cells of mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV patients, which bear mutations in Trpml1. Hence, lack of both mucolipins 1 and 3 causes an accelerated MLIV-type of vacuolation in enterocytes. The vacuoles were aberrant hybrid organelles with both endosomal and lysosomal components, and were not generated by alterations in endocytosis or exocytosis, but likely by an imbalance between fusion of lysosomes and endosomes and their subsequent scission. However, upon extensive vacuolation enterocytes displayed reduced endocytosis from the intestinal lumen, a defect expected to compromise nutrient uptake. Mice lacking both mucolipins suffered a growth delay that began after birth and continued through the suckling period but recovered after weaning, coinciding with the developmental period of enterocyte vacuolation. Our results demonstrate genetic redundancy between lysosomal mucolipins 3 and 1 in neonatal enterocytes. Furthermore, our Trpml3-/-;Trpml1-/- mice represent a polygenic animal model of the poorly-understood, and often intractable, neonatal failure-to-thrive with intestinal pathology. Our results implicate lysosomes in neonatal intestinal pathologies, a major cause of infant mortality worldwide, and suggest transient intestinal dysfunction might affect newborns

  17. The virulence protein SopD2 regulates membrane dynamics of Salmonella-containing vacuoles.

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    Nina Schroeder

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans and a systemic typhoid-like illness in mice. The capacity of Salmonella to cause diseases relies on the establishment of its intracellular replication niche, a membrane-bound compartment named the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV. This requires the translocation of bacterial effector proteins into the host cell by type three secretion systems. Among these effectors, SifA is required for the SCV stability, the formation of Salmonella-induced filaments (SIFs and plays an important role in the virulence of Salmonella. Here we show that the effector SopD2 is responsible for the SCV instability that triggers the cytoplasmic release of a sifA(- mutant. Deletion of sopD2 also rescued intra-macrophagic replication and increased virulence of sifA(- mutants in mice. Membrane tubular structures that extend from the SCV are the hallmark of Salmonella-infected cells. Until now, these unique structures have not been observed in the absence of SifA. The deletion of sopD2 in a sifA(- mutant strain re-established membrane trafficking from the SCV and led to the formation of new membrane tubular structures, the formation of which is dependent on other Salmonella effector(s. Taken together, our data demonstrate that SopD2 inhibits the vesicular transport and the formation of tubules that extend outward from the SCV and thereby contributes to the sifA(- associated phenotypes. These results also highlight the antagonistic roles played by SopD2 and SifA in the membrane dynamics of the vacuole, and the complex actions of SopD2, SifA, PipB2 and other unidentified effector(s in the biogenesis and maintenance of the Salmonella replicative niche.

  18. Coxiella burnetii and Leishmania mexicana residing within similar parasitophorous vacuoles elicit disparate host responses

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    Jess A Millar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is a bacterium that thrives in an acidic parasitophorous vacuole (PV derived from lysosomes. Leishmania mexicana, a eukaryote, has also independently evolved to live in a morphologically similar PV. As Coxiella and Leishmania are highly divergent organisms that cause different diseases, we reasoned that their respective infections would likely elicit distinct host responses despite producing phenotypically similar parasite-containing vacuoles. The objective of this study was to investigate, at the molecular level, the macrophage response to each pathogen. Infection of THP-1 (human monocyte/macrophage cells with Coxiella and Leishmania elicited disparate host responses. At 5 days post-infection, when compared to uninfected cells, 1057 genes were differentially expressed (746 genes up- and 311 genes down-regulated in C. burnetii infected cells, whereas 698 genes (534 genes up- and 164 genes down-regulated were differentially expressed in L. mexicana infected cells. Interestingly, of the 1755 differentially expressed genes identified in this study, only 126 genes (~7% are common to both infections. We also discovered that 1090 genes produced mRNA isoforms at significantly different levels under the two infection conditions, suggesting that alternate proteins encoded by the same gene might have important roles in host response to each infection. Additionally, we detected 257 micro RNAs (miRNAs that were expressed in THP-1 cells and identified miRNAs that were specifically expressed during Coxiella or Leishmania infections. Collectively, this study identified host mRNAs and miRNAs that were influenced by Coxiella and/or Leishmania infections. Intriguingly, our data indicate that although their PVs are morphologically similar, Coxiella and Leishmania have evolved different strategies that perturb distinct host processes to create and thrive within their respective intracellular niches.

  19. Cell-to-cell spread and massive vacuole formation after Cryptococcus neoformans infection of murine macrophages

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    Casadevall Arturo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between macrophages and Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn is critical for containing dissemination of this pathogenic yeast. However, Cn can either lyse macrophages or escape from within them through a process known as phagosomal extrusion. Both events result in live extracellular yeasts capable of reproducing and disseminating in the extracellular milieu. Another method of exiting the intracellular confines of cells is through host cell-to-cell transfer of the pathogen, and this commonly occurs with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV and CD4+ T cells and macrophages. In this report we have used time-lapse imaging to determine if this occurs with Cn. Results Live imaging of Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with murine macrophages revealed cell-to-cell spread of yeast cells from infected donor cells to uninfected cells. Although this phenomenon was relatively rare its occurrence documents a new capacity for this pathogen to infect adjacent cells without exiting the intracellular space. Cell-to-cell spread appeared to be an actin-dependent process. In addition, we noted that cryptococcal phagosomal extrusion was followed by the formation of massive vacuoles suggesting that intracellular residence is accompanied by long lasting damage to host cells. Conclusion C. neoformans can escape the intracellular confines of macrophages in an actin dependent manner by cell-to-cell transfer of the yeast leading to infection of adjacent cells. In addition, complete extrusion of internalized Cn cells can lead to the formation of a massive vacuole which may be a sign of damage to the host macrophage. These observations document new outcomes for the interaction of C. neoformans with host cells that provide precedents for cell biological effects that may contribute to the pathogenesis of cryptococcal infections.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi: Entry Into Mammalian Host Cells and Parasitophorous Vacuole Formation

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    Emile Santos Barrias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. This protozoan is an obligate intracellular parasite. The infective forms of the parasite are the metacyclic trypomastigotes, amastigotes and bloodstream trypomastigotes. The recognition between the parasite and mammalian host cell, involves numerous molecules present in both cell types, and similar to several intracellular pathogens, T.cruzi is internalized by host cells via multiple endocytic pathways. Morphological studies demonstrated that after the interaction of the infective forms of T.cruzi with phagocytic or non-phagocytic cell types, plasma membrane protrusions can form, showing similarity with those observed during canonical phagocytosis or macropinocytic events. Additionally, several molecules known to be molecular markers of membrane rafts, macropinocytosis and phagocytosis have been demonstrated to be present at the invasion site. These events may or may not depend on the host cell lysosomes and cytoskeleton. In addition, after penetration, components of the host endosomal-lysosomal system, such as early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes, participate in the formation of the nascent parasithophorous vacuole (VP. Dynamin, a molecule involved in vesicle formation, has been shown to be involved in the parasitophorous vacuole release from the host cell plasma membrane. This review focuses on the multiple pathways that T.cruzi can use to enter the host cells until complete VP formation. We will describe different endocytic processes, such as phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, endocytosis using membrane microdomains and clathrin-dependent endocytosis and show results that are consistent with their use by this smart parasite. We will also discuss other mechanisms that have been described, such as active penetration and the process that takes advantage of cell membrane wound repair.

  1. A cluster-randomized trial determining the efficacy of caterpillar cereal as a locally available and sustainable complementary food to prevent stunting and anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Gado, Justin; Close, Kelly; Wallace, Dennis; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a cereal made from caterpillars, a micronutrient-rich, locally available alternative animal-source food, on reducing stunting and anaemia in infants in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Six-month-old infants were cluster randomized to receive either caterpillar cereal daily until 18 months of age or the usual diet. At 18 months of age, anthropometric measurements and biological samples were collected. The rural Equateur Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. One hundred and seventy-five infants followed from 6 to 18 months of age. Stunting was common at 6 months (35%) and the prevalence increased until 18 months (69%). There was no difference in stunting prevalence at 18 months between the intervention and control groups (67% v. 71%, P = 0.69). Infants in the cereal group had higher Hb concentration than infants in the control group (10.7 v. 10.1 g/dl, P = 0.03) and fewer were anaemic (26 v. 50%, P = 0.006), although there was no difference in estimates of body Fe stores (6.7 v. 7.2 mg/kg body weight, P = 0.44). Supplementation of complementary foods with caterpillar cereal did not reduce the prevalence of stunting at 18 months of age. However, infants who consumed caterpillar cereal had higher Hb concentration and fewer were anaemic, suggesting that caterpillar cereal might have some beneficial effect. The high prevalence of stunting at 6 months and the lack of response to this micronutrient-rich supplement suggest that factors other than dietary deficiencies also contribute to stunting.

  2. Knowledge, Attitude And Practice of Mother with Children Under Five Years on The Use of Virgin Coconut Oil’s Residue to Local Foods to Increase Child’s Nutritional in Buton

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    Murlan Murlan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Buton District was had the highest case on children under fi ve years’ malnutritions in South East Sulawesi Province. Butonesse have culture of making Virgin Coconut Oil which made from coconut untill now. Side product of VCO was a coconut residue (blondo which has not been used by the community. Blondo VCO contains a lot of protein clumps of coconut which is similar to the formula that can be used for food additives, especially in children because it is easily to absorb. The aim of this study was to determine increasing of knowledge, changing behavior and attitudes on mothers of children under fi ve years about the use of blondo VCO for additional nutritional improvement of local food. Methods: this study used intervention on nutritions’ knowledge based on the use of lokal ingredient. Training and practice about children’s local food processing with blondo VCO were held. Results: The results showed that there was an improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers after they had been given the intervention with counseling and training of local food with blondo VCO ingredients. There were variations of local food made by mothers more than before. Conclusions: It showed that the presence of counseling and training on the use of blondo VCO can increase knowledge, attitudes and behavior towards mothers who have children under fi ve. Recomendation: Suggestions of this study was processed of blondo VCO could be used as ingredient of local food with high nutritional value for society in general and for children in particular.

  3. Health impact assessment and monetary valuation of IQ loss in pre-school children due to lead exposure through locally produced food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, J; Buekers, J; Van Holderbeke, M; Torfs, R

    2012-01-01

    A case study has been performed which involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb) and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR) in response to current and future legislation. Consecutive model calculations (MSCE-HM, WATSON, XtraFOOD, IEUBK) were performed by different partners on the project as part of the full chain approach to derive estimates of blood lead (B-Pb) levels in children as a consequence of the consumption of local produce. The estimated B-Pb levels were translated into an average loss of IQ points/child using an empirical relationship based on a meta-analysis performed by Schwartz (1994). The calculated losses in IQ points were subsequently further translated into the average cost/child using a cost estimate of €10.000 per loss of IQ point based on data from a literature review. The estimated average reduction of cost/child (%) for all countries considered in 2010 under BAU and MFTR are 12.16 and 18.08% as compared to base line conditions, respectively. In 2020 the percentages amount to 20.19 and 23.39%. The case study provides an example of the full-chain impact pathway approach taking into account all foreseeable pathways both for assessing the environmental fate and the associated human exposure and the mode of toxic action to arrive at quantitative estimates of health impacts at the individual and

  4. Feeding characteristics of an amoeba (Lobosea: Naegleria) grazing upon cyanobacteria: food selection, ingestion and digestion progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinyao, Liu; Miao, Shi; Yonghong, Liao; Yin, Gao; Zhongkai, Zhang; Donghui, Wen; Weizhong, Wu; Chencai, An

    2006-04-01

    Bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates has been widely studied in aquatic environments, but data on the grazing of amoebae, are still scarce. From the water samples of Dianchi Lake (Kunming, Yunnan Province, China), we isolated an amoeba, designated as Naegleria sp. strain W2, which had potent grazing effects on some kind of cyanobacteria. The food selection mechanism and the digestion process of the amoeba were investigated in batch experiments. Predation experiments showed that filamentous cyanobacteria (e.g., Anabaena, Cylindrospermum, Gloeotrichia, and Phormidium) were readily consumed, with clearance rates ranging from 0.332 to 0.513 nL amoeba(-1) h(-1). The tight threads (Oscilltoria) and aggregates (Aphanizomenon) could not be ingested; however, their sonicated fragments were observed inside food vacuoles, suggesting that their morphologies prevent them from being ingested. Live video microscopy noted that unicellular Chroococcaceae (e.g., Synechococcus, Aphanocapsa, and Microcystis) were excreted after ingestion, indicating that food selection takes place inside food vacuoles. To determine whether the tastes or the toxins prevented them from being digested, heat-killed cells were retested for predation. Digestion rates and ingestion rates of the amoebae for filamentous cyanobacteria were estimated from food vacuole content volume. Through a "cold-chase" method, we found that the food vacuole contents declined exponentially in diluted amoebae cells, and digestion rates were relatively constant, averaging about 1.5% food vacuole content min(-1) at 28 degrees Celsius. Ingestion strongly depended on the satiation status of the amoebae, starved amoebae fed at higher rates compared with satiated amoebae. Our results suggest that the food selection and food processing mechanisms of the amoeba are similar to those of interception feeding flagellates; however, filamentous cyanobacteria cannot obtain a refuge under the grazing pressure of

  5. LAMP proteins account for the maturation delay during the establishment of the Coxiella burnetii-containing vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Eckart, Rita A; Ölke, Martha; Saftig, Paul; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Lührmann, Anja

    2016-02-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii replicates in a large phagolysosomal-like vacuole. Currently, both host and bacterial factors required for creating this replicative parasitophorous C. burnetii-containing vacuole (PV) are poorly defined. Here, we assessed the contributions of the most abundant proteins of the lysosomal membrane, LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, to the establishment and maintenance of the PV. Whereas these proteins were not critical for uptake of C. burnetii, they influenced the intracellular replication of C. burnetii. In LAMP-1/2 double-deficient fibroblasts as well as in LAMP-1/2 knock-down cells, C. burnetii establishes a significantly smaller, yet faster maturing vacuole, which harboured more bacteria. The accelerated maturation of PVs in LAMP double-deficient fibroblasts, which was partially or fully reversed by ectopic expression of LAMP-1 or LAMP-2, respectively, was characterized by an increased fusion rate with endosomes, lysosomes and bead-containing phagosomes, but not by different fusion kinetics with autophagy vesicles. These findings establish that LAMP proteins are critical for the maturation delay of PVs. Unexpectedly, neither the creation of the spacious vacuole nor the delay in maturation was found to be prerequisites for the intracellular replication of C. burnetii.

  6. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Ron; Desai, Jigar; Lazar, Gloria; King, Benjamin; Rollins, Jarod; Spurr, Melissa; Joseph, Jamie; Kadambi, Sindhuja; Li, Yang; Cherry, Allison; Matteson, Paul G.; Paigen, Beverly; Millonig, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Korstanje R, Desai J, Lazar G, King B, Rollins J, Spurr M, Joseph J, Kadambi S, Li Y, Cherry A, Matteson PG, Paigen B, Millonig JH. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects. Physiol Genomics 35: 296-30

  7. Differential Compartmentation of Gibberellin A1 and Its Metabolites in Vacuoles of Cowpea and Barley Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jose L.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Rappaport, Lawrence

    1981-01-01

    The metabolism and efflux of gibberellin A1 (GA1) taken up by leaves of cowpea (Vigna sinensis cv. Blackeye pea No. 5), as well as the distribution of GA1 metabolites in the protoplasts and vacuoles of cowpea and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Numar), were studied. GA1 is metabolized rapidly in cowpea leaf discs to products tentatively identified as gibberellin A8 (GA8) and gibberellin A8 glucoside (GA8-glu). After labeling leaf discs with [3H]GA1 for 1 hour, the release of radioactivity from the leaf was followed. Over a 12-hour period, the level of radioisotope in the tissue declined to about 35% of the original, after which no further release was observed. At this time, almost all of the radioactivity remaining in the leaf was GA8-glu, while most of the radioactivity which had been released was unmetabolized GA1. Mesophyll protoplasts and vacuoles were isolated from cowpea and barley leaves previously fed [3H]GA1. These protoplasts retain the ability to metabolize GA1, indicating that neither the leaf structure nor the cell wall is necessary for this metabolism. A higher proportion of GA8-glu was found in the vacuoles relative to the entire protoplasts. The results obtained suggest that GA1 metabolites are preferentially compartmentalized in the vacuoles relative to GA1. PMID:16662014

  8. The potential role of kinesin and dynein in Golgi scattering and cytoplasmic vacuole formation during acute experimental pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ina A Weber; Igor Buchwalow; Daniela Hahn; Wolfram Domschke; Markus M Lerch; Jürgen Schnekenburger

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Acute pancreatitis is initiated in pancreatic acinar cells and characterized by a profound disturbance in intracel-lular vesicle transport. Moreover, secretion of pancreatic zymogens is blocked, paralleled by the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles with premature protease activation that precedes cellular necrosis and organ damage.

  9. The vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori%幽门螺杆菌空泡毒素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纯杰; 陶好霞; 张兆山

    2001-01-01

    幽门螺杆菌空泡毒素是该菌产生的与已知其它细菌毒素无明显同源性的唯一蛋白毒素。该毒素是幽门螺杆菌重要的毒力致病因子,它的产生与感染者胃肠上皮损伤和溃疡形成密切相关。本文就幽门螺杆菌空泡毒素的结构与功能研究进展以及在未来免疫预防与免疫治疗中的作用进行了简述。%The vacuolating cytotoxin is a unique proteinous cytotoxin producted by H. pylori that showed no striking primary sequence homology with other known baterial toxins. The cytotoxin is an important fator in the pathogenesis of H. pylori, which induces vacuolation of epithelial cells and plays an important role in gastric epithelial necrosis and peptic ulceration. In the paper, the progress on structure and function of the vacuolating cytotoxin of H. pylori and the roles of the H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin in the future immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy were reviewed.

  10. Hyperacidification of Vacuoles by the Combined Action of Two Different P-ATPases in the Tonoplast Determines Flower Color

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    Marianna Faraco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acidification of endomembrane compartments is essential for enzyme activities, sorting, trafficking, and trans-membrane transport of various compounds. Vacuoles are mildly acidic in most plant cells because of the action of V-ATPase and/or pyrophosphatase proton pumps but are hyperacidified in specific cells by mechanisms that remained unclear. Here, we show that the blue petal color of petunia ph mutants is due to a failure to hyperacidify vacuoles. We report that PH1 encodes a P3B-ATPase, hitherto known as Mg2+ transporters in bacteria only, that resides in the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and genetic data show that PH1 is required and, together with the tonoplast H+ P3A-ATPase PH5, sufficient to hyperacidify vacuoles. PH1 has no H+ transport activity on its own but can physically interact with PH5 and boost PH5 H+ transport activity. Hence, the hyperacidification of vacuoles in petals, and possibly other tissues, relies on a heteromeric P-ATPase pump.

  11. Investigating the role of state and local health departments in addressing public health concerns related to industrial food animal production sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P Fry

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Evidence of community health concerns stemming from industrial food animal production (IFAP facilities continues to accumulate. This study examined the role of local and state health departments in responding to and preventing community-driven concerns associated with IFAP. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with state and county health department staff and community members in eight states with high densities or rapid growth of IFAP operations. We investigated the extent to which health concerns associated with IFAP sites are reported to health departments, the nature of health departments' responses, and barriers to involvement. RESULTS: Health departments' roles in these matters are limited by political barriers, lack of jurisdiction, and finite resources, expertise, and staff. Community members reported difficulties in engaging health departments on these issues. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation suggests that health departments frequently lack resources or jurisdiction to respond to health concerns related to IFAP sites, resulting in limited engagement. Since agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP frequently lack a health focus, increased health department engagement may better protect public health.

  12. Emergence of the Terrestrial Ciliate Colpoda cucullus from a Resting Cyst: Rupture of the Cyst Wall by Active Expansion of an Excystment Vacuole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funadani, Ryoji; Suetomo, Yasutaka; Matsuoka, Tatsuomi

    2013-01-01

    The first sign of excysting Colpoda cucullus cells is the initiation of the pulsation of a contractile vacuole, which is then replaced by a non-pulsating vacuole (excystment vacuole) that continues to expand and finally ruptures the outermost cyst wall (ectocyst) due to inner pressure. A ciliate surrounded by flexible membranes (endocyst) thus emerges. The osmolarity of the excysting cells is estimated to be 140 mOsm L−1 from the relationship between the frequency of contractile vacuole pulsation and the external sucrose concentration. Both the expansion of the excystment vacuole and the emergence of ciliates occurred even when the cysts were immersed in hypertonic medium. In hypotonic medium containing sodium azide (NaN3, a cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), the contractile vacuole of vegetative cells stopped pulsating and gradually expanded, causing cells to burst. When C. cucullus was induced to encyst in a hypotonic medium containing NaN3, the expansion of the excystment vacuoles was inhibited. These results suggest that the active uptake of water may be responsible for the expansion of the excystment vacuole required for the ectocyst to rupture. PMID:23268793

  13. The I-BAR protein Ivy1 is an effector of the Rab7 GTPase Ypt7 involved in vacuole membrane homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Numrich, Johannes; Péli-Gulli, Marie-Pierre; Arlt, Henning; Sardu, Alessandro; Griffith, Janice; Levine, Tim; Engelbrecht-Vandré, Siegfried; Reggiori, Fulvio; De Virgilio, Claudio; Ungermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion at the vacuole depends on a conserved machinery that includes SNAREs, the Rab7 homolog Ypt7 and its effector HOPS. Here, we demonstrate that Ypt7 has an unexpected additional function by controlling membrane homeostasis and nutrient-dependent signaling on the vacuole surface. We show

  14. Investigating the importance of the local food environment for fruit and vegetable intake in older men and women in 20 UK towns: a cross-sectional analysis of two national cohorts using novel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkesworth, S; Silverwood, R J; Armstrong, B; Pliakas, T; Nanchahal, K; Sartini, C; Amuzu, A; Wannamethee, G; Atkins, J; Ramsay, S E; Casas, J P; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Lock, Karen

    2017-09-18

    Local neighbourhood environments can influence dietary behavior. There is limited evidence focused on older people who are likely to have greater dependence on local areas and may suffer functional limitations that amplify any neighbourhood impact. Using multi-level ordinal regression analysis we investigated the association between multiple dimensions of neighbourhood food environments (captured by fine-detail, foot-based environmental audits and secondary data) and self-reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake. The study was a cross-sectional analysis nested within two nationally representative cohorts in the UK: the British Regional Heart Study and the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Main exposures of interest were density of food retail outlets selling fruits and vegetables, the density of fast food outlets and a novel measure of diversity of the food retail environment. A total of 1124 men and 883 women, aged 69 - 92 years, living in 20 British towns were included in the analysis. There was strong evidence of an association between area income deprivation and fruit and vegetable consumption, with study members in the most deprived areas estimated to have 27% (95% CI: 7, 42) lower odds of being in a higher fruit and vegetable consumption category relative to those in the least deprived areas. We found no consistent evidence for an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and a range of other food environment domains, including density of shops selling fruits and vegetables, density of premises selling fast food, the area food retail diversity, area walkability, transport accessibility, or the local food marketing environment. For example, individuals living in areas with greatest fruit and vegetable outlet density had 2% (95% CI: -22, 21) lower odds of being in a higher fruit and vegetable consumption category relative to those in areas with no shops. Although small effect sizes in environment-diet relationships cannot be discounted

  15. Poorly differentiated angiosarcoma without vasoformative channels but with focal intracytoplastic vacuoles mimicking liposarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada, MD, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma (AS showed diverse morphologies from well formed malignant vasculatures to poorly differentiated tumor with only a few clues of endothelial differentiation. Herein reported are two cases of AS without primitive vasoformative channels (VC. They showed, instead, a very few foci of intracytoplasmic vacuoles (ICV that mimicked liposarcoma. The two cases were found in 12 cases of AS in computer database. Both are men, 57 and 68 years. One is cutaneous (foot AS and another is soft tissue (thigh AS. The largest diameter of cutaneous AS was 5 cm, and that of soft tissue AS 9 cm. The prognosis of both patients was poor; both died of metastases 4 and 6 years after initial presentation. In both cases, hematoxylin and eosin (HE diagnosis was difficult because there were no VC, and most of the tumors were composed of primitive mesenchymal tissues. In both cases, however, a few very tiny foci consisting of ICV were seen. At first, the author considered them as mucins or fat, and suspected liposarcoma. In fact, they were pseudolipoblasts. Several mucin stains showed no mucins, and fat stains of frozen sections of formalin fixed tissue were negative for fat. Immunohistochemically, the vacuoles were positive for factor VIII-related antigen (F-VIII-RA, Ulex lectin, CD31, CD34, vimentin, p53 and Ki-67 (labeling index = 64% and 75%, but negative for various types of cytokeratins (CK, EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CD45, smooth muscle actins, S100 protein, myoglobin, HMB-45, Melan A, NCAM, and NSE. F-VIII-RA is specific and Ulex lectin and CD31 are relatively specific for endothelium. Therefore, the pathological diagnosis of AS could be made by the combined histologic features (ICV and Immunohistochemical positivity of F-VIII-RA, Ulex lectin, and CD31. Thus, it appeared that the ICV may be the only clue of poorly differentiated or undifferentiated AS. In such undifferentiated cases, combined observations of meticulous histologic observations (intracytoplasmic

  16. Future food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  17. Forest gardening on abandoned terraces links local biomass carbon accumulation to international carbon markets, reverses land degradation, improves food diversity, and increases farmer income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Despite chronic underproduction of food in Nepal, more and more agricultural land is abandoned especially in the remote middle hills and mountains. Male and young workers leave the villages for higher wages in the bigger cities or abroad. By now, most villages are mainly populated by women, children and elderly persons maintaining the gardens and fields close to the houses and leave the centenarian terraces fallow. Erosion, vanishing water resources, losses of soil organic carbon and the weakening of the local agro-economy become increasingly problematic. During the rainy season of 2015/16, 86 farmer families from four villages replanted their abandoned terraces with 25,000 mixed trees, mostly Cinnamon, Moringa, Mulberry, Lemon, Michelia, Paulownia, and various nuts. All trees were planted with a blend of organic biochar-based fertilizer and compost, since it was convincingly demonstrated by more than 20 field trials in this region that this was the most plant-growth promoting method. Mulching of the trees with rice straw or thatch grass was generalized. To let the young tries pass the critical seven months of dry season, water retention ponds with pipe irrigation were installed. Farmers were organized in groups of three families to mutually help and control the tree maintenance which led to an average tree survival rate of more than 80% after the first year compared to less than 50% in many country-wide forestation projects since the 1980s. Between the lower and upper lines of trees on the terraces, ginger, turmeric, black beans, onions, lentils and other secondary crops were cultivated using the same organic biochar based fertilizer and mulching techniques. What may seem a reasonable approach for many places, is in many of the poorest countries simply not possible to realize because village families do often not have the necessary initial investment for saplings and irrigation facilities at their disposal. Therefore, the Ithaka Institute linked the forest garden

  18. Vibrio cholerae hemolysin is required for lethality, developmental delay, and intestinal vacuolation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediye Nese Cinar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin (CT and toxin-co-regulated pili (TCP are the major virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains that contribute to the pathogenesis of disease during devastating cholera pandemics. However, CT and TCP negative V. cholerae strains are still able to cause severe diarrheal disease in humans through mechanisms that are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the role of other virulence factors in V. cholerae pathogenesis, we used a CT and TCP independent infection model in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and identified the hemolysin A (hlyA gene as a factor responsible for animal death and developmental delay. We demonstrated a correlation between the severity of infection in the nematode and the level of hemolytic activity in the V. cholerae biotypes. At the cellular level, V. cholerae infection induces formation of vacuoles in the intestinal cells in a hlyA dependent manner, consistent with the previous in vitro observations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data strongly suggest that HlyA is a virulence factor in C. elegans infection leading to lethality and developmental delay presumably through intestinal cytopathic changes.

  19. [A single strand comformation polymorphism of vacuolating cytotoxin gene in H. pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H; Pan, G; Chao, S

    1999-03-01

    To use PCR/SSCP analysis of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) of H. pylori for differentiation of various strains of H. pylori. PCR was performed using the primers amplifing vacA gene of the bacteria embeded in the gastric mucosa of 159 patients with various gastric duodenal diseases. The products of PCR were further processed for SSCP analysis and southern blot hybridization. In the meantime, vacA genes of three different SSCP-patterns from three patients with duodenal ulcers were sequenced. The rate of detection of H. pylori with the method was 100%. vacA1 and vacA2, the two subtypes of vacA, were 76.5% (114/149) and 23.5%(35/149), respectively. Eight different SSCP-patterns were distributed in various gastroduodenal diseases, and that 80% of duodenal ulcers was predominated with B pattern. Sequencing of DNA indicated a diversity of vacA gene structure. PCR/SSCP can be used in the differentiation of different strains of H. pylori in epidemology, and in the follow up study after H. pylori eradication, especially in the differentiation between H. pylori recrudescence and reinfection.

  20. Transport of Arginine and Aspartic Acid into Isolated Barley Mesophyll Vacuoles 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoia, Enrico; Thume, Monika; Vogt, Esther; Rentsch, Doris; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    1991-01-01

    The transport of arginine into isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mesophyll vacuoles was investigated. In the absence of ATP, arginine uptake was saturable with a Km of 0.3 to 0.4 millimolar. Positively charged amino acids inhibited arginine uptake, lysine being most potent with a Ki of 1.2 millimolar. In the presence of free ATP, but not of its Mg-complex, uptake of arginine was drastically enhanced and a linear function of its concentration up to 16 millimolar. The nonhydrolyzable adenylyl imidodiphosphate, but no other nucleotide tested, could substitute for ATP. Therefore, it is suggested that this process does not require energy and does not involve the tonoplast ATPase. The ATP-dependent arginine uptake was strongly inhibited by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid. Furthermore, hydrophobic amino acids were inhibitory (I50 phenylalanine 1 millimolar). Similar characteristics were observed for the uptake of aspartic acid. However, rates of ATP-stimulated aspartic acid transport were 10-fold lower as compared to arginine transport. Uptake of aspartate in the absence of ATP was negligible. PMID:16668447

  1. Shape, shell, and vacuole formation during the drying of a single concentrated whey protein droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Céline; Tabuteau, Hervé; Schuck, Pierre; Fallourd, Yannick; Pradeau, Nicolas; Le Floch-Fouéré, Cécile; Jeantet, Romain

    2013-12-17

    The drying of milk concentrate droplets usually leads to specific particle morphology influencing their properties and their functionality. Understanding how the final shape of the particle is formed therefore represents a key issue for industrial applications. In this study, a new approach to the investigation of droplet-particle conversion is proposed. A single droplet of concentrated globular proteins extracted from milk was deposited onto a hydrophobic substrate and placed in a dry environment. Complementary methods (high-speed camera, confocal microscopy, and microbalance) were used to record the drying behavior of the concentrated protein droplets. Our results showed that whatever the initial concentration, particle formation included three dynamic stages clearly defined by the loss of mass and the evolution of the internal and external shapes of the droplet. A new and reproducible particle shape was related in this study. It was observed after drying a smooth, hemispherical cap-shaped particle, including a uniform protein shell and the nucleation of an internal vacuole. The particle morphology was strongly influenced by the drying environment, the contact angle, and the initial protein concentration, all of which governed the duration of the droplet shrinkage, the degree of buckling, and the shell thickness. These results are discussed in terms of specific protein behaviors in forming a predictable and a characteristic particle shape. The way the shell is formed may be the starting point in shaping particle distortion and thus represents a potential means of tuning the particle morphology.

  2. The diverse and dynamic nature of Leishmania parasitophorous vacuoles studied by multidimensional imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Real

    Full Text Available An important area in the cell biology of intracellular parasitism is the customization of parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs by prokaryotic or eukaryotic intracellular microorganisms. We were curious to compare PV biogenesis in primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to carefully prepared amastigotes of either Leishmania major or L. amazonensis. While tight-fitting PVs are housing one or two L. major amastigotes, giant PVs are housing many L. amazonensis amastigotes. In this study, using multidimensional imaging of live cells, we compare and characterize the PV biogenesis/remodeling of macrophages i hosting amastigotes of either L. major or L. amazonensis and ii loaded with Lysotracker, a lysosomotropic fluorescent probe. Three dynamic features of Leishmania amastigote-hosting PVs are documented: they range from i entry of Lysotracker transients within tight-fitting, fission-prone L. major amastigote-housing PVs; ii the decrease in the number of macrophage acidic vesicles during the L. major PV fission or L. amazonensis PV enlargement; to iii the L. amazonensis PV remodeling after homotypic fusion. The high content information of multidimensional images allowed the updating of our understanding of the Leishmania species-specific differences in PV biogenesis/remodeling and could be useful for the study of other intracellular microorganisms.

  3. Structure of CARDS toxin, a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin from Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Argentina; Kannan, T R; Taylor, Alexander B; Pakhomova, Olga N; Zhang, Yanfeng; Somarajan, Sudha R; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Holloway, Stephen P; Baseman, Joel B; Hart, P John

    2015-04-21

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infections cause tracheobronchitis and "walking" pneumonia, and are linked to asthma and other reactive airway diseases. As part of the infectious process, the bacterium expresses a 591-aa virulence factor with both mono-ADP ribosyltransferase (mART) and vacuolating activities known as Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome Toxin (CARDS TX). CARDS TX binds to human surfactant protein A and annexin A2 on airway epithelial cells and is internalized, leading to a range of pathogenetic events. Here we present the structure of CARDS TX, a triangular molecule in which N-terminal mART and C-terminal tandem β-trefoil domains associate to form an overall architecture distinct from other well-recognized ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins. We demonstrate that CARDS TX binds phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin specifically over other membrane lipids, and that cell surface binding and internalization activities are housed within the C-terminal β-trefoil domain. The results enhance our understanding of Mp pathogenicity and suggest a novel avenue for the development of therapies to treat Mp-associated asthma and other acute and chronic airway diseases.

  4. Identification of vacuoles containing extraintestinal differentiated forms of Legionella pneumophila in colonized Caenorhabditis elegans soil nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinga, Jacqueline R; Garduño, Rafael A; Kormish, Jay D; Tanner, Jennifer R; Khan, Deirdre; Buchko, Kristyn; Jimenez, Celine; Pinette, Mathieu M; Brassinga, Ann Karen C

    2015-08-01

    Legionella pneumophila, a causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is a facultative intracellular parasite of freshwater protozoa. Legionella pneumophila features a unique developmental network that involves several developmental forms including the infectious cyst forms. Reservoirs of L. pneumophila include natural and man-made freshwater systems; however, recent studies have shown that isolates of L. pneumophila can also be obtained directly from garden potting soil suggesting the presence of an additional reservoir. A previous study employing the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans, a member of the Rhabditidae family of free-living soil nematodes, demonstrated that the intestinal lumen can be colonized with L. pneumophila. While both replicative forms and differentiated forms were observed in C. elegans, these morphologically distinct forms were initially observed to be restricted to the intestinal lumen. Using live DIC imaging coupled with focused transmission electron microscopy analyses, we report here that L. pneumophila is able to invade and establish Legionella-containing vacuoles (LCVs) in the intestinal cells. In addition, LCVs containing replicative and differentiated cyst forms were observed in the pseudocoelomic cavity and gonadal tissue of nematodes colonized with L. pneumophila. Furthermore, establishment of LCVs in the gonadal tissue was Dot/Icm dependent and required the presence of the endocytic factor RME-1 to gain access to maturing oocytes. Our findings are novel as this is the first report, to our knowledge, of extraintestinal LCVs containing L. pneumophila cyst forms in C. elegans tissues, highlighting the potential of soil-dwelling nematodes as an alternate environmental reservoir for L. pneumophila.

  5. Mitochondrial targeted β-lapachone induces mitochondrial dysfunction and catastrophic vacuolization in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Lim, Chaemin; Sacher, Joshua R; Van Houten, Bennett; Qian, Wei; Wipf, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondria play important roles in tumor cell physiology and survival by providing energy and metabolites for proliferation and metastasis. As part of their oncogenic status, cancer cells frequently produce increased levels of mitochondrial-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, extensive stimulation of ROS generation in mitochondria has been shown to be able to induce cancer cell death, and is one of the major mechanisms of action of many anticancer agents. We hypothesized that enhancing mitochondrial ROS generation through direct targeting of a ROS generator into mitochondria will exhibit tumor cell selectivity, as well as high efficacy in inducing cancer cell death. We thus synthesized a mitochondrial targeted version of β-lapachone (XJB-Lapachone) based on our XJB mitochondrial targeting platform. We found that the mitochondrial targeted β-lapachone is more efficient in inducing apoptosis compared to unconjugated β-lapachone, and the tumor cell selectivity is maintained. XJB-Lapachone also induced extensive cellular vacuolization and autophagy at a concentration not observed with unconjugated β-lapachone. Through characterization of mitochondrial function we revealed that XJB-Lapachone is indeed more capable of stimulating ROS generation in mitochondria, which led to a dramatic mitochondrial uncoupling and autophagic degradation of mitochondria. Taken together, we have demonstrated that targeting β-lapachone accomplishes higher efficacy through inducing ROS generation directly in mitochondria, resulting in extensive mitochondrial and cellular damage. XJB-Lapachone will thus help to establish a novel platform for the design of next generation mitochondrial targeted ROS generators for cancer therapy.

  6. Delivery of prolamins to the protein storage vacuole in maize aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Francisca C; Chung, Taijoon; Holding, David; Jung, Rudolf; Vierstra, Richard; Otegui, Marisa S

    2011-02-01

    Zeins, the prolamin storage proteins found in maize (Zea mays), accumulate in accretions called protein bodies inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of starchy endosperm cells. We found that genes encoding zeins, α-globulin, and legumin-1 are transcribed not only in the starchy endosperm but also in aleurone cells. Unlike the starchy endosperm, aleurone cells accumulate these storage proteins inside protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) instead of the ER. Aleurone PSVs contain zein-rich protein inclusions, a matrix, and a large system of intravacuolar membranes. After being assembled in the ER, zeins are delivered to the aleurone PSVs in atypical prevacuolar compartments that seem to arise at least partially by autophagy and consist of multilayered membranes and engulfed cytoplasmic material. The zein-containing prevacuolar compartments are neither surrounded by a double membrane nor decorated by AUTOPHAGY RELATED8 protein, suggesting that they are not typical autophagosomes. The PSV matrix contains glycoproteins that are trafficked through a Golgi-multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. MVBs likely fuse with the multilayered, autophagic compartments before merging with the PSV. The presence of similar PSVs also containing prolamins and large systems of intravacuolar membranes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) starchy endosperm suggests that this trafficking mechanism may be common among cereals.

  7. Rimmed vacuoles with beta-amyloid and ubiquitinated filamentous deposits in the muscles of patients with long-standing denervation (postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy): similarities with inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semino-Mora, C; Dalakas, M C

    1998-10-01

    In the chronically denervated muscles of patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis, there are secondary myopathic features, including endomysial inflammation and rare vacuolated fibers. To assess the frequency and characteristics of the vacuoles and their similarities with those seen in inclusion body myositis (IBM), we examined 58 muscle biopsy specimens from patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis for (1) the presence of rimmed vacuoles; (2) acid-phosphatase reactivity; (3) Congo-red-positive amyloid deposits; (4) electron microscopy, searching for tubulofilaments; and (5) immunoelectron microscopy, using antibodies against beta-amyloid and ubiquitin. We found vacuolated muscle fibers in 18 of 58 (31%) biopsies, with a mean frequency of 2.06 +/- 0.42 fibers per specimen. The vacuoles contained acid phosphatase-positive material in 6 of the 18 (33.30%) specimens and stained positive for Congo red in five (27.80%). By immunoelectron microscopy, the vacuoles contained 5.17 +/- 0.13 nm fibrils and 14.9 +/- 0.31 nm filaments that immunoreacted with antibodies to beta-amyloid and ubiquitin in a pattern identical to the one seen in IBM. We conclude that vacuolated muscle fibers containing filamentous inclusions positive for amyloid and ubiquitin are not unique to IBM and the other vacuolar myopathies but can also occur in a chronic neurogenic condition, such as postpoliomyelitis. The chronicity of the underlying disease, rather than the cause, may lead to vacuolar formation, amyloid deposition, and accumulation of ubiquitinated filaments.

  8. Expression of 87 kD protein in the broth culture filtrate of Helicobacter pylori and its association with the vacuolating effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Li; YIE Gui-an; NAN Qing-zhen; SUN Yong; ZHANG Ya-li; ZHANG Zhen-shu; ZHOU Dian-yuan

    2001-01-01

    To study the vacuolating effect of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori). Method: The vacuolating effect and its relationship with vacuolating cytotoxin antigen (an 87 kD protein) were investigated by the method of cytotoxic test, SDS-PAGE and scanning. Result: Of the 62 clinical isolates, 43 strains were H.pylori (Toxin+) with vacuolating effect, while the others were H.pylori (Toxin-) without vacuolating effect. Altogether 78.26%(36/46) patients with peptic ulcer were infected with H.pylori (Toxin+) strains, and only 42.86%(6/14) who had gastritis were infected with H.pylori (Toxin+) strains, with significant difference between them(χ2=4.83,P<0.05). A protein with relativemolecular mass of 87 kD was identified in the broth culture filter(BCF) of 30.23% H. Pylori (Toxin+) strains (13/43) but in none of that of H.pylori (Toxin-) strains, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). There was a significant and concordant relationship between the OD value of the protein band and the titer of vacuolating activity of H.pylori (Toxin+) (r=0.67 and P<0.05 by linear regression analysis). Conclusion: H.pylori (Toxin+) were more often associated with peptic ulcerous diseases than with gastritis diseases. The vacuolating effect of H.pylori (Toxin+) may be caused by the 87 kD protein.

  9. Fluorescence imaging analysis of taxol-induced ASTC-a-1 cell death with cell swelling and cytoplasmic vacuolization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong-sheng; Sun, Lei; Wang, Longxiang; Wang, Huiying

    2008-02-01

    Taxol (Paclitaxel), an isolated component from the bark of the Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia, exhibits a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. Taxol can promote microtubule (MT) assembly, inhibit depolymerization, and change MT dynamics, resulting in disruption of the normal reorganization of the microtubule network required for mitosis and cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism of taxol-induced cell death is still unclear. In this report, CCK-8 was used to assay the inhibition of taxol on the human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells viability, confocal fluorescence microscope was used to monitor the morphology changes of cells with taxol treatment. We for the first time describe the characteristics of taxol-induced cells swelling, cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell death. Taxol induced swelling, cytoplasmatic vacuolization and cell death without cell shrinkage and membrane rupture. These features differ from those of apoptosis and resemble the paraptosis, a novel nonapoptotic PCD.

  10. Three v-SNAREs and two t-SNAREs, present in a pentameric cis-SNARE complex on isolated vacuoles, are essential for homotypic fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungermann, C; von Mollard, G F; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    1999-01-01

    Vacuole SNAREs, including the t-SNAREs Vam3p and Vam7p and the v-SNARE Nyv1p, are found in a multisubunit "cis" complex on isolated organelles. We now identify the v-SNAREs Vti1p and Ykt6p by mass spectrometry as additional components of the immunoisolated vacuolar SNARE complex. Immunodepletion...... cause a synthetic fusion-defective phenotype in our reaction. Our data show that vacuole-vacuole fusion requires a cis-SNARE complex of five SNAREs, the t-SNAREs Vam3p and Vam7p and the v-SNAREs Nyv1p, Vti1p, and Ykt6p....

  11. The protein transportation pathway from Golgi to vacuoles via endosomes plays a role in enhancement of methylmercury toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gi-Wook; Murai, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Naganuma, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Methylmercury causes serious damage to the central nervous system, but the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity are only marginally understood. In this study, we used a gene-deletion mutant library of budding yeast to conduct genome-wide screening for gene knockouts affecting the sensitivity of methylmercury toxicity. We successfully identified 31 genes whose deletions confer resistance to methylmercury in yeast, and 18 genes whose deletions confer hypersensitivity to methylmercury. Yeast genes whose deletions conferred resistance to methylmercury included many gene encoding factors involved in protein transport to vacuoles. Detailed examination of the relationship between the factors involved in this transport system and methylmercury toxicity revealed that mutants with loss of the factors involved in the transportation pathway from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosome, protein uptake into the endosome, and endosome-vacuole fusion showed higher methylmercury resistance than did wild-type yeast. The results of our genetic engineering study suggest that this vesicle transport system (proteins moving from the TGN to vacuole via endosome) is responsible for enhancing methylmercury toxicity due to the interrelationship between the pathways. There is a possibility that there may be proteins in the cell that enhance methylmercury toxicity through the protein transport system.

  12. Sat, the secreted autotransporter toxin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, is a vacuolating cytotoxin for bladder and kidney epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Debra M; Radulovic, Suzana; Jones, Faye-Ellen; Mobley, Harry L T

    2002-08-01

    The secreted autotransporter toxin (Sat) of uropathogenic Escherichia coli exhibits cytopathic activity upon incubation with HEp-2 cells. We further investigated the effects of Sat on cell lines more relevant to the urinary tract, namely, those derived from bladder and kidney epithelium. Sat elicited elongation of cells and apparent loosening of cellular junctions upon incubation with Vero kidney cells. Additionally, incubation with Sat triggered significant vacuolation within the cytoplasm of both human bladder (CRL-1749) and kidney (CRL-1573) cell lines. This activity has been associated with only a few other known toxins. Following transurethral infection of CBA mice with a sat mutant, no reduction of CFU in urine, bladder, or kidney tissue was seen compared to that in mice infected with wild-type E. coli CFT073. However, significant histological changes were observed within the kidneys of mice infected with wild-type E. coli CFT073, including dissolution of the glomerular membrane and vacuolation of proximal tubule cells. Such damage was not observed in kidney sections of mice infected with a Sat-deficient mutant. These results indicate that Sat, a vacuolating cytotoxin expressed by uropathogenic E. coli CFT073, elicits defined damage to kidney epithelium during upper urinary tract infection and thus contributes to pathogenesis of urinary tract infection.

  13. Further characterization of particulate fractions from lysed cell envelopes of Halobacterium halobium and isolation of gas vacuole membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toeckenius, W; Kunau, W H

    1968-08-01

    Lysates of cell envelopes from Halobacterium halobium have been separated into four fractions. A soluble, colorless fraction (I) containing protein, hexosamines, and no lipid is apparently derived from the cell wall. A red fraction (II), containing approximately 40 per cent lipid, 60 per cent protein, and a small amount of hexosamines consists of cell membrane disaggregated into fragments of small size. A third fraction (III) of purple color consists of lar