WorldWideScience

Sample records for food processing waste

  1. Food-Processing Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2017-10-01

    Literature published in 2016 and early 2017 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  2. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of food waste, fish waste and food processing waste for China's aquaculture industry: Needs and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Wong, Ming Hung

    2018-02-01

    China's aquaculture industry is growing dramatically in recent years and now accounts for 60.5% of global aquaculture production. Fish protein is expected to play an important role in China's food security. Formulated feed has become the main diet of farmed fish. The species farmed have been diversified, and a large amount of 'trash fish' is directly used as feed or is processed into fishmeal for fish feed. The use of locally available food waste as an alternative protein source for producing fish feed has been suggested as a means of tackling the problem of sourcing safe and sustainable feed. This paper reviews the feasibility of using locally available waste materials, including fish waste, okara and food waste. Although the fishmeal derived from fish waste, okara or food waste is less nutritious than fishmeal from whole fish or soybean meal, most fish species farmed in China, such as tilapia and various Chinese carp, grow well on diets with minimal amounts of fishmeal and 40% digestible carbohydrate. It can be concluded that food waste is suitable as a component of the diet of farmed fish. However, it will be necessary to revise regulations on feed and feed ingredients to facilitate the use of food waste in the manufacture of fish feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  6. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the toxicity of food processing wastes as co-digestion substrates with dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Maria Sol; Lansing, Stephanie

    2014-07-01

    Studies have shown that including food waste as a co-digestion substrate in the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure can increase energy production. However, the type and inclusion rate of food waste used for co-digestion need to be carefully considered in order to prevent adverse conditions in the digestion environment. This study determined the effect of increasing the concentration (2%, 5%, 15% and 30%, by volume) of four food-processing wastes (meatball, chicken, cranberry and ice cream processing wastes) on methane production. Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) and specific methanogenic activity (SMA) tests were conducted to determine the concentration at which each food waste became toxic to the digestion environment. Decreases in methane production were observed at concentrations above 5% for all four food waste substrates, with up to 99% decreases in methane production at 30% food processing wastes (by volume). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conversion of food processing wastes to biofuel using clostridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Zohri, Abdel-Naser Ahmed; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Ali, Shimaa Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the recycling of food processing wastes as a low cost-effective substrate for acetone - butanol - ethanol (ABE) production. Potato peels and cheese whey were utilized during fermentation with eight local Clostridium strains in addition to the commercial strain, C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for ABE and organic acids production. From potato peels, Clostridium beijerinckii ASU10 produced the highest ABE production (17.91 g/l) representing 61.3% butanol (10.98 g/l), 33.6% acetone (6.02 g/l) and 5.1% ethanol (0.91 g/l). While, C. chauvoei ASU12 showed the highest acid production (8.15 g/l) including 5.50 and 2.61 g/l acetic and butyric acids, respectively. Use of cheese whey as fermentable substrate exhibited a substantial increase in ethanol ratio and decrease in butanol ratio compared to those produced from potato peels. Clostridium beijerinckii ASU5 produced the highest ABE concentration (7.13 g/l) representing 50.91% butanol (3.63 g/l), 35.34% acetone (2.52 g/l) and 13.74% ethanol (0.98 g/l). The highest acid production (8.00 g/l) was obtained by C. beijerinckii ASU5 representing 4.89 and 3.11 g/l for acetic and butyric acid, respectively. Supplementation of potato peels with an organic nitrogen source showed NH 4 NO 3 promoted ABE production more than yeast extract. In conclusion, this study introduced an ecofriendly and economical practice for utilization of food processing wastes (renewable substrates as potato peels and cheese whey) for biofuel production using various Clostridium strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Single cell protein production of Chlorella sp. using food processing waste as a cultivation medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D.; Ulhidayati, A.; Musthofa, I. A.; Wardani, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various food processing wastes on the production of single cell protein by Chlorella sp. Three various food processing wastes i.e. tofu waste, tempeh waste and cheese whey waste were used as cultivation medium for Chlorella sp. growth. Sea water was used as a control of cultivation medium. The addition of waste into cultivation medium was 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. The result showed that the highest yield of cell mass and protein content was found in 50% tofu waste cultivation medium was 47.8 × 106 cell/ml with protein content was 52.24%. The 50% tofu waste medium showed improved cell yield as nearly as 30% than tempeh waste medium. The yield of biomass and protein content when 30% tempeh waste was used as cultivation medium was 37.1 × 106 cell/ml and 52%, respectively. Thus, food processing waste especially tofu waste would be a promising candidate for cultivation medium for single cell production from Chlorella sp. Moreover, the utilization of waste can reduce environmental pollution and increase protein supply for food supplement or animal feed.

  10. Enzymes and microorganisms in food industry waste processing and conversion to useful products: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroad, P A [Univ. of California, Davis; Wilke, C R

    1978-01-01

    Bioconversion of food processing wastes is receiving increased attention with the realization that waste components represent an available and utilizable resource for conversion to useful products. Liquid wastes are characterized as dilute streams containing sugars, starches, proteins and fats. Solid wastes are generally cellulosic, but may contain other polymers. The greatest potential for economic bioconversion is represented by processes to convert cellulose to glucose, glucose to alcohol and protein, starch to invert sugar, and dilute waste streams to methane by anaerobic digestion. Microbial or enzymatic processes to accomplish these conversions are described.

  11. Design and testing of solar dryers for processing food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijmeh, M.N.; Ragab, A.S.; Emeish, M.S. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Jubran, B.A. [International Islamic University of Malaysia, Kaula Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of using two solar dryers manufactured from locally available materials under Jordanian climatic conditions for drying food wastes for utilization as animal feed. The first dryer is a radiative-convective type, while the second is a solar boiler dryer. Tests were also conducted to investigate the nutritious values of the dried products and their suitability as animal feed. It was found from tests that the solar boiler dryer is more efficient than the radiative-convective dryer for producing animal feed in terms of both quality and quantity. The nutritious values of the end products from the dryers were found to be within the international recommended values used for feeding chickens. (author)

  12. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grycová, Barbora; Koutník, Ivan; Pryszcz, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Different waste materials were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to the final temperature of 800°C with a 10min delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The gas from the pyrolysis experiments was captured discontinuously into Tedlar gas sampling bags and the selected components were analyzed by gas chromatography (methane, ethene, ethane, propane, propene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). The highest concentration of measured hydrogen (WaCe 61%vol.; WaPC 66%vol.) was analyzed at the temperature from 750 to 800°C. The heating values of the solid and liquid residues indicate the possibility of its further use for energy recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  14. Liquid fuels from food waste: An alternative process to co-digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yoke-Leng; Ch'ng, Boon-Juok; Mok, Yau-Cheng; Goh, Sok-Yee; Hilaire, Dickens Saint; Pinnock, Travis; Adams, Shemlyn; Cassis, Islande; Ibrahim, Zainab; Johnson, Camille; Johnson, Chantel; Khatim, Fatima; McCormack, Andrece; Okotiuero, Mary; Owens, Charity; Place, Meoak; Remy, Cristine; Strothers, Joel; Waithe, Shannon; Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher; Pratt, Lawrence M.

    2017-04-01

    Waste from uneaten, spoiled, or otherwise unusable food is an untapped source of material for biofuels. A process is described to recover the oil from mixed food waste, together with a solid residue. This process includes grinding the food waste to an aqueous slurry, skimming off the oil, a combined steam treatment of the remaining solids concurrent with extrusion through a porous cylinder to release the remaining oil, a second oil skimming step, and centrifuging the solids to obtain a moist solid cake for fermentation. The water, together with any resulting oil from the centrifuging step, is recycled back to the grinding step, and the cycle is repeated. The efficiency of oil extraction increases with the oil content of the waste, and greater than 90% of the oil was collected from waste containing at least 3% oil based on the wet mass. Fermentation was performed on the solid cake to obtain ethanol, and the dried solid fermentation residue was a nearly odorless material with potential uses of biochar, gasification, or compost production. This technology has the potential to enable large producers of food waste to comply with new laws which require this material to be diverted from landfills.

  15. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some ha...

  16. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  17. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N. [and others

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  18. Energy supply of food processing plants and breweries from its specific solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behmel, U.; Leupold, G.; Meyer-Pittroff, R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Disposal of solid wastes in the food processing industry causes problems. Constant utilization as animal food is not guaranteed any longer and costs for disposal will increase. Biogas production is an alternative for disposal of brewery wastes. Recent investigations have reduced retention time for hydrolysis and total retention time. Retention time is directly proportional to fermenter size consequently resulting in drastic cost reductions. Yielded energy can be utilized in the production line so that fossil fuel use can be reduced with reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. However, some problems remain: sumptous technology; highly qualified specialists; need to reduce ammonia to prevent inhibition of biogas production; cost of technology.

  19. Hydrogen from food processing wastes via photofermentation using Purple Non-sulfur Bacteria (PNSB) – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Shiladitya; Dairkee, Umme Kulsoom; Chowdhury, Ranjana; Bhattacharya, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Food processing wastes/wastewaters are potential feedstocks for PNSB-bioH_2 systems. • Several bottlenecks exist in efficient usage of food processing wastes/wastewaters by PNSBs. • Pretreatment of feedstocks is a challenging issue. • Genetic modification significantly enhances the H_2 outcome of PNSBs. • Food waste/wastewater - PNSB is a sustainable combination for production of H_2. - Abstract: Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) mediated production of biohydrogen utilizing solid food waste and food processing wastewater possess enormous potential to be implemented as an ideal “green energy technology”. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art utilization of solid wastes and wastewaters of several food and beverage processing industries in photofermentative H_2 production systems. Detailed accounts of the complex composition of various solid food wastes and food processing wastewaters along with the pretreatments used for enhancement of H_2 production by PNSBs have been presented. Factors like compositional complexity, presence of inhibitory compounds and resistance to light penetration are identified as the prime bottlenecks hindering the efficient utilization of food waste and wastewaters in photofermentative H_2 production. Genetic manipulation of the PNSBs to overcome the inherent metabolic complications has been discussed as a probable amelioration strategy for enhancement of H_2 yield. Based on profound discussions the scopes for upgradation of the photofermentative biohydrogen systems using food waste/wastewater have been highlighted and recommended for the overall enhancement of the sustainability of the processes.

  20. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  1. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  2. Food waste and the food-energy-water nexus: A review of food waste management alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Kelly M; Reinhart, Debra; Hawkins, Christopher; Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Wright, James

    2018-04-01

    Throughout the world, much food produced is wasted. The resource impact of producing wasted food is substantial; however, little is known about the energy and water consumed in managing food waste after it has been disposed. Herein, we characterize food waste within the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus and parse the differential FEW effects of producing uneaten food and managing food loss and waste. We find that various food waste management options, such as waste prevention, landfilling, composting, anaerobic digestion, and incineration, present variable pathways for FEW impacts and opportunities. Furthermore, comprehensive sustainable management of food waste will involve varied mechanisms and actors at multiple levels of governance and at the level of individual consumers. To address the complex food waste problem, we therefore propose a "food-waste-systems" approach to optimize resources within the FEW nexus. Such a framework may be applied to devise strategies that, for instance, minimize the amount of edible food that is wasted, foster efficient use of energy and water in the food production process, and simultaneously reduce pollution externalities and create opportunities from recycled energy and nutrients. Characterization of FEW nexus impacts of wasted food, including descriptions of dynamic feedback behaviors, presents a significant research gap and a priority for future work. Large-scale decision making requires more complete understanding of food waste and its management within the FEW nexus, particularly regarding post-disposal impacts related to water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  4. Improving food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Gronert, Alicja; Bikova, Borislava; Salce, Luca; Nogués, Marc; Batistelli, Patryk; Farid, Yomna

    2014-01-01

    The theme and issue of ‘Improving food preservation to reduce food waste’ is associated with all group members participating in this research project. This topic covers multiple processes including purchasing, preserving, preparing and storing food. The industry of fresh fruits and vegetables is an enormous market, which will not disappear any time soon. Food waste is mostly disregarded as fresh fruits and vegetables are mostly inexpensive. All group members believe that this mindset needs to...

  5. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  6. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  7. Growth performance of free-range village chickens fed dehydrated processed food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein, S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dehydrated processed food waste (DPFW inclusion in the diets on the growth performance (feed intake, body weight gain, body weight change and feed conversion ratio of free-range village chickens was investigated. Food waste collected from 20 different restaurants of Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang Selangor was processed into DPFW containing 89.3% dry matter, 16% crude protein, 7.1% crude fat, 3.7% crude fiber, 7.4% crude ash, 3.07% NaCl, 1.56% Ca, 0.87% phosphorous and 4053 kcal/kg GE. A total of of 180 village chickens of the Arabian breed were randomly allocated into four dietary treatments of 0 (control, 20, 40 and 60% DPFW for 5-9 week grower and 10-14 week finisher periods with three replicates (15 birds for each replicate. The results showed that the highest feed intake in grower and finisher phases was observed in the control group by 634.0 g and 2,722.1 g, respectively, while the lowest was in 60% DPFW with 586.3 g for grower and 2,542.6 g for finisher phases (P0.05. Body weight gain and body weight change declined linearly with increasing levels of DPFW of more than 20% in the village chicken diets during both grower and finisher rearing phases. FAR increased (P0.05. In conclusion it seems that the dehydrated processed food waste could substitute 20% of formulated feed in grower and finisher phases of free-range village chickens without any adverse effects on growth performance.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of food waste: A review focusing on process stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Peng, Xuya; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Di

    2018-01-01

    Food waste (FW) is rich in biomass energy, and increasing numbers of national programs are being established to recover energy from FW using anaerobic digestion (AD). However process instability is a common operational issue for AD of FW. Process monitoring and control as well as microbial management can be used to control instability and increase the energy conversion efficiency of anaerobic digesters. Here, we review research progress related to these methods and identify existing limitations to efficient AD; recommendations for future research are also discussed. Process monitoring and control are suitable for evaluating the current operational status of digesters, whereas microbial management can facilitate early diagnosis and process optimization. Optimizing and combining these two methods are necessary to improve AD efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of a novel process for converting food waste to ethanol and co-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Jacqueline; Babbitt, Callie; Winer, Martin; Hilton, Brian; Williamson, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-fermentation using SSF at ambient temperature has potential as an ethanol pathway. • Bio-refinery GHG emissions are similar to corn and MSW ethanol production processes. • Net production GHG impact is negative with inclusion of waste disposal avoidance. • Food waste diversion from landfills is the largest contributor to GHG benefits. - Abstract: Waste-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to provide renewable transportation fuel while mitigating feedstock risks and land use conflicts. It also has the potential to reduce environmental impacts from waste management such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. This paper analyzes the life cycle GHG emissions associated with a novel process for the conversion of food processing waste into ethanol (EtOH) and the co-products of compost and animal feed. Data are based on a pilot plant co-fermenting retail food waste with a sugary industrial wastewater, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process at room temperature with a grinding pretreatment. The process produced 295 L EtOH/dry t feedstock. Lifecycle GHG emissions associated with the ethanol production process were 1458 gCO 2 e/L EtOH. When the impact of avoided landfill emissions from diverting food waste to use as feedstock are considered, the process results in net negative GHG emissions and approximately 500% improvement relative to corn ethanol or gasoline production. This finding illustrates how feedstock and alternative waste disposal options have important implications in life cycle GHG results for waste-to-energy pathways

  10. Food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus

  11. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options. PMID:25110656

  12. Assessment of food processing and pharmaceutical industrial wastes as potential biosorbents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Hanan E M; El-Sayed, Mayyada M H

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options.

  13. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of wastewater from food waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In-Gu [Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Korean food wastes have high moisture content (more than 85 wt%) and their major treatment processes such as drying or biological fermentations generate concentrated organic wastewater (CODs of about 100,000 mgO{sub 2}/L). For obtaining both wastewater treatment and hydrogen production from renewable resources, supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the organic wastewater was carried out in this work. The effect of catalyst, reaction temperature, and reactor residence time on COD destruction and composition of gas products was examined. As a result, a SCWG of the wastewater over Ni- Y/activated charcoal at 700 C, 28 MPa yielded 99 % COD destruction and hydrogen-rich gas production (45 vol% H{sub 2}). A liquid-phase thermal pretreatment to destroy solid particles from the wastewater was proposed for more effective operation of the SCWG system. (orig.)

  14. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE with a fermentation productivity and a yield of 0.22 g/L/h and 0.35 g/g, respectively. In a similar fermentation 81 g/L of food waste (containing equivalent glucose of 60.1 g/L) was used as substrate, and the culture produced 18.9 g/L ABE with a high ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and a yield of 0.38 g/g. Fermentation of food waste at higher concentrations (129, 181 and 228 g/L) did not remarkably increase ABE production but resulted in high residual glucose due to the culture butanol inhibition. An integrated vacuum stripping system was designed and applied to recover butanol from the fermentation broth simultaneously to relieve the culture butanol inhibition, thereby allowing the fermentation of food waste at high concentrations. ABE fermentation integrated with vacuum stripping successfully recovered the ABE from the fermentation broth and controlled the ABE concentrations below 10 g/L during fermentation when 129 g/L food waste was used. The ABE productivity with vacuum fermentation was 0.49 g/L/h, which was 109 % higher than the control fermentation (glucose based). More importantly, ABE vacuum recovery and fermentation allowed near-complete utilization of the sugars (~98 %) in the broth. In these studies it was demonstrated that food waste is a superior feedstock for producing butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii. Compared to costly glucose, ABE fermentation of food waste has several advantages including lower feedstock cost, higher productivity, and less residual sugars.

  15. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  16. Composting of food wastes: Status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alejandra; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Barrena, Raquel; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    This review analyses the main challenges of the process of food waste composting and examines the crucial aspects related to the quality of the produced compost. Although recent advances have been made in crucial aspects of the process, such composting microbiology, improvements are needed in process monitoring. Therefore, specific problems related to food waste composting, such as the presence of impurities, are thoroughly analysed in this study. In addition, environmental impacts related to food waste composting, such as emissions of greenhouse gases and odours, are discussed. Finally, the use of food waste compost in soil bioremediation is discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by lime mud from papermaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Qinqing; Zheng, Pengwei; Wang, Yusong

    2014-10-01

    The effects of lime mud from papermaking process (LMP) addition as buffer agent and inorganic nutrient on the anaerobic digestion stability of food waste (FW) were investigated under mesophilic conditions with the aim of avoiding volatile fatty acids accumulation, and inorganic elements deficiency. When LMP concentration ranged from 6.0 to 10g/L, the FW anaerobic digestion could maintain efficient and stable state. These advantages are attributed to the existence of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Fe, and alkaline substances that favor the methanogenic process. The highest CH4 yield of 272.8mL/g-VS was obtained at LMP and VS concentrations of 10.0 and 19.8g/L, respectively, with the corresponding lag-phase time of 3.84d and final pH of 8.4. The methanogens from residue digestates mainly consisted of Methanobrevibacter, coccus-type and sarcina-type methanogens with LMP addition compared to Methanobacteria in control. However, higher concentration of LMP inhibited methanogenic activities and methane production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  19. Cutting Food Waste through Cooperation along the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Göbel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food produced but not used for human consumption is a waste of natural resources. In order to prevent and reduce food waste, the main causes have to be identified systematically along the food supply chain (FSC. The aim of this study is (1 to shed light on the causes and effects of food waste through the analysis of 44 qualitative expert interviews examining the processes and intermediaries along the German food chain and (2 to find methods to reduce it. Results indicate that food waste occurs at all stages in the food chain. Thus, there is no single culprit to be blamed. Besides, the identified reasons for food waste differ between product groups; not a single solution can cause notable change. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that the causes and effects of food waste are to be found at different stages of the value chain. Hence, it is of high importance to improve communication and to raise a new appreciation for food among all stakeholders of the food supply chain in order to develop a more sustainable food system. Information on the topic of food waste needs to be shared among all actors of the supply chain. They need to share responsibility and work together to reduce food waste.

  20. More value from food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid...... the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Naþ, Kþ, Mg2þ, and Ca2þ and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further...... (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 C to 55 C, with the highest performance attained at 50 C. At 50 C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration...

  1. Consumer food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Household food waste is one of the main contributors to the food waste amounts across the food supply chain. This report is based on a study conducted...... in September 2017 by MAPP Research Centre – Research on Value Creation in the Food Sector. The study aimed to examine consumer food waste, with a focus on consumer perceptions and practices related to food waste. A survey was completed by 508 respondents in Denmark to provide insights into self......-reported consumer food waste, consumer understanding and perceptions of food waste, household food-related practices as well as individual and household characteristics with a role in food waste....

  2. Biodegradable bioplastics from food wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated 1.8 billion tons of waste are created annually from food processing in the US, including the peels, pulp, and pomace (PPP) generated from fruits and vegetables when they are converted into frozen or canned products or pressed into juice. PPP currently is sold as animal feed at low cost,...

  3. Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of an Anaerobic Codigestion Facility Processing Dairy Manure and Industrial Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Rankin, Matthew J; Pronto, Jennifer L; Gooch, Curt A; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) can address food waste disposal and manure management issues while delivering clean, renewable energy. Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to implementation of AcoD is important to achieve this goal. A lifecycle analysis was performed on the basis of data from an on-farm AcoD in New York, resulting in a 71% reduction in GHG, or net reduction of 37.5 kg CO2e/t influent relative to conventional treatment of manure and food waste. Displacement of grid electricity provided the largest reduction, followed by avoidance of alternative food waste disposal options and reduced impacts associated with storage of digestate vs undigested manure. These reductions offset digester emissions and the net increase in emissions associated with land application in the AcoD case relative to the reference case. Sensitivity analysis showed that using feedstock diverted from high impact disposal pathways, control of digester emissions, and managing digestate storage emissions were opportunities to improve the AcoD GHG benefits. Regional and parametrized emissions factors for the storage emissions and land application phases would reduce uncertainty.

  4. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour: Two routes to food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one quarter of the food supplied for human consumption is wasted across the food supply chain. In the high income countries, the food waste generated at the household level represents about half of the total food waste, making this level one of the biggest contributors to food waste. Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control. Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities. With regard to intentional processes, injunctive norms and attitudes towards food waste have an impact while moral norms and perceived behavioural control make no significant contribution. Implications of the study for initiatives aimed at changing consumers' food waste behaviour are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Jongho; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-08-01

    Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and walnut shells were selected as raw materials. Carbonization and steam activation were performed in a fixed-bed laboratory electric furnace. To obtain the highest iodine number, the optimum conditions for producing activated carbon from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 2 hr and 1.5 hr (carbonization at 700 degrees C) followed by 1 hr and 0.5 hr (activation at 1000 degrees C), respectively. The surface area and iodine number of activated carbon made from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 1,477 and 1,184 m2/g and 1,450 and 1,200 mg/g, respectively. A pore-distribution analysis revealed that most pores had a pore diameter within or around 30-40 angstroms, and adsorption capacity for surfactants was about 2 times larger than the commercial activated carbon, indicating that waste-based activated carbon can be used as alternative. Implications: Wastes discharged from agricultural and food industries results in a serious environmental problem. A method is proposed to convert food-processing wastes such as jujube seeds and walnut shells into high-grade granular activated carbon. Especially, the performance of jujube seeds as activated carbon is worthy of close attention. There is little research about the application ofjujube seeds. Also, when compared to two commercial carbons (Samchully and Calgon samples), the results show that it is possible to produce high-quality carbon, particularly from jujube seed, using a one-stage, 1,000 degrees C, steam pyrolysis. The preparation of activated carbon from food-processing wastes could increase economic return and reduce pollution.

  6. Bio-processing of Agro-industrial Wastes for Production of Food-grade Enzymes: Progress and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmjit S Panesar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In the era of global industrialization, enzymes are being used extensively in the various sectors including food processing. Owing to the high price of enzymes, various initiatives have been undertaken by the R&D sector for the development of new processes or improvement in the existing processes for production of cost effective enzymes. With the advancement in the field of biotechnology, different bioprocesses are being used for utilization of different agro-industrial residues for the production of various enzymes. This review focuses on different types of agro-industrial wastes and their utilization in the production of enzymes. The present scenario as well as the future scope of utilization of enzymes in the food industry has also been discussed.Results and Conclusion: The regulations from the various governmental as well as environmental agencies for the demand of cleaner environment have led to the advancement in various technologies for utilization of the wastes for the production of value-added products such as enzymes. Among the different types of fermentation, maximum work has been carried under solid state conditions by batch fermentation. The research has indicated the significant potential of agro-industrial wastes for production of food-grade enzymes in order to improve the economics of the process.Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  7. The impact of food preservation on food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne; Schiebel, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between food preservation and reducing consumer waste is of value in developing sustainable meal options. The research reports insights into Austrian marketplace for frozen and fresh foods that have been obtained from a consumer survey. The consumer survey methodologies indicate how preservation can change meal planning and lower food waste across frozen and fresh and ambient food purchases using freezing preservation methods. The results show food waste can be reduced by six-fold when frozen foods are compared with fresh foods. This study highlights the requirement for a greater understanding of the probability that specific foods will be wasted with respect to the frequency of purchase. This is a limitation of the current study that has been investigated by other researchers. This research has enabled the identification of different food waste amounts for different food product categories. The data presented could be used to guide food product development so that less consumer waste is produced. The research suggests a decision matrix approach can be used to can guide new product development and a model of this matrix is presented so that it may provide fit-for-purpose food preservation options for consumers. This paper will continue to highlight the overlooked value of food preservation during processing and manufacturing of foods and their preparation in households.

  8. Characterization of microbial community in the two-stage process for hydrogen and methane production from food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Chun-Feng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ebie, Yoshitaka [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Xu, Kai-Qin [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li, Yu-You [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The structure of a microbial community in the two-stage process for H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} production from food waste was investigated by a molecular biological approach. The process was a continuous combined thermophilic acidogenic hydrogenesis and mesophilic (RUN1) or thermophilic (RUN2) methanogenesis with recirculation of the digested sludge. A two-phase process suggested in this study effectively separate H{sub 2}-producing bacteria from methanogenic archaea by optimization of design parameters such as pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature. Galore microbial diversity was found in the thermophilic acidogenic hydrogenesis, Clostridium sp. strain Z6 and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum were considered to be the dominant thermophilic H{sub 2}-producing bacteria. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens were inhibited in thermophilic methanogenesis, whereas archaeal rDNAs were higher in the thermophilic methanogenesis than those in mesophilic methanogenesis. The yields of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were in equal range depending on the characteristics of food waste, whereas effluent water quality indicators were different obviously in RUN1 and RUN2. The results indicated that hydrolysis and removal of food waste were higher in RUN2 than RUN1. (author)

  9. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  10. Consumer-Related Food Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Normann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss...... food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities...... to the disadvantage of food waste avoidance. Potential actions to tackle food waste relate to improved packaging and information, altering pricing strategies, and cooperation with other actors across the supply chain. Three cases highlight the extent to which moral and strategic motives are interlinked...

  11. Food Waste to Energy: An Overview of Sustainable Approaches for Food Waste Management and Nutrient Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paritosh, Kunwar; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Yadav, Monika; Pareek, Nidhi; Chawade, Aakash; Vivekanand, Vivekanand

    2017-01-01

    Food wastage and its accumulation are becoming a critical problem around the globe due to continuous increase of the world population. The exponential growth in food waste is imposing serious threats to our society like environmental pollution, health risk, and scarcity of dumping land. There is an urgent need to take appropriate measures to reduce food waste burden by adopting standard management practices. Currently, various kinds of approaches are investigated in waste food processing and management for societal benefits and applications. Anaerobic digestion approach has appeared as one of the most ecofriendly and promising solutions for food wastes management, energy, and nutrient production, which can contribute to world's ever-increasing energy requirements. Here, we have briefly described and explored the different aspects of anaerobic biodegrading approaches for food waste, effects of cosubstrates, effect of environmental factors, contribution of microbial population, and available computational resources for food waste management researches.

  12. Fuel processing. Wastes processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.

    2000-01-01

    The gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive effluents generated by the fuel reprocessing, can't be release in the environment. They have to be treated in order to respect the limits of the pollution regulations. These processing are detailed and discussed in this technical paper. A second part is devoted to the SPIN research program relative to the separation of the long life radionuclides in order to reduce the radioactive wastes storage volume. (A.L.B.)

  13. Utilization of Paper Sludge Wastes for Treatment of Wastewater from Food Processing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The food processing industries usually produced large amount of wastewater containing fine and small particles. It takes long time for complete settlement of the fine and small particles in the wastewater. The coagulation method appears to become one of the useful treatments. New inorganic coagulant named “Agoclean‒P” has been developed from paper sludge ash. The treatment by coagulation and flocculation were carried out for the wastewater from three different food processing industries namely soup, tofu, and natto. “Hi‒Biah‒System”, which is an in‒situ solidification system, was used for the continuous treatment of wastewater. The parameters for the water quality were pH, five‒day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP. These parameters after the treatment became much lower values relative to those obtained before the treatment.

  14. Population dynamics of Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Brachionidae) in waste water from food-processing industry in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arévalo Stevenson, Raymundo Alfredo; Sarma, S.S.S.; Nandini, S.

    1998-01-01

    Waste water from Mexico's largest food processing industrial sector (based on maize, nejayote water) was used for growing Brachionus calyciflorus isolated from Lake Chapultepec in the Federal District of Mexico (D.F.). Nejayote water was collected from Colonia Providencia, D.F. Experiments were conducted at 25°C in 25 ml capacity vials with 20 ml of medium into which we introduced B. calyciflorus at an initial density of 1 ind ml-1. The experimental design consisted a total of 33 test vessels...

  15. Long-term high-solids anaerobic digestion of food waste: Effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuya; Zhang, ShangYi; Li, Lei; Zhao, Xiaofei; Ma, Yao; Shi, Dezhi

    2018-04-22

    A long-term high solids anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted to identify microbial mechanisms of ammonia inhibition during digestion and to clarify correlations between ammonia accumulation, microbial community dynamics (diversity, composition, and interactions), and process stability. Results show that the effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community were indirectly caused by volatile fatty acid accumulation. Excess free ammonia blocked acetate metabolism, leading to process instability. Accumulated acetate caused feedback inhibition at the acetogenesis stage, which resulted in considerable accumulation of propionate, valerate, and other long-chain fatty acids. This high concentration of volatile fatty acids reduced the abundance of syntrophic acetogenic bacteria and allowed hydrolytic fermentative bacteria to dominate. The normally interactive and orderly metabolic network was broken, which further exacerbated the process instability. These results improve the understanding of microbial mechanisms which contribute to process instability and provide guidance for the microbial management of anaerobic digesters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Harmful Waste Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Mun Bong; Lee, Shi Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Yoon, Seok Pyo; Lee, Jae Hyo; Jo, Byeong Ryeol

    2008-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of processing harmful waste, including concerned law and definition of harmful waste, current conditions and generation of harmful waste in Korea, international condition of harmful waste, minimizing of generation of harmful waste, treatment and storage. It also tells of basic science for harmful waste disposal with physics, chemistry, combustion engineering, microbiology and technique of disposal such as physical, chemical, biological process, stabilizing and solidification, incineration and waste in landfill.

  17. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X; K. Steinberger, Julia; Wright, Nigel; Ujang, Zaini Bin

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and

  18. High-quality fuel from food waste - investigation of a stepwise process from the perspective of technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Li, Ling; Giannis, Apostolos; Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Ng, Bernard J H; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    A stepwise process (SP) was developed for sustainable energy production from food waste (FW). The process comprised of hydrothermal treatment followed by oil upgrading. Synthetic food waste was primarily used as feedstock in the hydrothermal reactor under subcritical water conditions. The produced hydrochars were analyzed for calorific value (17.0-33.7 MJ/kg) and elemental composition indicating high-quality fuel comparable to coal. Hydrothermal carbonization (e.g. 180°C) would be efficient for oil recovery (>90%) from FW, as compared to hydrothermal liquefaction (320°C) whereby lipid degradation may take place. The recovered oil was upgraded to biodiesel in a catalytic refinery process. Selected biodiesels, that is, B3 and B4 were characterized for density (872.7 and 895.5 kg/m 3 ), kinematic viscosity (3.115 and 8.243 cSt), flash and pour point (30°C and >126°C), micro carbon (0.03% and 0.04%), sulfur (both biofuel and hydrochar production.

  19. Population dynamics of Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Brachionidae in waste water from food-processing industry in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Alfredo Arévalo Stevenson

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Waste water from Mexico's largest food processing industrial sector (based on maize, nejayote water was used for growing Brachionus calyciflorus isolated from Lake Chapultepec in the Federal District of Mexico (D.F.. Nejayote water was collected from Colonia Providencia, D.F. Experiments were conducted at 25°C in 25 ml capacity vials with 20 ml of medium into which we introduced B. calyciflorus at an initial density of 1 ind ml-1. The experimental design consisted a total of 33 test vessels (2 food combinations X 5 densities X 3 replicates = 30 plus 3 replicates as controls that contained only algae. Experiments were terminated after day 16. Waste water in original concentration did nt rotifes. However, when diluted to 5 oncentrations (ranging from 2% to 32% and pH adjusted to 7.0, rotifer density increased with increasing concentration of waste water. Green algae (at constant density of 2 X 10 6 cells-1 of Chlorella in combination with waste water resulted in a higher abundance of rotifers only at higher concentration (above 8 % of waste water. The maximum peak density of rotifers (238-50 ind ml -1 was obtained at 16% dilution of waste water nd with addition of Chlorella. The rate of population increase per day ® (mean-SD varied from 0.355-0.059 to 0.457-0.048 depending on food combination and concetration.Se usó aguas de desecho de la industria de la masa y la tortilla (aguas de nixtamal o nejayote para crecer rotíferos de agua dulce, Brachionus calyciflorus. El nejayote sin dilución no permitió el desarrollo del rotífero. Sin embargo, cuando se diluyó, B. calyciflorus aprovechó la materia orgánica. El agua de desecho por sí misma (sin alimento algal adicional fue comparable al agua con densidades del alga Chlorella de 2 X 10(6 células ml-1. Concentraciones de nejayote por encima del 8% no permitieron el crecimiento poblacional. Sin embargo, la presencia de alga permitió el desarrollo del rotífero a concentraciones de 8% y 16

  20. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers...... the hypothesis that dishware size plays an important role in the amount of food wasted among Danish adults in a self-service eating setting. This finding has PHN implications: slight changes in the foodscape can contribute to sustainable food consumption goals....

  1. Conceptual design for a food production, water and waste processing, and gas regeneration module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, O. W.

    1986-01-01

    During the first six month period, the RECON (Regenerative Concepts Group) team collected reference material, made visits to consult with other researchers, and invited distinguished visitors to speak on the status of closed life support activities. A decision was made to develop the data base and modeling such that artificial intelligence (AI) methods could be used to manipulate data and examine concept alternatives. Six discrete tasks and a project schedule were outlined for the first year. The first two tasks have been essentially completed and have resulted in a sample set of assumptions for general use in defining candidate systems and for the specification of closed system characteristics. To model a closed environment, decisions were necessary to establish the amounts of food, air, water and waste products. Although recognized that data would eventually be normalized on the basis of a single human, the amount of data in existence for four person crews led to the decision to use this as a baseline. Information on existing concepts was collected from NASA sources, from industry, and libraries. Concept modeling was begun, hardware and software obtained, technical tasks identified and experimental work initiated.

  2. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1991-12-01

    During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year's project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

  3. Multi-response optimization of process parameters in biogas production from food waste using Taguchi – Grey relational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepanraj, B.; Sivasubramanian, V.; Jayaraj, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of process parameters on biogas production was experimentally investigated. • The optimum conditions were determined using Taguchi based Grey relational analysis. • Percentage contribution of chosen parameters were determined using ANOVA. • Empirical relationship between the input and output variables were derived. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of process parameters and pretreatment on biogas production, volatile solid degradation and COD degradation during anaerobic digestion of food waste were experimentally investigated. Using Taguchi based Grey relational analysis, the optimum condition for anaerobic digestion was found. Taguchi technique was coupled with grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple outputs. A L_1_6 orthogonal array was selected and designed for five parameters varied through four levels by applying Taguchi’s design of experiments. The optimum level values of parameters obtained for anaerobic digestion of food waste is solid concentration of 7.5% TS, pH of 7, temperature of 50 °C, C/N ratio of 20.19 and ultrasonication pretreatment. Percentage contribution of input parameters on output was determined using ANOVA. The results showed that pretreatment is the prominent parameter that contributes towards output responses followed by pH, solid concentration, temperature and C/N ratio.

  4. Improvement of home composting process of food waste using different minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, M; Psarras, K; Panaretou, V; Thanos, A G; Malamis, D; Sotiropoulos, A

    2018-03-01

    This article presents the experimental study of the process of composting in a prototype home-scale system with a special focus on process improvement by using different additives (i.e. woodchips, perlite, vermiculite and zeolite). The interventions with different bulking agents were realized through composting cycles using substrates with 10% additives in specific mixtures of kitchen waste materials. The pre-selected proportion of the mixtures examined was 3:1:1 in cellulosic:proteins:carbohydrates, in order to achieve an initial C/N ratio equal to 30. The control of the initial properties of the examined substrates aimed at the consequent improvement of the properties of the final product (compost). The results indicated that composting process was enhanced with the use of additives and especially the case of zeolite and perlite provided the best results, in terms of efficient temperature evolution (>55 °C for 4 consecutive days). Carbon to nitrogen ratios decreased by 40% from the initial values for the reactors were minerals were added, while for the bioreactor tested with woodchips the reduction was slight, showing slowest degradation rate. Moisture content of produced compost varied within the range of 55-64% d.m., while nutrient content (K, Na, Ca, Mg) was in accordance with the limit values reported in literature. Finally, the composts obtained, exhibited a satisfactory degree of maturity, fulfilling the criterion related to the absence of phytotoxic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of food waste disposers and alternate cycles process in small-decentralized towns: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Paolo; Fatone, Francesco; Passacantando, Daniele; Bolzonella, David

    2007-02-01

    The use of food waste disposers (FWDs) can be an interesting option to integrate the management of municipal wastewaters and household organic waste in small towns and decentralized areas. This strategy can be even more environmentally friendly if a suitable treatment process of the resulting sewage is performed in order to control nutrients emission. However, still nowadays, part of the scientific and technical community considers the application of this technology a possible source of problems. In this study, the FWDs were applied, with a market penetration factor of 67%, in a mountain village of 250 inhabitants. Further, the existing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was upgraded by applying an automatically controlled alternate cycles process for the management of nutrients removal. With specific reference to the observed results, the impact of the ground food waste on the sewerage system did not show particular solids sedimentation or significant hydraulic overflows. Further, the WWTP was able to face the overloads of 11, 55 and 2g per capita per day of TSS, COD and TN, respectively. Then, the increase of the readily biodegradable COD (rbCOD/COD from 0.20 to 0.25) and the favourable COD/TN ratio (from 9.9 to 12) led to a specific denitrification rate of some 0.06kgNO(3)-N/(kg MLVSS day). Therefore, not only COD removal, but also the total nitrogen removal increased: the denitrification efficiency reached 85%. That led to a better exploitation of the nitrogen-bound oxygen and a consequent reduction of energy requirements of 39%. The final economic evaluation showed the benefits of the application of this technology with a pay back time of 4-5 years.

  6. Emerging halogenated flame retardants and hexabromocyclododecanes in food samples from an e-waste processing area in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fang; Matsukami, Hidenori; Suzuki, Go; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Viet, Pham Hung; Takigami, Hidetaka; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    This study reports concentrations of selected emerging halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in foodstuffs sourced from an e-waste processing area in Vietnam and two reference sites in Vietnam and Japan. Concentrations of all target HFRs in e-waste-impacted samples in this study exceed significantly (p e-waste processing activities exert a substantial impact on local environmental contamination and human dietary exposure. Significant linear positive correlations in concentrations of syn-Dechlorane Plus (DP) and anti-DP were found between soils and those in co-located chicken samples (p e-waste processing sites and non-e-waste processing areas elsewhere.

  7. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  8. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailer...... the hypothesis that dishware size plays an important role in the amount of food wasted among Danish adults in a self-service eating setting. This finding has PHN implications: slight changes in the foodscape can contribute to sustainable food consumption goals.......With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers...... and producers. Northern European consumers are among the most environmentally concerned consumers, however, their concerns do not always translate in more sustainable food-related behaviours. Furthermore, food choices are not always rational and could be non-reflective. Hence, the objective of this pilot study...

  9. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    and producers. Northern European consumers are among the most environmentally concerned consumers, however, their concerns do not always translate in more sustainable food-related behaviours. Furthermore, food choices are not always rational and could be non-reflective. Hence, the objective of this pilot study......With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers...... was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables were set up on two separate...

  10. Avoiding food waste by Romanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Violeta; van Herpen, Erica; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    2013-01-01

    of disapproval towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control on consumers’ self-reported food waste. Results show that consumers’ planning and shopping routines are important predictors of food waste. Planning and shopping routines are determined by moral attitudes towards food waste and perceived......Food waste is generated in immense amounts across the food life cycle, imposing serious environmental, social and economic consequences. Although consumers are the single biggest contributor to this volume, little is known about the drivers of food waste in households. This exploratory study aims...... to investigate the role of food choices and other food-related activities in producing food waste. A survey of 244 Romanian consumers examined the influence of intentions not to waste food, planning and shopping routines, as well as moral attitudes and lack of concern towards wasting food, a subjective norm...

  11. Kinetics and evolved gas analysis for pyrolysis of food processing wastes using TGA/MS/FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Pütün, Ayşe Eren

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the pyrolysis of different bio-waste produced by food processing industry in a comprehensible manner. For this purpose, pyrolysis behaviors of chestnut shells (CNS), cherry stones (CS) and grape seeds (GS) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) combined with a Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and a mass spectrometer (MS). In order to make available theoretical groundwork for biomass pyrolysis, activation energies were calculated with the help of four different model-free kinetic methods. The results are attributed to the complex reaction schemes which imply parallel, competitive and complex reactions during pyrolysis. During pyrolysis, the evolution of volatiles was also characterized by FT-IR and MS. The main evolved gases were determined as H 2 O, CO 2 and hydrocarbons such as CH 4 and temperature dependent profiles of the species were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  13. Development of an Effective Chain Elongation Process From Acidified Food Waste and Ethanol Into n-Caproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Roghair

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs, such as n-caproate, are potential valuable platform chemicals. MCFAs can be produced from low-grade organic residues by anaerobic reactor microbiomes through two subsequent biological processes: hydrolysis combined with acidogenesis and chain elongation. Continuous chain elongation with organic residues becomes effective when the targeted MCFA(s are produced at high concentrations and rates, while excessive ethanol oxidation and base consumption are limited. The objective of this study was to develop an effective continuous chain elongation process with hydrolyzed and acidified food waste and additional ethanol.Results: We fed acidified food waste (AFW and ethanol to an anaerobic reactor while operating the reactor at long (4 d and at short (1 d hydraulic retention time (HRT. At long HRT, n-caproate was continuously produced (5.5 g/L/d at an average concentration of 23.4 g/L. The highest n-caproate concentration was 25.7 g/L which is the highest reported n-caproate concentration in a chain elongation process to date. Compared to short HRT (7.1 g/L n-caproate at 5.6 g/L/d, long HRT resulted in 6.2 times less excessive ethanol oxidation. This led to a two times lower ethanol consumption and a two times lower base consumption per produced MCFA at long HRT compared to short HRT.Conclusions: Chain elongation from AFW and ethanol is more effective at long HRT than at short HRT not only because it results in a higher concentration of MCFAs but also because it leads to a more efficient use of ethanol and base. The HRT did not influence the n-caproate production rate. The obtained n-caproate concentration is more than twice as high as the maximum solubility of n-caproic acid in water which is beneficial for its separation from the fermentation broth. This study does not only set the record on the highest n-caproate concentration observed in a chain elongation process to date, it notably demonstrates that

  14. Reviewing the anaerobic digestion and co-digestion process of food waste from the perspectives on biogas production performance and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, factors that affect biogas production in the anaerobic digestion (AD) and anaerobic co-digestion (coAD) processes of food waste are reviewed with the aim to improve biogas production performance. These factors include the composition of substrates in food waste coAD as well as pre-treatment methods and anaerobic reactor system designs in both food waste AD and coAD. Due to the characteristics of the substrates used, the biogas production performance varies as different effects are exhibited on nutrient balance, inhibitory substance dilution, and trace metal element supplement. Various types of pre-treatment methods such as mechanical, chemical, thermal, and biological methods are discussed to improve the rate-limiting hydrolytic step in the digestion processes. The operation parameters of a reactor system are also reviewed with consideration of the characteristics of the substrates. Since the environmental awareness and concerns for waste management systems have been increasing, this paper also addresses possible environmental impacts of AD and coAD in food waste treatment and recommends feasible methods to reduce the impacts. In addition, uncertainties in the life cycle assessment (LCA) studies are also discussed.

  15. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  16. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Koonchun; Lim, Sooking; Teh, Pehchiong

    2015-05-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  17. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm

  18. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong [Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia); Lim, Sooking [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  19. The costs of household food waste in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting), wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain...

  20. Food Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Risum, Jørgen

    to calculate the requirements of heat processing. Our goal is to put food engineering into a production context. Other courses teach food chemistry, food microbiology and food technology. Topics of great importance and all have to be seen in a broader context of producing good and safe food in a large scale...

  1. Operation of a two-stage continuous fermentation process producing hydrogen and methane from artificial food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Kohki; Mizuno, Shiho; Umeda, Yoshito; Sakka, Makiko [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Osaka, Noriko [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakka, Kazuo [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    An anaerobic two-stage continuous fermentation process with combined thermophilic hydrogenogenic and methanogenic stages (two-stage fermentation process) was applied to artificial food wastes on a laboratory scale. In this report, organic loading rate (OLR) conditions for hydrogen fermentation were optimized before operating the two-stage fermentation process. The OLR was set at 11.2, 24.3, 35.2, 45.6, 56.1, and 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} with a temperature of 60 C, pH5.5 and 5.0% total solids. As a result, approximately 1.8-2.0 mol-H{sub 2} mol-hexose{sup -1} was obtained at the OLR of 11.2-56.1 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}. In contrast, it was inferred that the hydrogen yield at the OLR of 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} decreased because of an increase in lactate concentration in the culture medium. The performance of the two-stage fermentation process was also evaluated over three months. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of methane fermentation was able to be shortened 5.0 days (under OLR 12.4 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} conditions) when the OLR of hydrogen fermentation was 44.0 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and the average gasification efficiency of the two-stage fermentation process was 81% at the time. (orig.)

  2. Comparing Food Provided and Wasted before and after Implementing Measures against Food Waste in Three Healthcare Food Service Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Strotmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to reduce food waste in a hospital, a hospital cafeteria, and a residential home by applying a participatory approach in which the employees were integrated into the process of developing and implementing measures. Initially, a process analysis was undertaken to identify the processes and structures existing in each institution. This included a 2-week measurement of the quantities of food produced and wasted. After implementing the measures, a second measurement was conducted and the results of the two measurements were compared. The average waste rate in the residential home was significantly reduced from 21.4% to 13.4% and from 19.8% to 12.8% in the cafeteria. In the hospital, the average waste rate remained constant (25.6% and 26.3% during the reference and control measurements. However, quantities of average daily food provided and wasted per person in the hospital declined. Minimizing overproduction, i.e., aligning the quantity of meals produced to that required, is essential to reducing serving losses. Compliance of meal quality and quantity with customer expectations, needs, and preferences, i.e., the individualization of food supply, reduces plate waste. Moreover, establishing an efficient communication structure involving all actors along the food supply chain contributes to decreasing food waste.

  3. Alkali-promoted hydrothermal gasification of biomass food processing waste: A parametric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muangrat, Rattana; Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A parametric study of alkali-promoted hydrogen gas production from by-products from food-based biomass, such as glucose, molasses and rice bran, under hydrothermal conditions has been carried out. Partial oxidation of the biomass samples was aided by the addition of hydrogen peroxide and experiments were carried out in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and feed concentration on the conversion of glucose, molasses and rice bran to gaseous products under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. The reaction time and reaction temperature were investigated in the range of 0-120 min and 330-390 C, respectively. The results confirmed the positive influence of NaOH in the production of hydrogen gas via the water-gas shift reaction. In the presence of the alkali, no tar/oil and char were observed. The hydrogen gas yield increased when the reaction temperature and reaction time increased. It was observed that higher reaction temperature led to an increase in the amount of methane gas produced. With increasing feed concentration, the yields of other gases such as CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} increased, while hydrogen gas production decreased for all the biomass samples. The generation of gaseous products from the molasses and rice bran showed a similar trend to that of glucose, under identical test conditions. (author)

  4. EPRI waste processing projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) manages research for its sponsoring electric utilities in the United States. Research in the area of low level radioactive waste (LLRW) from light water reactors focuses primarily on waste processing within the nuclear power plants, monitoring of the waste packages, and assessments of disposal technologies. Accompanying these areas and complimentary to them is the determination and evaluation of the sources of nuclear power plants radioactive waste. This paper focuses on source characterization of nuclear power plant waste, LLRW processing within nuclear power plants, and the monitoring of these wastes. EPRI's work in waste disposal technology is described in another paper in this proceeding by the same author. 1 reference, 5 figures

  5. Bio-hydrolysis and bio-hydrogen production from food waste by thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algapani, Dalal E; Qiao, Wei; Su, Min; di Pumpo, Francesca; Wandera, Simon M; Adani, Fabrizio; Dong, Renjie

    2016-09-01

    High-temperature pretreatment plays a key role in the anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW). However, the suitable temperature is not yet determined. In this work, a long-term experiment was conducted to compare hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and hydrogen production at 55°C and 70°C, using real FW in CSTR reactors. The results obtained indicated that acidification was the rate-limiting step at both temperatures with similar process kinetics characterizations. However, the thermophilic pretreatment was more advantageous than the hyperthermophilic with suspended solids solubilization of 47.7% and 29.5% and total VFA vs. soluble COD ratio of 15.2% and 4.9%, for thermophilic and hyperthermophilic treatment, respectively, with a hydrolytic reaction time (HRT) of 10days and an OLR of 14kgCOD/m(3)d. Moreover, stable hydrogen yield (70.7ml-H2/gVSin) and content in off gas (58.6%) was achieved at HRT 5days, pH 5.5, and temperature of 55°C, as opposed to 70°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Butanol biorefineries: simultaneous product removal & process integration for conversion of biomass & food waste to biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol, a superior biofuel, packs 30% more energy than ethanol on a per gallon basis. It can be produced from various carbohydrates and lignocellulosic (biomass) feedstocks. For cost effective production of this renewable and high energy biofuel, inexpensive feedstocks and economical process techno...

  7. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  8. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Installation and Setup of Whole School Food Waste Composting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A.; Forder, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong, one of the busiest trading harbors in the world, is also a city of 8 million of people. The biggest problem that the government faces is the lack of solid waste landfill space. Hong Kong produces around 13,500 tons of waste per day. There are three landfills in Hong Kong in operation. These three landfills will soon be exhausted in around 2020, and the solid waste in Hong Kong is still increasing. Out of the 13,500 tons of solid waste, 9,000 tons are organic solid waste or food waste. Food waste, especially domestic waste, is recyclable. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy has a project to collect domestic food waste (from the school cafeteria) for decomposition. Our school produces around 15 tons of food waste per year. The project includes a sub-project in the Primary school, which uses the organic soil produced by an aerobic food waste machine, the Rocket A900, to plant vegetables in school. This not only helps our school to process the waste, but also helps the Primary students to study agriculture and have greater opportunities for experimental learning. For this project, two types of machines will be used for food waste processing. Firstly, the Dehydra made by Tiny Planet reduces the volume and the mass of the food waste, by dehydrating the food waste and separating the ground food waste and the excessive water inside machine for further decomposition. Secondly, the A900 Rocket, also made by Tidy Planet; this is used to process the dehydrated ground food waste for around 14 days thereby producing usable organic soil. It grinds the food waste into tiny pieces so that it is easier to decompose. It also separates the wood chips inside the ground food waste. This machine runs an aerobic process, which includes O2 and will produce CO2 during the process and is less harmful to the environment. On the other hand, if it is an anaerobic process occurs during the operation, it will produce a greenhouse gas- CH4 -and smells bad.

  10. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elements affecting food waste in the food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Lotta; Reinikainen, Anu; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Avoidable food waste is produced in the food service sector, with significant ecological and economical impacts. In order to understand and explain better the complex issue of food waste a qualitative study was conducted on the reasons for its generation in restaurants and catering businesses. Research data were collected during three participatory workshops for personnel from three different catering sector companies in Finland. Based on synthesized qualitative content analysis, eight elements influencing production and reduction of food waste were identified. Results revealed the diversity of managing food waste in the food service sector and how a holistic approach is required to prevent and reduce it. It is crucial to understand that food waste is manageable and should be an integral component of the management system. The model of eight factors provides a framework for recognition and management of food waste in the food service sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying food losses in South Africa and the costs of household food waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting); wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain...

  13. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives......This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  14. Costs of food waste in South Africa: Incorporating inedible food waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social and environmental costs of food waste are being increasingly recognised. Food waste consists of both edible and inedible components. Whilst wastage of edible food is problematic for obvious reasons, there are also costs...

  15. Water And Waste Water Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Byeong Ju

    1988-04-01

    This book shows US the distribution diagram of water and waste water processing with device of water processing, and device of waste water processing, property of water quality like measurement of pollution of waste water, theoretical Oxygen demand, and chemical Oxygen demand, processing speed like zero-order reactions and enzyme reactions, physical processing of water and waste water, chemical processing of water and waste water like neutralization and buffering effect, biological processing of waste water, ammonia removal, and sludges processing.

  16. Processing of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennelly, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The processing of nuclear waste to transform the liquid waste from fuel reprocessing activities is well defined. Most solid waste forms, if they are cooled and contain diluted waste, are compatible with many permanent storage environments. The public acceptance of methods for disposal is being delayed in the US because of the alternatives studies of waste forms and repositories now under way that give the impression of indecision and difficulty for the disposal of HLW. Conservative programs that dilute and cool solid waste are under way in France and Sweden and demonstrate that a solution to the problem is available now. Research and development should be directed toward improving selected methods rather than seeking a best method, which at best, may always be illusory

  17. Food processing in action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  18. Anaerobic digestion of food waste - Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuqing; Li, Yangyang; Ge, Xumeng; Yang, Liangcheng; Li, Yebo

    2018-01-01

    The disposal of large amounts of food waste has caused significant environmental pollution and financial costs globally. Compared with traditional disposal methods (i.e., landfilling, incineration, and composting), anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising technology for food waste management, but has not yet been fully applied due to a few technical and social challenges. This paper summarizes the quantity, composition, and methane potential of various types of food waste. Recent research on different strategies to enhance AD of food waste, including co-digestion, addition of micronutrients, control of foaming, and process design, is discussed. It is envisaged that AD of food waste could be combined with an existing AD facility or be integrated with the production of value-added products to reduce costs and increase revenue. Further understanding of the fundamental biological and physicochemical processes in AD is required to improve the technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovery of biomolecules from food wastes--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Antonietta

    2014-09-17

    Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial), the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas.

  20. Recovery of Biomolecules from Food Wastes — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Baiano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial, the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas.

  1. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...

  2. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Chino, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a waste processing device for solidifying, pellets formed by condensing radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant, by using a solidification agent, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate is mixed upon solidification. In particular, since sodium sulfate in a resin regenerating liquid wastes absorbs water in the cement upon cement solidification, and increases the volume by expansion, there is a worry of breaking the cement solidification products. This reaction can be prevented by the addition of sodium chloride and the like. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification products can be maintained for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  3. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary skills and knowledge of how foods make meals. These are overlooked by the current food waste debate that is concerned with communicating the problem with food waste rather than solutions to it. We aim to change this oversight with the research presented here that demonstrates the need to consider the role of food preservation to reduce food waste and the requirement for new marketing terms associated with sustainability actions that can be used to stimulate changes in consumption behaviours. We have chosen frozen food to demonstrate this because our research has shown that the use of frozen foods results in 47 % less household food waste than fresh food categories. This has created a step-change in how we view food consumption and has stimulated consumer movements that act across different products and supply chains to enable the consumption of the sustainable meal.

  4. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing...

  5. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...... household per week), (b) percentage composition of food waste based on the total food waste, and (c) percentage composition of food waste based on the total residual household waste. The Pearson correlation test showed different results when different datasets are used, whereas the log-ratio analysis showed...... was collected by sampling and sorting residual household waste in Denmark. The food waste was subdivided into three fractions: (1) avoidable vegetable food waste, (2) avoidable animal-derive food waste, and (3) avoidable food waste. The correlation was carried out using: (a) the amount of food waste (kg per...

  6. Pre-aeration of food waste to augment acidogenic process at higher organic load: Valorizing biohydrogen, volatile fatty acids and biohythane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Omprakash; Venkata Mohan, S

    2017-10-01

    Application of pre-aeration (AS) to waste prior to feeding was evaluated on acidogenic process in a semi-pilot scale biosystem for the production of biobased products (biohydrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and biohythane) from food waste. Oxygen assisted in pre-hydrolysis of waste along with the suppression of methanogenic activity resulting in enhanced acidogenic product formation. AS operation resulted in 97% improvement in hydrogen conversion efficiency (HCE) and 10% more VFA production than the control. Increasing the organic load (OL) of food waste in association with AS application improved the productivity. The application of AS also influenced concentration and composition of fatty acid. Highest fraction of acetic (5.3g/l), butyric (0.7g/l) and propionic acid (0.84g/l) was achieved at higher OL (100g COD/l) with good degree of acidification (DOA). AS strategy showed positive influence on biofuel (biohydrogen and biohythane) production along with the biosynthesis of short chain fatty acids functioning as a low-cost pretreatment strategy in a single stage bioprocess. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuramoto, Naohiko.

    1992-01-01

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  8. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    . Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data...... gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control....... Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities...

  9. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  10. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a process for treating radioactive waste whereby a mud of radioactive waste and cementing material is formed in a mixer. This mud is then transferred from the mixer to a storage and transport container where it is allowed to harden. To improve transport efficiency an alkali silicate or an alkaline-earth metal silicate is added to the mud. For one hundred parts by weight of radioactive waste in the mud, twenty to one hundred parts by weight of cementing material are added and five to fifty parts by weight of silicate, the amount of waste in the mud exceeding the combined amount of cementing and silicate material [fr

  11. Organic waste incineration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P. [CEA Valrho, Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and {alpha}-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  12. Organic waste incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P.; Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and α-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  13. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  14. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  15. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Lebe, L.; Raffi, J.

    1983-06-01

    The ionizing radiations available for food processing are defined, their mode of action and principal effects are described. Toxicological studies (animal tests, radiochemistry) concerning irradiated food are reviewed. The characteristics of the irradiation procedure and the prospects of its industrial development in France are presented [fr

  17. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Lebai Juri

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  18. Radioisotope waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Tadashi

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Safety Bureau established the policy entitled ''On Common Processing System of Radioactive Wastes'' consulting with the Liaison Committee of Radioactive Waste Processing. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) had been discussing the problems required for the establishment of the common disposal facilities based on the above policy, and they started the organization in spring, 1978. It is a foundation borrowing equipments from JAERI though installing newly some of them not available from JAERI, and depending the fund on JRIA. The operation expenses will be borne by those who want to dispose the wastes produced. The staffs are sent out from JAERI and JRIA. For animal wastes contaminated with RI, formaldehyde dipping should be abolished, but drying and freezing procedures will be taken before they are burnt up in a newly planned exclusive furnace with disposing capacity of 50 kg/hour. To settle the problems of other wastes, enough understanding and cooperation of users are to be requested. (Kobatake, H.)

  19. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral approach to food waste: an experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagau, H.; Vyrastekova, J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of behavioral interventions and nudging in dealing with the food waste problem. In particular, the authors implement an information campaign aiming to increase consumers’ awareness of the food waste problem. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH:

  1. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  2. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1997-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  3. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  4. Flocculent Settling of Food Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Monirul Islam; Kim, Mingu; Haroun, Basem Mikhaeil; Nakhla, George; Keleman, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the flocculent settling in water and municipal wastewater (MWW) in a 10.6 ft deep column. A total of eight runs at three different testing conditions involving MWW alone, food waste (FW) alone, and FW in MWW (FW+MWW) were conducted. Total suspended solid (TSS), total BOD (TBOD), total COD (TCOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiencies after 3 hours of settling were 62%, 46%, 49%, 46% and 62% for FW, and 50%, 43%, 39%, 37% and 24% for MWW. Removal efficiencies of particulate COD (PCOD) and particulate BOD (PBOD) at the lowest surface overflow rate (SOR) of 1.1 m3/m2/hr corresponding to the longest settling time of 3 hours were 59% and 64% for FW, and 65% and 70% for FW with MWW samples. On the other hand, no significant variation between FW and FW with MWW was observed for PN removal after 3 hours of settling.

  5. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purabi R. Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  6. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B; Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  7. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices. PMID:27847805

  8. Gaseous waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Masanobu; Uchiyama, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Kimura, Masahiro; Kawabe, Ken-ichi.

    1992-01-01

    Gaseous waste recombiners 'A' and 'B' are connected in series and three-way valves are disposed at the upstream and the downstream of the recombiners A and B, and bypass lines are disposed to the recombiners A and B, respectively. An opening/closing controller for the three-way valves is interlocked with a hydrogen densitometer disposed to a hydrogen injection line. Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas generated by radiolysis in the reactor are extracted from a main condenser and caused to flow into a gaseous waste processing system. Gaseous wastes are introduced together with overheated steams to the recombiner A upon injection of hydrogen. Both of the bypass lines of the recombiners A and B are closed, and recombining reaction for the increased hydrogen gas is processed by the recombiners A and B connected in series. In an operation mode not conducting hydrogen injection, it is passed through the bypass line of the recombiner A and processed by the recombiner B. With such procedures, the increase of gaseous wastes due to hydrogen injection can be coped with existent facilities. (I.N.)

  9. Liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Obe, Etsuji; Wakamatsu, Toshifumi.

    1989-01-01

    In a liquid waste processing device for processing living water wastes discharged from nuclear power plant facilities through a filtration vessel and a sampling vessel, a filtration layer disposed in the filtration vessel is divided into a plurality of layers along planes vertical to the direction of flow and the size of the filter material for each of the divided layers is made finer toward the downstream. Further, the thickness of the filtration material in each of the divided layers is also reduced toward the downstream. The filter material is packed such that the porosity in each of the divided layers is substantially identical. Further, the filtration material is packed in a mesh-like bag partitioned into a desired size and laid with no gaps to the planes vertical to the direction of the flow. Thus, liquid wastes such as living water wastes can be processed easily and simply so as to satisfy circumstantial criteria without giving undesired effects on the separation performance and life time and with easy replacement of filter. (T.M.)

  10. Food processing and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Irradiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anunuso, C.I.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is now showing new promise of contributing to the feeding of hungry populations, solving solid and liquid waste disposal problems, providing safer medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, and other commodities, and at the same time reducing energy consumption in industrial processing in general. (author)

  12. Food Waste in School Catering: An Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Falasconi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Food losses and waste are currently at the heart of academic debates, civil society initiatives, and political agendas. This paper investigates food waste in school catering services focusing on six schools located in the municipality of Verona (Italy. It aims to quantify food waste, as a measure of food catering inefficiency, to identify the main causes, and to suggest a set of prevention and reduction interventions. For these purposes food waste is defined as all the products discarded from the food chain while still preserving their nutritional value and complying with safety standards. The work shows a significant level of inefficiency in the school catering services, measured by the amount of food processed and still perfectly edible, but not served during the meals. On average more than 15% of the overall processed food is wasted. Among the causes identified in this study, four of them were more relevant than others because of their implications and impact on prevention: the lack of attention to dietary habits, the rigid food procurement specifications, the menu composition, and the meal presentation.

  13. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  14. Food loss and waste management in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Ucaroglu, Selnur; Banar, Mufide

    2018-01-01

    Food waste can be an environmental and economic problem if not managed properly but it can meet various demands of a country if it is considered as a resource. The purpose of this report is to review the existing state of the field in Turkey and identify the potential of food waste as a resource. Food loss and waste (FLW) was examined throughout the food supply chain (FSC) and quantified using the FAO model. Edible FLW was estimated to be approximately 26milliontons/year. The amount of biodegradable waste was estimated based on waste statistics and research conducted on household food waste in Turkey. The total amount of biodegradable waste was found to be approximately 20milliontons/year, where more than 8.6milliontons/year of this waste is FLW from distribution and consumption in the FSC. Options for the end-of-life management of biodegradable wastes are also discussed in this review article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food Processing Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    When NASA started plarning for manned space travel in 1959, the myriad challenges of sustaining life in space included a seemingly mundane but vitally important problem: How and what do you feed an astronaut? There were two main concerns: preventing food crumbs from contaminating the spacecraft's atmosphere or floating into sensitive instruments, and ensuring complete freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria, viruses, and toxins. To solve these concerns, NASA enlisted the help of the Pillsbury Company. Pillsbury quickly solved the first problem by coating bite-size foods to prevent crumbling. They developed the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept to ensure against bacterial contamination. Hazard analysis is a systematic study of product, its ingredients, processing conditions, handling, storage, packing, distribution, and directions for consumer use to identify sensitive areas that might prove hazardous. Hazard analysis provides a basis for blueprinting the Critical Control Points (CCPs) to be monitored. CCPs are points in the chain from raw materials to the finished product where loss of control could result in unacceptable food safety risks. In early 1970, Pillsbury plants were following HACCP in production of food for Earthbound consumers. Pillsbury's subsequent training courses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) personnel led to the incorporation of HACCP in the FDA's Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, set down in the mid-1970s to ensure the safety of all canned food products in the U.S.

  16. Waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Osamu; Shibata, Minoru.

    1996-01-01

    X-rays are irradiated from a predetermined direction to solid wastes containing radioactive isotopes packed in a bag before charged into an inlet of an incinerator. Most of the wastes is burnable plastics such as test tubes and papers. Glasses such as chemical bottles and metals such as lead plates for radiation shielding are contained as a portion of the wastes. The X-rays have such an intensity capable of discriminating metals and glasses from burnable materials. Irradiation images formed on a X-ray irradiation receiving portion are processed, and the total number of picture elements on the portion where a gradation of the light receiving portion of the metal is within a predetermined range is counted on the image. Then, the bag having total picture elements of not less than a predetermined number are separated from the bag having a lesser number. Similar processings are conducted for glasses. With such procedures, the bags containing lead and glasses not suitable to incineration are separated from the bags not containing them thereby enabling to prevent lowering of operation efficiency of the incinerator. (I.N.)

  17. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaguma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.

    1996-01-01

    In a processing device for filtering laundry liquid wastes and shower drains incorporated with radioactive materials, a fiber filtration device is disposed and an activated carbon filtration device is also disposed subsequent to the fiber filtration device. In addition, a centrifugal dewatering device is disposed for dewatering spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device, and a minute filtering device is disposed for filtering the separated dewatering liquid. Filtrates filtered by the minute filtration device are recovered in a collecting tank. Namely, at first, suspended solid materials in laundry liquid wastes and shower drains are captured, and then, ingredients concerning COD are adsorbed in the activated carbon filtration device. The radioactive liquid wastes of spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device are reduced by dewatering them by the centrifugal dewatering device, and then the granular activated carbon is subjected to an additional processing. Further, it is separated by filtration using the minute filtration device and removed as cakes. Since the filtrates are recovered to the collecting tank and filtered again, the water quality of the drains is not degraded. (N.H.)

  18. Radioactive wastes processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukujoji, Seiya.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To exactly recognize the deposition state of mists into conduits thereby effectively conduct cleaning. Constitution: A drier for performing drying treatment of liquid wastes, a steam decontaminating tower for decontaminating the steams generated from the drier and a condenser for condensating the decontaminating steams are connected with each other by means of conduits to constitute a radioactive wastes processing apparatus. A plurality of pressure detectors are disposed to the conduits, the pressure loss within the conduits is determined based on the detector output and the clogged state in the conduits due to the deposition of mists is detected by the magnitude of the pressure loss. If the clogging exceeds a certain level, cleaning water is supplied to clean-up the conduits thereby keep the operation to continue always under sound conditions. (Sekiya, K.)

  19. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Martindale, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary ...

  20. CHNS ANALYSIS TOWARDS FOOD WASTE IN COMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High food waste generation in Malaysia that reached up to 15, 000 tonnes per day assign for major problems towards environment, economy and social aspect. Alternative method had been studied for the past years, but composting was seen among the best possible solution to treat this matter. Composting not only has an environmentally method but it also produces a valuable end product that will benefit in agricultural sector. Further studies had been done in this paper to represent their macro and micro nutrient quality as well as their bioavailability towards plant and the analysis of data collected in both CHNS analyser and mathematical method using ultimate analysis. This study also applied enhanced composting process with its segregation, drying, grinding and standard aeration time. Each container has been rotated for 5 minutes yet different resting time was applied which are 25, 55, 155 minutes namely A, B, C and D within 2 hours period. Result shown that overall Carbon (C, Nitrogen (N and Sulphur (S concentration increases as the higher aeration was applied while the Hydrogen vice versa. The highest elemental percentage distribution recorded is carbon (31% while the lowest recorded is S (0.115%. The data collected from Ultimate Analysis was seen not applicable to be use as it has the same content as food waste after composting. The compound molecular formula recorded was C29H7N5S. Regarding ratio of carbon to nitrogen results, it was found that it ranged from 5.39 to 5.71% for different compost treatment under study, where the lowest value of C and N ratio (5.39% for sample C and the highest value (5.71% was obtained for sample B with all has the same C/N ratio which is 6: 1 which suitable range in application of soil amendment. Therefore, this study found a significant relationship between chemical factors and compost formation which contribute to better analysis, especially to food waste management.

  1. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total...... amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...

  2. Aerobic Food Waste Composting: Measurement of Green House Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a major cause of global warming. While food waste composting can reduce the amount of waste being sent to traditional landfills, it also produces GHGs during the process. The objective of this research is to evaluate the GHGs emitted from an aerobic food composting machine, which is used in ISF. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy is a private independent school in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 students. Each academic year, the school produces 27 metric tons of food waste. In November 2013, the school installed a food waste composting system. Over the past 3 years, various improvements, such as installing a bio-filter to reduce the smell of the compost, have been made to the composting process. Meanwhile the compost is used by the primary students, as part of their experiential learning curriculum and organic farming projects. The composting process employs two machines: the Dehydra and A900 Rocket. The Dehydra reduces the mass of the food waste by separating the ground food waste and excessive water. The A900 Rocket, a composter made by Tidy Planet, processes food waste into compost in 14 days. This machine runs in an aerobic process, in which oxygen is used as an input gas and gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released. Carbon Dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research focuses on GHGs that are emitted from the A900 Rocket. The data is collected by the Gasmet DX 4015, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) multi gas analyser. This equipment measures the concentration (ppm) of different GHGs, including N2O, CO2, CH4, NH3 and CO.

  3. Waste Management Process Improvement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.; Borden, G.; Rangel, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford-led Environmental Restoration Contractor team's Waste Management Process Improvement Project is working diligently with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office to improve the waste management process to meet DOE's need for an efficient, cost-effective program for the management of dangerous, low-level and mixed-low-level waste. Additionally the program must meet all applicable regulatory requirements. The need for improvement was highlighted when a change in the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project's waste management practices resulted in a larger amount of waste being generated than the waste management organization had been set up to handle

  4. Survey of Optimal Temperature and Moisture for Worms Growth and Operating Vermicompost Production of Food Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    A Eslami; A Nabaey; R Rostami

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackground and Objectives:Nowadays vermicompost production of food wastes is posed as one of appropriate methods to food wastes. disposal, its production used in agriculture and gardening. Moreover this process has some by products beside useful fertilizer that one of them is the worms. we can use them in variety of products specially in production of poultry and fish food. So determination of optimal condition for operating vermicompost production process of food wastes and worms. growt...

  5. Quantification of food waste in public catering services - A case study from a Swedish municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Persson Osowski, Christine; Malefors, Christopher; Björkman, Jesper; Eriksson, Emelie

    2017-03-01

    Food waste is a major problem that must be reduced in order to achieve a sustainable food supply chain. Since food waste valorisation measures, like energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production, there is a need to prevent food waste. Prevention is most important at the end of the value chain, where the largest number of sub-processes have already taken place and occur in vain if the food is not used for its intended purpose, i.e. consumption. Catering facilities and households are at the very end of the food supply chain, and in Sweden the public catering sector serves a large number of meals through municipal organisations, including schools, preschools and elderly care homes. Since the first step in waste reduction is to establish a baseline measurement in order to identify problems, this study sought to quantify food waste in schools, preschools and elderly care homes in one municipality in Sweden. The quantification was conducted during three months, spread out over three semesters, and was performed in all 30 public kitchen units in the municipality of Sala. The kitchen staff used kitchen scales to quantify the mass of wasted and served food divided into serving waste (with sub-categories), plate waste and other food waste. The food waste level was quantified as 75g of food waste per portion served, or 23% of the mass of food served. However, there was great variation between kitchens, with the waste level ranging from 33g waste per portion served (13%) to 131g waste per portion served (34%). Wasted food consisted of 64% serving waste, 33% plate waste and 3% other food waste. Preschools had a lower waste level than schools, possibly due to preschool carers eating together with the children. Kitchens that received warm food prepared in another kitchen (satellite kitchens) had a 42% higher waste level than kitchens preparing all food themselves (production units), possibly due to the latter having higher

  6. Food waste reduction practices in German food retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorf, David; Rombach, Meike; Bitsch, Vera

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate food retailers food waste reduction practices in Germany. The focus is on selling and redistributing agricultural produce with visual impairments and other surplus food items. In addition, drivers and barriers regarding the implementation of both waste reduction practices are explored. In total, 12 in-depth interviews with managerial actors in the food retail sector and a food bank spokesperson were recorded, transcribed and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. In contrast to organic retailers, conventional retailers were reluctant to include agricultural produce with visual impairments in their product assortments, due to fears of negative consumer reactions. Another obstacle was EU marketing standards for specific produce. All retailers interviewed engaged in redistribution of surplus food. Logistics and the regulatory framework were the main barriers to food redistribution. The present study adds to the existing body of literature on food waste reduction practices as it explores selling produce with visual impairments and elaborates on the legal background of food redistribution in German retail. The results are the foundation for providing recommendations to policy makers and charitable food organizations.

  7. Techno-economic analysis of a food waste valorization process via microalgae cultivation and co-production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed from algal biomass and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Venus, Joachim; Pommeret, Aude; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-12-01

    A techno-economic study of food waste valorization via fungal hydrolysis, microalgae cultivation and production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed was simulated and evaluated by Super-Pro Designer®. A pilot-scale plant was designed with a capacity of 1 metric ton day(-1) of food waste with 20 years lifetime. Two scenarios were proposed with different products: Scenario (I) plasticizer & lactic acid, Scenario (II) plasticizer & animal feed. It was found that only Scenario I was economically feasible. The annual net profits, net present value, payback period and internal rate of return were US$ 422,699, US$ 3,028,000, 7.56 years and 18.98%, respectively. Scenario II was not economic viable due to a deficit of US$ 42,632 per year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the price of lactic acid was the largest determinant of the profitability in Scenario I, while the impact of the variables was very close in Scenario II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  9. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Ken-ichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Takeuchi, Kunifumi.

    1997-01-01

    Base rock is dug in a substantially cylindrical shape, bentonite blocks in an amount for a predetermined lift are disposed on the inner side of the dug wall surfaces. Concrete blocks constituting a structure of an underground silo are disposed at the inner side. Barrier blocks are disposed to the inner side thereof, and vessels incorporated with radioactive wastes are disposed to the inner side. The bentonite disposed to the inner side of the dug wall surfaces, the concrete structure of the underground silo and the barrier members are divided in the vertical direction into a plurality of blocks, and these blocks are stacked successively from the lowermost layer together with the containing vessels of the radioactive wastes, and after stacking them to a predetermined height, a filler is filled up to the circumference of the vessels. With such a constitution, the underground silo is not fallen down or vibrated even upon occurrence of an earthquake. In addition, bending stresses are scarcely caused thereby making reinforcement of iron reinforcing materials unnecessary. Accordingly, the sealing performance is improved, and processing cost is reduced. (T.M.)

  10. Mass and element balance in food waste composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijun; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The mass and element balance in municipal solid waste composting facilities that handle food waste was studied. Material samples from the facilities were analyzed for moisture, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and the oxygen consumption of compost and bulking material was determined. Three different processes were used in the food waste composting facilities: standard in-vessel composting, drying, and stand-alone composting machine. Satisfactory results were obtained for the input/output ash balance despite several assumptions made concerning the quantities involved. The carbon/nitrogen ratio and oxygen consumption values for compost derived only from food waste were estimated by excluding the contribution of the bulking material remaining in the compost product. These estimates seemed to be suitable indices for the biological stability of compost because there was a good correlation between them, and because the values seemed logical given the operating conditions at the facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  12. Nuclear waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhuys, K.; Noordegraaf, D.

    1977-04-01

    This report is composed with a view to the discussions around the selection of a site in F.R.Germany near the Netherlands' border for a fuel reprocessing plant. Most of the scientific data available are placed side by side, especially those which are contradictory in order to promote better judgement of affairs before governmental decisions are made. The report comprises a brief introduction to nuclear power plants, fuel cycle, radioactive materials and their properties. Next the transportation of wastes from the nuclear power plants to the reprocessing plants is dealt with more extensively, including the processing and the effluents of as well as the experiences with operational reprocessing plants. The hazards from manipulation of radioactive materials accidents and theft are outlined in each case, followed by a problem discussion. The appendix illustrates the German concept of 'industrial park for after-treatment and disposal'

  13. Effect of Addition of High Strength Food Wastes on Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ramola Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal sludge and food wastes high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) has been an area of interest for waste water treatment facilities looking to increase methane production, and at the same time, dispose of the wastes and increase the revenue. However, addition of food wastes containing fats, oils and grease (FOG) to the conventional anaerobic digestion process can be difficult and pose challenges to utilities. Incorporating these wastes into the treatment plants c...

  14. Electron accelerators for waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, N.G.

    1976-01-01

    The documents of the International symposium on radiation vaste processing are presented. Questions on waste utilization with the help of electron accelerators are considered. The electron accelerators are shown to have an advantage over some other ionizing radiation sources. A conclusion is made that radiation methods of waste processing are extensively elaborated in many developed countries. It has been pointed out that an electron accelerator is a most cheap and safe ionizing radiation source primarily for processing of gaseous and liquid wastes

  15. Bioenergy Potential from Food Waste in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Hanna M; Jin, Ling; Robinson, Alastair; Scown, Corinne D

    2017-02-07

    Food waste makes up approximately 15% of municipal solid waste generated in the United States, and 95% of food waste is ultimately landfilled. Its bioavailable carbon and nutrient content makes it a major contributor to landfill methane emissions, but also presents an important opportunity for energy recovery. This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. Scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction, are developed and modeled. Potential monthly electricity generation from the conversion of gross food waste using a combination of AD and combustion varies from 420 to 700 MW, averaging 530 MW. At least 66% of gross high moisture solids and 23% of gross low moisture solids can be treated using existing county infrastructure, and this fraction increases to 99% of high moisture solids and 55% of low moisture solids if waste can be shipped anywhere within the state. Biogas flaring practices at AD facilities can reduce potential energy production by 10 to 40%.

  16. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Ichiro; Hashimoto, Yasuo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the volume-reduction effect, as well as enable simultaneous procession for the wastes such as burnable solid wastes, resin wastes or sludges, and further convert the processed materials into glass-solidified products which are much less burnable and stable chemically and thermally. Method: Auxiliaries mainly composed of SiO 2 such as clays, and wastes such as burnable solid wastes, waste resins and sludges are charged through a waste hopper into an incinerating melting furnace comprising an incinerating and a melting furnace, while radioactive concentrated liquid wastes are sprayed from a spray nozzle. The wastes are burnt by the heat from the melting furnace and combustion air, and the sprayed concentrated wastes are dried by the hot air after the combustion into solid components. The solid matters from the concentrated liquid wastes and the incinerating ashes of the wastes are melted together with the auxiliaries in the melting furnace and converted into glass-like matters. The glass-like matters thus formed are caused to flow into a vessel and gradually cooled to solidify. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency. Copyright © 2014

  18. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is open-quote Paint Shop wasteclose quotes -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so

  19. CONSUMER ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS FOOD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Radzymińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the attitudes and behaviour of young consumers towards food waste based on a pilot qualitative research and data published in the literature. Qualitative research was conducted with the use of focus grou p method, with approximately 8–10 selected students per group. Four focus group sessions were held, with open discussion led by a moderator and the scenario containing problematic issues. The study included a total of thirty-seven students, aged 22– 25 years. Studies have shown that negative attitude of household towards food waste is not frequently refl ected in consumers’ behaviour, despite their fundamental knowledge on how to reduce food waste. Respondents emphasized the need for educational campaigns. Properly selected and presented information will stimulate both consumer’s attitude and behaviour.

  20. New trends in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Señorans, Javier; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    In this work some of the newest trends in food processing are reviewed. This revision intends to provide an updated overview (including works published until February 2001) on the newest food processes, including food manufacturing, preservation, and control. Modern processes for food and food ingredients manufacturing based on membrane technology, super-critical fluid technology, and some applications of biotechnology are presented, mainly applied to obtain functional foods, "all-natural" enriched foods, probiotics and prebiotics. Also included is a critical assessment concerning non-thermal preservation techniques used for food preservation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, hurdle systems, etc. Finally, a group of new analytical techniques (i.e., molecular techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), food image analysis, and biosensors) and their use for food and process control is reviewed.

  1. Process equipment waste and process waste liquid collection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The US DOE has prepared an environmental assessment for construction related to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) and Process Waste Liquid (PWL) Collection System Tasks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. This report describes and evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action (and alternatives). The purpose of the proposed action would be to ensure that the PEW and PWL collection systems, a series of enclosed process hazardous waste, and radioactive waste lines and associated equipment, would be brought into compliance with applicable State and Federal hazardous waste regulations. This would be accomplished primarily by rerouting the lines to stay within the buildings where the lined floors of the cells and corridors would provide secondary containment. Leak detection would be provided via instrumented collection sumps locate din the cells and corridors. Hazardous waste transfer lines that are routed outside buildings will be constructed using pipe-in-pipe techniques with leak detection instrumentation in the interstitial area. The need for the proposed action was identified when a DOE-sponsored Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance assessment of the ICPP facilities found that singly-contained waste lines ran buried in the soil under some of the original facilities. These lines carried wastes with a pH of less than 2.0, which were hazardous waste according to the RCRA standards. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  2. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  3. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Yamatani, Shoich; Watahara, Masashi; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  4. Process and device for processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for processing liquid radioactive wastes. It includes the heating of the liquid wastes so that the contained liquids are evaporated and a practically anhydrous mass of solid particles inferior in volume to that of the wastes introduced is formed, then the transformation of the solid particles into a monolithic structure. This transformation includes the compressing of the particles and sintering or fusion. The solidifying agent is a mixture of polyethylene and paraffin wax or a styrene copolymer and a polyester resin. The device used for processing the radioactive liquid wastes is also described [fr

  5. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi.

    1992-01-01

    In a gaseous waste processing device, if activated carbon is charged uniformly to a holdup tower, the amount of radioactive rare gases held in a first tower at the uppermost stream is increased to greater than that in other towers at the downstream since the radioactive rare gases decay in the form of an exponential function. Then in the present invention, the entire length of a plurality of activated carbon holdup towers connected in series is made longer than that of the towers in the downstream. As a result, since the amount of radioactive rare gases held in each of the holdup towers is made uniform, even if any one of connecting pipelines is ruptured, the amount of radioactive rare gases flown out is uniform. Only the body length of the holdup tower is changed because it is economical in view of the design and the manufacture of the vessel, and the cross section of the portion in which activated carbons are filled is made identical to keep the optimum flow rate of the rare gases. Thus, the radioactivity releasing amount can be minimized upon occurrence of an accident. (N.H.)

  7. Unsustainability of Obesity: Metabolic Food Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Mauro; Toti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world?s health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to ?obesigen? consumption of foods, have been ignored so...

  8. Food processing with linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The application of irradiation techniques to the preservation of foods is reviewed. The utility of the process for several important food groups is discussed in the light of work being done in a number of institutions. Recent findings in food chemistry are used to illustrate some of the potential advantages in using high power accelerators in food processing. Energy and dosage estimates are presented for several cases to illustrate the accelerator requirements and to shed light on the economics of the process

  9. Recovery of Biomolecules from Food Wastes — A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Antonietta Baiano

    2014-01-01

    Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extracti...

  10. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid wastes are supplied to a ceramic filter to conduct filtration. In this case, a device for adding a powdery inorganic ion exchanger is disposed to the upstream of the ceramic filter. When the powdery inorganic ion exchanger is charged to the addition device, it is precoated to the surface of the ceramic filter, to conduct separation of suspended matters and separation of ionic nuclides simultaneously. Liquid wastes returned to a collecting tank are condensed while being circulated between the ceramic filter and the tank and then contained in a condensation liquid waste tank. With such a constitution, both of radioactive nuclides accompanied by suspended matters in the radioactive liquid wastes and ionic nuclides can be captured efficiently. (T.M.)

  11. Production of single cell protein (SCP) from food and agricultural waste by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Teresa; Pellizzeri, Vito; Calabrese, Giorgio; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2018-03-01

    Food waste is the single-largest component of the waste stream, in order to protect and safeguard the public health, useful and innovative recycling methods are investigated. The conversion of food wastes in value-added products is becoming a more economically viable and interesting practice. Food waste, collected in the distribution sector and citrus industries, was characterised for its potential as a raw material to use in fermentation processes. In this study, the production of single-cell protein (SCP) using food waste as a substrate was investigated. The purpose of this study has been to produce SCP from mixtures of food waste using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main fermentation test was carried out using a 25 l bioreactor. The utilisation of food waste can allow us to not only to reduce environmental pollution, but also to obtain value-added products such as protein supply for animal feed.

  12. Life cycle assessment on food waste and its application in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Si; Bao, Jingling; Liu, Xiaojie; Stenmarck, Asa

    2018-01-01

    Food waste causes tremendous problems in terms of environment and economy, twined with big social influence, thus studies on food waste are essential and meanwhile very complicated According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 1.3 billion ton/year of food are wasted globally, which has a total carbon footprint of 4.4 GtCO2 eq per year with a cost of USD 411 billion. According to statistics, China has roughly 195 million tons food waste per year, which is huge. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which is an internationally standardized method by ISO for assessment of product and process, has been applied in food sectors to evaluate the different environmental influence, energy use etc. This paper analyzed some of the LCA application on the different parts of the food supply chain (production, post-harvest handling, the storage and transportation, processing, the retail, and consumption) where food waste is generated and on the food waste disposal stage, looked into what has been studied in the context of China, and gave recommendations for LCA application for Chinese food waste problems: 1) More application of LCA on food waste should be made on the early stage of the food cycle rather than just the kitchen waste; 2) Besides global warming potentials, other environmental influences should be studied more at the same time; 3) Food waste treatment can be studied using LCA broadly considering mixture with other substrates and using different recycling methods; 4) LCA based on a local context with local data/inventory are strongly needed; 5) further more detailed studies to support an elevated food waste management, such as food waste profile can be developed.

  13. A comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and wheat straw: Process stability and microbial community structure shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuchuan; Guo, Xianglin; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Yajiao; Zhang, Mengyu

    2018-05-01

    Renewable energy recovery from organic solid waste via anaerobic digestion is a promising way to provide sustainable energy supply and eliminate environmental pollution. However, poor efficiency and operational problems hinder its wide application of anaerobic digestion. The effects of two key parameters, i.e. temperature and substrate characteristics on process stability and microbial community structure were studied using two lab-scale anaerobic reactors under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. Both the reactors were fed with food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS). The organic loading rates (OLRs) were maintained at a constant level of 3 kg VS/(m 3 ·d). Five different FW:WS substrate ratios were utilized in different operational phases. The synergetic effects of co-digestion improved the stability and performance of the reactors. When FW was mono-digested, both reactors were unstable. The mesophilic reactor eventually failed due to volatile fatty acid accumulation. The thermophilic reactor had better performance compared to mesophilic one. The biogas production rate of the thermophilic reactor was 4.9-14.8% higher than that of mesophilic reactor throughout the experiment. The shifts in microbial community structures throughout the experiment in both thermophilic and mesophilic reactors were investigated. With increasing FW proportions, bacteria belonging to the phylum Thermotogae became predominant in the thermophilic reactor, while the phylum Bacteroidetes was predominant in the mesophilic reactor. The genus Methanosarcina was the predominant methanogen in the thermophilic reactor, while the genus Methanothrix remained predominant in the mesophilic reactor. The methanogenesis pathway shifted from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic when the mesophilic reactor experienced perturbations. Moreover, the population of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms in the thermophilic reactor was higher than those in mesophilic reactor, which explained the better

  14. Start-up phase of a two-stage anaerobic co-digestion process: Hydrogen and methane production from food waste and vinasse from ethanol industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Náthia-Neves, Grazielle; Neves, Thiago de Alencar; Berni, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    The start-up conditions of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of restaurant food waste and vinasse, a waste from sugarcane industry, was investigated for efficient biogas production. A pilot plant, containing two reactors, was designed and used sequentially and semi-continuously for biogas...... production. All effective operational parameters were controlled in both reactors over the course of the study. The results indicated that the organic matters were quickly decreased during the start-up phase in the first reactor, resulting in 52% and 64% reduction in total solids and total volatile solids...

  15. Bioenergy Potential from Food Waste in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Jin, Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Scown, Corinne D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. Scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction, are developed and modeled. Potential monthly electricity generation from the conversion of gross food waste using a combination of AD and combustion varies from 420 to 700 MW, averaging 530 MW. At least 66% of gross high moisture solids and 23% of gross low moisture solids can be treated using existing county infrastructure, and this fraction increases to 99% of high moisture solids and 55% of low moisture solids if waste can be shipped anywhere within the state. Biogas flaring practices at AD facilities can reduce potential energy production by 10 to 40%.

  16. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Makoto; Kamiya, Kunio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To form radioactive wastes into a pellet-like solid body having high strength. Structure: Liquid waste containing a radioactive material is heated into a powdery body. Granular solid matter such as sand greater in diameter than grain size of the powdery body are mixed into the powdery body, and thereafter the mixture is formed by a granulator into a pellet-like solid body. The thus formed material is introduced into a drum can, into which a thermoplastic material such as asphalt is poured into the can and cooled so that the asphalt is impregnated inside the pellet to obtain a solid having high strength. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. An eco friendly solution to the food waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. Reddy; Kumar, G. Madhav

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, waste disposal at workmen camp is one of the major problems being faced by many nations across the world. In the workmen colony at Chittapur, a series of kitchens were built for cooking purpose and a number of small canteens are also functioning. Considerable quantity of food waste is collected daily from these eateries and disposed at a faraway place. Food waste is highly degradable in nature, if not disposed properly it causes problems related to environmental pollution. Hence, it is very important to identify an environment friendly process rather than opt for land filling or any disposal method. We worked together to find a suitable eco-friendly solution for the food waste disposal at Chittapur site and suggested that biogas production through anaerobic digestion is a solution for the disposal and utilization of food waste for better purpose. This resulted in setting up a 500 kg per day food waste treatment biogas plant at Chittapur. This establishment is the first time in the construction industry at workmen camp in India. Anaerobic Digestion has been recognized as one of the best options that is available for treating food waste, as it generates two valuable end products, biogas and compost. Biogas is a mixture of CH4 and CO2 about (55:45). Biogas generated can be used for thermal applications such as cooking or for generating electricity. The digested slurry is a well stabilized organic manure and can be used as soil fertilizer. Plant design is to handle 500 kg of food waste /day. 27 kg LPG is obtained from 500kg of kitchen waste. The Value of 27 kg of LPG is Rs.2700/day. Daily 1000 litres of digested effluent was obtained. It is good organic manure with plant micro nutrients and macro nutrients. This can be used for growing plants and in agriculture. The value of manure per day is Rs.250/-. The annual revenue is Rs.10.62 lakhs and the annual expenditure is 1.8 lakhs. The net benefit is 8.82 lakhs. Payback period is 2.1 years. This process

  18. Microwave waste processing technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, R.D.

    1993-02-01

    Applications using microwave energy in the chemical processing industry have increased within the last ten years. Recently, interest in waste treatment applications process development, especially solidification, has grown. Microwave waste processing offers many advantages over conventional waste treatment technologies. These advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form, volume and toxicity reduction, favorable economics, in-container treatment, good public acceptance, isolated equipment, and instantaneous energy control. The results from the {open_quotes}cold{close_quotes} demonstration scale testing at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility are described. Preliminary results for a transuranic (TRU) precipitation sludge indicate that volume reductions of over 80% are achievable over the current immobilization process. An economic evaluation performed demonstrated cost savings of $11.68 per pound compared to the immobilization process currently in use on wet sludge.

  19. Microwave waste processing technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, R.D.

    1993-02-01

    Applications using microwave energy in the chemical processing industry have increased within the last ten years. Recently, interest in waste treatment applications process development, especially solidification, has grown. Microwave waste processing offers many advantages over conventional waste treatment technologies. These advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form, volume and toxicity reduction, favorable economics, in-container treatment, good public acceptance, isolated equipment, and instantaneous energy control. The results from the open-quotes coldclose quotes demonstration scale testing at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility are described. Preliminary results for a transuranic (TRU) precipitation sludge indicate that volume reductions of over 80% are achievable over the current immobilization process. An economic evaluation performed demonstrated cost savings of $11.68 per pound compared to the immobilization process currently in use on wet sludge

  20. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Sze Ki Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA production via solid state fermentation (SSF was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd 2.20 × 10−3minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes.

  1. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  2. Book Review, Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Could curbing food waste significantly reduce world hunger and environmental pressures? Tristram Stuart argues cogently that it could in his book Waste, which details the global food-waste scandal and delves into questions such as how much food is available globally? How much is needed and used, a...

  3. Exploring Food Waste : The Role of Health Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, Marit; van Doorn, Jenny; van Ittersum, Koert; Moreau, Page; Puntoni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    One-third of all edible food products for human consumption is wasted or lost in the supply chain, with negative social, economic and environmental consequences. Although consumers are the single largest contributors to food waste in industrialized countries, food waste has not received much

  4. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy

  5. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  6. Research on Anaerobic Digestion: Optimization and Scalability of Mixed High-strength Food Processing Wastes for Renewable Biogas Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhongtang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Hitzhusen, Fredrick [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2012-12-27

    This research project developed and improved anaerobic digestion technologies, created a comprehensive Inventory of Ohio Biomass and a database of microorganisms of anaerobic digesters, and advanced knowledge and understanding of the underpinning microbiology of the anaerobic digestion process. The results and finding of this research project may be useful for future development and implementation of anaerobic digesters, especially at livestock farms. Policy makers and investors may also find the information on the biomass availability in Ohio and valuation of energy projects useful in policy making and making of investment decisions. The public may benefit from the information on biogas as an energy source and the potential impact of anaerobic digester projects on their neighborhoods.

  7. How extrusion shapes food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month's column will explore food extrusion. Extrusion is one of the most commonly used food manufacturing processes. Its versatility enables production of a diverse array of food products. This column will review the basic principles and provide an overview of applications. I would like to ...

  8. Defense waste processing facility precipitate hydrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, J.P.; Eibling, R.E.; Marek, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate are used to assist in the concentration of soluble radionuclide in the Savannah River Plant's high-level waste. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility, concentrated tetraphenylborate/sodium titanate slurry containing cesium-137, strontium-90 and traces of plutonium from the waste tank farm is hydrolyzed in the Salt Processing Cell forming organic and aqueous phases. The two phases are then separated and the organic phase is decontaminated for incineration outside the DWPF building. The aqueous phase, containing the radionuclides and less than 10% of the original organic, is blended with the insoluble radionuclides in the high-level waste sludge and is fed to the glass melter for vitrification into borosilicate glass. During the Savannah River Laboratory's development of this process, copper (II) was found to act as a catalyst during the hydrolysis reactions, which improved the organic removal and simplified the design of the reactor

  9. Radioactive waste processing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Minoru.

    1993-01-01

    Storing space for radioactive wastes (storage tunnels) are formed underground of the sea bottom along coast. A plurality of boreholes through which sea water flows are pored vertically in a direction intersecting underground streams of brine in the ground between the tunnels and seaside. Sea water introduction pipes are joined to the upper side walls of the boreholes. The sea water introduction pipes have introduction ports protruded under the sea level of the coastal sea area region. Since sea water flows from the introduction ports to the boreholes passing through the sea water introduction pipes, sea water is always filled in the boreholes. Therefore, brine is sufficiently supplied toward the land by sea water from the boreholes, the underground stream of brine is negligibly small. This can prevent radioactive contamination due to flow of the underground water when radioactive wastes are buried in the underground near coast. (I.N.)

  10. Waste processing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, J.; Miller, A.; Leventhal, L.; Naughton, M.

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination of components, facilities and sites is becoming an increasingly significant source of low-level waste. Another source, of potentially greater magnitude, is the decommissioning of nuclear reactor facilities. According to DOE, there are about 15 operating reactors that will be candidates for decommissioning by the end of the century. In addition, there are reactors such as Humboldt Bay, Dresden 1, and Indian Point, Unit 1, which have been shut down prior to their design life. Chemical decontamination of components and systems is a frequently used technique in controlling nuclear plant radiation exposure, and is especially useful during decommissioning. However, many of the solutions used pose a chemical or biological hazard, in addition to being radioactively contaminated. These hazards, if not ameliorated, may prohibit their disposal. Recent regulations, such as 10CFR Part 61(2), are focusing more attention on the non-radioactive aspects of radioactive waste. 10CFR Part 61 and the existing burial site licenses prohibit burial of waste which is chemically reactive, explosive under ambient conditions, produces toxic gases, vapors or fumes, or is pyrophoric. Additionally, the Barnwell license restricts organic chemicals which may affect the migration of radionuclides from the burial site. The NRC is studying additional restrictions on a class of these chemicals called chelating agents

  11. Waste package materials selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Fish, R.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  12. The unsustainability of obesity: Metabolic food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Serafini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight and 500 million obese worldwide, significantly increased the risk for degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world’s health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary GHGs emission, due to obesigen consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts. Our position is that food eaten above physiological needs, manifesting as obesity, should be considered waste. In this study, we developed a new indicator, Metabolic Food Waste (MFW(kg of food, corresponding to the amount of food leading to Excess Body Fat (EBF and its impact on environment expressed as carbon (MFW(kgCO2eq, water (MFW(x 10 L and land footprint (MFW(x10 m2. Results shows that the average amount of MFW(kg of food was of 63.1 and 127.2 kg per capita in a observational study on sixty overweight and obese subjects. Animal products contributed mostly to MFW(kg of food in both OW (24.3 kg and OB (46.5 kg, followed by cereals, legumes and starchy roots (19.4 kg OW; 38.9 kg OB, sugar and sweets (9.0 kg OW; 16.4 kg OB and alcoholic beverages (7.5 kg OW; 20.1 kg OB. When dietary intake corresponding to MFW was transformed in ecological indexes, animal products displayed the highest values for carbon emissions, water consumption and land use in both OW and OB followed by cereals, legumes and starchy roots. The estimated MFW(kg of food of the Italian population resulted to be 2.081 million kg of food for OB and OW. Reducing obesity will make a contribution toward achieving sustainable and functional diets, preserving and re-allocating natural resources for fighting hunger and malnutrition and reducing GHGs emissions. Although further evidences in epidemiological studies are needed, MFW represents an innovative and reliable tool to unravel

  13. Unsustainability of Obesity: Metabolic Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Toti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world’s health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to “obesigen” consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts. Our position is that food eaten above physiological needs, manifesting as obesity, should be considered waste. In this study, we developed a new indicator, metabolic food waste [MFW(kg of food)], corresponding to the amount of food leading to excess body fat and its impact on environment expressed as carbon [MFW(kgCO2eq)], water [MFW(×10 L)], and land footprint [MFW(×10m2)]. Results shows that the average amount of MFW(kg of food) was of 63.1 and 127.2 kg/capita in a observational study on 60 OW and OB subjects. Animal products contributed mostly to MFW(kg of food) in both OW (24.3 kg) and OB (46.5 kg), followed by cereals, legumes and starchy roots (19.4 kg OW; 38.9 kg OB), sugar and sweets (9.0 kg OW; 16.4 kg OB), and alcoholic beverages (7.5 kg OW; 20.1 kg OB). When dietary intake corresponding to MFW was transformed in ecological indexes, animal products displayed the highest values for carbon emissions, water consumption, and land use in both OW and OB followed by cereals, legumes, and starchy roots. The estimated MFW(kg of food) of the Italian population resulted to be 2.081 million kilograms of food for OB and OW. Reducing obesity will make a contribution toward achieving sustainable and functional diets, preserving and re-allocating natural resources for fighting hunger and malnutrition, and reducing GHGs emissions. Although further evidences in epidemiological studies are needed, MFW

  14. Harvesting biogas from wastewater sludge and food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K H; Cheah, W L; Leong, Y P; Tan, C F

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater sludge and food waste are good source of biogas. Anaerobic treatment of slude and food waste able to produce biogas which is a potential renewable energy source. This study looks into the potential biogas generation and the effects of temperature on biogas generation. A lab scale reactor was used to simulate the biogas generation. The results show that wastewater sludge able to produced upto 44.82 ml biogas/kg of sludge. When mixed with food waste at a ratio of 30:70 (food waste), the biogas generated were 219.07 ml/kg of waste. Anaerobic of food waste alone produced biogas amount to 59.75 ml/kg of food waste. Anaerobic treatment also reduces the volume of waste. The effect of temperature shows that higher temperature produces more biogas than lower temperature.

  15. Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Meredith T.; Neher, Deborah A.; Roy, Eric D.; Tichenor, Nicole E.; Jahns, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing environmental impact is a critical focus globally. Metrics linking diet quality and sustainability have typically focused on a limited suite of indicators, and have not included food waste. To address this important research gap, we examine the relationship between food waste, diet quality, nutrient waste, and multiple measures of sustainability: use of cropland, irrigation water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Data on food intake, food waste, and application rates of agricultural amendments were collected from diverse US government sources. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2015. A biophysical simulation model was used to estimate the amount of cropland associated with wasted food. This analysis finds that US consumers wasted 422g of food per person daily, with 30 million acres of cropland used to produce this food every year. This accounts for 30% of daily calories available for consumption, one-quarter of daily food (by weight) available for consumption, and 7% of annual cropland acreage. Higher quality diets were associated with greater amounts of food waste and greater amounts of wasted irrigation water and pesticides, but less cropland waste. This is largely due to fruits and vegetables, which are health-promoting and require small amounts of cropland, but require substantial amounts of agricultural inputs. These results suggest that simultaneous efforts to improve diet quality and reduce food waste are necessary. Increasing consumers’ knowledge about how to prepare and store fruits and vegetables will be one of the practical solutions to reducing food waste. PMID:29668732

  16. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Amani, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions......In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers...... are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert...

  17. Reducing food waste through direct surplus food redistribution : the Norwegian case

    OpenAIRE

    Capodistrias, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Food waste is a global problem with significant economic and environmental consequences. Food waste management approaches include production of biogas, animal feed and compost and surplus food redistribution. From a sustainability point of view, surplus food redistribution is the most favorable approach. Surplus food redistribution can be either direct (between suppliers of surplus food and charity food services) or indirect (Through Food banks). This paper is a case study on direct surplus f...

  18. Conversion of food industrial wastes into bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P H; Chua, H; Huang, A L; Lo, W; Chen, G Q

    1998-01-01

    The usage of plastics in packaging and disposable products, and the generation of plastic waste, have been increasing drastically. Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. In the authors' laboratories, various carbohydrates in the growth media, including sucrose, lactic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and various combinations of butyric and valeric acids, were utilized as the carbon (c) sources for the production of bioplastics by Alcaligenes eutrophus. As the first step in pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesize bioplastics, the authors investigated the usage of malt wastes from a beer brewery plant as the C sources for the production of bioplastics by microorganisms. Specific polymer production yield by A. Latus DSM 1124 increased to 70% polymer/cell (g/g) and 32 g/L cell dry wt, using malt wastes as the C source. The results of these experiments indicated that, with the use of different types of food wastes as the C source, different polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers could be produced with distinct polymer properties.

  19. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected...... separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign...... and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated.Food waste generation equated to 23. ±. 5. kg/employee/year, of which 20. ±. 5. kg...

  20. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Aschemann-Witzel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.

  1. Radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Lebe, L.; Raffi, J.

    1986-01-01

    Food treatment by stream of electrons, X or gamma photons, induces an ionization in the medium whom consequences are very more important for contaminants than for food components. Effects upon insects are spectacular at very low doses of about 0.15 kGy and so it is for microoganisms at doses of some 1 kGy. Products consecutive to this radiolysis are of the same nature that the one induced by thermolysis. Ionizing treatments are the only ones allowing an efficacious sterilization of foods without any cooking. Irradiation plants are yet ready and of two types: large for multiple applications, small for single product. Small gamma irradiators and electron accelerators allow line treatment [fr

  2. Living and learning food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year’s annual event promises to be both exciting and educational for those who wish to learn more about food processing. This column will provide a brief overview of the multitude of scientific sessions that reveal new research related to food processing. In addition to the symposia previewed h...

  3. Effect of rice bran on the quality of vermicompost produced from food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Pourzamani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that composting and vermicomposting process can be used as a potential tool for bio convert rice bran and food waste. However, it is suggested that the rice bran can be amended with food waste to ensure better quality of vermicompost.

  4. Analyzing Human Behaviour Toward Food Waste in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Hussain, Shaema Mohd Hassan

    Food waste is a major issue in many countries due to the impact of waste on the environment and the cost of producing food and water. Food waste not only constitutes a hazard to the environment through the emission of greenhouse gases, but billions of dollars are also lost as a result of production, distribution and waste management costs. In view of this, this study examined factors that have potential to influence intent to waste food and food waste behavior among consumers in Qatar. The main objective of the study was to find a suitable model that explains food waste behavior in Qatar and compare it to an international model in order to understand region specific factors and try to replicate a hypothesized model of the causal effects of some factors (i.e., subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal attitude) on intent to waste food and food waste behavior. Three research questions were developed and answers were provided by random selection of 139 respondents from the Qatar Foundation and Georgetown University Qatar databases gathered through a survey with 139 complete questionnaires in order to test the hypothesized model, which was created based on literature. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach was the main statistical tool of the investigation and was used to carry out the path analysis. The findings of the study revealed that factors, including, planning routine, Ramadan, gender task, and personal norm were strong predictors of intention to waste food and food waste behavior.

  5. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Moejes, Sanne N.; Rossier-Miranda, Francisco J.; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy consumed in all the industrial bread chains studied. The par-baked brown bun production chain had the best thermodynamic performance because of the highest rational exergetic efficiency (71.2%), the lowest specific exergy losses (5.4 MJ/kg brown bun), and the almost lowest cumulative exergy losses (4768 MJ/1000 kg of dough processed). However, recycling of bread waste is also exergetically efficient when the total fermented surplus is utilizable. Clearly, preventing material losses (i.e. utilizing raw materials maximally) improves the exergetic efficiency of industrial bread chains. In addition, most of the physical (non-material related) exergy losses occurred at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. Consequently, any additional improvement in industrial bread production should focus on the design of thermodynamically efficient baking and cooling processes, and on the use of technologies throughout the chain that consume the lowest possible physical exergy. - Highlights: • Preventing material losses is the best way to enhance the exergetic efficiency. • Most of the physical exergy losses occur at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. • Par-baking “saves” chemical exergy but consumes an equal amount of physical exergy

  6. Rheological characterisation of biologically treated and non-treated putrescible food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Munir, M T; Sun, Jiyang; Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Young, Brent R

    2018-01-01

    Food waste is gaining increasing attention worldwide due to growing concerns over its environmental and economic costs. Understanding the rheological behaviour of food waste is critical for effective processing so rheological measurements were carried out for different food waste compositions at 25, 35 and 45 °C. Food waste samples of various origins (carbohydrates, vegetables & fruits, and meat), anaerobically digested and diluted samples were used in this study. The results showed that food waste exhibits shear-thinning flow behaviour and viscosity of food waste is a function of temperature and composition. The composition of food waste affected the flow properties. Viscosity decreased at a given temperature as the proportion of carbohydrate increased. This may be due to the high water content of vegetable & fruits as the total solids fraction is likely to be a key controlling factor of the rheology. The Herschel-Bulkley model was used successfully to model food waste flow behaviour. Also, a higher strain was needed to break down the structure of the food waste as digestion time increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Boulder Food Rescue: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Food Waste and Increasing Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewald, Craig A; Kuo, Elena S; Dansky, Hana

    2018-05-01

    Food waste and food insecurity are both significant issues in communities throughout the U.S., including Boulder, Colorado. As much as 40% of the food produced in the U.S. goes uneaten and ends up in landfills. Nearly 13% of people in the Boulder region experience some level of food insecurity. Founded in 2011, Boulder Food Rescue supports community members to create their own food security through a participatory approach to an emergency food system. The organization uses a web-application "robot" to manage a schedule of volunteers. They coordinate with individuals at low-income senior housing sites, individual housing sites, family housing sites, after-school programs, and pre-schools to set up no-cost grocery programs stocked with food from local markets and grocers that would otherwise go to waste. Each site coordinator makes decisions about how, when, and where food delivery and distribution will occur. The program also conducts robust, real-time data collection and analysis. Boulder Food Rescue is a member and manager of the Food Rescue Alliance, and its model has been replicated and adapted by other cities, including Denver, Colorado Springs, Seattle, Jackson Hole, Minneapolis, Binghamton, and in the Philippines. Information for this special article was collected through key informant interviews with current and former Boulder Food Rescue staff and document review of Boulder Food Rescue materials. Boulder Food Rescue's open source software is available to other communities; to date, 40 cities have used the tool to start their own food rescue organizations. Boulder Food Rescue hopes to continue spreading this model to other cities that are considering ways to reduce food waste and increase food security. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  8. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  9. Conversion of Food waste to Single Cell Protein using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization of food waste into products like single cell protein is an alternative solution to global protein shortage and to alleviate pollution problems. This investigation was carried out with food wastes such as orange, pineapple, banana, watermelon and cucumber waste as growth media for A. niger using standard ...

  10. An environmental analysis of options for utilising wasted food and food residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Thomas L; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-12-01

    The potential environmental impact of wasted food minimisation versus its utilisation in a circular bioeconomy is investigated based on a case study of Ireland. The amount of wasted food and food residue (WFFR) produced in 2010 was used for business-as-usual, (a) and four management options were assessed, (b) minimisation, (c) composting, (d) anaerobic digestion and (e) incineration. The environmental impacts Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP) and Eutrophication Potential (EP) were considered. A carbon return on investment (CRoI) was calculated for the three processing technologies (c-e). The results showed that a minimisation strategy for wasted food would result in the greatest reduction of all three impacts, -4.5 Mt CO 2 -e (GWP), -11.4 kt PO 4 3 -e (EP) and -43.9 kt SO 2 -e (AP) compared to business as usual. For WFFR utilisation in the circular bioeconomy, anaerobic digestion resulted in the lowest environmental impact and best CRoI of -0.84 kg CO 2 -e per Euro. From an economic perspective, for minimisation to be beneficial, 0.15 kg of wasted food would need to be reduced per Euro spent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Food irradiation and combination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell-Platt, G.; Grandison, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    International approval of food irradiation is being given for the use of low and medium doses. Uses are being permitted for different categories of foods with maximum levels being set between 1 and 10 kGy. To maximize the effectiveness of these mild irradiation treatments while minimizing any organoleptic quality changes, combination processes of other technologies with irradiation will be useful. Combinations most likely to be exploited in optimal food processing include the use of heat, low temperature, and modified-atmosphere packaging. Because irradiation does not have a residual effect, the food packaging itself becomes an important component of a successful process. These combination processes provide promising alternatives to the use of chemical preservatives or harsher processing techniques. (author)

  12. Pie waste - A component of food waste and a renewable substrate for producing ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Margaret; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jayanthi, Singaram; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration. All three solid loadings (20%, 30%, and 40%) produced sugar-rich hydrolysates and ethanol with little to no enzyme or yeast inhibition. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process mass balance was carried out using pie waste on a 1000g dry weight basis that produced 329g ethanol at 20% solids loading. This process clearly demonstrate how food waste could be efficiently converted to ethanol that could be used for making biodiesel by reacting with waste cooking oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating the magnitude of food waste generated in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between one third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted...

  14. Food waste drivers in Europe, from identification to possible interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canali, Massimo; Amani, Pegah; Aramyan, Lusine; Gheoldus, Manuela; Moates, Graham; Östergren, Karin; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Waldron, Keith; Vittuari, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The growing volumes of food globally lost or wasted and implications for food security and sustainability have raised the concern of researchers, governments, international organizations and grass-root movements. Much research and experiences investigating food waste causes and drivers focus on

  15. The grumpy bin : reducing food waste through playful social interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altarriba, F.; Funk, M.; Lanzani, S.E.; Torralba, A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic food waste is a world-wide problem that is complex and difficult to tackle as it touches diverse habits and social behaviors. This paper introduces the Grumpy Bin, a smart food waste bin designed for the context of student housing. The Grumpy Bin1 contributes to the state of the art of food

  16. Processes for production of alternative waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Rusin, J.M.; McElroy, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 20 years, numerous waste forms and processes have been proposed for solidification of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The number has increased significantly during the past 3 to 4 years. At least five factors must be considered in selecting the waste form and process method: 1) processing flexibility, 2) waste loading, 3) canister size and stability, 4) waste form inertness and stability, and 5) processing complexity. This paper describes various waste form processes and operations, and a simple system is proposed for making comparisons. This system suggests that one goal for processes would be to reduce the number of process steps, thereby providing less complex processing systems

  17. Quantifying and analysing food waste generated by Indonesian undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandasari, P.

    2018-03-01

    Despite the fact that environmental consequences derived from food waste have been widely known, studies on the amount of food waste and its influencing factors have relatively been paid little attention. Addressing this shortage, this paper aimed to quantify monthly avoidable food waste generated by Indonesian undergraduate students and analyse factors influencing the occurrence of avoidable food waste. Based on data from 106 undergraduate students, descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied in this study. The results indicated that 4,987.5 g of food waste was generated in a month (equal to 59,850 g yearly); or 47.05 g per person monthly (equal to 564.62 g per person per a year). Meanwhile, eating out frequency and gender were found to be significant predictors of food waste occurrence.

  18. Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods-A SUSFOOD Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Harald; Brennan, Charles; Turner, Charlotta; Günther, Edeltraud; Campbell, Grant; Hernando, Isabel; Struck, Susanne; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis

    2015-11-24

    This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD) network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.

  19. New paradigms on how to achieve zero food waste in future cities : Optimizing food use by waste prevention and valorization

    OpenAIRE

    Redlingshofer, Barbara; Guilbert, Stéphane; Fuentes, Claire; Gracieux, Mélanie

    2015-01-01

    Cities currently manage uneaten food and other food system based biowaste quite inefficiently. The organic compound, despite its high nutriment value, is only to a small extent recycled and returned to farm soil and therefore, does not contribute to closing ecological nutrient cycles and to supporting sustainable food production [1]. In the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills [2]. Forkes has shown for Toronto that only 4.7% at most of food waste nitrogen (includi...

  20. Citrus processing waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawash, S; Hafez, A J; El-Diwani, G

    1988-02-01

    The process utilizes biological treatment to decompose organic matter and decreases the COD to a value of 230 ppm, using 161 of air per 1 of treated waste water for a contact time of 2.5 h. Ozone is used subsequently for further purification of the waste water by destroying refractory organics. This reduces the COD to a value of 40 ppm, and consequently also lowers the BOD. Ozone also effectively removed the yellow-brown colour due to humic substances in dissolved or colloidal form; their oxidation leaves the water sparkling. Iron and manganese are also eliminated.

  1. Food waste volume and origin: Case studies in the Finnish food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Heikkilä, Lotta; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Reinikainen, Anu

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a project to map the volume and composition of food waste in the Finnish food service sector. The amount, type and origin of avoidable food waste were investigated in 51 food service outlets, including schools, day-care centres, workplace canteens, petrol stations, restaurants and diners. Food service outlet personnel kept diaries and weighed the food produced and wasted during a one-week or one-day period. For weighing and sorting, the food waste was divided into two categories: originally edible (OE) food waste was separated from originally inedible (OIE) waste, such as vegetable peelings, bones and coffee grounds. In addition, food waste (OE) was divided into three categories in accordance with its origins: kitchen waste, service waste and customer leftovers. According to the results, about 20% of all food handled and prepared in the sector was wasted. The findings also suggest that the main drivers of wasted food are buffet services and overproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Method of processing liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi; Oohashi, Takeshi; Kawakatsu, Ryu; Kuribayashi, Kotaro.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To process radioactive liquid wastes with safety by distillating radioactive liquid wastes while passing gases, properly treating the distillation fractions, adding combustible and liquid synthetic resin material to the distillation residues, polymerizing to solidify and then burning them. Method: Radioactive substance - containing liquid wastes are distillated while passing gases and the distillation fractions containing no substantial radioactive substances are treated in an adequate method. Synthetic resin material, which may be a mixture of polymer and monomer, is added together with a catalyst to the distillation residues containing almost of the radioactive substances to polymerize and solidify. Water or solvent in such an extent as not hindering the solidification may be allowed if remained. The solidification products are burnt for facilitating the treatment of the radioactive substances. The resin material can be selected suitably, methacrylate syrup (mainly solution of polymethylmethacrylate and methylmethacrylate) being preferred. (Seki, T.)

  3. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Katsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the management for radioactive wastes containers thereby decrease the amount of stored matters by arranging the radioactive wastes containers in the order of their radioactivity levels. Method: The radiation doses of radioactive wastes containers arranged in the storing area before volume-reducing treatment are previously measured by a dosemeter. Then, a classifying machine is actuated to hoist the containers in the order to their radiation levels and the containers are sent out passing through conveyor, surface contamination gage, weight measuring device and switcher to a volume-reducing processing machine. The volume-reduced products are packed each by several units to the storing containers. Thus, the storing containers after stored for a certain period of time can be transferred in an assembled state. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tetsuya; Kuramitsu, Kiminori; Ishii, Tomoharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a system for processing radioactive liquid wastes containing laundry liquid wastes, shower drains or radioactive liquid wastes containing chemical oxygen demand (COD) ingredients and oil content generated from a nuclear power plant. Namely, a collecting tank collects radioactive liquid wastes. A filtering device is connected to the exit of the collective tank. A sump tank is connected to the exit of the filtering device. A powdery active carbon supplying device is connected to the collecting tank. A chemical fluid tank is connected to the collecting tank and the filtering device by way of chemical fluid injection lines. Backwarding pipelines connect a filtered water flowing exit of the filtering device and the collecting tank. The chemical solution is stored in the chemical solution tank. Then, radioactive materials in radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant are removed by the filtering device. The water quality standard specified in environmental influence reports can be satisfied. In the filtering device, when the filtering flow rate is reduced, the chemical fluid is supplied from the chemical fluid tank to the filtering device to recover the filtering flow rate. (I.S.)

  5. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterizing food waste substrates for co-digestion through biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Maria Sol; Lansing, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure is increasingly utilized to increase energy production and make anaerobic digestion more affordable; however, there is a lack of information on appropriate co-digestion substrates. In this study, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the suitability of four food waste substrates (meatball, chicken, cranberry and ice cream processing wastes) for co-digestion with flushed dairy manure at a ratio of 3.2% food waste and 96.8% manure (by volume), which equated to 14.7% (ice-cream) to 80.7% (chicken) of the VS being attributed to the food waste. All treatments led to increases in methane production, ranging from a 67.0% increase (ice cream waste) to a 2940% increase (chicken processing waste) compared to digesting manure alone, demonstrating the large potential methane production of food waste additions compared to relatively low methane production potential of the flushed dairy manure, even if the overall quantity of food waste added was minimal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radioactive liquid wastes processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauda, Kenzo; Koshiba, Yukihiko; Yagi, Takuro; Yamazaki, Hideki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To carry out optimum photooxidizing procession following after the fluctuation in the density of organic materials in radioactive liquid wastes to thereby realize automatic remote procession. Constitution: A reaction tank is equipped with an ultraviolet lamp and an ozone dispersing means for the oxidizing treatment of organic materials in liquid wastes under the irradiation of UV rays. There are also provided organic material density measuring devices to the inlet and outlet of the reaction tank, and a control device for controlling the UV lamp power adjusting depending on the measured density. The output of the UV lamp is most conveniently adjusted by changing the applied voltage. The liquid wastes in which the radioactivity dose is reduced to a predetermined level are returned to the reaction tank by the operation of a switching valve for reprocession. The amount of the liquid wastes at the inlet is controlled depending on the measured ozone density by the adjusting valve. In this way, the amount of organic materials to be subjected to photolysis can be kept within a certain limit. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  9. Food waste in South Africa: Opportunities and challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available © CSIR 2014 www.csir.co.za Slide 2 • Food is treated as a disposable commodity • Food waste has a triple negative effect: • It impacts on food security • Resources used in food production and distribution are wasted... and stage of the supply chain © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Slide 3 Estimated waste percentage for each commodity group in each step of the food supply chain for sub-Saharan Africa © CSIR 2014 www...

  10. Food waste biorefinery: Sustainable strategy for circular bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Shikha; Kumar, A Naresh; Shanthi Sravan, J; Chatterjee, Sulogna; Sarkar, Omprakash; Mohan, S Venkata

    2018-01-01

    Enormous quantity of food waste (FW) is becoming a global concern. To address this persistent problem, sustainable interventions with green technologies are essential. FW can be used as potential feedstock in biological processes for the generation of various biobased products along with its remediation. Enabling bioprocesses like acidogenesis, fermentation, methanogenesis, solventogenesis, photosynthesis, oleaginous process, bio-electrogenesis, etc., that yields various products like biofuels, platform chemicals, bioelectricity, biomaterial, biofertilizers, animal feed, etc can be utilized for FW valorisation. Integrating these bioprocesses further enhances the process efficiency and resource recovery sustainably. Adapting biorefinery strategy with integrated approach can lead to the development of circular bioeconomy. The present review highlights the various enabling bioprocesses that can be employed for the generation of energy and various commodity chemicals in an integrated approach addressing sustainability. The waste biorefinery approach for FW needs optimization of the cascade of the individual bioprocesses for the transformation of linear economy to circular bioeconomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Household food waste to wastewater or to solid waste? That is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggelman, Carol; Ham, Robert K

    2003-12-01

    Decision makers need sound analyses of economic and environmental impacts of options for managing household food waste. Food waste impacts public health (it rots, smells, and attracts rodents) and costs (it drives collection frequency). A life cycle inventory is used to quantify total materials, energy, costs and environmental flows for three municipal solid waste systems (collection followed by compost, waste-to-energy or landfill) and two wastewater systems (kitchen food waste disposer followed by rural on-site or municipal wastewater treatment) for food waste management. Inventory parameters are expressed per 100 kg of food waste (wet weight) to place data on a normalised basis for comparison. System boundaries include acquisition, use and decommissioning. Parameters include inputs (land, materials, water) and output emissions to air, water and land. Parameters are ranked simply from high to low. Ranking highest overall was the rural wastewater system, which has a high amount of food waste and carrier water relative to the total throughput over its design life. Waste-to-energy was second; burning food waste yields little exportable energy and is costly. Next, municipal wastewater tied with landfill. Municipal wastewater is low for land, material, energy and cost, but is highest for food waste by-product (sludge). Landfill ranks low for air emissions and cost. Compost ranks lowest; it has the lowest material and water inputs and generates the least wastewater and waterborne waste.

  12. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  13. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid; Pedreschi, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation.

  14. Fresh, frozen, or ambient food equivalents and their impact on food waste generation in Dutch households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anke M; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A; Boer, Eric P J; Kremer, Stefanie

    2017-09-01

    In Europe, it is estimated that more than 50% of total food waste - of which most is avoidable - is generated at household level. Little attention has been paid to the impact on food waste generation of consuming food products that differ in their method of food preservation. This exploratory study surveyed product-specific possible impacts of different methods of food preservation on food waste generation in Dutch households. To this end, a food waste index was calculated to enable relative comparisons of the amounts of food waste from the same type of foods with different preservation methods on an annual basis. The results show that, for the majority of frozen food equivalents, smaller amounts were wasted compared to their fresh or ambient equivalents. The waste index (WI) proposed in the current paper confirms the hypothesis that it may be possible to reduce the amount of food waste at household level by encouraging Dutch consumers to use (certain) foods more frequently in a frozen form (instead of fresh or ambient). However, before this approach can be scaled to population level, a more detailed understanding of the underlying behavioural causes with regard to food provisioning and handling and possible interactions is required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Introduction to Innovative Food Processing and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tokusoglu, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Consumers, the food industry and the regulatory agencies demand the innovative technologies to provide safe and stable foods. Nonthermal processing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities and challenges for the food industry to market safe, high quality health-promoting foods. Those innovative food processing is often perceived as an alternative to thermal food processing, yet there are many nonthermal preparatory unit operations as well as food processing and preservation opportunitie...

  16. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste for nutrient recovery and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Ifeolu; Li, Liang; Flora, Joseph R V; Pellechia, Perry J; Darko, Samuel A; Ro, Kyoung S; Berge, Nicole D

    2017-11-01

    Food waste represents a rather large and currently underutilized source of potentially available and reusable nutrients. Laboratory-scale experiments evaluating the hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes collected from restaurants were conducted to understand how changes in feedstock composition and carbonization process conditions influence primary and secondary nutrient fate. Results from this work indicate that at all evaluated reaction times and temperatures, the majority of nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium remain integrated within the solid-phase, while the majority of potassium and sodium reside in the liquid-phase. The fate of phosphorus is dependent on reaction times and temperatures, with solid-phase integration increasing with higher reaction temperature and longer time. A series of leaching experiments to determine potential solid-phase nutrient availability were also conducted and indicate that, at least in the short term, nitrogen release from the solids is small, while almost all of the phosphorus present in the solids produced from carbonizing at 225 and 250°C is released. At a reaction temperature of 275°C, smaller fractions of the solid-phase total phosphorus are released as reaction times increase, likely due to increased solids incorporation. Using these data, it is estimated that up to 0.96% and 2.30% of nitrogen and phosphorus-based fertilizers, respectively, in the US can be replaced by the nutrients integrated within hydrochar and liquid-phases generated from the carbonization of currently landfilled food wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma Processing of Model Residential Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mossé, A. L.; Nikonchuk, A. N.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Baimuldin, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors have tested the technology of processing of model residential solid waste. They have developed and created a pilot plasma unit based on a plasma chamber incinerator. The waste processing technology has been tested and prepared for commercialization.

  18. Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, Teija [Digita Oy, P.O. Box 135, FI-00521 Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, Anne [Department of Energy and Environmental Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2008-02-15

    The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste, which is highly recoverable. The main research problem of this study was to find out the means of promoting the recovery of packaging waste generated in the fast food industry. Additionally, the goal of this article was to widen academic understanding on packaging waste management in the fast food industry, as the subject has not gained large academic interest previously. The study showed that the theoretical recovery rate of packaging waste in the fast food industry is high, 93% of the total annual amount, while the actual recovery rate is only 29% of the total annual amount. The total recovery potential of packaging waste is 64% of the total annual amount. The achievable recovery potential, 33% of the total annual amount, could be recovered, but is not mainly because of non-working waste management practices. The theoretical recovery potential of 31% of the total annual amount of packaging waste cannot be recovered by the existing solid waste infrastructure because of the obscure status of commercial waste, the improper operation of producer organisations, and the municipal autonomy. The research indicated that it is possible to reach the achievable recovery potential in the existing solid waste infrastructure through new waste management practices, which are designed and operated according to waste producers' needs and demands. The theoretical recovery potential can be reached by increasing the consistency of the solid waste infrastructure through governmental action. (author)

  19. Backcasting to identify food waste prevention and mitigation opportunities for infant feeding in maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Fogarty, Yvonne; Becker, Genevieve; Moles, Richard; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2017-03-01

    Food waste in hospitals is of major concern for two reasons: one, healthcare needs to move toward preventative and demand led models for sustainability and two, food system sustainability needs to seek preventative measures such as diet adaptation and waste prevention. The impact of breast-milk substitute use on health services are well established in literature in terms of healthcare implications, cost and resourcing, however as a food demand and waste management issue little has been published to date. This paper presents the use of a desk based backcasting method to analyse food waste prevention, mitigation and management options within the Irish Maternity Service. Best practice in healthcare provision and waste management regulations are used to frame solutions. Strategic problem orientation revealed that 61% of the volume of ready to use breast-milk substitutes purchased by maternity services remains unconsumed and ends up as waste. Thirteen viable strategies to prevent and manage this waste were identified. Significant opportunities exist to prevent waste and also decrease food demand leading to both positive health and environmental outcomes. Backcasting methods display great promise in delivering food waste management strategies in healthcare settings, especially where evidenced best practice policies exist to inform solution forming processes. In terms of food waste prevention and management, difficulties arise in distinguishing between demand reduction, waste prevention and waste reduction measures under the current Waste Management Hierarchy definitions. Ultimately demand reduction at source requires prioritisation, a strategy which is complimentary to health policy on infant feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H2 production from food waste: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-digestion process finalized to bio-H 2 production was tested in batch tests. • Slaughterhouse waste (SHW) and food waste (FW) were co-digested in different proportions. • The presence of SHW affected the H 2 production from FW. • When SHW ranging between 50% and 70% the H 2 production is improved. • SHW percentages above 70%, led to a depletion in H 2 production. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H 2 production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H 2 production compared to that in FW only, reaching H 2 -production yields of 145 and 109 ml gVS 0 -1 , respectively, which are 1.5–2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H 2 production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process

  1. Electromagnetic energy and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudgett, R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of electromagnetic energy in food processing is reviewed with respect to food safety, nutritional quality, and organoleptic quality. The effects of nonionizing radiation sources such as microwave and radio-frequency energy and ionizing radiation sources, e.g. radioactive cobalt-60 and caesium-137, on the inactivation of microbes and nutrients are compared with those of conventional heating processes both in terms of their kinetic behavior and their mechanisms of interaction with foods. The kinetics of microwave and conventional thermal inactivation are considered for a generalized nth-order model based on time and temperature conditions. However, thermal inactivation effects are often modeled by 1 st-order kinetics. Microbial and nutrient inactivation by ionizing sources are considered for a 1 st-order model based on radiation dose. Both thermal and radiation resistance concepts are reviewed and some typical values of radiation resistance are given for sensitive vegetative bacterial cells, yeasts, and molds and for resistant bacterial spores and viruses. Nonionizing microwave energy sources are increasingly used in home and industrial food processing and are well-accepted by the American public. But, despite recent Food and Drug Administration approval of low and intermediate ionizing radiation dose levels for grains and other plant products and the fact that irradiated foods are sold in more than 20 countries of the world, public fears in the U.S. about nuclear energy may limit the role of ionizing radiation in food processing and preservation and may also limit the use of nuclear fuels as an alternate source of electrical energy. (33 refs.)

  2. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L.; Reid, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed

  4. Analytical methods for waste minimisation in the convenience food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, R; Staikos, T; Rahimifard, S

    2009-04-01

    Waste creation in some sectors of the food industry is substantial, and while much of the used material is non-hazardous and biodegradable, it is often poorly dealt with and simply sent to landfill mixed with other types of waste. In this context, overproduction wastes were found in a number of cases to account for 20-40% of the material wastes generated by convenience food manufacturers (such as ready-meals and sandwiches), often simply just to meet the challenging demands placed on the manufacturer due to the short order reaction time provided by the supermarkets. Identifying specific classes of waste helps to minimise their creation, through consideration of what the materials constitute and why they were generated. This paper aims to provide means by which food industry wastes can be identified, and demonstrate these mechanisms through a practical example. The research reported in this paper investigated the various categories of waste and generated three analytical methods for the support of waste minimisation activities by food manufacturers. The waste classifications and analyses are intended to complement existing waste minimisation approaches and are described through consideration of a case study convenience food manufacturer that realised significant financial savings through waste measurement, analysis and reduction.

  5. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschemann-Witzel, J.; Hooge, de I.E.; Amani, P.; Bech-Larsen, T.; Oostindjer, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are

  6. Environmental impacts of food waste: Learnings and challenges from a case study on UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Albizzati, Paola Federica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    by four sectors of the food supply chain in United Kingdom, namely processing, wholesale and retail, food service, and households. The impacts were quantified for ten environmental impact categories, from Global Warming to Water Depletion, including indirect land use change impacts due to demand for land......Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generated...

  7. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Lucy J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2016-08-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: 'epicures' (n = 135), 'traditional consumers' (n = 255), 'casual consumers' (n = 246), 'food detached consumers' (n = 151) and 'kitchen evaders' (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by "buy a lot and waste a lot" behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Can we always ignore ship-generated food waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polglaze, John

    2003-01-01

    Considerable quantities of food waste can be generated at a rapid rate in ships, particularly those with large numbers of people onboard. By virtue of the amounts involved and its nature, food waste is potentially the most difficult to manage component of a ship's garbage stream, however, in most sea areas it may be dealt with by the simple expedient of direct discharge to sea. As a consequence, only minimal attention is paid to food waste management by many ship and port operators and advisory bodies, and there is a paucity of information in the available literature. The determination that management of ships' food waste is inconsequential is, however, incorrect in many circumstances. Disposal to sea is not always possible due to restrictions imposed by MARPOL 73/78 and other marine pollution control instruments. Effective management of food waste can be critical for ships that operate in areas where disposal is restricted or totally prohibited

  9. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Costs of food waste along the value chain: evidence from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman, Anton; de Lange, Willem

    2013-11-01

    In a previous paper (Nahman et al., 2012), the authors estimated the costs of household food waste in South Africa, based on the market value of the wasted food (edible portion only), as well as the costs of disposal to landfill. In this paper, we extend the analysis by assessing the costs of edible food waste throughout the entire food value chain, from agricultural production through to consumption at the household level. First, food waste at each stage of the value chain was quantified in physical units (tonnes) for various food commodity groups. Then, weighted average representative prices (per tonne) were estimated for each commodity group at each stage of the value chain. Finally, prices were multiplied by quantities, and the resulting values were aggregated across the value chain for all commodity groups. In this way, the total cost of food waste across the food value chain in South Africa was estimated at R61.5 billion per annum (approximately US$7.7 billion); equivalent to 2.1% of South Africa's annual gross domestic product. The bulk of this cost arises from the processing and distribution stages of the fruit and vegetable value chain, as well as the agricultural production and distribution stages of the meat value chain. These results therefore provide an indication of where interventions aimed at reducing food waste should be targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative LCA of Alternative Scenarios for Waste Treatment: The Case of Food Waste Production by the Mass-Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mondello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is one of the most important issues taken into account by the European Union due to its negative environmental, economic and social impacts. The treatment of food waste through recycling processes represents a solution for food waste minimisation. Concerning, in particular, the retail sector, it is necessary to define strategies for retail-oriented sustainable food waste management. The aim of this study is to compare the potential environmental impacts related to five scenarios (landfill, incineration, composting, anaerobic digestion and bioconversion through insects for the disposal/treatment of food waste produced by a mass retail company operating in Messina (Italy through the application of the Life Cycle Assessment method, in order to find the best treatment solution. Results based on the treatment of a functional unit of 1 tonne of food waste show that the bioconversion scenario represents the most preferable solution considering all of the impact categories analysed through the CML 2 baseline 2000 method, except for Global Warming, for which higher environmental performances are connected to the anaerobic digestion scenario. The incineration and the bioconversion scenarios show the highest environmental benefits when the production of alternative energy sources and valuable materials is evaluated through the inclusion of the avoided productions in the analysis.

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended

  14. Latest research progress on food waste management: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shangzhen; Gao, Hetong; Duan, Lunbo

    2018-05-01

    Since a large amount of food supplying is provided as a basic line measuring increasing residents’ life standard, food waste has become progressively numeral considerable. Much attention has been drawn to this problem. This work gave an overview on latest researches about anaerobic digestion, composting, generalized management and other developments on management of food waste. Different technologies were introduced and evaluated. Further views on future research in such a field were proposed.

  15. The Hidden Burden of Food Waste: The Double Energy Waste in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vittuari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy intensity of modern food systems represents a major issue in a scenario of decreasing oil resources and increasing population. Beside the use of renewable energy, an increased efficiency in food systems could contribute to reduce fossil fuels dependence. In this sense, food losses and waste (FLW have crucial consequences on the energy balance. Based on the concept of “embodied energy”, food wastage can be framed as a double waste of energy, both in terms of non-consumed food energy and the inputs used for production. Secondary data regarding direct and indirect energy inputs and FLW have been collected for the Italian food chain to estimate the embodied energy of food waste. Since in 2011 the production and distribution of food implied the use of 822 PJ and 18 Mt of food was discarded, 67 PJ of food energy and 100 PJ of embodied energy were wasted. These figures are equivalent to 12.2% of the total nutritional energy output and to 1.3% of the final energy use in Italy, respectively. The concept of double energy waste sheds new light on the intertwined relationship between energy and food security, suggesting that appropriate food waste reduction policies could result in a higher food production level and relevant energy savings.

  16. Improved anaerobic biodegradation of biosolids by the addition of food waste as a co-substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-W.; Han, S.-K.; Song, Y.-C.; Baek, B.-C.; Yoo, K.-S.; Lee, J.-J.; Shin, H.-S.

    2003-07-01

    The temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) process was applied to increase the performance of anaerobic treatment of biosolids. Previously obtained results indicate that this system showed the advantages of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion process. By comparing the performance of each reactor of the system, it was illustrated that the main stage of methane production was the thermophilic reactor which has faster microbial metabolism. However, the result revealed that substrate characteristics of low VS/TS limited the system performance. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of food waste as a co-substrate for improving anaerobic biodegradability, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted in thermophilic conditions with biomass of thermophilic reactor. It was confirmed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge mixed with food waste had a distinct improvement on biodegradability. The most significant advantages were the preferable environment provided by food waste for the growth and activity of anaerobes and the mutual assistance between biosolids and food waste. (author)

  17. Household food waste in Nordic countries: Estimations and ethical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickey Gjerris

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B explanations for food waste at household level; (C a number of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives need to be developed to establish cultural habits replacing a focus on affluence and individual choice with a focus on participatory embeddedness in a more-than-human lifeworld.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1786

  18. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. ► Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. ► Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. ► Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19–6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20–30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352–450 mL CH 4 /g VS added ) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  19. Liquid waste processing at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes-Edwards, L.M.; Edwards, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the radioactive waste processing at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Topics covered are the following: Reduction of liquid radioactive discharges (system leakage, outage planning); reduction of waste resin generation (waste stream segregation, processing methodology); reduction of activity released and off-site dose. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Food Waste Drivers in Europe, from Identification to Possible Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Canali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing volumes of food globally lost or wasted and implications for food security and sustainability have raised the concern of researchers, governments, international organizations and grass-root movements. Much research and experiences investigating food waste causes and drivers focus on one specific segment of the food supply chain and limit the analysis to the situation of one or few countries, while the few studies of wider geographical scope also target other relevant and diversified objectives (e.g., food waste definition, quantification, environmental and economic impacts, and recommendations for interventions. This study, carried out by a network of European institutions involved in research and initiatives against food waste, focuses on the analysis of a broad area, Europe, through a wide and systematic literature review and consultation with stakeholders in international focus groups. The food supply chain was divided into seven segments and three main contexts were defined for the examination of food waste sources: Technological, Institutional (related to organisational factors, i.e., business management, economy, legislation, and policy, and Social (related to consumers’ behaviours and lifestyles. Results suggest a wide and multifaceted problem, interconnected across all stages of the food supply chain, from primary production, to final consumption. Within each context, the identified drivers have been grouped according to the possibilities and the type of interventions for food waste reduction. A final cross-contextual prioritization distinguished food waste sources related to (A inherent characteristics of food; (B social and economic factors; (C individual non-readily changeable behaviours; (D other priorities targeted by private and public stakeholders; (E diversified factors, such as mismanagement, inefficient legislation, lack of awareness or information; and sub-optimal use of available technologies, which could be

  1. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1991--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1991-12-01

    During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year`s project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

  2. Methanization potential of anaerobic biodigestion of solid food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís R. G. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion of solid and semi-solid wastes has been widely used for the treatment of these residues and methane production; however, during the process (more specifically in the acidogenic phase, there is a tendency of pH reduction, an unfavorable condition to methanogenic bacteria. Thus, the present work aims to evaluate the methanization potential of an agroindustrial anaerobic granular sludge (AIS from UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor, individually and biodigested with food waste (FW from the University Restaurant of the Federal University of Pernambuco with buffering agent (AIS + FW + b and without it (AIS + FW. After the laboratory tests, the AIS + FW + b configuration obtained a cumulative methane production approximately six times greater than that of AIS + FW, and approximately twice that of the inoculum alone (AIS.

  3. Environmental impacts of food waste: Learnings and challenges from a case study on UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Davide; Albizzati, Paola Federica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-06-01

    Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generated by four sectors of the food supply chain in United Kingdom, namely processing, wholesale and retail, food service, and households. The impacts were quantified for ten environmental impact categories, from Global Warming to Water Depletion, including indirect land use change impacts due to demand for land. The Global Warming impact of the avoidable food waste was quantified between 2000 and 3600 kg CO 2 -eq. t -1 . The range reflected the different compositions of the waste in each sector. Prominent contributors to the impact, across all the environmental categories assessed, were land use changes and food production. Food preparation, for households and food service sectors, also provided an important contribution to the Global Warming impacts, while waste management partly mitigated the overall impacts by incurring significant savings when landfilling was replaced with anaerobic digestion and incineration. To further improve these results, it is recommended to focus future efforts on providing improved data regarding the breakdown of specific food products within the mixed waste, indirect land use change effects, and the share of food waste undergoing cooking. Learning from this and previous studies, we highlight the challenges related to modelling and methodological choices. Particularly, food production datasets should be chosen and used carefully, to avoid double counting and overestimation of the final impacts. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Household food waste separation behavior and the importance of convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Two different strategies aiming at increasing household source-separation of food waste were assessed through a case-study in a Swedish residential area (a) use of written information, distributed as leaflets amongst households and (b) installation of equipment for source-segregation of waste with the aim of increasing convenience food waste sorting in kitchens. Weightings of separately collected food waste before and after distribution of written information suggest that this resulted in neither a significant increased amount of separately collected food waste, nor an increased source-separation ratio. After installation of sorting equipment in households, both the amount of separately collected food waste as well as the source-separation ratio increased vastly. Long-term monitoring shows that results where longstanding. Results emphasize the importance of convenience and existence of infrastructure necessary for source-segregation of waste as important factors for household waste recycling, but also highlight the need of addressing these aspects where waste is generated, i.e. already inside the household. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Buying less and wasting less food. Changes in household food energy purchases, energy intakes and energy density between 2007 and 2012 with and without adjustment for food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Stephen; Horgan, Graham W; Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2017-05-01

    Consumers in the UK responded to the rapid increases in food prices between 2007 and 2009 partly by reducing the amount of food energy bought. Household food and drink waste has also decreased since 2007. The present study explored the combined effects of reductions in food purchases and waste on estimated food energy intakes and dietary energy density. The amount of food energy purchased per adult equivalent was calculated from Kantar Worldpanel household food and drink purchase data for 2007 and 2012. Food energy intakes were estimated by adjusting purchase data for food and drink waste, using waste factors specific to the two years and scaled for household size. Scotland. Households in Scotland (n 2657 in 2007; n 2841 in 2012). The amount of food energy purchased decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 8·6 to 8·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d (Pfood waste, estimated food energy intake was not significantly different (7·3 and 7·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d for 2007 and 2012, respectively; P=0·186). Energy density of foods purchased increased slightly from 700 to 706 kJ/100 g (P=0·010). While consumers in Scotland reduced the amount of food energy that they purchased between 2007 and 2012, this was balanced by reductions in household food and drink waste over the same time, resulting in no significant change in net estimated energy intake of foods brought into the home.

  6. Waste Receiving and Processing Module 2A waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClair, M.D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Hyre, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document addresses the certification of Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) that will be treated in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A (WRAP 2A) and is destined for disposal in the MLLW trench of the Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The MLLW that will be treated in WRAP 2A contains land disposal restricted and radioactive constituents. Certification of the treated waste is dependent on numerous waste management activities conducted throughout the WRAP 2A operation. These activities range from waste treatability testing conducted prior to WRAP 2A waste acceptance to overchecking final waste form quality prior to transferring waste to disposal. This document addresses the high level strategies and methodologies for certifying the final waste form. Integration among all design and verification activities that support final waste form quality assurance is also discussed. The information generated from this effort may directly support other ongoing activities including the WRAP 2A Waste Characterization Study, WRAP 2A Waste Analysis Plan development, Sample Plan development, and the WRAP 2A Data Management System functional requirements definition

  7. Food waste in Central Europe – challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Boer Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is an important issue in the global economy. In the EU many activities aimed at this topic are carried out, however in Central Europe is still quite pristine. There is lack of reliable data on food waste quantities in this region, and not many preventive actions are taken. To improve this situation the STREFOWA (Strategies to Reduce and Manage Food Waste in Central Europe was initiated. It is an international project (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland, founded by the Interreg Central Europe programme, running from July 2016 to June 2019. Its main purpose is to provide solutions to prevent and manage food waste throughout the entire food supply chain. The results of STREFOWA will have positive economical, social and environmental impacts.

  8. Food waste in Central Europe - challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Jan; Kobel, Przemysław; Dyjakon, Arkadiusz; Urbańska, Klaudia; Obersteiner, Gudrun; Hrad, Marlies; Schmied, Elisabeth; den Boer, Emilia

    2017-11-01

    Food waste is an important issue in the global economy. In the EU many activities aimed at this topic are carried out, however in Central Europe is still quite pristine. There is lack of reliable data on food waste quantities in this region, and not many preventive actions are taken. To improve this situation the STREFOWA (Strategies to Reduce and Manage Food Waste in Central Europe) was initiated. It is an international project (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland), founded by the Interreg Central Europe programme, running from July 2016 to June 2019. Its main purpose is to provide solutions to prevent and manage food waste throughout the entire food supply chain. The results of STREFOWA will have positive economical, social and environmental impacts.

  9. Towards a More Sustainable Food Supply Chain: Opening up Invisible Waste in Food Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Derqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Future challenges to the global food supply chain are complex. In order to embrace sustainability, companies should change their management practices towards more efficient resource use. Food waste being a misuse of resources, we identify its causes and possible ways of minimising it. To achieve this goal, we conducted explorative research with qualitative and quantitative data through in-depth semi-structured interviews and an open questionnaire with top Spanish food service companies. Results show that most businesses mainly tend to minimise food waste according to economic criteria, without taking into account the social, ethical or environmental factors. As a consequence, just “visible” food waste that has an economic impact on the results is minimised. Nevertheless, visibility of real waste is often low. At the same time, awareness of (and therefore initiatives to reduce food waste that does not directly affect a firm’s profit can be increased through multi-stakeholder collaboration. Opportunities for reducing food waste therefore arise from increasing the visibility of food that is discarded as well as addressing plate waste. We identify best practices that could lead to a reduction of the amount of food waste generated in the out of home channel in Spain.

  10. Solidifying processing device for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueto, Kumiko; Toyohara, Naomi; Tomita, Toshihide; Sato, Tatsuaki

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a solidifying device for radioactive wastes. Solidifying materials and mixing water are mixed by a mixer and then charged as solidifying and filling materials to a wastes processing container containing wastes. Then, cleaning water is sent from a cleaning water hopper to a mixer to remove the solidifying and filling materials deposited in the mixer. The cleaning liquid wastes are sent to a separator to separate aggregate components from cleaning water components. Then, the cleaning water components are sent to the cleaning water hopper and then mixed with dispersing materials and water, to be used again as the mixing water upon next solidifying operation. On the other hand, the aggregate components are sent to a processing mechanism as radioactive wastes. With such procedures, since the discharged wastes are only composed of the aggregates components, and the amount of the wastes are reduced, facilities and labors for the processing of cleaning liquid wastes can be decreased. (I.N.)

  11. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, R.G.; Chu, R.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation 'service' business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed. (author)

  12. Processing Food for the Domestic Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; McCormick, Dorothy; Kamau, Paul

    This paper addresses the domestically owned food-processing industry in Kenya and explores thesale of processed food products to the domestic ‘modern’ retail sector. Food processing represents astep up in the value chain compared to fresh food production and may thus, at least potentially, leadto...

  13. Vitrification process testing for reference HWVP waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.M. Jr.; Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Kruger, O.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify high-level radioactive wastes stored on the Hanford site. The vitrification flow-sheet is being developed to assure the plant will achieve plant production requirements and the glass product will meet all waste form requirements for final geologic disposal. The first Hanford waste to be processed by the HWVP will be a neutralized waste resulting from PUREX fuel reprocessing operations. Testing is being conducted using representative nonradioactive simulants to obtain process and product data required to support design, environmental, and qualification activities. Plant/process criteria, testing requirements and approach, and results to date will be presented

  14. Tank Waste Remediation System optimized processing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.; Boldt, A.L.; Boomer, K.D.; Galbraith, J.D.; Leach, C.E.; Waldo, T.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility

  15. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Vilas G [Westmont, IL; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan [Germantown, MD

    2012-04-10

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically egg-shaped and spherical-shaped solid carbons. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  16. The effect of food waste disposers on municipal waste and wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashlian, Natasha; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2005-02-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of introducing food waste disposers as a waste minimization option within urban waste management schemes, taking the Greater Beirut Area (GBA) as a case study. For this purpose, the operational and economic impacts of food disposers on the solid waste and wastewater streams are assessed. The integration of food waste disposers can reduce the total solid waste to be managed by 12 to 43% under market penetration ranging between 25 and 75%, respectively. While the increase in domestic water consumption (for food grinding) and corresponding increase in wastewater flow rates are relatively insignificant, wastewater loadings increased by 17 to 62% (BOD) and 1.9 to 7.1% (SS). The net economic benefit of introducing food disposers into the waste and wastewater management systems constitutes 7.2 to 44.0% of the existing solid waste management cost under the various scenarios examined. Concerns about increased sludge generation persist and its potential environmental and economic implications may differ with location and therefore area-specific characteristics must be taken into consideration when contemplating the adoption of a strategy to integrate food waste disposers in the waste-wastewater management system.

  17. Plasma technologies: applications to waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990's, plasma technologies have found applications in the processing of toxic wastes of military and industrial origin, like the treatment of contaminated solids and low level radioactive wastes, the decontamination of soils etc.. Since the years 2000, this development is becoming exponential, in particular for the processing of municipal wastes and the recovery of their synthesis gas. The advantage of thermal plasmas with respect to conventional combustion techniques are: a high temperature (more than 6000 K), a pyrolysis capability (CO formation instead of CO 2 ), about 90% of available energy above 1500 K (with respect to 23% with flames), a greater energy density, lower gas flow rates, and plasma start-up and shut-down times of only few tenth of seconds. This article presents: 1 - the present day situation of thermal plasmas development; 2 - some general considerations about plasma waste processing; 3 - the plasma processes: liquid toxic wastes, solid wastes (contaminated soils and low level radioactive wastes, military wastes, vitrification of incinerators fly ash, municipal wastes processing, treatment of asbestos fibers, treatment of chlorinated industrial wastes), metallurgy wastes (dusts, aluminium slags), medical and ship wastes, perspectives; 4 -conclusion. (J.S.)

  18. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H2 production from food waste: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H2 production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H2 production compared to that in FW only, reaching H2-production yields of 145 and 109 ml g VS 0(-1), respectively, which are 1.5-2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H2 production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of a food waste disposer policy on solid waste and wastewater management with economic implications of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Amani; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies. For such a waste composition, the results show that a FWD policy can reduce emissions by nearly ∼42% depending on market penetration, fraction of food waste ground, as well as solid waste and wastewater management schemes, including potential energy recovery. In comparison to baseline, equivalent economic gains can reach ∼28% when environmental externalities including sludge management and emissions variations are considered. The sensitivity analyses on processes with a wide range in costs showed an equivalent economic impact thus emphasizing the viability of a FWD policy although the variation in the cost of sludge management exhibited a significant impact on savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Value chains for biorefineries of wastes from food production and services - ValueWaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahiluoto, H.; Kuisma, M.; Knuuttila, M. (and others) (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Mikkeli (Finland)). Email: helena.kahiluoto@mtt.fi

    2010-10-15

    The aim of the ValueWaste project is to analyse biomass potentials, appropriate technologies and business opportunities. Contrasting regional scenarios for biorefinery activities are developed, and their overall sustainability is assessed: environmental impacts using life cycle assessment, impacts on regional economy, partnership in actor chains, as well as business opportunities and possibilities for commercialisation are considered. South Savo and partly Satakunta provide the case study regions, but the project also produces tools for generalisation and contributes to national solutions. The theoretical potentials suggest that the agrifood waste has a significant and currently untapped potential for replacing non-renewable energy and recycling nutrients, and further for climate and water protection. The volume of agrifood waste varies mainly according to animal husbandry, crop production and food processing of a region. New business opportunities were found from the value chain of biowaste flows in the area of Etelae-Savo. Unexploited raw materials and new methods in waste collection and transportation offer entrepreneurial opportunities and decrease the costs of operation. Based on the conceptual work for creation of the contrasting regional biorefinery scenarios, performed in workshops for project and steering group members, four different optimisation starting points were determined: 1) replacement of fossil energy; 2) maximisation of carbon sequestration; 3) water protection and 4) enhancement of regional economy. Present situation of the biomass utilisation in the region was adopted as the baseline scenario. Four contrasting, consistent scenarios for the value chain of waste-based biorefineries are formed in South Savo. (orig.)

  2. Waste processing system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinakagawa, Emiko; Tezuka, Fuminobu; Maesawa, Yukishige; Irie, Hiromitsu; Daibu, Etsuji.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a waste processing system of a nuclear power plant, which can reduce the volume of a large amount of plastics without burying them. Among burnable wastes and plastic wastes to be discarded in the power plant located on the sea side, the plastic wastes are heated and converted into oils, and the burnable wastes are burnt using the oils as a fuel. The system is based on the finding that the presence of Na 2 O, K 2 O contained in the wastes catalytically improves the efficiency of thermal decomposition in a heating atmosphere, in the method of heating plastics and converting them into oils. (T.M.)

  3. Fungal Spoilage in Food Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B; Worobo, Randy W

    2018-06-01

    Food processing, packaging, and formulation strategies are often specifically designed to inhibit or control microbial growth to prevent spoilage. Some of the most restrictive strategies rely solely or on combinations of pH reduction, preservatives, water activity limitation, control of oxygen tension, thermal processing, and hermetic packaging. In concert, these strategies are used to inactivate potential spoilage microorganisms or inhibit their growth. However, for select microbes that can overcome these controls, the lack of competition from additional background microbiota helps facilitate their propagation.

  4. Radioactive liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Susumu; Kuroda, Noriko; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1991-01-01

    The present device comprises a radioactive liquid wastes concentration means for circulating radioactive liquid wastes between each of the tank, a pump and a film evaporator thereby obtaining liquid concentrates and a distilled water recovery means for condensing steams separated by the film evaporator by means of a condenser. It further comprises a cyclizing means for circulating the resultant distilled water to the upstream after the concentration of the liquid concentrates exceeds a predetermined value or the quality of the distilled water reaches a predetermined level. Further, a film evaporator having hydrophilic and homogeneous films is used as a film evaporator. Then, the quality of the distilled water discharged from the present device to the downstream can always satisfy the predetermined conditions. Further, by conducting operation at high concentration while interrupting the supply of the processing liquids, high concentration up to the aimed concentration can be attained. Further, since the hydrophilic homogeneous films are used, carry over of the radioactive material accompanying the evaporation is eliminated to reduce the working ratio of the vacuum pump. (T.M.)

  5. Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.J.M.; Ambuko, J.; Belik, W.; Huang, Jikun

    2014-01-01

    The issue of global food losses and waste has recently received much attention and has been given high visibility. According to FAO, almost one-third of food produced for human consumption – approximately 1.3 billion tonnes per year – is either lost or wasted globally: their reduction is now

  6. Process for treating fission waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Wick, O.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste

  7. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  8. Hospital waste processing. Tratamiento de residuos hospitalarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocafiguera, X de

    1994-01-01

    Generally speaking, Hospitalary wastes are apparently similar to any kind of urban waste. Nevertheless it must be taken into account that the origin of Hospitalary wastes is different as they can be contaminated with microbes, virus, bacteria, bacillus...Because of this they should be treated and stored with special techniques in all the process. (Author)

  9. Lost water and nitrogen resources due to EU consumer food waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Bouraoui, F.; Leip, A.; Grizzetti, B.; Bidoglio, G.

    2015-08-01

    The European Parliament recently called for urgent measures to halve food waste in the EU, where consumers are responsible for a major part of total waste along the food supply chain. Due to a lack of data on national food waste statistics, uncertainty in (consumer) waste quantities (and the resulting associated quantities of natural resources) is very high, but has never been previously assessed in studies for the EU. Here we quantify: (1) EU consumer food waste, and (2) associated natural resources required for its production, in term of water and nitrogen, as well as estimating the uncertainty of these values. Total EU consumer food waste averages 123 (min 55-max 190) kg/capita annually (kg/cap/yr), i.e. 16% (min 7-max 24%) of all food reaching consumers. Almost 80%, i.e. 97 (min 45-max 153) kg/cap/yr is avoidable food waste, which is edible food not consumed. We have calculated the water and nitrogen (N) resources associated with avoidable food waste. The associated blue water footprint (WF) (the consumption of surface and groundwater resources) averages 27 litre per capita per day (min 13-max 40 l/cap/d), which slightly exceeds the total blue consumptive EU municipal water use. The associated green WF (consumptive rainwater use) is 294 (min 127-max 449) l/cap/d, equivalent to the total green consumptive water use for crop production in Spain. The nitrogen (N) contained in avoidable food waste averages 0.68 (min 0.29-max 1.08) kg/cap/yr. The food production N footprint (any remaining N used in the food production process) averages 2.74 (min 1.02-max 4.65) kg/cap/yr, equivalent to the use of mineral fertiliser by the UK and Germany combined. Among all the food product groups wasted, meat accounts for the highest amounts of water and N resources, followed by wasted cereals. The results of this study provide essential insights and information on sustainable consumption and resource efficiency for both EU policies and EU consumers.

  10. Prevention of Waste in the Circular Economy: Analysis of Strategies and Identification of Sustainable Targets - The food waste example

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTOBAL GARCIA JORGE; VILA Marta; GIAVINI Michele; TORRES DE MATOS CRISTINA; MANFREDI SIMONE

    2016-01-01

    This report continues and further advances the work conducted by the JRC in the field of sustainable management of food waste, which resulted in the publication of the 2015 report “Improving Sustainability and Circularity of European Food Waste Management with a Life Cycle Approach”. It focuses on the broad European waste management context and, in particular, provides insight and analysis on the sustainability of food waste prevention strategies. Among other municipal waste streams, food ...

  11. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste

    OpenAIRE

    Sanati, Mehri; Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield ...

  12. Electric energy production from food waste: Microbial fuel cells versus anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaodong; Ma, Yingqun; Liu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A food waste resourceful process was developed by integrating the ultra-fast hydrolysis and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for energy and resource recovery. Food waste was first ultra-fast hydrolyzed by fungal mash rich in hydrolytic enzymes in-situ produced from food waste. After which, the separated solids were readily converted to biofertilizer, while the liquid was fed to MFCs for direct electricity generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.245 kWh/kg food waste. It was estimated that about 192.5 million kWh of electricity could be produced from the food waste annually generated in Singapore, together with 74,390 tonnes of dry biofertilizer. Compared to anaerobic digestion, the proposed approach was more environmentally friendly and economically viable in terms of both electricity conversion and process cost. It is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management towards ultra-fast concurrent recovery of resource and electricity with zero-solid discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radioactive gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Tadao.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive gaseous waste processing device used in BWR power plants. A heater is disposed to the lower portion of a dryer for dehydrating radioactive off gases. Further, a thermometer is disposed to a coolant return pipeway on the exit side of the cooling portion of the dryer and signals sent from the thermometer are inputted to an automatic temperature controller. If the load on the dryer is reduced, the value of the thermometer is lowered than a set value, then an output signal corresponding to the change is supplied from the automatic temperature controller to the heater to forcively apply loads to the dryer. Therefore, defrosting can be conducted completely without operating a refrigerator, and the refrigerator can be maintained under a constant load by applying a dummy load when the load in the dryer is reduced. (I.N.)

  15. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabnikova, O.; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment

  16. Prospects of using natural antioxidants in radiation processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, S.R.; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of food is a serious concern both for food producer and consumer. Radiation processing of food is one of the most effective technologies that can extend the shelf-life and eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. However, wide acceptability of radiation processed food products will depend upon quality parameters such as oxidative changes, color stability and organoleptic attributes. Any food processing technique is known to accelerate lipid peroxidation and radiation processing is no exception. Irradiation does not adversely affect the overall nutritive value of food and the oxidative changes induced by irradiation are similar to those observed using conventional food processing methods. Combination of various processing conditions such as storage and cooking, results in accelerated oxidative deterioration. The growing demand for convenience foods and the evolving markets for pre cooked food, call for techniques to prevent lipid oxidation in prepared stored food. Products of lipid peroxidation adversely affect the color, flavor and texture of the food. It is therefore necessary to control these changes for better product development. Methods commonly employed by the food industry include the use of antioxidants. Presently, most of the antioxidants used are synthetic but consumer concern has become a driving force for exploring the use of natural antioxidants. The increase interest in substitution of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants has fostered research on screening of plant materials in order to identify new compounds. We have investigated the antioxidant potential of several plant extracts, herbs and waste generated by the food industry, such as potato peel, banana peel, mango peel, mint, cinnamon extracts and chitosan. Mint extract was found to have the maximum antioxidant activity as tested by several in vitro antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity of mint extract was comparable to that of BHT the commonly

  17. Method of processing decontaminating liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Ken-ichi

    1989-01-01

    When decontaminating liquid wastes are processed by ion exchange resins, radioactive nuclides, metals, decontaminating agents in the liquid wastes are captured in the ion exchange resins. When the exchange resins are oxidatively deomposed, most of the ingredients are decomposed into water and gaseous carbonic acid and discharged, while sulfur ingredient in the resins is converted into sulfuric acid. In this case, even less oxidizable ingredients in the decontaminating agent made easily decomposable by oxidative decomposition together with the resins. The radioactive nuclides and a great amount of iron dissolved upon decontamination in the liquid wastes are dissolved in sulfuric acid formed. When the sulfuric acid wastes are nuetralized with sodium hydroxide, since they are formed into sodium sulfate, which is most popular as wastes from nuclear facilities, they can be condensated and solidified by existent waste processing systms to thereby facilitate the waste processing. (K.M.)

  18. A proposed framework of food waste collection and recycling for renewable biogas fuel production in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Kok Sin; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-01-01

    Hong Kong is experiencing a pressing need for food waste management. Currently, approximately 3600 tonnes of food waste are disposed of at landfills in Hong Kong daily. The landfills in Hong Kong are expected to be exhausted by 2020. In the long run, unavoidable food waste should be sorted out from the other municipal solid waste (MSW) and then valorized into valuable resources. A simple sorting process involving less behavioural change of residents is, therefore, of paramount importance in order to encourage residents to sort the food waste from other MSW. In this paper, a sustainable framework of food waste collection and recycling for renewable biogas fuel production is proposed. For an efficient separation and collection system, an optic bag (i.e. green bag) can be used to pack the food waste, while the residual MSW can be packed in a common plastic bag. All the wastes are then sent to the refuse transfer stations in the conventional way (i.e. refuse collection vehicles). At the refuse transfer stations, the food waste is separated from the residual MSW using optic sensors which recognize the colours of the bags. The food waste in the optic bags is then delivered to the proposed Organic Waste Treatment Facilities, in which biogas is generated following the anaerobic digestion technology. The biogas can be further upgraded via gas upgrading units to a quality suitable for use as a vehicle biogas fuel. The use of biogas fuel from food waste has been widely practiced by some countries such as Sweden, France, and Norway. Hopefully, the proposed framework can provide the epitome of the waste-to-wealth concept for the sustainable collection and recycling of food waste in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Engineering concepts for food processing in bioregenerative life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J B

    1999-01-01

    Long-duration manned missions, such as Mars exploration, will require development of new and cost-effective food production and delivery systems. Requirements for both carry-on preserved food and food processed from on-board crops exceed the capabilities of existing food processing and preservation technologies. For the transit phase, new food products, preservation methods, and processing technologies for ground-based food processing are required. The bioregenerative surface phase requires methods for processing of in situ-grown crops, treatment of food wastes, preparation of daily meals, and design of nutritious and appealing plant-based menus, all within severe cost and labor constraints. In design of the food supply for a long-term mission, the designers must select and apply both the packaged food and in situ processing technologies most appropriate for the specific mission requirements. This study aims to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different food system strategies in the context of different types of mission, and to point out the most important areas for future technology development.

  20. Food losses and waste in the French oilcrops sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fine Frédéric; Lucas Jean-Louis; Chardigny Jean-Michel; Redlingshöfer Barbara; Renard Michel

    2015-01-01

    INRA has initiated a comprehensive approach to food loss and waste for all the plant and animal sectors, from field to distribution. In this study, all comestibles that leave the human food chain and are not recycled into animal feed are considered as losses and waste. The main French oilseed sectors are studied (rapeseed, sunflower and soya, as well as tofu). In order to identify the key sources of loss, all of the various steps in the ...

  1. Pilot-Plant for Energy Recovery from Tropical Waste Food Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental unit for obtaining gaseous methane from waste food materials is discussed and results are presented for experimental tests with animal wastes and tropical waste food materials. The tropical waste food considered include garri, boiled beans and plantains. As expected, the animal wastes produced higher ...

  2. Conversion of Food waste to Single Cell Protein using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-13

    Mar 13, 2018 ... as orange, pineapple, banana, watermelon and cucumber waste as growth ... compared to plant and animal proteins with good ... not affected by weather condition, short generation .... found to be the least source of chemical composition ... Food waste. Proximate composition (%). Moisture. Ash. Crude fibre.

  3. Minimising food waste: a call for multidisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamar, Maria Del Carmen; Falagán, Natalia; Aktas, Emel; Terry, Leon A

    2018-01-01

    Food losses and waste have always been a significant global problem for mankind, and one which has become increasingly recognised as such by policy makers, food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers. It is, however, an emotive subject whereby the extent, accuracy and resolution of available data on postharvest loss and waste are questionable, such that key performance indicators on waste can be misinformed. The nature and extent of food waste differ among developed economies, economies in transition and developing countries. While most emphasis has been put on increasing future crop production, far less resource has been and is still channelled towards enabling both established and innovative food preservation technologies to reduce food waste while maintaining safety and quality. Reducing food loss and waste is a more tractable problem than increasing production in the short to medium term, as its solution is not directly limited, for instance, by available land and water resources. Here we argue the need for a paradigm shift of current funding strategies and research programmes that will encourage the development, implementation and translation of collective biological, engineering and management solutions to better preserve and utilise food. Such multidisciplinary thinking across global supply chains is an essential element in the pursuit of achieving sustainable food and nutritional security. The implementation of allied technological and management solutions is reliant on there being sufficient skilled human capital and resources. There is currently a lack of robust postharvest research networks outside of the developed world, and insufficient global funding mechanisms that can support such interdisciplinary collaborations. There is, thus, a collective need for schemes that encourage inter-supply chain research, knowledge exchange and capacity building to reduce food losses and waste. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical

  4. Pyro-processes and the wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Masaki; Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Inoue, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tomohiro

    2000-01-01

    Reprocessing using pyrometallurgical processes is generally considered to have economical benefits comparing with conventional aqueous processes because of the combination of simpler process and equipments, less criticality, and more compact facilities. On the other hand, the pyrometallurgical processes must generate peculiar wastes and R and D on those wastes is slightly inferior, as compared with the main processes. In this paper, process flows of major pyrometallurgical processes are firstly summarized and, then, the present R and D condition on the wastes are shown. (author)

  5. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Furthermore, avoidable vegetable and animal food waste were the primary source of household food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste suggesting the amount...

  6. The Hidden Burden of Food Waste: The Double Energy Waste in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Vittuari; Fabio De Menna; Marco Pagani

    2016-01-01

    The energy intensity of modern food systems represents a major issue in a scenario of decreasing oil resources and increasing population. Beside the use of renewable energy, an increased efficiency in food systems could contribute to reduce fossil fuels dependence. In this sense, food losses and waste (FLW) have crucial consequences on the energy balance. Based on the concept of “embodied energy”, food wastage can be framed as a double waste of energy, both in terms of non-consumed food energ...

  7. Solid waste treatment processes for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of solid waste(s) treatment processes applicable to a Space Station. From the review of available information a source term model for solid wastes was determined. An overall system is proposed to treat solid wastes under constraints of zero-gravity and zero-leakage. This study contains discussion of more promising potential treatment processes, including supercritical water oxidation, wet air (oxygen) oxidation, and chemical oxidation. A low pressure, batch-type treament process is recommended. Processes needed for pretreatment and post-treatment are hardware already developed for space operations. The overall solid waste management system should minimize transfer of wastes from their collection point to treatment vessel.

  8. Pineapple Waste Extract for Preventing Oxidation in Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia Gómez, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-07-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is consumed in the form of chunks (canned), cubes, fruit salad, and also in juices, concentrates, and jams. In the processes to produce these products, the waste generated represents a high percentage of the total fruit. Some studies have shown that residues of certain fruits, such as pineapple, have the same antioxidant activity as the fruit pulp. So although these residues are discarded, they could be used as an alternative source of polyphenols, as natural antioxidants. This study is focused on the antioxidant activity of wastes obtained in the production of pineapple products and their application. The polyphenols' scavenging activity was determined by the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity assay. The antioxidant potential was determined in emulsions (o/w) and in muffins, where the primary oxidation products (by peroxide value, PV) and the secondary oxidation products (by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were analyzed. In addition the muffins were analyzed by means of a triangular sensory test. The PV method showed that pineapple waste extracts caused a reduction in oxidation products of 59% in emulsions and 91% in the muffins. The reduction in TBARs values for emulsions were 27% and for muffins were 51%. The triangular sensory test showed that the samples containing the extract were not distinguished from the control (α = 0.05). © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Method for processing radioactive wastes containing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takeshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To bake, solidify and process even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium. Structure: H and or NH 4 zeolites of more than 90g per chemical equivalent of sodium present in the waste is added to and left in radioactive wastes containing sodium, after which they are fed to a baker such as rotary cylindrical baker, spray baker and the like to bake and solidify the wastes at 350 to 800 0 C. Thereby, it is possible to bake and solidify even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium, which has been impossible to do so previously. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  11. Environmental impacts of food waste: Learnings and challenges from a case study on UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Albizzati, Paola Federica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generate...... highlight the challenges related to modelling and methodological choices. Particularly, food production datasets should be chosen and used carefully, to avoid double counting and overestimation of the final impacts.......Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generated...... by four sectors of the food supply chain in United Kingdom, namely processing, wholesale and retail, food service, and households. The impacts were quantified for ten environmental impact categories, from Global Warming to Water Depletion, including indirect land use change impacts due to demand for land...

  12. Process arrangement options for Defense waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    Current plans are to immobilize the SRP high-level liquid wastes in a high integrity form. Borosilicate glass was selected in 1977 as the reference waste form and a mjaor effort is currently underway to develop the required technology. A large new facility, referred to as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is being designed to carry out this mission, with project authorization targeted for 1982 and plant startup in 1989. However, a number of other process arrangements or manufacturing strategies, including staging the major elements of the project or using existing SRP facilities for some functions, have been suggested in lieu of building the reference DWPF. This study assesses these various options and compares them on a technical and cost basis with the DWPF. Eleven different manufacturing options for SRP defense waste solidification were examined in detail. These cases are: (1) vitrification of acid waste at current generation rate; (2) vitrification of current rate acid waste and caustic sludge; (3 and 4) vitrification of the sludge portion of neutralized waste; (5) decontamination of salt cake and storage of concentrated cesium and strontium for later immobilization; (6) processing waste in a facility with lower capacity than the DWPF; (7) processing waste in a combination of existing and new facilities; (8) waste immobilization in H Canyon; (9) vitrification of both sludge and salt; (10) DWPF with onsite storage; (11) deferred authorization of DWPF

  13. Waste processing building with incineration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, Wasilah; Zaldi Suradin, Muh.

    2017-12-01

    In Indonesia, waste problem is one of major problem of the society in the city as part of their life dynamics. Based on Regional Medium Term Development Plan of South Sulawesi Province in 2013-2018, total volume and waste production from Makassar City, Maros, Gowa, and Takalar Regency estimates the garbage dump level 9,076.949 m3/person/day. Additionally, aim of this design is to present a recommendation on waste processing facility design that would accommodate waste processing process activity by incineration technology and supported by supporting activity such as place of education and research on waste, and the administration activity on waste processing facility. Implementation of incineration technology would reduce waste volume up to 90% followed by relative negative impact possibility. The result planning is in form of landscape layout that inspired from the observation analysis of satellite image line pattern of planning site and then created as a building site pattern. Consideration of building orientation conducted by wind analysis process and sun path by auto desk project Vasari software. The footprint designed by separate circulation system between waste management facility interest and the social visiting activity in order to minimize the croos and thus bring convenient to the building user. Building mass designed by inseparable connection series system, from the main building that located in the Northward, then connected to a centre visitor area lengthways, and walked to the waste processing area into the residue area in the Southward area.

  14. Challenges and Prospects of Traditional Food Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on challenges and prospects of traditional food processing technologies and their products in Nigeria. The major objective of the paper is to identify the challenges confronting traditional food processing technologies as well as the potentials the traditional food processing technologies has in boosting the ...

  15. Decontamination liquid waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, Masami; Hosaka, Katsumi.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid wastes after electrolytic reduction are caused to flow through an anionic exchange membrane in a diffusion dialysis step, and liquid wastes and dialyzed water are passed in a countercurrent manner. Since acids in the liquid wastes transfer on the side of the dialyzed water due to the difference of concentration between the liquid wastes and the dialyzed water, acids can be easily recovered from the liquid wastes. If the acid-removed liquid wastes are put to electrodeposition in an electrodepositing step, the electrodepositing reactions between radioactive materials such as Co ion, Mn ion and leached metals such as Fe ions and Cr ions are caused preferentially to hydrogen generation reaction on a metal deposition cathode. Accordingly, metal ions can be easily separated from the liquid wastes. Since the separated liquid wastes are an aqueous solution in which cerium ions as a decontaminant and an acid at low concentration are dissolved, the concentration thereof is controlled by mixing them to acid recovering water after the diffusion dialysis and they can be reused as the decontaminant. (T.M.)

  16. ORNL process waste treatment plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant removes low levels of radionuclides (primarily Cs-137 and Sr-90) from process waste water prior to discharge. The previous plant operation used a scavenging precipitaton - ion exchange process which produced a radioactive sludge. In order to eliminate the environmental problems associated with sludge disposal, the plant is being converted to a new ion exchange process without the precipitation process

  17. Gaseous radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizawa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent explosion of hydrogen gas within gaseous radioactive waste by removing the hydrogen gas by means of a hydrogen absorber. Structure: A coolant extracted from a reactor cooling system is sprayed by nozzle into a gaseous phase (hydrogen) portion within a tank, thus causing slipping of radioactive rare gas. The gaseous radioactive waste rich in hydrogen, which is purged in the tank, is forced by a waste gas compressor into a hydrogen occlusion device. The hydrogen occlusion device is filled with hydrogen occluding agents such as Mg, Mg-Ni alloy, V-Nb alloy, La-Ni alloy and so forth, and hydrogen in the waste gas is removed through reaction to produce hydrogen metal. The gaseous radioactive waste, which is deprived of hydrogen and reduced in volume, is stored in an attenuation tank. The hydrogen stored in the hydrogen absorber is released and used again as purge gas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Green-Lean Synergy - Root-Cause Analysis in Food Waste Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Amani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose_The goal of this paper is to explore the possible synergetic effects between lean philosophy and green endeavors in improving resource efficiency in the food sector. To that end, it is investigated how a proper and tailor-made adaptation of the lean six sigma root cause analysis method could help in overcoming the complexities of increased resource efficiency in food production.Design/methodology/approach_The case study concerned reduction of waste at an industrial production line of a dough-based product, through the implementation of the lean six sigma tool.Findings_An achievement of a 50% reduction of waste on the studied process line was reached, thus exceeding the initial improvement goal.Research limitations/implications (if applicable_While the explicit findings on the specific root causes of waste on this actual production line are not immediately transferrable to other cases, they show that applying this method to identifying and eliminating root causes of waste for other products and processes in the food sector could not only reduce costs but also contribute to more resource-efficient and sustainable industrial food production.Practical implications (if applicable_ Political and public high interest in environmental and social sustainability associated with food waste render this an important development.Originality/value_ While the potential of linking green and lean efforts has been acknowledged, the application of the lean six sigma methodology for more sustainable food production has not yet been explored. This paper contributes to this research

  19. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    OpenAIRE

    Panizza, Chloe E.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey’s post-ho...

  20. Green biosynthesis of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles using the aqueous extracts of food processing wastes under photo-catalyzed condition and investigation of their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, and eco-friendly green method was introduced to synthesize magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) using the aqueous extracts of two food processing wastes, namely silky hairs of corn (Zea mays L.) and outer leaves of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis). The boiled solutions of silky hairs (MH) and outer leaves of Chinese cabbage (CCP) were used to synthesize Fe 3 O 4 NPs under photo exposed condition. The MH-FeNPs and CCP-FeNPs synthesized via green route were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. The UV-Visible spectra displayed two absorption bands at 325nm and 375mm for the MH-FeNPs, and 325mm and 365mm for the CCP-FeNPs, respectively. The estimated absolute crystallite sizes of the MH-FeNPs and CCP-FeNPs were calculated to be 84.81 and 48.91nm, respectively. VSM analysis revealed that both FeNPs were superparamagnetic in nature. Both FeNPs mixed with kanamycin and rifampicin displayed positive synergistic antibacterial activity against pathogenic foodborne bacteria (9.36-24.42mm inhibition zones), and those mixed with amphotericin b also exerted synergistic anticandidal activity against five different pathogenic Candida species (9.81-17.68mm inhibition zones). Both FeNPs exhibited strong antioxidant activities; therefore, all the properties of the green synthesized MH-FeNPs and CCP-FeNPs using food processing wastes could be beneficial for their potential applications in various fields such as drug delivery, antibacterial and anticandidal drugs, and biomedical fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Radioactive gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kazuo.

    1997-01-01

    In a radioactive gaseous waste processing device, a dehumidifier in which a lot of hollow thread membranes are bundled and assembled is disposed instead of a dehumidifying cooling device and a dehumidifying tower. The dehumidifier comprises a main body, a great number of hollow thread membranes incorporated in the main body, a pair of fixing members for bundling and fixing both ends of the hollow thread membranes, a pair of caps for allowing the fixing members to pass through and fixing them on both ends of the main body, an off gas flowing pipe connected to one of the caps, a gas exhaustion pipe connected to the other end of the cap and a moisture removing pipeline connected to the main body. A flowrate control valve is connected to the moisture removing pipeline, and the other end of the moisture removing pipeline is connected between a main condensator and an air extraction device. Then, cooling and freezing devices using freon are no more necessary, and since the device uses the vacuum of the main condensator as a driving source and does not use dynamic equipments, labors for the maintenance is greatly reduced to improve economical property. The facilities are reduced in the size thereby enabling to use space effectively. (N.H.)

  2. Radioactive gas waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Koichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive gas waste processing device which extracts exhaust gases from a turbine condensator in a BWR type reactor and releases them after decaying radioactivity thereof during temporary storage. The turbine condensator is connected with an extracting ejector, a preheater, a recombiner for converting hydrogen gas into steams, an off gas condensator for removing water content, a flow rate control valve, a dehumidifier, a hold up device for removing radiation contaminated materials, a vacuum pump for sucking radiation decayed-off gases, a circulation water tank for final purification and an exhaustion cylinder by way of connection pipelines in this order. An exhaust gas circulation pipeline is disposed to circulate exhaust gases from an exhaust gas exit pipeline of the recycling water tank to an exhaust gas exit pipeline of the exhaust gas condensator, and a pressure control valve is disposed to the exhaust gas circulation pipeline. This enable to perform a system test for the dehumidification device under a test condition approximate to the load of the dehumidification device under actual operation state, and stabilize both of system flow rate and pressure. (T.M.)

  3. Exploring novel food proteins and processing technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Foods rich in protein are nowadays high in demand worldwide. To ensure a sustainable supply and a high quality of protein foods, novel food proteins and processing technologies need to be explored to understand whether they can be used for the development of high-quality protein foods. Therefore,

  4. Facts about food irradiation: Controlling the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly reviews the procedures that exist to control the process of food irradiation. It also summarizes the difficulties in identifying irradiated food, which stem from the fact that irradiation does not physically change the food or cause significant chemical changes in foods. 4 refs

  5. Discarding processing method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, Shiro; Kato, Hiroaki; Hatakeyama, Takao; Oura, Masato.

    1992-01-01

    At first, in a discrimination step, extremely low level radioactive wastes are discriminated to metals and concretes and further, the metal wastes are discriminated to those having hollow portions and those not having hollow portions, and the concrete wastes are discriminated to those having block-like shape and those having other shapes respectively. Next, in a processing step, the metal wastes having hollow portions are applied with cutting, devoluming or packing treatment and block-like concrete wastes are applied with surface solidification treatment, and concrete wastes having other shapes are applied with crushing treatment respectively. Then, the extremely low level radioactive wastes contained in a container used exclusively for transportation are taken out, in a movable burying facility with diffusion inhibiter kept at a negative pressure as required, in a field for burying operation, and buried in a state that they are isolated from the outside. Accordingly, they can be buried safely and efficiently. (T.M.)

  6. Fixation process for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theysohn, F.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement on the method of solidification of radioactive liquid waste in bitumen with the aid of extruders is described. So far, it has been difficult to remove large amounts of water. The waste sludge, as proposed here, is pre-dried in the extruder and then mixed with the bitumen. The extruder is inclined upward in the transport direction, and its barrel extruders have through holes parallel to the direction of transport in the raised sides of the passages, so that water runs back. Also the waste steam nozzles are arranged before the bitumen inlet. (UWI) [de

  7. Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P; Barone, Ada Maria

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1; N = 514) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2; N = 456) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste. Lastly, findings from a field experiment (Study 3; N = 210) suggest that a specific educational intervention, directed at increasing consumers' perceived skills related to food preparation planning behaviors, reduces domestic food waste. Implications of the research for policy makers and the food industry are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioactive liquid waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro; Yoshikawa, Jun; Noda, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Fumio.

    1995-01-01

    Floor drainages are mixed with low electroconductive liquid wastes, and after filtering the mixed liquid wastes by a hollow thread membrane filters, they are subjected to a desalting treatment by a desalter. The mixing ratio of the floor drainages to the lower electroconductive liquid wastes is determined to not more than 50wt%. With such procedures, since ionic ingredients are further diluted by mixing the floor drainages to the low electroconductive liquid wastes, sufficient margin can be provided up to the saturation of the ion exchange resins of the desalter, to maintain the ion exchange performance for a long period of time. Further, the recovery of the amount of permeation water and a differential pressure of filtration upon back washing of the hollow thread membrane filters is facilitated, thereby enabling to perform regeneration easily at high efficiency. (T.M.)

  9. 327 legacy waste processing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The B and W Hanford Company's (BWHC) 327 Facility [Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL)] houses 10 hot cells in which a variety of postirradiation examinations have been performed since its construction in the mid 1950s. Over the years, the waste that was generated in these cells has been collected in one gallon buckets. These buckets are essentially one gallon cylindrical cans made of thin wall stainless steel with welded bottoms and slip fit lids. They contain assorted compactable waste (i.e., Wipe-Alls, Q-tips, towels, etc.) as well as non-compactable waste (i.e., small tools, pieces of metal tubing, etc.). There is a FY-98 BWHC Performance Agreement (PA) milestone in place to package 200 of these buckets in drums and ship them from the 327 facility to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) by September 30, 1998

  10. Environmental information document defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report documents the impact analysis of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for immobilizing high-level waste currently being stored on an interim basis at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The DWPF will process the waste into a form suitable for shipment to and disposal in a federal repository. The DWPF will convert the high-level waste into: a leach-resistant form containing above 99.9% of all the radioactivity, and a residue of slightly contaminated salt. The document describes the SRP site and environs, including population, land and water uses; surface and subsurface soils and waters; meteorology; and ecology. A conceptual integrated facility for concurrently producing glass waste and saltcrete is described, and the environmental effects of constructing and operating the facility are presented. Alternative sites and waste disposal options are addressed. Also environmental consultations and permits are discussed

  11. Effects of daily food processing on allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Novak, Natalija

    2017-08-11

    Daily food processing has the potential to alter the allergenicity of foods due to modification of the physico-chemical properties of proteins. The degree of such modifications depends on factors such as processing conditions, type of food considered, allergenic content, etc. The impact of daily food processing like boiling, roasting, frying or baking on food allergenicity have been extensively studied. The influence of other thermal treatments such as microwave heating or pressure cooking on allergenicity has also been analyzed. Non-thermal treatment such as peeling impacts on the allergenic content of certain foods such as fruits. In this review, we give an updated overview of the effects of daily processing treatments on the allergenicity of a wide variety of foods. The different variables that contribute to the modification of food allergenicity due to processing are also reviewed and discussed.

  12. Process waste assessment for the Radiography Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1994-07-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the Radiography Laboratory, located in Building 923. It documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of this facility. The Radiography Laboratory provides film radiography or radioscopy (electronic imaging) of weapon and nonweapon components. The Radiography Laboratory has six x-ray machines and one gamma ray source. It also has several other sealed beta- and gamma-ray isotope sources of low microcurie (μCi) activity. The photochemical processes generate most of the Radiography Laboratory's routinely generated hazardous waste, and most of that is generated by the DuPont film processor. Because the DuPont film processor generates the most photochemical waste, it was selected for an estimated material balance

  13. CNAEM waste processing and storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, A.E.; Kahraman, A.; Altunkaya, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive waste in Turkey is generated from various applications. Radioactive waste management activities are carried out in a facility at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNAEM). This facility has been assigned to take all low-level radioactive wastes generated by nuclear applications in Turkey. The wastes are generated from research and nuclear applications mainly in medicine, biology, agriculture, quality control in metal processing and construction industries. These wastes are classified as low- level radioactive wastes and their activities are up to 10 -3 Ci/m 3 (except spent sealed sources). Chemical treatment and cementation of liquid radwaste, segregation and compaction of solid wastes and conditioning of spent sources are the main processing activities of this facility. A.so, analyses, registration, quality control and interim storage of conditioned low-level wastes are the other related activities of this facility. Conditioned wastes are stored in an interim storage building. All waste management activities, which have been carried out in CNAEM, are generally described in this paper. (author)

  14. Method of processing waste sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety store of waste sodium in the form of intermetallic compounds. Method: Waste sodium used in a reactor is mixed with molten metal under an inert gas atmosphere and resulted intermetallic compounds are stored in a closely sealed container to enable quasi-permanent safety store as inert compound. Used waste sodium particularly, waste sodium in the primary system containing radioactive substances is charged in a waste sodium melting tank having a heater on the side, the tank is evacuated by a vacuum pump and then sealed with gaseous argon supplied from a gaseous argon tank, and waste sodium is melted under heating. The temperature and the amount of the liquid are measured by a thermometer and a level meter respectively. While on the other hand, molten metal such as Sn, Pb and Zn having melting point above 300 0 C are charged in a metal melting tank and heated by a heater. The molten sodium and the molten metals are charged into a mixing tank and agitated to mix by an induction type agitator. Sodium vapors in the tank are collected by traps. The air in the tank is replaced with gaseous argon. The molten mixture is closely sealed in a drum can and cooled to solidify for safety storage. (Seki, T.)

  15. Processability analysis of candidate waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.H. Jr.; Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Schuyler, R.L. III.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation, or processability analysis, was performed to assess the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste form candidates. The reference borosilicate glass process was rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete, glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramics (SYNROC-D and tailored ceramics), and coated ceramic particles. Cost estimates for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities are also reported

  16. Current state of waste and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1979-01-01

    Research and industrial applications are briefly described of irradiation technology in Czechoslovakia and in other countries. Intensive research into the irradiation of meat, grain, fruit and vegetables is going on; it has not, however, been widely applied in practice. The objective of the research into industrial and agricultural waste irradiation is to make the wastes usable as fertilizers or feed additives for farm animals. (M.S.)

  17. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts, and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  18. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-09-17

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  19. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties. PMID:26393643

  20. Food processing by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process, as a nonthermal process, can be used to inactivate microbes while minimizing chemical reactions in food. In this regard, a HHP level of 100 MPa (986.9 atm/1019.7 kgf/cm 2 ) and more is applied to food. Conventional thermal process damages food components relating color, flavor, and nutrition via enhanced chemical reactions. However, HHP process minimizes the damages and inactivates microbes toward processing high quality safe foods. The first commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products such as jams, and then some other products have been commercialized: retort rice products (enhanced water impregnation), cooked hams and sausages (shelf life extension), soy sauce with minimized salt (short-time fermentation owing to enhanced enzymatic reactions), and beverages (shelf life extension). The characteristics of HHP food processing are reviewed from viewpoints of nonthermal process, history, research and development, physical and biochemical changes, and processing equipment.

  1. Use of food wastes for the production of lactic silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Murray Martínez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to produce lactic silage from food wastes. A factorial 2³ experimental design was applied using the following factors and levels: yogurt inoculum concentration (1 and 15%, sucrose (2 and 15% and temperature (22 and 35 ºC and as response variable, the soluble nitrogen content (SNC at the end of the fermentation was considered. The best SNC output was for the treatment with 1 % of inoculum, 2 % of sucrose and temperature of 22ºC. The increase of SNC with regards to its initial content, from 0.17 % to 1.67 % for protein contents (PC 5 % represented 263 %. It was possible to produce a lactic silage and keep it stable for up to 30 days, which was enough storage time before being sent to a drying process for future use in animal feeding or compost.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal process geological structure for the waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Jaouen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The process described here consists to carry out the two phases of storage operation (intermediate and definitive) of radioactive wastes (especially the vitrified ones) in a geological dispositif (horizontal shafts) at an adequate deepness but suitable for a natural convection ventilation with fresh air from the land surface and moved only with the calorific heat released by the burried radioactive wastes when the radioactive decay has reached the adequate level, the shafts are totally and definitely occluded [fr

  3. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. L.; Snyder, C. T.; Frank, Steven; Riley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop ''advanced'' glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na_2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl- in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease the waste

  4. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  5. School Lunch Waste among Middle School Students: Implications for Nutrients Consumed and Food Waste Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Richardson, Scott; Austin, S. Bryn; Economos, Christina D.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policy makers, students, and their families. Purpose Nutrient losses and economic costs associated with school meal waste were examined. The study also assessed if school foods served were valid proxies for foods consumed by students. Methods Plate waste measurements were collected from middle school students in Boston attending two Chef Initiative schools (n=1609) and two control schools (n=1440) during a two-year pilot study (2007-2009) where a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to make healthier school meals. The costs associated with food waste were calculated and the percent of foods consumed was compared with a gold standard of 85% consumption. Analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. Results Overall, students consumed less than the required/recommended levels of nutrients. An estimated $432,349 of food (26.1% of the total food budget) was discarded by middle school students annually at lunch in Boston middle schools. For most meal components, significantly less than 85% was consumed. Conclusions There is substantial food waste among middle school students in Boston. Overall, students' nutrient consumption levels were below school meal standards and foods served were not valid proxies for foods consumed. The costs associated with discarded foods are high; if translated nationally for school lunches, roughly $1,238,846,400 annually is wasted. Students would benefit if additional focus was given to the quality and palatability of school meals. PMID:23332326

  6. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Chloe E; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J; Kerr, Deborah A; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C

    2017-01-26

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O'ahu, Hawai'i ( n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%). Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216) at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents.

  7. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe E. Panizza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR. Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93. Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA were conducted and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%. Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216 at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents.

  8. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  9. Radiation processing of food to ensure food safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Radiation processing of food utilizes the controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations such as γ-rays , electrons and X-rays on food. Gamma-rays and X-rays are short wavelength radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum. The approved sources of gamma radiation for food processing are radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV) wherein the latter two are generated by machines using electricity. γ-radiation can penetrate deep into the food materials causing the desired effects. Irradiation works by disrupting the biological processes that lead to decay. While interacting with water and other biomolecules that constitute the food and living organisms, radiation energy is absorbed by these molecules. The interactions of radiation and radiolytic products of water with DNA impair the reproduction of microorganism and insects, and thus help in achieving the desired objectives pertaining to food safety and security

  10. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  11. Development of a Novel Food Waste Collection Kiosk and Waste-to-Energy Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Franchetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. generates more than 37 million metric tons of food waste each year, and over 95% of it is disposed of at U.S. landfills. This paper describes the development of a novel food waste collection kiosk and business model called “Greenbox” that will collect and store food waste from households and restaurants with incentives for user participation to spur food waste-to-energy production in a local community. Greenbox offers a low-cost collection point to divert food waste from landfills, reduce greenhouse gases from decomposition, and aid in generating cleaner energy. A functional prototype was successfully developed by a team of engineering students and a business model was created as part of a senior design capstone course. Each Greenbox unit has the potential to reduce 275 metric tons of food waste per year, remove 1320 kg of greenhouse gases, and create 470,000 liters of methane gas while providing a payback period of 4.2 years and a rate of return of 14.9%.

  12. Method of controlling radioactive waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Sato, Takao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the pellet production amount, maximize the working life of a solidifying device and maintaining the mechanical strength of pellets to a predetermined value irrespective of the type and the cycle of occurrence of the secondary waste in the secondary waste solidifying device for radioactive waste processing systems in nuclear power plants. Method: Forecasting periods for the type, production amount and radioactivity level of the secondary wastes are determined in input/output devices connected to a control system and resulted signals are sent to computing elements. The computing elements forecast the production amount of regenerated liquid wastes after predetermined days based on the running conditions of a condensate desalter and the production amounts of filter sludges and liquid resin wastes after predetermined days based on the liquid waste processing amount or the like in a processing device respectively. Then, the mass balance between the type and the amount of the secondary wastes presently stored in a tank are calculated and the composition and concentration for the processing liquid are set so as to obtain predetermined values for the strength of pellets that can be dried to solidify, the working life of the solidifying device itself and the radioactivity level of the pellets. Thereafter, the running conditions for the solidifying device are determined so as to maximize the working life of the solidifying device. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Storage process of large solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno; Thiery, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Process for the storage of large size solid radioactive waste, consisting of contaminated objects such as cartridge filters, metal swarf, tools, etc, whereby such waste is incorporated in a thermohardening resin at room temperature, after prior addition of at least one inert charge to the resin. Cross-linking of the resin is then brought about [fr

  14. Vermicomposting of vegetable waste: A biophysicochemical process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    some cities, the organic waste (market, municipal, household) are dumped indiscriminately or littered on the streets causing environmental deterioration. Biological processes such as composting followed by vermicomposting to convert vegetables waste (as valuable nutrient source) in agriculturally useful organic fertilizer ...

  15. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshihiko; Maruko, Morihisa; Takamura, Yoshiyuki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate radioactive claddings from the slurry of wasted ion exchange resins containing radioactive claddings. Method: Wasted ion exchange resins having radioactive claddings (fine particles of iron oxides or hydroxide adhered with radioactive cobalt) are introduced into a clad separation tank. Sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide is introduced to the separation tank to adjust the pH value to 3 - 6. Then, sodium lauryl sulfate is added for capturing claddings and airs are blown from an air supply nozzle to generate air bubbles. The claddings are detached from the ion exchange resins and adhered to the air bubbles. The air bubbles adhered with the claddings float up to the surface of the liquid wastes and then forced out of the separation tank. (Ikeda, J.)

  16. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Kikuchi, Makoto; Yusa, Hideo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain solidified radioactive wastes at high packing density by packing radioactive waste pellets in a container and then packing and curing a thermosetting resin therein. Method: Radioactive liquid wastes are dried into power and subjected to compression molding. The pellets thus obtained are supplied in a predetermined amount from the hopper to the inside of a drum can. Then, thermosetting plastic and a curing agent are filled in the drum can. Gas between the pellets is completely expelled by the intrusion of the thermosetting resin and the curing agent among the pellets. Thereafter, the drum can is heated by a heater and curing is effected. After the curing, the drum can is sealed. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  19. Assessment of Food Waste Prevention and Recycling Strategies Using a Multilayer Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Helen A; Peverill, M Samantha; Müller, Daniel B; Brattebø, Helge

    2015-12-15

    Food waste (FW) generates large upstream and downstream emissions to the environment and unnecessarily consumes natural resources, potentially affecting future food security. The ecological impacts of FW can be addressed by the upstream strategies of FW prevention or by downstream strategies of FW recycling, including energy and nutrient recovery. While FW recycling is often prioritized in practice, the ecological implications of the two strategies remain poorly understood from a quantitative systems perspective. Here, we develop a multilayer systems framework and scenarios to quantify the implications of food waste strategies on national biomass, energy, and phosphorus (P) cycles, using Norway as a case study. We found that (i) avoidable food waste in Norway accounts for 17% of sold food; (ii) 10% of the avoidable food waste occurs at the consumption stage, while industry and retailers account for only 7%; (iii) the theoretical potential for systems-wide net process energy savings is 16% for FW prevention and 8% for FW recycling; (iv) the theoretical potential for systems-wide P savings is 21% for FW prevention and 9% for FW recycling; (v) while FW recycling results in exclusively domestic nutrient and energy savings, FW prevention leads to domestic and international savings due to large food imports; (vi) most effective is a combination of prevention and recycling, however, FW prevention reduces the potential for FW recycling and therefore needs to be prioritized to avoid potential overcapacities for FW recycling.

  20. Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Uçkun Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food wastes such as waste bread, savory, waste cakes, cafeteria waste, fruits, vegetables and potatoes were used as sole substrate for glucoamylase production by solid state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for improving the production of high activity enzyme. It was found that waste cake was the best substrate for glucoamylase production. Among all the parameters studied, glucoamylase activity was significantly affected by the initial pH and incubation time. The highest glucoamylase activity of 108.47 U/gds was achieved at initial pH of 7.9, moisture content of 69.6% wt., inoculum loading of 5.2×105 cells/gram substrate (gs and incubation time of 6 d. The enzyme preparation could effectively digest 50% suspension of domestic food waste in 24 h with an almost complete saccharification using an enzyme dose of only 2U/g food waste at 60°C.

  1. Consumers' conceptualization of ultra-processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Vidal, Leticia; Allegue, Gimena; Giménez, Ana; Bandeira, Elisa; Moratorio, Ximena; Molina, Verónika; Curutchet, María Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Consumption of ultra-processed foods has been associated with low diet quality, obesity and other non-communicable diseases. This situation makes it necessary to develop educational campaigns to discourage consumers from substituting meals based on unprocessed or minimally processed foods by ultra-processed foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to investigate how consumers conceptualize the term ultra-processed foods and to evaluate if the foods they perceive as ultra-processed are in concordance with the products included in the NOVA classification system. An online study was carried out with 2381 participants. They were asked to explain what they understood by ultra-processed foods and to list foods that can be considered ultra-processed. Responses were analysed using inductive coding. The great majority of the participants was able to provide an explanation of what ultra-processed foods are, which was similar to the definition described in the literature. Most of the participants described ultra-processed foods as highly processed products that usually contain additives and other artificial ingredients, stressing that they have low nutritional quality and are unhealthful. The most relevant products for consumers' conceptualization of the term were in agreement with the NOVA classification system and included processed meats, soft drinks, snacks, burgers, powdered and packaged soups and noodles. However, some of the participants perceived processed foods, culinary ingredients and even some minimally processed foods as ultra-processed. This suggests that in order to accurately convey their message, educational campaigns aimed at discouraging consumers from consuming ultra-processed foods should include a clear definition of the term and describe some of their specific characteristics, such as the type of ingredients included in their formulation and their nutritional composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Membranes for Food and Bioproduct Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Alexandru M.

    Modified membranes for process intensification in biomass hydrolysis: Production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is one of the leading candidates for replacement of petroleum based fuels and chemicals. However, conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals is not cost effective compared to the production of fuels and chemicals from crude oil reserves. Some novel and economically feasible approaches involve the use of ionic liquids as solvents or co-solvents, since these show improved solvation capability of cellulose over simple aqueous systems. Membranes offer unique opportunities for process intensification which involves fractionation of the resulting biomass hydrolysate leading to a more efficient and cheaper operation. This research attempts to develop membranes that would usher the economics of the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals by recycling the expensive ionic liquid. The overall aim of this work is the development of novel membranes with unique surface properties that enable the selective separation of non-reacted cellulose and hydrolysis sugars from ionic liquids. Nanofiltration separation for application in food product engineering: With the advent of the modern, well-informed consumer who has high expectations from the nutritional value of consumed food products, novel approaches are being developed to produce nutrient-enhanced foods and drinks. As a response to the consumer needs, different techniques to recover, concentrate and retain as much as possible of bioactive compounds are being investigated. Membrane technology has the advantage of selective fractionation of food products (e.g. salt removal, removal of bitter-tasting compounds or removal of sugar for sweet taste adjustment), volume reduction, and product recovery at mild conditions. In this work, we use nanofiltration in dead-end and crossflow mode to concentrate polyphenols from blueberry pomace. Blueberry

  3. Evaluation of physical, chemical and heavy metal concentration of food waste composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food waste composting with rice husk and coconut fibre as compost medium were carried out. Two types of different fermentation liquids were prepared which were fermented liquid (banana peel and fermented liquid from fermented soybeans. During the composting process, a compost samples for a twenty week duration at an interval time of two weeks. Among the physico-chemical parameters that were tested were temperature, moisture content, pH value, Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous, Potassium and Total Organic Carbon and Carbon Nitrogen ratio. Heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and arsenic were observed and analysed. From this study, it was found that, the temperature increased during the thermophilic phase while there was gradually increase of Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous and Potassium from the beginning till the end of the composting process. It was also found that the total organic carbon (TOC and the carbon nitrogen ratio decreased significantly during the decomposition process. Traces amounts of heavy metals were also detected and remains below the standard Malaysian Environmental regulations. It was concluded that, the composting process was faster with processed food waste followed by combination of processed food waste and raw. Raw food waste were demonstrated the lowest degradation rate.

  4. Discounting and dynamic shelf life to reduce fresh food waste at retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, M.E.; Haijema, R.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 89 million of tonnes of food is wasted every year in the EU along the whole food supply chain. The reasons for food waste by retailers include inappropriate quality control, overstocking and inaccurate forecasting. This study shows that food wasted by retailers can be reduced by

  5. Food waste conversion options in Singapore: environmental impacts based on an LCA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hsien H; Lim, Teik Z; Tan, Reginald B H

    2010-02-15

    Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste is one of the challenges faced by Singapore. Semakau island - the only offshore landfill of the nation - only accepts inert, inorganic solid waste and therefore a large bulk of food waste is directed to incinerators. A remaining small percent is sent for recycling via anaerobic digestion (AD), followed by composting of the digestate material. This article investigates the environmental performance of four food waste conversion scenarios - based on a life cycle assessment perspective - taking into account air emissions, useful energy from the incinerators and AD process, as well as carbon dioxide mitigation from the compost products derived from the digestate material and a proposed aerobic composting system. The life cycle impact results were generated for global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and energy use. The total normalized results showed that a small-scale proposed aerobic composting system is more environmentally favorable than incinerators, but less ideal compared to the AD process. By making full use of the AD's Recycling Phase II process alone, the Singapore Green Plan's 2012 aim to increase the recycling of food waste to 30% can easily be achieved, along with reduced global warming impacts.

  6. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matagi, Yoshihiko; Takahara, Akira; Ootsuka, Katsuyuki.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid the reduction in the atmospheric insulation by preventing the generation of CO 2 , H 2 O, etc. upon irradiation of microwave heat. Method: Radioactive wastes are charged into a hopper, supplied on a conveyor, fed each by a predetermined amount to a microwave furnace and heated by microwaves applied from a microwave guide. Simultaneously, inert gases are supplied from a supply line. The Radioactive wastes to be treated are shielded by the inert gases to prevent the combustion of decomposed gases produced from the wastes upon irradiation of microwave heat to thereby prevent the generation of CO 2 , H 2 , etc., as well as the generated decomposed gases are diluted with the inert gases to decrease the dissociation of the decomposed gases to prevent the reduction in the atmospheric insulation. Since the spent inert gases can be recovered for reuse, the amount of gaseous wastes released to the atmosphere can be decreased and the working life of the high performance air filters can be extended. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challengi...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain.......The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...

  8. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently being designed to convert Savannah River Plant liquid, high-level radioactive waste into a solid form, such as borosilicate glass. To prevent the spread of radioactivity, the outside of the canisters of waste glass must have very low levels of smearable radioactive contamination before they are removed from the DWPF. Several techniques were considered for canister decontamination: high-pressure water spray, electropolishing, chemical dissolution, and abrasive blasting. An abrasive blasting technique using a glass frit slurry has been selected for use in the DWPF. No additional equipment is needed to process waste generated from decontamination. Frit used as the abrasive will be mixed with the waste and fed to the glass melter. In contrast, chemical and electrochemical techniques require more space in the DWPF, and produce large amounts of contaminated by-products, which are difficult to immobilize by vitrification

  9. Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 10 years of research, development, and testing, the US Department of Energy is building a new facility which will prepare high-level radioactive waste for permanent disposal. The Defense Waste Processing Facility, known as the DWPF, will be the first production-scale facility of its kind in the United States. In the DWPF, high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Savannah River Plant will be processed into a solid form, borosilicate glass, suitable for permanent off-site geologic disposal. With construction beginning in the fall of 1983, the DWPT is scheduled to be operational in 1989. By 2005, the DWPF will have immobilized the backlog of high-level waste which has been accumulating in storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant since 1954. Canisters of the immobilized waste will then be ready for permanent disposal deep under the ground, safely isolated from the environment

  10. Current and potential uses of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone

    2016-03-15

    Food industries produce huge amounts of processing waste that are often disposed of incurring expenses and impacting upon the environment. For these and other reasons, food processing waste streams, in particular marine processing waste streams, are gaining popularity amongst pharmaceutical, cosmetic and nutraceutical industries as sources of bioactive molecules. In the last 30 years, there has been a gradual increase in processed marine products with a concomitant increase in waste streams that include viscera, heads, skins, fins, bones, trimmings and shellfish waste. In 2010, these waste streams equated to approximately 24 million tonnes of mostly unused resources. Marine processing waste streams not only represent an abundant resource, they are also enriched with structurally diverse molecules that possess a broad panel of bioactivities including anti-oxidant, anti-coagulant, anti-thrombotic, anti-cancer and immune-stimulatory activities. Retrieval and characterisation of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste also contributes valuable information to the vast field of marine natural product discovery. This review summarises the current use of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste in different products and industries. Moreover, this review summarises new research into processing waste streams and the potential for adoption by industries in the creation of new products containing marine processing waste bioactives. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Conditions and constraints of food processing in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B.; Nelson, P. E.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Requirements and constraints of food processing in space include a balanced diet, food variety, stability for storage, hardware weight and volume, plant performance, build-up of microorganisms, and waste processing. Lunar, Martian, and space station environmental conditions include variations in atmosphere, day length, temperature, gravity, magnetic field, and radiation environment. Weightlessness affects fluid behavior, heat transfer, and mass transfer. Concerns about microbial behavior include survival on Martian and lunar surfaces and in enclosed environments. Many present technologies can be adapted to meet space conditions.

  12. Multibarrier waste forms. Part III: Process considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.

    1979-10-01

    The multibarrier concept for the solidification and storage of radioactive waste utilizes up to three barriers to isolate radionuclides from the environment: a solidified waste inner core, an impervious coating, and a metal matrix. The coating and metal matrix give the composite waste form enhanced inertness with improvements in thermal stability, mechanical strength, and leach resistance. Preliminary process flow rates and material costs were evaluated for four multibarrier waste forms with the process complexity increasing thusly: glass marbles, uncoated supercalcine, glass-coated supercalcine, and PyC/Al 2 O 3 -coated supercalcine. This report discusses the process variables and their effect on optimization of product quality, processing simplicity, and material cost. 11 figures, 2 tables

  13. High Level Waste (HLW) Processing Experience with Increased Waste Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Engineering requested characterization of glass samples that were taken after the second melter had been operational for about 5 months. After the new melter had been installed, the waste loading had been increased to about 38 weight percentage after a new quasicrystalline liquidus model had been implemented. The DWPF had also switched from processing with refractory Frit 200 to a more fluid Frit 320. The samples were taken after DWPF observed very rapid buildup of deposits in the upper pour spout bore and on the pour spout insert while processing the high waste loading feedstock. These samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques to determine the cause of the crystallization. The pour stream sample was homogeneous, amorphous, and representative of the feed batch from which it was derived. Chemical analysis of the pour stream sample indicated that a waste loading of 38.5 weight per cent had been achieved. The data analysis indicated that surface crystallization, induced by temperature and oxygen fugacity gradients in the pour spout, caused surface crystallization to occur in the spout and on the insert at the higher waste loadings even though there was no crystallization in the pour stream

  14. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD SECTOR AND LIMITATIONS OF FOOD LOSSES AND ITS WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bilska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally is wasted about one third of total food produced per year. The losses are borne along the entire food chain from “farm to fork”. The phenomenon requires an analysis and monitoring of the impact due to continuous development of food sector. Food losses and its waste have an impact on the sustainability of food systems in all three dimensions: economic, social and environmental. Irrational use of food beyond the amount of losses, is a threat to our environment because of excessive consumption of natural resources and is a causes of unmet nutritional needs of societies. The aim of the study was to determine the causes of losses and wastage in the food chain and categorization as well as taking into account recovery capabilities. As follows from the analysis presented in the work some of the reasons for food losses and waste are well known, possible limitations. Therefore, we should seek ways of recovering of food products and using them as intended. One way may be the transfer of food for social purposes, which also affects the sustainability of development in this sector due to social aspects.

  15. Microbial safety of minimally processed foods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novak, John S; Sapers, Gerald M; Juneja, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    ...-course meals. All are expected to be portioned and minimally processed to balance the naturalness of unaltered foods with a concern for safety. Yet the responsibility for proper food preparation and handling remains with the naïve modern consumer, who may be less adept in food preparations than his or her less sophisticated ancestors. As a result,...

  16. Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbouin-Rerolle, Pascale

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the principles of food preservation, food preservation techniques, and nutrition-related consequences of food processing. All foodstuffs in their natural state will deteriorate and become unfit for human consumption due to internal factors, such as enzyme activity, or external factors, such as insects, rodents, and…

  17. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  18. Sodium content on processed foods for snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Mariana Vieira dos Santos; Oliveira, Renata Carvalho de; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa

    2016-04-01

    To assess the Na content reported on the labels of processed foods sold in Brazil that are usually consumed as snacks by children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study that assessed Na content and serving size reporting on processed food labels. A supermarket that is part of a large chain in Brazil. All foods available for sale at the study's location and reported in the literature as snacks present in the diets of Brazilian children and adolescents. Of the 2945 processed foods, 87 % complied with the reference serving sizes, although variability in reporting was observed in most of the food subgroups. In addition, 21 % of the processed foods had high Na levels (>600 mg/100 g) and 35 % had medium Na levels (>120 and ≤600 mg/100 g). The meats, oils, fats and seeds groups as well as the prepared dishes had higher percentages of foods classified as high Na (81 %, 58 % and 53 %, respectively). Most of the processed foods had high or medium Na content. We emphasize the importance of revising Brazilian nutrition labelling legislation to standardize reference serving sizes to avoid variation. Besides, we point out the potential for reducing Na levels in most processed foods, as evidenced by the variability in Na content within subgroups. Finally, we have identified the need to develop a method to classify Na levels in processed foods with specific parameters for children and adolescents.

  19. Radioactive waste gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate and remove only hydrogen from hydrogen gas-containing radioactive waste gases produced from nuclear power plants without using large scaled facilities. Constitution: From hydrogen gas-enriched waste gases which contain radioactive rare gases (Kr, Xe) sent from the volume control tank of a chemical volume control system, only the hydrogen is separated in a hydrogen separator using palladium alloy membrane and rare gases are concentrated, volume-decreased and then stored. In this case, an activated carbon adsorption device is connected at its inlet to the radioactive gas outlet of the hydrogen separator and opened at its outlet to external atmosphere. In this system, while only the hydrogen gas permeates through the palladium alloy membrane, other gases are introduced, without permeation, into the activated carbon adsorption device. Then, the radioactive rare gases are decayed by the adsorption on the activated carbon and then released to the external atmosphere. (Furukawa, Y.)

  20. Process of radioactive waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Schwarz, H.; Schroter, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described in which the radiation level of waste gases from nuclear power plants containing both activation and fission gases is controlled at or below limits permitted by applicable standards by passing such gases, prior to release to the atmosphere, through an adsorptive delay path including a body of activated carbon having the relation to the throughput and character of such gases. (U.S.)

  1. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Tsunashima, Mikiyasu; Horie, Masaaki; Koyama, Masafumi; Sudo, Minoru; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Ogasawara, Tadashi.

    1991-01-01

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  2. Method of processing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Susumu.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive solid wastes generated from nuclear power plants are pressed and reduced in the volume by a compressor into compression products. Next, the compression products are put into a vessel in a tank and a solidifying material at low viscosity such as vinyl monomer is supplied and impregnated into the inner gaps of the compression products while the pressure in the tank is reduced by a vacuum pump. Subsequently, the compression products are heated and pressurized in the tank to polymerize and solidify the solidifying material. Then, a plurality of solidified compression products are placed in the inside of a drum can and fixed at the periphery thereof together with fixing material such as mortars and plastics. Accordingly, even when underground water should intrude after underground disposal, there is no more risk of causing swelling pressure due to water absorption. Accordingly, there is no more possiblity to cause cracks in the wastes due to the swelling pressure, and wastes of excellent stability and integrity can be obtained. (I.N.)

  3. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  4. Method for processing powdery radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Toshihide; Nakayama, Yasuyuki.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive wastes with ease and safety at a high reaction speed but with no boiling by impregnating the radioactive wastes with chlorostyrene. Method: Beads-like dried ion exchange resin, powdery ion exchange resin, filter sludges, concentrated dried waste liquor or the like are mixed or impregnated with a chlorostyrene monomer dissolving therein a polymerization initiator such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and benzoyl peroxide. Mixed or impregnated products are polymerized to solid after a predetermined of time through curing reaction to produce solidified radioactive wastes. Since inflammable materials are used, this process has a high safety. About 70% wastes can be incorporated. The solidified products have a strength as high as 300 - 400 kg/cm 3 and are suitable to ocean disposal. The products have a greater radioactive resistance than other plastic solidification products. (Seki, T.)

  5. Processing of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Although low-level wastes have been generated and have required processing for more than two decades now, it is noteworthy that processing methods are continuing to change. The changes are not only attributable to improvements in technology, but are also the result of changing regulations and economics and uncertainties regarding the future availabilities of burial space for disposal. Indeed, because of the changes which have and are taking place in the processing of low-level waste, an overview of the current situation is in order. This presentation is a brief overview of the processing methods generally employed to treat the low-level wastes generated from both fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle sources. The presentation is far too brief to deal with the processing technologies in a comprehensive fashion, but does provide a snapshot of what the current or typical processing methods are and what changes are occurring and why

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Carrier Bag Story of (waste) food, hens and the sharing economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    2018-01-01

    flavourful food and the value of waste food. This argument is unfolded by looking deeper into the farm as a heterogeneous relational-material entanglement of infrastructures, non-human and human, Nordic food stories, waste, food and feed, diseases and risks and eating and tasting. Based on the food network...

  8. Teaching Ethos from the Dumpster: "Dive" and Food Waste Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubisar, Abby M.; Hunt, Kathleen P.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Rhetorical Criticism, Composition, Environmental Communication. Objectives: This unit activity, for which students view a documentary to identify and evaluate persuasive ethos and then create their own rhetorical messages for reducing food waste, serves as a platform for teaching both the critique and practice of rhetoric, as well as…

  9. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maděrová, Z.; Horská, K.; Kim, S.-R.; Lee, Ch.-H.; Pospíšková, K.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 9 (2016), s. 2143-2149 ISSN 0273-1223 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biofilm * food waste materials * magnetic spent grain * Pseudomonas aeruginosa Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.197, year: 2016

  10. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inakuma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.

    1996-01-01

    Laundry liquid wastes and shower drains containing radioactive materials generated in a nuclear power plant are removed with radioactive materials by a fiber filtration device and an activated carbon filtration device to satisfy standers of water quality described in the environmental effect investigation report. Spent activated carbon is dehydrated together with the back-wash liquid from the fiber filtration device and the activated carbon filtration device using a Nutsche-type filtration dryer. With such procedures, the scale of the facility is minimized, space for devices, maintenance for equipments and radiation dose rate are reduced. (T.M.)

  11. Radioactive liquid waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Takashi; Baba, Tsutomu; Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Masami; Chino, Koichi; Ikeda, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    As an adsorbent used for removing radioactive nuclides such as cesium and strontium from radioactive liquid wastes generated from a reprocessing plant, a silicon compound having siloxane bonds constituted by silicon and oxygen and having silanol groups constituted by silicon, oxygen and hydrogen, or an inorganic material mainly comprising aluminosilicate constituted with silicon, oxygen and aluminum is used. In the adsorbent of the present invention, since silica main skeletons are partially decomposed in an aqueous alkaline solution to newly form silanol groups having a cation adsorbing property, pretreatment such as pH adjustment is not necessary. (T.M.)

  12. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Reference to 2140 publications related to radioactive waste, announced in Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) Volumes 28 (July Dec. 1973), 29 (Jan.--June 1974), and 30 (July--Dec. 1974), are presented. The references are arranged by the original NSA abstract number, which approximately places them in chronological order. Sequence numbers appear beside each reference and the NSA volume and abstract numbers appear at the end of the citations. Three indexes are provided: Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. This document supplements the preceding six in the TID3311 series. (U.S.)

  13. Conversion of industrial food wastes by Alcaligenes latus into polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P H; Chua, H; Huang, A L; Ho, K P

    1999-01-01

    Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. As the first step in our pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesise environmental-friendly bioplastics, we investigated the usage of soya wastes from a soya milk dairy, and malt wastes from a beer brewery plant as the carbon sources for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by selected strain of microorganism. Bench experiments showed that Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 used the nutrients from malt and soya wastes to biosynthesise PHAs. The final dried cell mass and specific polymer production of A. latus DSM 1124 were 32g/L and 70% polymer/cells (g/g), 18.42 g/L and 32.57% polymer/cell (g/g), and 28 g/L and 36% polymer/cells (g/g), from malt waste, soya waste, and from sucrose, respectively. These results suggest that many types of food wastes might be used as the carbon source for the production of PHA.

  14. The Plasco Process for energy from waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryden, R.M. [Plasco Energy Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Plasco Energy Group (Plasco) has a patented process that provides a way of recycling products that are difficult or uneconomic for conventional recycle programs. This presentation included information on the Plasco PGP system that can process energy from waste. The specifications and benefits of the Plasco process were discussed, notably that no energy supplements such as coal or natural gas are required for the process. The amount of power consumed by households and in a Plasco plant were identified. The amounts of waste processed and converted by the Plasco plant were also provided along with sketches of Plasco's Ottawa demonstration facility and Plasco gasification converter. Last, the presentation addressed the cooperative solution involving several partners such as the city of Ottawa, province of Ontario and Plasco. The waste recycling opportunities for communities were also highlighted. 1 tab., figs.

  15. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Defense Waste Processing Facility prototypic analytical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policke, T.A.; Bryant, M.F.; Spencer, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Analytical Laboratory is a relatively new laboratory facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). It is a non-regulated, non-radioactive laboratory whose mission is to support research and development (R ampersand D) and waste treatment operations by providing analytical and experimental services in a way that is safe, efficient, and produces quality results in a timely manner so that R ampersand D personnel can provide quality technical data and operations personnel can efficiently operate waste treatment facilities. The modules are sample receiving, chromatography I, chromatography II, wet chemistry and carbon, sample preparation, and spectroscopy

  17. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1981-06-01

    The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO 3 -HF and H 2 C 2 O 4 to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated

  18. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurumada, Norimitsu; Shibata, Setsuo; Wakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Kuribayashi, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the procession of liquid wastes containing insoluble salts of boric acid and calcium in a process for solidifying under volume reduction of radioactive liquid wastes containing boron. Method: A soluble calcium compound (such as calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide and calcium nitrate) is added to liquid wastes whose pH value is adjusted neutral or alkaline such that the molar ratio of calcium to boron in the liquid wastes is at least 0.2. Then, they are agitated at a temperature between 40 - 70 0 C to form insoluble calcium salt containing boron. Thereafter, the liquid is maintained at a temperature less than the above-mentioned forming temperature to age the products and, thereafter, the liquid is evaporated to condensate into a liquid concentrate containing 30 - 80% by weight of solid components. The concentrated liquid is mixed with cement to solidify. (Ikeda, J.)

  19. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO 3 -HF and H 2 C 2 O 4 to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated

  20. Food processing with electrically generated photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a portable electric food irradiation processing machine is presented and analyzed for cost assuming the required accelerators are available for $1.5 million each. It is shown that food can be processed to 1 kGy for a price of $5.98/ton

  1. Food processing optimization using evolutionary algorithms | Enitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolutionary algorithms are widely used in single and multi-objective optimization. They are easy to use and provide solution(s) in one simulation run. They are used in food processing industries for decision making. Food processing presents constrained and unconstrained optimization problems. This paper reviews the ...

  2. Save energy: using cellulosic wastes for fuel and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Y.P.

    The development of technology to convert biomass into liquid fuels for transportation uses could reduce dependence on oil imports and make India's economy more stable. The enthusiasm for alcohol fuels, however, competes with food growing. Efforts to find unconventional sources of protein to deal with the malnutrition that accompanies overpopulation also focus on cellulosic wastes and micro-organisms that break down cellulose. India's scientists are looking at microbial proteins from cellulose wastes as a cattle and protein feed. Although micro-organisms are rich and balanced in amino acids, there are some health problems in human consumption of microbial food which need to be resolved before they can provide both economic fuel and food for developing countries.

  3. Processing of basalt fiber production waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostyanov, V. S.; Shatalov, A. V.; Shatalov, V. A.; Golubeva, U. V.

    2018-03-01

    The production of mineral rock wool forms a large proportion of off-test waste products. In addition to the cost of their production, there are costs for processing and utilization, such as transportation, disposal and preservation. Besides, wastes have harmful effect on the environment. This necessitates research aimed to study the stress-related characteristics of materials, their recyclability and use in the production of heat-saving products.

  4. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Han; Yingting Yan; Yiwen Shi; Jingjing Gu; Junhong Tang; Hongting Zhao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35?g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen prod...

  5. Correlation between radwaste processing and hazardous waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, O.U.J.; Tulipano, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The basic framework under SARA has established that preferred remedies are those which permanently and significantly reduce toxicity, mobility or volume of wastes. In the 1970's radwaste process designs at power plants received pressure to satisfy essentially the same criteria when increased emphasis was placed on limited disposal sites which resulted in rapidly escalating disposal costs. This paper provides a historical perspective of radwaste experience and discusses valuable insight to hazardous waste treatment technologies. The radwaste system experience is discussed in terms of providing a source of proven and reliable technologies. Discussion is presented on specific radwaste processes which are applicable technologies for hazardous waste treatment. The technologies presented include (a) Solidification, (b) Evaporation, and (c) Incineration. Experience is presented which establishes assurance that the treatment technologies will provide a permanent remedy to hazardous waste treatment. This paper describes typical radwaste solidification, evaporation and incineration processes at power plants. The design requirements and implementation of radwaste equipment is correlated to design requirement of hazardous waste equipment. Specific discussion is provided on how the available process equipment can reduce toxicity, mobility, and volume of waste. Discussion is presented on how the standard off the shelf processing equipment needs to be modified for radwaste and hazardous waste applications

  6. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    References to 1841 publications related to radioactive waste, announced in Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) Volumes 31 (Jan.--June 1975), 32 (July--Dec. 1975), and 33 (Jan.--June 1976), are cumulated in this bibliography. The references are arranged by the original NSA abstract number, which approximately places them in chronological order. Sequence numbers appear beside each reference and the NSA volume and abstract number appears at the end of each bibliographic citation. A listing of the subject descriptors used to describe each reference for machine storage and retrieval is shown. Four indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. These indexes refer to the sequence numbers for the references

  7. Co-management of domestic wastewater and food waste: A life cycle comparison of alternative food waste diversion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Adilson M; Yu, Kevin; Stadler, Lauren B; Smith, Adam L

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is increasingly viewed as a resource that should be diverted from landfills. This study used life cycle assessment to compare co-management of food waste and domestic wastewater using anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) against conventional activated sludge (CAS) and high rate activated sludge (HRAS) with three disposal options for food waste: landfilling (LF), anaerobic digestion (AD), and composting (CP). Based on the net energy balance (NEB), AnMBR and HRAS/AD were the most attractive scenarios due to cogeneration of produced biogas. However, cogeneration negatively impacted carcinogenics, non-carcinogenics, and ozone depletion, illustrating unavoidable tradeoffs between energy recovery from biogas and environmental impacts. Fugitive emissions of methane severely increased global warming impacts of all scenarios except HRAS/AD with AnMBR particularly affected by effluent dissolved methane emissions. AnMBR was also most sensitive to food waste diversion participation, with 40% diversion necessary to achieve a positive NEB at the current state of development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance evaluation model of a pilot food waste collection system in Suzhou City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zongguo; Wang, Yuanjia; De Clercq, Djavan

    2015-05-01

    This paper analyses the food waste collection and transportation (C&T) system in a pilot project in Suzhou by using a novel performance evaluation method. The method employed to conduct this analysis involves a unified performance evaluation index containing qualitative and quantitative indicators applied to data from Suzhou City. Two major inefficiencies were identified: a) low system efficiency due to insufficient processing capacity of commercial food waste facilities; and b) low waste resource utilization due to low efficiency of manual sorting. The performance evaluation indicated that the pilot project collection system's strong points included strong economics, low environmental impact and low social impact. This study also shows that Suzhou's integrated system has developed a comprehensive body of laws and clarified regulatory responsibilities for each of the various government departments to solve the problems of commercial food waste management. Based on Suzhou's experience, perspectives and lessons can be drawn for other cities and areas where food waste management systems are in the planning stage, or are encountering operational problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential impact of salinity on methane production from food waste anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Chen, Fei; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) inhibited the production of methane from food waste anaerobic digestion. However, the details of how NaCl affects methane production from food waste remain unknown by now and the efficient approach to mitigate the impact of NaCl on methane production was seldom reported. In this paper, the details of how NaCl affects methane production was first investigated via a series of batch experiments. Experimental results showed the effect of NaCl on methane production was dosage dependent. Low level of NaCl improved the hydrolysis and acidification but inhibited the process of methanogenesis whereas high level of NaCl inhibit both steps of acidification and methanogenesis. Then an efficient approach, i.e. co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge, to mitigate the impact of NaCl on methane production was reported. Finally, the mechanisms of how co-digestion mitigates the effect on methane production caused by NaCl in co-digestion system were revealed. These findings obtained in this work might be of great importance for the operation of methane recovery from food waste in the presence of NaCl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Techno-economic and profitability analysis of food waste biorefineries at European level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Caldeira, Carla; Corrado, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-07-01

    Food waste represents a potential source to produce value-added materials replacing the use of virgin ones. However, the use of food waste as feedstock in biorefineries is still at an early stage of development and studies assessing its economic viability at large scale are lacking in the literature. This paper presents a techno-economic and profitability analysis of four food waste biorefineries that use wastes from tomato, potato, orange, and olive processing as feedstock. The study includes the assessment of potentially available quantities of those waste flows in Europe. Due to the low technology readiness level of this kind of biorefineries, a screening methodology to estimate the investment and manufacturing costs as well as two profitability ratios (the return on investment and the payback time) was adopted. Results show that not all the waste feedstocks have the same potential. The most profitable options are those related to implementing fewer plants, namely concentrating the production and capitalising on economies of scale while being at risk of increasing externalities, e.g. due to logistics of the feedstocks. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Y.-L.; Lin, J.-G.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12 days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment.

  12. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H{sub 2} production from food waste: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia, E-mail: letizia.tuccinardi@uniroma1.it

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Co-digestion process finalized to bio-H{sub 2} production was tested in batch tests. • Slaughterhouse waste (SHW) and food waste (FW) were co-digested in different proportions. • The presence of SHW affected the H{sub 2} production from FW. • When SHW ranging between 50% and 70% the H{sub 2} production is improved. • SHW percentages above 70%, led to a depletion in H{sub 2} production. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H{sub 2} production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H{sub 2} production compared to that in FW only, reaching H{sub 2}-production yields of 145 and 109 ml gVS{sub 0}{sup -1}, respectively, which are 1.5–2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H{sub 2} production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process.

  13. Repurposing Waste Streams: Lessons on Integrating Hospital Food Waste into a Community Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Adri M; Hanson, Ryan; George, Daniel R

    2018-04-06

    There have been increasing efforts in recent decades to divert institutional food waste into composting programs. As major producers of food waste who must increasingly demonstrate community benefit, hospitals have an incentive to develop such programs. In this article, we explain the emerging opportunity to link hospitals' food services to local community gardens in order to implement robust composting programs. We describe a partnership model at our hospital in central Pennsylvania, share preliminary outcomes establishing feasibility, and offer guidance for future efforts. We also demonstrate that the integration of medical students in such efforts can foster systems thinking in the development of programs to manage hospital waste streams in more ecologically-friendly ways.

  14. Microbial processes in radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazso, L.; Farkas-Galgoczi, G.; Diosi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial processes could potentially affect the performance of a radioactive waste disposal system and related factors that could have an influence on the mobility of radionuclides are outlined. Analytical methods, including sampling of water, rock and surface swabs from a potential disposal site, are described and the quantitative as well as qualitative experimental results obtained are given. Although the results contribute to an understanding of the impact of microbial processes on deep geological disposal of nuclear waste, there is not yet sufficient information for a model which will predict the consequences of these processes. (author)

  15. Evaluation procedure for radioactive waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.

    1979-11-01

    An aspect of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's nuclear waste management R and D programs has been to develop an evaluation procedure for radioactive waste treatment processes. This report describes the process evaluation method. Process worth is expressed as a numerical index called the Figure-of-Merit (FOM), which is computed using a hierarchial, linear, additive, scoring model with constant criteria weights and nonlinear value functions. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the procedure and to point out some of its strengths and weaknesses. Potential modifications and extensions are discussed, and an extensive reference list is included

  16. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  17. 77 FR 23751 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof by reason... States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof by reason... importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof that infringe the claim of U...

  18. Conceptual framework for the study of food waste generation and prevention in the hospitality sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Wright, Nigel; Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X; Steinberger, Julia; Padfield, Rory; Ujang, Zaini

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has significant detrimental economic, environmental and social impacts. The magnitude and complexity of the global food waste problem has brought it to the forefront of the environmental agenda; however, there has been little research on the patterns and drivers of food waste generation,

  19. Treatment of food waste recycling wastewater using anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor for biogas production in mainstream treatment process of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeongmi; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W; Park, Chanhyuk

    2017-10-15

    A bench-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) equipped with submerged flat-sheet ceramic membranes was operated at mesophilic conditions (30-35 °C) treating domestic wastewater (DWW) supplemented with food wasterecycling wastewater (FRW) to increase the organic loading rate (OLR) for better biogas production. Coupling ceramic membrane filtration with AnMBR treatment provides an alternative strategy for high organic wastewater treatment at short hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the potential benefits of membrane fouling because they have a high hydrophilicity and more robust at extreme conditions. The anaerobic ceramic MBR (AnCMBR) treating mixture of actual FRW with DWW (with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,115 mg/L) was studied to evaluate the treatment performance in terms of organic matter removal and methane production. COD removal during actual FRW with DWW operation averaged 98.3 ± 1.0% corresponding to an average methane production of 0.21 ± 0.1 L CH 4 /g COD removed . Biogas sparging, relaxation and permeate back-flushing were concurrently employed to manage membrane fouling. A flux greater than 9.2 L m -2  h -1 (LMH) was maintained at 13 h HRT for approximately 200 days without chemical cleaning at an OLR of 2.95 kg COD m -3  d -1 . On day 100, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gel beads were added into the AnCMBR to alleviate the membrane fouling, suggesting that their mechanical scouring effect contributed positively in reducing the fouling index (FI). Although these bio-carriers might accelerate the breaking up of bio-flocs, which released a higher amount of soluble microbial products (SMP), a 95.4% SMP rejection was achieved. Although the retention efficiency of dissolved organic carbons (DOC) was 91.4% across the ceramic membrane, a meaningful interpretation of organic carbon detection (OCD) fingerprints was conducted to better understand the ceramic membrane performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Defense waste processing facility startup progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950's to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing

  1. Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station

  2. Processing method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Komori, Itaru; Nishi, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    Miscellaneous solid wastes are subjected to heat treatment at a temperature not lower than a carbonizing temperature of organic materials in the wastes and not higher than the melting temperature of inorganic materials in the wastes, for example, not lower than 200degC but not higher than 660degC, and then resultant miscellaneous solid wastes are solidified using a water hardening solidification material. With such procedures, the organic materials in the miscellaneous solids are decomposed into gases. Therefore, solid materials excellent in long term stability can be formed. In addition, since the heat treatment is conducted at a relatively low temperature such as not higher than 660degC, the generation amount of off gases is reduced to simplify an off gas processing system, and since molten materials are not formed, handing is facilitated. (T.M.)

  3. Overpack for processing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu.

    1997-01-01

    A glass solidification material in which radioactive wastes are sealed and solidified in glass is covered by an inner layer vessel made of corrosion resistant materials, and the outer side thereof is covered with an outer layer vessel made of a reinforced material. The inner layer vessel made of corrosion materials comprises corrosion materials such as titanium, copper, stainless steel and nickel based alloy, and the outer layer vessel made of a reinforced material comprises a reinforced material such as carbon steel. If it is constituted by using carbon steel having a thickness as much as of from 50 to 200mm, it is durable sufficiently under ground of about 1000m. Although the outer layer vessel made of the reinforced material is corroded by oxidation by oxygen contained in underwater after lapse of time of several years, it is endurable sufficiently to initial oxidative corrosion by determined the thickness to 50mm or more, and after oxygen is consumed, reductive corrosion with extremely slow progressing speed begins. Since the inner vessel made of the corrosion resistant material is formed, the lifetime is extended, and the glass solidification materials can be confined stably for a long period of time. (N.H.)

  4. Food waste valorization options: opportunities from the bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbert Enrica

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world is confronted with the depletion of natural resources due to their unsustainable use, increased global competiveness, increasing population and other environmental and economic challenges. Under the European 2020 growth strategy launched in 2010, Europe has set itself the goal of shifting from linear to circular models of production and consumption. In this context, food waste management poses a great challenge. This study focusses on the possible destinations for food waste, specifically, on the most sustainable practices that turn waste into valuable resources. Particular attention is devoted to the potential offered by fast-growing sectors such as the bioeconomy, which is contributing to increased energy and materials production with reduced environmental impact, at the same time creating new job opportunities. In this paper we will argue that an holistic approach considering the issue of food wastage as part of a broader emerging bio-economy and circular-economic model, might provide win-win solutions able to minimize wastage, promote income growth and job creation, and prompt sustainable local development. However, in order to enable an effective transition to a circular bioeconomy able to minimize the impact of food wastage, the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of this new model must be properly evaluated through appropriate tools, e.g. through an overall Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA.

  5. Food and waste management biotechnology for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Space-crew facilities for preparation, eating, personal hygiene and waste management are contained in one small area of the Shuttle Orbiter Mid-Deck, all the functional systems being interconnected. The paper discusses three major systems: (1) the Galley, which includes the personal hygiene station and food packages; (2) the Waste Collector, which includes provisions for male and female users, urine, feces and emesis collection in both a normal and contigency mode of operation; and (3) Biowaste Monitoring, which includes mass measurement and sampling. The technology improvement continues by assuring that the Orbiter systems have sufficient design flexibility to permit later improvements in operation and in function.

  6. Conceptual framework for the study of food waste generation and prevention in the hospitality sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Wright, Nigel; Lozano, Rodrigo; Steinberger, Julia; Padfield, Rory; Ujang, Zaini

    2016-03-01

    Food waste has significant detrimental economic, environmental and social impacts. The magnitude and complexity of the global food waste problem has brought it to the forefront of the environmental agenda; however, there has been little research on the patterns and drivers of food waste generation, especially outside the household. This is partially due to weaknesses in the methodological approaches used to understand such a complex problem. This paper proposes a novel conceptual framework to identify and explain the patterns and drivers of food waste generation in the hospitality sector, with the aim of identifying food waste prevention measures. This conceptual framework integrates data collection and analysis methods from ethnography and grounded theory, complemented with concepts and tools from industrial ecology for the analysis of quantitative data. A case study of food waste generation at a hotel restaurant in Malaysia is used as an example to illustrate how this conceptual framework can be applied. The conceptual framework links the biophysical and economic flows of food provisioning and waste generation, with the social and cultural practices associated with food preparation and consumption. The case study demonstrates that food waste is intrinsically linked to the way we provision and consume food, the material and socio-cultural context of food consumption and food waste generation. Food provisioning, food consumption and food waste generation should be studied together in order to fully understand how, where and most importantly why food waste is generated. This understanding will then enable to draw detailed, case specific food waste prevention plans addressing the material and socio-economic aspects of food waste generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  8. Radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  9. Modeling of Heating During Food Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Ivanka; Kamburova, Veselka

    Heat transfer processes are important for almost all aspects of food preparation and play a key role in determining food safety. Whether it is cooking, baking, boiling, frying, grilling, blanching, drying, sterilizing, or freezing, heat transfer is part of the processing of almost every food. Heat transfer is a dynamic process in which thermal energy is transferred from one body with higher temperature to another body with lower temperature. Temperature difference between the source of heat and the receiver of heat is the driving force in heat transfer.

  10. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume I. Waste form and process evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This study provides an assesses seven waste forms and eight processes for immobilizing transuranic (TRU) wastes. The waste forms considered are cast cement, cold-pressed cement, FUETAP (formed under elevated temperature and pressure) cement, borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass, basalt glass-ceramic, and cold-pressed and sintered silicate ceramic. The waste-immobilization processes considered are in-can glass melting, joule-heated glass melting, glass marble forming, cement casting, cement cold-pressing, FUETAP cement processing, ceramic cold-pressing and sintering, basalt glass-ceramic processing. Properties considered included gas generation, chemical durability, mechanical strength, thermal stability, and radiation stability. The ceramic products demonstrated the best properties, except for plutonium release during leaching. The glass and ceramic products had similar properties. The cement products generally had poorer properties than the other forms, except for plutonium release during leaching. Calculations of the Pu release indicated that the waste forms met the proposed NRC release rate limit of 1 part in 10 5 per year in most test conditions. The cast-cement process had the lowest processing cost, followed closely by the cold-pressed and FUETAP cement processes. Joule-heated glass melting had the lower cost of the glass processes. In-can melting in a high-quality canister had the highest cost, and cold-pressed and sintered ceramic the second highest. Labor and canister costs for in-can melting were identified. The major contributor to costs of disposing of TRU wastes in a defense waste repository is waste processing costs. Repository costs could become the dominant cost for disposing of TRU wastes in a commercial repository. It is recommended that cast and FUETAP cement and borosilicate glass waste-form systems be considered. 13 figures, 16 tables

  11. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    . Design/methodology/approach – This work has been designed as an exploratory case study in three fresh food supply chains, milk, fresh fish, and fresh poultry, in the Nordic countries. The cases are based on interviews and data from the databases of the companies involved. Each case focuses on analyzing...... uses of shared information to create a sustainable fresh food supply chain. Findings –The performance of the perishable food chain can be improved by more efficient information sharing. The key to improved operations is how and for which purposes the shared data should be used. In addition, changes......Purpose – The aim of this empirical paper is to study information sharing in fresh food supply chains, with a specific goal of reducing waste and facilitating sustainable performance. The study focuses on material and information flow issues, specifically on sharing demand and shelf-life data...

  12. Molten salt destruction process for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wilder, J.G.; Karlsen, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    We are developing an advanced two-stage process for the treatment of mixed wastes, which contain both hazardous and radioactive components. The wastes, together with an oxidant gas, such as air, are injected into a bed of molten salt comprising a mixture of sodium-, potassium-, and lithium-carbonates, with a melting point of about 580 degree C. The organic constituents of the mixed waste are destroyed through the combined effect of pyrolysis and oxidation. Heteroatoms. such as chlorine, in the mixed waste form stable salts, such as sodium chloride, and are retained in the melt. The radioactive actinides in the mixed waste are also retained in the melt because of the combined action of wetting and partial dissolution. The original process, consists of a one-stage unit, operated at 900--1000 degree C. The advanced two-stage process has two stages, one for pyrolysis and one for oxidation. The pyrolysis stage is designed to operate at 700 degree C. The oxidation stage can be operated at a higher temperature, if necessary

  13. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Waste Receiving and Processing Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, and/or disposal (TSD) unites that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford Facility. The Complex includes two units: the WRAP Facility and the Radioactive Mixed Wastes Storage Facility (RMW Storage Facility). This Part B permit application addresses the WRAP Facility. The Facility will be a treatment and storage unit that will provide the capability to examine, sample, characterize, treat, repackage, store, and certify radioactive and/or mixed waste. Waste treated and stored will include both radioactive and/or mixed waste received from onsite and offsite sources. Certification will be designed to ensure and demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria set forth by onsite disposal units and/or offsite facilities that subsequently are to receive waste from the WRAP Facility. This permit application discusses the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characterization; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plant; personnel training; exposure information report; waste minimization plan; closure and postclosure requirements; reporting and recordkeeping; other relevant laws; certification

  14. Determination of acrylamide concentration in processed food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, acrylamide concentration in processed food products have become a very serious health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) of the European Union also confirmed this concern. In laboratory scale, it was found that acrylamide causes tumors in animals.

  15. Sustainable Food Processing Inspired by Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Blank, Imre; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Here, we elaborate on the natural origin and use of enzymes and cultures in sustainable food processing. We also illustrate how enzymatically treated or fermented food can contribute to solving challenges involving nutrition and health, such as aging, malnutrition, obesity, and allergy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Food Processing Contracts: Savings for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1983-01-01

    Food processing contracts between schools and food manufacturers can result in huge cost savings. Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of 30 "letter of credit" sites in a three-year study of alternatives. After one year it appears that schools can purchase more for the dollar in their local areas. (MD)

  17. Exergy analysis in industrial food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.

    2016-01-01

    The sustainable provision of food on a global scale in the near future is a very serious challenge. This thesis focuses on the assessment and design of sustainable industrial food production chains and processes by using the concept of exergy which is an objective metric based on the first and

  18. Processing and certification of defense transuranic waste at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Cargo, C.H.; McKinley, K.B.; Smith, T.H.; Anderson, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1970, defense-generated transuranic waste has been placed into 20-year retrievable storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A major objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is to remove all retrievably stored transuranic waste form the INEL. To support this objective, the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) and the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) are currently being constructed. SWEPP will certify waste, using nondestructive examination techniques, for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). PREPP will process uncertifiable waste into a certifiable waste form. 3 references

  19. Vermicomposting of Food Waste: Assessing the Stability and Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Majlessi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vermicompost using earthworms (Eisenia Fetida was produced from food waste and chemical parameters (EC, pH, carbon to nitrogen contents(C/N and germination bioassaywas examined in order to assess the stability and maturity indicators during the vermicomposting process. The seed used in the germination bioassay was cress.The ranges of EC,pH, C/N and germination index were 7.5-4.9 mS/cm, 5.6-7.53, 30.13-14.32% and 12.8- 58.4%, espectively. The germination index (GI value revealed that vermicompost rendered as moderate phytotoxic to cress seed.Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between the parameters. High statistically significant correlation coefficient was calculated between the GI value and EC in the vermicompost at the 99% confidence level.The C/N value showed that the vermicompost was stable. As a result of these observations, stability test alone, was not able to ensure high vermicompost quality. Therefore, it appears that determining vermicompost quality requires a simultaneous use of maturity and stability tests.

  20. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city.

  1. Waste Minimization Study on Pyrochemical Reprocessing Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussier, H.; Conocar, O.; Lacquement, J.

    2006-01-01

    Ideally a new pyro-process should not generate more waste, and should be at least as safe and cost effective as the hydrometallurgical processes currently implemented at industrial scale. This paper describes the thought process, the methodology and some results obtained by process integration studies to devise potential pyro-processes and to assess their capability of achieving this challenging objective. As example the assessment of a process based on salt/metal reductive extraction, designed for the reprocessing of Generation IV carbide spent fuels, is developed. Salt/metal reductive extraction uses the capability of some metals, aluminum in this case, to selectively reduce actinide fluorides previously dissolved in a fluoride salt bath. The reduced actinides enter the metal phase from which they are subsequently recovered; the fission products remain in the salt phase. In fact, the process is not so simple, as it requires upstream and downstream subsidiary steps. All these process steps generate secondary waste flows representing sources of actinide leakage and/or FP discharge. In aqueous processes the main solvent (nitric acid solution) has a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, thereby leaving limited flow containing the dissolved substance behind to be incorporated in a confinement matrix. From the point of view of waste generation, one main handicap of molten salt processes, is that the saline phase (fluoride in our case) used as solvent is of same nature than the solutes (radionuclides fluorides) and has a quite high boiling point. So it is not so easy, than it is with aqueous solutions, to separate solvent and solutes in order to confine only radioactive material and limit the final waste flows. Starting from the initial block diagram devised two years ago, the paper shows how process integration studies were able to propose process fittings which lead to a reduction of the waste variety and flows leading at an 'ideal

  2. An Overview of Food Loss and Waste: why does it Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Sharma, Shashi B.; Haigh, Yvonne T.; Evers, A. L. Barbara; Ho, Goen

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of food waste in the context of food security, resources management and environment health. It compares approaches taken by various governments, community groups, civil societies and private sector organisations to reduce food waste in the developed and developing countries. What constitutes ‘food waste’ is not as simple as it may appear due to diverse food waste measurement protocols and different data documentation methods used worldwide. There is a need to improve food waste data collection methods and implementation of effective strategies, policies and actions to reduce food waste. Global initiatives are urgently needed to: enhance awareness of the value of food; encourage countries to develop policies that motivate community and businesses to reduce food waste; encourage and provide assistance to needy countries for improving markets, transport and storage infrastructure to minimise food waste across the value chain; and, develop incentives that encourage businesses to donate food. In some countries, particularly in Europe, initiatives on food waste management have started to gain momentum. Food waste is a global problem and it needs urgent attention and integrated actions of stakeholders across the food value chain to develop global solutions for the present and future generations.

  3. The Garbage Project Revisited: From a 20th Century Archaeology of Food Waste to a Contemporary Study of Food Packaging Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Vergne Lehmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1973, Dr. Bill Rathje and his students at the University of Arizona began what was to become a two decade long investigation into American consumer waste habits. An archaeologist by profession, Rathje decided to adapt traditional archaeological methods and apply them to contemporary archaeological situations. This provided a platform for improving the understanding of what was really happening with, amongst other forms of waste, food at the consumer household level. The Garbage Project was able to study consumer behaviours directly from the material realities they left behind rather than from self-conscious self-reports of surveys and interviews. Using the same rationale, this study developed a profile of the packaged and processed food consumption in three regional Victorian municipalities. The main findings identified that consumers were limited to the food retail opportunities closest to their home and that they took greater care to wash out recyclables if they were placed in the recycling bin compared to the same item placed in a kerbside landfill bin. There was also an apparent lack of understanding about appropriate food storage and buying for purpose, especially with regard to the volume of the item they purchased, which appears to result in partially used recyclable containers being put in the kerbside landfill bin. By understanding the nature of the packaging and food that has been thrown away, it is possible to develop a narrative around what people understand about food purchasing practices, longevity, storage and how they use it at home. This in turn can assist community engagement and education around nutrition, meal planning and purchasing as well as community waste education.

  4. Household food waste disposal in South Africa: A case study of Johannesburg and Ekurhuleni

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is becoming an important issue in light of population growth and global food security concerns. However, data on food wastage are limited, especially for developing countries. Global estimates suggest that households in developed...

  5. Biosphere processes affecting environmnetal impacts of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, B.; Broderick, M.

    1991-01-01

    ANS Consultants Limited has reviewed and assessed a number of biosphere processes which affect the environmental impact of hazardous waste disposal. Processes examined have included the long-term effects of climate change on biosphere characteristics and the transport of toxic materials in food chains; the role of soil animals and plants roots in cycling elements from depth to the soil surface; volatisation mechanisms; the transport of elements in soil with particular reference to erosion and resuspension; mechanisms for foliar contamination via irrigation waters; and organic matter decomposition in varying environmental conditions. (au)

  6. Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    WP-200816) Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging June 2016 This document has been cleared for public release...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 01/06/2016 Cost and Performance Report 04/01/2008 - 01/01/2015 Nanotechnology for...Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center Robin Altmeyer - AmeriQual U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering

  7. Inverse osmotic process for radioactive laundry waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebara, K; Takahashi, S; Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Hyakutake, H

    1977-01-07

    Purpose: To effectively recover the processing amount reduced in a continuous treatment. Method: Laundry waste containing radioactive substances discharged from a nuclear power plant is processed in an inverse osmotic process while adding starch digesting enzymes such as amylase and takadiastase, as well as soft spherical bodies such as sponge balls of a particle diameter capable of flowing in the flow of the liquid wastes along the inverse osmotic membrane pipe and having such a softness and roundness as not to damage the inverse osmotic membrane. This process can remove the floating materials such as thread dusts or hairs deposited on the membrane surface by the action of the soft elastic balls and remove paste or the like through decomposition by the digesting enzymes. Consequently, effective recovery can be attained for the reduced processing amount.

  8. Overview - Defense Waste Processing Facility Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility. Radioactive operations began in March 1996 and over 1,000 canisters have been produced. This paper presents an overview of the DWPF process and a summary of recent facility operations and process improvements. These process improvements include efforts to extend the life of the DWPF melter, projects to increase facility throughput, initiatives to reduce the quantity of wastewater generated, improved remote decontamination capabilities, and improvements to remote canyon equipment to extend equipment life span. This paper also includes a review of a melt rate improvement program conducted by Savannah River Technology Center personnel. This program involved identifying the factors that impacted melt rate, conducting small scale testing of proposed process changes and developing a cost effective implementation plan

  9. Inverse osmotic process for radioactive laundry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Katsuya; Takahashi, Sankichi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Hyakutake, Hiroshi.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively recover the processing amount reduced in a continuous treatment. Method: Laundry waste containing radioactive substances discharged from a nuclear power plant is processed in an inverse osmotic process while adding starch digesting enzymes such as amylase and takadiastase, as well as soft spherical bodies such as sponge balls of a particle diameter capable of flowing in the flow of the liquid wastes along the inverse osmotic membrane pipe and having such a softness and roundness as not to damage the inverse osmotic membrane. This process can remove the floating materials such as thread dusts or hairs deposited on the membrane surface by the action of the soft elastic balls and remove paste or the like through decomposition by the digesting enzymes. Consequently, effective recovery can be attained for the reduced processing amount. (Furukawa, Y.)

  10. Solving Microbial Spoilage Problems in Processed Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavero, Rocelle

    This chapter surveys common microbial food spoilage processes. The chapter is organized by food products and includes sections addressing spoilage in meat, poultry, fish; dairy products (milk, butter, cheese); beverage products; bakery products; canned foods; fruit and confectionery products; and emulsions. It addresses the isolation and identification of spoilage organisms and provides several case studies as examples. It introduces various organisms responsible for spoilage including Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and fungal contaminants. Throughout the chapter, attention is given to when, where, and how spoilage organisms enter the food processing chain. Troubleshooting techniques are suggested. The effect (or lack of effect) of heating, dehydration, pH change, cooling, and sealing on various organisms is explained throughout. The chapter contains four tables that connect specific organisms to various spoilage manifestations in a variety of food products.

  11. Home composting using different ratios of bulking agent to food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, Lucas Lourenço Castiglioni; Marques, Roger Vasques; Moncks, Rodrigo Bilhalva; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; da Paz, Matheus Francisco; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2018-02-01

    The negative environmental impacts associated with home composting may be due to the absence of a defined operation criteria for the degradation process. In addition to the potentially low environmental impact in terms of energy and water usage, which is minimal to the manufacture of the composting unit and avoiding the processing and transportation of waste or byproduct, composting at home can also promote a reduction in the emission of unpleasant gases. The proportion of the food waste and bulking agents in the composting mixture may be decisive to fulfill good practices of waste stabilization. The aim of this study was to investigate how different ratios of bulking agent and organic household waste can affect the progress and outcome of the composting process. Three treatments, varying in the ratio of rice husk: raw fruit and vegetable leftovers (70:30, 50:50, 30:70; v:v) were used in a home composting system on a pilot scale. Results show that the proportion of starting materials used in the composting mixture influenced the degradation of organic matter, nitrogen dynamics of the process and its toxicity on germinating plants. The proportions with greater amounts of food waste had higher concentrations of mineral matter, higher peak temperature, and a better initial carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, while the proportion containing 70% of bulking agent lacked odors and leachate generation and showed a low nitrogen loss. A higher proportion of food waste presented better conditions for microbiological development and less time to obtain characteristics of matured composts. A higher proportion of bulking agents resulted in favorable conditions for household handling and less potential for environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conversion of lipid from food waste to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Linardi, Darwin; Lee, Jisoo; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-07-01

    Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental problems are encouraging research on alternative fuels of renewable sources. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to be used as a substitute to the petroleum based diesel fuels. However, the cost of biodiesel production is high and is attributed mainly to the feedstock used which leads to the investigation of low cost feedstocks that are economically feasible. In this paper, we report on the utilization of lipid obtained from food waste as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Lipid from food waste was transesterified with methanol using base and lipase as catalysts. The maximum biodiesel yield was 100% for the base (KOH) catalyzed transesterification at 1:10M ratio of lipid to methanol in 2h at 60°C. Novozyme-435 yielded a 90% FAME conversion at 40°C and 1:5 lipid to methanol molar ratio in 24h. Lipid obtained from fungal hydrolysis of food waste is found to be a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Waste Treatment Options for Food and Biodegradable Waste Management in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micky A. Babalola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with large-scale Food and Biodegradable Waste (FBW often results in many logistical problems and environmental impacts to be considered. These can become great hindrances when the integration of solid waste management is concerned. Extra care is needed to plan such waste disposal or treatment services and facilities, especially with respect to the ecological impact. Decision-making with regards to the sustainable use of these facilities also involves tradeoffs between a number of conflicting objectives, since increasing one benefit may decrease the others. In this study a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA is presented to evaluate different waste management options and their applicability in Japan. The analytical process aims at selecting the most suitable waste treatment option, using pairwise comparisons conducted within a decision hierarchy that was developed through the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The results of this study show that anaerobic digestion should be chosen as the best FBW treatment option with regards to resource recovery. The study also presents some conditions and recommendations that can enhance the suitability of other options like incineration and composting.

  14. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  15. Design and optimization of food processing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C. L. M.

    1996-01-01

    The main research objectives of the group are the design and optimization of food processing conditions. Most of the work already developed is on the use of mathematical modeling of transport phenomena and quantification of degradation kinetics as two tools to optimize the final quality of thermally processed food products. Recently, we initiated a project with the main goal of studying the effects of freezing and frozen storage on orange and melon juice pectinesterase activity and q...

  16. Processing facility for metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awano, Toshihiko; Kataoka, Yoshitsune.

    1998-01-01

    Each steps of temporarily storing materials to be reduced in the volume to a storage vessel, transferring them to a weighing machine by a conveyor, weighing them by a weighing machine, drying them by a drying means, packing them in containing canisters, sealing and welding them, carrying out the containing canisters after sealing are conducted independently respectively or optionally simultaneously in parallel. Accordingly, isolation from peripheral circumstances is ensured, and improvement of working efficiency, ensuring of safety and simplification of structure of processing devices can be attained. (T.M.)

  17. 'It's just so much waste.' A qualitative investigation of food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Djang, Holly Carmichael; Metayer, Nesly; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Economos, Christina D

    2015-06-01

    To understand stakeholders' perspectives on food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program implementing a Breakfast in the Classroom model. Semi-structured focus groups and interviews were conducted with school district stakeholders. Inductive methods were used to code resulting transcripts, from which themes were identified. The analysis provides a thematic analysis of stakeholders' perspectives on food waste in the School Breakfast Program. Ten elementary schools in a large urban school district implementing a universal free Breakfast in the Classroom model of the US national School Breakfast Program. Elementary-school students (n 85), parents (n 86), teachers (n 44), cafeteria managers (n 10) and school principals (n 10). Stakeholders perceived food waste as a problem and expressed concern regarding the amount of food wasted. Explanations reported for food waste included food-related (palatability and accessibility), child-related (taste preferences and satiation) and programme-related (duration, food service policies, and coordination) factors. Milk and fruit were perceived as foods particularly susceptible to waste. Several food waste mitigation strategies were identified by participants: saving food for later, actively encouraging children's consumption, assisting children with foods during mealtime, increasing staff support, serving smaller portion sizes, and composting and donating uneaten food. Stakeholders recognized food waste as a problem, reported myriad contributing factors, and have considered and employed multiple and diverse mitigation strategies. Changes to the menu and/or implementation logistics, as well as efforts to use leftover food productively, may be possible strategies of reducing waste and improving the School Breakfast Program's economic, environmental and nutritional impact.

  18. Cushioning for processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu.

    1997-01-01

    A cushioning to be inserted between a vessel containing hole formed in an underground base rock and a processing overpack comprises from 40 to 20% by weight of swellable bentonite, from 40 to 60% by weight of highly heat conductive silica sand and from 10 to 20% by weight of iron powder. The grain size of the bentonite and the iron powder may be several μm to several ten μm, and the grain size of the silica sand may be several ten μm to one hundred and several ten μm. Then, if underground water permeates to the cushioning, the bentonite absorbs the underground water and swells to fill gaps, and the tissue of blocks is densified to prevent intrusion of underground water. Oxygen incorporated in the underground water is used by the oxidation of the iron powder to prevent oxidative corrosion of the processing overpack. In addition, the silica sand allows the heat of the overpack to release to underground base rock thereby preventing temperature elevation. Accordingly, excellent effects of combination of water checking performance and degassing performance can be obtained. (T.M.)

  19. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; de Moel, H; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Varis, O; Ward, P J

    2012-11-01

    Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The MELISSA food data base: space food preparation and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Pons, A.; Farges, Berangere; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Life Support Systems have to deal with air, water and food requirement for a crew, waste management and also to the crew's habitability and safety constraints. Food can be provided from stocks (open loops) or produced during the space flight or on an extraterrestrial base (what implies usually a closed loop system). Finally it is admitted that only biological processes can fulfil the food requirement of life support system. Today, only a strictly vegetarian source range is considered, and this is limited to a very small number of crops compared to the variety available on Earth. Despite these constraints, a successful diet should have enough variety in terms of ingredients and recipes and sufficiently high acceptability in terms of acceptance ratings for individual dishes to remain interesting and palatable over a several months period and an adequate level of nutrients commensurate with the space nutritional requirements. In addition to the nutritional aspects, others parameters have to be considered for the pertinent selection of the dishes as energy consumption (for food production and transformation), quantity of generated waste, preparation time, food processes. This work concerns a global approach called MELISSA Food Database to facilitate the cre-ation and the management of these menus associated to the nutritional, mass, energy and time constraints. The MELISSA Food Database is composed of a database (MySQL based) con-taining multiple information among others crew composition, menu, dishes, recipes, plant and nutritional data and of a web interface (PHP based) to interactively access the database and manage its content. In its current version a crew is defined and a 10 days menu scenario can be created using dishes that could be cooked from a set of limited fresh plant assumed to be produced in the life support system. The nutritional covering, waste produced, mass, time and energy requirements are calculated allowing evaluation of the menu scenario and its

  1. Enhancement of biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge - Environmental and economic life cycle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias; Haraldsson, Mårten; Sundberg, Johan

    2016-06-15

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to increase resource efficiency, as well as to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources due to that (1) waste to a large extent is renewable as it consists of food waste, paper, wood etc. and (2) when energy and materials are recovered from waste treatment, fossil fuels can be substituted. In this paper results from a comprehensive system study of future biological treatment of readily degradable waste in two Swedish regions are presented. Different collection and separation systems for food waste in households have been applied as well as technical improvements of the biogas process as to reduce environmental impact. The results show that central sorting of a mixed fraction into recyclables, combustibles, biowaste and inert is a competitive option compared to source separation. Use of pellets is beneficial compared to direct spreading as fertiliser. Fuel pellets seem to be the most favourable option, which to a large extent depends on the circumstances in the energy system. Separation and utilisation of nitrogen in the wet part of the digestion residue is made possible with a number of technologies which decreases environmental impact drastically, however to a substantial cost in some cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Entrapment process of radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagneraud, Francis; Gagneraud, Michel.

    1981-01-01

    Process for collecting chemically inert gaseous radioactive waste in melted substances, whereby the gaseous waste is injected under pressure in a molten substance to its saturation point followed by fast cooling. This substance is constituted of glass, ceramics, metallurgical drosses and slag masses in fusion. Its cooling is carried out by quenching by means of running water or a gas fluid, or by casting into vessels with great thermal inertia such as cast iron or similar, before recovery and confinement in receptacles for storage [fr

  3. Radioactive wastes processing and disposing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Jiro; Kato, Hiroaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a processing and disposing container at low level radioactive wastes, excellent in corrosion and water resistance, as well as impact shock resistance for the retrieval storage over a long period of time. Constitution: The container is constituted with sands and pebbles as aggregates and glass fiber-added unsaturated polyester resins as binders. The container may entirely be formed with such material or only the entire inner surface may be formed with the material as liners. A container having excellent resistance to water, chemicals, freezing or melting, whether impact shock, etc. can be obtained, thereby enabling retrieval storage for radioactive wastes at the optimum low level. (Takahashi, M.)

  4. Process for storing radioactive waste in ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Gouvenot, D.; Pagny, P.

    1983-01-01

    A process for storing radioactive waste in a cavity in the ground is claimed. The waste is conditioned and isolated from the ground by at least one retention barrier. A grout consisting of 1000 parts by weight of water, 40 to 400 parts by weight of cement, 80 to 1000 parts by weight of at least one clay chosen from the group including montmorillonite, illite and vermiculite, as well as 25 to 1200 parts by weight of kieselguhr and/or natural or artificial pozzuolanas is introduced into gaps in the soil areas surrounding the cavity

  5. Hydrothermal processing of transuranic contaminated combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, S.J.; Worl, L.; Harradine, D.; Padilla, D.; McInroy, R.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated the usefulness of hydrothermal processing for the disposal of a wide variety of transuranic contaminated combustible wastes. This paper provides an overview of the implementation and performance of hydrothermal treatment for concentrated salt solutions, explosives, propellants, organic solvents, halogenated solvents, and laboratory trash, such as paper and plastics. Reaction conditions vary from near ambient temperatures and pressure to over 1000degC and 100 MPa pressure. Studies involving both radioactive and non-radioactive waste simulants are discussed. (author)

  6. Exploring the food chain. Food production and food processing in Western Europe, 1850-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.; Segers, Y.; Buyst, E.

    2009-01-01

    Until the late 19th century the food industry was restricted to a few activities, usually based on small scale industries. The links between agriculture and food processing were very tight. Due to increased purchasing power, population growth and urbanisation, the demand for food grew substantially.

  7. Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS): Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Harald; Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Symmank, Claudia; L Almli, Valérie; de Hooge, Ilona E; Normann, Anne; Karantininis, Kostas

    2017-11-27

    Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration), or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household). The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain) was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply.

  8. Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS: Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Rohm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration, or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household. The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply.

  9. Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS): Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Harald; Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Symmank, Claudia; L. Almli, Valérie; de Hooge, Ilona E.; Normann, Anne; Karantininis, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration), or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household). The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain) was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply. PMID:29186883

  10. Quantification of Food Waste Disposal in the United States: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyberg, Krista L; Tonjes, David J; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2015-12-15

    Food waste has major consequences for social, nutritional, economic, and environmental issues, and yet the amount of food waste disposed in the U.S. has not been accurately quantified. We introduce the transparent and repeatable methods of meta-analysis and systematic reviewing to determine how much food is discarded in the U.S., and to determine if specific factors drive increased disposal. The aggregate proportion of food waste in U.S. municipal solid waste from 1995 to 2013 was found to be 0.147 (95% CI 0.137-0.157) of total disposed waste, which is lower than that estimated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the same period (0.176). The proportion of food waste increased significantly with time, with the western U.S. region having consistently and significantly higher proportions of food waste than other regions. There were no significant differences in food waste between rural and urban samples, or between commercial/institutional and residential samples. The aggregate disposal rate for food waste was 0.615 pounds (0.279 kg) (95% CI 0.565-0.664) of food waste disposed per person per day, which equates to over 35.5 million tons (32.2 million tonnes) of food waste disposed annually in the U.S.

  11. Thermal process for immobilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.

    1971-01-01

    The Thermalt process involves an exothermic, thermite-like reaction of aluminum metal with basalt, quartz sand, and radioactive waste. The resulting melt when solidified is a silicious stone-like material that is similar in chemical composition to basalt. The process utilizes low cost ingredients: basalt rock, which occurs naturally in the Hanford region, inexpensive aluminum metal such as aluminum scrap which need not be pure, and the waste which is predominately sodium nitrate salt. The waste itself along with the basalt provides the oxygen necessary for the reaction. The exothermic reaction provides the necessary heat to melt the ingredients thus eliminating the need for external heat sources such as furnaces which are necessary with most other melt methods. The final product is highly stable and essentially nonleachable; leach rates appear as low or lower than other melt products described in the literature. Initial studies indicate the process is effective for both low-level and high-level wastes. (U.S.)

  12. Method of processing radioactive metal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoichi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Tsuzura, Katsuhiko.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable long and safety storage for radioactive metal wastes such as used fuel cans after the procession or used pipe, instruments and the likes polluted with various radioactive substances, by compacting them to solidify. Method: Metal wastes such as used fuel cans, which have been cut shorter and reprocessed, are pressed into generally hexagonal blocks. The block is charged in a capsule of a hexagonal cross section made of non-gas permeable materials such as soft steels, stainless steels and the likes. Then, the capsule is subjected to static hydraulic hot pressing as it is or after deaeration and sealing. While various combinations are possible for temperature, pressure and time as the conditions for the static hydraulic hot pressing, dense block with no residual gas pores can be obtained, for example, under the conditions of 900 0 C, 1000 Kg/cm 2 and one hour where the wastes are composed of zircaloy. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Process and system for treating waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Douglas E.; Shuckrow, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

  14. Nuclear and toxic waste recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottillo, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes the process for the safe and convenient disposal of nuclear and/or toxic wastes which comprises the steps of (a) collecting nuclear and/or toxic wastes which pose a danger to health; (b) packaging the wastes within containers for the safe containment thereof to provide filled containers having a weight sufficient to sink into the molten lava present within an active volcano; and (c) depositing the filled containers directly into the molten lava present within a volcano containing same to cause the containers to sink therein end to be dissolved or consumed by the heat, whereby the contents thereof are consumed to become a part of the mass of molten lava present within the volcano

  15. Establishing a central waste processing and storage facility in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.; Darko, E.O.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste and spent sealed sources in Ghana are generated from various nuclear applications - diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medicine, measurement and processing techniques in industry, irradiation techniques for food preservation and sterilization of medical products and a research reactor for research and teaching. Statistics available indicate that over 15 institutions in Ghana are authorized to handle radiation sources. At present radioactive waste and spent sealed sources are collected and stored in the interim facility without conditioning. With the increasing use of radioactive sources in the industry, medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose and research and teaching, the volume of waste is expected to increase. The radioactive waste expected include spent ion exchange resins from the nuclear reactor water purification system, incompactible solid waste from mechanical filter, liquid and organic waste and spent sealed sources. It is estimated that four 200L drums will be needed annually to condition the waste to be generated. The National Radioactive Waste Management Centre (NRWMC) was therefore established to carry radioactive waste safety operations in Ghana and research to ensure that each waste type is managed in the most appropriate manner. Its main task includes development and establishment of the radioactive waste management infrastructure with a capacity considering the future nuclear technology development in Ghana. The first phase covers the establishment of administrative structure, development of basic regulations and construction of the radioactive waste processing and storage facility. The Ghana Radioactive Waste Management regulation has been presented to the Parliament of Ghana for consideration. The initial draft was reviewed by the RPB. A 3-day national seminar on the Understanding and Implementation of the Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management in Ghana was held to discuss and educate the general public on the

  16. Opportunities to improve the conversion of food waste to lactate: Fine-tuning secondary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RedCorn, Raymond; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2017-11-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated the potential for bioconversion of food waste to lactate, with major emphasis on adjusting temperature, pH, and loading rate of the fermentation. Each of these factors has a significant effect on lactate production; however, additional secondary factors have received little attention. Here we investigate three additional factors where opportunities exist for process improvement: freezing of samples during storage, discontinuous pH control, and holdover of fermentation broth between fermentations. Freezing samples prior to fermentation was shown to reduce the production rate of lactate by 8%, indicating freeze-thaw should be avoided in experiments. Prior work indicated a trade-off in pH control strategies, where discontinuous pH control correlated with higher lactate accumulation while continuous pH control correlated with higher production rate. Here we demonstrate that continuous pH control can achieve both higher lactate accumulation and higher production rate. Finally, holding over fermentation broth was shown to be a simple method to improve production rate (by 18%) at high food waste loading rates (>140 g volatile solids L -1 ) but resulted in lower lactate accumulation (by 17%). The results inform continued process improvements within the waste treatment of food waste through fermentation to lactic acid.

  17. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Miki; Fukushima, Kazuyo; Kino-Kimata, Noriko; Nagao, Norio; Niwa, Chiaki; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-08-15

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a "recycling loop" that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of -126 and -49 kg-CO(2)/t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of -15,648 and -18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic effectiveness. This

  18. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: Based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Miki; Fukushima, Kazuyo; Kino-Kimata, Noriko; Nagao, Norio; Niwa, Chiaki; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a “recycling loop” that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of − 126 and − 49 kg-CO 2 /t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of − 15,648 and − 18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic

  19. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: Based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Miki [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Fukushima, Kazuyo [Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co., Ltd, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0154 (Japan); Kino-Kimata, Noriko [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Nagao, Norio [Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Niwa, Chiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Toda, Tatsuki, E-mail: toda@soka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a 'recycling loop' that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of - 126 and - 49 kg-CO{sub 2}/t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of - 15,648 and - 18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic

  20. Process for cooling waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, P

    1976-12-16

    The process for avoiding thermal pollution of waters described rests on the principle of the heat conduction tube, by which heat is conducted from the liquid space into the atmosphere at a lower temperature above it. Such a tube, here called a cooling tube, consists in its simplest form of a heat conducting corrugated tube, made, for example, of copper or a copper alloy or of precious metals, which is sealed to be airtight at both ends, and after evacuation, is partially filled with a medium of low boiling point. The longer leg of the tube, which is bent at right angles, lies close below the surface of the water to be cooled and parallel to it; the shorter leg projects vertically into the atmosphere. The liquid inside the cooling tube fills the horizontal part of the tube to about halfway. A certain part of the liquid is always evaporated in this part. The vapor rising in the vertical part of the tube condenses on the internal wall cooled by the air outside, and gives off its heat to the atmosphere. The condensed medium flows back down the vertical internal wall into the initial position in a continuous cycle. A further development contains a smooth plastic inner tube in an outer corrugated tube, which is shorter than the outer tube; it ends at a distance from the caps sealing the outer tube at both ends. In this design the angle between the vertical and horizontal leg is less than 90/sup 0/. The shorter leg projects vertically from the water surface, below which the longer leg rises slightly from the knee of tube. The quantity of the liquid is gauged as a type of siphon, so that the space between the outer and inner tube at the knee of the tube remains closed by the liquid medium. The medium evaporated from the surface in the long leg of the tube therefore flows over the inner tube, which starts above the level of the medium. Thus evaporation and condensation paths are separated.

  1. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

  2. Methods for maintaining a record of waste packages during waste processing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    During processing, radioactive waste is converted into waste packages, and then sent for storage and ultimately for disposal. A principal condition for acceptance of a waste package is its full compliance with waste acceptance criteria for disposal or storage. These criteria define the radiological, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties of radioactive waste that can, in principle, be changed during waste processing. To declare compliance of a waste package with waste acceptance criteria, a system for generating and maintaining records should be established to record and track all relevant information, from raw waste characteristics, through changes related to waste processing, to final checking and verification of waste package parameters. In parallel, records on processing technology and the operational parameters of technological facilities should adhere to established and approved quality assurance systems. A records system for waste management should be in place, defining the data to be collected and stored at each step of waste processing and using a reliable selection process carried over into the individual steps of the waste processing flow stream. The waste management records system must at the same time ensure selection and maintenance of all the main information, not only providing evidence of compliance of waste package parameters with waste acceptance criteria but also serving as an information source in the case of any future operations involving the stored or disposed waste. Records generated during waste processing are a constituent part of the more complex system of waste management record keeping, covering the entire life cycle of radioactive waste from generation to disposal and even the post-closure period of a disposal facility. The IAEA is systematically working on the preparation of a set of publications to assist its Member States in the development and implementation of such a system. This report covers all the principal

  3. Gasification of fruit wastes and agro-food residues in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Sonil; Isen, Jamie; Dalai, Ajay K.; Kozinski, Janusz A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Supercritical water gasification of various fruit wastes and agro-food residues. • Coconut shell had superior carbon content and calorific value due to high lignin. • Maximum H_2 yields at 600 °C with 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio, 45 min and 23–25 MPa. • High H_2 yields from coconut shell, bagasse and aloe vera rind with 2 wt% K_2CO_3. • High CH_4 yields from coconut shell with 2 wt% NaOH due to methanation reaction. - Abstract: Considerable amounts of fruit wastes and agro-food residues are generated worldwide as a result of food processing. Converting the bioactive components (e.g., carbohydrates, lipids, fats, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in food wastes to biofuels is a potential remediation approach. This study highlights the characterization and hydrothermal conversion of several fruit wastes and agro-food residues such as aloe vera rind, banana peel, coconut shell, lemon peel, orange peel, pineapple peel and sugarcane bagasse to hydrogen-rich syngas through supercritical water gasification. The agro-food wastes were gasified in supercritical water to study the impacts of temperature (400–600 °C), biomass-to-water ratio (1:5 and 1:10) and reaction time (15–45 min) at a pressure range of 23–25 MPa. The catalytic effects of NaOH and K_2CO_3 were also investigated to maximize the hydrogen yields and selectivity. The elevated temperature (600 °C), longer reaction time (45 min) and lower feed concentration (1:10 biomass-to-water ratio) were optimal for higher hydrogen yield (0.91 mmol/g) and total gas yield (5.5 mmol/g) from orange peel. However, coconut shell with 2 wt% K_2CO_3 at 600 °C and 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio for 45 min revealed superior hydrogen yield (4.8 mmol/g), hydrogen selectivity (45.8%) and total gas yield (15 mmol/g) with enhanced lower heating value of the gas product (1595 kJ/Nm"3). The overall findings suggest that supercritical water gasification of fruit wastes and agro-food residues could serve as

  4. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport..., or waste water or other polluting materials. Arriving aircraft shall discharge such matter only at...

  5. Incineration process for plutonium-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.J.; Longuet, T.; Cartier, R.; Chaudon, L.

    1992-01-01

    A reprocessing plant with an annual throughput of 1600 metric tons of fuel generates 50 m 3 of incinerable α-contaminated waste. The reference treatment currently adopted for these wastes is to embed them in cement grout, with a resulting conditioned waste volume of 260 m 3 . The expense of mandatory geological disposal of such volumes justifies examination of less costly alternative solutions. After several years of laboratory and inactive pilot-scale research and development, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique has developed a two-step incineration process that is particularly suitable for α-contaminated chlorinated plastic waste. A 4 kg-h -1 pilot unit installed at the Marcoule Nuclear Center has now logged over 3500 hours in operation, during which the operating parameters have been optimized and process performance characteristics have been determined. Laboratory research during the same period has also determined the volatility of transuranic nuclides (U, Am and Pu) under simulated incineration conditions. A 100 g-h -1 laboratory prototype has been set up to obtain data for designing the industrial pilot facility

  6. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.

  7. Getting a taste for food waste: a mixed methods ethnographic study into hospital food waste before patient consumption conducted at three New Zealand foodservice facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Sarah; Mirosa, Miranda; Spence, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Foodservice organizations, particularly those in hospitals, are large producers of food waste. To date, research on waste in hospitals has focused primarily on plate waste and the affect of food waste on patient nutrition outcomes. Less focus has been placed on waste generation at the kitchen end of the hospital food system. We used a novel approach to understand reasons for hospital food waste before consumption and offer recommendations on waste minimization within foodservices. A mixed methods ethnographic research approach was adopted. Three New Zealand hospital foodservices were selected as research sites, all of which were contracted to an external foodservice provider. Data collection techniques included document analyses, observations, focus groups with kitchen staff, and one-on-one interviews with managers. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate common themes. Most food waste occurred during service and as a result of overproduction. Attitudes and habits of foodservice personnel were considered influential factors of waste generation. Implications of food waste were perceived differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, kitchen staff drew upon social implications. Organizational plans, controls, and use of pre-prepared ingredients assisted in waste minimization. An array of factors influenced waste generation in hospital foodservices. Exploring attitudes and practices of foodservice personnel allowed an understanding of reasons behind hospital food waste and ways in which it could be minimized. This study provides a foundation for further research on sustainable behavior within the wider foodservice sector and dietetics practice. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Losses, inefficiencies and waste in the global food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter; Brown, Calum; Arneth, Almut; Finnigan, John; Moran, Dominic; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-05-01

    Losses at every stage in the food system influence the extent to which nutritional requirements of a growing global population can be sustainably met. Inefficiencies and losses in agricultural production and consumer behaviour all play a role. This paper aims to understand better the magnitude of different losses and to provide insights into how these influence overall food system efficiency. We take a systems view from primary production of agricultural biomass through to human food requirements and consumption. Quantities and losses over ten stages are calculated and compared in terms of dry mass, wet mass, protein and energy. The comparison reveals significant differences between these measurements, and the potential for wet mass figures used in previous studies to be misleading. The results suggest that due to cumulative losses, the proportion of global agricultural dry biomass consumed as food is just 6% (9.0% for energy and 7.6% for protein), and 24.8% of harvest biomass (31.9% for energy and 27.8% for protein). The highest rates of loss are associated with livestock production, although the largest absolute losses of biomass occur prior to harvest. Losses of harvested crops were also found to be substantial, with 44.0% of crop dry matter (36.9% of energy and 50.1% of protein) lost prior to human consumption. If human over-consumption, defined as food consumption in excess of nutritional requirements, is included as an additional inefficiency, 48.4% of harvested crops were found to be lost (53.2% of energy and 42.3% of protein). Over-eating was found to be at least as large a contributor to food system losses as consumer food waste. The findings suggest that influencing consumer behaviour, e.g. to eat less animal products, or to reduce per capita consumption closer to nutrient requirements, offer substantial potential to improve food security for the rising global population in a sustainable manner.

  9. Innovation drivers and barriers in food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The food processing industry, confronted with increased global competition and more stringent customer demands, is pressurized to improve the pace and quality of its innovation processes. This paper aims to find out what factors constitute the main drivers and barriers to innovation and to

  10. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jara-Samaniego

    Full Text Available Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador, more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17 with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10 with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25 with C/N ratio 33, prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter

  11. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Samaniego, J; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Gavilanes-Terán, I; López, M; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Brito, H; Moral, R

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador), more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17) with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10) with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25) with C/N ratio 33), prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter decomposition

  12. Processing of nonedible plant wastes to obtain furfural and yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golowin, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    The technology of furfural and yeast production from hydrolyzates of wastes from the food and wood-processing industries is detailed. For furfural manufacturing, the pentosan-containing raw material is treated with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and steam-hydrolyzed, the furfural-containing vapors are condensed and separated from non-condensing gases, and the furfural is isolated from the condensate, purified and stabilized. After the furfural hydrolysis, the pressure is decreased from 3 to 1.2 atm, a 0.5% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution is added, and a hexose-containing hydrolyzate is transferred for neutralization and yeast culturing.

  13. Waste Form Features, Events, and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the waste form features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical bases for screening decisions. This information is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with the issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the waste form and the migration of the waste form colloids. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical bases for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This revision addresses the TSPA-LA FEP list (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analyses and resolution of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) associated with the waste form performance in the repository. Forty FEPs were identified that are associated with the waste form performance. This report has been prepared to document the screening methodology used in the process of FEP inclusion and exclusion. The analyses documented in this report are for the license application (LA) base case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). In this design, a drip shield is placed over the waste package and no backfill is placed over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP may include one or more specific issues that are collectively described by a FEP name and a FEP description. The FEP description may encompass a single feature, process or event, or a few closely related or coupled processes if the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs are

  14. Waste Form Features, Events, and Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the waste form features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical bases for screening decisions. This information is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with the issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the waste form and the migration of the waste form colloids. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical bases for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This revision addresses the TSPA-LA FEP list (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analyses and resolution of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) associated with the waste form performance in the repository. Forty FEPs were identified that are associated with the waste form performance. This report has been prepared to document the screening methodology used in the process of FEP inclusion and exclusion. The analyses documented in this report are for the license application (LA) base case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). In this design, a drip shield is placed over the waste package and no backfill is placed over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP may include one or more specific issues that are collectively described by a FEP name and a FEP description. The FEP description may encompass a single feature, process or event, or a few closely related or coupled processes if the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs are

  15. Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, De Ilona E.; Rohm, Harald; Normann, Anne; Bossle, Marilia Bonzanini; Grønhøj, Alice; Oostindjer, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs

  16. Plasma separation process: Disposal of PSP radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Radioactive wastes, in the form of natural uranium contaminated scrap hardware and residual materials from decontamination operations, were generated in the PSP facilities in buildings R1 and 106. Based on evaluation of the characteristics of these wastes and the applicable regulations, the various options for the processing and disposal of PSP radioactive wastes were investigated and recommended procedures were developed. The essential features of waste processing included: (1) the solidification of all liquid wastes prior to shipment; (2) cutting of scrap hardware to fit 55-gallon drums and use of inerting agents (diatomaceous earth) to eliminate pyrophoric hazards; and (3) compaction of soft wastes. All PSP radioactive wastes were shipped to the Hanford Site for disposal. As part of the waste disposal process, a detailed plan was formulated for handling and tracking of PSP radioactive wastes, from the point of generation through shipping. In addition, a waste minimization program was implemented to reduce the waste volume or quantity. Included in this document are discussions of the applicable regulations, the types of PSP wastes, the selection of the preferred waste disposal approach and disposal site, the analysis and classification of PSP wastes, the processing and ultimate disposition of PSP wastes, the handling and tracking of PSP wastes, and the implementation of the PSP waste minimization program. 9 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  17. Defense Waste Processing Facility Process Simulation Package Life Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to immobilize high level liquid radioactive waste into safe, stable, and manageable solid form. The complexity and classification of the facility requires that a performance based operator training to satisfy Department of Energy orders and guidelines. A major portion of the training program will be the application and utilization of Process Simulation Packages to assist in training the Control Room Operators on the fluctionality of the process and the application of the Distribution Control System (DCS) in operating and managing the DWPF process. The packages are being developed by the DWPF Computer and Information Systems Simulation Group. This paper will describe the DWPF Process Simulation Package Life Cycle. The areas of package scope, development, validation, and configuration management will be reviewed and discussed in detail

  18. Waste minimization at a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    As part of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) mission to reduce the nuclear danger throughout the world, the plutonium processing facility at LANL maintains expertise and skills in nuclear weapons technologies as well as leadership in all peaceful applications of plutonium technologies, including fuel fabrication for terrestrial and space reactors and heat sources and thermoelectric generators for space missions. Another near-term challenge resulted from two safety assessments performed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and the U.S. Department of Energy during the past two years. These assessments have necessitated the processing and stabilization of plutonium contained in tons of residues so that they can be stored safely for an indefinite period. This report describes waste streams and approaches to waste reduction of plutonium management

  19. Avoiding food waste by Romanian consumers: The importance of planning and shopping routines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefan, V.; Herpen, van E.; Tudoran, A.A.; Lähteenmäki, L.

    2013-01-01

    Food waste is generated in immense amounts across the food life cycle, imposing serious environmental, social and economic consequences. Although consumers are the single biggest contributor to this volume, little is known about the drivers of food waste in households. This exploratory study aims to

  20. Costs of food waste along the value chain: Evidence from South Africa: Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the costs of food waste throughout the entire food value chain, from agricultural production through to consumption at the household level, in economic terms. First, food waste at each stage of the value chain was quantified in physical...