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Sample records for food irradiation studies

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodburn, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of food preservation by irradiation over 30 years is reviewed in outline. Sprout inhibition, soft fruit preservation, suppression of salmonella in poultry, radiolytic products in foods, the detection of irradiated foods and safety studies so far are considered. (U.K.)

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, C.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of food irradiation are discussed. Research into food irradiation has been going on for 40 years, yet studies have yet to demonstrate conclusively whether it is safe or harmful. The Australian House of Representatives has established an inquiry into food irradiation conducted by the Standing Committee on Environment and Conservation. It will inquire into the use of ionising radiation for commercial sterilisation, disinfestation, food preservation and other purposes with particular reference to human health and safety, environmental impacts and the adequacy of assessment and regulatory procedures

  4. Feeding studies of irradiated foods with insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.

    1978-01-01

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  6. Facts about food irradiation: Genetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Results published in the mid-1970s from the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) in India showed increased numbers of polyploid cells in rats, mice, monkeys and malnourished children fed irradiated wheat products. This fact sheet considers the validity of these results. A large number of independent studies have been subsequently performed, and in none of these have results been obtained that support the NIN findings. The conclusion is that there is no evidence to link the consumption of irradiated food with any mutagenic effect. 3 refs

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasiri, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Gives details of sources used for food irradiation, brief description of the process, safety of food irradiation process, practical applications and the amount of doses used for spices, condiments, mangoes etc., limitations of food irradiation, international status of clearance of irradiated foods, versatility of the process

  8. Toxicological studies on irradiated food and food constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1978-01-01

    Selected aspects of the genotoxicology and chemistry of irradiated foods and food components are critically examined and compared with other food processing operations such as cooking, and intentional use of food additives. For example, it is estimated that if 10% of an average daily diet contained irradiated (<1.0Mrad) foods, the daily consumption of radiolytic products would be 2-20mg/d compared with a total of approximately 4000mg/d of intentional food additives and approximately 80mg/d of toxic inorganic and organic environmentally derived contaminants. Several recommendations for the genotoxicological testing of irradiated foods are given, including: (1) that feeding tests include a control diet consisting of food processed by one of the standard methods such as thermalization; (2) that more use be made of positive controls so as to have a 'built-in' measure of sensitivity and responsiveness; (3) that a battery of in vitro and in vivo short-term mutagenicity tests be performed prior to the carrying out of the long-term feeding tests; and (4) that an irradiated food be tested after it is cooked in the manner normally consumed, which may, of course, include the raw or uncooked state as well. An outline of current genetic-toxicological testing schemes is provided and examined. Emphasis is given to a modification in the protocols for the Ames mutagenicity tests leading to a reduction in the evidence of false positives and false negatives. Also described is a procedure for systematically studying combined or interactive effects, acute or chronic, which requires no more effort than that needed for testing a single agent and which yields complete dose-response curves. It is concluded that food irradiation, as a physical process, appears more advantageous from the genotoxicological, chemical, and pollution aspects than well-accepted, but actually rarely tested, physical processes such as canning. (author)

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  11. Survey of food irradiation studies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, L.M.; Carrasco, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    Recent work undertaken in Mexico on the effects of radiation on food and on the application of radiation to food preservation is discussed. Tables are presented to show dose levels used for food irradiation and radiation effects on chemical constituents of fruits

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  15. Consumer studies acceptability on irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1987-01-01

    A questionary to 119 professionals connected with the food field was performed in order to know their attitude, doubts and concernings about food irradiation considering that a favourable opinion would produce trust to the consumer market. The first part of the questionary showed the following results: 13% had never heard about food irradiation (FI), 72% were few familiarized with it, and 14% knew the subject; 42% would accept FI, 37% probably would accept it, 19% could not make up their minds and 2% would not accept it; 45% would eat irradiated food (IF), 45% probably would eat it, 8% probably would not eat it and 2% would not eat it; 44% would serve IF in their home, 45% would probably do so, 8% would probably not do it, and 3% would not do it. The second part showed that 67% of people thought that ionizing radiation (IR) improved the sanitary quality of food, 3% did not think so, and 29% did not know; 63% thought that IR is preferible to chemical preservatives, 4% did not think so and 33% did not know; 11% thought that the food treated with IR becomes radioactive, 60% did not think so, and 29% did not know; 42% thought that FI is wholesome, 8% did not think so, and 50% did not know; 8% consider that the majority of the persons would eat IF, 40% did not think so and 52% did not know; 82% consider necessary that IF have an identificatory label, 10% did not think so, and 8% did not know; 95% consider necessary more diffusion of this method before its commercialization, 2% did not think so and 3% did not know, and 81% want more information, 18% would want it and 1% do not want it. These results are considered to be a good sign of future consumption acceptability of food irradiation. (Author)

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T.; Lang, T.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing tendency worldwide to apply ionizing radiation for food preservation, or for delaying growth or ripening processes. However, research into the effects of such irradiation with ionizing radiation is lagging behind, leaving the knowledge about effects and possible hazards incomplete. The authors very carefully have analysed the available research results and present a detailed account of the current scientific knowledge and assessments. Their conclusion is: irradiated food is to be considered noxious unless its wholesomeness has been unambiguously proven. Consumers so far had not much chance to raise their voice in the debate about the wholesomeness of food irradiation, or have not been heard, the authors say. They call for establishing a European and a worldwide information network to bring together opponents to and information speaking against food irradiation, in order to create a counterweight to the market strategies of the pro-irradiation industry, and to launch initiatives on the political level. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  2. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food products: an apple marketing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, D.E.; Tabor, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    This study was exploratory in nature, with emphasis on initial purchases and not repeat purchases or long-term loyalties to either irradiated or non-irradiated produce. The investigation involved the actual sale of irradiated and non-irradiated apples to consumers. Limited information about the process was provided, and apples were sold at roadside stands. Prices for the irradiated apples were varied while the price for the non-irradiated apples was held constant. Of these 228 West-Central Missouri shoppers, 101 (44%) bought no irradiated apples, 86 (38%) bought only irradiated apples, and 41 (18%) bought some of both types, Results of probit regressions indicated three significant independent variables. There was an inverse relationship between the price of irradiated apples and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. There was a positive relationship between the purchasers’ educational level and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. Predicted probabilities for belonging to categories in probit models were computed. Depending on particular equation specification, correctly placed were approximately 70 percent of the purchasers of the two categories--bought only non-irradiated apples, or bought some of both irradiated and non-irradiated apples or only irradiated apples. This study suggests that consumers may be interested in food irradiation as a possible alternative or supplement to current preservation techniques

  3. Studies on some irradiated food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, H.M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possibility of using some doses of gamma irradiation and cold storage (4+1 C) for improving the hygienic quality and shelf-life of some meat products ( beef luncheon, processed minced beef and fresh beef sausage). luncheon meat samples were irradiated at doses of 4,6,8,10 and 12 k Gy, while beef and sausage samples were subjected to 4,6 and 8 KGy gamma rays doses and the effects of irradiation on the organoleptic properties, microbiological aspects and the chemical composition were studied during cold storage (4+1 C) of samples. Attention was focussed on the changes occurred in the organoleptic properties of these products by the evaluation of sensory scores for appearance, color and odor of samples post irradiation and during cold storage (4+1 C). In addition, the effects of treatments and cold storage on the microbiological quality by the determination of total bacterial count, total psychropilic bacteria, total coliforms, total molds and yeasts, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis as well as the detection of salmonellae were studied

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  5. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ho; Seo, Min-Won

    2008-04-01

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions

  6. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ho; Seo, Min-Won

    2008-04-15

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions.

  7. A history of study on safety of irradiated foods (3). Induced radioactivity in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Food irradiation can induce a small amount of radioactivity in the foods. The principal mechanisms of the nuclear reactions are (n, γ), (γ, n), (γ, γ'). The resulting nuclear products were found in irradiated foods were Na-24, P-32, Ca-45, C-11, N-13, and O-15 in the food irradiated by 24 MeV electron beam. The total radioactivity is less than 1/1000 of those of K-40 in the case of electron beams below 10 MeV or X rays below 5 MeV. Package materials affected neutron flux in the foods and enhanced the radioactivity. Electron beam machine produces neutrons and increases the flux in food. IAEA recommend to reduce neutron production in the facility. The safety of irradiated food in the radioactivity field still needs more progress. (author)

  8. Wholesomeness studies in the International Food Irradiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Despite more than 25 years history as an effective food preservation method, food irradiation is still subject to strict legislative control in many countries and it is required to carry out scientific investigations to reassure the safety of irradiated food. The International Food Irradiation Project was set up on October 14, 1970 to facilitate the objective evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foodstuffs. Its major activities are; (1) wholesomeness testing of irradiated foods, (2) research on and investigations into the methodology of wholesomeness testing, (3) dissemination of information, and (4) assisting national and international authorities in their consideration of acceptance of irradiated food. In particular, the project over the past nine years had been devoted to the provision of data to national health authorities and international bodies. Up to now, 23 studies were and are being carried out for the project under contract. Subject to the studies include wheat, wheat flour, potatoes, fish, rice, mango, spices, dried dates, onions and cocoa beans. (Kitajima, A.)

  9. Study on identification of irradiated food containing cellulose by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xiaojuan; Dou Daying; Xu Gang; Jiao Zheng; Wang Jia; Zheng Jianfei; Jiao Zheng; Wu Minghong; Ding Guoji

    2008-01-01

    The fast development and application of food irradiation technology signify the necessity and urgency to research on effective detection method for irradiated food. In this paper, we report a preliminary study in this area with dried chili powder, peanuts and strawberry seeds. The food samples were irradiated to 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy by 60 Co gamma rays. The relation between ESR intensity and irradiation dose, and correlation R 2 , were studied. The results showed that the ESR signal intensity is positively related with the dose. ESR intensity of the strawberry increased the slowest with the dose, and the chili powder had the most accurate calculation. Accurate dose-effect curves, however, require repeating tests and further studies are needed to verify the ESR results. (authors)

  10. Study for the identification of irradiated carbohydrate containing food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherz, H.

    1991-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find radiation specific substances of carbohydrates and methods to detect those ones in irradiated food. Deoxycompounds have been found by irradiation of carbohydrates. It could be stated, that the formation of these substances was radiation specific. The irradiation of wheat for desinfestation was high actual at the moment of this study and therefore it was tried to find these deoxycompounds in irradiated potato starch and wheat flour. These substances were isolated and one of them was identified as w-hydroxymaltol. This substance was also found in irradiated wheat flour. The dependence between the amount of w-hydroxymaltol and the irradiation dosage was determined for both materials. (7 refs, 2 figs)

  11. Food irradiation is safe: Half a century of studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of food irradiation are yet to be realized due to slow progress in the commercialization of the technology. Processing food with ionizing radiation has encountered several barriers, one of which is the belief that consumers will not purchase irradiated food and a consequent caution among food retailers and producers. There is sufficient evidence that consumers will purchase irradiated foods when offered at retail in contrast to the data from many surveys of general public opinion. Communicating this evidence to food retailers and producers is essential if a major barrier to a greater use of the technology is to be overcome. - Highlights: • Food irradiation is safe and can benefit food safety, security and trade. • Commercial use remains limited. • The food trade tends to believe consumers will not buy irradiated food. • There is good evidence that consumers buy irradiated food when it is offered. • Demonstrating this evidence to industry is vital for commercial success

  12. Food irradiation: fiction and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (IGCFI), sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the intention to provide to governments, especially those of developing countries, scientifically correct information about food irradiation, decided to organize a file and questions of general public interest. The document is composed by descriptive files related with the actual situation and future prospective, technical and scientific terms, food irradiation and the radioactivity, chemical transformations in irradiated food, genetic studies, microbiological safety of irradiated food, irradiation and harmlessness, irradiation and additives, packing, irradiation facilities control, process control, irradiation costs and benefits as well as consumers reaction

  13. Progress in the study of reducing food allergenicity by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Kefei; Gao Meixu; Li Chunhong; Pan Jiarong

    2006-01-01

    Food allergy becomes an important factor in food safety areas. As one of the methods to cure allergy, reducing food allergenicity by irradiation becomes a hot topic. This article reviewed the present situation and the mechanism of reducing food allergenicity by irradiation. (authors)

  14. Feasibility study and treatment of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouslama, N.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis deals with the over costs of food irradiation compared to the costs of traditional food treatments in Tunisia. Food irradiation techniques imply appropriate facilities and special storage conditions that face producers and consumers to new economic choices. This approach is applied to dates (N.H.)

  15. Food irradiation in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T.

    1985-01-01

    This report explains the process and issues that concern consumers, workers in the food industry and people involved in food policy, public health and environmental protection. It argues that safety assurances by experts are not enough, and calls for a full public debate on all issues surrounding food irradiation, including a) wholesomeness of irradiated foods - food quality, nutrition losses, chemical and other changes in irradiated foods b) consumers rights to information about irradiated foods c) health and safety of food industry workers d) the economics of irradiation - food prices, changes in patters of employment, environmental impacts e) regulation and monitoring of food irradiation and imported irradiated foods. (U.K.)

  16. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  17. Microbiological studies for the detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Elbary, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    the exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests, and to extend shelf life, thereby contributing to a safer and more plentiful food supply. to ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable, in particular, there is a need for simple and rapid screening methods for the control of irradiated food.this investigation has been carried out in an effect to design reliable methods for detecting whether or not a food has been irradiated . attempts have been made to apply microbiological and biological form measurement

  18. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  19. food irradiation: activities and potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    1985-01-01

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. (author)

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is prohibited by law to treat food with ionizing radiation Food and (Commodities Act of August 15, 1974) with the proviso to grant permits (section 13), which never happened so far. The prohibition also applies to imports according to section 45 of the Federal Act. (HP) [de

  1. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  2. Food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ghazali Hj Abd Rahman.

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has recently been visited as a technology that can contribute to the solution of problems associated with food preservation of Malaysia's agriculture produce and products thereby improving the economic status of the rural sector. However, the history of food irradiation in Malaysia is very recent. Research carried out on food irradiation only began in 1974 as a result of the installation of a 60 Co facility (initially 10,000 Ci) at the National University of Malaysia. Since its installation several studies have been carried out pertaining to the food irradiation. Presently its development has been slow. Research in this area has been confined to laboratory scale and purely academic. This limitation is due to a number of reasons, among others are: a) limited number of facilities; b) lack of expertise to conduct its research; c) other preservation methods can be improved with lower capital output. An important step towards its development was made when Malaysia actively participated in the RCA/IAEA food irradiation project, viz. the irradiation of pepper which was carried out at the National University of Malaysia in the 80's. As a result of this venture, research and development activities in food irradiation have been geared toward semi-plot scale with the view ot commercialization in the future. In 1982, a group of researchers was formed to conduct feasibility studies using irradiation techniques in trying to overcome several problems associated with our local paddy and rice. Another group is being organized by the National University of Malaysia to look into the problems associated with the preservation of frozen shrimps. (author)

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsa, J.; Kunstadt, P.

    1998-01-01

    Serious outbreaks of food poisoning last year in the USA from contaminated ground meat and the listing of methyl bromide, the most widely used pest control fumigant, as an ozone depleting substance, has led to a resurgence of interest, especially in the USA, in the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of food. For a number of reasons, principally public uneasiness with radiation and the availability of other less expensive, methods for fumigating or preserving food, the use of radiation has remained limited until recently

  4. Education of food irradiation. Study for students majoring in nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    As the credential for nutrition counselor with professional skills and knowledge for invalids, who also provides the nutrition education for local residence at the administrative organization, the qualification system of registered dietitian has been established in Japan. Additionally, in accordance with the legislation of Basic Act on Food Education and the revision of School Education Law, the Diet and Nutrition Teacher System has established in 2005. Therefore, registered dietitian has been approved to teach at the elementary school or junior high school as a teacher. Since registered dietitian is the educator of the “diet and nutrition,” it is important to provide proper knowledge of food irradiation at the training facility for registered dietitian. This report describes the instruction of food irradiation at the education curriculum of the registered dietitian training course. In addition, questionnaire survey result on the knowledge of food irradiation gathered from newly-enrolled students in the registered dietitian training course will also be reported. (author)

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoerr, M.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Delincee, H.

    1999-01-01

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  7. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  8. Food irradiation makes progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

  9. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  10. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  11. Progresses in studies on 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated lipid-containing foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haiwei; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2007-01-01

    When foods are irradiated, the free fatty acids and triacylglycerides in the food are decomposed to 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs), which have been one of the focuses in food irradiation studies since they were dis- covered in irradiated lipid-containing foods. As specific markers, 2-ACBs could be used to detect irradiated food. The production and stability of 2-ACBs are affected strongly by the irradiation does and temperature and preservation conditions, etc. On the other hand, potential health hazard assessments of 2-ACBs have been studied extensively. Re- cent progresses in 2-ACBs detecting methods from irradiated food, toxicological studies on 2-ACBs, and factors affecting production and stability of 2-ACBs are reviewed in this paper. (authors)

  12. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony; Lang, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The London Food Commission summarizes its concerns about the use of food irradiation in the U.K. resulting from its working group surveys of general public opinion, trading standard officers and the food industry in the U.K., and from experience in countries already permitting irradiation to a variety of foods. (U.K.)

  13. Debate on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    An amendment moved on the food safety bill provided that any regulations made which relate to irradiation shall only be made after a diagnostic test has been established to determine whether or not food has been subject to irradiation and also that a scientific review has been conducted into the effects of irradiation on pesticide residues and other toxins in food, vitamin content of food, food additives and food packaging materials, and the results thereof published. The debate which followed lasted an hour and a quarter and is reported verbatim. After a short definition of irradiation, the debate was concerned with the nutritional value of irradiated food, the radiation effects for the public, the dose levels which are safe to use, public opinion and the lack of research into the effects of irradiating food. The amendment was withdrawn after the debate. (UK)

  14. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  15. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  16. Food irradiation: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, N.K.; Vital, H. de C.; Sabaa-Srur, A.U.O.

    2003-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing food (e.g. freezing, canning). It has been thoroughly researched over the last four decades and is recognized as a safe and wholesome method. It has the potential both of disinfesting dried food to reduce storage losses and disinfesting fruits and vegetables to meet quarantine requirements for export trade. Low doses of irradiation inhibit spoilage losses due to sprouting of root and tuber crops. Food- borne diseases due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites of meat, poultry, fish, fishery products and spices are on the increase. Irradiation of these solid foods can decontaminate them of pathogenic organisms and thus provide safe food to the consumer. Irradiation can successfully replace the fumigation treatment of cocoa beans and coffee beans and disinfest dried fish, dates, dried fruits, etc. One of the most important advantages of food irradiation processing is that it is a coldprocess which does not significantly alter physico-chemical characters of the treated product. It can be applied to food after its final packaging. Similar to other physical processes of food processing, (e.g. canning, freezing), irradiation is a capital intensive process. Thus, adequate product volume must be made available in order to maximize the use of the facility and minimize the unit cost of treatment. Lack of harmonization of regulations among the countries which have approved irradiated foods hampers the introduction of this technique for international trade. Action at the international level has to be taken in order to remedy this situation. One of the important limitations of food irradiation processing is its slow acceptance by consumers, due inter alia to a perceived association with radioactivity. The food industry tends to be reluctant to use the technology in view of uncertainties regarding consumer acceptance of treated foods. Several market testing and consumer acceptance studies have been carried

  17. Food irradiation development: Malaysian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman

    1997-01-01

    Malaysia recognised the potential of food irradiation as a technology that can contribute to solving some preservation problems associated with local agricultural produce. Research studies in this technology were initiated in late 1970s and since 1985, all activities pertaining to R and D applications, adoption and technology transfer of food irradiation were coordinated by The National Working Committee on Food Irradiation which comprises of members from research institutes, universities, regulatory agencies and consumer association. To date, technical feasibility studies conducted on 7 food items / agricultural commodities of economic importance demonstrated the efficacy of irradiation in extending shelf-life, improving hygienic quality and overcoming quarantine barriers in trade. Presently, 1 multipurpose Co-60 irradiator (I MCi), 2 gammacells and an electron beam machine (3 MeV) are available at MINT for research and commercial runs. The Malaysian Standards on Guidelines for Irradiation of Food was formulated in 1992 to facilitate application by local food industries. However, Malaysia has not yet commercially adopt the technology. Among many factors contributing to the situation is the apparent lack of interest by food industries and consumers. Consumer attitude study indicated majority of consumers are still unaware of the benefits of the technology and expressed concern for the safety of process and irradiated products due to limited knowledge and adverse publicity by established consumer groups. Although the food processors indicate positive attitude towards food irradiation, there remain many factors delaying its commercial application such as limited knowledge, cost-benefit, logistics and consumer acceptance. On the regulatory aspect, approval is required from the Director-General of Ministry of Health prior to application of irradiation on food and sale of irradiated food but efforts are being geared towards approving irradiation of certain food

  18. The wholesomeness of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The acceptance of food irradiation as a safe process of preservation by national authorities concerned with the safety of foodstuffs has hitherto made slow progress. The technology has existed for some 25 years but the general attitude towards official acceptance of the process has been marred by irrational and unscientific fears. As may have been mentioned by previous speakers,'the basic process of food irradiation does not differ in the physical sense from any other food processing techniques which involve the application of radiation energy to food. The energy level used in food irradiation is too low ever to lead to any production of radioactivity in the irradiated food, hence wholesomeness considerations can totally exclude this aspect. The uniqueness of food irradiation rests inherently on the particular type of energy employed and has aroused special attention because of this fact. The wholesomeness of food treated by heat or microwaves has not been questioned to the same extent, yet the very same question has been raised in relation to treatment by gamma rays and electron beams. Being a new process it requires not only a toxicological but also a microbiological as well as nutritional approach to the assessment of the wholesomeness of irradiated food. Studies on the radiation chemistry of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, the main constituents of foods, when irradiated in the Mrad range, have yielded information which shows that these substances react in a reasonably uniform manner to irradiation. Many of the irradiation-induced compounds identified in irradiated foods can also be found in various non-irradiated foods. For those products that have been identified, the quantities found are in the parts per million range or less. Available data on the structures of radiation chemical products in food and the very low concentrations at which they occur, suggest the general conclusion that the health hazard they might represent is negligible

  19. Eatability of the irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    A food is eatable and innocuous when it has an acceptable nutritional quality, it is toxicological and microbiologically safe for the human consumption. Not one preservation treatment allows to assure this in absolute form. As it happens with other conservation methods, the irradiation produce biological, chemical and physical changes in the treated food. For to check if such changes could cause damages to the health of the consumer, its have been carried out extensive studies to evaluate the inoculate of the irradiated foods. Analyzing diverse toxicity studies to prove the eatability of the irradiated foods, in this work those are presented but important in chronological order. In summary, until today it exists a great heap of tests that they demonstrate without place to doubts that the foods irradiated with a dose up to 10 KGy its are capable for the human consumption, for what can to be concluded that a safety margin exists to consume foods irradiated. (Author)

  20. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  1. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  2. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970's and 1980's that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  3. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  4. Studies on Microbiological and Biological Methods for Detection of Irradiated Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate a microbiological and biological methods used for the detection of irradiated foods in Egypt. The microbiological methods included were shift in microflora load and direct epifluroescent filter technique compared with aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), while the biological method was DNA comet assay. The selected foods were black, strawberry, fresh-and frozen-de boned chicken. The samples of these foods were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation according to the purpose of irradiation for each food. The results indicated that the characteristics of microbial population of all irradiated samples have been changed. The very lower count of viable bacterial count (APC) and mold and yeasts counts in the samples than the reported normal count as well as the absence of Gram- negative bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae group from these samples could be used as an indication for radiation treatment of these foods. The large difference between microbial counts obtained by DEFT test and that obtained by APC test could also be used for screening radiation treatment of these foods. Photographic and image analysis of DNA comet assay showed that irradiation of these foods caused damage to the food cells DNA (fragmentation) at different levels according to the doses used and kind of foods. This DNA damage can be followed or described by DNA comet assay test. On the basis of comet assay, the discrimination between unirradiated and irradiated food samples was very possible. In general the results showed that DEFT/APC method had the potential to detect irradiated food samples either at zero time of storage or throughout the storage period post- irradiation. DNA comet assay as a rapid, simple and inexpensive screening test approved to be successful for detection of irradiated food samples under investigation. Determination of rough applied irradiation dose is possible if photographic analysis is combined with image analysis

  5. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.; Danielsson-Tham, M.L.; Hoel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A committee has on instructions from the swedish government made an inquiry into the possible effects on health and working environment from irradition of food. In this report, a review is presented on the known positiv and negative effects of food irradiation Costs, availabilty, shelf life and quality of irradiated food are also discussed. According to the report, the production of radiolysis products during irradiation is not easily evaluated. The health risks from irradiation of spices are estimated to be lower than the risks associated with the ethenoxid treatment presently used. (L.E.)

  6. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.

    1990-01-01

    The author explains in simple question and answer form what is entailed in the irradiation of food and attempts to dispel some of the anxieties surrounding the process. Benefits and limitations, controls, labelling safety, and tests for the detection of the use irradiation in food preparation are some of the topics dealt with in outline. (author)

  7. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue

  8. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  9. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  10. Issues in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.

    1987-04-01

    This discussion paper has two goals: first, to raise public awareness of food irradiation, an emerging technology in which Canada has the potential to build a new industry, mainly oriented to promising overseas markets; and second, to help build consensus among government and private sector decision makers about what has to be done to realize the domestic and export potential. The following pages discuss the potential of food irradiation; indicate how food is irradiated; outline the uses of food irradiation; examine questions of the safety of the equipment and both the safety and nutritional value of irradiated food; look at international commercial developments; assess the current and emerging domestic scene; and finally, draw some conclusions and offer suggestions for action

  11. Analysis of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.

    1991-01-01

    Foods, e.g. chicken, shrimps, frog legs, spices, different dried vegetables, potatoes and fruits are legally irradiated in many countries and are probably also exported into countries, which do not permit irradiation of any food. Therefore all countries need analytical methods to determine whether food has been irradiated or not. Up to now, two physical (ESR-spectroscopy and thermoluminescence) and two chemical methods (o-tyrosine and volatile compounds) are available for routine analysis. Several results of the application of these four mentioned methods on different foods are presented and a short outlook on other methods (chemiluminescence, DNA-changes, biological assays, viscometric method and photostimulated luminescence) will be given. (author)

  12. Food irradiation now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    From the start the Netherlands has made an important contribution to the irradiation of food through microbiological and toxicological research as well as through the setting-up of a pilot plant by the government and through the practical application of 'Gammaster' on a commercial basis. The proceedings of this tenth anniversary symposium of 'Gammaster' present all aspects of food irradiation and will undoubtedly help to remove the many misunderstandings. They offer information and indicate to the potential user a method that can make an important contribution to the prevention of decay and spoilage of foodstuffs and to the exclusion of food-borne infections and food poisoning in man. The book includes 8 contributions and 4 panel discussions in the field of microbiology; technology; legal aspects; and consumer aspects of food irradiation. As an appendix, the report 'Wholesomeness of irradiated food' of a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee has been added. (orig./G.J.P.)

  13. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  14. Food irradiation in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Y.M.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the ''prerequisite'' became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance. (Author)

  15. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author) [es

  16. Food irradiation: global aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinning, G.

    1988-01-01

    As a commercial activity, food irradiation is twenty years old, but is backed by nearly eighty years of research on gamma irradiation and sixty years knowledge of application of the technology to food. An overview is given of the global boom and then the hiatus in its legislative and commercial applications. It is emphasised that in Australia, the overseas experience provides a number of models for proceeding further for food manufacturers, consumers and Government. 13 refs

  17. Economic Feasibility Study about the Possibility of Setting Food Irradiation Technology Locally in the Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The previous economic studies on the food irradiation focused on the financial and marketing according to the private investigator's point of view. In this study the food irradiation technology evaluated according to the society's point of view since it is risky to focus on the technical, financial sides only. This study has evaluated the expected benefits on the national income, the employment, the payment balance and the dependence on the foreign countries.

  18. Dosimetry for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry was published in 1977 under the auspices of the IAEA as Technical Reports Series No. 178. It was the first monograph of its kind and served as a reference in the field of radiation processing and in the development of standards. While the essential information about radiation dosimetry in this publication has not become obsolete, other publications on radiation dosimetry have become available which have provided useful information for incorporation in this updated version. There is already a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and an associated Code of Practice for Operation of Irradiation Facilities used for Treatment of Food, issued in 1984 by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme. The Codex Standard contains provisions on irradiation facilities and process control which include, among other requirements, that control of the processes within facilities shall include the keeping of adequate records including quantitative dosimetry. Appendix A of the Standard provides an explanation of process control and dosimetric requirements in compliance with the Codex Standard. By 1999, over 40 countries had implemented national regulations or issued specific approval for certain irradiated food items/classes of food based on the principles of the Codex Standard and its Code of Practice. Food irradiation is thus expanding, as over 30 countries are now actually applying this process for the treatment of one or more food products for commercial purposes. Irradiated foods are being marketed at retail level in several countries. With the increasing recognition and application of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment of food based on the provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization, international trade in irradiated food is expected to expand during the next decade. It is therefore essential that proper dosimetry

  19. IAEA and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1995-01-01

    IAEA was founded in 1957. 122 countries take part in it. It is operated with the yearly ordinary budget of about 20 billion yen and the technical cooperation budget of about 6 billion yen and by 2200 personnel. Its two important roles are the promotion of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy and the prevention of nuclear proliferation. The activities of IAEA are shown. The cooperation with developing countries and the international research cooperation program are the important activities. The securing of foods is an urgent subject, and the utilization of radiation and isotopes has been promoted, aiming at sustaining agriculture. The necessity of food irradiation is explained, and at present, commercial food irradiation is carried out in 28 countries including Japan. The irradiation less than 10 kGy does not cause poisonous effect in any food, according to JECFI. The new international agreement is expected to be useful for promoting the international trade of irradiated foods. The international cooperation for the spread of food irradiation and the public acceptance of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    The basic research on food irradiation in Japan was begun around 1955 by universities and national laboratories. In 1967, food irradiation was designated to the specific general research on atomic energy, and the national project on large scale was continued until 1983. As the result, the treatment of germination prevention for potatoes was approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1972. The Co-60 gamma ray irradiation facility of Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative is famous as the facility that succeeded in the practical use of food irradiation for the first time in the world. But the practical use of food irradiation stagnates and the research activities were reduced in Japan due to the circumstances thereafter. The effect of radiation to foods and living things is explained. The features of the radiation treatment of foods are small temperature rise, large transmissivity, no residue, the small loss of nutrition and large quantity, continuous treatment. The safety of irradiated foods is explained. The subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  1. Preliminary study on the detection of irradiated food containing bone by ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Ha Yiming; Liu Ting; Wang Rongfu; Wang Changbao

    2007-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is one of the most effective technique for detection of irradiated food containing bone. It was found that the radiation -induced ESR signal (Spectrum, g factor and peak-to-peak line width AH) in bone before and after irradiation was significantly different and could be easily distinguished from the endogenous ESR signal. Sample preparation studies showed vacuum drying and grinding at frozen temperature was an ideal method. A linear relationship was observed between ESR signal intensity and the absorbed dose (0.3-10.1kGy). It can be proposed that 0.5kGy absorbed doses can be detected by ESR for irradiated food containing bone though detecting sensitivity is very different at the same irradiated dosage with different food such as pork, beef, duck, chicken and fish. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish a national criterion for detection of irradiated foodstuffs by use of ESR. (authors)

  2. The wholesomeness of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, P.S.; Matsuyama, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is apparent that there is a need for protection of the consumer and a need for governmental authorities to insure a safe and wholesome food supply for the population. Based on objective and scientific evidence regarding the safety of food irradiation, national and international health authorities are able to determine whether irradiated food is acceptable for human consumption. Following a thorough review of all available data, the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee unconditionally approved wheat and ground wheat products and papaya irradiated for disingestation at a maximum dose of 100 krad, potatoes irradiated for sprout control at a maximum dose not exceeding 15 krad, and chicken irradiated at a maximum dose of 700 krad to reduce microbiological spoilage. Lastly, it unconditionally approved strawberries irradiated at a maximum dose of 300 krad to prolong storage. Onions at irradiated for sprout control at a maximum dose of 15 krad were temporarily approved, subject to preparation of further data on multigeneration reproduction studies on rats. Codfish and redfish eviscerated after irradiation at a maximum dose of 220 krad to reduce microbiological spoilage were also approved, based on the results of various studies in progress. Temporary, conditional approval of rice irradiated for insect disinfestation at a maximum dose of 100 krad was based on results of long-term studies on rats and monkies, available in the next review. Due to insufficient data, no decision regarding irradiated mushrooms was made. (Bell, E.)

  3. Perspectives of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    Food preservation by means of ionizing radiation has been technically feasible for more than a decade. Its utilization could increase food safety, extend the transport and shell life of foods, cut food losses, and reduce dependence upon chemical additives. The prime obstacles have been the strict safety requirements set by health authorities to this preservation method and the high costs of the long-term animal tests necessary to fulfil these requirements. An International Food Irradiation Project, expected to establish the toxicological safety of 10 foods by about 1976, is described in some detail. (author)

  4. Facts about food irradiation: Nutritional quality of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly considers the nutritional value of irradiated foods. Micronutrients, especially vitamins, are sensitive to any food processing method, but irradiation does not cause any special nutritional problems in food. 4 refs

  5. Study of food intake dynamics in rats following acute whole-body irradiation with X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Ahlers, I.; Datelinka, I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects were studied of whole-body X-irradiation with sublethal (2.39 Gy) and medium lethal (5.74 Gy) doses on food intake by rats. The lower dose caused a temporary decrease in food intake, with a minimum of 63.3% of the control level on the 2nd day after irradiation. The decrease was statistically significant up to the 4th day after irradiation. No substantial changes were observed in the parameters of the circadian rhythm in food intake with the maximum on the 3rd day after irradiation, with only 8% of the initial value. The food intake was reduced until the 9th day after irradiation. The daily thythm of food intake was strongly disturbed during the first three days after irradiation, then restoring gradually and on the 9th day showing the original phasing and shape. The results obtained were in agreement with the assumed neural regulation mechanism of food intake and its circadian rhythm in the rat. (author). 5 figs., 12 refs

  6. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raica, Nicholas; McDowell, Marion E.; Darby, William J.

    1963-01-15

    The wholesomeness of irradiated foods was evaluated in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys over a 2-year period, or 4 generations. Data are presented on the effects of a diet containing radiation-processed foods on growth, reproduction, hematology, histopathology, carcinogenicity, and life span. (86 references) (C.H.)

  7. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes; a food irradiation study on radiation induced stress in vegetable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation is a recent preservation method. With the aid of ionizing radiation microorganisms in food can be killed or specific physiological processes in vegetable products can be influenced.

    In order to study the effects of metabolic radiation stress on quantitative chemical changes in

  8. Irradiated food - no nutritional value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.; Hasselmann, C.

    1991-01-01

    Attempts by the European Commission to regulate food irradiation in the European Community by a directive have been repeatedly turned down by the European Parliament. The basis of information for the Parliamentarians was a Committee Report, which stated that irradiated foods had no nutritional value. This conclusion is compared with the richly available results of experimental studies. The authors conclude that the European Parliament has been completely misinformed. (orig.) [de

  9. Energy and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1978-01-01

    The energy used in food systems in the US amounts to about 16.5% of total US energy. An analysis has been made of the energy used in the many steps of the food-irradiation process. It is found that irradiation pasteurization uses only 21kJ/kg and radappertization 157kJ/kg, which is much less than the energy used in the other food processes. A comparison has also been made with other methods of preserving, distributing and preparing the meat for servings. It is found that the food irradiation can save significant amounts of energy. In the case of heat-sterilized and radiation-sterilized meats the largest fraction of the energy is used in the packaging, while in the frozen meats the largest energy consumption is by refrigeration in the distribution channels and in the home. (author)

  10. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  11. Detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyakova, A.; Tsvetkova, E.; Nikolova, R.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world application of irradiation as a technology in Food industry for increasing food safety, it became a need for methods of identification of irradiation. It was required to control international trade of irradiated foods, because of the certain that legally imposed food laws are not violated; supervise correct labeling; avoid multiple irradiation. Physical, chemical and biological methods for detection of irradiated foods as well principle that are based, are introducing in this summary

  12. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiated foods and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet discusses market testing of irradiate food, consumer response to irradiated products has always been positive, and in some countries commercial quantities of some irradiated food items have been sold on a regular basis. Consumers have shown no reluctance to buy irradiated food products. 4 refs

  13. Food irradiation: a technology for the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.

    1985-09-01

    After a brief review of the physical principles of the process of food irradiation and the biological and chemical effects of radiations, data concerning studies about the wholesomeness of irradiated food are presented. The most important fields of potential industrial applications are described. The technology of food irradiators, the economy, present status and future trends of food irradiation are analyzed, with emphasis on the French example

  14. e-Learning Course on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hénon, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Since May 2015, an online, interactive, multi-media and self-study course on Food Irradiation - Technology, Applications and Good Practices has been made available by the Food and Environmental Protection Section. This e-learning Course on Food Irradiation was initiated during a project (RAS/05/057) of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) Implementing Best Practices of Food Irradiation for Sanitary and Phytosanitary Purposes. Each module contains: • A lesson, largely based on the Manual of Good Practice in Food except for the first part (Food Irradiation) for which expanding the contents and addressing frequently asked questions seemed necessary. The latest chapters will help operators of irradiation facilities to appreciate and improve their practices. • A section called ‘Essentials’ that summarizes the key points. • A quiz to assess the knowledge acquired by the user from the course material. The quiz questions take a variety of forms: answer matching, multiple choice, true or false, picture selection, or simple calculation. Videos, Power Point presentations, pdf files and pictures enrich the contents. The course includes a glossary and approximately 80 downloadable references. These references cover safety of irradiated food, effects of irradiation on the nutritional quality of food, effects of irradiation on food microorganisms, insects and parasites, effects of irradiation on parasites, sanitary and phytosanitary applications of irradiation, packaging of irradiated food, food irradiation standards and regulations, history of food irradiation, and communication aspects.

  15. Irradiation of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Although irradiation is being investigated for the last more than 50 years for the application in preservation of food, it has not yet been exploited commercially in some countries like India. No other food processing technique has undergone such close scrutiny. There are many advantages to this process, which few others can claim. The temperature remains ambient during the process and the form of the food does not change resulting in very few changes in the sensory and nutritive quality of the food product. At the same time the microorganisms are effectively destroyed. Most of the spoilage and pathogenic organisms are sensitive to irradiation. Fortunately, most governments are supportive for the process and enacting laws permitting the process for foods

  16. Food irradiation: progress in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada; non-regulatory developments (poultry irradiation; fish irradiation; Government willingness to fund industry initiated projects; Government willingness to establish food irradiation research and pilot plant facilities; food industry interest is increasing significantly; Canadian Consumers Association positive response; the emergence of new consulting and entrepreneurial firms). (U.K.)

  17. Food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    1999-01-01

    Trade in food and agricultural products is important to all countries, the economies of many developing countries would be significantly improved if they were able to export more food and agricultural products. Unfortunately, many products can not be traded because they are infested with, or hosts to, harmful pests, contaminated with microorganisms, or spoil quickly. Foods contaminated with microorganisms cause economic losses, widespread illness and death. Several technologies and products have been developed to resolve problems in trading food and to improve food safety, but none can provide all the solutions. Irradiation is an effective technology to resolve technical problems in trade of many food and agricultural products, either as a stand- alone technology or in combination with others. As a disinfestation treatment it allows different levels of quarantine security to be targeted and it is one of few methods to control internal pests. The ability of irradiation virtually to eliminate key pathogenic organisms from meat, poultry, and spices is an important public health advantage. In addition to controlling pests and eliminating harmful bacteria, irradiation also extends the storage life of many foods. In the laboratories of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, many research projects were completed on the effects of gamma irradiation to the storage life of chicken meat, anchovy, Turkish fermented sausage, dried and fresh fruits and vegetables and also research projects were conducted on the effects of gamma irradiation on microorganisms (Salmonella, Campylo-bacteria, E.coli and S.aureus in white and red meat) and parasites (food-borne, trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodes spp.)

  18. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, J.; Stanbrook, I.; Shersby, M.

    1989-01-01

    The House of Commons was asked to support the Government's intention to allow the use of the irradiation of foodstuffs under conditions that will fully safeguard the interests of the consumer. The Government, it was stated, regards this process as a useful additional way to ensure food safety. The effect of the radiation in killing bacteria will enhance safety standards in poultry meat, in some shell-fish and in herbs and spices. The problem of informing the public when the food has been irradiated, especially as there is no test to detect the irradiation, was raised. The subject was debated for an hour and a half and is reported verbatim. The main point raised was over whether the method gave safer food as not all bacteria were killed in the process. The motion was carried. (U.K.)

  19. Food irradiation: a reply to the food industry; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari; Piccioni, R.

    1989-01-01

    In a reply to a critical article on food irradiation, Dr Ari Brynjolfsson of the International Facility of Food Irradiation Technology contends that the food industry has no interest in supporting the nuclear industry by using nuclear wastes as radiation sources - high voltage electron generators are more practical and economic. Also World Health Organization Toxicologists have concluded irradiated food is safe toxicologically, nutritionally and microbiologically. A study in India found no difference in polyploidy in children fed irradiated or non-irradiated food. In reply Dr Richard Piccioni suggests that the cancer risk from irradiated food is high, that the Indian study showed that irradiated food can cause an increase in polyploidy in well-fed adults, and suggests that Cs-137 from nuclear reactors will be used in food irradiation. (U.K.)

  20. Food irradiation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 80 0 C (bacon to 53 0 C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40 0 C to -20 0 C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)

  1. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  2. Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets

  3. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Myeong Uh; Cho, Han Ok; Yang, Jae Seung; Cho, Seong Ki; Kang, Il Joon

    1994-07-01

    With the increased consumption of processed food, quality control techniques are inevitably required in the food industry for its mass production and distribution. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of irradiation for solving the infrastructural problems in the food industry by developing viable alternatives to conventional technology and by improving the quality of processed foods. Even though food irradiation technology has been commercialized in 25 countries, and 18 items of irradiated foods have been approved for human consumption domestically, infrastructural studies are needed for the practical application of this technology. In order to enlarge the utilization of irradiation technology in solving the infrastructural problems of the food industry, this project was designed to investigate the efficacy of gamma irradiation for improving the process and physical properties of dried foods (corn and soybean), for preserving the reserved foods for emergency (red pepper) and for producing natural products (red polyketied pigment) using microbial immobilization with radiation-induced polymer

  4. Market testing of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Ho Minh

    2001-01-01

    Viet Nam has emerged as one of the three top producers and exporters of rice in the world. Tropical climate and poor infrastructure of preservation and storage lead to huge losses of food grains, onions, dried fish and fishery products. Based on demonstration irradiation facility pilot scale studies and marketing of irradiated rice, onions, mushrooms and litchi were successfully undertaken in Viet Nam during 1992-1998. Irradiation technology is being used commercially in Viet Nam since 1991 for insect control of imported tobacco and mould control of national traditional medicinal herbs by both government and private sectors. About 30 tons of tobacco and 25 tons of herbs are irradiated annually. Hanoi Irradiation Centre has been continuing open house practices for visitors from school, universities and various different organizations and thus contributed in improved public education. Consumers were found to prefer irradiated rice, onions, litchi and mushrooms over those nonirradiated. (author)

  5. Development of data base on food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Izumi, Fumio

    1995-12-01

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author).

  6. Development of data base on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji; Izumi, Fumio.

    1995-12-01

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author)

  7. A history of study on safety of irradiated foods (2). Clostridium botulinum in irradiated seafood from the reports by the United States Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    This review is a part of ''history of study on the wholesomeness of irradiated foods''. Clostridium botulinum in irradiated seafood have been of great concern at the beginning of development of irradiated food. This review describes the studies on Clostridium botulinum by US. Atomic Energy Commission in 1960's with their data and what they recognized it as a risk factor of irradiated foods. In 1999 FAO/IAEA/WHO reported that Clostridium botulinum type A and B spors are apparently the most resistant and thus of great concern in the radiation sterilization of food, whereas the less radiation-resistant type E spores are important in low dose irradiation of foods, particularly fishery products. This review also describes current break-through application by NASA and Canadian irradiator. (author)

  8. Food irradiation - general aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes research and development experience in food irradiation followed by commercial utilisation of multi-purpose plants. The main design objectives should be high efficiency and uniform dose. Particular care must be given to dosimetry and the use of plastic dosimeters is described. Capital outlay for a 1 MCi Cobalt 60 irradiator is estimated to be 2.5 million dollars giving a unit processing cost of 0.566 dollars/ft 3 of throughput for 8000 hour/year use at a dose of 25 kGy. (2.5 Mrad). The sale of irradiated food for human consumption in Britain is not yet permitted but it is expected that enabling legislation will be introduced towards the end of 1985

  9. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitch, J.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed

  10. Consumer attitudes towards irradiation of food (a pilot study in the Netherlands) and some suggestions on how to achieve acceptance of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defesche, F.; Van Asperen de Boer

    1983-01-01

    A pilot study on the reactions and opinions of consumers in the matter of irradiated food and on the underlying attitudes was carried out in the Netherlands by Young and Rubicam-Koster, b.v. in 1981. The method used was of a qualitative, small-scale nature using focus groups and in-depth interviews among Dutch housewives

  11. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  12. Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

  13. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  14. The return of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.

    1992-01-01

    In discussing the need for food irradiation the author examines the problems that arise in processing foods of different kinds: spices, meat, fruits and vegetables. It is demonstrated that the relatively low dose of radiation required to eliminate the reproductive capacity of the pest can be tolerated by most fruits and vegetables without damage. Moreover the safety of irradiated food is acknowledged by major national and international food organizations and committees. The author agreed that when food irradiation has been approved by a country, consumers should be able to choose between irradiated and non-irradiated food. To enable the choice, clear and unambiguous labelling must be enforced. 13 refs., 1 tab., ills

  15. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.; Steeves, C.; Beaulieu, D.

    1993-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. (author)

  16. Food irradiation: its role in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R. U.

    1985-01-01

    There are food safety criteria generally defined by international groups and specifically defined by individual countries. Food irradiation will be discussed in the light of food safety regulations. The merits and acceptability of food irradiation in promoting trade within and between countries will also be discussed. The need for public awareness and training of technical personnel will be highlighted

  17. Detection of some irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NASR, E.H.A

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the possibility of using two rapid methods namely Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Direct Solvent Extraction (DSE) methods for extraction and isolation of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) followed by detecting this chemical marker by Gas chromatography technique and used this marker for identification of irradiated some foods containing fat (beef meat, chicken, camembert cheese and avocado) post irradiation, during cold and frozen storage. Consequently, this investigation was designed to study the following main points:- 1- The possibility of applying SFE-GC and DSE-GC rapid methods for the detection of 2-DCB from irradiated food containing fat (beef meat, chicken, camembert cheese and avocado fruits) under investigation.2-Studies the effect of gamma irradiation doses on the concentration of 2-DCB chemical marker post irradiation and during frozen storage at -18 degree C of chicken and beef meats for 12 months.3-Studies the effect of gamma irradiation doses on the concentration of 2-DCB chemical marker post irradiation and during cold storage at 4±1 degree C of camembert cheese and avocado fruits for 20 days.

  18. National food irradiation programme of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of studies on feasibility and wholesomeness of irradiated food is presented. Irradiation projects were realized of potatoes, onions, wheat, Vienna sausages, fish-paste products, and mandarine oranges. Mutagenecity tests with Salmonella or E. coli, chromosome aberration tests, dominant lethal tests, fibroblasts and micronucleus tests, and toxicity tests performed in amimals fed with irradiated food showed no positive results

  19. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet focusses on the question of whether irradiation can be used to make spoiled food good. No food processing procedures can substitute for good hygienic practices, and good manufacturing practices must be followed in the preparation of food whether or not the food is intended for further processing by irradiation or any other means. 3 refs

  20. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  1. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  2. The irradiation of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Thomas, J.C.; Nairaud, D.

    1998-01-01

    The irradiation of foods opens the way to new products and processes that are potentially very attractive to the agro-food industry. The treatments have been shown to be safe and their implementation can be adequately controlled. However, to date, these methods have only been used in a very restricted way. We discuss here the reasons for this limited use, the factors likely to affect future development of the technique and its current regulation. The next publication of European Community directives should greatly change the nature of French regulation. In particular, there are likely to be major changes in product labelling, with an obligation not only to label treated products but also to label ingredients and ingredients of constituents of the product as being 'treated by irradiation' or 'treated with ionising radiation'. (authors)

  3. Regulation of food irradiation and detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    The main international standards for irradiated foods are those produced by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The international regulatory environment is now favourable towards irradiated foods. Most countries still regulate on a food-by-food, case-by-case basis. However in Asia there is movement towards a Harmonised Regulation for Irradiated Foods. The WHO believes that irradiated foods may be safely irradiated at any dose above 10 kGy. This may lead to the Codex maximum dose being raised or abandoned. If this occurs there are opportunities to produce shelf-stable foods in lightweight packaging that last for years at room temperature. Detection methods for irradiated foods are now available and may assist to reassure consumers that labelling regulations can be enforced. (author)

  4. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food additives and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the issue of the irradiation of food containing food additives or pesticide residues. The conclusion is that there is no health hazard posed by radiolytic products of pesticides or food additives. 1 ref

  5. Food irradiation and consumer values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.; Schutz, H.G.; Sommer, R.

    1988-01-01

    A mail survey technique was used to determine if value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters could distinguish between subjects expressing different levels of concern and willingness to buy irradiated food. Concern toward irradiated food was lower than concern for other food safety issues, probably because many expressed uncertainty regarding irradiation. Those ranking the value “an ecologically balanced world” expressed the greatest irradiation concern. Factors which could predict high irradiation concern were being highly concerned about the use of chemical sprays on food, completing more formal education and being female; those believing that life was controlled by luck were less concerned. Irradiation concern was a principal factor determining willingness to buy irradiated foods. Innovative consumers were more likely to try irradiated foods than noninnovative. Implications for consumer education are presented

  6. High-dose irradiation: wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy. Report of a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of an international group of experts convened by the World Health Organization, in association with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider the implications of food irradiated to doses higher than those recommended in 1980 by the Joint Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food. Irradiation ensures the hygienic quality of food and extends shelf-life. The public perception of the safety of food irradiation has generally precluded its widespread use. However, current applications of food irradiation to doses over 10 kGy have been in the development of high-quality shelf-stable convenience foods for specific target groups such as immunosuppressed individuals and those under medical care, astronauts and outdoor enthusiasts. The Study Group reviewed data relating to the toxicological, nutritional, radiation chemical and physical aspects of food irradiated to doses above 10 kGy from a wide range and number of studies carried out over the last forty years. This report presents a comprehensive summary, along with references, of the effectiveness and safety of the irradiation process. It concludes that foods treated with doses greater than 10 kGy can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate when produced under established Good Manufacturing Practice.

  7. High-dose irradiation: Wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy. Report of a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of an international group of experts convened by the World Health Organization, in association with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency, to consider the implications of food irradiated to doses higher than those recommended in 1980 by the Joint Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food. Irradiation ensures the hygienic quality of food and extends shelf-life. The public perception of the safety of food irradiation has generally precluded its widespread use. However, current applications of food irradiation to doses over 10 kGy have been in the development of high-quality shelf-stable convenience foods for specific target groups such as immunosuppressed individuals and those under medical care, astronauts and outdoor enthusiasts. The Study Group reviewed data relating to the toxicological, nutritional, radiation chemical and physical aspects of food irradiated to doses above 10kGy from a wide range and number of studies carried out over the last forty years. This report presents a comprehensive summary, along with references, of the effectiveness and safety of the irradiation process. It concludes that foods treated with doses greater than 10kGy can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate when produced under established Good Manufacturing Practice

  8. An overview of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    This outline survey reviews the subject of food irradiation under the following headings:- brief history, the process (sources, main features of a food processing facility, interaction of radiation with food, main applications of the technology, packaging) consumer concerns (safety, nutritional changes, labelling, detection), international use of food irradiation and legal aspects. (UK)

  9. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, M.H.; Scholten, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)

  10. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  11. Brazilian Consumer views on food irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, J.H.; Barcellos, M.N.; Frewer, L.J.; Nunes, T.P.; Landgraf, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the consumer attitude to food irradiation in São Paulo, Brazil, through a qualitative research perspective. Three focus groups were conducted with 30 consumers, responsible for food choices and purchases. Both irradiated and nonirradiated food samples were served in the

  12. Food irradiation: Its role in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.U.

    1985-01-01

    This document provides a brief overview of the process of food irradiation and describes the potential for food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region. The advantages in controlling food-borne diseases and in promoting trade are discussed. 4 tabs

  13. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1988-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for some 30 years. Nearly 90 of the 140 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. The food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada, the factors that influence it, and some significant non-regulatory developments are reviewed. (author)

  14. View of food industry on acceptance of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moog, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    Food processing with irradiation improve food quality, extend shelf life, reduce losses, but how make this process acceptable and interesting to food industries? In France the 'Association pour la promotion de l'industrie et de l'agriculture (APRIA)' has achieved qualitative and quantitative studies on the acceptability of food irradiation to french industrialists and consumers. Their views are opposing: the food industries consider the food irradiation as technology ahead of its time. The consumer is frightened by such a process which do not change or change slightly the product. This paper reports the analysis and the content of the french industry speech and the public opinion on food preservation methods notably food irradiation. The factors of food irradiation acceptance are discussed and recommendations are given. 1 fig. (F.M.)

  15. Food irradiation and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival. (author)

  16. Food irradiation scenario in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Over 3 decades of research and developmental effort in India have established the commercial potential for food irradiation to reduce post-harvest losses and to ensure food safety. Current regulations permit irradiation of onions, potatoes and spices for domestic consumption and operation of commercial irradiators for treatment of food. In May 1997 draft rules have been notified permitting irradiation of several additional food items including rice, wheat products, dry fruits, mango, meat and poultry. Consumers and food industry have shown a positive attitude to irradiated foods. A prototype commercial irradiator for spices set up by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) is scheduled to commence operation in early 1998. A commercial demonstration plant for treatment of onions is expected to be operational in the next 2 years in Lasalgaon, Nashik district. (author)

  17. Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omi, Nelson M.

    2005-01-01

    In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

  18. National symposium on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    This report contains abstracts of papers delivered at the National symposium on food irradiation held in Pretoria. The abstracts have been grouped into the following sections: General background, meat, agricultural products, marketing and radiation facilities - cost and plant design. Each abstract has been submutted separately to INIS. Tables listing irradiated food products cleared for human consumption in different countries are given as well as a table listing those irradiated food items that have been cleared in South Africa

  19. Food irradiation: the 'experts' choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, P.

    1990-01-01

    The UK Government has decided to lift the ban on food irradiation. The proponents of food irradiation claim it is an effective and safe means of preserving food, at minimum risk to the public. However, the prospect of irradiated food being on the shelves has created considerable opposition from environmental, consumer, public health groups and trade unions. The long list of unanswered health and safety questions means the public could be exposed to a whole new range of risks. The consumer is justified as saying ''if food has to be irradiated, what was wrong with it, good food does not need irradiating''. The answer to food contamination is improved hygiene and training in farm, factory and shop. (author)

  20. Societal benefits of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Food irradiation has a direct impact on society by reducing the occurrence of food-borne illness, decreasing food spoilage and waste, and facilitating global trade. Food irradiation is approved in 40 countries around the world to decontaminate food of disease and spoilage causing microorganisms, sterilize insect pests, and inhibit sprouting. A recent estimate suggests that 500,000 metric of food is currently irradiated worldwide, primarily to decontaminate spices. Since its first use in the 1960s the use of irradiation for food has grown slowly, but it remains the major technology of choice for certain applications. The largest growth sector in recent years has been phytosanitary irradiation of fruit to disinfest fruit intended for international shipment. For many countries which have established strict quarantine standards, irradiation offers as an effective alternative to chemical fumigants some of which are being phased out due to their effects on the ozone layer. Insects can be sterilized at very low dose levels, thus quality of fruit can be maintained. Irradiation is also highly effective in destroying microbial pathogens such as Salmonella spp., E. coli, and Listeria, hence its application for treatment of spices, herbs, dried vegetables, frozen seafood, poultry, and meat and its contribution to reducing foodborne illnesses. Unfortunately the use of irradiation for improving food safety has been under-exploited. This presentation will provide details on the use, benefits, opportunities, and challenges of food irradiation. (author)

  1. Status of food irradiation worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1992-01-01

    The past four decades have witnessed the steady development of food irradiation technology - from laboratory-scale research to full-scale commercial application. The present status of this technology, approval for processing food items in 37 countries and commerical use of irradiated food in 24 countries, will be discussed. The trend in the use of irradiation to overcome certain trade barriers such as quarantine and hygiene will be presented. Emphasis will be made on the use of irradiation as an alternative to chemical treatments of food. (orig.) [de

  2. Food Irradiation Technology in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Guzman, Zenaida M.

    2015-01-01

    The applications of ionizing radiation for the preservation of food and agricultural products by delaying ripening, destruction of insect pests and pathogenic microorganisms have shown great promise in the country. For more than 30 years, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in collaboration with other government and private sectors, has undertaken research and development studies and pilot and semi-commercial scale irradiation of foods. Some of the foods found to be benefit from the use of irradiation technology are mangoes and papayas for disinfestations and delay ripening; onions and garlic for inhibition of sprouting; spices and dehydrated products for reduction of microbial growth and rice and corn for insect and shelf-life extension. Two regulations approved by the Department of Health and the Bureau of Plant Industry are in place creating an enabling environment for food safety and trade of irradiated food. The conduct of awareness program in various parts of the country provided knowledge and information about the food irradiation technology. The Institute has been part of the international projects (IAEA and USDA) on the use of irradiation for sanity and phytosanitary treatment of food. The projects not only established the potential benefits of food irradiation for socio-economic development of the country but also built considerable capacity to properly treat foods. Some of the recent developments in the area of food irradiation include publication of Philippine National Standard (PNS) on Food Irradiation: Code of Good Irradiation Practices which will serve as a guide for stakeholders to irradiate food, a newly-established Electron Beam Facility to demonstrate the potential use of EB and a feasibility study of putting-up a commercial irradiation facility in the country. (author)

  3. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamikazy Kume

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  4. Facts about food irradiation: Packaging of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the effects on packaging materials of food irradiation. Extensive research has shown that almost all commonly used food packaging materials toted are suitable for use. Furthermore, many packaging materials are themselves routinely sterilized by irradiation before being used. 2 refs

  5. Food irradiation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The article indicates the necessity for additional methods of food preservation and emphasises that food irradiation is developing into an important method of food preservation because it has been proved scientifically and practically that food irradiation can be applied effectively; also that there is absolute certainty that radiation-processed products are safe and nutritious and that such food is acceptable to the consumer and food trade, also with a view to costs. It discusses the joint food irradiation programme of the AEB and Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and points out that exemption for the irradiation of potatoes was already obtained in 1977 and later for mango's, paw-paws, chicken, onions, garlic and strawberries. Conditional exemption was obtained for avocado's and dried bananas. Other food-kinds on which research is being continued are grapes, melons, mushrooms, stone fruit and spices

  6. Acceptance of irradiated food: an education issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modanez, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The commercial use of irradiated food technology in Brazil has a slow growing due to misinterpretation by most Brazilian consumers, who have been mislead by wrong ideas about the meaning of what is nuclear energy. Researches indicate that consumers have difficult in accepting such a technology due to the confusion between the terms irradiation and radioactivity, which are often related to health risks. When properly informed about the process, its purpose and the benefits offered by food irradiation technology, most consumers react positively. Therefore, this work aims to: first, to evaluate the acceptance of irradiated foods by Brazilian consumers; second, to verify the teaching at school about the food irradiation process; third, to analyze the Brazilian school curriculum from elementary school to high school, regarding nuclear energy applications; then, to compare the content taught in Brazil with the content covered in other surveyed countries, such as France, United States, and China. The methodology of this study consisted of a systematic survey of the specific literature, and a questionnaire to verify the acceptance of irradiated food by Brazilian consumers. According to the researched bibliography, it was clear the recommendation of an early school education about the usage of nuclear energy, more specifically, food irradiation. Such a recommendation is due to the fact that the consulted costumers, in Brazil and other countries mentioned in this work, do not clearly understand the full benefits of irradiated food. Hence, education is fundamental for the acceptance of new technologies by consumers, as it is the case with irradiated food. (author)

  7. A feasibility study of the use of DNA fragmentation as a method for detecting irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.L.; Bulford, B.B.

    1990-07-01

    The main conclusions of the study are: 1. Gamma-irradiation at doses of 1-10 kGy, as recommended for use in food irradiation, causes extensive fragmentation of DNA molecules. The degree of fragmentation increases with increasing doses of irradiation treatment. 2. Irradiation-induced DNA fragments can be rapidly separated from intact DNA using a simple ultra-filtration method. 3. The separated DNA fragments can be detected/quantified rapidly using the simple Invitrogen DNA DipStick procedure. Dot-blot assays based on probes to widely conserved genes (e.g. histone genes) may also prove of value, but will require further development. 4. As DNA is present in a wide range of foods, DNA fragmentation offers a potentially useful marker for the irradiation treatment of foods. The assay now requires assessment with DNA extracts of a variety of foods. (author)

  8. Evaluation of knowledge about irradiated foods by Food Banks in Brazil: Dissemination of irradiation in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2017-07-01

    Despite the poverty in the world, part of all food produced in the world is wasted. The contrast of high food production in the world with hunger, food insecurity and food waste points to the need for combined action and the use of technologies as a solution to combat and eradicate hunger and food waste. Food banks have sprung up worldwide receiving food surpluses and passing on to the needy. These have been encouraged by the ONU - United Nations Organization, however, the lack of quality assurance of these foods already in the food bank has restricted the desired shipment. In this sense, ionizing radiation applied in food brought many positive results, such as increased validity and control insect infestation. So, the aim of this study was to initiate a partnership between irradiation and the food bank through the development of a questionnaire to evaluate the knowledge and acceptance of individuals in the food bank in Brazil. In addition, this study aimed to standardize a basis questionnaire for future research assessment of irradiated foods and disseminate irradiated food. For the construction of the questionnaire as a measuring instrument, a comprehensive and rigorous literature review was made. The questionnaire as a measurement instrument was submitted to the research ethics committee and approved. As a result, the questionnaire has three parts, personal issues, assertive issues and questions of multiple choices and finally an informative question with video. The questionnaire was applied in Ceagesp food bank in the biggest center of food in Brazil. (author)

  9. Evaluation of knowledge about irradiated foods by Food Banks in Brazil: Dissemination of irradiation in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the poverty in the world, part of all food produced in the world is wasted. The contrast of high food production in the world with hunger, food insecurity and food waste points to the need for combined action and the use of technologies as a solution to combat and eradicate hunger and food waste. Food banks have sprung up worldwide receiving food surpluses and passing on to the needy. These have been encouraged by the ONU - United Nations Organization, however, the lack of quality assurance of these foods already in the food bank has restricted the desired shipment. In this sense, ionizing radiation applied in food brought many positive results, such as increased validity and control insect infestation. So, the aim of this study was to initiate a partnership between irradiation and the food bank through the development of a questionnaire to evaluate the knowledge and acceptance of individuals in the food bank in Brazil. In addition, this study aimed to standardize a basis questionnaire for future research assessment of irradiated foods and disseminate irradiated food. For the construction of the questionnaire as a measuring instrument, a comprehensive and rigorous literature review was made. The questionnaire as a measurement instrument was submitted to the research ethics committee and approved. As a result, the questionnaire has three parts, personal issues, assertive issues and questions of multiple choices and finally an informative question with video. The questionnaire was applied in Ceagesp food bank in the biggest center of food in Brazil. (author)

  10. Recent developments in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    Nowadays there is growing interest by the food industry, government and consumers in the use of food irradiatin to kill harmful insects, prevent diseases and keep food fresher longer. This interest has been stimulated by growing public concern over chemicals used in foods. While food irradiation technologies have been around for more than 50 years, only recently have they become cost effective and gained prominent attention as potentially safer ways of protecting food products and public health. This paper looks at recent developments in food irradiation processing and discusses the issues that lie ahead. (author)

  11. Recent situation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarized recent situation of food irradiation from July 2002 to June 2003. The Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for Radiation Processing of Food were revised by 26th CAC, 2003. The maximum absorbed dose delivered to a food should not exceed 10 kGy, except when necessary to achieve a legitimate technological purpose. Guidelines for the Use of Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Measure were carried by 5th Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM) in April 2003. The Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) permitted irradiation of eight kinds of foods. Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in EU published Revision of the Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the irradiation of food. In United States, the amount of irradiated beef is increasing. To keep safety of our foods in today's changing environment, Parliament in Japan passed the Food Safety Basic Law in May, 2003. Under the law, the Japanese government promotes several key food safety policies. (S.Y.)

  12. ASEAN workshop on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This proceedings was organized by the ASEAN Food Handling Bureau in Collaboration with the Thai Atomic Energy Commission for Peace. Experts from ASEAN and overseas were invited to present a series of papers covering the state of the art of irradiation technology and the important issues relating to food irradiation

  13. National symposium on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.; Brodrick, H.T.; Van Niekerk, W.C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains proceedings of papers delivered at the national symposium on food irradiation held in Pretoria. The proceedings have been grouped into the following sections: general background; meat; agricultural products; marketing; and radiation facilities - cost and plant design. Each paper has been submitted separately to INIS. Tables listing irradiated food products cleared for human consumption in different countries are given

  14. World trend of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J.G. van

    1984-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years several policies and programmes have been developed in the field of food irradiation at the national level and by international organizations concerned, which aim at the general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of the wholesomeness, the technological and economic feasibility, and the regulatory aspects of this process. This paper reivews international aspects of the standardization of food irradiation, national regulatory aspects of food irradiation, general remarks on the acceptance of Codex General Standards for irradiated foods, and specific remarks on the Codex General Standard for irradiated foods. An overall average dose for all foods, which was formulated in 1980 by a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee, is 10 kGy. This 10 kGy is not a level above which irradiated foods become unsafe, rather, it is a level at or below which safety has been established. Irradiation dose is divided into low-dose (up to about 1 kGy) and medium-dose (about 1-10 kGy). Future outlook and needs are discussed. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for over 30 years. Some 83 of the 147 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. This paper is an update on the food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada and the factors that influence it. It also reviews some significant non-regulatory developments. (author)

  16. Food irradiation - a Northern Ireland dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation is a technology which has been exploited in a wide variety of industries ranging from sterilization of medical products and polymer modification to applications with respect to food. Whilst food irradiation has recently become a controversial subject, the process has been studied for many years. Many products could be irradiated to advantage and these need to be thoroughly investigated before final recommendations can be made as to the commercial feasibility and suitability of the processing technology in the Northern Ireland context

  17. Identification of irradiated foods using the thermoluminescence apparatus TOLEDO - Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Van Thuan; Pham Quang Vinh; Dang Thanh Luong; Pham Quang Dien

    1990-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) method based on TOLEDO apparatus has been carried out, firstly in Vietnam, for identification of some irradiated dry food: paprika, pepper, curry and green beans. The TL effect of irradiation with dose 0.8 Mrad is greater than the effect of unirradiated samples at least by one order. The TOLEDO was proved to be able to determine TL intensity as function of absorbed dose and post-irradiation storage time. The measurement procedure is rapid and simple, that expect to be used as a standard control method of irradiated food. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  18. Food irradiation, profits and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    The utility of the irradiation to overcome diverse problems of lost nutritious, it has been demonstrated in multiple investigation works, that its have confirmed the value and the inoculation of the irradiated foods. The quantity of energy applied to each food, is in function of the wanted effect. In this document a guide with respect to the practical application and the utility of the irradiation process in different foods, as well as the suggested dose average is shown. Among the limitations of the use of this technology, its are the costs and not being able to apply it to some fresh foods. (Author)

  19. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references

  20. Present and future of food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Cai Jiming; Pan Pingchuan; Liu Ge

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of foods and agricultural products by irradiation technology in China has become an increasingly accepted practice and has been recognized as a public health intervention measure for controling pathogenic microbes and pests on foods since early 1980s. This paper gives an outline on the history and the current status of food irradiation in China, including the research interest, commercial application, public acceptance, regulations and hygienic standards of irradiated foods, and the irradiation facilities for food irradiation. The newly finished or scheduled irradiation facilities in China up to 2007 are introduced. And problems with the food irradiation studies, especially in analysis of food quality during irradiation, the implementation of GMP and HACCP in the food irradiation production and harmonization of food irradiation regulations with international standards, are also discussed. (authors)

  1. Detection of irradiated food: Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.

    1999-01-01

    Apart from the administrative monitoring procedures, - documentation by the irradiation facility operators and the documents accompanying irradiated foods -, reliable methods for food testing and post-factum detection of foods treated with ionizing radiation are required. The paper reviews the methods available for this purpose, summarizes results of the interlaboratory comparisons performed for verification, and lists the mandatory procedures required by the law. It is important to note that methods are available today that will detect unauthorized irradiation in almost any of the foods that are suitable for radiation treatment. In addition, the available methods are improved and refined whenever possible. The results of monitoring and testing activities so far according to the food surveillance regime in Germany show that there are only few irradiated foods on the market. (orig./cB) [de

  2. New developments in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molins, R.

    1996-01-01

    Food irradiation technology is rapidly gaining worldwide acceptance as a promising tool to help alleviate some important food security and safety concerns, and to facilitate the international trade in food. Because of the different priorities that these issues receive in various countries, food irradiation is being considered by developing countries as the technology of choice over chemical fumigants in applications related to the reduction of food losses such as the insect disinfestation of stored staple and export commodities and the inhibition of sprouting of bulb and tuber crops. In contrast, the use of irradiation as a 'cold pasteurization' method to improve the hygienic quality and safety of foods is emerging as the primary field of application in developed countries. Moreover, the use of irradiation as an alternative, non-chemical quarantine treatment for fresh fruits, vegetables and other agricultural commodities entering international trade will no doubt benefit exporting as well as importing countries. 4 figs

  3. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Irradition has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of 60 Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient

  4. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  5. Study on intervention sterile irradiation of ready to eat foods given to narcotics rehabilitation residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanungkalit, B.; Irawati, Z.; Siagian, C.M.; Widasari, L.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of macro and micro nutrient elements, that serve as primary factor in regulating a human immune response, might lead to malnutrition and declining the body immune. This phenomenon is commonly found in immunocompromised patients such as people infected with HIV and known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (NAIDS). One of the efforts to improve the nutritional status in immunocompromised patients is delivering high-quality of foods that improve the immune status resulting in lower morbidity and mortality. Sterile, safe, high quality with complete nutritional composition and wholesome ”ready to eat” food products can be supplied. Sterilization process using ionizing radiation in food is one of the means to eliminate pathogenic bacteria as well as preserve among others, without affecting their nutritional content of the final product. Different types of radiation sterilization of ready to eat foods based on traditional recipes can be prepared without adhering the recommended dietary allowance, and patients will be more flexible and comfortable in choosing the serving menu. Such dishes based on high-quality protein and fat from fish, beef and chicken meat irradiated at a dose of 45 kGy in terms of ”pepes gold fish”, ”pepes anchovy”, ”beef semur”, ”beef rendang” and different processed chicken such as yellow seasoning, roasted and sweet, administered for 21 days to resident Therapy and Rehabilitation Unit of the National Narcotics Board (NNB). Activities undertaken in this study include the selection of respondents, consisted of the evaluation willingness to participate, inclusion criteria, and blood test performed in the laboratory of respondents before and after eating the foods. The results showed that various ready to eat foods in vacuum packed in a laminate pouch then irradiated at the dose of 45 kGy under cryogenic condition could improve the nutritional and immunity status of the selected residents considered as immuno compromised

  6. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    and ultraviolet radiation may become practically feasible. Studies of mathematical models for microbial kill by radiation and of the influence of environmental factors on radiation sensitivity of spoilage micro-organisms were presented. The largest number of papers has dealt with rather sophisticated studies on the minor chemical changes occurring in various foods and food components treated with ionizing radiations

  7. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Nam, Hye Seon; Oh, Kyong Nam; Woo, Si Ho; Kim, Kyeung Eun; Yi, Sang Duk; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Kyong Su; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2000-04-01

    In 1999, we have been studied (1) on the detection of irradiated foods by ESR spectroscopy, by thermoluminescence, and by viscometry for physical measurements, (2) on the detection of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones derived from fatty foods by GC/MS for chemical measurements, (3) on the screening and detection of irradiated foods by Comet assay and immunochemical (ELISA) technique for biological or biochemical measurements

  8. Status of food irradiation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Yves

    1985-01-01

    The situation regarding food irradiation in France is one of cautious progress, with clearance of specific food items including onions, garlic, shallots, deboned poultry meats and 72 spices. A general clearance for the use of ionizing radiation treatment up to 1 kilogray is under consideration. A most important guiding principle has apparently been accepted in France that no further toxicological studies are required for food irradiation dose levels up to ten kilograys

  9. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Nam, Hye Seon; Oh, Kyong Nam; Woo, Si Ho; Kim, Kyeung Eun; Yi, Sang Duk; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Kyong Su; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2000-04-01

    In 1999, we have been studied (1) on the detection of irradiated foods by ESR spectroscopy, by thermoluminescence, and by viscometry for physical measurements, (2) on the detection of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones derived from fatty foods by GC/MS for chemical measurements, (3) on the screening and detection of irradiated foods by Comet assay and immunochemical (ELISA) technique for biological or biochemical measurements.

  10. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  11. Food irradiation: Facts or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is at a political crossroad. In one direction, it is moving forward supported by overwhelming scientific evidence of its safety and benefits to economy and health. In the opposite direction, it threatens to be derailed by misleading claims about its safety and usefulness. Whether people will ultimately benefit from the use of irradiation to help fight serious food problems, or whether they will allow the technology to go to waste, will be determined by how successful people are in separating the facts from the fiction of food irradiation

  12. International status of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1982-09-01

    Recent international moves that are likely to result in an increasing acceptance of irradiated foods are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the activities of the FAO, WHO, Codex Alimentarius and to attitudes in the United States and the Asian-Pacific region. In 1979, the Codex Alimentarius Commission adopted a Recommended General Standard for Irradiated Food. A resume is given of a revised version of the standard that is presently under consideration. However, remaining barriers to trade in irradiated food are briefly discussed, such as legal and regulatory problems, labelling, public acceptance and economic viability

  13. Luminescence detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The need for forensic tests to identify irradiated foods has been widely recognised at a time of growing international trade in such products and impending changes in UK and EEC legislation to control the process. This paper outlines the requirements for and of such tests, and discusses recent developments in luminescence approaches aimed at meeting the needs of public analysts, retailers and consumers. Detecting whether or not food has been irradiated, and if so to what dose, is one of the challenges which food irradiation poses to the scientist. (author)

  14. The return of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The author challenges the claim that gamma radiation or electron beams provide a useful method for the preservation of food. He believes that Australia will better protect its image as a supplier of high quality foods if we continue to prohibit food irradiation. Alternative safer, less expensive and more effective ways of achieving the same goals are enunciated. 17 refs., 1 tab., ills

  15. Food irradiation nears commercial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One person out of eight in the world today suffers from chronic undernourishment. This problem is likely to get worse as the world's population doubles during the next thirty to forty years. Since about 25% or more of our harvested food is lost due to various kinds of wastage and spoilage, food preservation is no less important than food production. To supply the world's demand for food, it is more reasonable to conserve what is produced than to produce more to compensate for subsequent losses. Thus, it is obvious that all methods of preserving food and agricultural produce should be examined to see if their use might alleviate the world's food shortage, and that to develop better and safer techniques of food preservation will improve food supplies. Food preservation is an ever greater problem for the developing countries, not only because of their chronic problems of undernourishment, but also because most of them are in tropical or sub-tropical regions where food spoilage is rapid. The IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) held a symposium on food irradiation at Colombo in Sri Lanka. The symposium paid special attention to the use of food irradiation in preserving tropical fruits as well as fish and fish products. It also examined the cost of the food irradiation process and compared it with those of conventional processes. Food irradiation is one field in which advance is most likely to be achieved through international co-operation. This co-operation has been supported by the IAEA and FAO in a number of ways. During the last 15 years three previous symposia (Karlsruhe, 1966; Bombay, 1972; Wageningen, 1977), numerous panel meetings, and training courses, have been held on this subject and many nations' food irradiation projects have been supported by technical assistance and co-ordinated research programmes

  16. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Vietnam. Food irradiation programme planning facility operation and pilot scale studies RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Vietnam, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission to Vietnam between 16 and 23 March 1991, to the Hanoi Irradiation Center of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission. This mission included the following: The expert inspected the new Soviet automated, dry storage pilot plant gamma irradiator in the final stages of construction on the outskirts of Hanoi, and met with senior staff of the Hanoi Irradiation Center plus the Center specialized groups to hear and take note of their progress, problems and materials and manpower training expectations, etc. A tour of a large rice and vegetable growing cooperative outside Hanoi was made, followed by a meeting with members of the Cooperative's governing body. This cooperative will participate in pilot scale food irradiation feasibility studies once the new irradiator is operational. The expert provided a technical seminar to the Hanoi Irradiation Center staff, plus a general seminar to members of the Consumers Union of Vietnam plus invited guests, on radiation processing in general and food irradiation in particular, during the week. The expert accompanied Irradiation Center staff to Haiphong to visit the National Institute for Marine Products Research plus two Government-run fishery products processing plants in connection with the marine products side of the national food irradiation programme. He was accompanied to a meeting at the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry to meet with the Vice-Minister and staff plus food and allied industry representatives. (author)

  17. Estimation of the effect of food irradiation on total dietary vitamin availability as compared with dietary allowances: study for Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, P.; Ladomery, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether irradiation treatment of all foods, for which this treatment is of recognised technological usefulness, would have any detrimental effect on total dietary vitamin availability for consumption by the Argentinian population. Per capita availability of foods produced in or imported into Argentina that could be usefully irradiated and which are usually consumed in the country was recorded from FAO food balance sheets. The vitamin content of the foods and the vitamin losses occurring under good irradiation practices were gathered from the literature. The nutritional impact of vitamin losses due to irradiation was estimated by comparing results to the Recommended Dietary Allowances of the US National Research Council. The vitamins studied were: A, D, E, K, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, biotin, cyanocobalamin, folacin and pantothenic acid. Results showed that, even if irradiation was applied to every food which could be usefully treated, vitamin availabilities would exceed 100% of the respective RDA and so no adverse nutritional impact would be expected, except for folacin and vitamin D. However, typical availabilities of folate and vitamin D are less than the RDA. Synthesis of vitamin D in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol would suggest no nutritional problem. Available data on folic acid losses due to food irradiation are incomplete and suggest the need for further experimental research

  18. Food irradiation and combination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell-Platt, G.; Grandison, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    International approval of food irradiation is being given for the use of low and medium doses. Uses are being permitted for different categories of foods with maximum levels being set between 1 and 10 kGy. To maximize the effectiveness of these mild irradiation treatments while minimizing any organoleptic quality changes, combination processes of other technologies with irradiation will be useful. Combinations most likely to be exploited in optimal food processing include the use of heat, low temperature, and modified-atmosphere packaging. Because irradiation does not have a residual effect, the food packaging itself becomes an important component of a successful process. These combination processes provide promising alternatives to the use of chemical preservatives or harsher processing techniques. (author)

  19. Safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The exposure of food to controlled levels of ionizing radiation has a number of beneficial effects, including delaying of ripening, inhibition of sprouting, and inactivation of insects, parasites, helminths, bacteria, moulds and yeasts. However, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the routine use of this technique of food processing, often because of a lack of understanding of what it entails, and a fear of untoward effects on the treated food. This report presents an up-to-date review of the many scientific studies that have been carried out on the safety and nutritional quality of irradiated food. Starting from a brief outlineof the history of food preservation, it goes on to consider in detail the chemistry and potential applications of food irradiation, and to discuss possible ways of determining whether food has been irradiated. Toxicological studies are reviewed, and the effects of irradiation on microorganisms and on the nutritional quality of the food itself are examined. The report concludes that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested technique, that it has not been shown to have any deleterious effects when performed in accordance with good manufacturing practice, and that it can help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life, eradicating pests and inactivating pathogens

  20. How costly is food irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potty, V.H.

    1994-01-01

    Comparing the various cost-inputs such as the capital cost, cost of power, labour cost, overhead expenses, storage cost along with the throughput of the irradiation process with other food preservation technologies one cannot but come to the conclusion that it is in the country's interest to adopt irradiation process on a massive scale to reduce the staggering food losses reported to be taking place at different stages of post-harvest handling in the country

  1. Food Irradiation Newsletter. Vol. 11, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This issue reports a number of activities which took place during the second half of 1986 and early 1987: In Point of Fact - Food Irradiation was published in February 1987; Twenty-five participants joined the FAO/IAEA Study Tour on Radiation Disinfestation of Grain which visited the Netherlands, Hungary and the USSR from 18 August to 5 September 1986; An IFFIT training course was held in 1986; Report of the results of feeding trials of irradiated food in human volunteers in the People's Republic of China; An up-dated list of clearances of irradiated foods in different countries

  2. China's move to food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Chinese officials outlined China's past and future directions at a recent international food irradiation seminar in Shanghai sponsored by the FAO and IAEA. The meeting was attended by about 170 participants from China and 22 other countries, primarily from the Asian and Pacific region. Three food irradiation plants currently are operating in the region and 14 more are planned over the next 5 years. It was reported that China continues to suffer high food losses, up to 30% for some commodities, primarily due to preservation and storage problems. In January 1986, the first of five regional irradiation facilities planned in China officially opened in Shanghai. The Shanghai irradiation centre plans to process up to 35,000 tons of vegetables a year, as well as some spices, fruits, and non-food products. The Ministry of Public Health has approved seven irradiated foods as safe human diets: rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, peanuts, mushrooms and pork sausages; approval for apples is expected shortly. The Chinese officials at the Shanghai meeting stressed their openness to foreign participation and cooperation in food irradiation's development

  3. Irradiated food for immunocompromised people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Immune-compromise is a condition in which the natural defenses against diseases are dimished; several situations can be cited as examples, including mis nourishment, pregnancy, young and old age. This enhances the probability of suffering microbial diseases, caused by food borne pathogens. Traditionally, immune-suppressed patients in hospitals were isolated from the environment, being their food sterilized by different treatments, including irradiation. At present the medical opinion differs from this approach due to the costs and specialized requirements, uncertainties about the clinical benefits, and psychological convenience. So, the tendency nowadays seems to move, when the patient's condition allows it, from 'sterile diets' to 'low microbe diets' (or 'clean diets'). At the National Atomic Energy Commission, Argentina, under Coordinated Research Programmes of the Food and Environmental Preservation Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, in which 14 countries participated, treatments at pasteurizing doses were studied to widen the meals availability for vulnerable persons, to include some products usually considered as 'high risk' , but nutritionally or psychologically adequate. In a first experience, nutritionists working at the corresponding Service in a Buenos Aires hospital elaborated diets suitable for patients with different immune-compromise degrees, and advised on the interesting meal types to be studied. In a second experience, advanced nutrition students of the Entre Rios University performed a sensory evaluation in which 44 immune- compromised patients at the Jose de San Martin Clinical School Hospital, Buenos Aires, tasted a whole irradiated lunch composed of meals usually forbidden due to high microbial risk, though highly desired. The patients evaluated this lunch with high scores and showed enthusiastic towards the irradiation treatment. This preservation treatment could not only be useful to supply hospitals but also supermarkets. (author)

  4. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, R.G.; Chu, R.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation 'service' business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed. (author)

  5. Food irradiation - A new way to process food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The film shows how irradiation of food by ionizing energy (gamma rays or beams of electrons) can help cut down post-harvest losses of food such as cereals, meat, fish and shellfish and fresh or dried fruits and vegetables. One quarter to one third of the total world food production is lost due to sprouting, destruction by insects and parasites, spoilage by micro-organisms such as bacteria and funghi, and premature ripening. Food contamination not only leads to economic problems but can also cause diseases such as trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, etc. The new technique of food irradiation has been studied by independent groups of experts whose evaluations without exception have been favourable. One of the main advantages is that there are no chemical residues. On the long run, food irradiation will help to assure world-wide food security

  6. Food irradiation with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudkova, A.; Pohlova, M.; Sedlackova, J.

    1974-01-01

    Application possibilities are discussed of ionizing radiation in inhibiting plant germination, in radiopasteurization and radiosterilization of food. Also methods of combining radiation with thermal food sterilization are discussed. The problems of radiation doses and of hygienic purity of irradiated foodstuffs are dealt with. (B.S.)

  7. Food irradiation: an alternative technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    History has shown that man has continued to search for methods to protect his food from various spoilage agents. Traditional methods of food preservation such as drying, salting, fermentation, have been known for centuries and are being practised even today. Within the past century, modern technologies such as canning, freezing, refrigeration, the use of preservatives and pesticides, have further equipped man with an arsenal of methods to combat food losses and to increase the quantity, quality and safety of our food supplies. The most recent technology, irradiation, has gone through a great deal of research and development in the past 40 years and has shown a strong potential as another method for food preservation. As irradiation is still not familiar to the public at large, this paper attempts to inform scientists, officials, representatives of the food industry, and consumers of the global situation of the safety, benefits and applications of food irradiation by answering common questions often asked about the technology today. Special emphasis will be placed on the possible contribution of food irradiation to ASEAN

  8. Wholesomeness data on irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    There is no item of more primary importance to the welfare of the human race than food. It has long been realized that even small increases in the quality and/or quantity of food mean great benefits to people everywhere, particularly to those who are undernourished or on the threshold of starvation. Therefore, the application of food preservation technology to prevent food losses has become a major factor in solving the world's food problems. Some of the chemical additives used to preserve food have caused harmful effects on the well-being of the consumer, but the newly-developing commercial treatment of a number of food products with low doses of ionizing radiation has been shown to be technologically advantageous and economically viable.The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FA O/lAEA Division decided to set up a data system whereby wholesomeness information on irradiated food can be easily obtained and disseminated by means of publication. The data will be related to toxicological safety, nutritive value and microbial innocuity. To do this the Division has sent a questionnaire to institutes and scientists involved in programmes dealing with wholesomeness of irradiated food, requesting them to provide information on investigations already completed, on those which are currently in progress and on programmes projected for the future. Based on the responses received, a list of wholesomeness investigations recently carried out in Member Countries on different food items, can be found. Summarily it can be stated that the results from these investigations do not indicate any detrimental effects on health. Detailed data will be published periodically by the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation in 'Food Irradiation Information'. The project has been established under the auspices of FAO, IAEA and OECD (NEA) with 22 countries at present contributing financially to the Project

  9. Pilotscale studies of dried fish irradiation. Part of a coordinated programme in Asian Regional Cooperative Project on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maha, M.

    1983-03-01

    Pilot scale experiments on irradiation of semi-dried mackerel with regard to shelf-life extension, packaging, transportation and cost-analysis were carried out. The results showed that dipping mackerel in saturated brine for 5 hours and then soaking it in 2% potassium sorbate before sun-drying to approximately 40% moisture content produced a good quality product. Sorbate treatment was effective in controlling mould growth while irradiation with 2 kGy was effective in reducing the bacterial load. Carton boxes were found most suitable as packaging material for irradiated dried fish from the point of view of strength, convenience for irradiation and better dose uniformity ratio than polypropylene bags which have ununiform configuration. Irradiation with doses up to 10 kGy has no significant effect on physical properties of the packaging materials tested. Carton boxes of 20 kg capacity provided with strapping bands are durable for land or sea transportation of dried fish. A radiation dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control insect damage and reduce mould growth on dried fish. Irradiated dried fish can be marketed for 3-4 months at ambient conditions in Jakarta. Small scale consumer studies of irradiated samples using employees of the institute showed no negative reactions. Using the small pilot irradiator at CAIR and assuming 1 kGy minimum dose for dried fish, the total cost of irradiation and packaging was estimated to be approximately 10 U.S. cents/kg of fish, which is about 2-3% of the cost of the product

  10. Trade promotion of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The meeting carried out by the Group was attended by invited specialists on legislation, marketing, consumer attitudes and industry interested in the application of food irradiation. The major objectives of the meeting were to identify barriers and constraints to trade in irradiated food and to recommend actions to be carried out by the Group to promote trade in such foods. The report of the meeting and selected 9 background papers used at the meeting are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  11. Food irradiation - Problems and promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    It has been stated that food irradiation represents the most significant discovery in food processing since Nicholas Appert invented canning in 1810. Certainly it is a process with great future potential; it is attractive because it works without heating the product, it is effective within sealed containers as well as for bulk usage, and it does not leave chemical residues on the treated food. Of course, no one process can be expected to solve all problems relating to preservation of food. Ionizing radiation can be used effectively to solve many of these problems, but the process is no panacea to cure the world's food problems. Unfortunately, early ill-founded claims about irradiation led to expectations which have proved beyond the reasonable capabilities of the process. Nevertheless, the number of foods that have been successfully treated, and the broad range of effects that can be achieved by radiation processing is impressive. (author)

  12. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  13. Outline of irradiated food control in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanasalit, P.

    1977-11-01

    In Thailand, the following laws govern food irradiation: the Food Quality Control Act BE 2507 (1964) and the Atomic Energy for Peace Act BE 2504 (1961). The competent body for approval of irradiated food is the subcommittee for irradiated food, which has been set up by the Ministry of Public Health, approved by the Board of Food Quality Control. (NEA) [fr

  14. Research on food irradiation in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Maha, M.; Chosdu, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on various aspects of food irradiation have been done in Indonesia since 1968, mainly at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia. Three irradiation facilities available at the Centre are gamma cell-220, panoramic batch irradiator, and latex irradiator with the present source capacities of about 1.1, 40, and 163.8 kCi Co-60, respectively. In this paper, the present status of research and development on irradiation is presented, covering (1) spices and medicinal plants, (2) rice, wheat flour and coffee bean, (3) fish and fishery products, (4) animal feed, and (5) ongoing projects including fresh fruits, cacao beans, and cashew nut. The Sub-Committee for the Control of Irradiation of Food and Medical Products, set up in August 1984, has prepared the draft of recommendations regarding the regulation for application of food irradiation in Indonedia and the draft of Regulation for the Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food and Traditional Drug to be issued by the government. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  16. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1997-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  17. Food irradiation newsletter. Vol. 15, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This newsletter contains brief summaries of three coordinated research meetings held in 1991: irradiation in combination with other processes for improving food quality; application of irradiation technique for food processing in Africa; and food irradiation programme for Middle East and European countries. The first Workshop on Public Information on Food Irradiation is summarized, and a Coordinated Research Programme on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly is announced. This issue also contains a report on the status of food irradiation in China, and a supplement lists clearances of irradiated foods. Tabs

  18. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  19. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung; Kim, Kyong Su

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks

  20. Integrated studies of irradiated Philippine mangoes. Part of coordinated programme in Asian Regional Cooperative Project on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manalo, J.A.

    1985-09-01

    Effects of combined treatment of hot water dip (50 deg. C for 5 min.) and irradiation (0.65 kGy) on technological and sensory qualities of Carabao mangoes were investigated. Mangoes that ripen to the yellow green stage during transport may be subjected to irradiation of combined hot water dip at 50 deg. C for 5 minutes and irradiation at 0.65 kGy. When stored at the low temperature of 12-15 deg. C, shelf life is extended further. Time interval between hot water dip and irradiation must be as short as possible and fruits must be stored at ambient temperature prior to irradiation to prevent discoloration. Shelf life studies show that green fruits subjected to combined treatment and stored at ambient temperature extended shelf life by 6 days, 50% of yellow green mangoes subjected to combined treatment exhibited shelf life extension by four days. Mangoes stored at cold temperature, whether immediately after irradiation or after ripening showed considerable reduction in bacterial decay, regardless of fruit maturity, thus extending their shelf life considerably. Results of sensory evaluation showed no marked differences in color, aroma, appearance, and acceptability were observed by the taste panelists and although controls were always rated higher than the treated samples, scores higher than 5 given to the treated samples showed that they were also generally acceptable

  1. Philippines' experience in marketing irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustre, A. O.; Ang, L.; Dianco, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Food Terminal Inc. in Manila, in cooperation with the Philippine Atomic Energy Agency and with funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna has been conducting storage and marketing studies on onions, garlic and mangoes. The objective is to gather loss reduction data and consumer reaction information that can serve as a basis for evaluating the risks and benefits involved in the establishment of a commercial food irradiator in the country. These studies show that irradiation reduces low-temperature storage losses in onions and garlic by 10-40% and post-storage marketing losses at ambient conditions by 16-50% in onions. Post-storage marketing trials not only indicate a significant reduction in losses during shipping and retail sale but a large increase in the marketability of irradiated commodities as measured by the rate of sale of the commodity and the price which it commands during the selling period. No adverse consumer reaction occurred during the sale of irradiated foods labelled as such except for a few comments indicating fear, ignorance and/or curiosity. The importance of irradiation as a substitute quarantine treatment for mangoes and for eliminating Salmonella in frozen foods for export is discussed in relation to the growing importance of these commodities to the Philippines' non-traditional export markets. Other applications of irradiation that could result in a perceptible improvement in the marketability of food commodities in the Philippines are discussed. Marketing studies are invaluable in evaluating the potential benefits of a new technology as food irradiation. In view of this, there is great interest in the completion of a pilot plant for food irradiation by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. The design and capacity of this plant are discussed

  2. Food irradiation - regulation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony; Lang, Tim

    1988-01-01

    The problems of regulating the use of irradiation for food processing and consumer protection against abuse are discussed in relation to public opinion and the adoption of the technology in the U.K. Issues of safety, nutrition, control, need, and detection are mentioned, together with types of irradiation source, extension of shelf life, and the market for the technology in the U.K. (U.K.)

  3. The Techniques Of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olorunda, A.O. Department Of Food Technology, University Of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    1996-01-01

    Food irradiation is a technique which is increasingly being recognised as an effective method for reducing post-harvest food losses, ensuring hygienic quality of food and facilitating wider trade of certain food items. Irradiation of food may be used to achieve a variety of desirable objectives including the following which are classified according to the average radiation dose requirement: i. Low dose application (up to about 1 kg), for inhibition of sprouting in yams, potatoes, onions, etc. insect disinfestation and delay of ripening in fruits. ii. Medium dose applications (about 1-10kgy), for reduction of micro-organisms and improvement in technological properties of food. iii. High dose application (about 10-50kgy) which is used for sterilization for commercial purposes and elimination of viruses. From the point of view of food safety the energy level of the radiation applied to food is the most important characteristics that has to be regulated in order to prevent the possible formation of induced radio activity. Fortunately, the most commonly used isotopic sources 60Co and 137Cs; and machine sources such as the electron beam generators, induced radio activity is negligible, short lived and lower than that causing radio activity. This and other scientific and technical aspects of the commercial application irradiation technology with respect Nigeria have been examined in this paper along side with those of its politics and social policy

  4. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991

  5. Detection of irradiated frozen foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    We tried to detect whether foods were irradiated or not by the o-tyrosine method and the mtDNA method. The o-tyrosine method was applied to four kinds of meat (beef, pork, chicken and tuna). The results showed the linear relation between amount of o-tyrosine and dose (0-10 kGy). However, small amount of o-tyrosine were produced in some cases which application of the method summed to be very difficult because small difference between irradiated foods and untreated foods. Possibility of mtDNA method was investigated. Work and time for separation of mitochondria and extraction of DNA were reduced by a protease-solid phase extraction method. By PCR method, accurate mtDNA could be detected from very small amount of DNA. The irradiation effect is able to detect from 50 Gy. (S.Y.)

  6. Independent Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Foods. Detection of the irradiated food in the INCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows different methods applied for detection of irradiated foods. Structure and equipment of the Independent Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Foods operating in the INCT is described. Several examples of detection of food irradiation are given in details

  7. Food Irradiation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    For some years research has been done in several countries, with the object of contributing to the world's food supplies, on the application of nuclear methods to food preservation and processing. The importance of food preservation is of particular relevance in certain regions of the world where up to thirty per cent of harvested foodstuffs are being lost because of damage by animal pests and microorganisms. A series of international meetings have been held on this subject; the first, held in 1958 at Harwell, was followed by further meetings in 1960 in Paris and in 1961 in Brussels. The International Symposium on Food Irradiation organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations through their Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Agriculture, and held at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, Karlsruhe, from 6 to 10 June 1966, at the generous invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, is the most recent of this series of meetings. It was held for the purpose of exchanging the most up-to-date results of research, of contributing towards co-operative efforts between Member States, and of stimulating trade in the international exchange of irradiated products between nations. Papers describing research over the past fourteen years were given by outstanding authorities; the results point to a breakthrough having been achieved in the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation, notwithstanding some problems still to be solved, such as overcoming changes in colour, flavour, odour or texture. The Symposium was attended by over 200 scientists from 25 countries and four international organizations. Sixty-nine papers were presented. It was shown that a wide variety of foodstuffs exist for which radiation could be used for three different purposes: to produce indefinitely stable products, to rid food of organisms that constitute health hazards, and to extend the normal shelf or market life

  8. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, A.; Garcia de Mateos, A.; Ortin Sune, N.; Val Cob, M. del

    1967-01-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs

  9. Food irradiation: a global scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, T.; Ross, A.; Leveziel, H.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the foods that will be consumed in the 21st century have not yet been invented. New methods of production need new methods of conservation. Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beam is a new technology. The intensive production methods of today lead to several potential dangers. For example - if just one chicken is diseased this bird can contaminate all of one days' production at the slaughter house - on average 300,000 birds per day. One has to have conservation methods that can decontaminate the poultry meat. Irradiation is a method that achieves this. The consumer is becoming more and more sophisticated and demanding with regard to the quality of food products, rejecting chemical additives for example, irradiation is a physical method of conservation, this means that there is no residue left in the product, and that there are no changes in the physical characteristics of the food. This paper examines the use of irradiation technology as a food conservation method in today's industry. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Facts about food irradiation: Controlling the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly reviews the procedures that exist to control the process of food irradiation. It also summarizes the difficulties in identifying irradiated food, which stem from the fact that irradiation does not physically change the food or cause significant chemical changes in foods. 4 refs

  11. Food Irradiation: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Food Irradiation: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Print Print & Share (PDF) 469KB En Español (Spanish) Food Irradiation: What You Need to Know Irradiation does not make ...

  12. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food irradiation is one of the non thermal food processing methods. It is the process of exposing food materials to the controlled amounts of ionizing radiations such as gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons, to improve microbiological safety and stability. Irradiation disrupts the biological processes that lead to decay of food quality. It is an effective tool to reduce food-borne pathogens, spoilage microorganisms and parasites; to extend shelf-life and for insect disinfection. The safety and consumption of irradiated foods have been extensively studied at national levels and in international cooperations and have concluded that foods irradiated under appropriate technologies are both safe and nutritionally adequate. Specific applications of food irradiation have been approved by national legislations of more than 55 countries worldwide. This review aims to discuss the applications of irradiation in food processing with the emphasis on food safety and stability.

  13. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Ha Kyung [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to chickens for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity and nutritional safety. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and in chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of mouse of treated groups were not affected during the experimental periods(four-weeks). In urine analysis, in hematological examination as well as in serum biochemical experiment, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. Although minor changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters were observed, they were in the normal range and were not dose dependent. In nutritional safety, the proximate composition of foods were not significantly changed by irradiation dose. No significant difference in the components of fatty acids were observed by gamma irradiation. In general, the amount of released free amino acid was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. There was no difference in total amino acid content between non irradiated and irradiated samples. The SDS electrophoresis patterns of samples were not significantly different between nonirradiated and irradiated samples. The major mineral compositions of chicken were phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium. The content of mineral was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. 58 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  14. Genotoxicity test of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Noriho

    2004-01-01

    Safety tests of radiation irradiated foods started as early as from 1967 in Japan and genotoxicity tests in the Hatano Res. Inst., from 1977. The latter is unique in the world and is reviewed in this paper. Tests included those for the initial injury of DNA, mutagenicity, chromosomal aberration and transformation with use of bacteria, cultured mammalian cells and animals (for chromosomal aberration, micronucleus formation and dominant lethality). Foods tested hitherto were onion, rice, wheat and flour, Vienna sausage, fish sausage (kamaboko), mandarian orange, potato, black pepper and red capsicum, of which extract or powder was subjected to the test. Irradiation doses and its purposes were 0.15-6 kGy γ-ray ( 60 Co) or electron beam by the accelerator (only for the orange), and suppression of germination, pesticide action or sterilization, respectively. Genotoxicity of all foods under tested conditions is shown negative. (N.I.)

  15. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 14, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This issue reports specific training activities on Food Irradiation Process Control School, both for technical supervisors of irradiation facilities and food control officials/inspectors, and summary reports of Workshops on dosimetry techniques for food irradiation and on techno-economic feasibility of food irradiation for Latin American countries are included. After 12 years of operation, the International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT) will cease to function after 31 December 1990. This issue reports the last inter-regional training course organized by IFFIT, and also features reports on food irradiation in Asia. Active developments in the field in several Asian countries may be found in the reports of the Workshop on the Commercialization of Food Irradiation, Shanghai, and the Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation (with emphasis on acceptance and process control), Bombay. Status reports of programmes in these countries are also included. Refs and tabs

  16. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  17. Experimental studies on prevention of trichinosis by food irradiation (Co60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Kimitaka

    1993-01-01

    A systemic study was performed to elucidate the effects of 60 Co irradiation on maturation or fecundity of Trichinella spiralis by assessing from parasitological, morphological and immunological points of view. Pieces of muscle tissue of mice infected with T. spiralis were irradiated with 60 Co at doses of 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. These irradiated tissue (Experimental group) and non-irradiated tissues (Control group) were fed to healthy mice. Half of the mice were sacrificed 6 days after the ingestion. The number of adult worms were counted and subjected to statistical analysis, which disclosed a good correlation between the dose of 60 Co irradiation and worm damage; the higher the dose the more damage parasites had, and no adults were recovered if the tissue had been irradiated with more than 150 Gy prior to infection. The same tendency was true for the histopathology of the intenstines of host mice; the higher the dose the less tissue damage. Circulating antigens of T. spiralis and antibodies against T. spiralis were detected in every serum examined by ELISA. The remaining mice were sacrificed 30 days after the ingestion. The numbers of muscle larvae were counted and subjected to statistical analysis, which disclosed a good correlation between th dose of 60 Co irradiation and worm damage, and no larvae were recovered if the tissue had been irradiated with more than 75Gy. Higher concentrations of circulating antigens of T. spiralis and antibodies against T. spiralis were detected in the serum samples taken with muscle larvae. Thus this study established that 60 Co irradiation of more than 150 Gy caused complete damage on maturation, and that irradiation of more than 75 Gy caused complete damage on the fecundity of T. spimalis. (author)

  18. Regulatory aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlan, N.V.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the Nuclear Energy Board in relation to radiation safety in Ireland is described. The Board has the duty to control by licence all activities involving ionizing radiation, as well as providing advice and information to the Government on all aspects of radiation safety. The licensing procedures used by the Board, including site approval, construction, commissioning, source loading and commercial operation, in the licensing of large irradiation facilities were described, and an outline of the proposed new legislation which may become necessary if and when the irradiation of food for commercial purposes begins in Ireland is given

  19. FDA regulations for commercial food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeguchi, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on food irradiation on March 27, 1981 (FDA, 1981). The next step in the rulemaking process is a proposed rule that will deal with low-dose irradiation of certain foods and high-dose irradiation of spices. The status of the proposed regulation is discussed

  20. Studies on the radiation sensitivity of food microorganism by high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Han Joon; Lee, Eun Jung; Yu, Hyun Hee; Lee, Jae Ho

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the radio resistance of pathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and Escherichia coli O157) in irradiating environments. Their radiation conditions of pathogenic microorganisms varied with pH(3-10), salt concentration(1-15%), temperature(-20, 4 and 25 .deg. C) and atmospheric condition. In addition, the effect of γ-irradiation on the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms inoculated into food (saengsik, sliced ham, chopped beef) was investigated. The radiation dose ranged from 0 to 3 kGy. The γ--irradiated B.cereus(γ--BC) St.aureus(γ--SA), MRSA(γ--MRSA) and E.coli O157(γ--EC) were then cultured and the viable cell count on plate count agar and D10-values(dose required to inactivate 90% of a microbial population) were calculated. The number of pathogenic microorganisms at pH(3-10) and salt concentration(1-15%), temperature(-20, 4 and 25 .deg. C) and atmospheric condition decreased by 1 log CFU/ml after irradiation. The D 10 -value of γ--SA in the optimum condition was 0.152 kGy, and these of γ--MRSA and γ--EC were 0.346 and 0.240 kGy, respectively. The initial cell counts of pathogenic microorganisms in culture broth were slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration. However, radiation resistance of pathogenic microorganisms was increased at frozen state. Moreover, D 10 -values of these is test strains in saengsik, sliced ham and chopped beef were 0.597, 0.226 , 0.398 and 0.416 kGy, respectively. These results provide the basic information for the in activation of pathogenic microorganisms in foods by irradiation

  1. Studies on the radiation sensitivity of food microorganism by high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Han Joon; Lee, Eun Jung; Yu, Hyun Hee; Lee, Jae Ho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    We investigated the radio resistance of pathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and Escherichia coli O157) in irradiating environments. Their radiation conditions of pathogenic microorganisms varied with pH(3-10), salt concentration(1-15%), temperature(-20, 4 and 25 .deg. C) and atmospheric condition. In addition, the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms inoculated into food (saengsik, sliced ham, chopped beef) was investigated. The radiation dose ranged from 0 to 3 kGy. The {gamma}--irradiated B.cereus({gamma}--BC) St.aureus({gamma}--SA), MRSA({gamma}--MRSA) and E.coli O157({gamma}--EC) were then cultured and the viable cell count on plate count agar and D10-values(dose required to inactivate 90% of a microbial population) were calculated. The number of pathogenic microorganisms at pH(3-10) and salt concentration(1-15%), temperature(-20, 4 and 25 .deg. C) and atmospheric condition decreased by 1 log CFU/ml after irradiation. The D{sub 10}-value of {gamma}--SA in the optimum condition was 0.152 kGy, and these of {gamma}--MRSA and {gamma}--EC were 0.346 and 0.240 kGy, respectively. The initial cell counts of pathogenic microorganisms in culture broth were slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration. However, radiation resistance of pathogenic microorganisms was increased at frozen state. Moreover, D{sub 10}-values of these is test strains in saengsik, sliced ham and chopped beef were 0.597, 0.226 , 0.398 and 0.416 kGy, respectively. These results provide the basic information for the in activation of pathogenic microorganisms in foods by irradiation

  2. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s

  3. Toxicological study for assessing the risk of consuming irradiated fatty food. A French-German transfrontier study in the lower Rhine region. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioni, E.; Delincee, H.; Burnouf, D.; Hartwig, A.; Miesch, M.; Raul, F.; Werner, D.

    2002-01-01

    Food irradiation is considered as a highly effective processing technology to improve and maintain food safety. Indeed this process applied on food products dramatically reduces the populations of pathogens, which are annually responsible for millions of food-borne illnesses worldwide. The World Health Organization and many state agencies around the world have endorsed food irradiation as a major contributor to public health preservation. Irradiation of fat-containing food generates a family of molecules, namely 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACB), that result from the radiation-induced breakage of triglycerides. These components present the same number of carbons (n) as their fatty acids precursors, and an alkyl chain of (n-4) carbons, branched in ring position 2. Until now, these molecules have been found exclusively in irradiated fat-containing food, and are thus considered as unique markers for food irradiation. Since the 2-ACB are radiation-specific components and not inherent to food, an assessment of their potential health hazard is advisable. This study has been undertaken in order to evaluate the toxicological properties, if any, of these 2-ACB. Within the framework of INTERREG II, an EU Interregio program, a French-German research collaborative group was constituted and obtained a significant number of results. (orig.)

  4. Investigations of food irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    All Nippon Spice Assoc. (ANSA) requested the approval in the Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare (MHLW) of radiation irradiation of their products for sterilization and pesticide in 2000. Problems of food irradiation (FI) which started from this ANSA request have been investigated by concerned Japanese administrations and associations with reference to trends in foreign countries, and of which outline till Aug., 2009 is described in this paper. On ANSA petition, AEC (Atomic Energy Committee) required the investigation of the safety problem in FI as it matched AEC policy and there have been background problems of Japanese people who have been having refusal response to radiation themselves. In 2003, Food Safety Committee (FSC) started, and AEC radiation expert committee investigated the trend and detection methodology of irradiated foods. Next year, FSC approved the irradiation of potato to prevent budding; MHLW began to study the detection methodology; and AEC mentioned to consider the FI problem in the Cabinet meeting and set up its expert committee (2005). MHLW reported the above decision in Councils of food/drug and of food hygiene (2006), published the methodology (thermoluminescence method) and started to monitor spices; and FSC discussed about FI problems with World Health Organization (WHO) experts (2007). During these years, the administrations trusted various investigations like foreign trends, safety and assessment of FI. In 2009, MHLW published results of their trusted investigations, based on which food hygienic and standardization sections began to investigate the problems; and FSC, the toxicity study of alkylcyclobutanone. During the period later than 2007, not only spices but also other foods like dried vegetables, tea, certain farm and marine products have been subject to monitoring (MHLW). Thus, MHLW has taken a leading role in actual approval of irradiated potato and in monitoring of imported foods. (K.T.)

  5. Attitude of Egyptian consumer towards irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; Saad El-din, N.; Abdel Karim, H.; Farag, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at the evaluation of the opinion and attitude of the consumer as to what extent they accept or refuse food preservation by radiation. Also detect the method that can attract the consumers to adopt the technique and ensure the success handling of irradiated in egyptian market. One thousand and twenty two poll sheets were collected. The questionnaire was supported with simplified information about the use of atomic energy and radiation for peaceful purpose. From the results, 62.43% of the total sample size accepted the radiation technology persons that were convinced with the advantage of using irradiated food reached 70.45% . As to keep on being applied of the technology 73.97% of the total sample size agreed persons said yes to irradiated food for consumption if it is made available in the market were 57.53%

  6. A study to assess the role of bulk density of process load in 60Co based food irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Prakasan, V.; Chawla, S.P.; Ghosh, Sunil K.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation processing of foods and allied products is one of the important techniques to extend shelf-life. The success of this technology depends on the adequate dose delivery to the food products. The absorbed doses are functions of several irradiation parameters based on the design of the facility. The variable bulk density of the process load is of paramount importance in determining the dose uniformity. Bulk densities of the product in the range of 0.01 to 0.75 gm/cc were prepared and its influence on absorbed dose was studied in a 60 Co based food package irradiator. The results established that the bulk densities of the process loads would considerably change the absorbed doses and dose uniformity. The data would be useful to the facility operators to take adequate decision in dosimetry procedures. (author)

  7. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk {beta}-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods.

  8. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, H.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk β-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods

  9. Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Erhan, I.C.

    2002-01-01

    Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other

  10. Food irradiation and airline catering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, F.S.

    1988-01-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed

  11. Food irradiation and airline catering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, F.S.

    1988-04-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

  12. Identification methods of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    After a general review of the different possible methods, the stress is put upon the ones close to application: electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and method of lipids. The problem of the specificity of each method is discussed (proof or presumption): they are then placed in the context of the programme of identification of irradiated foods just co-organized by the author with the Community Bureau of Reference (CEC) [fr

  13. Mutagenicity tests on irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston-Arthur, T.

    1979-01-01

    The mutagenicity of ''standard'' food pellets from three different suppliers was tested after radappertization and after sterilization with steam, respectively. The histidine-deficient mutants G-46 and TA-1530 of salmonella typhimurium were used as indicators in a hostmediated assay. The mutant TA-1530 showed a highly sighificant increase of the back-mutation frequency after feeding with pellets irradiated with 3 Mrad gamma radiation. There were, however, large quantitative differences between the products of different suppliers. (G.G.)

  14. Irradiation in combined treatments and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix Monique; Dussault Dominic; Turgis Melanie; Salmieri Stephane; Perlette Takala; Vu Dang Khanh; Ayari Samia

    2013-01-01

    Irradiation combined with other processes can contribute to insuring food safety to consumers and controlling severe losses during transportation and commercialisation. We have demonstrated that using in synergy with other treatments; a lower dose could be used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria and permit a better protection of the sensorial quality and to prolong the shelf life of foods. Results indicated that some bacteria are more sensitive to irradiation under modified atmosphere (MAP) and the presence of active compound can increase the bacterial radiosensitivity by more than 4 times under air and by more than 10 times under MAP. Mild heat treatment or addition of natural antimicrobial compounds before irradiation treatment has also permitted an increase of Bacillus cereus radiosensitization. An increase of the bacterial radiosensitization of 1.5 and 1.56 was respectively observed. The effectiveness of the use of edible coating containing natural antimicrobial compounds, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) or mild treatment before irradiation treatment was demonstrated in order to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus growth or B. cereus spore germination, to increase the bacterial sensitivity to irradiation, to reduce the water loss and to extend the shelf life of the food when stored at 4 deg C. Also, the use of edible coating previously crosslinked by irradiation have permitted a better control of the active compounds release. Studies of combined treatments were used in ready to eat vegetables, fruits and meat products. (author)

  15. Control of food irradiation in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leth, T.

    1996-01-01

    In Denmark food irradiation is not allowed. However, with the consideration within EEC about directives regulating food irradiation and the development of methods for detection, it has been found necessary to ascertain that illegally irradiated foods are not found on the Danish market. Irradiation of spices is allowed in many countries even without being declared in the foods. It thus seemed logical to begin the control of food irradiation by screening a number of spices. This resulted in 1992 in the assessment of 105 samples and in 1993 of 48 samples. (author)

  16. The role of food irradiation in food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeferstein, F.K.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the enormous health and economic consequences of foodborne diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce foodborne pathogens in food an improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. With the wholesomeness of irradiated food clearly established by extensive scientific studies, food irradiation has important roles to play in both ensuring food safety and reducing food losses. Food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (J.P.N.)

  17. Consumer opinions in Argentina on food irradiation: irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two surveys were carried out in Buenos Aires of consumer attitudes towards irradiated onions [no data given]. The first investigated the general level of consumer knowledge concerning food irradiation, whilst the second (which covered consumers who had actually bought irradiated onions) examined reasons for purchase and consumer satisfaction. Results reveal that more than 90% of consumers surveyed had a very limited knowledge of food irradiation

  18. The status of food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation is a mature technology for many uses, such as medical product sterilization, crosslinking of plastics, application of coatings, stabilization of natural and synthetic rubbers prior to vulcanization, and in plant genetics. It also has many potential applications in the food and agriculture industries, especially in the postharvest activities associated with processing, storing, and distribution and in utilization and consumption. The safety of food irradiation has been thoroughly studied and established by distinguished scientists of international stature and unimpeachable credentials. Approximately 30 countries permit food irradiation and it is commercially used in 21. Parasites are of serious concern since their impact on human health and economic productivity is significant, especially in developing countries with sanitation and food control problems. Parasites in meat and fish can be rendered sterile or inactivated with irradiation, and the potential for improved human health is significant. The second area for immediate use of irradiation is in meeting plant quarantine requirements. The benefits described above and the approval of the scientific community are moving the technology toward greater utilization

  19. Development of Photostimulated Luminescence Technique for Detecting Irradiated Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Muhamad Samudi Yasir

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests and to extend shelf-life of food. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled. The availability of a reliable method to detect irradiated food is important to enforce legal controls on labeling requirements, ensure proper distribution and increase consumer confidence. This paper reports on the preliminary application of photostimulated luminescence technique (PSL) as a potential method to detect irradiated food and perhaps be used for monitoring irradiated food on sale locally in the near future. Thus this study will be beneficial and relevant for application of food irradiation towards improving food safety and security in Malaysia. (author)

  20. Development of photo stimulated luminescence technique for detecting irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests and to extend shelf-life of food. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled. The availability of a reliable method to detect irradiated food is important to enforce legal controls on labeling requirements, ensure proper distribution and increase consumer confidence. This paper reports on the preliminary application of photo stimulated luminescence technique (PSL) as a potential method to detect irradiated food and perhaps be used for monitoring irradiated food on sale locally in the near future. Thus this study will be beneficial and relevant for application of food irradiation towards improving food safety and security in Malaysia. (author)

  1. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 11, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This issue includes a report of the ICGFI's Workshop on Food Irradiation for Food Control Officials, convened in Budapest, Hungary, May 1987. To provide further assurance on the safety and wholesomeness of irradiated food in general and details about polyploidy (increase in number of chromosomes) resulting from consumption of freshly irradiated wheat in particular, ICGFI Secretariat issued a fact sheet on ''Safety and Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods: International Status - Facts and Figures'' to its member countries in July 1987. The Newsletter also contains summary reports of two important market testings of irradiated food, i.e. papaya in California in March and strawberries in France in June, which proved that consumers will buy irradiated foods, and status reports on food irradiation in France and Mexico. Ref, 1 tab

  2. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnioja, S

    1998-12-31

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  3. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.

    1998-01-01

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  4. Knowledge and views of professors of nutrition about food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Kelly Daiane; Braga, Vilma de Oliveira; Quintaes, Kesia Diego

    2010-01-01

    Food irradiation is an efficient technology that can be used in the conservation of foods. However, consumers' knowledge about irradiated foods has proved insufficient resulting in low acceptance of such foods. Considering that dietitians and nutritionists are the qualified health professionals to guide patients and consumers towards the ingestion and selection of foods, this study aims to evaluate the knowledge and views about radiated foods of professors of nutrition working in higher education institutions in the city of Belo Horizonte - MG, Brazil. A total of 86.4% out of the 66 participants had general knowledge about irradiated foods. However, 71.2% were not familiar with the process, 75.8% were totally unaware of the specific legislation, 21.2% were not sure of the purposes of irradiation, 12.1% considered irradiated foods radioactive, and 31.8% believed that food irradiation results in the reduction of the nutritional value of foods. Irradiated foods would not be rejected by professionals with Ph.D. degree, but they would be rejected by five masters and six experts questioned. The study concluded that the current higher education of future dietitians and nutritionists has been provided without the minimum necessary knowledge regarding irradiated foods corroborating the negative view of consumers about this kind of food. (author)

  5. Selection and Studies of a site for a contract food irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Y.

    1986-09-01

    The success of a contract irradiation business greatly depends on the choice of the plant location. The decision should be primarily based on the market studies indicating the location of the main customers. However sufficient infrastructure should be available and places like harbors generally appear as highly favourable. While the establishment of an electron beam accelerator requires few particular studies, some technical points must be checked before considering the construction of a gamma irradiator. Preliminary technical studies may be needed regarding aspects such as quake hazards and hydreological profile. However, in very rare occurrences only should the data make another choice necessary

  6. Irradiation and the food industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on food irradiation. The historical development in France of some industrial applications of food irradiation resulting from efficient technology transfer to the food industry is discussed. The 4 basic steps in successfully marketing any technology transfer, including irradiated foods, are that research must define conditions of the product's application, legislation must specify conditions of its application, consumers must accept the product, and appropriate processing capacity must exist

  7. Food irradiation facilities and process control infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastri, S.P.; Kelkar, S.K.; Bongirwar, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    With the approval of irradiation processing of food by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and to initiate the practical application of the technology for post harvest preservation of perishable food commodities like potatoes and onions for sprout inhibition on commercial scale a need has been felt to set up food irradiation facilities in the country. The paper gives an outline of the types of food irradiation facilities, their requirements and process control infrastructure. (author)

  8. Educative campaign about information on irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1991-07-01

    The irradiation of foods is accepted by international agencies (FAO, OMS) like a healthy and effective technology at the moment the irradiated foods are marketed easily in many countries, however in other countries exist several factors that affect the practical application of this process. In this work is planned about an educational campaign about the irradiation process directed to the consumers. (Author)

  9. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  10. Prospects of international trade in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation is gaining recognition as a physical process for reducing food losses, enhancing hygienic quality of food and facilitating food trade. At present, 36 countries have approved the use of irradiation for processing collectively over 40 food items either on an unconditional or restricted basis. Commercial use of irradiated foods and food ingredients is being carried out in 22 countries. Technology transfer on food irradiation is being intensified to local industry in different regions. Worldwide, a total of 40 commercial/demonstration irradiators available for treating foods have been or are being constructed. Acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods were discussed at the International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, jointly convened by FAO, IAEA, WHO and ITC-UNCTAD/GATT in Geneva, Switzerland, 12-16 December 1988. An ''International Document on Food Irradiation'' was adopted by consensus at this Conference which will facilitate wider acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods. (author)

  11. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  12. The Thai multipurpose food irradiation and experience in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banditsing, C.; Pringsulka, V.; Sutantawong, M.

    1985-01-01

    Losses of agricultural produce in Thailand are due to the hot climate accelerating the ripening of fruits and sprouting of vegetables, spoilage microorganisms, pathogenic microorganisms, and insect infestation. Losses amount to as much as 30%. Onion, garlic and potato which have a short shelf-life, for instance, cannot be stored long enough for off-season domestic consumption. The annual production and domestic consumption of onion in Thailand is approximately 50,000 and 30,000 tons respectively. However, about 50% of the harvest is discarded during storage because of rotting and sprouting. Fresh onion can be stored for only a few months under tropical conditions. Therefore during the scarce season of 1982, Thailand had to import 4,760 tons of onion at a cost of 56 million baht. Other major problems for fruit are short shelf-life and insect infestation. Food items for export may meet with rejection by importing countries due to insect infestation and microbial contamination. This can mean considerable economic loss. In order to solve these problems, the government of Thailand is interested in setting up a multi-purpose agricultural pilot plant demonstration facility for government-industry-consumer benefit. Since 1963, the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) has been responsible for carrying out research and development in food irradiation in the areas of extending shelf-life, insect disinfestation, radicidation, and inhibition of sprouting in food and agricultural produce. There are many well-trained scientists able to assist in the commercialization of food irradiation. The multi-purpose agricultural pilot plant demonstration facility in this project will be operated by the staff of OAEP. The service will be available for irradiation of eight selected food items, initially for 6,084 operating hours. These are onion, potato, and garlic at 6,000, 2,000, 6,000 tons respectively; salted and dried fish at 1,000 and mungbeans at 3,000 tons; fermented pork, Vietnam

  13. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  14. Model food standards regulation. S3. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This revised Model Food Standards Regulation S3 for the irradiation of food replaces the regulation adopted in June 1982. It specifies the types of ionizing radiations which may be used, lists the foods which may be processed and describes the requirements for an approved facility. It lists the records which are required to be kept and requirements for labelling of irradiated food

  15. Assessment of wholesomeness off irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.; Josephson, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    Although the World Health Organization recommends food irradiation as one the most promising methods to fight the increasing trend in the incidence of foodborne diseases, industrial application of this technology is still very limited. Some consumer initiatives are vigorously opposed to the marketing of irradiated foods, and as a consequence, the food industry in most countries is hesitant to make use of existing legal permissions to irradiate certain foods. A recurring theme in the argumentation of those opposed to food irradiation is the claim or suspicion that consumption of irradiated foods may entail negative chronic health effects. This review considers the arguments of opponents and summarizes the scientific evidence demonstrating radiological, microbiological and toxicological safety as well as nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods. (author) 94 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  16. Development of food irradiation in Japan and future subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The study of food irradiation in Japan begun in 1955. The national project investigated the irradiation technologies and the irradiation effects on seven foods such as potato, rice, wheat, wiener wheat, orange and processed marine products. Only irradiation technique of potato has been made practical use since 1974. After this project, some researches on food irradiation were reported. For examples, the radiation sterilization of feed, spice, grapefruit, frozen shrimp, cock and beef. Some databases of irradiated foods are opened. The biological and radiochemical effects of gamma ray, X-ray and electron ray on food has not been observed. New aspects of irradiation, the measures for food poisoning, food safety and sanitary, has a great deal of public attention. In order to prepare the distribution of irradiated food in the world, we should develop a detection method, prevention technology of bad-tasting, quarantine treatment technology and control technology of irradiation process. History of food irradiation in Japan and future subjects are explained. (S.Y.)

  17. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. I. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    studies, as well as on the public health acceptability of a number of irradiated food items. These matters had been reported in WHO Technical Reports Series No.604, Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, published in Geneva, 1977. (3) The Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, through the Codex Alimentarius, had examined food irradiation and developed a proposed General Standard on Irradiated Foods and a proposed Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods at step 5 of the 9 - 10 step procedure of the Codex. (4) FAO and the IAEA were about to join forces with the Government of the Netherlands in establishing an International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology at Wageningen for the purposes of technological and economic training and research in food irradiation. Sessions o f the Symposium dealt with such topics as the control of animal infestation, toxicological studies, public health aspects and economics, and many papers were concerned with chemical changes in irradiated foods and with the control o f microbial spoilage. The present Proceedings contain the papers given and the ensuing discussions, including the extensive round-table discussion on a plan of action for the future. The order of publication of the papers does not strictly follow that of presentation at the Symposium where, for technical reasons, it was not always possible to preserve the logical sequence. Viewed against the new developments recorded here, the outlook for the food irradiation community is encouraging, and the tasks ahead appear less formidable. The sponsoring organizations hope that the publication of this material will be a useful contribution towards accelerated progress in the practical application of food processing by irradiation

  18. Food irradiation and its biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Alok; Nanjappa, C.; Chauhan, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation of foods drew attention mostly in 1960s for disinfestation of food grains, spices and sprout inhibition in mainly potato and onion. γ-irradiation at 0.25 to 1 kGy dosage levels are usually used for irradiating grains, legumes, spices and sprout-prone vegetables. Irradiation of foods with in permissible dosage levels of 0.25 to 5 kGy is usually considered fairly safe from human consumption point of view not withstanding usual health concerns about its usage in foods. Irradiation of foods, in mostly solid or semi-solid form, at 5 kGy levels of γ-irradiation can achieve radicidation or, radiation equivalent of pasteurization and, if γ-irradiation is used at 10 kGy, it can achieve radappertization or, radiation equivalent of thermal commercial sterilization. However, the food industry uses γ-irradiation at 0.25 to 2 kGy only for mostly disinfestation of food grains/legumes, spices, sprout inhibition in potato and onion and, for surface sanitation of frozen fish, poultry and meat. Exposure to irradiation creates free radicals in foods that are capable of destroying some of the spoilage and pathogenic microflora but the same can also damage vitamins and enzymes besides creating some new harmful new chemical species, called unique radiolytic products (URPs), by combining with certain chemicals that a food may be laced with (like pesticides/fungicides). Exposure to high-energy electron beams are also known to create deleterious biological effects which may even lead to detection of trace amounts of radioactivity in the food. Some possible causes delineated for such harmful biological effects of irradiation include: irradiation induced vitamin deficiencies, the inactivity of enzymes in the foods, DNA damage and toxic radiolytic products in the foods. Irradiation, a non-thermal food preservation technique, has a role in salvaging enormous post harvest losses (25-30%) in developing economies to increase the per capita availability of foods. (author)

  19. Chemical changes in food packaging resulting from ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Recent approvals of food irradiation processes by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have led to a search for packaging approved for use with ionizing radiation. Though 13 packaging materials were approved several years ago as food contactants for gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy at refrigeration temperatures and 4 packaging materials were approved for up to 60 kGy at cryogenic temperatures, no currently used packaging is approved for irradiated foods. Extensive research was conducted by the U.S. Army and others on the suitability of both flexible packaging and metal cans for packaging irradiated foods. The results of the studies of packaging for irradiated foods will be described and discussed in context of currently used packaging materials for non-irradiated meats and poultry

  20. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V.13, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of, and Trade in Irradiated Food, jointly sponsored by FAO, IAEA, WHO and ITC-UNCTAD/GATT, Geneva, Switzerland, December 1988, recognized that (1) food irradiation has the potential to reduce the incidence of foodborne diseases; (2) food irradiation can reduce post-harvest food losses and make available a larger quantity and a wider variety of foodstuffs for consumers - It can also be an effective quarantine treatment for certain food and thus contribute to international trade; (3) international trade in irradiated foods would be facilitated by harmonization of national procedures based on internationally recognized standards for the control of food irradiation. The ''International Document on Food Irradiation'' adopted by consensus at the Conference is included in this issue, which also contains excerpts of the 5th Annual Meeting of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), convened in Vienna, September 1988, and reports of two co-ordinated meetings, the second Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities, and the Second Co-ordination Meeting on Food Irradiation Programme for Developing Countries in Middle East and Europe. 3 tabs

  1. Indias Capabilities in Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, V.

    2005-09-01

    Full-text: India recently celebrated 50 years of nuclear application and criticality. Radiation processing Technology has been investigated and demonstrated for nearly four decades by food scientists and technologists at Bhabha Atomic Research Center, (BARC), India. It is quite essential to clarify unambiguously that under no circumstances can radiation processing using cobalt-60 radiation induce any radioactivity and naturally, leave residual radioactivity in the material being processed. To this extent, the word IRRADIATION has been replaced by the word Radiation Processing. The Indian Navy had recently approved the use of radiation processing for preserving high value food products and to optimize the procurement cost and maximize the product availability. The Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India has achieved significant milestones in encouraging private entrepreneurs to set up Radiation Processing plants for food preservation and safety as well as for non-food products and medical equipment sterilization. Today there are about 25 private radiation processing plants getting ready to meet the demand and many more are following the trend. With the growing demand for Cobalt-60 source, India has exported the technology and the source to many neighboring countries and is prepared to meet the demand and support the requirements of the Cobalt-60 source in Thailand. Innovative Food Technologies Co. Ltd provide consultancy and turnkey projects to set up Radiation processing Plants, Supply of Cobalt-60 source, Refurbishing Cobalt-60 source, provide comprehensive training in Plant safety, maintenance and security in Thailand and ASEAN

  2. Detection methods for irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The plenary lecture gives a brief historical review of the development of methods for the detection of food irradiation and defines the demands on such methods. The methods described in detail are as follows: 1) Physical methods: As examples of luminescence methods, thermoluminescence and chermoluminescence are mentioned; ESR spectroscopy is discussed in detail by means of individual examples (crustaceans, frutis and vegetables, spieces and herbs, nuts). 2) Chemical methods: Examples given for these are methods that make use of alterations in lipids through radiation (formation of long-chain hydrocarbons, formation of 2-alkyl butanones), respectively radiation-induced alterations in the DNA. 3) Microbiological methods. An extensive bibliography is appended. (VHE) [de

  3. Technology of food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has demonstrated that radiation processing of foods can contribute to nations food security by reducing post-harvest losses caused by insect infestation, microbial-spoilage and physiological changes. The technology has commercial potential for the conservation of cereals, pulses and their products, spices, onions, potatoes, garlic, some tropical fruits, sea foods, meat and poultry. Irradiation can ensure hygienic quality in foods including frozen foods by eliminating food borne pathogens and parasitic organisms. It offers a viable environment friendly alternative to chemical fumigants for quarantine treatment against insect pests in agricultural and horticultural products entering international trade. The safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods for human consumption is well established. About 40 countries including India have regulations permitting irradiation of foods and 28 countries are irradiating foods for processing industries and institutional catering

  4. Proceedings of a national food irradiation forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Noort, G.

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of a national food irradiation forum are presented. The status of food radurization in South Africa is discussed in detail. Consumer attitudes to radurization are also looked at and the statutory control of food irradiation in South Africa is described

  5. Federal laws needed for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.

    1987-01-01

    The proposed use of irradiation in food processing is drawing considerable attention to the Australian irradiation industry that has operated safely for almost 30 years. A recent inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association concluded that food irradiation should only be allowed if strong federal laws are implemented to ensure the safety of consumers and environment. At present, Australian irradiation plants are confined to sterilising or reducing health risks associated with products not for human consumption

  6. Promotion of food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Shunichi; Tada, Mikitaro; Furuta, Masakazu; Kume, Tamikazu; Hayashi, Toru; Yamamoto, Kazuko

    2007-01-01

    Atomic Energy Commission of Japan has organized special symposia inviting citizens and consumers on food irradiation based on the report presented by expert members meeting discussing about food irradiation in various countries as well as in Japan. This document summarizes the lectures and talks presented at the symposia: usefulness of food irradiation, one of the most effective means of sterilization to ensure sanitary supplies and to prevent loss from spoilage, activities of the subcommittee consisting of experts of this field, a report of the open forum with public participants on food irradiation, present status of detection techniques for the irradiated foods, the role of phyto-sanitary measures in plant protection, and how to realize the consumer's free choices for irradiated foods. (S. Ohno)

  7. Status and development of food irradiation technology in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myungwoo; Park, Younnam

    1996-01-01

    In Korea, the health authorities and food industry emphasize the need of sanitary food production, which is mainly resulted from the recent growing of consumer's interest in the safety of food. For that reason, development of a new alternative technology of chemicals currently used for decontamination and disinfestation has become an urgent task in the domestic and worldwide food industry. Furthermore, the improvement of quality and manufacturing process of processed foods is a requisite for winning the competition in export fields. Irradiation technology being practically applicable in the food industry has been well established on the basis of more than 40 years of R and D work in the fields of the increasing availability of food-stuffs, sanitary food production and quarantine treatment in a food trade. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods has been officially approved in 37 countries, of which 25 countries are commercially utilizing food irradiation technology. The first commercial irradiator in Korea (18.5 PBq : 500 kCi 60 Co, max. cap ; 4 MCi) was established at Kyungki-do, Yeoju-gun by Greenpia Tech. Inc. with the technical assistance of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in June 1987. As of 1996, thirteen irradiated food groups (above 25 items) have been domestically approved for human consumption and an industrial irradiation facility is also available. However, the promotion of consumer acceptance toward irradiated foods is considered as a confronted subject to be studied for a commercial utilization of this technology

  8. Studies on The Synergistic Effect of Some Irradiated Essential Oils in Some Food Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafy, M.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cumin, rosemary and thyme essential oils were gamma irradiated. Then, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were studied to measure the synergistic effect of their essential oils mixtures. 4, 6 and 4 kGy were the recommended doses for cumin, rosemary and thyme, respectively according to antimicrobial activity (agar well-diffusion) against S. typhimurium, S. aureus, B. cereus and E. coli. There were no changes in the physiochemical properties due to irradiation but, some changes occurred in the GC/MS analysis where, the amount of oxygenated compounds increased in cumin and thyme essential oils while, the oxygenated compounds decreased in rosemary essential oil. The mixture made from non-irradiated cumin (C 0 ) and rosemary (R 0 ) essential oils were showed the highest antimicrobial activity against E. coil and B. cereus at 50 μl. Mixtures made from non-irradiated cumin and thyme (T 0 ) essential oils showed the highest antimicrobial activity against B. cereus. Mixtures made form irradiated cumin at dose 4 kGy (C 4 ) and rosemary at dose 6 kGy (R 6 ) essential oils introduced promising antimicrobial activity as well as C 0 XR 0 mixture. Fraction inhibitory concentrations (FIC) were studied against selected four bacterial strains for measuring synergistic activity however, (FIC) represented indifference in all essential oils mixtures but, the C 0 X R 0 mixture against B. cereus (0.375) and E. coli (0.375) was synergy (below 0.5). Furthermore, the FIC shows addition in case of R 0 XT 0 , C 2 XR 6 , C 4 XR 6 and R 6 XT 4 against B. cereus. And in case of C 4 XR 6 against S. typhimurium. Preliminary experiment represented that 0.2, 0.4 and 0.1% were the acceptable odor in sunflower oil supplemented with rosemary, cumin and thyme essential oils, respectively.

  9. Progress in food irradiation: Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, K.

    1982-01-01

    Potatoes, onion, rice, wheat, meat and mushrooms were preserved by gamma irradiation. Combination effects were studied on Pseudomonas radiora and Escherichia coli. Mutagenic effects were studied on mice and bone-marow cells, on Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and on cells from Chinese hamsters. (AJ) [de

  10. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 12, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This Newsletter reports activities of two ICGFI training workshops convened in Santiago, Chile, and Rehovot, Israel, in the past six months. The summary report of the FAO/IAEA Seminar on Food Irradiation for Developing Countries in Africa is also included. A follow-up to this Seminar is the ''Co-ordinated Research Programme on Food Irradiation for African Countries'' which will be implemented as soon as funds become available. Further, this issue contains a report of the Working Group on Food Irradiation of the European Society for Nuclear Agriculture convened in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria in 1987 and status reports of practical applications of food irradiation in different countries. 2 tabs

  11. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Suk Won; Yang, Jae Sung; Cha, Bo Sook; Park, Ki Bum

    1987-12-01

    The present project was intended to ascertain the efficacy of irradiation both in the decontamination and storeability of mixed condiments for convenience food and in the long-term preservation of a Kimchi. Based upon the preliminary studies, irradiated sample with doses at 1-3 kGy were evaluated during the storage for 30 days at 10 deg C from the points of view of microbiological (total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, and coliforms), physicochemical (pH, total acidity, volatile acid, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, and texture) and organoleptic qualities. Besides, the combined effect of irradiation with heating on the storeability was investigated for five species of the lactic acid bacteria associated with the Kimchi fermentation. Under the room temperature storage conditions, physicochemical qualities of the irradiated samples were evaluated by determining pH, rancidity (TBA number), proximate composition, amino nitrogen, amino acid, and color changes. In the overall evaluation of sensory quality for the irradiated Kimchi, the nonirradiated control group was inedible after 15 days of storage, whereas 2-3 kGy irradiation could prolong the storage-life of the Kimchi over 2 times compared with the nonirradiated control, showing the good sensory quality even after 30 days of storage. In comparative effects of irradiation and ethylene oxide both treatments affected more or less rancidity, color, and amino acid content, but less than 10 kGy irradiation was shown to be safer than ethylene oxide fumigation. Form the foregoing results, it can be concluded that if a selective method could be applied to the radiation sterilization of minor ingredients capable of mainly contaminating the mixed condiments, even lower doses of irradiation should be effective for the microbial control. (Author)

  12. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, R.

    1997-01-01

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics M ini Cell . A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local o nsite control . Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  13. Eatability of the irradiated food; Comestibilidad de los alimentos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    A food is eatable and innocuous when it has an acceptable nutritional quality, it is toxicological and microbiologically safe for the human consumption. Not one preservation treatment allows to assure this in absolute form. As it happens with other conservation methods, the irradiation produce biological, chemical and physical changes in the treated food. For to check if such changes could cause damages to the health of the consumer, its have been carried out extensive studies to evaluate the inoculate of the irradiated foods. Analyzing diverse toxicity studies to prove the eatability of the irradiated foods, in this work those are presented but important in chronological order. In summary, until today it exists a great heap of tests that they demonstrate without place to doubts that the foods irradiated with a dose up to 10 KGy its are capable for the human consumption, for what can to be concluded that a safety margin exists to consume foods irradiated. (Author)

  14. Food Irradiation Newsletter. Vol. 15, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This Newsletter contains reports of the Final FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) on the Latin American Regional Cooperative Programme on Food Irradiation, the first FAO/IAEA RCM of the Research Coordination Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Foods, and the final FAO/IAEA RCM on the Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agriculture Commodities. Also included are excerpts of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) and a summary of an ICGFI Task Force Meeting on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. The new regulations on food irradiation in the United Kingdom, effective 1 January 1991, are summarized

  15. Consumer and food industries education on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Z.

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted on Malaysian food industries to determine the interest and potential applications of food irradiation as an alternative or to complement existing food preservation treatments. A total of 37 food processors representing 5 subsectors of the food industry participated in the survey. Information collected showed that majority of respondents were aware of food irradiation but the level of knowledge was low. Half of respondents perceived food irradiation as safe and 23% will consider using it for commercial purposes. Main concerns of the food processors were safety of the process, safety of irradiated food, efficacy of the process and consumer acceptance. Food irradiation applications considered to have the most potential for use by the food industry, were those which would improve the hygienic quality of food products. Despite the limited knowledge, respondents strongly supported the need to promote food irradiation technology in Malaysia. In view of this finding. various promotional activities have been continuously carried out to increase public awareness and understanding of the technology so as to facilitate acceptance of food irradiation in Malaysia. (author)

  16. Irradiation processing of food items for exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareen, Shashi

    1998-01-01

    Globalization has led to rapid increases in international food trade. About 460 million metric tonnes of foodstuffs are traded annually of a value to the order of 300 billion US dollar. With such high trade figures, it is imperative to provide safe and nutritious foods to consumers and to minimize food losses due to spoilage. Food irradiation is a technology which has been under study and debate since fifties for the purpose of food preservation. This technology has been extensively reviewed and studied at international levels and by several countries and on the basis of these, a number of countries have permitted the use of irradiation for specified foods and are also applying it on commercial scale. In this paper, a review of the status and importance of this technology has been brought out to include the application of the technology and its perceived benefits, acceptance of the technology at the international level and by different countries including the scenario in India, the various types of concerns expressed by Governments as well as consumers and specific areas with regard to exports for which the technology would be beneficial. (author)

  17. Present status of food irradiation and trend of its development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maha, Munsiah

    1998-01-01

    Food irradiation has been studied, tested and evaluated intensively for more than 40 years, and at present, this technology has been taking-off for commercial use in many countries. Some 40 countries have approved its application for various food items on groups of food, and about 60 commercial irradiators have been providing irradiation service for food in 29 countries. In 1983, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food with average irradiation dose limit not exceeding 10 kGy. The latest WHO press release on September 1997 stated that the maximum 10 kGy limit should not be there, since scientific evidences indicated that food irradiated even up to 75 kGy was safe to be consumed, as long as the sensory quality was acceptable and pathogenic organisms had been killed. The development of food irradiation in advanced countries, especially in USA is very significant lately, and hopefully this will be followed by other countries. In Indonesia, application of this technology has been approved since 1987, and six items or groups of food have been cleared for commercial irradiation. Further development and introduction of the technology are still needed to widen its application and to increase public awareness through harmonization of regulations among countries and dissemination of information. In addition, irradiation techniques for some specific purpose using either low dose, medium or high doses should be established to support effective, efficient and economical application. (author)

  18. Food irradiation studies at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, Rep. of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying-Kai; Tsai, Chao-Ming; Wu, Wen-Shi; Chang, Ming-Shia; Chang, Yung-Nien; Shu, Shih-Lin

    The use of radiation to inhibit sprouting of potatoes, onions, gingers and garlic was studied at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. The sprout inhibition doses of potatoes, onions, gingers and garlic were found to be 10, 5, 2.5, 7.5 Krads, respectively. Changes in the content of moisture, ash, reducing sugars, total sugars, lipids, proteins, fiber etc. were monitored in various agricultural foodstuffs both with and without γ-irradiation at various doses. Fungicides did not prevent potatoes from decaying at 10 or 25°C with or without gamma radiation. Onions treated with any of fungicides has significantly more healthy tissues than controls at 10°C but not 25°C after 30 and 60 days storage, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma radiation. Insect pests have been causing great damage to stored rice in Taiwan. The four most harmful insects are: Sitophilus Zeamais Mostschulsky. Rhyzopertha dominica. Tribolitum custaneum Herbst and Sitotroga cerealella Oliver. Adults, eggs or larvae of these insect pests were irradiated by 60Co gamma rays. The results show that 40 Krads of gamma-irradiation could completely control these four species of pests in stored rice.

  19. Food irradiation studies at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, Rep. of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Y.K.; Tsai, C.M.; Wu, W.S.; Chang, M.S.; Chang, Y.N.; Shu, S.L. (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, China)

    1981-01-01

    The use of radiation to inhibit sprouting of potatoes, onions, gingers and garlic was studied at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. The sprout inhibition doses were found to be, 10, 5, 2.5, 7.5 Krads, respectively. Changes in the content of moisture, ash, reducing sugars, total sugars, lipids, proteins, fiber etc. were monitored in various agricultural foodstuffs both with and without ..gamma..-irradiation at various doses. Fungicides did not prevent potatoes from decaying at 10 or 25/sup 0/C with or without gamma radiation. Onions treated with any fungicides have significantly more healthy tissues than controls at 10/sup 0/C but not 25/sup 0/C after 30 and 60 days storage, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma radiation. Insect pests have been causing great damage to stored rice in Taiwan. The four most harmful insects are: Sitophilus Zeamais Mostschulsky, Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolitum custaneum Herbst and Sitotroga cerealella Oliver. Adults, eggs or larvae of these insect pests were irradiated by /sup 60/Co gamma rays. The results show that 40 Krads of gamma-irradiation could completely control these four species of pests in stored rice.

  20. Wholesomeness and safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation with gamma-rays, X-rays or fast electrons can be used to change foodstuffs in beneficial ways or to destroy harmful organisms. Gamma rays do not induce radioactivity in foods, but X-rays and fast electrons can induce short lived radioactivity if sufficiently energetic. This imposes limitations on the energies which can be used, and a short wait between irradiation and consumption may be advisable. Irradiation produces chemical changes in foodstuffs, and some foods are unsuitable for irradiation. With appropriate foods, trials with animals and human volunteers generally show that the product is safe. Some loss in nutritional quality can take place, which could be significant for some individuals, but are unlikely to be important for those on a balanced diet. Irradiation does not eliminate all risk from microbial contamination. Foods to be irradiated should be good quality, and need to be kept under proper conditions after irradiation. Irradiated foods should be appropriately labelled. Tests for radiation would help to enforce necessary controls. If the process is properly carried out on appropriate foods, and all due precautions are taken, irradiated foods are wholesome and safe. 52 references

  1. Study of effective factors in detection of irradiated food using thermoluminescence based on the models of reference minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Sugi, Eriko; Katoh, Takashi; Hironiwa, Takayuki; Sunaga, Hiromi; Luo, Ling Z.

    2012-01-01

    In the thermoluminescence (TL) detection method for irradiated foods, accurate standards have been developed for detecting irradiated foods. The standard method describes that emission maximum temperature (T1i) and TL ratio for non-heated or non-mixed sample can be in the range of 150–250 °C and more than 0.1, respectively, when it was irradiated food. But when irradiated food is heated up to 200 °C, or mixed up with non-irradiated stuffs, T1i and TL ratio would not drop in the range. Here we examined the effects of the two processes, heating and mixing with non-irradiated food, on T1i and G1/G1k ratio (ratio of G1 and average G1 for 1-kGy-irradiated JF2, this value is modeled after TL ratio) using a model consisting of irradiated and non-irradiated geochemical standards of feldspar (JF1, JF2, PF, etc.). T1i temperatures for irradiated JF1, JF2, and PF ranged from 163 to 175 °C, while those for the non-irradiated JF2 ranged from 253 to 263 °C. T1i temperatures for 5-kGy-irradiated and preheated JF2 for 10 s, 20 s, and 30 s at 180 °C were 215, 225, and 231 °C, respectively. When JF2 was irradiated from 100 Gy to 5 kGy, the T1i was almost constant at any doses. G1/G1k ratios at 100, 200, and 500 Gy were 0.15, 0.23, and 0.60, respectively. G1/G1k ratio was proportional to the given dose at the integration temperature ranges. The TS sample, which originated from farm soil in Tanegashima Island, gave the same results as JF2. T1is for 5-kGy-irradiated and preheated JF2 for 20 s at 150, 180, and 200 °C were 197, 225, and 246 °C, respectively. Longer and higher preheating resulted in higher T1i. Longer and higher preheating extremely reduced the G1/G1k ratio, and in some cases the ratio was less than 0.1. This means TL ratio is useless in determination of the standard for irradiated food. Peak temperatures for JF2 in mixture of 5-kGy-irradiated to non-irradiated (1.25–5%) were 261–263 °C (non-irradiated portion, T1n) and 177–180 °C (irradiated portion T1i

  2. Regulatory control of food irradiation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.E.; Derr, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has a long history of successful use in treating a variety of nonfood products, but its application to foods is a new challenge. In order to meet this challenge, regulatory requirements and standards for the irradiation treatment of foods are needed. Many countries have already established rules and protocols for the use of ionizing radiation on a variety of food products and the food industry has recognized the need for standards for the irradiation treatment of foods, in many cases more stringent than those applied for other processes. While standardization and control of the irradiation process are imperative for its proper application to food, they are not the parameters that will govern the successful implementation and acceptance of food irradiation. The technology will be successful only if the public accepts it as a safe and useful process. Recent surveys show that dissemination of accurate and complete facts about irradiation is a key to public education about the technology. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) agrees that public information is important and, while it feels that industry must play the primary role, it is participating in several public information activities. Many U.S. government agencies are involved in food irradiation, protecting the public from hazards associated with ionizing radiation technology, monitoring the safety and wholesomeness of the food supply, and developing and transferring the technology to the private sector. There are only a few approved uses of food irradiation in the U.S. at the present time and very little food is being processed using the technology. The regulatory agencies are requiring proper labeling and packaging, and effective quality control systems as prerequisites for the use of irradiation. Methods for detecting if a food has been irradiated are also under development, although they should not be a prerequisite for the application of the technology to foods. (author)

  3. International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT) was set up in November 1978 for a period of five years at the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation, Wageningen, The Netherlands under an Agreement between the FAO, IAEA and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries of the Government of the Netherlands. Under this Agreement, the irradiation facilities, office space and services of the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation are put at IFFIT's disposal. Also the closely located Research Foundation, ITAL, provides certain facilities and laboratory services within the terms of the Agreement. The FAO and IAEA contribute US-Dollar 25,000. Annually for the duration of IFFIT. (orig.) [de

  4. Irradiation preservation of food in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the food irradiation activities in Hungary for preservation purposes. A historical background of this technology is given, and the present practice is outlined. Several food species are presently treated with Co-60 gamma-irradiation for their radurization. (R.P.)

  5. Food irradiation; Global aspects and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Akira (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture (Japan). Nodai Research Institute)

    1990-07-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs.

  6. Current status of food irradiation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2007-01-01

    With respect to the safety of irradiated food, the Korean government has accepted in principle the recommendations of international organization (FAO, WHO, IAEA, CAC, etc) as well as the national-based evaluations. Gamma radiation from Co-60 is now authorized to be used for food irradiation of 26 food items (or classes). Two multipurpose gamma-irradiation facilities (Greenpia Tech. Inc. since 1987; SOYA Co. Ltd. since 2002) are now operating for the treatments of selected food items as well as medical supplies. At present, labeled-irradiated products are not yet being marketed at the consumer level. As an alternative process of chemical fumigants, however, irradiation is being partially utilized for the microbial decontamination and pest control of dried spices, vegetable ingredients, etc. for their use in processed foods as minor ingredients. Commercial applications of food irradiation, though small in number, have been steady ever since. This article introduces the commercial progress in food irradiation technology in Korea in terms of research activities, legislation, commercialization, and the control of irradiated foods. (author)

  7. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 17, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This newsletter carries reports of the Research Co-ordination Meetings, Workshops and Training Seminars held between April and September 1992. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods is extensively discussed, and a Seminar on Food Irradiation held in Marseille in September 1992 attended by about 30 journalists from the European community is described

  8. Recent progress in food irradiation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joong-ho Kwon

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses progress in research into food irradiation and government approval of the process in Korea. The development of the first cobalt-60 food irradiator is described and the role of international, trade and consumer associations in its commercialization discussed. (U.K.)

  9. International acceptance of irradiated food. Legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The three international organizations competent in the field of irradiation processing for the preservation of food (FAO, WHO, IAEA), convened, at the end of 1977, an Advisory Group to revise and update the recommendations of a similar group which met in early 1972. The Advisory Group considered how national regulations could be harmonized so as to facilitate the international movement of irradiated food. This publication contains the Report of the Advisory Group, which summarizes the considerations of the Group on regulatory control over the irradiation plant and irradiation of foods, and on assurances for comparability of control (international labelling and documentation). Annexes 1 to 6 are included in order to complete the relevant information on the legal aspects of this subject. They include a Draft General Standard for Irradiated Foods, a Draft Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, Recommendations of a Consultation Group on the Legal Aspects of Food Irradiation, a Listing of the Legislation on Food Irradiation Adopted in Member States (1971-1976), and Model Regulations for the Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food

  10. Techno-economic feasibility study of food irradiation in the Republic of Kenya. End-of-Mission report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Through its National Council for Science and Technology as the adhering body to the IAEA, the Government of the Republic of Kenya requested an IAEA expert to undertake a 20 - day mission in Kenya during September 1993 to investigate the techno-economic feasibility of introducing food irradiation as a technology in this country. During his investigation in Kenya the expert was accompanied by a local food scientist from the Department of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, as well as an economist from the Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute. The investigation covered a very wide spectrum of more than fifty visits and meetings to governmental and regulatory bodies, as well as to the relevant private industries. Although the emphasis was placed on food irradiation, the investigation also covered potential medical and pharmaceutical applications. The feasibility study indicated that radiation indeed has a role to play in addressing some of the problems currently experienced by the food industry in Kenya. It was found that both governmental institutions and industry are enthusiastic about the prospects of this technology. However, it was found that the majority of foodstuffs that currently could be irradiated are destined for the export market and the acceptance of such irradiated foodstuffs in some recipient countries may pose a problem. In the case of the medical and pharmaceutical industries, the mere availability of a radiation sterilization facility in the country could strongly enhance the establishment of a local medical device industry. Based on a preliminary economic feasibility study by the expert, a radiation processing industry may be already be viable and a number of businessmen in industry indeed expressed their interest in becoming involved as potential investors in the technology. However, from an investment point of view, the current investigation was not comprehensive enough to come to the final conclusion as to the economic

  11. Acceptance of food irradiation in western markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and acceptance of food irradiation worldwide, focusing on Europe and the United States. Today no less than 38 countries including the USA and 14 European countries, have approved the irradiation of food. Across Europe there is a very wide variation, with a variety of foods being irradiated and eaten in Belgium and France but a total ban on food irradiation in Germany. Progress towards a directive harmonising the position across all countries in the European Union is slow. In the USA there is a growing awareness of the advantages of using food irradiation to combat the increasing risk of the food-borne diseases, and media coverage and consumer attitudes are considerably more favourable than previously. The use of irradiation instead of pesticides for spice treatment is gaining acceptance within the North American spice industry and the NA meat industry is recognising the potential of food irradiation as one way of meeting its obligations under the new HACCP regulations. Food irradiation is also being seriously considered as an alternative to the use of methyl bromide for quarantine treatment of fruit and vegetables. The establishment of the World Trade Organisation in 1995 to enforce various agreements concluded during the GATT Uruguay Round is expected to impact trade liberalisation. In particular the agreements pertaining to the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) have particular reference to track in irradiated food. In this respect, it is particularly important for potential training partners (food producing countries) to ensure that they have domestic approvals in place for any irradiated foods they provide to western countries. (author). countries. (author)

  12. Economic costs and benefits of commercial food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P. A; Freeman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Decisions about commercialization of potential food irradiation applications usually involve pre-feasibility and feasibility studies to assess the expected return on investment. In this paper treatment costa/charges in theory and practice, investment philosophy, and the role of the multi-purpose plant in food irradiation are discussed. Other countries benefit commercially from the irradiation of a limited range of foods, including spices and frozen shrimps, exported from Southeast Asia. Some aspects of the feasibility of commercially irradiating these products, as well as mangoes and grains, in ASEAN countries and Australia are examined

  13. Isotope and machine sources for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar G, M.

    1992-05-01

    Artificial radioactive sources as Co-60 and Cs- 137 are produced by bombarding Co-59 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor and by chemical separation of spent nuclear fuel respectively. Both radioactive sources emit very high frequency electromagnetic radiation called y-rays. This highly penetrating radiation is employed for preservation of food. Each y-ray emitted from a radioactive source transports energy from the source to the irradiated food. Penetration of y-rays and their intensity depend on y-energy. Inside this study the advantages and disadvantages of both sources are compared. (Author)

  14. Isotope and machine sources for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar G, M

    1992-05-15

    Artificial radioactive sources as Co-60 and Cs- 137 are produced by bombarding Co-59 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor and by chemical separation of spent nuclear fuel respectively. Both radioactive sources emit very high frequency electromagnetic radiation called y-rays. This highly penetrating radiation is employed for preservation of food. Each y-ray emitted from a radioactive source transports energy from the source to the irradiated food. Penetration of y-rays and their intensity depend on y-energy. Inside this study the advantages and disadvantages of both sources are compared. (Author)

  15. Dose rate effect in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1991-08-01

    It has been suggested that the minor losses of nutrients associated with radiation processing may be further reduced by irradiating foods at the high dose rates generally associated with electron beams from accelerators, rather than at the low dose rates typical of gamma irradiation (e.g. 60 Co). This review briefly examines available comparative data on gamma and electron irradiation of foods to evaluate these suggestions. (137 refs., 27 tabs., 11 figs.)

  16. Food Irradiation: Microbiological Safety and Disinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Margaret

    2005-09-01

    Irradiation can kill microorganisms, insects and parasites and this is a fundamental reason for applying the technology to improve the safety and quality of many foods and food products. This paper will discuss how various organisms can be affected by irradiation treatment. Factors affecting radiation sensitivity will also be discussed and how the use of irradiation in combination with other treatments can be beneficial in improving quality and safety

  17. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  18. Food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1963, some irradiated foods have been permitted for sale in the United States. Yet, at this time, commercial application has been limited to irradiation of a relatively small fraction of the spices and seasonings used as ingredients in other foods. The current situation regarding irradiated foods in the United States and how it developed is discussed. The author writes from experience gained as a Government regulator concerned primarily with ensuring safety of food and therefore this is stressed together with the crucial role played by consumers and industry. (author)

  19. Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs

  20. Food irradiation newsletter. V.18, no.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This newsletter contains a report on the 10th Annual Meeting of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiations, summaries of the Second Research Co-ordination Meetings(RCMs) and Final RCM of the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation with Emphasis on Process Control and Applications(RPFI-Pase III), the resolutions and considerations of food irradiation by the IAEA Board and summaries of the Regional Project for Research, Developing and Training on the Application of Nuclear Techniques to Food Preservation in the Near East. Reviews and order information for new publications and a listing of future meetings and workshops are located in the back of this newsletter

  1. Food irradiation newsletter. V. 17, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This issue of the Food Irradiation Newsletter includes reports of a number of activities of the Food Preservation Section of the FAO/IAEA from the final quarter of 1992 to the middle of 1993. In addition there is a summary of food irradiation activities in the USA, an excerpt from the Official Gazette of the French Republic concerning the use of ionizing radiation to treat camembert made from raw milk, and a discussion of the potential for the application of food irradiation in Russia

  2. Will our food be safe? Food irradiation - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    2000-01-01

    On 2 September 1999, an amendment to the ANZFA Food Standards Code was gazetted. Both countries now have a new Standard A17 to govern the irradiation of food. After over a decade when the policy in both countries was effectively a ban on the use of the process, there is now the possibility for the food industry to contemplate the use of the process or the import and sale of irradiated foods. (author)

  3. Wholesomeness of irradiated foods, especially potatoes, in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Tsuyoshi

    1998-01-01

    Food irradiation was established under the auspices of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission. In 1967, studies on the efficacy of food irradiation, irradiation techniques and wholesomeness of irradiated foods were begun on potatoes and 6 other items (onions, rice, wheat, vienna sausage, fish-paste products, and mandarin orange) by a project team consisting of scientists from various broad academic fields under the sponsorship of the Science and Technology Agency. Wholesomeness of irradiated foods generally includes the following three points. The first one is the toxicity consisting of chronic toxicity test which predicts the effect when food is continuously ingested for long time, e.g., carcinogenicity test, teratogenicity test which predicts the effect of reproduction and generation for multigeneration, and mutagenicity test which detects the cytogenic possibility. The second is the nutritional adequacy as evaluated by effect on growth, physiological function and nutritional contents. The last one is microbiological safety concerning to microorganic resistance and tolerance by irradiation. In 1972, on the basis of the reports on toxicological aspects that we mainly carried out, nutritional and other aspects, 0.15 kGy level for sprout inhibition of potato which was the first practical use for food irradiation in Japan was permitted by Food Sanitation Act. The safety of food contaminants and food additives, its object for use the same as food irradiation, is confirmed by toxicity test employed experimental animals. Limitation of food additives and residual limitation of food contaminants are decided by the results in toxicity test. And these insure humansafety. It is important and necessary to choose the irradiation or chemicals for food in view of human health. (author)

  4. Round-table discussion on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The possibilities of using radiation for food preservation as a way of alleviating the food deficiency problem in a large part of the world has been studied for some 20 years. Since the idea was recognized as a viable one, scientists had to develop it along three levels: firstly, the technological problems and economic viability had to be faced; at the same time tests had to be initiated to prove the wholesomeness of the irradiated foodstuffs, and then public acceptance and confidence in the end product had to be established. Work is proceeding along these three lines and in some cases, success has been won on all fronts. In others, it is continuing. As a FLASHBACK to the situation TWO YEARS AGO, we thought it interesting to reprint excerpts from a round-table discussion at which scientists from five countries sat down to discuss the pros and cons of food irradiation. ost at the gathering was Dr. Rocco Basson, Director of Chemistry at Pelindaba, South Africa, and the man responsible for directing radiation processing in that country. With him were Dr. Lapidot, Head of the Radiation and Engineering and Processing Section of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission at Soreq; Dr. Saint-Lebe of the Radioagronomy Service, French Atomic Energy Commission, at Cadarache; Dr. Ulmann, then Director of the Food Irradiation Pilot Plant at Wageningen in Holland; and Mr. Roy Hickman, leader of the International Project in the Field of Irradiation, sponsored by the FAO, IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, centred at Karlsruhe in Germany. (author)

  5. Proceedings of a seminar on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    International interest in the industrial use of ionizing radiation as a means of food preservation has increased rapidly following the favourable outcome of many years of intensive research on the health implications of food irradiation. The introduction in the U.S. and elsewhere of legislation restricting the use of chemical additives to foods for both human and animal consumption has contributed to this development. A high priority must be given to coordinating legislation on food irradiation within the European Community if international trade in irradiated foods is to make progress and food losses by spoilage and by insect infestation are to be minimised. Speakers from the United Kigdom, France and Germany describe the legislative and developmental situation in their respective countries. The implication for the Irish food industry is presented by scientists working on food research and development and regulatory aspects in Ireland are also discussed

  6. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  7. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  8. Food irradiation: technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses Nordion's experiences to-date with the Food Irradiation Project in Thailand (1987-1990). This project will enable the Government of Thailand and the Thai food industry to benefit from established Canadian technology in food irradiation. It includes the design and the construction in Thailand of a multipurpose irradiation facility, similar to the Canadian Irradiation Centre. In addition Canada provides the services, for extended periods of time, of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. The Technology Transfer component is a major part of the overall Thai Food Irradiation Project. Its purpose is to familiarize Thai government and industry personnel with Canadian requirements in food regulations and distribution and to conduct market and consumer tests of selected Thai irradiated food products in Canada, once the products have Canadian regulatory approval. On completion of this project, Thailand will have the necessary facility, equipment and training to continue to provide leadership in food irradiation research, as well as scientific and technical support to food industries not only in Thailand but also in the ASEAN region. (author)

  9. Anticipated consumer reaction to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction on first hearing of food irradiation is horror, revulsion, and disbelief that we could seriously anticipate such a thing. Ignorance coupled with fear of anything to do with the nuclear industry is the reason for such extreme reaction. Before anyone rushes into marketing irradiated foods, a lot of careful preparation must be done. A consumer education program is essential. The consumers must be told why it is proposed to irradiate food, what benefits it will bring to the public. Enough need will have to be demonstrated to overcome the supposed risk factor. Symbol on all irradiated foods must not be used to alert or alarm the consumer but rather as a piece of information. It will be necessary to be ever vigilant, to keep up the diligent training of food irradiators, food handlers and food inspectors. Irradiation is not a substitute for good manufacturing practice. So by using a different name or symbol, irradiated foods will soon be a part of our lives

  10. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread.

  11. Latin American regional co-operative programme on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The ''Latin American Regional Co-ordinated Research Programme on Food Irradiation'' was established in 1986 with the participation of research scientists from countries in the region to investigate the efficacy of food irradiation as a treatment to reduce post-harvest losses and improve the hygienic quality of food, to conduct techno-economic feasibility studies, and to disseminate knowledge about the scientific, health, legal and commercial aspects of food irradiation. This publication contains the final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme and summaries of individual research reports presented by the participating scientists

  12. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    The author debates public health aspects of food irradiation. The effect of food irradiation as a convenience to the consumer is discussed, i.e. the prevention of food deterioration and also the prevention of disease that could be passed on to the consumer by ingestion. On the other hand, the effects that could possibly be created by the application of radiation are also evaluated using toxicological and microbiological considerations. (Auth.)

  13. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Thailand. Food irradiation programme planning facility operations and pilot scale studies RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    During the week of 21 through 25 May 1991, a mission was completed at the Thailand Office of Atomic Energy for Peace's ''Thai Irradiation Centre''. Meetings and discussions were held with Center staff on all aspects of commercial/industrial multipurpose (food and non-food) processing, handling and marketing. Separate meetings and discussions were held regarding the overall food irradiation programme including FAO/IAEA supported projects. (author)

  14. Is irradiation of food stuffs safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheshwari, Raaz K.; Yadav, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Many advanced and several developing countries have abundant supplies of fresh, safe and nutritious food stuffs. Yet, despite the many precautions and processes in place to ensure safe food supply, microbial contamination is still a concern. There are a number of food processing tools available that provide additional protection for the food we consume. One very promising tool is food irradiation, which is a process of imparting ionizing energy to food to kill microorganisms. Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to a controlled source of ionising radiation for the purposes of reduction of microbial Ioad, destruction of pathogens, extension of product shelf life, and/or disinfection of produce. The term irradiation often evokes fears of nuclear radioactivity and cancer among consumers. The process seems frightening because it is powerful and invisible. Consequently questions and concerns exist particularly about the safety or wholesomeness of irradiated food. The paper highlights food irradiation as a food safety measure and the issues of concerns for consumers. (author)

  15. Regulations in the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The material available for this review, as well as the Guidelines for Preparing Regulations for the Control of Food Irradiation Facilities adopted by ICGFI, the international Conference Document on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, the draft European Economic Community Directive and the Codex General Standard and Code of Practice on food irradiation suggest that the following aspects may be subject to regulation: Food irradiation licensing, radiation safety, food hygiene, package labelling, inspection, certification for commercial purposes. The purpose of this review is to provide Member States with the information necessary for and special to the control of food processing by irradiation, so as to enable them to ensure that they have or they can adopt effective regulations governing all aspects of trade in irradiated food. Three countries have introduced in their food laws special provisions to regulate the processing of food by radiation. Twenty-three countries have issued such special regulations under the existing statutory authority of one of the executive branches: Seven countries either by reference or by incorporation in whole or in part in their regulations, gave recognition to the Codex Standard and Code of Practice. The absence of such specific recognition should not be interpreted, however, to mean that those countries have not accepted the Codex recommendations. Many provisions seem to have taken the Codex recommendations as a guide. 16 refs

  16. The basis and safety of food irradiation. Advantages of radiation treatment for food sanitation and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The food irradiation has the history of more than 60 years in its development. However, its commercial application has not been promoted well in Japan even though the safety of irradiated foods was confirmed. Recently, relevant authorities in 52 countries have given clearance to many commodities, and irradiated foods are commercially distributed in USA and EU countries. The international situation makes some unavoidable circumstances which can not close the commercialization of food irradiation in Japan. The present report contains the basis and application of food irradiation, and history of development in the World and Japan. Moreover, the safety of irradiated foods are demonstrated from many evidences of researches in animal feeding tests, in analysis of radiolytic products, in nutritional evaluations and in microbiological studies of irradiated foods. Especially, it makes obvious from the results of many researches that unique radiolytic products can not be produced by irradiation of foods. Because main radiation effects are induced by oxidation degradation of food components as similar to natural oxidation by heating or UV light. Radiation engineering for commercial process and identification methods of irradiated foods are also presented. (author)

  17. Food irradiation in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2001-01-01

    There has been substantial progress in the application gamma radiation for food and medical products in Korea since the establishment of the commercial irradiation facility by Agricultural Products Distribution Corporation in 1987. The Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in consultation with the Committee of Food Sanitation Deliberation and the Korean FDA accorded clearances of irradiation processing of a number of food products ranging from health foods, condiments and raw materials for food processing in 1987 followed by amendment in 1995. Gamma radiation from Co-60 was allowed for food processing with labeling requirement and restriction on re-irradiation. Annual irradiation processing of foods stands at about 2,000 metric tons. Authorisation to use irradiation for red meats and meat products is under consideration. A large number of business enterprises are utilizing the irradiation facility. A new multi-purpose commercial Co-60 irradiation plant is in the process of establishment in the country as a private company venture. In order to remove consumers' misunderstanding, a number of consumer education programmes have been implemented successfully with improvement of public perception. (author)

  18. Irradiated food: too hot to handle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coghlan, Andy.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses current arguments for and against the irradiation of food for human consumption. The technique, which involves bombarding batches of food with gamma rays, x rays or accelerated electrons, is claimed to halt spoilage, kill bacteria and thus extend the shelf-life of various foodstuffs. Irradiated foods are at present indistinguishable from non-irradiated food and this problem may not be solved before the government's bill legalizes the process. Opponents claim the technique may not be safe and that the food industry may use it to fool consumers into buying rotten foods. Proponents say that even though many foods, such as poultry, seafood, fruits, vegetables and spices may be treated, it is unlikely that more than a small proportion will be. They reject safety worries as alarmist exaggeration. (UK)

  19. Fortified foods, new opportunity for irradiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Sabato, Susy F.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important steps, in order to improve the quality of foodstuffs, in the last forty years is represented by fortified foods. The fortification foods means complementary addition of nutrients to content of foodstuffs. The macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) are relativity steady when submitted to irradiation. The micro-nutrients, speciality the vitamins, can be sensible to any method. This work has analysed fortified foods with Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, vitamin A, riboflavine, vitamin C and folic acid , as well as, the perspective of adjusting the food irradiation process with fortification foods

  20. Food Irradiation Regulations And Code Of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimba, B.W. Centre For Energy Research And Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

    1996-01-01

    Official attitude towards irradiated food is determined by factors such as: level of scientific knowledge, consumer habits, food shortages, agricultural production and technological know-how. To date, 39 countries have accepted the process for one or more food items while 27 nations carry out the process on a commercial basis. Regulations and codes of practice is essential for consumer confidence while uniformity of regulations, at the international level, will enhance international trade in irradiated food items. The internationally accepted Codex Standard on irradiated food and Codes of Practice for the operation of irradiation facilities, adopted in 1983, forms the basis for International regulations and a template for nations in the development of regulations. This paper discusses the basic legal requirements for licensing the process, procedures, facility and the operator and suggests a framework for a national regulation based on experiences of Hungary, Brazil and Israel

  1. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 16, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This newsletter contains a report on the final FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) on the use of irradiation to control the infectivity of food-borne parasites, held in Mexico City in June, 1991, and a brief summary of the second FAO/IAEA RCM on the Asian Regional Cooperative Project on food irradiation, with emphasis on process control and acceptance. The workshops and training courses held between September and December 1991 are presented, and a short article reports the opening of the USA's first commercial food irradiator and describes the initial public reaction

  2. Inactivation of food-borne pathogens by combined high hydrostatic pressure and irradiation- a model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamat, Anu; Thomas, Paul; Kesavan, P.C.; Fotedar, R.

    1997-01-01

    Application of radiation or high pressure as a food processing method is comparatively recent development in food industry. To investigate the response to hydrostatic pressure, cells of pathogens at logarithmic phase were exposed to 200 MPa for various time intervals in saline as model system. The cells of Salmonella were observed to be most sensitive whereas Listeria monocytogenes were most resistant as revealed by 7 and 2 log cycle inactivation respectively in 10 min. The cells of Bacillus cereus and Yersinia enterocolitica showed 3 long cycles reduction by the same treatment. Bacterial spores because of their resistant nature, are inactivated only at high radiation doses, which are technologically unfeasible. Studies carried out to examine the effectiveness of combination of pressure and radiation clearly suggested that combination treatment given in either sequence reduces the bacterial spore load more effectively than the individual treatment per se. (author)

  3. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, O.K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  4. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.

    1996-01-01

    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  5. Food Irradiation | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Using radiation to kill bacteria and other pathogens in food is called food irradiation. Irradiating food kills bacteria and molds that can make people sick. Irradiation does not remove toxins that are already in food. The high energy of the radiation breaks chemical bonds to stop bacteria and other pathogens from multiplying. Irradiation does not make food radioactive.

  6. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, R. [Director Business Development. SteriGenics International Inc. 17901 East Warren Avenue No. 4, Detroit, Michigan 48224-1333 (United States)

    1997-12-31

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics {sup M}ini Cell{sup .} A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local {sup o}nsite control{sup .} Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  7. Customer attitude front to the food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornellas, Cleia Batista Dias; Goncalves, Maria Paula Junqueira; Martins, Renaldo Travassos; Silva, Patricia Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Economic and social factors as cost, availability and food habits usually influence the consumer's choice. Nowadays other factors like legislation, rising of meals eaten out-of-home and the application of new technologies have been affected the shopping decision. In this direction it is necessary to have more explanations about food irradiation as a method to conserve food. Its commercial use has been slow because most of the consumers misunderstands or has wrong belief about this technique. In such a manner, this work aimed at realizing a survey of knowledge and acceptance level of food irradiation in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil, and also to elucidate its real meaning to consumers. A total of 218 people were interviewed and the results showed that 59.6% of them have not known that irradiation is a method to preserve food, thus they have no idea if they consume or not this kind of food. About 16% believe that irradiated food means the same of radioactive food. Besides that, 89% of people interviewed could become consumers of this product if they know that irradiation raises the food safety. (author)

  8. Food science symposium: a national food irradiation forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A national food irradiation forum was held to further promote the use of irradiation for food applications. This offered opportunity for the Department of National Health to announce new legislation for the labelling of irradiated foodstuffs. Subjects which dominated the proceedings included the implementation of labelling legislation and consumer education; cost implications and commercialisation of radurisation; the increasing trend towards the radurisation of processed foodstuffs as opposed to fresh and the future of food irradiation in South Africa. The safety of the irradiation process was stressed. The forum came to the conclusion that South Africa has this technology which has the government's stamp of approval and it is now up to the food industry, the Consumer Council, etc., to educate consumers into realising that they are buying quality products - and that the Radura symbol is a symbol of quality

  9. The use of some physical and chemical methods for the identification of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation of food causes physical, chemical and biological modifications which, in principle, provide a number of possibilites for differentiating irradiated food and food constituents from non-irradiated samples. This study reports the use of some physical and chemical methods for the identification of radiation treatments of certain food items

  10. Development of irradiation technique on degradation residue of pesticide veterinary drugs and mycotoxins in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiang; Huang Min; Chen Hao; Wu Ling; Gao Peng; Wang Yan; Lei Qing

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation technology is a new processing technology, It was widely used in food, medicines and medical supplies, chemical and other industries. In this paper, illustrated their applications in the degradation of pesticides, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins aspects residual pollution in food. Analysis of residual contaminants in food irradiation control study limitations and look forward to the prospect of food irradiation technology. (authors)

  11. Commercialization of irradiated foods in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.

    2001-01-01

    Preservation of food by gamma radiation is technically feasible and economically viable under conditions existing in Pakistan. To educate the consumers, programme for dissemination of information regarding food irradiation was implemented to educate the consumers. Test marketing of irradiated products was carried out for 5-6 years and more than 8 tons of irradiated vegetables were sold to consumers who were briefed about the advantages of radiation technology. A number of condiments including pepper and chillies were irradiated on a large scale (more than 10 tons) at the Pakistan Radiation Service (PARAS) during the years 1996-1998. Comprehensive Harmonised food irradiation regulations, covering all foods in seven classes, were approved in 1996. The charges for irradiating various food commodities ranged from US$19.71/ton potatoes (0.10 kGy) to US$38.32/ton for spices (10.0 kGy). Once the techno-economic feasibility is demonstrated, huge post-harvest losses of different food commodities can be avoided. This will make the country not only self-sufficient in food, but with enough surplus for export. (author)

  12. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 10, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This issue includes reports of the Task Force Meeting on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment (Chiang Mai, Thailand, February 1986), of the first Research Coordination Meeting on the Use of Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities (Chiang Mai, Thailand, February 1986), and of the ASEAN Workshop on Food Irradiation (Bangkok, Thailand, November 1985). This Newsletter also contains a publication by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in the Federal Register, Vol. 51, No. 75 (Friday, April 18, 1986) 21 CFR Part 179, Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food, Final Rule, which lists general provisions for food irradiation and permitted applications of ionizing radiation for (a) control of Trichinella spiralis in pork carcasses or fresh, non-heat processed cuts of pork carcasses (min. dose 0.3 kGy - max. dose 1 kGy); (b) growth and maturation inhibition of fresh foods (max. dose 1 kGy); (c) disinfestation of anthropod pests in food (max. dose 1 kGy); (d) microbial disinfestation of dry or dehydrated enzyme preparations (max. dose 10 kGy); (e) microbial disinfection of dry or dehydrated aromatic vegetable substances, culinary herbs, seeds, spices, teas, vegetable seasonings, and blends of these aromatic substances, (max. dose 30 kGy). Provisions for labelling of irradiated foods at retail level are contained in the rule

  13. Guidelines for acceptance of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to develop an action plan which can be applied in countries with varying philosophies towards food irradiation, but which would help foster a common international attitude to what is undoubtedly a controversial issue. Basic recommendations were to: Identify target groups which influence policy in regard to food irradiation; Establish a cohesive marketing strategy with flexibility to meet varied national needs; Implement an ongoing communications system designed to reach and inform decision-makers; Work in each country through an information ''chain'' commencing with irradiation processors; Promote to - and through - the food industry as potentially the greatest beneficiaries; Set up an administrative ''Clearing House'' in each country to co-ordinate promotion efforts; Assemble ''Seeding Groups'' who will contact and communicate with other organizations; Aim for common international branding and packaging identification for irradiated foods

  14. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 12, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This Newsletter reports summaries of work carried out in the past year. A coordinated research programme on ''Use of Irradiation to Control Infectivity of Food-borne Parasites'' was implemented in early 1987. The first Research Coordination Meeting of this programme was held in Poznan, Poland, August 1987 and its report is included. Another important development is ''Food Irradiation Plant: Project Profile'' of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), a subsidiary of the World Bank. IFC is in principle ready to finance installations on food irradiation facilities in developing countries provided that the proposals are submitted through Governmental channels. Details on developing such proposals for possible funding by IFC are included. This issue also contains a supplement, an up-dated list of clearance of irradiated foods. Refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Food irradiation: Some regulatory and technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    An Advisory Group by IAEA and FAO on Regulatory and Technological Requirements for Authorization of the Food Irradiation Process was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 5 to 9 November 1984. The task of the Advisory Group was to advise on the scientific and technological considerations affecting the implementation of the food irradiation process, with particular reference to the facilitation of international trade in irradiated foods and to develop guidance on how the various provisions of the Codex General Standard on Irradiated Foods could be incorporated into national legislation in order to facilitate international trade and avoid the occurence of trade barriers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various presentations at this meeting

  16. Identification of irradiated food by thermoluminescent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Van Thuan; Pham Quang Vinh; Tran Manh Hung; Dang Thanh Luong; Pham Quang Dien

    1990-01-01

    Thermoluminescent (TL) effect of irradiated dried food was observed by using the TL apparatus TOLEDO. Clear difference of TL intensity between irradiated sample and reference was found for chilies, black pepper, turmeric finger powder and gram green. For chilies powder and black pepper, TL effect was investigated in dependence on increasing absorbed dose from 0.5 to 20 kGy and fading effect was studied during storage time up to third month. When black pepper has linear dependence on dose up to 20 kGy, chilies effect catches a saturation at dose higher 5 kGy. TL effect was found very small after sample's washing, which shows an important role of inorganic impurity in TL effect. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Food irradiation: current problems and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of a set of processing technologies that can be used to increase the microbiological safety and shelf-life of a wide range of foods. Ionizing radiation is used to generate highly active chemical species within the food, which react with DNA. Under normal usage conditions, the food receives a pasteurizing treatment that gives a valuable reduction in common food-spoilage organisms and food pathogens. This review describes how the process is used in practice, including the benefits and limitations. The nature of changes to food components are outlined, together with the development of practical detection methods that utilize these changes. The legislative position of food irradiation is outlined, with the specific example of the introduction of the technology within the UK. The reasons for the slow uptake in the use of the technology are discussed, and the problem of consumer acceptance is addressed. (author)

  18. Food irradiation combined with refrigeration in food industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation and refrigeration are both physical treatments used for food preservation. The complementarity of their effects on food is the best reason for their combination. Irradiation is essentially used for disinfestation and refrigeration to protect food against non microbial degradations. Refrigeration and irradiation could be combined for shelf life extension of fresh fruits and vegetables or reduction of microflora in animal products, without loss of quality. Freezing must be combined with ionizing treatments if high doses are necessary as it is the case with destruction of pathogens in meat or food sterilization. Some examples of combination of refrigeration and irradiation are routinely applied in some industrial plants in France but it is expected that more and more combined treatments will be used thanks to research

  19. Food irradiation: public perception and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padwal-Desai, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive research carried out for more than three decades at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, and among other laboratories in India had conclusively demonstrated application of food irradiation for commercialization of domestic and export market. The radiation processing has definite economic role to play in food preservation industries in developed countries and developing countries. The possible application of food irradiation in developing countries belong to improvement of the hygienic quality of foods when no other methods are available to achieve this purpose, replacement of chemical treatments, improvement of shelf life of certain fruits, improvement of sensory quality, potential application to a quarantine treatment

  20. Development of food irradiation technology and consumer attitude toward irradiated food in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Cho, Han-Ok (Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of))

    1992-12-01

    In Korea, the well-integrated research of biological effects of radiation has been launched from the late 1960s. As research activities, the following food items have been dealt with: sprouting foods, fruits, mushrooms, grains, spices or mixed condiments, fish or fishery products, meat or meat products, and fermented foods. The usage of gamma radiation from [sup 60]Co source is now authorized for food irradiation of the following items: potato, onion, garlic, chestnut, mushroom, dried mushroom, dried spices (including red pepper, garlic, black pepper, onion, ginger, and green onion), dried meat, powdered fish and shellfish, soybean paste powder, hot pepper paste powder, soybean sauce powder, and starch. Since the authorization of food irradiation in 1985, consumers' acceptance has been considered the most important. The survey evaluating the basic perception and attitule toward food irradiation revealed the following results. Consumers' awareness of food irradiation was 82%, with significantly higher in radiation workers than the general public (p<0.0001). Seventy-five percent distinguished the contaminated food by radionuclides from irradiated food. In purchasing irradiated foods, 50.9% required more information. The contribution of irradiated foods to wholesomeness was suspicious in 51%, acceptable in 33%, and uncertain in 16%. If information about the benefits of irradiation is provided to consumers, positive response was increased to 60%. The most critical impediment in the commercial application of food irradiation was found to have resulted from the general consumers' slow acceptance; however, consumers' attitude to irradiated food became positive if they understood the safety and advantages of this technology. The most important task is to overcome consumers' psychological resistance and transporting matters of the products to be irradiated. (N.K.).

  1. Development of food irradiation technology and consumer attitude toward irradiated food in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Cho, Han-Ok

    1992-01-01

    In Korea, the well-integrated research of biological effects of radiation has been launched from the late 1960s. As research activities, the following food items have been dealt with: sprouting foods, fruits, mushrooms, grains, spices or mixed condiments, fish or fishery products, meat or meat products, and fermented foods. The usage of gamma radiation from 60 Co source is now authorized for food irradiation of the following items: potato, onion, garlic, chestnut, mushroom, dried mushroom, dried spices (including red pepper, garlic, black pepper, onion, ginger, and green onion), dried meat, powdered fish and shellfish, soybean paste powder, hot pepper paste powder, soybean sauce powder, and starch. Since the authorization of food irradiation in 1985, consumers' acceptance has been considered the most important. The survey evaluating the basic perception and attitule toward food irradiation revealed the following results. Consumers' awareness of food irradiation was 82%, with significantly higher in radiation workers than the general public (p<0.0001). Seventy-five percent distinguished the contaminated food by radionuclides from irradiated food. In purchasing irradiated foods, 50.9% required more information. The contribution of irradiated foods to wholesomeness was suspicious in 51%, acceptable in 33%, and uncertain in 16%. If information about the benefits of irradiation is provided to consumers, positive response was increased to 60%. The most critical impediment in the commercial application of food irradiation was found to have resulted from the general consumers' slow acceptance; however, consumers' attitude to irradiated food became positive if they understood the safety and advantages of this technology. The most important task is to overcome consumers' psychological resistance and transporting matters of the products to be irradiated. (N.K.)

  2. The chemical safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    While animal feeding studies and other biological testing methods have contributed greatly to the establishment of the toxicological safety of irradiated foods, probably no other single factor has lent itself so conclusively to this end as the availability of an unprecedented volume of analytical chemistry data on radiolytic products generated in a variety of foods and their raw materials and ingredients, collected at laboratories worldwide over decades. Such direct analytical chemical evidence, backed up by a general knowledge of radiation chemistry of bio-organic materials has allowed regulatory scientists and other competent, qualified and objective interested parties to discern with a high degree of confidence what takes place chemically at the sub-molecular level, and in the parts-per-trillion range, as a result of food irradiation. Ironically, this has also opened the way for nonqualified, subjectively negatively biased individuals to, for example, grossly misrepresent such compounds as benzene and formaldehyde in this context in an alarmist fashion to anyone predisposed to listen

  3. Status of food irradiation in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Quantum Beam Science Directorate, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Furuta, Masakazu [Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannonndai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Uenoyama, Naoki [Department of International Cooperation and Industrial Infrastructure Development, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Shimbashi Fuji Bld., 2-1-3, Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8605 Japan (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: kobayashi.yasuhiko@jaea.go.jp

    2009-03-15

    The status of food irradiation in the world in 2005 was investigated using published data, a questionnaire survey and direct visits. The results showed that the quantity of irradiated foods in the world in 2005 was 405,000 ton and comprised 1,86,000 ton (46%) for disinfection of spices and dry vegetables, 82,000 ton (20%) for disinfestation of grains and fruits, 32,000 ton (8%) for disinfection of meat and fish, 88,000 ton (22%) for sprout inhibition of garlic and potato, and 17,000 ton (4%) of other food items that included health foods, mushroom, honey, etc. Commercial food irradiation is increasing significantly in Asia, but decreasing in EU.

  4. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-15

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed.

  5. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-01

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed

  6. Trends of irradiated foods in Japan and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1987-01-01

    The present report describes the current situation involving irradiated foods in Japan and other countries. The technique that uses radiations for such purposes as sterilizing foods or increasing their storage life is generally called food irradiation. Data on the increase in storage life, optimum dose for various marine products, sterilization of seasonings and changes in vitamin content are presented and discussed. Evaluation of the wholesomeness of foods requires analysis of induced radioactivity, toxic substances, carcinogenic substances, destruction of nutritious substances and hereditary effects. Results of such analyses are cited, indicating that food irradiation can be performed without significant deterioration in the wholesomeness of foods. In Japan, a council for food irradiation research was established in 1965 and the Atomic Energy Commission started a special research project in 1967. Some advantages and disadvantages of food irradiation were identified by the project and other studies made by various research institutes. In the world, about 20 percent of crops are lost after harvesting due to harmful insects or rotting. It is expected that irradiation will be effective for reducing the loss. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Food irradiation: What is it? Where is it going?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Food irradiation, a controversial technology, has captured the interest of government, industry and consumers in recent years. Consumers need to learn what irradiation is, why it is used to process foods, what the government thinks about it, what foods are being irradiated, and what its chances are for successful commercialization. That information will better enable them to make informed decisions about irradiated foods

  8. Analytical detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The present publication is a review of scientific literature on the analytical identification of foods treated with ionizing radiation and the quantitative determination of absorbed dose of radiation. Because of the extremely low level of chemical changes resulting from irradiation or because of the lack of specificity to irradiation of any chemical changes, a few methods of quantitative determination of absorbed dose have shown promise until now. On the other hand, the present review has identified several possible methods, which could be used, following further research and testing, for the identification of irradiated foods. An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food ('ADMIT'), established in 1990, is currently investigating many of the methods cited in the present document. Refs and tab

  9. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 10, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This issue reports the summary of the Task Force Meeting on the Use of Irradiation to Ensure Hygienic Quality of Food, convened by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in Vienna, July 1986. The full report of the final FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting on Factors Influencing the Utilization of Food Irradiation, convened in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia in June 1986, contains the conclusion of the work carried out under the Co-ordinated Research Programme in the past 5 years. A Regional Co-ordinated Research Programme for Latin America has been launched with a workshop convened on this subject in Piracicaba, Brazil, July 1986. Also featured is the summary report of the FAO/IAEA Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the Practical Application of Food Irradiation convened in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, April 1986. The well-attended seminar reported on the progress and development of practical scale application of food irradiation in the region. A successful market testing of irradiated mangoes in Miami, Florida is also described. The outcome of this test is quite significant in view of the Chernobyl accident a few months before the tests. Tabs

  10. A Review of the Quality and Safety of Irradiated Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    studies and tests for mutation and radiolytic products. The FDA further proposed allowing spices to be irradiated at doses as high as 25 kGys (2500 krad,3... spices , but less than I percent of the spici.s consumed in the U.S. in 1965 were irradiated (Steyer, 19B6). Thre major food production companiei, are...is a superior tool for controlling salmonella and other danPerous 0 foodborne pathogens . Pork irradiation can prevent humare toxoplasmosis and

  11. Wholesomeness studies of irradiated salted and dried mackerel, using rats. Part of a coordinated programme on the wholesomeness of the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anukarahanonta, T.

    1978-04-01

    Chronic toxicity of irradiated salted and dried mackerel was evaluated by multi-generation rat feeding studies. Salted and dried mackerel samples were irradiated with 200krad, ground and mixed with a standard laboratory animal diet at 28% w/w. Wistar strain rats were used in the experiment and were divided into 3 groups and fed their respective diets, i.e. stock ration, diet containing 28% of non-irradiated salted and dried mackerel and diet containing 28% of irradiated salted and dried mackerel. The test was carried out for 3 generations. The results revealed no significant difference that would impose a hazard attributable to consumption of irradiated salted and dried mackerel with respect to longevity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, dominant lethal, reproductive function and biophysiological function in animals tested

  12. Education effects on awareness of irradiated food in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Kagoshima, Mayumi

    2005-01-01

    Technologies of radiation applications will be adopted when the consumer receiving the benefit from the technologies understands and accepts them. In this study, the importance of basic knowledge about radiation with which to understand food irradiation as an accepted technology was investigated with Japanese 597 students aged 20±2.7 years as an object of investigation. It is concluded on the basis of the results of the present study that the consumer should be informed of the irradiated food with its benefits of high quality, safety, long shelf life, wide product availability and lower cost and, at the same time, the irradiated food should be plainly manifested in marketing stores in order to accept food irradiation technique in Japan. (S. Ohno)

  13. Food processing with electrically generated photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a portable electric food irradiation processing machine is presented and analyzed for cost assuming the required accelerators are available for $1.5 million each. It is shown that food can be processed to 1 kGy for a price of $5.98/ton

  14. Facts about food irradiation: Status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet introduces the concept of irradiating food to reduce post-harvest losses from infestation, contamination and spoilage, to lower the incidence of foodborne diseases and to assist international trade in food products by offering an alternative to fumigation or some other treatments that may not be acceptable to the importing countries

  15. Potential of food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mohd Ghazali Bin HJ Abdul

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has recently been viewed as a technology that can contribute to the solution of problems associated with the preservation of Malaysia's agricultural produce, hence improving the economic status of the rural sector. Economic, political, social and environmental factors need to be taken into consideration in the implementation of a food irradiation program in Malaysia. Coordinated research is being carried out on various food items such as rice and pepper. The government holds a positive view of the technology. However, it is important to consider consumer acceptance of the technology and its legislation before the technology is adopted

  16. Food irradiation newsletter. V. 19, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A number of important developments on food irradiation has been included in this issue of the Newsletter. First, the updated computerized list of clearance of irradiated food in different countries is published as a Supplement to this issue. The readers are requested to inform the Food Preservation Section of any mistakes in the list as soon as possible. Our experience with the list which was last published in 1991 showed that it has a strong demand by scientists, regulatory authorities, consumer groups and the media. The list therefore must be accurate as it is often referred to in literature

  17. Food irradiation and its future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacQueen, K.F.

    1967-01-01

    Radiation for food preservation is a way of alleviating problems of food deficiencies in a large part of the world. A review of progress achieved and future prospects was made at the eleventh session of the General Conference in a scientific lecture by Kenneth F. MacQueen, Head of the Food Irradiation Section, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. A pioneer in the subject, Mr. MacQueen prepared the petition which led to official acceptance of irradiated potatoes for human consumption in Canada in 1960

  18. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out. (G.C.)

  19. Use of electron accelerators in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Preservation of food by ionizing radiations involves controlled application of energy of radiation to agricultural commodities, foods and food ingredients, for improving storage life, hygiene and safety. Insects and microbes cause major economic losses to stored crops. Many of our food products are contaminated with diseases causing germs and toxin producing molds. Without improvement in microbial quality and getting properly treated to overcome quarantine barriers our agricultural products cannot get international markets. In this respect electron accelerators have immense potential in commercial radiation processing of foods. Both low and high dose applications with increased process rates can be achieved using accelerators to cover a wide spectrum of food commodities approved for commercial radiation processing as per the recent gazette notification under Atomic Energy (Radiation Processing of Food and Allied Products) Rule, 2012. The effectiveness of processing of food by ionizing radiation depends on proper delivery of absorbed dose and its reliable measurement. For food destined for international trade, it is important that the dosimetry used for dose determination is carried out accurately and that the process is monitored in accordance with the internationally accepted procedures. Experiments using alanine-EPR system were carried out to optimize the process parameters of 10 MeV electron beam for commercial irradiation of food. Different food commodities namely, mango, potato and rawa (semolina) were irradiated to measure the absorbed dose distribution. The actual depth dose profile in food products and useful scan width of the electron beam were determined for commercial radiation processing of food using electron beam. (author)

  20. Food irradiation methodology : prospect and retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    Research and development work in food irradiation over the past several years has been essentially directed towads answering all possible questions in respect of the suitability of the process, quality of materials and safety for human use. A major effort was indeed, around the toxicological evaluation, till it was recognised internationally that irradiated items of food do not present any health hazards. This recognition along with the awareness of the hazards in the use of chemicals has resulted in a renewed interest in the use of radiations for preservation of food. Radiation preservation of food would reach the stage of practical application with additional information on design and functional aspects of radiation sources, appropriate for specific commodities. Each items has a particular dose requirement depending on the purpose of irradiation and the type of handling. 21 refs. (author)

  1. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 14, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This issue reports activities of the ICGFI, especially the excerpts of its 6th Annual Meeting held in Vienna in October 1989. The Action Plan of the ICGFI Inter-American Meeting on Harmonization of Regulations Related to Trade in Irradiated Foods, held in Orlando, Florida last year, is also included. The conclusions of the three co-ordinated research programme organized by the Food Preservation Section during 1989 are reported and a survey of market testings of irradiated food carried out in different countries in the past 5 years is described. A supplement gives an up-dated list of clearance of irradiated foods based on information received from various countries. Refs, 1 fig., tabs

  2. Study on detection of electron beam irradiated food by ESR spectroscopy and comparison of the ESR spectrum of electron beams and γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiming; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to detect electron beam irradiated food by ESR spectroscopy. The white pepper powder, paprika powder, cumin powder and pistachios were used as test materials to study the feature changes of ESR spectrum and the relationship between ESR intensity and irradiation dose in different doses, the shape variation of ESR spectrum in γ-rays and electron beams in the same sample was also compared. The results showed that the ESR spectrum of 4 kinds of irradiated samples was obviously different before and after irradiation, the intensity of ESR signal increased with the increasing of the absorbed dose. The dose above 432 Gy could be detected in white pepper powder and pistachios, the dose above 875 Gy could be detected in paprika powder and cumin powder. The ESR intensity of all samples decreased during the storage time (200 d), even after 200 days the ESR method could also be used to detect whether or not the samples have been irradiated. The same dosage of y-rays and electron beams has no significant influence on the shape of ESR spectrum, however, the difference of irradiation mechanism caused slight impact on ESR intensity. The results could provide the technical basis for the application of ESR method in detecting electron beam irradiated food. (authors)

  3. Recent trend of food irradiation in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Tohru

    1989-01-01

    Forty years have elapsed since the full scale research on food irradiation was begun, and the irradiation of potatoes, which was the first commercial food irradiation in the world, was started in Japan 15 years ago. In 1960s and 1970s, the development of food irradiation technology and the research for the examination of the safety of irradiated foods were mainly carried out. It was clarified that the dose required for obtaining the effect that irradiation aimed at is 0.03-0.2 kGy for suppressing germination and root generation, 0.2-1 kGy for delaying the ripening of fruits, 0.1-1 kGy for killing insects, 1-10 kGy for general sterilization and 25-50 kGy for sterilization, and also the soundness of irradiated foods was confirmed. In 1980s, the practical use of food irradiation became to be advanced in various countries, and the countries where food irradiation is carried out are increasing now. When food irradiation becomes to be actively carried out, the system for managing the execution of food irradiation and the distribution of irradiated foods becomes important, and at present the investigation for creating this system is advanced internationally. The opinion on the soundness of irradiated foods, the state of permission of food irradiation in various countries, the state of practical use of food irradiation in various countries, and the establishment of the management system for food irradiation are described. (K.I.)

  4. Analysis of radicals induced in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Keigo; Kaimori, Yoshihiko; Kawamura, Shoei; Sakamoto, Yuhki; Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    By electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed free radicals in γ-ray irradiated foods; black pepper, green coffee bean and ginseng. We also analyzed the decay behavior of radiation induced free radicals during storage of irradiated foods. The ESR spectrum of experimental irradiated foods consists of a sextet signal centered at g=2.0 and a singlet signal at the same g-value position and a singlet signal at g=4.0. The singlet signal at g=2.0 is originated from organic free radicals and its peak intensity showed the dependence of γ-ray irradiation dose levels. The signal intensity was decreased during storage. Only after 3 hours of radiation treatment the peak intensity was decreased fast and after that the intensity was decreased slowly. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , of radiation induced free radicals showed the variations before and after irradiation. During long time storage period it was shown that T 1 was increased and T 2 was decreased. By analysis of decay process using the simulation methods based on the theory of reaction speed, it is considered that at least two kinds of radicals were induced in irradiated foods during long time storage. (author)

  5. Food irradiation regulatory development in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.A.; Coleman, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's involvement in food irradiation dates back more than thirty years. The agency has been involved with the wholesomeness testing of the irradiated foods from both nutritional and toxicological standpoints. Knowledge about the nutritional and toxicological aspects of irradiated foods is fundamental in the development of a regulatory strategy for assuring the safe use of such foods. (author)

  6. 21 CFR 179.25 - General provisions for food irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for food irradiation. 179.25... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.25 General provisions for food irradiation. For the purposes...

  7. Wholesomeness assessment of irradiated food and its radiolysis products. A review on history and validity of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    A brief history of food processes using irradiation is presented with focusing on such specific problems as possible induction of radioactivity by using high-energy X-rays or electron beams and possible formation of mutants or nutritive breakdown of the food. The basis of the argument is mainly the researches carried out in 1960's in USA and 1970's in UK and France, and also Food and Drug Administration (FDA) results on evaluation of wholesomeness of irradiated food using animal breeding during 1954 to 1980. An extensive study on safety test as food and qualifying test for nutrition carried out by the international project group (USA, France, West Germany, Netherlands, UK, and Japan) are also included as an important basis. The author concludes that the safety of food irradiation is well confirmed by continuous researches which have been widely done for these 60 years, as have been guaranteed by WHO. (S. Ohno)

  8. The Codex standard and code for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwin, L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief background on the work by the Codex Alimentarius Commission on irradiated foods is given. An Australian model food standard for irradiated foods, based on the Codex standard, is being developed

  9. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

  10. Simulation study ε-Caprolactam monomer and metallic elements migration from irradiated polymeric packaging into food stimulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Faena Machado Leite

    2008-01-01

    For decades migration study of chemical compounds from packaging into food, such as metals, residual monomers and additives, is a very important issue, concerning public health and minimize chemical contamination. In this work, it was done irradiations of packagings taken in contact with food simulant, and it was studied this migration through a mathematical model of the diffusion process, compiled in a computational simulation method in order to study the microscopic behavior of migration of metallic elements cadmium, chromium, antimony and cobalt, present in metallic plastics from dairy product packagings, and also the migration of - caprolactam monomer, present in nylon polymeric plastics used for package meat stuffs, to the food simulant acetic acid 3%. The results from simulations of the migration of -caprolactam monomer were compared with experimental results obtained from high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) measurements, and the simulation of metallic elements migration were compared with the neutron activation analysis measurements (NAA). These experimental results were performed and kindly informed by another research groups, partners in this project. The food packaging system was discretized in one-dimension space and in time and the partial differential equation that defines the diffusive process, the second 'Fick's law', together with an equation of Arrhenius type dealing with the thermal influence, were solved using finite differences. The final step of the resolution was a tridiagonal linear system, solved using the Thomas algorithm. It was studied, and in some cases even foreseen, experimental quantities, like the diffusion coefficient, activation energy and concentration profile of migrant compounds, allowing the understanding of the diffusion process and the quantitative estimate of the migration of such compounds under ionizing radiation influence. Variation on the initial concentration levels (C 0 ) of the monomer inside the packaging

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on pesticides in a food irradiation perspective: a bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, F.L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on pesticides in solution or in food are reviewed. Degradation of pesticides is generally greater in irradiated aqueous solution than in aliphatic solvents or in food. Degradation products of some pesticides have been identified in organic solvents, but very few studies of this type have been performed on irradiated food. Addition products between molecules of solvent and pesticides have been observed. These results are discussed in a food irradiation perspective

  12. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  13. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-01

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  14. Application of irradiation techniques to food and foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Suc Won; Yang, Jae Seung; Cho, Han Ok

    1991-02-01

    A preservation study of dried fish, anchovies, has been conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation and laminated(nylon/polyethylene) film packaging on microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic qualities of stored samples under room, refrigeration and freezing temperatures. Irradiation at less than 5 kGy and NY/PE-laminated film packaging are anticipated to be significantly effective for over 10 months in terms of improving the hygienic quality and extending the storage life of boiled-dried anchovies. In a survey participating 700 consumers, respondents preferred irradiated food to chemically-treated one. However, majority of respondents (55.7 %) was ignorant of the fact that the Korean government and international organizations concerned have approved the wholesomeness of irradiated food. Insufficiency of public information and understanding for irradiated food was indicated as a major cause for retardation of commercial utilization of food irradiation technology. In a response concerning perception and acceptance toward irradiated food, there was a significant difference between radiation worker and the general public. (Author)

  15. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-01-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers. (AJ) [de

  16. Manual of food irradiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Following items are discussed: Fundamentals of dosimetry; description of irradiators; dose distribution in the product and commissioning the process; plant operation and process control; detailed instructions on using various dose-meter systems; references; glossary of some basic terms and concepts

  17. Food irradiation newsletter. V. 19, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Several other important developments are covered in this issue. The high profile CRP on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food (ADMIT) came to the conclusion at the final RCM held at the Department of Agriculture, Belfast, Northern Ireland in June 1994. This CRP has achieved the task which to many of us would be practically impossible. Thanks to the efforts of the participants and modern sensitive scientific equipment, the CRP was able to develop several reliable detection methods for various types of irradiated food. The outcome of the RCM on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly, held in Bangkok, March 1994 also provided further encouragement for expanding the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment beyond fruit fly infestation

  18. Prospects of establishing food irradiation facilities in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, A.O.; Patel, J.P.; Rathore, I.V.S.; Hashim, N.O.; Kinyua, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: A national project of food irradiation in the country is being proposed. At present there are no facilities for food irradiation (and food irradiation research) in Kenya. This report is therefore largely comparative between the traditional and the conventional food preservation methods on the one hand and the irradiation technique on the other. The report is also based on information from other countries where food irradiation is practiced (Kawabata, 1981) or is being also contemplated (Diop et al, 1997), as well as on the relevant report of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on this topic (IAEA, 1993). The paper presents the statement of the research problem, i.e., in Kenya large quantities of food and other farm produces go to waste annually as a result of the inadequacies of the preservation techniques currently in use. These (other) preservation techniques, although often less controversial than the irradiation techniques, have also been found to be more expensive to run when compared to irradiation techniques. Such techniques, presently employed in Kenya, include the traditional methods (e.g. sun drying, smoke and fire drying, etc.) and modern techniques such as freezing or refrigeration, lyophilization, etc., as well as application of chemicals like insecticides and fumigants. The latter combines the disadvantages of high costs with environmental pollution and associated health risks. In this preliminary research, aimed at studying the prospects of a national food irradiation project, the following food items that are selected for their importance to the economy of the country, include potatoes, rice, maize, coffee, tea, various fruits, fish and meat. The paper also explores the economic feasibility as well as the human and technological requirements of establishing a commercial food irradiation plant, with aim of assessing the applicability of food irradiation as alternative or a complimentary approach for preservation technique in

  19. Industrial technology transfer of the food irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    While the Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (WHO-FAO-IAEA) concluded that all foods, irradiated up to a dose of 10 kGy is safe for human consumption from the toxicologic view point, the US FDA intends to clear food irradiated up to a dose of 1 kGy and has cleared spices up to 10 kGy. The various possible applications of food irradiation are discussed and so is the food irradiation project of the US DOE and its objectives. The main item on the DOE program is the treatment of pork meat, infested with Trichinella Spiralis, at doses of 0.3 kGy, and the diverse aspects of the research program are described. It was demonstrated experimentally that only 0.2 kGy is necessary for inactivation of the first generation of larvae, whereas inhibition of the second generation of larvae, encysted within the muscles requires a dose of 0.1 kGy. However, for complete inactivation a dose of 0.3 kGy was found necessary. The overall feasibility of pork meat irradiation is being studied, including estimation of consumer reaction. In expectation of FDA clearance of irradiated pork meat, further economic feasibility studies and a demonstration scale irradiation facility are planned. The radiation disinfestation of fruits for quarantine purposes is also discussed, presenting results obtained by the USDA with respect to pomela, infested with fruit flies, and the possible replacement of EDB looks feasible to the US authorities. A transportable Cs 137 irradiator for demonstration purposes has been designed and will be applied to different products. The possible application of irradiation to algae, produced in sewage processing plants, is considered with the aim of producing a high protein cattle feed. US AID and US DOE are jointly investigating the possible application of this technology in developing countries which export their products to the USA

  20. Economics feasibility of food irradiation in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Fouly, M.Z.

    2000-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, sea foods and waste products. Their range of products being processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. The paper discusses the economics of food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. The food under investigation were smoked fish, spices and dried vegetables. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating know capital costs with annual operation costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the investors with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived, and enough information to assist in the choice of the irradiator model best suited for specific needs

  1. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  2. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  3. Polymers and paper as packaging materials of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of γ-irradiation on synthetic polymers and paper used as packaging materials for irradiated food have been studied by NMR. Polystyrene, polybutadiene and some copolymers were studied before and after the γ-irradiation treatment and in the presence or absence of antioxidants and stabilisers. In the absence of additives, the effect of γ-irradiation on polystyrene is negligible even irradiating at high doses. In turn, the role of antioxidants and stabilisers is crucial in polybutadiene and butadiene-containing copolymers. Wood pulp paper was also studied by NMR. Preliminary measurements on γ-irradiated wood pulp sheets show a shortening in the T 2 relaxation time component due to the bound water, i.e. some of the bound water is lost. (author)

  4. Food irradiation in the UK and the European Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolston, John

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation in the UK has been authorised since the early 1990s. In principle it is possible to irradiate a wide range of foods for a variety of purposes. In practice food irradiation is virtually non-existent. The structure of food retailing in the UK, a continual stream of food safety scares and a developing public 'crisis of confidence' in the food producer/supply chain have combined to make the future for food irradiation look bleak. The new European Directive on Food Irradiation is unlikely to alter this outlook. (author)

  5. Evaluation of irradiation in foods using DNA comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawar, Affaf; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Khan, Q.M.; Ali, T.; Khan, A.I.; Asi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Comet assay is a rapid, inexpensive and sensitive biological technique to detect DNA damage in food stuffs by irradiation. In this study the Comet assay is applied on foods of plant and animal origins. Samples were irradiated by using 60 Co gamma-radiation source. The applied doses were 2, 6 and 10 kGy for food of plant origin and 0.5, 1 and 2 kGy for meat items. The un-irradiated and irradiated samples were clearly differentiated on the basis of DNA fragmentation. During the electrophoresis study, it was found that in un-irradiated cells DNA remained intact and appeared as Comets without tail whereas in irradiated cells Comets with tails were visible due to stretching of fragmented DNA. Moreover, it was also revealed that the DNA tail length was dose dependent. Dry food stuffs (seeds) showed good results as compared to moist foods (meat, fruits and vegetables) due to the absence of background damage. (author)

  6. Chemiclearance of food irradiation process: Its scientific basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation can facilitate preservation and distribution of food; it can reduce the need for chemical additives and pesticides; and it can reduce the overall use of energy. Often, industry must make changes because of seasonal variation in supply. Application of food irradiation will be difficult, therefore, unless industry can adjust to these changes, which require a broad clearance, or that food irradiation be cleared as a process. Basic to such broad clearance is a thorough understanding of the changes that take place so that the results of animal feeding studies can be extrapolated to foods similar to those used in the animal feeding studies. Such extrapolation is sometimes called chemiclearance. The extensive research on the safety of irradiated foods is summarized and the following major categories discussed: (a) theory of interaction of radiation with food; (b) chemical analysis of the radiolytic products and measurements of their yields as a function of the chemical composition of the food, temperature, dose, and dose-rates; (c) toxicological evaluation of the radiolytic compounds; and (d) toxicological evaluation of short-term and long-term animal feeding studies, mutagenicity studies, teratogenicity studies, and anti-metabolite studies. (author)

  7. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  8. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil

    2012-04-01

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  9. Food package irradiator-a landmark of operational safety and food irradiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.P.; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Ghosh, Sunil K.

    2017-01-01

    Food irradiation in India has been undertaken for preservation of food for safe consumption, security of food for round the year and export of the food commodities to earn foreign exchange. Therefore, an irradiation plant known as Food Package Irradiator (FPI) was set-up in the year 1967 in BARC. This plant utilizes gamma radiation from 60 Co source that has a maximum allowable activity of 100 kCi. It is a multipurpose facility where a wide range of products like onion for sprout inhibition to spices for microbial decontamination can be carried out. In short, the design of irradiator has been considered based on obtaining variable throughputs and variable dose rates

  10. Food irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States. A status update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the status of food irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States in 2010. Our results show that quantities of irradiated foods in Asia, the EU, and the US in 2010 were estimated at 285200, 9300, and 103000 tons, respectively. Compared with 2005, the quantity of irradiated foods was 100000 tons higher in Asia and 10000 tons higher in the US but 6000 tons lower in the EU. Thus, commercial food irradiation has increased significantly in Asia during the 5-year period studied. Phytosanitary irradiation of fruits and agricultural products has recently increased with 6 countries having irradiated 18500 tons in 2010. (author)

  11. What you should know about food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polunin, M.

    1987-01-01

    This brief newspaper article describes the uses to which irradiation can be put in food processing, and discusses in outline the following drawbacks: 1) the destruction of vitamins and fats 2) the increased risk of food poisoning by elimination of moulds and yeasts giving warning smells, before killing bacteria 3) the risk of recontamination 4) the present insufficient knowledge of radiolytic products. Attention is drawn to the problems of detection, control and labelling. (UK)

  12. Retrospective dosimetry in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, T.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this communication is to show the potentiality of certain minerals which accompany the foods (grasses, spices and seasonings) as potential dosemeters and its possible application in the absorbed dose calculations by the same in its hygienic sanitary treatment. (Author)

  13. Recent advances in the preservation of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1976-01-01

    There are two ways in which the world food problem can be attacked: (1) by increasing food production, that is, growing more food by utilizing agricultural knowledge and material input, and (2) by preserving more of the food that is already being produced by utilizing food science and technology. While both lines of action should be followed, it is logical that preservation should play a key role not only because it would reduce wastage of existing food that is desperately needed by millions of people, but also prevent the wastage of the energy invested in growing food. The preservation of food is, therefore, a vital technology, and studies of both traditional food preservation methods and new techniques should be actively pursued. The irradiation of food, usually by gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source, offers advantages over traditional methods, irradiation not only can delay the processes that lead to the onset of undesirable physiological changes (sprouting, over-ripening), microbial spoilage (rot, mould formation) and damage caused by insects, but also can kill disease-causing organisms that will infect the food if it is left untreated. It is rather surprising to find that after 25 years of extensive studies, practical introduction of food preservation by irradiation has only recently been started in one Member State of the IAEA. The main obstacles are of a psychological nature, but a number of other problems also remains to be solved. Nevertheless, it is clear that many questions have already been settled and significant progress has been made. Some of these developments will be briefly enumerated below. However, it should be noted right at the onset that, like the conventional methods, irradiation also has its limitations and cannot be considered a cure-all for all food problems under all conditions

  14. Food irradiation : estimates of cost of processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Bongirwar, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    For estimating the cost of food irradiation, three factors have to be taken into consideration. These are : (1) capital cost incurred on irradiation device and its installation, (2) recurring or running cost which includes maintenance cost and operational expenditure, and (3) product specific cost dependent on the factors specific to the food item to be processed, its storage, handling and distribution. A simple method is proposed to provide estimates of capital costs and running costs and it is applied to prepare a detailed estimate of costs for irradiation processing of onions and fish in India. The cost of processing onions worked out to be between Rs. 40 to 120 per 1000 Kg and for fish Rs 354 per 1000 Kg. These estimates do not take into account transparation costs and fluctuations in marketing procedures. (M.G.B.). 7 tables

  15. Food irradiation: Australian quarantine regulatory attitude toward food exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckman, Gary James

    2000-01-01

    The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) is a major operational unit within the Federal Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry of Australia. AQIS has a long history of dealing with irradiation issues, as many imported goods (non food) require disinfestation treatment, for which gamma irradiation is the most cost effective, suitable and efficient means. A ministerial decision was taken in April 1997 which authorised AQIS to oversee a trial of irradiation as a pre-shipment treatment for food to be exported from Australia, with several caveats. Any such treatment would be required to meet importing country requirements, it would be conditional on export certification and would be required to meet certain minimum international requirements established by the Codex Alimentarius. These include minimum and maximum dosage levels and labelling to indicate irradiation treatment has taken place. Strong interest has been generated by the announcement of this trial in a number of food industry segments, who are anxious to participate in the trial program. Further to the anticipated success of the export trial, AQIS is drafting suitable legislation which will allow exports of irradiated foodstuffs from a number of food categories, on an ongoing basis. (author)

  16. Irradiation could help Irish food processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Edward

    1985-01-01

    The applications of irradiation processing in the food industry are reviewed, and the present situation in Ireland outlined. The caution of legislators, choice of product labelling and consumer acceptance are seen as major factors in the adoption of this technology by Irish industry, although at least two concerns are considering setting up a service facility near Dublin

  17. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Yang, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The research programme in 1982 was conducted not only to develop the commercial storage method of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature and to sterilize the E.coli of ginseng and ginseng product but also to approach the development of the long term storage method of rice and barley. (Author)

  18. Food irradiation newsletter. V. 20, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This issue of the newsletter presents excerpts of the 12th Annual Meeting of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation which was held in Vienna, 13-15 November 1995. A summary of a symposium on Control of Foodborne Illness: Radiation and other Non-Thermal Treatments is also featured

  19. Probabilistic safety assessment for food irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.B.; Prasad, M.; Sonawane, A.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different considerations are required in PSA for Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. ► We carried out PSA for food irradiation facility as a part of safety evaluation. ► The results indicate that the fatal exposure risk is below the ‘acceptable risk’. ► Adequate operator training and observing good safety culture would reduce the risk. - Abstract: Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is widely used for safety evaluation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) worldwide. The approaches and methodologies are matured and general consensus exists on using these approaches in PSA applications. However, PSA applications for safety evaluation for non-reactor facilities are limited. Due to differences in the processes in nuclear reactor facilities and non-reactor facilities, the considerations are different in application of PSA to these facilities. The food irradiation facilities utilize gamma irradiation sources, X-ray machines and electron accelerators for the purpose of radiation processing of variety of food items. This is categorized as Non-Reactor Nuclear Facility. In this paper, the application of PSA to safety evaluation of food irradiation facility is presented considering the ‘fatality due to radiation overexposure’ as a risk measure. The results indicate that the frequency of the fatal exposure is below the numerical acceptance guidance for the risk to the individual. Further, it is found that the overall risk to the over exposure can be reduced by providing the adequate operator training and observing good safety culture.

  20. Needs of food irradiation and its commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    On July 5, 1983, the United States Food and Drug Administration filed a notice in the Federal Register approving the use of Cobalt 60 or Cesium 137 gamma radiation to reduce or control microbial contamination in spices, onion powder and garlic powder. The approval was the first in nineteen years issued by the FDA and appears to set the stage for increased regulatory approvals in the area of radiation preservation of foods. On July 8, 1983, the Codex Alimentarius Commission approved an international standard for irradiated foods. The standard had previously been introduced by experts in the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization. The ability of properly applied ionizing energy to inhibit sprouting, to eliminate the need for toxic chemical fumigants for insect disinfestation purposes, to extend refrigerated shelf life of many food products, to eliminate parasites and pathogens from our food chain and to preserve precooked packaged food products for indefinite storage without freezing or refrigeration, dictates the timeliness of food irradiation technology. (author)

  1. Researches and commercialization of food irradiation technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Ha Yiming; Chen Hao; Liu Chunquan; Chen Xiulan

    2007-01-01

    The status of food irradiation on research, standard and commercialization is described in the paper. The main research fields now include degradation of chloramphenicol residue by irradiation, promoting safety of meat products, frozen seafood and ready-to-eat products by irradiation, lower activity of allergic protein by irradiation, identification of irradiated food and irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. The existed standards need to be revised, and new standard need to be established. The commercialization stages of food irradiation and quality assurance system of irradiation company are also analyzed. (authors)

  2. Information channel effects on women intention to purchase irradiated food in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Oh, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Yohan; Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kim, Soon-Bok; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Since the first irradiated food was approved and commercialized in 1987, most of Koreans still do not accept the irradiated food until now. It is reasoned that there are the ambiguous fear of nuclear technology and the confusion between irradiated food and radioactive-contaminated food. This investigation was carried out to examine the acknowledgement of irradiated food in Korean housewives and to study how to enhance the intention of purchasing the irradiated food. About 600 Korean housewives participated in the survey on the irradiated food in 2007, more than two-thirds of them were not aware of irradiated food. One hundred and fifty-four women who had known of irradiated food were subjected to an experiment for the source of information about irradiated food (e.g., lecture by an expert, video-watching and book-reading) in order to explore which type of information channel is the most effective in eliciting purchase intention. The result showed that the women group who had heard the lecture by an expert indicated the highest intention to purchase irradiated food, followed by the video-watching and the book-reading groups. In addition, the acceptance of the irradiated food had shown to lead the support for nuclear industry.

  3. Information channel effects on women intention to purchase irradiated food in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Oh, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Yohan [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Hak-Soo [Department of Communication Arts, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soon-Bok [Korean Federation of Housewives Clubs, Seoul 100-804 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Bae [Food and Risk Standardization Team, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Since the first irradiated food was approved and commercialized in 1987, most of Koreans still do not accept the irradiated food until now. It is reasoned that there are the ambiguous fear of nuclear technology and the confusion between irradiated food and radioactive-contaminated food. This investigation was carried out to examine the acknowledgement of irradiated food in Korean housewives and to study how to enhance the intention of purchasing the irradiated food. About 600 Korean housewives participated in the survey on the irradiated food in 2007, more than two-thirds of them were not aware of irradiated food. One hundred and fifty-four women who had known of irradiated food were subjected to an experiment for the source of information about irradiated food (e.g., lecture by an expert, video-watching and book-reading) in order to explore which type of information channel is the most effective in eliciting purchase intention. The result showed that the women group who had heard the lecture by an expert indicated the highest intention to purchase irradiated food, followed by the video-watching and the book-reading groups. In addition, the acceptance of the irradiated food had shown to lead the support for nuclear industry.

  4. Information channel effects on women intention to purchase irradiated food in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Oh, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Yohan; Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kim, Soon-Bok; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Since the first irradiated food was approved and commercialized in 1987, most of Koreans still do not accept the irradiated food until now. It is reasoned that there are the ambiguous fear of nuclear technology and the confusion between irradiated food and radioactive-contaminated food. This investigation was carried out to examine the acknowledgement of irradiated food in Korean housewives and to study how to enhance the intention of purchasing the irradiated food. About 600 Korean housewives participated in the survey on the irradiated food in 2007, more than two-thirds of them were not aware of irradiated food. One hundred and fifty-four women who had known of irradiated food were subjected to an experiment for the source of information about irradiated food (e.g., lecture by an expert, video-watching and book-reading) in order to explore which type of information channel is the most effective in eliciting purchase intention. The result showed that the women group who had heard the lecture by an expert indicated the highest intention to purchase irradiated food, followed by the video-watching and the book-reading groups. In addition, the acceptance of the irradiated food had shown to lead the support for nuclear industry.

  5. Lyoluminescence technique as an identification method for irradiated food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazhoor, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the studies made on the suitability of lyoluminescence technique as an analytical method for the identification of irradiated food stuffs. Powder milk, cinnamon, cardamom, clove, red chilly, cocoa, pepper, tea, coffee, turmeric and coriander showed lyoluminescence response when irradiated by a 10 kGy 60 Co and dissolved in luminol solution. Various dosimetric parameters such as effect of storage time, proportionality of the lyoluminescence response to dose etc were studied. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs

  6. Is food irradiation an alternative to chemical preservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1987-01-01

    The history is presented of food irradiation. The foods irradiated and the doses used are reported. The industrial use of food irradiation is restricted to a single industrial irradiation plant in Japan and several small facilities for irradiating herbs and feeds for special laboratory animal breeds. The limited application of the method is caused by high prices of radiation sources and adverse side effects (potato rotting, bad smell of meat, etc.). (M.D.). 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Current status and regulation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    It is estimated by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations that 25 to 35 percent of world food production is lost through natural causes such a pests, microbes, and insects. In the ASEAN countries alone, postharvest losses of cereals are estimated at 30 percent, fruits and vegetables at 20 to 40 percent, and up to 50 percent for fish. Some products in Africa suffer postharvest losses as high as 50 percent. One of the best responses to the problem of world hunger is preservation of what has already been grown. If postharvest losses worldwide could be minimized, food supply gains could be made without allocation of additional resources. The problems of food production, processing and storage require a continuing search for effective, technically and economically feasible alternative methods of food preservation. Food irradiation is not a panacea for this problem, however. Alone, it cannot change conditions or solve the problems of world hunger, but it can become a factor in the improvement of conditions where improved human nutrition is an immediate need. Food irradiation has progressed steadily over the past 40 years in terms of research, development, and legislative or regulatory activities

  8. Food irradiation: economic and technical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongirwar, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The design and the operation of a food irradiator is a complex process. Inevitably it results in a compromise between the Cobalt-60 utilization efficiency and the desired flexibility in operating parameters and costs. It is therefore essential that the operating scenario of an irradiation facility is established in detail so that costing can result in an optimal final product. It is also clear that a given irradiation facility may not require the ultimate flexibility in processing parameters as described above. In order to generate accurate cost/Kg estimates for food irradiation applications, it is essential that each case be examined in the context of a precise scenario. This examination is best done through the collaborative efforts of the intended operator and the equipment supplier. By correlating known capital costs with known annual operating costs and estimated annual throughputs, a proper comparison of relative irradiation costs per kilogram of product can be achieved. This in turn, facilitates the choice of optimum plant design and capacity. (author). 4 refs

  9. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaferstein, F. [Director, Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid, WHO, CH-1211, Geneva 27, (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  10. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaferstein, F.

    1997-01-01

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  11. Food irradiation developments in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Professor Diehl from Karlsruhe describes work in the Federal Republic of Germany, based on 30 years of research work at the Centre for Nutrition at Karlsruhe. The replacement of toxic chemical preservatives by irradiation is an attractive possibility and permission for commercial spice irradiation is expected later this year. Promising results had been demonstrated for onions, tropical fruits, fish, shrimps, certain meats and enzymes. Prolonged wholesomeness studies has failed to reveal detrimental health effects up to 50 kGy. In spite of certain adverse political and emotional pressures the author is convinced that food irradiation will be permitted in all E.E.C. countries in the not too distant future

  12. Update of food irradiation in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has the responsibility of assuring consumers that meat and poultry products sold in interstate commerce within the United States are safe, wholesome, and accurately labelled. An important aspect of this charge involves the study and evaluation of promising innovations in food technology. The Agency is now focusing closely on food irradiation as a possible technique for meat and poultry production that would offer advantages to producers and consumers beyond those of traditional methods. Radiation treatment of food in the United States is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which proposed in February 1984 to allow the use of low levels of ionizing radiation for preserving food products and higher levels for disinfesting spices. Meat and poultry products were not included in the proposal, but FDA has recently entered that area by approving, on July 22, 1985, the use of ionizing radiation to control trichina in pork carcasses or fresh, non-heat processed cuts of pork. Other applications may be approved in the near future. The use of radiation for food production would have important implications for public health protection. The FDA approval of irradiated pork has brought food irradiation to the forefront of FSIS attention

  13. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 13, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This issue contains reports of the two co-ordination meetings convened in San Jose, Costa Rica, and Bangkok, Thailand, last year. It also details questions raised by the International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU) on the safety of irradiated foods during the International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, organized by FAO, IAEA, WHO, ITC-UNCTAD/GATT, Geneva, Switzerland, December 1988. The questions were answered by experts appointed by the Joint Secretariat during the Conference. Both questions and answers were documented and made available to all delegations. The WHO has recently published the official version of the documents which have been sent to all its official contact points and are reproduced in this newsletter. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. French legislation on food irradiation - Licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souverain, R.

    1977-01-01

    French legislation on food irradiation subjects marketing of such foodstuffs to a prior licence granted by an interministerial order on the type of goodstuff concerned. The basic text on the licensing procedure is the Decree of 8 May 1970 whose purpose is to ensure the health and safety of the consumer by laying down instructions for the operations, surveillance and labelling, which must set out clearly the type of treatment. (NEA) [fr

  15. Food irradiation - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    A review is presented of historical developments, the present situation, and expected future developments in the field of food irradiation. Acceptance of the process in different parts of the world is not uniform. In the USA and in some other countries where health authorities actively encourage the use of this technology, commercial application has greatly advanced in recent years. In contrast, progress in the European Union is still slow

  16. Bibliography in irradiation of foods. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.; Ehlermann, D.; Gruenewald, T.; Harmuth-Hoene, A.E.; Muenzner, R.

    1980-07-01

    The present latest edition of the bibliographic series contains 209 quotations which principally arise from the past two years. Work on the fundamental research is presented as well as the actual application differentiated according to low or high dose values. Work carried out on the chemical effects of irradiation on food and its material contents are considered, as well as the microbiological effects. (MG) [de

  17. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in India. Food irradiation pilot scale studies and market testing RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    A brief three-day visit to the Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Bombay, was made en-route to Thailand in mid-May. In addition to visits with professional staff of various BARC units plus the Isomed gamma radiation processing plant, a meeting was held with, and a seminar provided to representatives of interested private sector firms at State Trading Corporation Headquarters, and a videotape interview on food irradiation was made for inclusion in an educational videotape on the subject. (author)

  18. Food irradiation from a scientific point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Tests have been carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany in recent years to determine what technical possibilities are offered by food irradiation, whether the consumption of irradiated food is safe and what methods can be developed for identifying successful cases of irradiation. The author looks into these matters and comes to the conclusion that public reporting of food irradiation is misleading. (DG) [de

  19. Irradiation of Foods: A Better Alternative in Controlling Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food irradiation as a better alternative to other food processing methods is discussed. Irradiation is a promising new food safety technology that can eliminate disease-causing microorganisms such as E.coli 0157:H7, Camplyobacter and Salmonellae from foods; delay maturation of fruits and inhibit sprouting of bulbs and ...

  20. Legal, administrative and psychological barriers against industrial application of food irradiation and the trade in irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, J.C.

    1977-11-01

    In the author's view, the legal and administrative barrier against industrial application of food irradiation and trading can be described as follows: even if public health authorities in each country concerned, are convinced by the scientific evidence that the food irradiation process is acceptable, they will only be willing to accept irradiated food exported from another country if they are assured that irradiation has been performed in an approved and acceptable manner. The psychological barrier which is more complex consists of three interconnected factors: attitude of the public towards irradiated food, confidence of national authorities in the capability of food processors, the lack of cooperation between government Agencies. (NEA) [fr

  1. Gamma irradiation as a means of food preservation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pim, L.R.

    1983-11-01

    The status of food irradiation has changed significantly in the past three years with the establishment of inter-national standards by the Codex Alimentarious Commission of the United Nations and the setting of wholesomeness guidelines for a wide variety of foods by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. This report examines: the technology of food irradiation; the biochemical, nutritional and microbiological effects on food, with special attention paid to radiolytic products and their possible toxicity; the economic feasibility of a food irradiation industry; food irradiation in Canada -experience, outlook and regulatory proposals, and consumer reaction to irradiated foods; and presents conclusions and recommendations to Health and Welfare Canada and to Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada

  2. Commercialization of food irradiation in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottee, J.; Kunstadt, P.; Fraser, F.

    1995-01-01

    Commercializing food irradiation in the United States has been a major marketing and business challenge. This paper begins by examining the situation before America's first food irradiator was established, in 1992. With the Vindicator irradiator in place, beneficial changes and market offerings took place, amidst perceived activist threats and disinterest from the food industry. Initial efforts to market irradiated foods were made by independents in the food business, as part of their attempts to differentiate themselves from large food companies and grocery chains. Special tactics were needed to launch products into sensitive and fearful market-places. The brisk sales of irradiated foods in small, initial markets, has been an unexpected success. This paper discusses the methods used to promote positive awareness of irradiated foods nationally, building on small local successes. (Author)

  3. Up-to-date status of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    1993-07-01

    The last decade has witnessed significant advancement of the acceptance of food irradiation processing. At present 37 countries have approved one or more food items for human consumption and 25 countries have commercialized this process. More developing countries are showing keen interest to introduce irradiation processing in order to reduce post-harvest food losses, to increase export potentials and to ensure safety of food to their people. Although progress towards acceptance of food irradiation by the industry is slow, actual market trials have shown that once consumers have understood this technology, they are willing to buy irradiated foods. This paper deals with the latest developments in the field of food irradiation with particular reference to legislation, consumer acceptance, commercialization and potential application in developing countries. This paper also deals with the role played by the International Organizations, aimed at facilitating the acceptance of food irradiation.

  4. Irradiation: a safe measure for safer food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, J.

    1998-01-01

    Beef is one of the U.S. food industry's hottest sellers--to the tune of 8 billion pounds a year, according to trade figures. Whether at a fast-food meal, a dinner on the town, or a backyard barbecue, beef is often front and center on America's tables. But in recent years, beef, especially ground beef, has shown a dark side: It can harbor the bacterium E. coli O157:H7, a pathogen that threatens the safety of the domestic food supply. If not properly prepared, beef tainted with E. coli O157:H7 can make people ill, and in rare instances, kill them. In 1993, E. coli O157:H7-contaminated hamburgers sold by a fast-food chain were linked to the deaths of four children and hundreds of illnesses in the Pacific Northwest. In 1997, the potential extent of E. coli O157:H7 contamination came to light when Arkansas-based Hudson Foods Inc. voluntarily recalled 25 million pounds of hamburger suspected of containing E. coli O157:H7. It was the largest recall of meat products in U.S. history. Nationally, E. coli O157:H7 causes about 20,000 illnesses and 500 deaths a year, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Scientists have only known since 1982 that this form of E. coli causes human illness. To help combat this public health problem, the Food and Drug Administration, in December 1997, approved treating red meat products with a measured dose of radiation. This process, commonly called irradiation, has drawn praise from many food industry and health organizations because it can control E. coli O157:H7 and several other disease-causing microorganisms. As with other regulations governing meat and poultry products, irradiation will be authorized when the U.S. Department of Agriculture completes its implementing regulations. Though irradiation is the latest step toward curbing food-borne illness, the federal government also is implementing other measures, which include developing new technologies and expanding the use of current technologies

  5. Training manual on food irradiation technology and techniques. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the revised Training Manual is to help scientists to acquire the necessary knowledge needed for performing proper research and development work in the field of food irradiation. The Manual presents an up-to-date picture of the current state of food irradiation and reflects the important advances made in the technology of food irradiation, in the radiation chemistry of foods, in the microbiology of irradiated foods, in wholesomeness and standardization. It contains the following chapters: (1) Radionuclides and radiation; (2) Radiation detection and measurement; (3) Radiation protection; (4) Radiation chemistry; (5) Effects of radiation on living organisms; (6) Preservation of foods; (7) Radiation preservation of foods; (8) Packaging; (9) Combination processes; (10) Limitations of food irradiation; (11) Wholesomeness of irradiated foods; (12) Government regulation of irradiated foods; (13) Food irradiation facilities; (14) Commercial aspects of food irradiation; (15) Literature sources. The practical part of the Manual contains a revised and expanded series of detailed laboratory exercises in the use of ionizing radiation for food processing

  6. Development of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Xiong Shanbai; Xiong Guangquan; Cheng Wei; Chen Yuxia; Liao Tao; Li Xin; Lin Ruotai

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the researches of irradiation technology on controlling food mycotoxin, pesticide, veterinary drugs and fishery drugs residue was summarized. And the degradation rate, mechanism, products and toxicities of food contamination were expatiated. The free radical from irradiation attack the site of weaker bond, and the less or more toxic substances were produced, which lead to the degradation of the food contamination. The limitations and future application of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination were also analyzed. (authors)

  7. Commercial feasibility and evaluation of consumer acceptance for certain irradiated food products in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, Mohie Eldin Zohear; Karem, Hussein Abdel; El-Din, Nagwan Saad; El-Din Farag, Diaa; El-Khatib, Mervat; Mageed, Mahmoud Abdel

    2002-01-01

    Studies were carried out to assess consumer attitude towards food irradiation through questionnaires, sensory tests and market sale of irradiated products. The results showed that out of 1020 persons responded to the questionnaire, 62.43% accepted the irradiation technology while 70.45% were convinced with the advantages of irradiated food. About 73.97% of the respondents were willing to accept irradiation technology on a long term basis while 57.53% were willing to consume irradiated food if it was available in the market. Sensory tests on irradiated smoked fish, chicken, black pepper, coriander, Jew's mallow, broad bean and kidney beans using triangle test (difference test) and duo-trio test showed that the panelists consisting of 136 persons failed to indicate any difference between the irradiated and unirradiated food. About 92.2% of 144 persons participating in a lunch table of irradiated food opined that irradiated food was delicious and found no difference between the irradiated and unirradiated samples. Consumer comments recorded during the market sale of irradiated black pepper and broad beans indicated that 95.1% of the respondents found the irradiated (10kGy) black pepper of excellent or good quality while the percentage was 81.2% for irradiated (2 kGy) broad bean. The study also showed that 62.2% and 68.8% of the persons respectively would buy irradiated black pepper and broad bean again if they were available in the market. Studies on the economics of food irradiation showed that the cost of irradiation for one ton of frozen poultry as US $130.4; smoked fish US $78.2; spices US $260.1 and dried vegetable US $26. Economic evaluation of the study indicated that the average annual rate of return will be about 16.9% and the pay back period will be about 5.9 years. (author)

  8. Progress of food irradiation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, D.D.; Engeljohn, D.L. [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington (United States). Food Safety and Inspection Service; Griffin, R.L. [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    1995-10-01

    Irradiated foods have not yet made a significant impact in the United States marketplace. What progress has occurred to facilitate their commercialization? Irradiated produce has been sold in small quantities since 1992 and irradiated poultry was introduced in the marketplace in 1993. Federal inspection of irradiated commodities has settled into a regular routine. What must occur to further expand irradiated foods in the marketplace? Petitions to permit irradiation of red meats and seafood are being considered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a petition to permit the irradiation of shell eggs is being prepared for submission to FDA. In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has accelerated efforts to develop the policies and regulatory structure needed to facilitate the approval of new irradiation treatments for imported plant products regulated by quarantine. When will greater commercialization occur? More positive coverage to food irradiation in recent months by both the trade and popular press indicates a change in attitude towards irradiated foods by both consumers and the food industry. Finally, actual consumer response to available irradiated foods casts a favorable light on the potential for increased marketing of value-added irradiated foods. (Author).

  9. Progress of food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, D.D.; Engeljohn, D.L.; Griffin, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiated foods have not yet made a significant impact in the United States marketplace. What progress has occurred to facilitate their commercialization? Irradiated produce has been sold in small quantities since 1992 and irradiated poultry was introduced in the marketplace in 1993. Federal inspection of irradiated commodities has settled into a regular routine. What must occur to further expand irradiated foods in the marketplace? Petitions to permit irradiation of red meats and seafood are being considered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a petition to permit the irradiation of shell eggs is being prepared for submission to FDA. In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has accelerated efforts to develop the policies and regulatory structure needed to facilitate the approval of new irradiation treatments for imported plant products regulated by quarantine. When will greater commercialization occur? More positive coverage to food irradiation in recent months by both the trade and popular press indicates a change in attitude towards irradiated foods by both consumers and the food industry. Finally, actual consumer response to available irradiated foods casts a favorable light on the potential for increased marketing of value-added irradiated foods. (Author)

  10. Advantage of irradiation in food industry, technical and economical constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation is an effective method to extend the conservation and to increase the hygienic security of food. Nevertheless the use of irradiation remains limited in food industry. The prospects of different applications are evaluated, referring to the other alternative technologies. The advantage of adequate irradiation facilities incorporated or not into the plants are compared [fr

  11. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  12. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  13. Thermoluminescence (TL) in the identification of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthra, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Due to progressive expansion of commercial food irradiation in recent years, the interest in detecting whether a food has been irradiated or not is growing fast and research in several methods for identification of various irradiated food stuffs is the order of the day. TL has emerged as one of the most promising tool for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated food. Advantages of TL method over other physical methods, its application to various foods, limitation and present state of art are discussed.(author). 9 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Food irradiation and its role in shelf life extension of horticulture produce: a comprehensive evaluation of studies carried out in India and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, J.; Gautam, S.

    2015-01-01

    Food irradiation is the process of treating foods to a controlled source of ionizing radiation, to reduce post-harvest losses and ensure its safety. With respect to horticulture produce, the role of food irradiation has been well established to fulfill the phytosanitary requirement of the importing countries and also to ensure food safety in certain commodities. Still for establishing its relevance in extending the shelf-life of horticulture produce, substantial scientific inputs are required. Our objective was therefore to summarize in brief the research findings where role of radiation processing in shelf-life extension of horticulture produce has been addressed. Low dose (0.1 kGy) of γ-radiation resulted in sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, thus prolonging their storage life upto 4 months at 11-12℃. Radiation processing also delayed ripening process in the climacteric fruits by a week upto one month depending on the cultivars and stored condition. Shelf-life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was extended up to 10-15 days by γ-radiation treatment of 2-3 kGy and storage at 10±2℃ . A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10℃ storage temperature increased the shelf life of peeled ginger samples upto 70 days. Irradiation of guava fruits with 0.1 kGy γ-radiation increased its post harvest life by 8 days. Shelf-life of Litchi was increased upto 28 days by radiation treatment at 0.5 kGy and subsequent low temperature storage. Shelf-life of leafy vegetables increased upto 20 days by a combination process including γ-radiation (Khade, et.al., unpublished data). Electron beam irradiation (2 kGy) extended shelf-life of fresh strawberry fruits upto 4 day. Apples irradiated at 0.2-0.4 kGy showed improved quality upto 3 months of storage. Shelled sweet corn kernels treated with combination process including γ-radiation (5 kGy) treatment showed prolonged shelf-life of 30 days at 4℃ (Kumar S. et.al., unpublished data). In recent study conducted by us on shelf life

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on Commercial Food Packaging films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalar, P.J.; Abad, L.V.; Laurio, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma Radiation is a well-known technology to inactivate bacterial pathogens in food products. Currently, there is a growing interest in this technology considering its advantage of being a non-thermal process and the convenience of food being pre-packaged in its final form before treatment that prevents possible recontamination. The process of irradiating pre-packaged food requires that appropriate packaging materials are chosen as this would play a vital role in the quality assessment and safety evaluation of the irradiated products. Irradiation can cause changes to the packaging materials that might affect its integrity and functionality as a barrier e.g. to chemical or microbial contamination. Likewise, components of packaging materials that have been irradiated may migrate to food as a result of irradiation. Hence, this study was conducted to screen locally available commercial packaging films and determine its effect with radiation. Commercials packaging films made up of PET / FOIL / PE, Plain PET 12 / Foil 7 / PE 100, VMPET 12 / PE 70, OPP 20 / Foil 6.5 / PE 40, PET 12 / CPS 40, PET 12 / PE 50, Laminated PET / PE, Nylon / PE, and Nylon 15 / PE 50 were investigated for its effect with gamma radiation at 10 kGy. Their mechanical and thermal properties generally did not show any changes after irradiation except for OPP 20/ Foil 6.5 / PE 40. Gel Permeation Chromatography of leachates from water samples detected the presence of high molecular weight radiolytic products especially from laminated PET/PE films. Radiation effects were minimal for VMPET12/PE70, Nylon/PE and Nylon 15/PE 50 films. Preliminary results, using the stable isotope technique, to study the leachates in the water samples in contact with the packaging materials reveal an indicative increase in δ 18 O 0 / 00 and δD 0/ 00 .(author)

  16. Food irradiation: Standards, regulations and world-wide trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter B.

    2016-12-01

    There is an established framework of international standards for food irradiation covering human health, plant protection, labelling, dose delivery, quality assurance and facility management. Approximately 60 countries permit irradiation of one or more food or food classes. National regulations are briefly reviewed. Decontamination of spices, herbs and condiments remains the single largest application of irradiation. However, in recent years the market for irradiated fresh and processed meat has become firmly established in several countries including China and the USA. At least 10 countries have recently established bi-lateral agreements for trade in irradiated fresh fruits and vegetables using phytosanitary irradiation. Irradiated fresh produce volumes now exceed 20,000 t per year. Rationalization and greater consistency in labelling regulations would be advantageous to the future growth of applications of food irradiation.

  17. Dissemination of information on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Y.

    1986-09-01

    Information is unanimously recognised as the key to a wide acceptance of irradiated food. A case by case approach is necessary as the context may vary greatly from one country to another. Some actions that took place in the particular French situation are reported. The various targets are addressed and the theoretical product adoption process is described. In spite of several encouraging facts, it appears that a lot has yet to be done before any reliable conclusion on the acceptation or rejection of the process can be reached

  18. Standard Guide for Packaging Materials for Foods to Be Irradiated

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides a format to assist producers and users of food packaging materials in selecting materials that have the desirable characteristics for their intended use and comply with applicable standards or government authorizations. It outlines parameters that should be considered when selecting food-contact packaging materials intended for use during irradiation of prepackaged foods and it examines the criteria for fitness for their use. 1.2 This guide identifies known regulations and regulatory frameworks worldwide pertaining to packaging materials for holding foods during irradiation; but it does not address all regulatory issues associated with the selection and use of packaging materials for foods to be irradiated. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to determine the pertinent regulatory issues in each country where foods are to be irradiated and where irradiated foods are distributed. 1.3 This guide does not address all of the food safety issues associated with the synergisti...

  19. Food irradiation: an emerging opportunity for African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Gyamfi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text. The paper reviews the use of food irradiation technology and its potential in food processing and international trade for economic development of African countries. Provision of infrastructure along with technical expertise, private sector anticipation, effective collaborative ventures and networking with other countries and international agencies are considered crucial for Africa to harness the potential of food irradiation. (author)

  20. Food irradiation: Applications, public acceptance and global trade

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... “the irradiation of any food commodity up to an overall average dose of 10 KGy presents no toxicological hazard”. The benefits of irradiation technology in addressing post-harvest food problems are, in some cases, unique and can improve the quality of a number of food products by eliminating the.

  1. Histological and histochemical studies on liver of rat subjected to synergistic effect of natural and synthetic food colorants and/or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, O.; Hafez, M. N.; Abd El Maguid, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work has been carried out to detect some histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rats after oral administration of a mixture of the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and/ or gamma-irradiation (5 Gy). The possible ameliorative effect of the natural food colorant beta-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) orally administered with the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and irradiation was evaluated. Rats were divided into five groups: 1- Control group. 2- Group received a food colorant mixture of tartrazine and brilliant blue (100 mg/ kg body wt). 3- Group received gamma-irradiation at 5 Gy. 4-Animals received the food colorant mixture for 2 weeks and were irradiated. 5- Animals received beta-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) with the food colorant mixture for 2 weeks and were then irradiated (5 Gy). Administration of tartrazine and brilliant blue caused histopathological and histochemical changes in the liver of rat manifested by haemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, dilatation of blood sinusoids, scattered necrotic areas and a decrease in the mucopolysaccharides content. The radiation caused infiltration of inflammatory cells in the portal area, necrosis with pyknosis and karyolysis of nuclei and a decrease in the mucopolysaccharide content of hepatic cells 1 and 3 days post-irradiation. The present work also showed that the natural food colorant beta-carotene reduced the toxicity of the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and gamma-irradiation when the natural pigment was given together with the synthetic dyes used as food additives. In conclusion, synthetic food colours and/ or radiation induced histopathological and histochemical disturbances in rats. On the other hand, administration of the natural food colorant beta-carotene had a significant protective role against the damaging effects induced by these synthetic colours mixture

  2. Techno-economic feasibility of food irradiation in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, V.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Bansa, D.; Montford, K.G.; Sakyi Dawson, E.; Alhassan, R.; Edwards, J.

    2002-01-01

    The major causes of spoilage in the post-harvest handling of yam were identified as poor harvest, storage and transportation conditions and physiological damage. The effect of gamma irradiation on yam and maize storage and their functionality in the Ghanaian food system were determined. Results indicated that all unirradiated yams sprouted by the 3rd month of storage. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 120-130 Gy effectively inhibited sprouting of yams for 6 months under ambient conditions. There was less rotting in yams stored on the barn compared to those stored on the ground and less rotting in the irradiated yam stored on the barn. Food products from irradiated yams were judged better in quality than those from unirradiated ones. Semi-commercial studies on radiation preservation of maize were conducted with the view to determining the effect of radiation treatment on the physico-chemical and functional properties as well as the microbiological quality of maize. The study also investigated techno-economic feasibility of radiation preservation of maize in Ghana and consumer attitudes towards foods such as 'Ga kenkey' and 'Fanti kenkey' prepared from irradiated maize. In the first study 127 bags of 50kg maize were used. Maize was repacked in 5-kg consumer packs made from 0.003mm thick polyethylene bags. Ten of the consumer packs were put into woven polypropylene sacks to make up 50kg bag of maize. Eighty-seven bags of maize were irradiated to a minimum of 2.6 and maximum of 5.6 kGy gamma radiation. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated maize were stored for six months in a commercial warehouse. Results indicated that the moisture content (7.2-7.8%), free fatty acid (<0.1%) and peroxide value (35-40 mEq/kg fat) of the maize were stable during storage. The initial mould count of 100-156 cfu/g decreased to 30-43 cfu/g; Aspergillus oryzae and Asp. tamari were identified. Sitophilus sp. was the predominant insect in the control but was replaced by Rhyzopertha sp. in the

  3. Foodborne disease and the preventive role of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, D.

    1992-01-01

    In view on the enormous health and economic consequences of foodborne diseases, irradiation decontamination and disinfestation of pathogen-containing foods must be considered one of the most significant recent contributions to public health made by food science and technology. Food irradiation has an important part to play with in the promotion of food safety and in the reduction of food losses. The unwarranted rejection of the process, often based on a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails, may hamper its use in most countries that could benefit most

  4. Global trends of acceptance and trade in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Issues as relevant to wide scale application of food irradiation are presented in this paper to provide current status of the technology. Global development on key issues such as public acceptance, public health improvement, safety and wholesomeness, regulatory aspects, potential application of the technology to ease quarantine problems in the trade of food and agricultural commodities as a viable alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide have been presented. Irradiation ensures the hygienic quality of food and extends shelf-life. Many international organizations and respected regional/national bodies agree on the merits of the technique and valuable contribution that the process can offer to safeguard the food supply worldwide. Codex General Standard for irradiated food and the associated Code of Practice for operation of the irradiation facilities used for the treatment of foods adopted in 1983 forms the regulatory basis for commercial utilization of the processing technology. More than 40 countries of the world have Standards/Regulations to process one or more food products by the irradiation process. Efforts are underway to harmonise national regulations on food irradiation to remove obstacles for international trade of irradiated products. There is a rapid development on commercial application of food irradiation in the USA and elsewhere in the past few months. There are already several existing commercial irradiators available for treating food in the USA and many more are planned to be built. Such commercial food irradiation facilities are also in different stage of development in Brazil, India, Mexico, Thailand, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea. Roles of irradiation ensuring food safety, contributing food security and facilitating trade are more and more recognized in developed and developing countries alike. (author)

  5. Are Consumers Willing to Pay for Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayga, Rodolfo M. Jr.; Woodward, Richard; Aiew, Wipon

    2005-09-01

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for irradiated food using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e., ground beef), real cash, and actual exchange in a market setting. Single-bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. Our results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of food-borne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Our respondents are willing to pay a premium of about $0.77 for a pound of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost to irradiate the product

  6. Present status and subjects of food irradiation in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation is the technology of irradiating such radiations as gamma ray and electron beam to foods and farm products, and its objectives are the prevention of germination of potatoes and onions, the insecticide of cereals and fruits, the adjustment of the ripeness of fruits and vegetables, the sterilization of chickens and spices and so on. The food irradiation as the technology for preventing the loss of foods, the food irradiation as the substitute for the fumigation with chemicals and the food irradiation for improving food sanitation are discussed. The history of the soundness test of irradiated foods and the opinion of the international organizations are described. The safety evaluation in view of poisonous effect, nutrition and microorganisms is carried out, and the safety of the foods irradiated with the dose less than 10 kGy has been proved. The examples of utilizing food irradiation for sterilization, insecticide and germination prevention are shown. The present status of its practical use in America and Europe and the move of such international organizations as IAEA, FAO and WHO are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Study of some chemical and physical quality parameters of irradiated cocoa beans. Part of a coordinated programme on technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegeman, H.; Kooij, J.G. van

    1980-12-01

    Cocoa beans were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 2 and 4 kGy. To prevent decay of cocoa beans by moulds a radiation dose of at least 4 kGy appears necessary for long storage at 28 0 C and 80% relative humidity. Storage of cocoa beans, whether irradiated or not, at relative humidity of 95% was found to be unsuitable owing to a rapid deterioration in bean quality. The radiation dose for preventing mould growth could be reduced by using a combination of decontamination methods. Treatment with infrared light followed by irradiation with gamma rays permits the radiation dose required for mould control on cocoa beans to be reduced by a factor of 2. Radiation-induced chemical and organoleptical changes after roasting of the cocoa beans were investigated. The nibs were carefully separated from the irradiated and untreated beans and roasted at 130 0 C and at 140 0 C respectively. The roasted nibs were ground and then pulverized. The flakes were tested organoleptically as cocoa drinks. Untreated and irradiated cocoa bean samples were analyzed for fat, theobromine and crude fiber contents. Cocoa butter extracted from the beans of each sample was analyzed for fatty acid composition and various chemical and physical characteristics. The higher roasting temperature resulted certainly in an improved sensoric quality of the cocoa flakes of both untreated and irradiated beans. No organoleptic difference was found in cocoa drinks between prepared from irradiated and untreated beans roasted at 140 0 C. Results of chemical analyses of untreated and irradiated beans showed no detectable difference. The solidification point of cocoa butter was found to decrease with increasing radiation doses

  8. HACCP, food quality, food irradiation; HACCP, Lebensmittelqualitaet und Bestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognar, A. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie und Biologie

    1999-07-01

    The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB) [German] Eine ausfuehrliche Information und Schulung der mit der Qualitaetssicherung befassten Mitarbeiter ueber den Inhalt und die Ziele des HACCP-Konzeptes erscheint als die wichtigste Voraussetzung fuer seine Implementierung in das Qualitaetsmanagement bei der Lebensmittelverarbeitung. Abschliessend soll noch auf die Gefahren hingewiesen werden, die bei der Einfuehrung eines neuen Qualitaetssicherungssystems in Lebensmittelbetrieben auftreten koennen. Die groesste Gefahr scheint die Ueberorganisation des betrieblichen Ablaufs zu sein. Papierberge, die niemand liest oder beachtet, sind kontra produktiv. (orig.)

  9. How does the consumer react to irradiated food?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defesche, F.

    1982-01-01

    Alternative descriptions for the concept of food irradiation are tested among consumers. Consumers are also asked to answer the following questions: what are the benefits and advantages? how is food transradiated. (G.J.P.)

  10. Acceptance of irradiated food: an education issue; Aceitacao de alimentos irradiados: uma questao de educacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modanez, Leila

    2012-07-01

    The commercial use of irradiated food technology in Brazil has a slow growing due to misinterpretation by most Brazilian consumers, who have been mislead by wrong ideas about the meaning of what is nuclear energy. Researches indicate that consumers have difficult in accepting such a technology due to the confusion between the terms irradiation and radioactivity, which are often related to health risks. When properly informed about the process, its purpose and the benefits offered by food irradiation technology, most consumers react positively. Therefore, this work aims to: first, to evaluate the acceptance of irradiated foods by Brazilian consumers; second, to verify the teaching at school about the food irradiation process; third, to analyze the Brazilian school curriculum from elementary school to high school, regarding nuclear energy applications; then, to compare the content taught in Brazil with the content covered in other surveyed countries, such as France, United States, and China. The methodology of this study consisted of a systematic survey of the specific literature, and a questionnaire to verify the acceptance of irradiated food by Brazilian consumers. According to the researched bibliography, it was clear the recommendation of an early school education about the usage of nuclear energy, more specifically, food irradiation. Such a recommendation is due to the fact that the consulted costumers, in Brazil and other countries mentioned in this work, do not clearly understand the full benefits of irradiated food. Hence, education is fundamental for the acceptance of new technologies by consumers, as it is the case with irradiated food. (author)

  11. A review of the present status of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1982-06-01

    Investigations into the potential of food irradiation as a major food processing technology have been underway for over twenty years. Considerable progress has been made in the areas of its science and technology, its governmental and international regulation, its acceptance by consumers, and its economic impact on the cost of food. The paper reviews some of the major steps taken in food irradiation and predicts that it will become a new world wide application of technology in the 1980's

  12. Use of high dose irradiation for development of special purposed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yohan; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Full text: FAO/WHO Food Safety Committee indicated that food borne disease is one of the most widespread threats to human health and is ever increasing, which requires a national measure against the problems in public health and consequent economic productivity. The increasing demand for convenient foods as well as safer foods needs new technologies with potentials to solve or complement the limitations of existing methods for preserving and improving the food quality and safety. There are various techniques for preserving foods, most of which have problems in terms of effectiveness, quality, safety, economic feasibility, and environmental impact. Food irradiation has been studied more extensively and scientifically than any other food processing technologies. It is a physical method for food treatment comparable to heat pasteurization, canning or freezing. The process involves exposing foods, either packaged or in bulk, to one of three types of ionizing energy: gamma rays, machine-generated electrons or X-rays. Food irradiation is a promising food safety technology that can eliminate spoilage and pathogens from foods. However, low consumer acceptance of irradiated foods has been become an obstacle to make food irradiation technology as widely accepted method. Thus, use of the technology in development of special-purposed foods should be a first step to make irradiation technology as a common decontamination method in food industry. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has used irradiation technology to develop space foods for astronauts, and four Korean foods (Kimchi: fermented vegetable, Ramen: ready-to-cook noodles, Saengshik bar: raw grain bar, Sujeonggwa: cinnamon beverage) were certificated by Institute of Biomedical Problems, followed by sensory and quality evaluation in International Space Stations. With this previous research experience, KAERI has researched on development of patient foods and military rations. Hospital patients are a special

  13. Technical Report for a Study on the Mechanism and Control of Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Gamma-Irradiated Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-01-01

    Gamma irradiation leads to a non-enzymatic browning reaction (carbonyl -amine reaction) in an aqueous system similar to those induced in a heated one. This reaction may influence the changes of the color in irradiated foods. The intensity of the reaction was dependent on the type of the sugar, if the occurrence is by irradiation or by heating. There was a difference in the browning reaction between irradiation and heating. Although no browning was observed in the heated solution of the non-reducing sugar, the formation of colored products was observed in the irradiated sucrose-lysine solution. It could be explained on the basis that irradiation promotes the breakdown of the glycosidic linkages of the disaccharide, sucrose and the produce of a reducing power. The high molecular weight melanoidin (> MW 12,000-14,000 Da) was produced by gamma irradiation from the non-enzymatic browning reaction between glucose and glycine. The structure of melanoidin was similar to melanodin from heat processing. The results suggested that gamma-irradiation occurred the non-enzymatic browning reaction that is similar the reaction by heat processing. Non-enzymatic browning reaction during gamma-irradiation processing was greatly influenced by pH and medium of reaction system. The brown color development of irradiated sugar solutions with and without glycine is more increased in buffer system especially with alkaline pH than DDW. When food is irradiated, off-color such as browning can be produced due to the non-enzymatic browning reaction and it is influenced by other ions and/or pH of system. This suggests that the browning of irradiated food might be retarded by lowering the pH of the system. Gamma-irradiation produce the free radical and the radiolysis products of sugar and glycine and then they may be condensed to colored products during post-irradiation. However, when the food is irradiated in frozen state, the production of free radical and radiolysis product is inhibited and it

  14. Technical Report for a Study on the Mechanism and Control of Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Gamma-Irradiated Food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-01-15

    Gamma irradiation leads to a non-enzymatic browning reaction (carbonyl -amine reaction) in an aqueous system similar to those induced in a heated one. This reaction may influence the changes of the color in irradiated foods. The intensity of the reaction was dependent on the type of the sugar, if the occurrence is by irradiation or by heating. There was a difference in the browning reaction between irradiation and heating. Although no browning was observed in the heated solution of the non-reducing sugar, the formation of colored products was observed in the irradiated sucrose-lysine solution. It could be explained on the basis that irradiation promotes the breakdown of the glycosidic linkages of the disaccharide, sucrose and the produce of a reducing power. The high molecular weight melanoidin (> MW 12,000-14,000 Da) was produced by gamma irradiation from the non-enzymatic browning reaction between glucose and glycine. The structure of melanoidin was similar to melanodin from heat processing. The results suggested that gamma-irradiation occurred the non-enzymatic browning reaction that is similar the reaction by heat processing. Non-enzymatic browning reaction during gamma-irradiation processing was greatly influenced by pH and medium of reaction system. The brown color development of irradiated sugar solutions with and without glycine is more increased in buffer system especially with alkaline pH than DDW. When food is irradiated, off-color such as browning can be produced due to the non-enzymatic browning reaction and it is influenced by other ions and/or pH of system. This suggests that the browning of irradiated food might be retarded by lowering the pH of the system. Gamma-irradiation produce the free radical and the radiolysis products of sugar and glycine and then they may be condensed to colored products during post-irradiation. However, when the food is irradiated in frozen state, the production of free radical and radiolysis product is inhibited and it

  15. Regulations relating to trading of irradiated food in Europe Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.

    1997-01-01

    Only recently, the European Union has prepared a new draft of a Directive to harmonize the food laws of the 15 member states with regard to food irradiation. At present 3 members have not regulated food irradiation, 4 other members have a total ban, the remaining 8 members have widely varying clearances. Members of the European Economic Area (zone of associated European states) will have to adopt such a Directive once in force. It is expected that the European Parliament soon will pass the Directive which only provides for spices irradiated up to 10 kGy. However, for a transition period of five years it will allow members states to continue with national regulations. The European Single Market should provide for free trade in any item legally marketed in any member state and, hence, for marketing irradiated food to member states which have not yet a clearance or not for that particular food. Other European countries, i e the former members of the COMECON, have widely varying clearances; some are still in the process of renewing their respective juridical systems, and food irradiation is not a priority. For such reasons, imports of irradiated food from such countries into the E U are difficult and diverse. The main factor causing a lack of commercial application of food irradiation and of inter-E U trade is the low interest of food industry and food trade. Consumer acceptance is of second consideration. The European Directive will fulfill the most prominent demand of consumer organization, the labelling of irradiated food with no exception, even for the most minute ingredient. There is no reliable information about quantities of irradiated food in Europe; for official statistics it is considered not different from other food. (Author)

  16. Status of food irradiation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation preservation of various foods was studied. Optimum radiation-doses were established for controlling insect infestation, reducing microbial spoilage, extending storage life, delaying ripening of fresh fruits or vegetables and increasing nutritional value through sprouting of seeds. Influence of radiation physico-chemical properties and nutrients as well as antinutrients of foods was studied. Technical feasibility of radiation preservation of several food materials was established. Commercial trials on radiation preservation of potatoes were completed and cost economics calculated. The results of these findings have briefly been described. (authors)

  17. Irradiated foods and allergy. From a perspective of irradiation chemistry of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    A change of protein in irradiated food has been known. There are a few reports on change of allergy of irradiated foods. Two kinds of allergy such as the immediate allergy (I type) and delayed allergy (IV type) are taken ill by foods. I type is related to irradiated foods. Allergen enters body through digestive tract. Anti body (IgE) is protein with from 10,000 to 100,000 molecular weight. Allergic disease is originated mainly by egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, peanut and shrimp. When food is irradiated, the proteins are decomposed and produced higher and lower molecular compounds at the same time. Change of the viscosity and the sedimentation coefficient and deactivation of enzymes of β-lactoglobulin, cow albumin, egg albumin and casein were investigated. There is no report of increasing allergy by irradiation. However, some paper indicated that immunogenicity of protein was decreased by irradiation. (S.Y.)

  18. Irradiation of Foods: A Better Alternative in Controlling Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    this is to improve product safety and shelf life. As a result, the microorganisms die and can no longer cause ... irradiator designs suitable for disinfection of fruits and vegetables. They are: Tote box concept, Carrier concept, ... The FDA Bureau of foods Irradiated. Food Committee (BFIFC) found that 90 percent of all these.

  19. Food irradiation: an inquiry by the Australian Consumers' Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Australian Consumers' Association's Inquiry into Food Irradiation was undertaken at the request of the Commonwealth Minister of Health, Dr N Blewett. The terms of reference of the Inquiry covered the implications of food irradiation in terms of consumer health, the environment, and the cost to the consumer

  20. Government interest can facilitate food irradiation practice | Aso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of food irradiation relies on its capability to effect technical desires: modify cellular activities such as sprouting and senescence that degrade food utility; retard moulds, pests and other organisms that both contaminate and cause food to spoil; and kill bacteria, fungi and viruses that cause food borne diseases and ...

  1. 4. German conference on food irradiation. Assessment - methods - detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, A.; Erning, D.; Helle, N.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    The fourth German Conference on Food Irradiation was held from 6th through 7th April 1994. Some seventy participants from the industry, scientific research, consumer organizations and supervising authorities discussed the pros and cons of the procedure and updated themselves on the latest governmental regulations, irradiation techniques, possibilities of detecting irradiated food and the results of official supervisory measures. The papers read at the meeting are summarized in this volume. (orig./vhe) [de

  2. Fatty acids changes of baby food fat by γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflaki, F.; Matloubi, H.; Ahmadi, M. A. A.

    2005-01-01

    There is a mutual protection when mixtures of components irradiated together, so experimental investigation is necessary for determination of the effects that actually occur in different class of nutrients in formulated foods. This work is concerned with the effect of γ irradiated on fatty acids content of a formulated baby food fat and the results is compared with changes of fatty acids in irradiated whole foods. Irradiation was performed with a gamma cell (Co-60) at dose levels of 0.5, 1.5, 6, 10, 30, 45 kGy at room temperature and in the presence of air. The samples were analyzed immediately after irradiation by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that destruction of fatty acids in this formulated food is reasonably less than fatty acids of whole foods fat

  3. Food irradiation: physical-chemical, technological and economical background and competing methods of food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1994-01-01

    Physical, chemical and technical as well as economical background of food preservation by irradiation have been performed. The radiation sources and the elements of radiation chemistry connected with their use in food irradiation process have been shown. The problems of dosimetry and endurance of dose uniformity for processed products have been also discussed. The other methods of food preservation and their weakness and advantages have been also presented and compared with food irradiation method

  4. Food irradiation : an alternative technology for an emerging need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Seung

    1998-01-01

    Development and implementation of food irradiation was driven by needs pertaining to food safety improvement, food spoilage reduction, and quarantine/trade. The need for food safety is caused by the increasing morbidity and mortality caused by food-borne diseases worldwide, and it affects national economy and world-trade. Radiation technology can serve to ameliorate the vulnerability of our food supply system. (author)

  5. Immunological detection of modified DNA bases in irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.H.H.; Tyreman, A.L.; Deeble, D.J.; Jones, M.; Smith, C.J.; Christiansen, J.F.; Beaumont, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Ionising radiation is fatal to all known life forms given sufficient exposure in terms of dose and duration. This property has been used beneficially to sterilise a range of materials, particularly medical products where the removal of all contaminating organisms is deemed essential. Irradiation has long been used to sterilise food for consumption by certain categories of patients. The method is attractive because all potentially contaminating organisms can be removed by one simple treatment. Irradiation also slows down or stops certain processes such as sprouting. There are, however, disadvantages to irradiating food. It is not only DNA that is affected as alterations in lipid and protein components of the food may lead to a loss of quality. Although irradiation will kill bacteria it will probably not affect any toxin produced by those bacteria prior to treatment. Irradiation achieves its effects by damaging molecules, particularly nucleic acids. Consequently, if any of the damage to nucleic acids could be shown to by by a process unique to irradiation, and the products of this unique process could be measured, then there is the basis for a detection system. Furthermore, if the damage could be shown to be proportional to the dose of radiation received then the dose could also be quantified. Legislation, therefore, requires that assays be developed for use in different countries, those which totally ban irradiated food, those which require irradiated food to be labelled and those which have selective laws relating to specific foods and specific levels of irradiation. (author)

  6. Production yields of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioni, E.; Ennahar, S.

    2009-01-01

    2-alkycyclobutanones are formed by irradiation exclusively, and are considered as unique radiolytic product (URP). Because of the URP character of the 2-alkycyclobutanones, these compounds are good marker of irradiation treatment. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) developed an analytical method (EN 1785) for detection of 2-alkycyclobutanones having a detection limit of 0.2 pmol, limiting the application to foodstuffs treated for microbial disinfection (doses > 0.5 kGy), with fat content higher than 1.0 g %. The use of this EN 1785 and the supercritical extraction analytical methods allowed the determination of the production yields of 2-alkycyclobutanones in broad range of foodstuffs. The obtained production yields were between 0.20 and 12.21 nmol/mmol fatty acid/kGy), and showed strong dependency from he nature of the food matrix. The amount 2-alkycyclobutanones intake from irradiated foodstuffs by consumer calculated based on production yields determined in this work show, that the doses used in toxicological studies were much higher, than that are consumed by human through eating irradiated foods. (author)

  7. High-dose irradiated food: Current progress, applications, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Chitho P.

    2018-03-01

    Food irradiation as an established and mature technology has gained more attention in the food industry for ensuring food safety and quality. Primarily used for phytosanitary applications, its use has been expanded for developing various food products for varied purposes (e.g. ready-to-eat & ready-to-cook foods, hospital diets, etc.). This paper summarized and analyzed the recent progress and application of high-dose irradiation and discussed its prospects in the field of food product development, its safety and quality.

  8. Perception and view of consumers on food irradiation and the Radura symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria P.; Galotto, Maria J.; Valenzuela, Ximena; Dinten, Carolina M.; Aguirre, Paulina; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at carrying out a survey on the knowledge and acceptance level of food irradiation. The work was carried out in Santiago, Chile. As an above-average level country in South and Central America, the results may give an indication about the situation in other countries. The survey could also provide an indication about the impression of the public regarding the international 'Radura' symbol, indicating on a food product that has been irradiated. A total of 497 persons were interviewed. Among the interviewed people, 76.5% did not know that irradiation could be used as a method for food preservation; 46% expressed their belief that irradiated food means the same as radioactive food. Nevertheless, 91% claimed that they would become consumers of irradiated food if they knew that 'irradiated' is not 'radioactive' and that proper irradiation enhances food safety; 95.8% of the interviewed persons were not familiar with the 'Radura' symbol. However, 55.8% expressed their opinion that they would buy irradiated food because of the symbol, affirming that the 'Radura' symbol transmits the sensation of confidence and safety.

  9. Perception and view of consumers on food irradiation and the Radura symbol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria P., E-mail: mpaula.junqueira@usach.c [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad Tecnologica, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Obispo M. Umana 050, Ed. de Alimentos-Est. Central, Santiago (Chile); Galotto, Maria J.; Valenzuela, Ximena [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad Tecnologica, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Obispo M. Umana 050, Ed. de Alimentos-Est. Central, Santiago (Chile); Dinten, Carolina M. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad Tecnologica, Departamento de Tecnologias Generales, Avenida Ecuador, 3769 Est. Central, Santiago (Chile); Aguirre, Paulina [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Depto. Aplicaciones Nucleares, Seccion Salud y Alimentos, Nueva Bilbao, 12501 Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Miltz, Joseph [Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    The present study was aimed at carrying out a survey on the knowledge and acceptance level of food irradiation. The work was carried out in Santiago, Chile. As an above-average level country in South and Central America, the results may give an indication about the situation in other countries. The survey could also provide an indication about the impression of the public regarding the international 'Radura' symbol, indicating on a food product that has been irradiated. A total of 497 persons were interviewed. Among the interviewed people, 76.5% did not know that irradiation could be used as a method for food preservation; 46% expressed their belief that irradiated food means the same as radioactive food. Nevertheless, 91% claimed that they would become consumers of irradiated food if they knew that 'irradiated' is not 'radioactive' and that proper irradiation enhances food safety; 95.8% of the interviewed persons were not familiar with the 'Radura' symbol. However, 55.8% expressed their opinion that they would buy irradiated food because of the symbol, affirming that the 'Radura' symbol transmits the sensation of confidence and safety.

  10. An introduction to the irradiation processing of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackwood, S.

    1991-01-01

    The food industry has used a variety of methods over the years to preserve or extend the shelf life of food. These have included cooking, packaging, smoking, chilling, freezing, dehydrating and using chemical additives. More recently, ionising radiation has been used to extend the storage life of foods. More research has been focussed on the effects of irradiation on foods than has been directed at any other form of food processing. This research has spanned 40 years and has been carried out in many countries. Food irradiation can be used to: (a) inhibit the sprouting of vegetables; (b) delay the ripening of fruits; (c) kill insect pests in fruit, grains or spices; (d) reduce or eliminate food spoilage organisms; (e) reduce food poisoning bacteria on some meats and sea food products. This chapter includes sections on the historical background; general aspects of radiation; scientific, technological, microbiological and toxicological aspects of food irradiation; nutritional aspects of food irradiation; consumer attitudes; current status and legislation; labelling. It concludes that the relatively new process of preserving food by irradiation compliments rather than competes with the presently available traditional methods. (author)

  11. The contribution of food irradiation to food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeferstein, F.K.

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to assist efforts throughout the world to provide safe and nutritious food supplies. However, the safety and nutritional quality, as well as the mere availability of our food, is constantly threatened by contamination, infestation and deterioration. The most recent addition to the list of food preserving methods is irradiation, i.e., processing of food to carefully measured amounts of ionizing radiation. The paper will highlight the contribution this technology is expected to make with regard to the prevention of foodborne diseases and food losses. (orig.) [de

  12. Food irradiation: regulatory aspects in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckman, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation treatment of food is becoming an increasingly accepted processing option for countries in the Asia Pacific region wishing to meet growing sanitary and phytosanitary requirements in international trade. There remain however, large differences between the regulatory requirements in the countries in this region. This paper gives an outline on existing food irradiation regulations in the separate countries of the Asia Pacific region. New developments such as the recent decision by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority to start assessing applications for food irradiation treatment are discussed. Australia's intention to regulate the export of food treated by irradiation will also be outlined. Details of the decision to harmonise food irradiation regulations by 13 countries in the Asia Pacific region based on conformance with Codex requirements is outlined. The likelihood of other Asia Pacific countries enacting similar harmonisation of their regulations will be examined. Future development such as certification of irradiation as a sanitary treatment for food are discussed. The expected result of these initiatives is a likely increase in irradiated foods traded within the Asia Pacific region

  13. Radiation hygiene evaluation of gamma-irradiated food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, S.; Katsarova, Ts.; Kiradzhiev, G.; Zakharieva, B.; Visheva, N.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review is made of some general problems of the radiation processing of food and of the studies made in the Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Radiobilogy and Radiation Hygiene, Sofia. Investigations devoted to wholesomeness and identification of the following irradiated food are mentioned: 1) apple and dry milk diet; 2) maize, dry plum and nut diet; 3) model dry food (soy-been meal); 4) chicken meat and 5) broilers forage. Results are also reported from approbation of the ferroredoximetric method for identification of irradiated forage mixtures. This method is also used to estimate the content of hydroperoxides in some organs and tissues of rats fed by irradiated forage (with doses of 5, 10, 25 and 50 kGy) in a course of 45 days. The wholesomeness of the forage have been evaluated by the changes in the mass of the whole body and separate organs, as well as of hematological indexes and hormone status (serum concentration of the sth, insulin, thyroxine and triodothyronine). 5 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs

  14. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation. Final report, may 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread. (Author)

  15. Report of the safety and wholesomeness of irradiated foods by the advisory committee on irradiated and novel foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Following the conclusions of the Joint Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods(JECFI) an Advisory Committee on Irradiated and Novel Foods (ACINF) was set up to review the position relating to the irradiation of food and to report and advise on its findings to the Ministries of Health and Agriculture, with a view to changing legislation in the U.K. The advisory committee concluded that there were no justifications, on public health grounds, for the present U.K. regulations not to be amended and that the irradiation of foods up to an overall average dose of 10 Gy by X-rays and γ-rays up to 5 MeV, or for electrons up to 10 MeV, should be permitted. The committee recommended that food irradiation procedures and consumption patterns should be monitored. (UK)

  16. Safety evaluation of irradiated foods in China: A condensed report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, D. (Institute of Food Safety Control and Inspection, Beijing (China))

    1989-03-01

    Eight trials, with 439 human volunteers who consumed irradiated foods including rice, potatoes, mushrooms, peanuts, and Chinese sausages, as well as diets composed of multiple irradiated foods (irradiated at dosages of 0.2 to 8 kGy) that accounted for 60-66% of the entire diet, were carried out for 2-3 months according to a unified protocol. No adverse effects on body weight, blood pressure, ECG, hematology, blood enzyme activities, serum lipids or blood or urine 17-hydroxycortisol contents and no chromosomal aberration of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found. It is especially worthwhile to note that there was no change in the polyploidy after consumption of irradiated diets. On the basis of these results and a comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of irradiated foods, temporary hygienic standards for irradiated rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, Chinese sausages, peanuts, and mushrooms were promulgated by the Chinese Ministry of Public Health.

  17. Food irradiation technology - trends and progress in its commercial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemhorst, J.

    1993-01-01

    In a short historical overview, the development from laboratory use of X-ray machines to large scale industrial irradiation facilities is given. A comparison between machine sources and isotope sources is made and advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Technical considerations in irradiator designs like penetration depth, dose uniformity ratio, dose distribution, product dimensions, process parameters, etc. and the limits in optimalization of process conditions are presented. The economics of scale play an important role in radiation processing. The high initial investment and the skilled staff required to operate an irradiation facility can only be economically justified by the irradiation of large volumes. The dependence on (seasonal) availability of food products and the still limited application of the food irradiation processes are discussed. A typical multi-purpose irradiator, the pallet irradiator, will be presented and major aspects of operation are considered. Principles of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Irradiation Practice and its practical implications for food irradiation are discussed. The influence of population growth, industrialization, social and cultural developments on the actual and future application of the food irradiation process will be discussed and an attempt will be made to identify important trends. (author). 6 refs

  18. Initial decay process of radicals induced in irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaimori, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kameya, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine radial decay behaviors of γ-irradiated food, we analyzed radicals in the food using ESR. We detected the ESR signal of specimens just several minutes after irradiation. The singlet signal intensity at g=2.0, originated from organic free radicals was increased as followed by the increasing radiation dose. Singlet signal intensity that increased by γ-irradiation was decreased with time. The phenomena of decay of the ESR singlet signal showed two phase that are rapid decay and slow decay. It was suggested that those two phase decay is due to at least the two radical species. Also we concluded that after three hours of radiation treatment long life radical as ESR signal intensity was detected in irradiated specimen; black pepper, green coffee bean and ginseng, showed the same decay phenomena. But the signal intensity of irradiated black pepper was three times larger than that of irradiated green coffee bean and irradiated ginseng. (author)

  19. Influence of audiovisuals and food samples on consumer acceptance of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlman, A.J.; Wood, O.B.; Mason, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of audiovisual presentation on consumers' knowledge and attitudes toward food irradiation were demonstrated. Food irradiation is a method of food preservation that can destroy the microorganisms responsible for many foodborne illnesses and food spoilage. However, the food industry has been slow to adopt this method because it is unsure of consumer acceptance. One hundred and seventy-nine consumers were given a slide-tape presentation on food irradiation. Test subjects were also presented with a sample of irradiated strawberries. It was found that participants knew more about and were more positive toward food irradiation following the educational program. These findings demonstrate the value of educational materials in influencing the food preferences of consumers

  20. MAFF sponsored research: detection tests for irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.M.; Holley, P.A.; Pryke, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    In their 1986 report on the safety and wholesomeness of irradiated food the UK Advisory Committee on Irradiated and Novel Foods (ACINF) recognised that a generally applicable test to determine if a food had been irradiated was not available. The committee considered that, although not a pre-requisite, the existence of a detection test would be a useful supplement to a control system and do much to reassure consumers; with this in mind ACINF recommended that detection methods should be kept under review. As a consequence, in 1987 the Ministry initiated a comprehensive R and D detection test programme. Over fifty papers have been published to date as a result of this programme. MAFF (Ministry Of Agriculture Fisheries and Food) has also been involved in other research associated with irradiation and food safety, some of which is described in this paper. This paper aims to give an overview of recent work funded under the food irradiation programme. Twelve projects have been supported over the last two years, ten of which involved the development of detection tests for irradiated food. A summary of these projects is presented: - Thermoluminescence; - Electron Spin Resonance; - 2-alkylcyclobutanones; -Determination Of Hydrogen; - Differential Scanning Calorimetry; - Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate; - DNA; - Pesticide Breakdown; - Neutron Irradiation; -Future Plans. (orig./vhe)

  1. Three year trend analysis of food irradiation education for elementary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoon Seok; Lee, Seung Koo; Park, Pil Han; Han, Eun Ok

    2015-01-01

    In this context, the present study was designed as part of a large-scale communication strategy for the enhancement of public understanding through the creation of a national consensus about irradiated foodstuffs. In order to provide basic data required to formulate such a strategy, elementary school students were selected as the research population in this study, in consideration of the high ripple effects expected in this population group. Analyzed were differences in perception, knowledge, and attitude regarding irradiated foods as a result of the implementation of an education program designed to enhance the understanding of food irradiation, between the baseline (pre-education) level and the post-education level. Bruhn et al. (1986) reported that even consumers with little knowledge or negative views of irradiation show favorable attitudes towards irradiated foodstuffs after being exposed to promotional materials or campaigns on processing techniques using food irradiation and their advantages

  2. Three year trend analysis of food irradiation education for elementary school students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Seok; Lee, Seung Koo; Park, Pil Han; Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this context, the present study was designed as part of a large-scale communication strategy for the enhancement of public understanding through the creation of a national consensus about irradiated foodstuffs. In order to provide basic data required to formulate such a strategy, elementary school students were selected as the research population in this study, in consideration of the high ripple effects expected in this population group. Analyzed were differences in perception, knowledge, and attitude regarding irradiated foods as a result of the implementation of an education program designed to enhance the understanding of food irradiation, between the baseline (pre-education) level and the post-education level. Bruhn et al. (1986) reported that even consumers with little knowledge or negative views of irradiation show favorable attitudes towards irradiated foodstuffs after being exposed to promotional materials or campaigns on processing techniques using food irradiation and their advantages.

  3. Food irradiation for phytosanitary and quarantine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation at doses less than 1 kGy is an effective phytosanitary measure with minimal adverse effects on the quality of most fresh produce. There are internationally recognized guidelines for the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary measure and for the conduct of trade in irradiated fresh produce...

  4. Studies on the influences of. gamma. -ray irradiation upon food additives, (6). Radiolysis of monosodium glutamate due to. gamma. -ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, M. (Shimonoseki Univ. of Fisheries, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Gohya, Y.; Ishio, S.

    1981-08-01

    The effect of ..gamma..-ray irradiation on monosodium glutamate (MSG) in aqueous solution and in ''kamaboko'' was investigated to evaluate the rate of decomposition of MSG and to elucidate the safety of the decomposed products, under the concentration of 106.9 mmol/l aqueous solution and 1% content of MSG in ''kamaboko''. In aqueous solution, MSG was decomposed by ..gamma..-ray irradiation, and G value was estimated to be 1.24. The decomposition of MSG resulted from deamination reaction was estimated to be 40% of the total decomposition. Glutamic acid content decreased as the dose of ..gamma..-ray increased in MSG-enriched ''kamaboko'', while it increased as the dose of ..gamma..-ray increased in MSG-free ''kamaboko''. Glutamic acid was liberated from the protein in ''kamaboko'', therefore the apparent decomposition rate of MSG in ''kamaboko'' was regarded as lower than actual.

  5. Part III: Comparing observed growth of selected test organisms in food irradiation studies with growth predictions calculated by ComBase softwares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.; Meszaros, L.; Beczner, J.; Polyak-Feher, K.; Gaal, O.; Lebovics, V.K.; Lugasi, A.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of intensive predictive microbiological modelling activities, several computer programs and softwares became available recently for facilitating microbiological risk assessment. Among these tools, the establishment of the ComBase, an international database and its predictive modelling softwares of the Pathogen Modelling Program (PMP) set up by the USDA Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmore, PA, and the Food Micromodel/Growth Predictor by the United Kingdom's Institute of Food Research, Norwich, are most important. The authors have used the PMP 6.1 software version of ComBase as a preliminary trial to compare observed growth of selected test organisms in relation to their food irradiation work during recent years within the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Food Irradiation Research Projects (D6.10.23 and D6.20.07) with the predicted growth on the basis of growth models available in ComBase for the same species as those of the authors' test organisms. The results of challenge tests with Listeria monocytogenes inoculum in untreated or irradiated experimental batches of semi-prepared breaded turkey meat steaks (cordon bleu), sliced tomato, sliced watermelon, sliced cantaloupe and sous vide processed mixed vegetables, as well as Staphylococcus aureus inoculum of a pasta product, tortellini, were compared with their respective growth models under relevant environmental conditions. This comparison showed good fits in the case of non-irradiated and high moisture food samples, but growth of radiation survivors lagged behind the predicted values. (author)

  6. Studies of blood irradiator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenhong; Lu Yangqiao

    2004-01-01

    Transfusion is an important means for medical treatment, but it has many syndromes such as transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, it's occurrence rate of 5% and above 90% death-rate. Now many experts think the only proven method is using blood irradiator to prevent this disease. It can make lymphocyte of blood product inactive, so that it can not attack human body. Therefore, using irradiation blood is a trend, and blood irradiator may play an important role in medical field. This article summarized study of blood irradiator application, including the meaning of blood irradiation, selection of the dose for blood irradiation and so on

  7. Acceptance, control of and trade in irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Proceedings of an International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Trade Centre-UNCTAD/GATT and held in Geneva, 12-16 December 1988. The Conference was prompted by the lack of acceptance by some governments, which do not see a need for the application of food irradiation technology in their own countries, and as a consequence may hamper its use in other countries where its application could significantly improve consumer health and nutrition, as well as national economic and trading potential. This publication contains discussions on the key issues of the wholesomeness of irradiated food, the contribution of this technology to public health, food security and international trade, the control of the process to ensure its correct application for consumer protection, and the acceptance of irradiated food by industry and consumers. The proceedings include the International Document on Food Irradiation, highlighting the major issues related to the acceptance of irradiated food by consumers, governmental and intergovernmental activities, the control of the process, and trade. A number of Member States formally expressed their views on this International Document, expressing either endorsement or reservation, and their statements are included in these proceedings. Refs, fig and tabs

  8. Detecting irradiated foods: use of hydroxyl radical biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, L.R.; Simic, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Recent legislation in the United States has increased the probability of using ionizing radiation for preserving food. The possible increased use of food irradiation in this country, in addition to current use of the technique in other countries, makes it important to develop a method whereby the extent of irradiation of foods can be determined. Both opponents and proponents of this particular food-processing technique support postirradiation dosimetry (PID) as a way to measure the extent of changes in irradiated products. To prevent tampering and alteration of the dosimeters, the best postirradiation dosimeters are those that are inherent in the product exposed to the ionizing radiation. Therefore detection of the intermediates and subsequent products arising from the interaction of ionizing radiation with biomolecules in food should be a viable means by which the irradiated status of a food sample can be determined. To be useful as biomarkers, however, the products formed by irradiation must be detectable by routine analytical methods, formed exclusively by ionizing radiation (unless formation from alternate methods can be readily determined), and stable for the duration of the expected shelf life of the food product. In this article Lisa R. Karam and Michael G. Simic of the National Institute of Standards and Technology describe methodology developed to identify the irradiated status of foods using hydroxyl radical biomarkers

  9. Need and role of identification of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is important to distinguish between the kind of food which has been subjected to correct radiation treatment and the kind of irradiated food which is unfit for human consumption. Radiation treatment in the good sense is now widely but not universally permitted. Methods of identifying irradiated food will help to prevent it being imposed on those who do not want it. The proper operation of radiation treatment demands adequate controls, and labelling is desirable. Tests for irradiated food will help to prevent abuse. Methods for detecting the irradiation of food are now being actively sought. The cost of one such test (based on the e.s.r. spectrum of irradiated bone) is shown to be within the range Pound 13-20 per test. Some of the tests, although qualitative in the first instance, may be further developed to give a quantitative measure of the dose in the food itself. The search for properties which are characteristic of irradiated food will provide further evidence about the safety of food. (author)

  10. Facts about food irradiation: Safety of irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the safety of industrial irradiation facilities. Although there have been accidents, none of them has endangered public health or environmental safety, and the radiation processing industry is considered to have a very good safety record. Gamma irradiators do not produce radioactive waste, and the radiation sources at the facilities cannot explode nor in any other way release radioactivity into the environment. 3 refs

  11. Monitoring free radicals in γ-irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.R.; Hutton, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation of various food products, including vegetables, fruits, meats, seafoods, herbs, spices and seeds by appropriate doses by γ rays has for many years been suggested as a means of killing bacteria, viruses and pests and so preserving the foods. The position of food irradiation is under review in Australia through consumer organisations (Australian Consumers Association 1987) and by a current Federal Government inquiry. From these reviews and inquiries recommendations for irradiation, packaging, etc., are emerging, with for example, recommended maximum dose of 10 kGy for Australia, with 6 kGy being a minimum dose for grains and spices

  12. Current status of the EPR method to detect irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    This review gives a brief outline of the principles of the EPR detection method for irradiated foods by food type. For each food type, the scope, limitations and status of the method are given. The extensive reference list aims to include all which define the method, as well as some rarely cited works of historical importance. (author)

  13. Food irradiation: Applications, public acceptance and global trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process involves exposing the packed or bulked food to the rays of the sun. Food irradiation processing that entails combating post-harvest losses, curtailing food-borne disease and overcoming quarantine barriers has been pursued since the mid-50s. The scientific basis and technological adaptation of the process ...

  14. Dosimetry of Irradiated Food Containing Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraheem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of ESR technique for checkout the calibration and dose assessment for chicken bone is considered to be a well known application, while the accuracy of this technique is not carefully evaluated yet. This article provide a new approach for optimizing the accuracy of both the calibration curve methods to estimate the ESR absorbed dose and dose assessment in irradiated refrigerated chicken bone. Because of the decay of the radiation-induced free radical, the ESR signal inside chicken bone will be affected. By applying an extensive study for the stability of the ESR signal, the readout was performed only when ESR signal has reached a good stability for bone samples used to establish the calibration curves and also for bones whose dose is required to be assessed. The accuracy for using such method under optimization was good enough to meet previous studies, just using a hypothetical mathematics factors, which occurs from different studies according to the conditions of irradiation and storage, could be used for correction

  15. Prospects of eliminating pathogens by the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    Food-borne diseases are an increasing health hazard throughout the world. Some of these diseases, such as salmonellosis, staphylo-entero-toxicosis, botulism, vibriosis and parasitic infections have always played an important role, whereas some other food-borne pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and toxin-producing fungi have only been recognised in recent decades. Changing food-production methods, food processing and especially food habits, together with the enormous trade in foods and feeds from one part of the world to the other, are responsible for the increase of these diseases. To meet this situation, prevention and control of food-borne diseases, which involve large groups of persons and play a major socio-economic role in many parts of the world, are of utmost importance. In prevention and control programmes food irradiation can be applied successfully and may solve some of the food and feed contamination problems. The author summarizes to-day's most important food-borne diseases, the type of foods which are responsible for infections in man and animals, and the commodities in which low-dose food irradiation may be of great value in preventing these diseases. The advantages of irradiation versus the use of chemical additives and pesticides and with respect to the prevention of cross-contamination (which plays a very important role in initiating food-borne diseases) by pre-packaging, are emphasized. The required irradiaton doses to eliminate or reduce the number of pathogenic organisms which may be present in foods, the problem of radioresistance and the acceptability of irradiated food are discussed. Finally to-day's situation of irradiated foods with regard to legislation, consumers' information and economic feasibility is summarized. (author)

  16. Review on applied foods and analyzed methods in identification testing of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Hoo Chul; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Kwan Soo; Jeong, Il Yun; Lee, Ju Woon; Yook, Hong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Identification methods of irradiated foods have been adopted as official test by EU and Codex. PSL, TL, ESR and GC/MS methods were registered in Korea food code on 2009 and put in force as control system of verification for labelling of food irradiation. But most generally applicable PSL and TL methods are specified applicable foods according to domestic approved items. Unlike these specifications, foods unpermitted in Korea are included in applicable items of ESR and GC/MS methods. According to recent research data, numerous food groups are possible to effective legal control by identification and these items are demanded to permit regulations for irradiation additionally. Especially, the prohibition of irradiation for meats or seafoods is not harmonized with international standards and interacts as trade friction or industrial restrictions due to unprepared domestic regulation. Hence, extension of domestic legal permission for food irradiation can contrive to related industrial development and also can reduce trade friction and enhance international competitiveness

  17. Use of irradiation to assure the hygienic quality of animal origin foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna Carbajal, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation process for food preservation is a physical method comparable to heat or refrigeration and consist on the exposure of products packed or in bulk to gamma rays comming from Cobalt-60 or Cesium-137 or accelerated electrons and X rays produced by electric machines known as accelerators. Foods are exposed to this form of energy during a pre-stablished period in facilities named irradiators. At industrial level, the irradiation process requires a well stablished control to reach a good quality in the product. This quality control is carry out by means of dosimetry, a system which assures that the energy amount received by food is correct. Benefits derived of irradiation process in meat products as chicken, beef and pork as well as implications in matter of health and economics are presented in this work. Different aspects of irradiation process as a control to assure the hygienic quality, costs, different option of irradiators at industrial level, its advantages upon other processes, and its benefits at social level, are presented in this work. With respect to wholesomeness of irradiated food, main studies to strenghten that an irradiated food is safe, non toxic, do not imply microbian risks. it has the better nutritional quality, it has no radioactive remains and it is not a radioactivity inductor, in a word is an inocuous food, are presented in this study (Author)

  18. Present status and prospects of food irradiation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.

    1985-09-01

    Following the conclusions of the JEFCI (Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on whole someness of Irradiated Food), CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) was required by the regulatory committees, in 1981-82, to present a white book on the whole someness of irradiated foods. Following the approval of this white book it was decided to not modify hastily the current regulation of 1970; but to lighten the content of the file of request for authorization by removing its part related to toxicological evidences. This liberalization of procedure has encouraged industrial projects. A large effort of development is initiated and taken in charge locally. The CEA has very important responsabilities in this national effort of development of food irradiation. Three new designs for gamma industrial irradiators were recently improved in France specifically in view of food irradiation, beside the other more conventional designs of carrier and pallet irradiators, already available and well known. The presently available accelerators are not well fitted to food irradiation; the penetration of electrons which are produced is not high enough for food products. A french company, CGR-MeV, recently developed a linear accelerator of 10 MeV and 10 Kw, which appears very attractive

  19. Irradiation detection of food by DNA Comet Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Delincee, H.

    1999-01-01

    Microgel electrophoresis of single cells or nuclei (DNA Comet Assay) has been investigated to detect irradiation treatment of more than 50 food commodities e.g. meats, seafood, cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables, and spices. The foodstuffs have been exposed to radiation doses covering the range of potential commercial irradiation for inactivation of pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms, for insect disinfestation and for shelf-life extension. The Comet Assay is based on detection of DNA fragments presumptive to irradiation. For most of the food items investigated, the assay can be applied successfully for irradiation detection by working out different conditions of the assay. However, with some of the foods difficulties arose due to - lack of discrimination between the irradiated and unirradiated food samples due to the presence of the same kinds of comets in both cases and the total absence of the typical intact cells in unirradiated samples. - Sufficient DNA material was not available from some of the foods. - Insufficient lysis of the cell walls in case of some plant foods. In conclusion, the DNA Comet Assay can help to detect the irradiation treatment of several varieties of foods using low-cost equipment in a short time of analysis. (orig.)

  20. Combination irradiation treatments for food safety and phytosanitary uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combination of irradiation treatment with other preservation techniques is of potential importance in enhancing the effectiveness and reducing the energy or dose requirement for destroying food borne illness and spoilage organisms while retaining or improving product quality. Phytosanitary irradiati...