Taipina, Magda S.; Sabato, Susy F.; Mastro, Nelida L. del
One of the most important steps, in order to improve the quality of foodstuffs, in the last forty years is represented by fortified foods. The fortification foods means complementary addition of nutrients to content of foodstuffs. The macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) are relativity steady when submitted to irradiation. The micro-nutrients, speciality the vitamins, can be sensible to any method. This work has analysed fortified foods with Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, vitamin A, riboflavine, vitamin C and folic acid , as well as, the perspective of adjusting the food irradiation process with fortification foods
Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with legumes: factors ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Tom Brown (roasted-maize porridge) is one of the traditional weaning foods in Ghana.
Grant J Aaron
Full Text Available A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%; however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately. For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal.
Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette
To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.
Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri
This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S
While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of
Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has on request from The Norwegian Food Safety Authority evaluated negative and positive human health effects from intake of n-3 fatty acids from food supplements and fortified foods. The evidence presented in this evaluation show that it is possible to obtain positive health effects in the Norwegian population from intake of EPA and DHA, including from food supplements, without any appreciable risk of negative or adverse health ...
Verrill, Linda; Wood, Dallas; Cates, Sheryl; Lando, Amy; Zhang, Yuanting
The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) fortification policy discourages the fortification of certain foods, including sugars and snack foods such as cookies, candies, cakes, chips, and carbonated beverages, yet manufacturers sometimes add vitamins and minerals to snack foods. To assess whether vitamin-fortified snack foods affect consumers' information-seeking, purchase decisions, and product-related health perceptions. For this experimental study, participants were randomly assigned to study conditions to compare products that varied in product type, nutrition profile, and fortification and nutrient claim status. Data were collected via an online consumer panel. US adults aged 18 years and older were randomly selected from Research Now's e-panel online household panel. Data were collected during fall 2014 (N=5,076). Participants were randomly assigned to one of 24 conditions: two products (vegetable chip/potato chip), two nutrition profiles (healthier/less healthy), two fortification scenarios (not fortified/fortified), and three nutrient claim conditions (two no claim/one with claim). The design was not balanced; claims were not shown on products that were not vitamin fortified. Outcome measures were information-seeking (viewed the Nutrition Facts label), purchase decisions, perception of product healthfulness, and correct selection of product with the healthier nutrient profile. Logistic regression was used to test all models. Analyses was adjusted for general label use, consumes product, health status, age, sex, level of education, presence of children in the household, and race/ethnicity. When the snack food carried a nutrient claim for vitamin fortification, participants were 1) less likely to look for nutrition information on the Nutrition Facts label, 2) more likely to select the product for purchase, 3) more likely to perceive the product as healthier, and 4) less likely to correctly choose the healthier product. Snack foods that have been vitamin-fortified
Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011, reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl. Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies. Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to
Abstract. Complementary food blends based on some cereals and legumes that are sold in. Plateau State, Nigeria were formulated for baby weaning foods and were analyzed. The cereals used included Zea mays (white corn), Pennisetum typhoides (millet) and. Digitaria exilis (acha). The legumes included Voandzeia ...
Kristen E. Noriega
Full Text Available Fortified blended foods (FBF are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM in nutritionally vulnerable individuals, particularly children. A recent review of FBF recommended the addition of animal source food (ASF in the form of whey protein concentrate (WPC, especially to corn-soy blends. The justification for this recommendation includes the potential of ASF to increase length, weight, muscle mass accretion and recovery from wasting, as well as to improve protein quality and provide essential growth factors. Evidence was collected from the following four different types of studies: (1 epidemiological; (2 ASF versus no intervention or a low-calorie control; (3 ASF versus an isocaloric non-ASF; and (4 ASF versus an isocaloric, isonitrogenous non-ASF. Epidemiological studies consistently associated improved growth outcomes with ASF consumption; however, little evidence from isocaloric and isocaloric, isonitrogenous interventions was found to support the inclusion of meat or milk in FBF. Evidence suggests that whey may benefit muscle mass accretion, but not linear growth. Overall, little evidence supports the costly addition of WPC to FBFs. Further, randomized isocaloric, isonitrogenous ASF interventions with nutritionally vulnerable children are needed.
Journal of Food Technology in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Adequate nutrient intake, especially of protein and micronutrients, enhances growth of children and decreases susceptibility to disease. Major contributing factors to malnutrition among infants and children are low purchasing power of the family resulting in poor quality foods. A cross-sectional and laboratory-based study ...
V. M. Kodentsova
Full Text Available The diet of modern nursing women consisting of natural foods is adequate for the consumption of energy and sometimes excessively caloric can not to provide the organism with the necessary amounts of vitamins. The content of vitamins in breast milk of insufficiently supplied women is less than in nursing mothers, adequate supply of vitamins. The needs of the growing breast-fed child by women with multivitamin deficiency can not to satisfied by means breast milk. Based on the analysis of the vitamin status of pregnant and lactating women, as well as the content of vitamins in breast milk of mothers with various vitamins sufficiency conclusion for inclusion in the diet of infants enriched with vitamins and minerals weaning cereal-based products (cereals had been made. Vitamin and mineral supplements or vitamin enriched foods must be included in the diet to maintain the vitamin status of lactating women.
Chanadang, Sirichat; Chambers, Edgar Iv; Alavi, Sajid
Products that will be prepared by consumers must be tolerant to various cooking procedures that those consumers may use. Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are used as a source of nutrition for disaster or famine relief in developing countries. Many FBFs are served as porridge and may have a wide of solids content, cooking times and variations in added ingredients. Sorghum is being examined as a potential alternative to wheat and corn based FBF products. This study was intended to evaluate the tolerance to preparation variations for porridge made as a FBF intended for food aid. Whole Sorghum Soy Blend (WSSB), a fortified, extruded, ground cooked cereal was selected as the FBF for this study. Descriptive sensory analysis and Bostwick flow rate measurements were performed to evaluate the tolerance of porridge products made from variations in ingredients and cooking procedures. The results showed that most sensory properties were only marginally affected although some expected large differences in a few sensory properties were found when solids content varied (that is, thickness, adhesiveness) or fruit (banana flavor) was added. Moreover, Bostwick flow rate was a reasonable indicator of thickness characteristics of porridges in some cases, but not in others. Tolerance testing showed that the sensory properties of WSSB had high tolerance to variations in cooking procedures, which means that the product can be modified during preparation by consumers without having a major impact on most sensory properties other than ones they intended to change such as thickness, sweetness, or fruit flavor. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.
Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…
Palchetti, Cecília Zanin; Paniz, Clóvis; de Carli, Eduardo; Marchioni, Dirce M; Colli, Célia; Steluti, Josiane; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Fazili, Zia; Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira Maria
To investigate the association between serum unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) concentrations and folic acid from fortified foods and nutrients known as dietary methyl-group donors (folate, methionine, choline, betaine and vitamins B2, B6 and B12) in participants exposed to mandatory fortification of wheat and maize flours with folic acid. Cross-sectional study carried out with 144 healthy Brazilian participants, both sexes, supplement nonusers. Serum folate, UMFA, vitamin B12 and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) were biochemically measured. Dietary intake was assessed by 2 non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HRs) and deattenuated energy-adjusted nutrient data were used for statistical analysis. Ninety eight (68.1%) participants were women. Median (interquartile range) age was 35.5 (28.0-52.0) years. Elevated serum folate concentrations (>45 nmol/L) were found in 17 (11.8%), while folate deficiency ( 1 nmol/L (90th percentile). UMFA concentrations were positively correlated with folic acid intake and negatively correlated to choline, methionine and vitamin B6 intakes. Participants in the lowest quartile of UMFA concentrations had lower dietary intake of total folate (DFEs) and folic acid, and higher dietary intake of methionine, choline and vitamin B6 than participants in the highest quartile of UMFA. Folic acid intake (OR [95% CI] = 1.02 [1.01-1.04)] and being a male (OR [95% CI] = 0.40 [0.19-0.87) were associated with increased and reduced odds for UMFA concentrations > 0.55 nmol/L (median values), respectively. UMFA concentrations were directly influenced by folic acid intake from fortified foods in a healthy convenience sample of adult Brazilians exposed to mandatory flour fortification with folic acid.
Rowe, Jonathan P; Brodegard, William C; Pike, Oscar A; Steele, Frost M; Dunn, Michael L
An important consideration in determining the ability of fortified food-aid commodities to meet the nutritional needs of beneficiaries is the manner in which commodities are utilized and prepared and the degree to which micronutrient losses occur during handling and cooking by the beneficiaries. A field study was conducted in Uganda, Malawi, and Guatemala to obtain data on storage, preparation, and usage of fortified blended foods provided by the US Agency for International Development. Interview and observational data on the use of corn-soy blend, cornmeal, soy-fortified cornmeal, soy-fortified bulgur, and fortified vegetable oil were collected from more than 100 households and two wet-feeding sites (where food is prepared and served by staff on-site) in 32 villages. Storage practices by beneficiaries appeared to be appropriate, and all commodities observed were free from off-flavors and odors. Cooking water was typically obtained from boreholes or open wells with a pH range of 4.7 to 7.7 Food preparation usually took place in covered areas with the use of an aluminum or clay pot over a wood-fueled fire. Thin or thick porridges were the most common dishes prepared from cereal-based products, with concentration ranges of 10% to 31% (wt/ wt) in water. Cooking times for porridges ranged from 5 to 53 minutes, with a mean of 26 minutes. Tortillas and beverages were other preparations commonly observed in Guatemala. Vegetable oil was typically used for pan frying. Cooking fuel could be saved and nutritional quality probably improved if relief agencies emphasized shorter cooking times. These data can be used to simulate preparation methods in the laboratory for assessment of the nutritional impact of cooking.
Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.
Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte
Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.
Samaniego Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G
Folic acid is a potentially relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies (congenital abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and neurocognitive decline). This has led to the introduction of different strategies in order to increase folate intake: nutritional education, pharmacological supplementation and mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with folic acid. In Spain there is a growing number of folic acid fortified products on a voluntary basis, but there is also a lack of reliable data to assess their impact on the population's dietary folate intakes. To gather a better knowledge of folic acid food fortification practices in Spain. A Food Composition Database was developed using data from a market study. Also, previously published data of unfortified staple foods from Food Composition Tables was reviewed. The Database included 260 folic acid fortified food items and it was periodically updated. Food groups included were primarily "Cereals and derivatives" (52%) followed by "Dairy products". Most of these foodstuffs lacked a target population for their consumption (37%) or were aimed at "Weight control" (28%) and "Children" (23%), but only 2% targeted women at a reproductive age. Number of unfortified foods included was 690. Fortification levels declared by manufacturers ranged between 15 and 430% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for folic acid per 100 g/ml, and simultaneous addition of B6 and B12 vitamins was observed in 75% of the products. Currently, Spain market offers a significant number of folic acid fortified products on a voluntary basis and at a level > or = 15% of the RDA per 100 g/ml or serving declared by manufacturers.
Full Text Available ... first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. ... amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, microbial probiotics, and ...
Christian, Parul; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Wu, Lee; Mitra, Maithilee; Ali, Hasmot; Merrill, Rebecca D; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Parveen, Monira; Fuli, Rachel D; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, Md Munirul; Klemm, Rolf; Schulze, Kerry; Labrique, Alain; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; West, Keith P
Growth faltering in the first 2 years of life is high in South Asia where prevalence of stunting is estimated at 40-50%. Although nutrition counselling has shown modest benefits, few intervention trials of food supplementation exist showing improvements in growth and prevention of stunting. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in rural Bangladesh to test the effect of two local, ready-to-use foods (chickpea and rice-lentil based) and a fortified blended food (wheat-soy-blend++, WSB++) compared with Plumpy'doz, all with nutrition counselling vs nutrition counselling alone (control) on outcomes of linear growth (length and length-for-age z-score, LAZ), stunting (LAZ food groups, provided with one of the allocated supplements daily for a year. Growth deceleration occurred from 6 to 18 months of age but deceleration in LAZ was lower (by 0.02-0.04/month) in the Plumpy'doz (P = 0.02), rice-lentil (food groups relative to the control. In rural Bangladesh, small amounts of daily fortified complementary foods, provided for a year in addition to nutrition counselling, modestly increased linear growth and reduced stunting at 18 months of age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Changes in time-trends of nutrient intake from fortified and non-fortified food in German children and adolescents--15 year results of the DONALD study. Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study.
Sichert-Hellert, W; Kersting, M; Manz, F
Although fortified products have played an increasing role in food marketing since the 1980s in Germany, data as to the consumption of fortified food is sparse. To assess long-term data on changes in fortified food supply or consumption patterns, nutrient intake, and time trends in the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study). Between 1985 and 2000 consumption of nutrient intake (total and from fortified foods) was evaluated and time trends in energy and nutrient intake were assessed on the basis of 3-day weighed dietary records (n = 4193) of 2-14 year-old males (n = 383) and females (n = 404) enrolled in the DONALD Study. Nutrient intake was expressed as percentage of the current German recommendations. Food products were defined as fortified if enriched with at least one of the following nutrients: Vitamin A or provitamin A carotenoids (summarised as Vitamin A), Vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, C, niacin, folate, calcium or iron. Nutrient supplements and medicine were excluded from this evaluation. Time trends were analysed using linear and non-linear regression models (PROC MIXED, SAS 6.12). In percent of German references , non-fortified food contributed to folate intake by 20-30%, to Vitamin E by about 40%, to Vitamin B1 by 50-65%, to Vitamin A, C, B2, calcium, iron by about 65-95%, and to Vitamin B6 and niacin intake by 100% and more. Fortified food alone provided no more than 5% of calcium intake, about 10-20% of iron, Vitamin A and folate intake, up to 40-50% of Vitamin C, B1, B2, E, niacin and up to 80% of Vitamin B6 intake. During the 15 year period of the DONALD Study with total food, we only found a significant linear time trend for Vitamin C, whereas significant non-linear time trends were found for calcium, Vitamin E, B1, B2, B6, niacin and folate. In the latter there was a uniform increase until 1994 and a decrease thereafter. For iron and Vitamin A no significant time trend could be identified. Only iron and
Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional problems at the global level which mainly affects the vulnerable population as children under 5 years of age. Fortified foods of child consumption are part of the intervention strategies, which are made from the mixture of ingredients such as cereals, fruits, legumes, among others. Pea is a legume that can be used in order to take advantage of its nutritional properties. Objective: To design a ready-to-eat child food with peas (Pisum sativum, fortified with iron and sanitized by pasteurization. Materials and methods: The appropriate percentage of peas in the food was selected by sensory analysis. The selection of iron salt was made by physicochemical and sensory analysis using ferrous sulphate and chelate iron. Subsequently, the growth of mesophilic microorganisms was evaluated in order to select the pasteurization heat treatment. The useful life evaluation was carried out through sensory tests. Finally, the physico-chemical, compositional and microbiological evaluation of the sanitized food was implemented. Results: The addition of peas in percentages not greater than 6.5% within the food formulation was acceptable for parents of children under 5. On the other hand, the selected salt to generate less changes on the color and acidity of the food during storage was chelate iron. The results of heat treatment showed that for reducing the initial concentration of mesophiles and obtaining a good quality food according to the Colombian regulations in force, it was necessary to submit the food to 85 °C for 13 minutes (0.45 D, which managed to maintain the initial quality of the food for 12 days under refrigeration. Conclusions: The developed food complies with the sensory and microbiological criteria demanded in the Colombian regulations in force and is suitable for consumption. Besides, it can be catalogued as high in iron and a good source of protein, contributing with 25% and
Bogachuk, M N; Bessonov, V V; Perederiaev, O I
It was purposed new technique by micellar electrokinetic chromatography on short end of the capillary (capillary electrophoresis system Agilent 3D CE, DAD, quartz capillary HPCE stndrd cap 56 cm, 50 microm, 50 mM borate buffer pH=9,3, 100 mM sodium dodecil sulfate) for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12, PP, B5, B9, C, B8) in fortified food products and premixes. It was observed on 6 samples of vitamin premixes and 28 samples of fortified food products using this technique. Our findings are consistent with the results of research on certain vitamins, conducted by other methods. The developed technique can be used in analysis of water-soluble vitamins in premixes and fortified food products.
Full Text Available ... chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and ... 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline form, which is found in fortified foods or supplements. ...
Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M
With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oelofse, A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Benade, A.J.S.; Dhansay, M.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
The study was conducted to look at the effectiveness of a multimicronutrient-fortified complementary food on the micronutrient status, linear growth and psychomotor development of 6- to 12-month-old infants from a black urban disadvantaged community in the Western Cape, South Africa. The study was
In response to recent interest in vitamin D composition of foods, USDA-NDL is updating and expanding data in the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. In 2007, the USDA sampled vitamin D3 fortified yogurt and milk from 12 and 24 supermarkets, respectively, selected from a nationwide sta...
Qian Qinfang; Sun Jianguo; Feng Weiyue
The iron content in hair and blood for 37 children athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/d, respectively, in the form of ferrous gluconate-containing chocolate for 3 months was determined before and after the supplement by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results indicated that after the supplement of the iron-fortified food, the ferritin level in blood of the male athletes attained to normal and the iron content in hair was increased with the increasing level of supplement, but not in direct proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplement of 8 mg Fe/d to a child athlete may be adequate
Full Text Available ... have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin ...
Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... activity. They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., ...
Full Text Available ... fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat ... high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant or ...
Berendsen, Agnes A.M.; Lieshout, van Lilou E.L.M.; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.
With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch
Kujinga, Prosper; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J.; Superchi, Cecilia; Hove, ten Hermine J.; Onyango, Elizabeth Opiyo; Andang'o, Pauline; Galetti, Valeria; Zimmerman, Michael B.; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D.
Children in developing countries often face multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Introduction of zinc-fortified water can increase zinc intake, but additional recommendations are required to address overall diet nutrient adequacy. We developed and tested food-based recommendations (FBRs) that
Full Text Available ... in heme-iron and/or consume iron-rich plant foods or iron-fortified foods with an iron- ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...
Full Text Available ... 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline form, which is found in fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in heme-iron and/or consume iron-rich plant foods or ...
Full Text Available ... in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of folate from a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation ( ...
Full Text Available ... in heme-iron and/or consume iron-rich plant foods or iron-fortified foods with an iron- ... supplement, Frankos advises reporting it to your health care provider, as well as to the manufacturer whose ...
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nowadays, consumption of functional foods is favored because of their health promoting characteristics. Also there is an increasing demand for nondairy products because of lactose intolerance in dairies. Fig juice as a source of dietary fiber and other nutrients would be a functional food. Adding probiotics and prebiotics makes it more functional for daily use. No study has yet been done on synbiotic fig juice. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize synbiotic fig juice prepared by Lactobacillus delbrueckii and inulin.Material and Methods: Samples consisted of control fig juice; fig juice fermented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii (probiotic and fig juice containing inulin fermented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii (synbiotic were produced. Physico-chemical parameters, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and microbial survival aspects were analyzed during the fermentation period. Aforementioned parameters were also evaluated in 4 weeks with one-week time intervals. Sensory characteristics of fig juices were assessed in the second week of storage.Results and Conclusion: The results showed significant differences among treatments (p≤0.05 in physico-chemical indices during incubation and storage time. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fermented fig juices were significantly increased in comparison to the control samples (p≤0.05. Viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii was increased in both probiotic and synbiotic treatments during incubation; but a significant reduction was observed during storage time. Sensory analysis revealed that there were significant differences in terms of odor, taste and overall acceptance between the fermented fig juices and control (p≤0.05 and the highest scores were obtained for control. Considering viable counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii depicted that fermented fig juice could be a suitable medium for survival and proliferation of Lactobacillus
Freixas Sepúlveda, Alejandra; Díaz Narváez, Víctor Patricio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Gaete Verdugo, María Cristina
In order to analyze the usual consumption of vitamins in an adolescent population and young adult in the Metropolitan Region, were 213 food fortified with vitamins of the Chilean market. A survey of consumption and nutrient intake was calculated. The result added vitamins added to food. The normality of the variables of the intake was assessed and data were subjected to analysis of descriptive statisticians and percentiles are determined. Estimated percentages of subjects whose values exceed those fixed for DDR and UL listed for each vitamin and percentage of excess for each case. Discriminant analysis was performed using the M Box test. The correlation canonical and the Statisticians Wilks were estimated. Finally it was estimated the percentage of correctly classified data. Data were processed by the program SPSS 20.0 with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. The results indicate that you for all the studied vitamins, the percentage of subjects who more than the DDR is for total folate (96.4%) and the lowest percentage is given for the vitamin E and B12 in young adult women. The percentage of subjects who exceed the UL values is greatest for the vitamin B3 (91.9%). According to the canonical correlation, there are differences in behavior between the groups. It is recommended to monitor the behavior and consumption of food fortified with vitamins, especially of the complex B and A. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The ...
Full Text Available ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by ...
Full Text Available ... ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are ... Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More ...
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Lu, Baiyi; Ren, Yiping; Huang, Baifen; Liao, Wenqun; Cai, Zengxuan; Tie, Xiaowei
A novel ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of four water-soluble vitamins, including vitamin B5 (VB5), vitamin B8 (VB8), vitamin B9 (VB9), and vitamin B12 (VB12) in fortified infant foods is developed and validated. A reverse phase UPLC separation system consisting of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C-18 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm i.d., 1.7 microm) and a binary gradient acetonitrile-water mobile phase is applied for the separation of the four water-soluble vitamins. Formic acid is spiked into the mobile phase to enhance the ionization efficiency. Tandem MS-MS analysis is performed in multi-reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Product-ion traces at m/z 220.1 --> 89.9 for VB5, 245.1 --> 227.1 for VB8, 442.3 --> 295.2 for VB9, and 678.9 --> 147.0 for VB12 are used for quantitation of the corresponding vitamins, and traces at m/z 455.5 --> 308.0 are used for methotrexate (internal standard). Limits of quantitation (LOQs) are 0.016, 0.090, 0.020, and 0.019 microg/L for VB5, VB8, VB9, and VB12, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions for the determination of the four vitamins are better than 6.84% and 12.26% in relative standard deviations, and recoveries for the four vitamins are in the range of 86.0~101.5%. The developed approach is applied for the determination of the trace amounts of the vitamins in fortified milk powers and fortified rice powers.
Full Text Available Purpose: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs composed of solid lipid and oil are a new generation of lipid nanoparticles which have exhibited some merits over traditional used lipid nanoparticles in fortifying food and beverages and nutraceuticals delivery systems such as liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. Methods: In this study, Precirol and Compritol as solid lipids, Miglyol and Octyloctanoat as liquid lipids, Tween80, Tween20 and Poloxamer407 as surfactants were used to prepare vitamin D3-loaded NLC dispersion using hot homogenization method. The particle size and size distribution for all formulations were evaluated by immediately after production and during a storage period of 60 days. Results: The Precirol-based NLC showed superiority over Compritol-based NLC in the point of physical stability. Results clearly suggested that an optimum concentration of 3% of Poloxamer407 or 2% of Tween20 was sufficient to cover the surface of nanoparticles effectively and prevent agglomeration during the homogenization process. Octyloctanoat was introduced for the first time as a good substituent for Miglyol in the preparation of NLC formulations. The vitamin D3 Intestinal absorption enhanced by the incorporating in NLCs. Conclusion: It was concluded that NLC showed a promising approach for fortifying beverages by lipophilic nutraceuticals such as vitamin D.
Mohammadi, Maryam; Pezeshki, Akram; Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Hamishehkar, Hamed
Purpose: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) composed of solid lipid and oil are a new generation of lipid nanoparticles which have exhibited some merits over traditional used lipid nanoparticles in fortifying food and beverages and nutraceuticals delivery systems such as liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. Methods: In this study, Precirol and Compritol as solid lipids, Miglyol and Octyloctanoat as liquid lipids, Tween80, Tween20 and Poloxamer407 as surfactants were used to prepare vitamin D 3 -loaded NLC dispersion using hot homogenization method. The particle size and size distribution for all formulations were evaluated by immediately after production and during a storage period of 60 days. Results: The Precirol-based NLC showed superiority over Compritol-based NLC in the point of physical stability. Results clearly suggested that an optimum concentration of 3% of Poloxamer407 or 2% of Tween20 was sufficient to cover the surface of nanoparticles effectively and prevent agglomeration during the homogenization process. Octyloctanoat was introduced for the first time as a good substituent for Miglyol in the preparation of NLC formulations. The vitamin D 3 Intestinal absorption enhanced by the incorporating in NLCs. Conclusion: It was concluded that NLC showed a promising approach for fortifying beverages by lipophilic nutraceuticals such as vitamin D.
Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookiesfrom Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patinfish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil usingspray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s resultswas fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measureyield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for thebest treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulatedyield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%.Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oilwas 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under fiveyear children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximate analysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%,fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookiesowned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.Keywords : Encaptulated fish, street food, patin fish protein concentrate, palm oil
Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookies from Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patin fish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil using spray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2 and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s results was fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measure yield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for the best treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulated yield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%. Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oil was 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was 18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under five year children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximateanalysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%, fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookies owned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.
Ariff, Shabina; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Krebs, Nancy; Westcott, Jamie
Full text: Adequacy of zinc intake from breast milk alone becomes marginal in relation to infant requirements by around six months of age. Simple and cost effective strategies are needed at population level to ensure adequate intakes of zinc in infants and toddlers in populations at risk of zinc deficiency. We determined the amount of absorbed zinc (AZ) from a micronutrient powder (MNP) without and with 10 mg of zinc (MNP, MNP+Zn, respectively) added to local complementary foods used in Pakistan, and the impact on the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) size. As a nested study within a large prospective cluster randomized trial, 6 month old infants were randomized to receive MNP or MNP+Zn. Stable isotope methodology was applied after ~ 3 and 9 months of use to measure AZ from MNP-fortified test meals of rice-lentils (khitchri) and EZP. Nineteen infants per group completed the first metabolic studies; 14 and 17 infants in MNP and MNP+Zn groups, completed the follow-up studies. Mean (±SD) AZs were 0.1± 0.1 and 1.2±0.5 mg at the first point for the MNP and MNP+Zn groups, respectively (p <0.001); results were nearly identical at the follow-up measurement. EZP did not differ between groups at the first measurement but was less in the MNP group (3.7±0.6 mg/kg) than in the MNP+Zn group (4.5±1.0 mg/kg) at the second measurement (P = 0.01). These data confirm that the MNP+Zn in khitchri were well absorbed, and after a year of home fortification, zinc status assessed by EZP was significantly better for the MNP+Zn group. Additional field studies may be necessary to ascertain the adequacy of this dose for infants at high risk of deficiency. (author)
LaGrone, Lacey N; Trehan, Indi; Meuli, Gus J; Wang, Richard J; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth; Manary, Mark J
Background: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are often treated with fortified blended flours, most commonly a corn-soy blend (CSB). However, recovery rates remain 5% worse than that achieved with either RUSF. Design: We conducted a prospective, randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled noninferiority trial involving rural Malawian children aged 6–59 mo with MAM. Children received 75 kcal CSB++ · kg−1 · d−1, locally produced soy RUSF, or an imported soy/whey RUSF for ≤12 wk. Results: The recovery rate for CSB++ (n = 763 of 888; 85.9%) was similar to that for soy RUSF (795 of 806, 87.7%; risk difference: −1.82%; 95% CI: −4.95%, 1.30%) and soy/whey RUSF (807 of 918, 87.9%; risk difference: −1.99%; 95% CI: −5.10%, 1.13%). On average, children who received CSB++ required 2 d longer to recover, and the rate of weight gain was less than that with either RUSF, although height gain was the same among all 3 foods studied. Conclusions: A novel, locally produced, fortified blended flour (CSB++) was not inferior to a locally produced soy RUSF and an imported soy/whey RUSF in facilitating recovery from MAM. The recovery rate observed for CSB++ was higher than that for any other fortified blended flour tested previously. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00998517. PMID:22170366
Comparison of a Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey with Nationally Representative Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-hour Dietary Recall Data for Assessing Consumption of Fortifiable Foods by Women and Young Children in Cameroon.
Engle-Stone, Reina; Brown, Kenneth H
Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are potential sources of data on dietary patterns for planning fortification programs, but they rarely have been compared with individual-level dietary assessment methods. To compare apparent consumption of fortifiable foods estimated from the Third Cameroon Household Survey (ECAM3) with the results of a national dietary survey using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) methods among women aged 15 to 49 years and children aged 12 to 59 months. We estimated coverage and frequency of consumption in the previous week (ECAM3 and FFQ) and coverage and amount consumed on the previous day (ECAM3 and 24HR) of refined vegetable oil, wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cubes. Coverage in the past week as measured by the ECAM3 and FFQ, respectively, was 64% vs. 54% for oil, 60% vs. 92% for flour, 69% vs. 78% for sugar, and 85% vs. 96% for bouillon cubes. The different methods identified similar patterns of coverage among subgroups for oil, but patterns for other foods were variable. Frequency of consumption and previous-day coverage were lower with the ECAM3 than with the FFQ and 24HR, likely reflecting infrequent acquisition relative to intake. For women, the mean amounts consumed on the previous day (among consumers) were 43 vs. 29 g of oil, 71 vs. 83 g of flour, 42 vs. 32 g of sugar, and 5.0 vs. 2.4 g of bouillon cubes (ECAM and 24HR, respectively). HCES provide useful information on patterns of food access but inadequate information on individual consumption amounts to estimate appropriate food fortification levels. © The Author(s) 2015.
Papathakis, Peggy C; Pearson, Kerry E
To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification. Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn. South Africa. Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ~6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum. Pre-fortification, >80 % of women did not meet the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12 and folate and minerals Zn, iodine and Ca. Dietary intake post-fortification increased for all fortified nutrients. In post-fortification food records, >70 % did not meet the EAR for Zn and vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Serum folate and Zn increased significantly post-fortification (P 93 % were retinol replete. There was no change in Fe deficiency (16.7 % pre v. 19.4 % post; P = 0.728). Micronutrient intake improved with fortification, but >70 % of lactating women did not meet the EAR for Zn, vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Although 100 % exceeded the EAR for Fe after fortification, Fe status did not improve.
Monnard, Arnaud; Moretti, Diego; Zeder, Christophe; Steingötter, Andreas; Zimmermann, Michael B
Background: Ready-to-use-therapeutic foods (RUTFs) high in lipid, protein, and iron are used to treat malnutrition. Lipids increase gastric residence time, which could increase iron absorption, particularly from poorly soluble iron compounds and in combination with phytase. Objectives: The objectives were to 1 ) assess the effect on iron absorption of a lipid emulsion given 20 min before or together with an iron-fortified maize meal and 2 ) assess iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) given with a nutrient-dense RUTF and/or a microbial phytase. Design: A total of 41 women participated in 3 studies. They consumed a maize meal fortified with isotopically labeled ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4 ; study 1) or ferric pyrophosphate (FePP; study 2). In studies 1 and 2, a lipid emulsion was given with or 20 min before the meal. In study 3, with the use of a 2 × 2 factorial design, subjects consumed a maize meal fortified with an MNP containing labeled FeSO 4 (MNP) given with an RUTF (MNP+RUTF), with a phytase (MNP+phytase), or both (MNP+RUTF+phytase). Iron absorption was assessed by isotope incorporation in erythrocytes 14 d after the test meals. Results: The lipid emulsion given either before or with the meal significantly increased iron absorption from FePP by 2.55-fold (95% CI: 1.48-, 4.37-fold; P = 0.001) but not from FeSO 4 There was a trend to increase iron absorption with the MNP+RUTF meal, which did not reach significance (1.21-fold; 95% CI: 0.92-, 1.61-fold; P = 0.060). The addition of phytase to MNP and MNP+RUTF significantly increased iron absorption by 1.85-fold (95% CI: 1.49-, 2.29-fold; P phytase and RUTF. Conclusions: In iron-fortified maize-based meals, the addition of lipids more than doubles iron absorption from FePP. Our results suggest the possibility of an enhancing effect on iron absorption of lipid-rich RUTFs, but more research is needed to determine this. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01991626. © 2017 American Society
de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene
or inflammation after iron supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. METHODS: A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program....... Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice.......6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...
Ariana Bianca Velciov
Full Text Available This research followed to achieve some natural-fortified food, based on honey and oleaginous fruits. Honey and oleaginous fruits are extremely valuable for human diet. With their rich nutrient content, new products obtained by mixing honey with seeds may be considered both traditional food with high nutritional value as well as fortified food. The samples were constituted from acacia flowers honey bought directly from the producer, to which were added various quantities of oleaginous fruits (seeds. Thus, we obtained 3 different types of fortified honey, using pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds and hemp seeds. Samples obtained were stored in appropriate conditions. From these samples, were made analytical tests: ascorbic acid and humidity.
Glinz, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brittenham, Gary M; Adiossan, Lukas G; Righetti, Aurélie A; Seifert, Burkhardt; Diakité, Victorine G; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Wegmüller, Rita
Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria co-exist in tropical regions and both contribute to high rates of anaemia in young children. It is unclear whether iron fortification combined with intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria would be an efficacious strategy for reducing anaemia in young children. A 9-month cluster-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out in children aged 12-36 months in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, an area of intense and perennial malaria transmission. The study groups were: group 1: normal diet and IPT-placebo (n = 125); group 2: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified complementary food (CF) with optimised composition providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferrous fumarate 6 days per week (CF-FeFum) and IPT-placebo (n = 126); group 3: IPT of malaria at 3-month intervals, using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine and no dietary intervention (n = 127); group 4: both CF-FeFum and IPT (n = 124); and group 5: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified CF with the composition currently on the Ivorian market providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferric pyrophosphate 6 days per week (CF-FePP) and IPT-placebo (n = 127). The primary outcome was haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Linear and logistic regression mixed-effect models were used for the comparison of the five study groups, and a 2 × 2 factorial analysis was used to assess treatment interactions of CF-FeFum and IPT (study groups 1-4). After 9 months, the Hb concentration increased in all groups to a similar extent with no statistically significant difference between groups. In the 2 × 2 factorial analysis after 9 months, no treatment interaction was found on Hb (P = 0.89). The adjusted differences in Hb were 0.24 g/dl (95 % CI -0.10 to 0.59; P = 0.16) in children receiving IPT and -0.08 g/dl (95 % CI -0.42 to 0.26; P = 0.65) in children receiving CF-FeFum. At baseline, anaemia (Hb
Full Text Available ... pregnant or is in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified ... in many forms. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 requires that all such products ...
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Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking ...
Full Text Available ... pregnant or is in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified ... pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the limbs, which may cause numbness, trouble walking, and pain. C (ascorbic acid): ...
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Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... protein. D (calciferol): Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, constipation, weakness, weight loss, confusion, heart rhythm problems, deposits of ...
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Newly formulated, protein quality-enhanced, extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, corn-, soya-, sugar- and oil-containing fortified-blended foods lead to adequate vitamin A and iron outcomes and improved growth compared with non-extruded CSB+ in rats.
Delimont, Nicole M; Fiorentino, Nicole M; Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Joseph, Michael V; Guo, Qingbin; Alavi, Sajid; Lindshield, Brian L
Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+). A second objective was to compare protein efficiency of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soya protein isolate (SPI) containing FBF to determine whether WPC inclusion improved outcomes. Eight groups of growing rats ( n 10) consumed two white and one red sorghum-cowpea (WSC1 + WPC, WSC2 + WPC, RSC + WPC), white sorghum-soya (WSS + WPC) and corn-soya (CSB14 + WPC) extruded WPC-containing FBF, an extruded white sorghum-cowpea with SPI (WSC1 + SPI), non-extruded CSB+, and American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G, a weanling rat diet, for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in protein efficiency, Fe or vitamin A outcomes between WPC FBF groups. The CSB+ group consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and length, compared with all other groups. Compared with WSC1 + WPC, the WSC1 + SPI FBF group had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and weight gain. These results suggest that a variety of commodities can be used in the formulation of FBF, and that newly formulated extruded FBF are of better nutritional quality than non-extruded CSB+.
Li, Min; Wu, Jinghuan; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Rui; Li, Weidong; Piao, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoguang
NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO₄-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO₄ group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO₄-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children.
intakes. In 1978, vitamin A fortified milk shakes (dry base) and vitamin C fortified extruded French fried potatoes and vitamin C fortified non...dry base) and vitamin C fortified extruded French fried potatoes and vitamin C fortified non-carbonated beverages were provided with the "Fast Food...identification of any unusual food items, and assignment of each food item as a component of either a meal or between-meal snack . The LAIR Nutrient Factor File
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. 131.127 Section 131.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk...
Jovanović Vojislav S.
Full Text Available Remnants of the fortified settlement Veletin are located on a hill of the same name (map marking 969 near the small town Janjevo, in the vicinity of the Monastery Gračanica in Kosovo, in a region rich in metal ore (pic. 1-3. Veletin is mentioned for the first time as a landmark in King Milutin’s charter for the Monastery Gračanica issued in 1321. Namely, the boundary of villages donated to the monastery ran "from Oštri vrh on Veletjen between Sušica and between Gušterica". Villages of Sušica and Gušterica still exist under the same names. The mentioned Veletin refers to the hill with a fortified settlement or fortress at the top. In the past the hill and the fortress were for a long time a characteristic part of the historical landscape. Thanks to its favourable geostrategic position, vicinity of important roads and above all to the nearness of rich silver mines, the hill of Veletin was settled and fortified in pre-historic time, then in antiquity and in the middle ages. It is supposed that the Roman town Ulpiana (Justiniana Secunda, near the Monastery Gračanica, developed because of the vicinity of silver mines and that as a municipium became a center of administration of Janjevo - Novo Brdo metals in the II c. Mining reached its peak in this area only in the first half of the XV c., during the reign of Serbian despots. When this part of Serbia fell under Turkish rule in 1455, mining began to decline. In 1488, during the reign of Sultan Bajazet II, special regulations were made for the organization of work in Janjevo silver mines, which testify about their importance. It is hard to form an opinion about the appearance of Veletin at the time the Gračanica Charter was issued. Mining was growing at that time and it is possible that there was a fortress with a small crew to protect Janjevo and other nearby mining settlements. Veletin is explicitly mentioned as a fortress only in three cartographic sources of a later date. The first was
Eliana P. Vellozo
Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a contribuição dos alimentos fortificados desenvolvidos a partir do crescente avanço dos conhecimentos científicos, cujas funções vão além da nutrição. Baseia-se no objetivo de produzir efeitos fisiológicos, garantindo a saúde e o bem-estar, corrigir deficiências inerentes às condições econômicas, sociais, buscando condições práticas e que respeitem os hábitos regionais, com vistas a suprir o consumo adequado de micronutrientes, principalmente para localidades onde se encontram elevadas prevalências, e ainda poder alcançar todos os segmentos da população, especialmente na fase pediátrica, onde as necessidades são relativamente maiores em função de crescimento. O Banco Mundial refere a importância da fortificação de alimentos como estratégia ao combate à deficiência de micronutrientes em todo o mundo. Ainda afirma que "nenhuma outra tecnologia pode oferecer oportunidade de melhorar vidas a tão baixo custo e em tão curto espaço de tempo". Os estudos têm demonstrado que a fortificação de alimentos é um dos melhores processos e muito eficaz para prevenir a deficiência nutricional de ferro da população em todo o mundo, por isso, nas condições de países em desenvolvimento, como o Brasil, faz-se extremamente necessária para melhoria, ou, até mesmo, para a solução da anemia carencial ferropriva.This article focuses on the contribution of fortified foods, developed from growing scientific knowledge, whose functions go beyond nutrition. Its main goal is to report on the physiological effects that improve health and wellness by correcting deficiencies inherent from the economic and social status of patients, pursuing practical conditions and respecting regional habits, in order to meet the needs of adequate micronutrient intake, in particular for locations where prevalence is high. Fortification should encompass all population segments, mainly in the pediatric phase, when needs are
Iron Fortified Complementary Foods Containing a Mixture of Sodium Iron EDTA with Either Ferrous Fumarate or Ferric Pyrophosphate Reduce Iron Deficiency Anemia in 12- to 36-Month-Old Children in a Malaria Endemic Setting: A Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.
Glinz, Dominik; Wegmüller, Rita; Ouattara, Mamadou; Diakité, Victorine G; Aaron, Grant J; Hofer, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Michael B; Adiossan, Lukas G; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Hurrell, Richard F
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The efficacy of iron fortification against IDA is uncertain in malaria-endemic settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a complementary food (CF) fortified with sodium iron EDTA (NaFeEDTA) plus either ferrous fumarate (FeFum) or ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) to combat IDA in preschool-age children in a highly malaria endemic region. This is a secondary analysis of a nine-month cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. 378 children aged 12-36 months were randomly assigned to no food intervention ( n = 125; control group), CF fortified with 2 mg NaFeEDTA plus 3.8 mg FeFum for six days/week ( n = 126; FeFum group), and CF fortified with 2 mg NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg FePP for six days/week ( n = 127; FePP group). The outcome measures were hemoglobin (Hb), plasma ferritin (PF), iron deficiency (PF anemia (Hb iron deficiency with or without anemia ( p = 0.068). IDA prevalence sharply decreased in the FeFum (32.8% to 1.2%, p anemia. These data indicate that, despite the high endemicity of malaria and elevated inflammation biomarkers (C-reactive protein or α-1-acid-glycoprotein), IDA was markedly reduced by provision of iron fortified CF to preschool-age children for 9 months, with no significant differences between a combination of NaFeEDTA with FeFum or NaFeEDTA with FePP. However, there was no overall effect on anemia, suggesting most of the anemia in this setting is not due to ID. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01634945).
Shahida Aziz Khan
Full Text Available Health consciousness has increased the desire of people around the world to consume functional foods. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are one among these beneficial and important health supplements without which a general predisposition to degenerative and stress related disorders can occur. Saudi Arabia has shown an alarming increase in obesity (Al-Nozha et al., 2005, diabetes (Alqurashi et al., 2011, and cardiovascular disease (Al-Nozha et al., 2004 in the last few decades mainly due to nutritional transitions and lifestyle alterations (Amuna and Zotor, 2008. Lack of nutrient dense foods and the prevailing food related disorder of obesity (Popkin, 2001; Prentice, 2014 especially render egg as a choice food to be value-added for attaining nutritional security in Saudi Arabia and in effect reverse the increasing incidences of lifestyle diseases. Nutritional intervention through a commonly consumed food product would be an important step in improving the health of the people, and reducing health care costs. As eggs are a frequently consumed food item in Saudi Arabia, enriching them with omega-3 fatty acids would be an excellent way to alleviate the existing problems. A significant deposition of omega-3 fatty acids in the eggs was observed when the diet of hens was supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids from either flaxseed or fish oil source. Inadequacy of omega-3 fatty acids could thus be rectified by producing omega-3 enriched eggs from hens supplemented with flaxseed or fish oil source, and thus contribute toward better health choice of the consumer.
... include dairy products, calcium can be obtained from plant-based foods, but the amount of calcium that ... or fat-free milk, yogurt and cheese Fortified plant-based milks such as soy or almond Fortified ...
Other foods were porridge and chigumu, whole maize flour-based bread. Overall, the daily average consumption of fortified foods (nsima, porridge and chigumu) was 332 g/day for children, and 1011 g/day for women. Plate waste accounted for 25% of the food served to the children, and 12% served to the women.
Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan; Saltzman, Edward; Balan, Ela; Pruzensky, William; Schlossman, Nina
Full text: Food insecurity in Guinea-Bissau is widespread and micronutrient deficiencies are anticipated among vulnerable groups. The objective: to test the efficacy of two Micronutrient-Rich Ready to Use Supplementary Foods (MNR-RUSF) in rural village children aged 6 to 24 months. This study was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture as part of a larger pilot project testing different supplements in pregnant and lactating women and infants and children aged 6-59 months. 411 children were randomly assigned to one of two intervention arms (46 g MNR-RUSF sachets containing 250 kcal/sachet and either 15% or 33% of dairy protein, collected 5 days per week from a supplement distribution center in the village) or to a control (C) group that received no MNR-RUSF. Weight, height and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), hemoglobin, and retinol-binding protein were measured at baseline and end-line. Randomization to the 33% supplement group was associated with significantly increased visits to the distribution center to collect supplement, as well as higher ratings for product taste and overall acceptability. The 15% supplement improved hemoglobin levels relative to controls (+0.81±1.43 vs. 0.07±1.47, P -2.0 at baseline. This study is the first to examine the effects of supplements containing different amounts of dairy protein in infants and young children in Guinea-Bissau and indicates that, while substitution of provided supplement for home food may have reduced the potential impact of the supplements on weight and height, the nutritional quality of the supplements was high relative to traditional food sources, with the result that both standard and high-dairy containing MNR-RUSF products improved hemoglobin and rates of reported diseases. Furthermore, the supplements containing a higher level of dairy protein had a very high rate of acceptability, leading to increased supplement usage, which, over time, may translate to additional health and cognitive
Batra, Payal; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan; Schlossman, Nina; Balan, Ela; Pruzensky, William
Full text: Food insecurity in Guinea-Bissau is widespread and micronutrient deficiencies are anticipated among vulnerable groups. The objective: to test the efficacy of two Micronutrient-Rich Ready to Use Supplementary Foods (MNR-RUSF) in preschool children aged 3-5 years over 3 months. 9 preschools were randomly assigned to one of two intervention arms (92 gram MNR-RUSF sachets containing 500 kcal/sachet and either 15% or 33% of dairy protein, provided 5 days per week) or to a control (C) group that received no MNR-RUSF. Weight, height and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured at baseline and endline. Malnutrition at baseline was high, with 5.6% <2 z scores for weight and 7.1% <2 z scores for height. Both intervention arms showed a significant increase in weight vs. controls (ΔWeight 15% group = 0.77+0.75 kg, 33% group = 0.76+0.78 kg, C = 0.42+0.1.8 kg, p<0.05) but not in height (ΔHeight 15% group = 3.1+2.0 cm, 33% group = 2.8+2.1 cm, C = 2.8+3.8 cm, p = 0.34). Changes in weight and height were not significantly different between the 15% and 33% groups (p = 0.99 and p = 0.38, respectively). There was a significant increase in MUAC in both the intervention arms vs. control, with the 33% intervention arm demonstrating a significantly greater increase than the 15% intervention arm (ΔMUAC 15% group = -.03±0.68 cm, 33% group = 0.14±0.78 cm, C = -0.31±0.67cm, p<0.001). This study is the first to focus on anthropometry in preschool-aged children in Guinea-Bissau and indicates that while both standard and high-dairy containing MNR-RUSF products improve weight in preschool populations with a high prevalence of malnutrition, those containing high levels of dairy protein have additional benefits for improving MUAC. (author)
Phu, Pham V.; Hoan, Nguyen V.; Salvignol, Bertrand
-scores in the C group intermediate and not significantly different from the others. This study shows that regular provision of locally produced CF fortified with micronutrients partly stopped growth faltering in Vietnamese infants, with differential effects on long-term length and ponderal growth. Providing only...
Micronutrient deficiencies affect over two billion people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Fortification of staple foods with multiple micronutrients is a cost-effective strategy to increase vitamin and mineral intake. The objective of this paper is to review the cost elements of industrially fortified rice by identifying the costs related to the implementation of rice fortification programs, using the experience of the United Nations World Food Programme in its pilot countries. The actual total costs of rice fortification are not easily captured. Core cost elements include the production of fortified rice kernels, transportation to the point of blending, blending of fortified with unfortified rice, costs related to sales or distribution, quality control and assurance, and additional planning. In the introduction phase, organizations or coalitions seeking to advance rice fortification will face additional costs related to the initiation of rice fortification. In the scale-up phase, greater efficiency in the supply chain and economies of scale can be expected. Different cost elements are normally borne by different stakeholders. This makes the implementation of rice fortification programs a feasible option to reach vulnerable populations with inadequate access to affordable nutrition solutions. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Cercamondi, Colin I; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Harika, Rajwinder K; van den Berg, Robin; Murray, Peter; Koppenol, Wieneke P; Zeder, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego
Fe fortification of centrally manufactured and frequently consumed condiments such as bouillon cubes could help prevent Fe deficiency in developing countries. However, Fe compounds that do not cause sensory changes in the fortified product, such as ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), exhibit low absorption in humans. Tetra sodium pyrophosphate (NaPP) can form soluble complexes with Fe, which could increase Fe bioavailability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate Fe bioavailability from bouillon cubes fortified with either FePP only, FePP+NaPP, ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) only, or FeSO4+NaPP. We first conducted in vitro studies using a protocol of simulated digestion to assess the dialysable and ionic Fe, and the cellular ferritin response in a Caco-2 cell model. Second, Fe absorption from bouillon prepared from intrinsically labelled cubes (2·5 mg stable Fe isotopes/cube) was assessed in twenty-four Fe-deficient women, by measuring Fe incorporation into erythrocytes 2 weeks after consumption. Fe bioavailability in humans increased by 46 % (P<0·005) when comparing bouillons fortified with FePP only (4·4 %) and bouillons fortified with FePP+NaPP (6·4 %). Fe absorption from bouillons fortified with FeSO4 only and with FeSO4+NaPP was 33·8 and 27·8 %, respectively (NS). The outcome from the human study is in agreement with the dialysable Fe from the in vitro experiments. Our findings suggest that the addition of NaPP could be a promising strategy to increase Fe absorption from FePP-fortified bouillon cubes, and if confirmed by further research, for other fortified foods with complex food matrices as well.
Elhakim, Nadine; Laillou, Arnaud; El Nakeeb, Anwar; Yacoub, Rukia; Shehata, Magdy
Micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron-deficiency anemia, are a public health problem in Egypt, where anemia rates almost doubled in the years from 2000 to 2005. In 2008, the Government of Egypt began implementation of a 5-year national program to fortify with iron and folic acid the wheat flour used in baking subsidized baladi bread, the staple food consumed by a majority of low- income groups. To project the achievements of this national Wheat Flour Fortification Program. This paper describes the program, estimates the production of fortified flour and consumption of fortified bread, and identifies program challenges and sustainability issues. Through the national Wheat Flour Fortification Program, ferrous sulfate and folic acid are now added to all wheat flour produced under the national Food Subsidy Program. Up to 50 million Egyptians nationwide are now consuming quality-assured fortified baladi bread on a daily basis. In 2011, 6.5 million MT of fortified wheat flour was produced by 143 participating public- and private-sector mills. Political changes in Egypt in 2011 did not seem to affect the program; the new leadership in the Ministry of Supply and Internal Trade remains committed to fortification of wheat flour. The daily intake of approximately 12 mg of iron and 600 microg of folic acid through the consumption of baladi bread suggests that the impact of the program on the prevention and reduction of iron and folate deficiencies among the Egyptian population could be significant; the results of an end-line survey are pending.
Lipkie, Tristan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Weaver, Connie M
The assessment of the efficacy of dietary and supplemental vitamin D tends to be confounded by differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response between vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 . Serum response differences from these vitamers may be due to differences in bioavailability. To address this specifically, the bioaccessibility was assessed for vitamin D 2 from breads fortified with UV-treated yeast, and a benchmark against staple vitamin D 3 fortified foods including bovine milks and infant formula, as well as crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread. Fortified foods were subjected to a three-stage static in vitro digestion model, and vitamin D was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Vitamin D bioaccessibility was significantly greater from bovine milks and infant formula (71-85%) than from yeast-fortified sandwich breads (6-7%). Bioaccessibility was not different between whole wheat and white wheat bread (p > 0.05), but was ∼4× lower from yeast-fortified bread than from crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread (p yeast cells were observed in the digesta of yeast fortified bread. These results indicate that the low bioavailability of yeast D 2 in comparison to other vitamin D 2 sources is likely due to entrapment within a less digestible yeast matrix and not only to metabolic differences between vitamins D 2 and D 3 .
Wongmetinee, T.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Chavasit, V.
Previous studies in Thailand indicated that rice-based complementary foods of breast-fed infants normally provided inadequate iron and calcium. Quick-cooking rice fortified with different nutrients was therefore developed. The idea of lysine fortification was based on the fact that lysine is a
Hother Nielsen, Anne-Louise; Lykke Jensen, Mikkel; Martinussen, Torben
BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soy-blends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified...
Miguel E. Schmalko
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The aim of this research was to study the sensorial acceptance of a fortified food containing different minerals (calcium, magnesium and iron and to determine the actual quantities present (bioaccessibility when extracted in maté. A sensorial analysis was performed to compare sensorial quality of fortified and non-fortified maté. Although panelists identified differences between the fortified and non-fortified maté, only 3% of them commented on an unpleasant flavor. Sequential extraction assays were performed simulating maté consumption under laboratory conditions. Profile concentration diminished sharply after the second extraction. Magnesium was found to be completely extracted in the first 500 mL. Calcium and Iron were extracted in a very low percentage (29% and 25%, respectively. The outlet rate of the minerals was fitted to two models, and a good fitness (p < 0:001 in all cases was obtained.
Hashim, I B; Khalil, A H; Afifi, H S
Yogurt is considered a healthy food and incorporating dietary fiber will make it even healthier. Date fiber (DF), a by-product of date syrup production, is a good source of dietary fiber. The effect of fortification with DF on fresh yogurt quality was investigated. Acidity, pH, color [L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values], texture profile, sensory properties, and consumer acceptance were studied. Control yogurt (without fiber), yogurt fortified with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% DF, and yogurt with 1.5% wheat bran (WB) were prepared. Fortification with DF did not cause significant changes in yogurt acidity, although pH was increased. Yogurts fortified with DF had firmer texture (higher hardness values) and darker color (lower L* and higher a*) compared with control or WB yogurts. Consumer test results indicated that the appearance, color, and flavor ratings were significantly affected by fiber fortification. Yogurt fortified with up to 3% DF had similar sourness, sweetness, firmness, smoothness, and overall acceptance ratings as the control yogurt. Sensory ratings and acceptability of yogurt decreased significantly when increasing DF to 4.5% or using 1.5% WB. Flavoring yogurt fortified with 4.5% DF with vanilla did not improve flavor or overall acceptance ratings. Thus, fortifying yogurt with 3% DF produced acceptable yogurt with beneficial health effects.
Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe
Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk...... product fortified with fish oil alone. Fortification of a fermented milk product with marine PL was performed by incorporating 1 % w/w lipids, either in the form of neat oil or in the form of a pre-emulsion. Lipid oxidation was investigated in the neat emulsions and fortified products by the measurements...... of primary, secondary volatile oxidation products and tocopherol content upon 32 days storage at 2 °C and 28 days storage at 5 °C, respectively. Analyses of particle size distribution, viscosity and microbial growth were also performed. In addition, sensory attributes such as sour, fishy and rancid flavor...
Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria
The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657
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Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Young, J Christopher; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona
Lutein is a yellow pigment found in common foods that promotes the health of eyes and skin and is associated with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts. In the present study, selected high-lutein wheat and corn were milled into wholegrain flours by two mills to improve flour uniformity. The high-lutein and lutein-fortified wholegrain flours were processed into breads, cookies, and muffins to study lutein stability during baking and subsequent storage. Lutein and its isomers were separated, identified, and quantified by LC-UV/vis and LC-MS following extraction with water-saturated 1-butanol. Baking resulted in a significant reduction in all-trans-lutein and the formation of cis-lutein and cis-zeaxanthin isomers. Subsequent storage at ambient temperature had a slight impact on the content of all-trans-lutein. Effects of processing were more pronounced in lutein-fortified products, and the degradation rate of lutein was influenced by concentration and baking recipe. Fortified cookies and muffins showed greater lutein reduction compared with bread. Despite the significant reduction in lutein, the fortified bakery products still possessed reasonable amounts per serving that would enhance daily intake and consumption of wholegrain foods.
van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Bégin, France; Codling, Karen; Randall, Philip; Johnson, Quentin W
Considerable efforts have been made over the past decade to address vitamin and mineral deficiencies. An increasing number of countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are adopting mandatory food fortification as one of the primary strategies to overcome these deficiencies. Experience shows that fortified foods can reach large parts of the population, including the poor, if the fortification is done on a mandatory rather than a voluntary basis and if the food vehicle is widely consumed. To review the importance of regulatory monitoring as an essential component of food fortification efforts in selected ASEAN countries, with special focus on the available information on regulatory monitoring systems for iodized salt and fortified wheat flour. The role of regulatory monitoring in strengthening food fortification programs was discussed during a joint regional meeting of the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the Flour Fortification Initiative, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, the Micronutrient Initiative, and the World Bank on regulatory monitoring of salt and wheat flour fortification programs in Asia, which took place in Manila, Philippines, on 27-29 September 2011. This paper reviews the regulatory monitoring systems of selected ASEAN countries that participated in this meeting. Problems and challenges in regulatory monitoring systems for iodized salt and fortified wheat flour in selected ASEAN countries are identified, and a description of the role of regulatory monitoring in strengthening food fortification initiatives, particularly of salt and flour, and highlights of areas for improvement are presented. Regulatory monitoring consists of monitoring activities conducted at the production level, at customs warehouses, and at retail stores by concerned regulatory authorities, and at the production level by producers themselves, as part of quality control and assurance efforts. Unless there are appropriate enforcement and quality
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ferritin concentrations nutritional status of school-age children as well as the reasons of iron deficiency. Food fortification...... with multiple micronutrients has the potential to improve micronutrient status, growth and cognitive performance, and reduce morbidity incidence in developing countries. In Cambodia, rice is a staple food, and therefore fortified rice with multiple micronutrients could be a promising strategy to reduce...... the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies. However, few studies have investigated the impact of fortified rice on micronutrient status, health and cognitive development in school-age children. Therefore, the aim of this PhD study is to evaluate the impact of fortified rice on nutritional status, health...
Milani, Peiman; Spohrer, Rebecca; Garrett, Greg; Kreis, Katharine
Two billion people worldwide have micronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification is a proven intervention to increase essential micronutrient availability in diets without requiring consumer behavioral change. Fortification of rice has high potential reach; however, cost, technology, market, and cultural constraints have prevented its wider adoption. From 2010 to 2014, PATH and Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition implemented a pilot project in Brazil testing a model to scale up rice fortification through commercial channels. The project focused on 5 areas: (1) building fortified rice kernel production capacity; (2) supply chain development; (3) distribution channel and market development; (4) demand generation; and (5) advocacy and knowledge dissemination. Primary data were collected in 2 rounds of quantitative research 6 months apart and conducted in 2 regions in Brazil. Secondary data were sourced from published literature, socioeconomic and demographic data, and sales figures from the project's rice miller partner. Postmortem analysis was conducted by the project team with input from external sources. Although the project successfully launched a fortified rice product and a category brand platform, it was unsuccessful in reaching meaningful scale. Market and industry dynamics affected producers' willingness to launch new fortified products. Consumers' strong attachment to rice combined with a weak understanding of micronutrient malnutrition hampered demand creation efforts. This project showed that a purely commercial approach is insufficient for sustainable scale-up of fortified rice to achieve public health goals in a 3- to 5-year period. © The Author(s) 2016.
Minantyo, Hari; Hariohoedojo, Alexander; Winarno, Prasetyon Sepsi
Nowadays, many people tried to create and invent new varieties of food. They all tried to enrich the life of many people and increasing their quality of life using their food. The food that they create must be nutritious, safe and healthy. This can be achieved by combining various meat and vegetable products available on the market today. Previously, the research team found that fish meat had relatively high nutrition value. The research team believed that further increase in nutrition value can be achieved by combining fish meat and rich colored vegetables. This research came up with the creation of improved fish meatball fortified with various colored vegetables. With the initiation of ASEAN Free Trade Agreement, many culinary practitioners must pay more attention to the health and safety aspects of their food offerings. Indonesian government should also support this movement by providing education to those people who are not aware of the importance of healthy and safe food or snacks, especially meatballs. Meatballs are one of the most consumed snacks in Indonesia, because they are delicious and affordable. This new fish meatball creation will provide better alternatives to the commonly unhealthy meatballs available on Indonesian market today.
Full Text Available ... example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ... iron-absorption enhancer, such as foods high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age ...
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Shirokov, A P; Kuntsevich, V IK; Pishchulin, V V; Seryi, A M; Volkov, P A
The roof timber for fortifying mining works includes spring-mounted hinged elements made from a special rolled metal. In order to increase the carrying capacity of the support by increasing the deformation threshold, the springs are mounted by their expanded section to the lower side of the hinge; their ends are connected in turn to the elements made from the special rolled metal on both sides of the hinge.
Bronder, Kayla L; Zimmerman, Sarah L; van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Codling, Karen; Johns, Kirsten Ag; Pachón, Helena
Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles. A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). Grey literature was requested through a food fortification listserv. Articles were title screened first for relevance and duplicity, with exclusion criteria applied during the second round of abstract-level screening. This review considered studies examining simulation, retention, sensory, bioavailability, efficacy, and effectiveness of instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour. Fourteen relevant documents were reviewed for simulation (n=1), retention (n=11), and sensory studies (n=3). The documents revealed that instant noodles produced from fortified wheat flour have potential to improve nutrient intakes, have high retention of most nutrients, and provoke no or minimal changes in sensory characteristics. The available literature indicates that using fortified wheat flour for instant noodle production results in retention of the added nutrients, except thiamin, with no significant sensory change to the final product. Given the rising consumption of instant noodles, production of this item with fortified wheat flour has potential to improve nutrient intakes in Asia. This review provides a resource for the design of a wheat flour fortification program in countries where a large proportion of wheat flour is consumed as instant noodles.
Hertrampf, E.; Pizarro, F.; Olivares, M.; Walter, T.; Fuenmayor, G.; Estevez, E.; Yepez, R.
In selected typical Ecuatorian foods to be used in nutritional intervention programmes, we measured iron bioavailability in humans, with a double isotopic method. The interaction with some accompanied foods or beverages was also studied. Iron bioavailability from wheat flour foods was good (9%). When vermicelli soup was eaten together with lemonade sweetened with raw sugar cane, mean iron absorption was the highest (15%). Camomile infusion do not affect iron absorption from bread. At the same time, we will validate an in vitro iron availability technique comparing it with the results obtained in other laboratories involved in the present CRP and with the results obtained in the same foods with in vivo double isotopic. We will also start studies of in vitro zinc availability. (author). 26 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs
Protocol of the Low Birth Weight South Asia Trial (LBWSAT), a cluster-randomised controlled trial testing impact on birth weight and infant nutrition of Participatory Learning and Action through women's groups, with and without unconditional transfers of fortified food or cash during pregnancy in Nepal.
Saville, Naomi M; Shrestha, Bhim P; Style, Sarah; Harris-Fry, Helen; Beard, B James; Sengupta, Aman; Jha, Sonali; Rai, Anjana; Paudel, Vikas; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Copas, Andrew; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Bhandari, Bishnu; Neupane, Rishi; Morrison, Joanna; Gram, Lu; Sah, Raghbendra; Basnet, Machhindra; Harthan, Jayne; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony
Low birth weight (LBW, nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal. The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial (non-blinded). PLA comprises women's groups that discuss, and form strategies about, nutrition in pregnancy, low birth weight and hygiene. Women receive up to 7 monthly transfers per pregnancy: cash is NPR 750 (~US$7) and food is 10 kg of fortified sweetened wheat-soya Super Cereal per month. The unit of randomisation is a rural village development committee (VDC) cluster (population 4000-9200, mean 6150) in southern Dhanusha or Mahottari districts. 80 VDCs are randomised to four arms using a participatory 'tombola' method. Twenty clusters each receive: PLA; PLA plus food; PLA plus cash; and standard care (control). Participants are (mostly Maithili-speaking) pregnant women identified from 8 weeks' gestation onwards, and their infants (target sample size 8880 birth weights). After pregnancy verification, mothers may be followed up in early and late pregnancy, within 72 h, after 42 days and within 22 months of birth. Outcomes pertain to the individual level. Primary outcomes include birth weight within 72 h of birth and infant weight-for-age Z-score measured cross-sectionally on children born of the study. Secondary outcomes include prevalence of LBW, eating behaviour and weight during pregnancy, maternal and newborn illness, preterm delivery, miscarriage, stillbirth or neonatal mortality, infant Z-scores for length-for-age and weight-for-length, head circumference, and postnatal maternal BMI and mid-upper arm circumference. Exposure to women's groups, food or cash transfers, home visits, and group interventions are measured. Determining the relative importance to birth weight and early childhood nutrition of adding food or cash transfers to PLA women's groups
The astronaut's life and work is so different from our own daily experiences that it s easy to forget that astronauts are people, too. Just like everyone else, astronauts have basic nutritional needs, such as five to nine servings of fruit and vegetables per day, in order to maintain optimal health. Here on Earth, it can be a challenge to incorporate the recommended amount of fruit and veggies into our diets, despite easy access to fresh produce. In space, it becomes even more difficult, as astronauts must take everything they need with them. And in the harsh conditions of space, many miles from medical assistance, proper nutrition takes on added importance. As NASA makes plans to send astronauts on missions that could take months and even years, the Agency explores new ways to provide astronauts with a daily dose of nutrition equivalent to that provided by fresh produce. These foods are critically important because they provide the essential vitamins, minerals, pigments, and other micronutrients (substances required in small amounts for human health) that promote everything from healthy skin to a strong heart.
The effects of replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM) fortified with palm oil on performance of starter broilers were determined in a 28-day feeding trial. Diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 were formulated such that they contained cassava root meal, fortified with 20% palm oil, in the proportions 10, 20, 30 and 40%, ...
Kalergis, Maria; MacDonald, Andrew
The interest in, intent to, and impact of consuming foods fortified with vitamins and minerals, particularly foods of poor nutritional quality, were evaluated among Canadians. A Canada-wide, online survey of 1200 adults and teens was used to assess the interest in, intent to, and impact of consuming or serving foods fortified under two fortification scenarios (10% and 20% of the Recommended Daily Value). Categories of foods tested were cereal bars, energy bars, flavoured bottled water, frozen desserts, fruit drinks, fruit juice, salty snacks, soda pop, sports drinks, sweet baked goods, and sweets. The majority of adults and teens were interested in consuming fortified foods and indicated that they would increase their current consumption of specific foods if they became fortified. These foods included soft drinks, salty snacks, fruit drinks, and fruit juice. A large proportion of adults also indicated that they would serve more of these fortified foods to their children. Our findings reveal that fortifying foods, particularly those of poor nutritional quality, could lead to increased consumption of these foods among children, teens, and adults. Potentially, this could have a negative impact on eating habits and, in turn, could exacerbate the current nutrition-related health issues that Canadians face.
Crandall, Philip G; Seo, Han-Seok; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Meullenet, Jean F; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Washburn, Anna M; Ranhotra, Gur S
Wheat flour is increasingly being fortified worldwide with vitamin A and iron. Research on high levels of fortification is limited; therefore, in this study, wheat flour was made under controlled conditions fortified with vitamin A at 30 000 or 70 000 retinol equivalents (RE) kg⁻¹ and three types of iron source at 66 mg kg⁻¹. Milling produced a uniform distribution of fortificants with no significant separation during packaging or transportation. Chemical and physical analyses demonstrated that the dual fortified flours had acceptable physicochemical properties of mixing tolerance, pasting curves, damaged starch and falling numbers. The level of vitamin A fortification compensated for initial loss caused during wheat processing. Overall, white breads baked from seven treatments of fortified flour had only 22% (eight out of 36) of the sensory attributes as being significantly different. However, the type of iron source may play a key role in modulating the sensory attributes of bread baked from the dual fortified flour with vitamin A and iron. The findings suggest that dual fortified flour with high or even lower levels of vitamin A and iron could be considered for food fortification programmes to reduce the prevalence of micronutrient undernutrition of vitamin A and iron in developing countries. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Rafipour, Fereidon
Fish protein powder is a functional ingredient that can be used for enhancing the nutritional value of food products. In this study the effect of fortification with different levels of fish protein powder (FP) on chemical properties and sensory quality of Persian ice cream with 0, 30 and 50 g kg(-1) FP during storage at - 18 °C for 4 months was investigated. Ice creams fortified with 50 and 30 g kg(-1) FP had significantly higher protein and solid-non-fat content than ice cream with 0% FP or 83, 69 and 51 g kg(-1) protein and 215, 204 and 181 g kg(-1) solid non-fat, respectively. All products had the same levels of fat, lactose, acidity and pH. They had similar sensory quality after production except for colour, but sensory properties of fortified samples changed significantly after 2 months of storage. Colour faded, cohesiveness decreased, sandiness/coarseness increased, sweetness decreased and fish flavour and off-odour increased. The control ice cream scored highest for additives odour and flavour. Development of ice cream fortified with fish protein powder could be an effective way to enhance nutritional and functional value of ice cream. But studies on storage stability, consumers' acceptance and attitudes are recommended if companies are planning to do so. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J
Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.
Gubaydullin Ayrat M.
Full Text Available The Starokuybyshevskoye (Old-Kuybyshev fortified settlement is situated on the bank of the Bezdna river, 200 m to the northeast of Bolgar city. The site is being considerably eroded by the waters of the river and the Kuibyshev water reservoir. Currently it is situated on an island, under threat of complete destruction. In this regard, in 1946, 1987 and 1996, conservation and rescue excavations were conducted on the site. The detailed results of the 1996 studies are offered in the article. The ruins of an above-ground dwelling with an oven and three household pits were excavated. The ceramic assemblage of these structures has obvious features of the pre-Mongol Bulgar culture. In general, the findings make it possible to conclude that the settlement had existed only in the 11th through to the 13th century and that its collapse was associated with the Mongol invasion.
Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
Full Text Available Abstract Fortification of food constitutes an important strategy for the control of micronutrient deficiency and has advantages such as high population coverage and maintenance of eating habits. This study aimed to assess the impact of using fortified rice (Ultra Rice® - UR® on the nutritional status of preschoolers. Ninety-nine children enrolled in two philanthropic preschools participated of the study. Children of one of the preschools were offered UR® mixed with polished rice, as part of school meals (test group and the children of another preschool were offered pure polished rice (control group. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after 4 months of intervention. Dietary assessment and sensory evaluation of UR® mixed with polished rice were performed during the study. The fortified rice improved the concentrations of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The fortified rice showed good acceptability among preschoolers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on the nutritional status of children.
Hother, Anne-Louise; Lykke, Mikkel; Martinussen, Torben
Background Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soyblends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified...... and undernutrition was induced with a nutritionally inadequate pure maize diet for 7 weeks, after which they were refed for 3 weeks with either CSB+ (n = 10), CSB++ (n = 10) or CSB+/wp (n = 10). For reference, a fourth group continued on the maize diet (REF, n = 10). Results Following induction of undernutrition...
Deep, S; Ojha, S; Kundu, S
Folate, natural form of water soluble vitamin folic acid, is significant for humans as involved in most important metabolic reactions i.e. nucleotide synthesis and amino acid inter conversions. Thus its deficiency causes neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Humans cannot synthesize folate de novo so consumption through diet is essential. Natural food sources, supplements and fortified food products are the choices available to complete the Daily recommended intake. However microbial fortification using probiotics recently gained wide attention due to dual advantage of natural food matrix with enhanced folate content along with the probiotics benefits. Current study was focused on the microbial fortification of fruit juices and their efficacy and stability studies. Freshly filtered orange and tomato juice was prepared and inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus NCIM 2904. Incubation was done at 40°C and samples were collected at different time interval. Folate extraction was done using human plasma and content was measured by microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei NCIM No. 2364. Efficacy and stability studies were carried out to ensure the quality of juices to be consumed in terms of folate content, viable cell count and pH after 4 weeks of storage at low temperature. Positive results were observed as folate content was quite stable whereas viable cell count was also found to be significant till some time without adding any preservatives. The results indicated that fortified fruit juices could be used as probiotic beverages with enhanced folate content.
Jennifer T Lee
Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT
De Groote, Hugo; Kariuki, Sarah W; Traore, Djibril; Taylor, John Rn; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Hamaker, Bruce R
In Africa, food-processing industries are emerging fast, especially for cereals. New low-cost extrusion cookers give small enterprises an opportunity to enter the market for processed cereal products, in particular instant, fortified and flavoured mixes. Before engaging in the marketing of these products, consumers' interest needs to be assessed. This study used a combination of affective tests and experimental auctions with 200 consumers in Touba, Senegal, to evaluate four new products with conventional pearl millet flour as the control: instant pearl millet flour, instant pearl millet flour with added dry mango and carrot powder (naturally fortified), and the previous products with added conventional chemical micronutrient fortificants. During affective tests, consumers made little distinction between the five products in appearance, aroma, taste and overall appreciation. The experimental auctions showed that, without providing additional information on the products, there was no difference in 'willingness to pay' (WTP) between them. However, after that information is provided, consumers were willing to pay a modest premium for instant flour, and a large premium for added mango and carrot extract and for added micronutrients, but were not willing to pay a premium if those micronutrients came from natural sources. Income increased overall WTP, while education increased WTP for instant flour. There is a potential market in low-income African countries for instant and fortified cereal food products, but likely in the higher income and education groups. The increased cost needs to be compared to the premiums consumers are willing to pay. In the next step, the new and promising products could be tested in pilot markets, with target consumers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Mok, Il-Kyoon; Lee, Jae Kwon; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Sang Min
Our previous study reported the improved stability of fucoxanthin (FX) fortified in whole milk (WM) and skimmed milk (SM). In this study, in vivo and in vitro FX bioavailability were investigated using FX-fortified milk (FX-SM and FX-WM) and microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum biomass (Pt-powder). Organ tissue accumulation of FX and its metabolites (FXOH: fucoxanthinol, AXA: amarouciaxanthin A) after repeated oral administration was in the following order: FX-SM > FX-WM > Pt-powder. In vivo pharmacokinetic study with a single oral administration also demonstrated that the absorption of FXOH and AXA was the highest for FX-SM. To reinforce the in vivo results, in vitro-simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake assays were performed, which revealed that FX-SM showed the highest FX bioaccessibility (release from food matrices) and cellular uptake efficiency of FX and FXOH. In conclusion, skimmed milk was validated as an excellent food matrix for FX application in terms of stability and bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr
The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Full Text Available With CMOS technology aggressively scaling towards the 22-nm node, modern FPGA devices face tremendous aging-induced reliability challenges due to bias temperature instability (BTI and hot carrier injection (HCI. This paper presents a novel anti-aging technique at the logic level that is both scalable and applicable for VLSI digital circuits implemented with FPGA devices. The key idea is to prolong the lifetime of FPGA-mapped designs by strategically elevating the VDD values of some LUTs based on their modular criticality values. Although the idea of scaling VDD in order to improve either energy efficiency or circuit reliability has been explored extensively, our study distinguishes itself by approaching this challenge through an analytical procedure, therefore being able to maximize the overall reliability of the target FPGA design by rigorously modeling the BTI-induced device reliability and optimally solving the VDD assignment problem. Specifically, we first develop a systematic framework to analytically model the reliability of an FPGA LUT (look-up table, which consists of both RAM memory bits and associated switching circuit. We also, for the first time, establish the relationship between signal transition density and a LUT’s reliability in an analytical way. This key observation further motivates us to define the modular criticality as the product of signal transition density and the logic observability of each LUT. Finally, we analytically prove, for the first time, that the optimal way to improve the overall reliability of a whole FPGA device is to fortify individual LUTs according to their modular criticality. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to draw such a conclusion.
Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad
After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p bread improved iron absorption.
Spohrer, Rebecca; Larson, Melanie; Maurin, Clémence; Laillou, Arnaud; Capanzana, Mario; Garrett, Greg S
Food fortification is a viable strategy to improve the nutritional status of populations. In Southeast Asia, recent growth and consolidation of the food industry provides an opportunity to explore whether certain widely consumed processed foods could contribute to micronutrient status if they are made with adequately fortified staples and condiments. To estimate the potential contribution certain processed foods can make to micronutrient intake in Southeast Asia if they are made with fortified staples and condiments; e.g., via the inclusion of iodized salt in various processed foods in the Philippines, fortified wheat flour in instant noodles in Indonesia, and fortified vegetable oil in biscuits in Vietnam. For Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, a review of consumption trends, relevant policies, and industry practices was conducted using publicly available sources,food industry market data and research reports, and oral communication. These informed the estimates of the proportion of the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) that could be delivered via select processed foods. In the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, the processed food industry is not always required to use fortified staples and condiments. In the Philippines, dried salted fish with iodized salt would provide 64% to 85% of the iodine RNI for women of reproductive age and 107% to 141% of the iodine RNI for children 1 to 6 years of age. In Indonesia, a 75-g pack of instant noodles (a highly consumed product) with fortified wheat flour would provide 45% to 51% of the iron RNI for children 4 to 6 years of age and 10% to 11% of the iron RNI for women of reproductive age. In Vietnam, biscuits containing vegetable oil are increasingly popular. One 35-g biscuit serving with fortified vegetable oil would provide 13% to 18% of the vitamin A RNI for children 4 to 6 years of age and 12% to 17% of the vitamin A RNI for women of reproductive age. Ensuring that fortified staples and condiments such as flour
Podder, Rajib; Khan, Shaan M; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Tyler, Robert T; Henry, Carol J; Jalal, Chowdhury; Shand, Phyllis J; Vandenberg, Albert
acceptability was evaluated with panelists who consume lentil regularly. Panelists provided significantly different scores for 5 sensory attributes for 10 uncooked and 3 cooked lentil samples. Panelists reliably preferred NaFeEDTA as the most suitable Fe fortificant for dehulled lentils for 5 attributes. Overall, lentil dal fortified with NaFeEDTA can offer a simple and low-cost solution to human health problems associated with iron-related malnutrition. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Benjakul, Soottawat; Karnjanapratum, Supatra
Whole wheat cracker fortified with tuna bone bio-calcium (Bio-Ca) powder was developed as health-promoting food rich in calcium. Fortification with different levels of Bi-Ca, over the range of 0-50% of whole wheat flour (w/w) on quality and sensory properties of crackers, were determined. Color, thickness, weight and textural properties of crackers varied with the different levels of Bio-Ca powder added, but it was found that up to 30% could be added without detrimental effect on sensory properties. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that the developed crackers were less porous and had a denser structure, compared to the control. Based on scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (SEM-EDX), the cracker containing Bio-Ca powder had calcium and phosphorous distribution with higher intensity, compared to the control. The fortified crackers were rich in calcium and phosphorous with higher protein content but lower fat, carbohydrate, cholesterol and energy value, compared to the control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kowaka, Emi; Shimajiri, Yasuka; Kawakami, Kouhei; Tongu, Miki; Akama, Kazuhito
Hypertension is one of the most critical risk factors accompanying cardiovascular diseases. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that functions as a major neurotransmitter in mammals and also as a blood-pressure lowering agent. We previously produced GABA-fortified rice lines of a popular Japonica rice cultivar 'Koshihikari' by genetic manipulation of GABA shunt-related genes. In the study reported here, we grew these same novel rice lines in a field trial and administered the milled rice orally to rats. The yield parameters of the transgenic rice plants were almost unchanged compared to those of untransformed cv. 'Koshihikari' plants, while the rice grains of the transgenic plants contained a high GABA content (3.5 g GABA/kg brown rice; 0.75-0.85 GABA g/kg milled rice) in a greenhouse trial. Oral administration of a diet containing 2.5% GABA-fortified rice, with a daily intake for 8 weeks, had an approximately 20 mmHg anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneous hypertensive rats but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. These results suggest that GABA-fortified rice may be applicable as a staple food to control or prevent hypertension.
Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria
Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464
Ceres M. Della Lucia
Full Text Available Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR® fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool and the other received only polished rice (control preschool. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.
Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...
... calcium content, and strongest negative significant (P < 0.05) effects on visible coagulation time (VCT) of the fortified soymilk. Vitamin C had linear significant (p < 0.05) effects to increase soymilk vitamin C content and VCT. Keywords: Storage stability, micronutrient fortification, predigested soymilk, complementary feeding ...
The vouchers, transmitted through cell phone text messages, will deliver subsidies to vulnerable groups. They will target lactating mothers, while jumpstarting demand for fortified oil. Findings to improve health outcomes During the course of the project, subsidies will be systematically withdrawn to observe producers' and ...
Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.
Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R
Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d -1 , could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco-2 cell model. Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads was calculated as 5.0-8.0%. Whole wheat bread (∼8%), as compared with the fortified breads (∼5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability. Iron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron-fortified breads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Aguenaou, Hassan; El Menchawy, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohammed; El Haloui, Noureddine; Azlaf, Mehdi; El Gadari, Hind; Rjimati, El Arbi
Full text: Introduction: Micronutrient deficiencies represent a major public health problem in Morocco. The ministry of health and his partners developed a national program to fight against these deficiencies. Fortification of foods consumed on large scale is one of the strategies of this program (e.g. oil fortified in vitamin A and D3 and flour fortified in elementary iron and folic acid). After achieving a feasibility study on food fortification (2001) and introducing the fortified oil on market (2002) and the fortified flour (2006), the ministry of health and his partners undertook impact studies (sentinel surveillance system) in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Methodology: The impact studies (sentinel surveillance system) (2006- 2007 -2008) were carried out in all the regions of Morocco. The collection of data concerning the fortified food from population (childbearing women and children under the age of five) included: a-knowledge, b- attitudes, c-practices, d- Hb analysis, e-estimation of serum ferritine (with CRP), f- estimation of serum folic acid, g- estimation of serum retinol, h-estimation of serum vitamin D3. We will only present the results of children aged less then five years in this abstract. Results: In 2006, the fortified oil covers almost 100% of households , while fortified flour covers 17%. In 2007, fortified flour covers 21% of households while in 2008, it covers 37%. Before the introduction of oil fortified in vitamin A; the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (Retinol <200μg/l) in children was 41% (n = 1453). In 2008 it dropped to 22.7%. Before the introduction of flour fortified in elementary iron and folic acid; the prevalence of anemia (Hb<11 g/dl) was 31.5% (n = 1354) in 2000. In 2007 anemia was 37.7% (n = 1197), Iron deficiency (Ferritin < 12 μg/l) was 15.7%, Folic acid deficiency (< 3 ng/ml) was 31.3%. In 2008 anemia was 28,9% (n = 1183), Iron deficiency was 13.8%, Folic acid deficiency was 30.6%. The fortification of flour did not have an
The protein content was between 0.46 and 1.13%, sugar was between 0.42 and 0.86%, starch was between 60.79 and 79.03%, fat was between 0.00 and 0.50%, ash was between 1.19 and 1.55%. The iron and zinc contents of the fortified gari were higher and safe for consumption compared to unfortified gari (control), the ...
Full Text Available Given its unique nutritional and functional advantages, human milk (HM should be considered as the first choice for the nutrition of all infants, including preterm newborns. Since its protein, mineral and energy contents are not suitable to meet the high needs of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants, HM should be fortified for these components. Fortification of HM is an important nutritional intervention in order to provide appropriate nutritional intake and appropriate growth. The standard fortification strategy has yielded inadequate protein intakes, resulting in slower growth as compared to preterm formulas. Improvement of outcomes depends on new fortification strategies, considering the large variability of HM composition. Individualized fortification, either targeted or adjustable, has been shown to be effective and practical in attaining adequate protein intakes and growth.Most commercially available multi-nutrient fortifiers and protein concentrates are derived from bovine milk (BM, which has a protein composition very different from that of HM. The use of BM proteins has been recently questioned for possible association with intestinal inflammation in VLBW infants. Recently, one HM-based fortifier was shown to be associated with lower necrotizing enterocolitis rates and lower mortality in extremely premature infants, compared to BM-based products. Other milk sources are currently under evaluation: a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial, coordinated by the Neonatal Unit of the University of Turin in collaboration with the Italian National Research Council of Turin and the University of Cagliari, is being carried out to evaluate the adequacy of fortifiers derived from donkey milk for the nutrition of preterm infants.
Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek
Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (Pfiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bingham, C J; Tsay, R; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L
A seventeen-day metabolic balance study was conducted with 13 healthy adult subjects to test the protein utilization of a meat-based diet and a protein-fortified pasta diet in an isonitrogenous, isocaloric inpatient study (averaging 112 gm of protein, and 2,500 cal). Intakes of calories, protein, fat, and carbohydrates, as well as ratios of meat protein or protein-fortified pasta protein (PEP), were controlled throughout the diets. The study was comprised of three experimental periods: a seven-day meat-protein control period, representing the typical american diet (TAD), averaging 18% protein, 40% fat, and 42% carbohydrate, a seven-day protein-enriched pasta control period (PEP), averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates, and a three-day PEP period composed of varied recipes, averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates. The subjects who consumed both the TAD and PEP diets achieved nitrogen balance (2.5 gN +/- 0.7 on the TAD, 2 gN +/- 0 on PEP with the PEP diet resulting in a decrease in plasma cholesterol (32 mg/dl, P less than .005), and a decrease in systolic (5.25 mm/Hg P less than .025) and diastolic blood pressure (5 mm/Hg, P less than .05), which was associated with an increase in urinary sodium excretion (19 +/- 17 mEq/day, P less than .025). In this study, it was determined that protein-fortified pasta may serve as a meat alternative. The PEP diet, which includes a beneficial change in fat/carbohydrate ratio, can alter lipid profiles, blood pressure, and sodium excretion, thus leading to improved health status and a decrease in cardiac risk factors.
Khanh Van, Tran; Burja, Kurt; Thuy Nga, Tran
the acceptability of two types of fortified rice (cold and hot extruded) in Vietnam and Cambodia, triangle tests were conducted in Vietnam (53 women) and Cambodia (258 adults), testing fortified rice against conventional rice, with participants being asked to score the organoleptic qualities. In addition, Cambodian...
Background: This study was designed to investigate (1) the potential use of Aloe vera juice (AVJ) for fortification of pan bread with evaluates the sensory characteristics and the nutritive value. (2) The possible beneficial role of 5% and 10% AVJ-fortified bread against diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Bread fortified with ...
Full Text Available Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20% into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P≤0.05 different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P>0.05 in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.
Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Niehaus, Mary
Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0-20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5-10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.
Full Text Available There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial.
Beck, Kathryn; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne; Coad, Jane; Stonehouse, Welma
Ascorbic acid, and more recently, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been shown to enhance Fe absorption. However, it is not clear whether Fe status improves when foods high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids are consumed with Fe-fortified meals. The present study aimed to investigate whether consuming high v. low ascorbic acid-, lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich fruit (gold kiwifruit v. banana) with Fe-fortified breakfast cereal and milk improved Fe status in women with low Fe stores. Healthy women aged 18-44 years (n 89) with low Fe stores (serum ferritin ≤ 25 μg/l and Hb ≥ 115 g/l) were randomly stratified to receive Fe-fortified breakfast cereal (16 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate), milk and either two gold kiwifruit or one banana (164 mg v. not detectable ascorbic acid; 526 v. 22·90 μg lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively) at breakfast every day for 16 weeks. Biomarkers of Fe status and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and end in the final sample (n 69). Median serum ferritin increased significantly in the kiwifruit group (n 33) compared with the banana group (n 36), with 10·0 (25th, 75th percentiles 3·0, 17·5) v. 1·0 (25th, 75th percentiles - 2·8, 6·5) μg/l (P lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich fruit to a breakfast cereal fortified with ferrous sulfate is a feasible approach to improve Fe status in women with low Fe stores.
Full Text Available Due to low Fe bioavailability and low consumption per meal, lentil must be fortified to contribute significant bioavailable Fe in the Bangladeshi diet. Moreover, since red lentil is dehulled prior to consumption, an opportunity exists at this point to fortify lentil with Fe. Thus, in the present study, lentil was Fe-fortified (using a fortificant Fe concentration of 2800 µg g−1 and used in 30 traditional Bangladeshi meals with broad differences in concentrations of iron, phytic acid (PA, and relative Fe bioavailability (RFeB%. Fortification with NaFeEDTA increased the iron concentration in lentil from 60 to 439 µg g−1 and resulted in a 79% increase in the amount of available Fe as estimated by Caco-2 cell ferritin formation. Phytic acid levels were reduced from 6.2 to 4.6 mg g−1 when fortified lentil was added, thereby reducing the PA:Fe molar ratio from 8.8 to 0.9. This effect was presumably due to dephytinization of fortified lentil during the fortification process. A significant (p ≤ 0.01 Pearson correlation was observed between Fe concentration and RFeB% and between RFeB% and PA:Fe molar ratio in meals with fortified lentil, but not for the meal with unfortified lentil. In conclusion, fortified lentil can contribute significant bioavailable Fe to populations at risk of Fe deficiency.
Podder, Rajib; M DellaValle, Diane; T Tyler, Robert; P Glahn, Raymond; Tako, Elad; Vandenberg, Albert
Due to low Fe bioavailability and low consumption per meal, lentil must be fortified to contribute significant bioavailable Fe in the Bangladeshi diet. Moreover, since red lentil is dehulled prior to consumption, an opportunity exists at this point to fortify lentil with Fe. Thus, in the present study, lentil was Fe-fortified (using a fortificant Fe concentration of 2800 µg g -1 ) and used in 30 traditional Bangladeshi meals with broad differences in concentrations of iron, phytic acid (PA), and relative Fe bioavailability (RFeB%). Fortification with NaFeEDTA increased the iron concentration in lentil from 60 to 439 µg g -1 and resulted in a 79% increase in the amount of available Fe as estimated by Caco-2 cell ferritin formation. Phytic acid levels were reduced from 6.2 to 4.6 mg g -1 when fortified lentil was added, thereby reducing the PA:Fe molar ratio from 8.8 to 0.9. This effect was presumably due to dephytinization of fortified lentil during the fortification process. A significant ( p ≤ 0.01) Pearson correlation was observed between Fe concentration and RFeB% and between RFeB% and PA:Fe molar ratio in meals with fortified lentil, but not for the meal with unfortified lentil. In conclusion, fortified lentil can contribute significant bioavailable Fe to populations at risk of Fe deficiency.
El Manchawy, Imane; Baymou, El Mehdi; Amjed, Achour; Benjeddou, Kaoutar; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan; Badahi, Ahmed; Rjimati, El Arbi
Full text: The micronutrients deficiencies cause considerable economic losses. In Morocco, iron deficiency alone leads to a shortfall of about two billion dirhams a year. Iodine deficiency costs Morocco 1.48% of GDP in terms of lost productivity, support for mentally retarded children, school dropouts and infant mortality. In line with the National program for fight against micronutrients deficiencies and the National Nutrition Strategy 2011 – 2019, an efficacy study was conducted jointly by the UMNRA, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of National Education and the ''Foundation CL for Child Nutrition''. It is a longitudinal, randomized, double-blinded efficacy study conducted for 9 months (2012) on school children (7 – 9y), without preliminary deworming, living in rural areas at high altitude. The population consisted of 380 children. One group of the children (FG) received daily 200ml of UHT fortified whole milk (Vitamin A, vitamin D3, iron and iodine)(30% RDA), the other control group(NFG) received daily 200ml of non fortified whole milk . Anthropometric, socio-economic, food consumption and morbidity data were collected. Biological tests included retinol, vitamin D, hemoglobin, ferritine and urinary iodine. Children also received a cognitive test (Raven test) at T0, T4 and T9months. Results showed 18% reduction of stunting in the fortified group. The results of serum analyses proved the efficacy of the fortification. In fact, after 9 months of intervention we noted : a- elimination of vitamin A deficiency (dropped from 50% to 4%), b- reduction of vitamin D deficiency (from 60% to 25.5%), d- reduction of iodine deficiency (from 74.7% to 29.4%). It was also observed that the non fortified whole milk contributed in the decrease of these deficiencies, but there was no impact on the iron status (ferritine). Cognitive tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: This study showed the efficacy of the consumption of fortified milk on
Over the past 15 years, biofortification, the process of breeding nutrients into food crops, has gained ample recognition as a cost-effective, complementary, feasible means of delivering micronutrients to populations that may have limited access to diverse diets, supplements, or commercially fortified foods. In 2008, a panel of ...
Kalmenov Murat D.
Full Text Available The article contains a description of the brick-burning kiln, which was discovered during the 2012 excavations on the medieval Zhaiyk fortified site (Western Kazakhstan oblast. A similar object had been discovered on the site in 2002. Kilns of similar design were known on the vast territories of Southeastern Europe and Central Asia in the 10th-15th cc. In the 13th-15th centuries, they were widely spread in the territory of the Golden Horde. The analysis of their design, combined with written sources and ethnographic data, allows reconstructing the operation process of such kilns in general lines. The finds of kilns on the Zhaiyk settlement make it possible to suggest that in the 13th-14th centuries there existed a developed construction materials production in the territory of the settlement.
Full Text Available Developing nutrient-rich vegetable flour using locally under-utilized food crops in Africa would improve rural house-hold nutrition. This study seeks to develop nutrient-dense vegetable flour from different proportions of Sweet potato (Sp 40–100%, Avocado pear (Avo 10–40%, and Turkey berry (Tor 10–40%, using completely randomized design (CRD with 14 treatment combinations and three replications. The proximate composition, mineral composition, and functional properties were investigated on the composite flour. The results showed significant differences in all the parameters analyzed for the various composite flours. As the amount of Avo and Tor was added to the Sp, the proximate composition was enhanced except for the percentage carbohydrate, which decreased from 83.92 to 54.59 g/100 g. The mineral composition was also improved by the incorporation of Avo and Tor. Favourable functional properties were also obtained. The optimal composite flour was made up of 40% Sp, 35% Avo, and 25% Tor. The functional properties of the composite flours were better than the control (Sweet potato flour. Fortifying Sp flour with Avo and Tor is feasible and could be an easy and affordable means to improve rural nutrition, as it requires simple logistics for the ordinary rural household to produce the composite of the desired choice.
Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Hampel, Daniela; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Timothy J
Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine concentrations, placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. To determine if consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce yields higher erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among lactating women and newborn infants and higher breast milk thiamine concentrations compared with a control sauce. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were recruited in the Prey Veng province, Cambodia. The study took place between October 2014 and April 2015. Women were randomized to 1 of 3 groups (n = 30) for ad libitum fish sauce consumption for 6 months: control (no thiamine), low-concentration (2 g/L), or high-concentration (8 g/L) fish sauce. Maternal eTDP was assessed at baseline (October 2014) and endline (April 2015). Secondary outcomes, breast milk thiamine concentration and infant eTDP, were measured at endline. Women's mean (SD) age and gestational stage were 26 (5) years and 23 (7) weeks, respectively. April 2015 eTDP was measured among 28 women (93%), 29 women (97%), and 23 women (77%) in the control, low-concentration, and high-concentration groups, respectively. In modified intent-to-treat analysis, mean baseline-adjusted endline eTDP was higher among women in the low-concentration (282nM; 95% CI, 235nM to 310nM) and high-concentration (254nM; 95% CI, 225nM to 284nM) groups compared with the control group (193nM; 95% CI, 164nM to 222M; P sauce through pregnancy and early lactation had higher eTDP and breast milk thiamine concentrations and their infants had higher eTDP, which was more pronounced in the high group. Thiamine-fortified fish sauce has the potential to prevent infantile beriberi in this population. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02221063.
Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong
In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR) formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP), on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron......Rice) or unfortified rice (placebo) six days a week for six months. Four additional schools not participating in WFP-SMP were randomly selected as controls. A total of 2440 schoolchildren (6–16 years old) participated in the biochemical study. Hemoglobin, iron status, estimated using inflammation-adjusted ferritin...... and transferrin receptors concentrations, and VA status, assessed using inflammation-adjusted retinol-binding protein concentration, were measured at the baseline, as well as at three and six months. Baseline prevalence of anemia, depleted iron stores, tissue iron deficiency, marginal VA status and VA deficiency...
Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Bermudez, Odilia I
Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in Bangladesh. The 2011-12 Bangladesh Micronutrient Survey found 76·8% of children of pre-school age were vitamin A deficient. In the absence of nationally representative, individual dietary assessment data, we use an alternative--household income and expenditure survey data--to estimate the potential impact of the introduction of vitamin A-fortified vegetable oil in Bangladesh. Items in the household income and expenditure survey were matched to food composition tables to estimate households' usual vitamin A intakes. Then, assuming (i) the intra-household distribution of food is in direct proportion to household members' share of the household's total adult male consumption equivalents, (ii) all vegetable oil that is made from other-than mustard seed and that is purchased is fortifiable and (iii) oil fortification standards are implemented, we modelled the additional vitamin A intake due to the new fortification initiative. Nationwide in Bangladesh. A weighted sample of 12,240 households comprised of 55,580 individuals. Ninety-nine per cent of the Bangladesh population consumes vegetable oil. The quantities consumed are sufficiently large and, varying little by socio-economic status, are able to provide an important, large-scale impact. At full implementation, vegetable oil fortification will reduce the number of persons with inadequate vitamin A intake from 115 million to 86 million and decrease the prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intake from 80% to 60%. Vegetable oil is an ideal fortification vehicle in Bangladesh. Its fortification with vitamin A is an important public health intervention.
Mara N.G. Santos; Joice V.C. Orsine; Alexandre I. de A. Pereira; Roberto Cañete; María R.C.G. Novaes
Context: Bio-fortified sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck beta-carotene rich, has been included in the most vulnerable population’s diet with the purpose of reducing health disturbances associated with hipovitaminosis. Aims:To evaluate a physical and chemical analysis of total carotenes and beta-carotene and to determine the antioxidant potential as well as to carry out a sensorial analysis of the bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck (BDB) in nature and processed. Method...
Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki
This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein.
Fayed, A E
The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.
Bhagwat, Sadhana; Gulati, Deepti; Sachdeva, Ruchika; Sankar, Rajan
The burden of micronutrient malnutrition is very high in India. Food fortification is one of the most cost-effective and sustainable strategies to deliver micronutrients to large population groups. Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) is supporting large-scale, voluntary, staple food fortification in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh because of the high burden of malnutrition, availability of industries capable of and willing to introduce fortified staples, consumption patterns of target foods and a conducive and enabling environment. High extraction wheat flour from roller flour mills, edible soybean oil and milk from dairy cooperatives were chosen as the vehicles for fortification. Micronutrients and levels of fortification were selected based on vehicle characteristics and consumption levels. Industry recruitment was done after a careful assessment of capability and willingness. Production units were equipped with necessary equipment for fortification. Staffs were trained in fortification and quality control. Social marketing and communication activities were carried out as per the strategy developed. A state food fortification alliance was formed in Madhya Pradesh with all relevant stakeholders. Over 260,000 MT of edible oil, 300,000 MT of wheat flour and 500,000 MT of milk are being fortified annually and marketed. Rajasthan is also distributing 840,000 MT of fortified wheat flour annually through its Public Distribution System and 1.1 million fortified Mid-day meals daily through the centralised kitchens. Concurrent monitoring in Rajasthan and Madhya has demonstrated high compliance with all quality standards in fortified foods.
Sablah, Mawuli; Klopp, Jennifer; Steinberg, Douglas; Touaoro, Zaoro; Laillou, Arnaud; Baker, Shawn
In sub-Saharan Africa, more than 42% of children are at risk for vitamin A deficiency, and control of vitamin A deficiency will prevent more than 600,000 child deaths annually. In the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), an estimated 54.3% of preschool-age children are vitamin A deficient and 13% of pregnant women have night blindness. To project the achievements of this West African coalition. This article documents the achievements, challenges, and lessons learned associated with the development of a public-private partnership to fortify vegetable oil in West Africa through project reports and industry assessments. National-level food consumption surveys identified cooking oil as a key vehicle for vitamin A. Stakeholders therefore advocated for the production of fortified vegetable oil at large scale, supported industrial assessments, and reinforced the capacity of cooking oil industries to implement vitamin A fortification through effective coordination of public and private partnerships tied with standards, regulations, and social marketing. Strong alliances for food fortification were established at the regional and national levels. Stakeholders also developed policies, adopted directives, built capacity, implemented social marketing, and monitored quality enforcement systems to sustain fortification for maximum public health impact. The synergy created resulted from the unique and complementary core competencies of all the partners under effective coordination. The initiative began with the 8 UEMOA member countries and now includes all 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), plus Cameroon, Tanzania, and Mozambique, forming a sub-Saharan Africa-wide initiative on food fortification. All members of the Professional Association of Cooking Oil Industries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (AIFO-UEMOA) now fortify edible oil with vitamin A. Through multisector cooperation, an estimated 70% of the population
Gismatulin Marat R.
Full Text Available The article devoted to the results of new investigations of Krasnoye Syundyukovo I fortified settlement situated on the right bank of the Sviyaga river in the Ulyanovsk region. The site is one of the pre-Mongol towns of the Volga Bulgaria. A brick bath-house built in the 11th – 12th is its most well-known structure studied in 1991. Archaeological investigation of this site resumed in the summer of 2014. Two digs of 60 m2 (number VI and VII were organized on the territory of the settlement. Dig VII in the western part of the settlement yielded a household structure (cellar and numerous and various finds typical for the material culture of the population of a pre-Mongol Bulgar town: local ceramics, metal ware, as well as residues and slag, fragments of clothing and garnishment, etc. Dig VII had a significant number of artefacts associated with crafts and trade, which characterizes the activities of the population.
Full Text Available With the advent of 10 nm CMOS devices and “exotic” nanodevices, the location and occurrence time of hardware defects and design faults become increasingly unpredictable, therefore posing severe challenges to existing techniques for error-resilient computing because most of them statically assign hardware redundancy and do not account for the error tolerance inherently existing in many mission-critical applications. This work proposes a novel approach to selectively fortifying a target reconfigurable computing device in order to achieve hardware-efficient error resilience for a specific target application. We intend to demonstrate that such error resilience can be significantly improved with effective hardware support. The major contributions of this work include (1 the development of a complete methodology to perform sensitivity and criticality analysis of hardware redundancy, (2 a novel problem formulation and an efficient heuristic methodology to selectively allocate hardware redundancy among a target design’s key components in order to maximize its overall error resilience, and (3 an academic prototype of SFC computing device that illustrates a 4 times improvement of error resilience for a H.264 encoder implemented with an FPGA device.
Simova, Emilina; Ivanov, Galin; Simov, Zhelyazko
Bulgarian yogurts were manufactured and fortified with 8, 15 and 27 mg of iron kg(-1) of yogurt. The growth and acidifying activity of the starter culture bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11 were monitored during milk fermentation and over 15 days of yogurt storage at 4 degrees C. Fortifying milk with iron did not affect significantly the growth of the starter culture during manufacture and storage of yogurt. Counts of yogurt bacteria at the end of fermentation of iron-fortified milks were between 2.1 x 10(10) and 4.6 x 10(10) CFU ml(-1), which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. In all batches of yogurt, the viable cell counts of S. thermophilus 13a were approximately three times higher than those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Greater decrease in viable cell count over 15 days of storage was observed for S. thermophilus 13a compared to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Intensive accumulation of lactic acid was observed during incubation of milk and all batches reached pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 after 3.0 h. At the end of fermentation process, lactic acid concentrations in iron-fortified yogurts were between 6.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.3 +/- 0.5 g l(-1). The acidifying activity of starter culture bacteria in the control and iron-fortified milks was similar. There was no increase in oxidized, metallic and bitter off-flavors in iron-fortified yogurts compared to the control. Iron-fortified yogurts did not differ significantly in their sensorial, chemical and microbiological characteristics with unfortified yogurt, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification and that the ferrous lactate is an appropriate iron source for yogurt fortification.
Silvana Mariana SREBERNICH
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the protein quality and iron bioavailability of a fortifying mixture based on pork liver. Methods Determinations of protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization, true digestibility and hemoglobin regeneration efficiency by depletion and repletion were performed. In the depletion phase, the animals (male Wistar rats received an iron-free AIN–93G diet and in the repletion phase they received the following diets: standard AIN–93G diet, fortifying mixture and standard diet containing heptahydrated ferrous sulfate for comparison. Results For standard AIN–93G diet and fortifying mixture the results were 3.75 and 4.04 for protein efficiency ratio and 3.53 and 3.63 for net protein retention, showing that the presence of pork liver in the diet promoted an increase in protein efficiency ratio and net protein retention (not statistically significant. True digestibility results obtained with the fortifying mixture (97.16% were higher than those obtained with the standard AIN–93G diet (casein, but without significant difference. The hemoglobin regeneration efficiency values obtained for standard AIN–93G diet, fortifying mixture and standard diet containing heptahydrated ferrous sulfate were 50.69, 31.96 and 29.96%, respectively, showing a statistically significant difference between the control (standard AIN–93G diet and test (fortifying mixture and standard diet containing heptahydrated ferrous sulfate samples, but not between the test samples. Conclusion The fortifying mixture showed a high protein efficiency ratio value of 4.04 and a high relative biological value (108% and it can be added to soups, creams and meats in day-care centers for the prevention of iron-deficiency in children of school age.
Tabibian, Mehrnaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Mirlohi, Maryam; Sadeghi, Malihe; Mohtadinia, Javad
Purpose: Vitamin D, a fat-soluble secosteroid, has a significant role in bone metabolism and helps calcium absorption in the body. Since vitamin D concentration is altered in fortified foods and dietary supplements, the actual amount of vitamin D may differ from the label value. Methods: In this study, the concentrations of vitamin D 2 and D 3 of fortified bread sample were analytically determined. For this purpose, dough or homogenized bread sample was saponified using potassium hydroxide solution (30%, w/v) at 80°C, and the saponified analytes were extracted into n -heptane followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Then n -heptane fraction was evaporated to dryness and the sample was reconstituted in methanol. The effect of different parameters was evaluated by one variable at one-time strategy. Results: The analytes concentrations were evaluated in dough fermentation, baking and storage steps. The effect of temperature in dough fermentation and baking was evaluated at the range of 5-30 and 200-250°C, respectively. Also, the fermentation time was studied in the range of 0-120 min. The analytes concentrations were followed for 1 to 5 days after baking. The results indicated that dough fermentation temperature has no significant effect on the concentration of the analytes. On the other hand, when the dough fermentation time and baking temperature are increased, the analytes concentrations are decreased. Also, the storage duration of the spiked bread samples decreased the analytes concentrations after one day. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, baking the dough at high temperatures lead to decrease in vitamin levels.
Johansson, Madelene; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Bruce, Ake; Jägerstad, Margaretha
Folate has come into focus due to its protective role against child birth defects such as neural tube defects (NTD). Swedish authorities recommend all fertile women to increase their folate intake to 400 microg/day by eating folate-rich foods. Because not all women follow these recommendations, there is a discussion today about whether Sweden should introduce folic acid fortification in wheat flour and sifted rye flour. This decision needs knowledge about the bioavailability of folic acid from fortified foods. To investigate effects of two folic acid fortification levels on folate status in healthy female volunteers and to study the folic acid stability during the baking procedure and storage of the fortified breakfast rolls. Twenty-nine healthy women were recruited. Folic acid-fortified wheat breakfast rolls were baked with the purpose to contain 200 microg folic acid/roll (roll L) and 400 microg folic acid/roll (roll H). Fourteen women were given one roll/day of roll L (group L) and 15 one roll/day of roll H (group H) during 12 weeks of intervention. Fasting venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60 and 90. Serum homocysteine concentrations were determined using an immunoassay. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were analysed using a protein-binding assay with fluorescent quantification. The folic acid concentration in the breakfast rolls was analysed by HPLC on days 0, 30, 60 and 90. Total folate concentration was measured with microbiological assay on day 45. Group L Group L had initially an average erythrocyte folate concentration of 577 +/- 93 nmol/L. After 90 days of intervention, an increase of 20 % (p level of 18.7 +/- 4.8 nmol/L at day 0. Thereafter, all women of group H had serum concentrations at or above the upper limit of quantification (23 nmol/L). At day 0, mean serum homocysteine concentrations were 8.4 +/- 1.7 micromol/L, which decreased by 16 % (p level of fortification seems to be sufficient to improve the folate status
Sirisoontaralak, Porntip; Limboon, Pailin; Jatuwong, Sujitra; Chavanalikit, Arusa
Calcium-fortified rice was prepared by soaking milled rice in calcium lactate solution, steaming and drying, and physicochemical properties were determined to evaluate effects of calcium concentration (0, 30, 50 g L(-1) ), soaking temperature (ambient temperature, 40 °C, 60 °C) and acidification. Calcium-fortified rice had less lightness. More total solid loss was observed, especially at high soaking temperature. Harder texture was detected with increased calcium concentration. Calcium fortification lowered pasting viscosity of milled rice. Panelists accepted all fortified rice; however, only rice soaked at 50 g L(-1) concentration could be claimed as a good source of calcium. Increasing of soaking temperature induced more penetration of calcium to rice kernels but calcium was lost more easily after washing. With addition of acetic acid to the soaking solution, enriched calcium content was comparable to that of high soaking temperature but with better retention after washing and calcium solubility was improved. Acid induced reduction of lightness and cooked rice hardness but increased total solid loss and pasting viscosity. Although the taste of acetic acid remained, panelists still accepted the fortified rice. Calcium-fortified rice (190.47-194.3 mg 100 g(-1) ) could be successfully produced by soaking milled rice in 50 g L(-1) calcium lactate solution at 40 °C or at ambient temperature with acidification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Noda, Takahiro; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Ishiguro, Koji; Nagasawa, Koichi; Jinno, Masahiro
Calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were prepared by immersion in various concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, respectively. The pasting properties, i.e., peak viscosity and breakdown, of all the starches obtained above were analyzed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer. Furthermore, the gelatinization properties and in vitro digestibility of the representative calcium- and magnesium-fortified starches were tested. The maximum calcium content of the fortified potato starches was as high as 686 ppm with the addition of a high-concentration CaCl2 solution, while the calcium content of the control potato starch was 99 ppm. The magnesium content increased from 89 to 421 ppm by treatment of the potato starch with an MgCl2 solution. Markedly lower values of peak viscosity and breakdown were observed in calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches than in the control potato starch. However, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy as well as resistant starch content of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were similar to those of the control potato starch. It is concluded that potato starches with altered pasting properties can be easily manufactured by the use of solutions containing high levels of calcium and magnesium.
Full Text Available Iron overload in the fortified flour can influence the life stages and physiology of the insects. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of commercially available premix iron fortified flour as well as effect of different concentrations of post-mix iron fortified flour (30–5 ppm on biology of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Hebrst.. Larval and pupal duration, total developmental time, fecundity and larval weights in two consecutive generations of beetle were compared with control treatment. Amylase and protease activities of gut of the beetle were also measured in premix and postmix flours. Results showed that larval mortality increased in two sources of premix iron flour when compared with control. Larval weight was reduced in first generation only. The larval mortality was significantly higher in 30 ppm postmix iron fortified flour than in other postmix concentrations and control treatment. The larvae of T. castaneum fed on two sources of premix and in various concentrations of postmix iron fortified flour revealed an increase in amylases and decrease in protease activities.
Nie, J Y; Zhu, N W; Lin, K M; Song, F Y
Fortified soil was made up of a mixture at a mass ratio 4/1000-6/1000 of sponge and natural soil according to the results of column experiment. The fortified soil had bigger porosity and higher hydraulic conductivity than the natural soil. The columns packed with 900 mm of the fortified soil endured a flow rate equivalent to 100 L/m(2)/d of septic tank effluent and the average chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal rates were around 92%, 75% and 96%, respectively. After 100 weeks of operation, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the fortified soil kept higher than 0.2 m/d. The bigger porosity of sponge improved the effective porosity, and the bigger specific surface area of sponge acted as an ideal support for biomat growth and ensured the sewage treatment performance of the fortified soil. The comparable performance was due to a similar and sufficient degree of soil clogging genesis coupled with bioprocesses that effectively purified the septic tank effluent given the adequate retention times.
Gheisari, Hamid R; Ahadi, Leila; Khezli, Sanaz; Dehnavi, Tayebeh
In this study, the possible effects of zinc on physicochemical properties of ice cream and the survival of Lactobacillus casei during a 90 days storage at -18°C was investigated. Samples were divided into four experimental groups as follows: control, zinc fortified ice cream, probiotic ice cream, zinc fortified and probiotic ice cream. The physicochemical, texture, organoleptic properties and the survival of probiotics, were investigated. Results showed that the addition of zinc did not affect the textural properties of ice creams. Viscosity and pH were independently decreased in all groups in the presence of zinc. A significant increase in the lipid oxidation rate especially in the zinc fortified group was also observed. The probiotic counts were maintained above the least advised quantities (106 cfu/g) which were subsequently reduced following the three months of storage. In the zinc fortified samples, the counts were higher compared to the other groups with no zinc addition. The addition of probiotics and zinc had no significant effect on the sensory properties of ice cream. As a final conclusion, the commercial production of zinc fortified ice cream is recommended.
Polpuech, C; Chavasit, V; Srichakwal, P; Paniangvait, P
Lysine fortification of wheat flour has been used toward reducing protein energy malnutrition in developing countries. The feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with lysine was evaluated based on sensory qualities and the residual lysine content. Fifty grams of deep-fried and dried instant noodles were fortified with 0.23 and 0.21 g lysine, respectively. The production temperatures used for deep-frying were 165-175 degrees C and for drying, 80-105 degrees C; these are the temperatures used in the industrial production of both kinds of noodles. Lysine fortification was then performed at the local factories using the commercial production lines and packaging for both types of instant noodles. Both fortified and unfortified deep-fried and dried instant noodles were stored at 50 degrees C under fluorescent light for 2 and 4 months, respectively. The fortified products were tested for residual lysine content and sensory qualities as compared with unfortified noodles. The results show fortified products from the tested processing temperatures were all accepted. After storage, significant losses of lysine were not found in both types of noodles analysed. The lysine-fortified noodles had amino acid scores of 102% and 122%, respectively. After 2 months, the sensory quality of fortified deep-fried noodles was still acceptable; however, the dried noodles turned to an unacceptable dark colour. This study shows that it is feasible to fortify deep-fried instant noodles with lysine, though lysine fortification exhibited an undesirable colour in the dried instant noodles after storage.
Natri, A. M.; Salo, P.; Vikstedt, T.
content. In a single-blind bioavailability study, 41 healthy women, 25-45 y old, with mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration 29 nmol/L (range 12-45 nmol/L), were randomly assigned to 4 study groups. Each group consumed fortified wheat bread, fortified rye bread, regular wheat bread (control...
Capeding, Rosario; Gepanayao, Connie P; Calimon, Nerrisa; Lebumfacil, Jowena; Davis, Anne M; Stouffer, Nicole; Harris, Bruce J
Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold) or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold+Lutein). Two hundred thirty-two (232) infantslutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.
Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz
The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.
Full Text Available Characteristics and oxidative stability of bread fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO were determined. The addition of MSO could improve the loaf volume of bread. Chewiness,gumminess and resilience of resulting bread were decreased. Bread crust and crumb showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated (P<0.05. Microstructure study revealed that MSO remained intact with bread crumbs. The addition of MSO up to 3% had no adverse effect on bread quality and sensory acceptability. Oxidation took place in bread fortified with 5%MSO to a higher extent, compared with those with 1 or 3% MSO. Therefore, the bread could be fortified with MSO up to 3%.
It is essential to prevent the fortification iron from reacting with the absorption inhibitors. To ensure adequate absorption therefore, various factors must be considered before initiating a fortification programme. These include cost effectiveness of fortification in increasing absorbable iron, palatability of the fortified food and the ...
Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji
To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared wit...
Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki
This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3???3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30?g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3?weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration...
Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan
Background: Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. Objective: We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF......) with small fish and edible spiders and WinFood-Lite (WF-L) fortified with small fish, against 2 existing fortified corn-soy blend products, CSB+ (purely plant based) and CSB++ (8% dried skimmed milk). Design: In total, 419 infants aged 6 mo were enrolled in this randomized, single-blinded study for 9 mo...... increase in knee-heel length in WF-L compared with CSB+ was not significant. Conclusions: No difference was found between the locally produced products (WF and WF-L) and the CSBs. Micronutrient fortification may be necessary, and small fish may be an affordable alternative to milk to improve complementary...
2Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa. *Corresponding author, Department of Home Economics & Food Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria email@example.com (+2348055948515). ABSTRACT. Tapioca is a dried starchy powdery extract made from cassava which is popular in the.
Galetti, Valeria; Kujinga, Prosper; Mitchikpè, C.E.S.; Zeder, Christophe; Tay, Fabian; Tossou, Félicien; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Moretti, Diego
Background: Zinc deficiency and contaminated water are major contributors to diarrhea in developing countries. Food fortification with zinc has not shown clear benefits, possibly because of low zinc absorption from inhibitory food matrices. We used a novel pointof-use water ultrafiltration device
Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Hess, D L; Anderson, P H; Kruger, W D; Phillipson, B E; Gluckman, R A; Block, P C; Upson, B M
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended that cereal-grain products be fortified with folic acid to prevent congenital neural-tube defects. Since folic acid supplementation reduces levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine, or plasma total homocysteine, which are frequently elevated in arterial occlusive disease, we hypothesized that folic acid fortification might reduce plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of breakfast cereals fortified with three levels of folic acid, and also containing the recommended dietary allowances of vitamins B6 and B12, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 75 men and women with coronary artery disease. Plasma folic acid increased and plasma homocyst(e)ine decreased proportionately with the folic acid content of the breakfast cereal. Cereal providing 127 microg of folic acid daily, approximating the increased daily intake that may result from the FDA's enrichment policy, increased plasma folic acid by 31 percent (P=0.045) but decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine by only 3.7 percent (P= 0.24). However, cereals providing 499 and 665 microg of folic acid daily increased plasma folic acid by 64.8 percent (Pine by 11.0 percent (Pine levels. Further clinical trials are required to determine whether folic acid fortification may prevent vascular disease. Until then, our results suggest that folic acid fortification at levels higher than that recommended by the FDA may be warranted.
Ali Hussein Abed-Al-Kareem
Full Text Available This study includes fortification of two type of flour 70 and 80 % extraction with two sources of non-haem iron sodium iron EDTA (FeNaEDTA which was synthesis in laboratory and ferrous sulfate in level of 30 mg iron/kg flour. The synthesis FeNaEDTA has been identified in several methods, infra red spectrophotometry, C.H.N analyzer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP- OES. NaFeEDTA is the only non-haem source that has good bioavailability as it is relatively independent of flour composition and withstands the inhibitory effects of phytates. Chemical analysis of the two type of the flour before and after fortification with FeNaEDTA was done (moisture, ash , protein , fat and wet gluten% and the amount of iron as mg/100g.The falling number was not affected by the above fortificants.The values of falling Number of 70% extraction for non-fortified and fortified flour by FeNaEDTA and ferrous sulfate were ( 425,426,427 second respectively, while for 80% extracted flour were (445,446,448 second respectively. The color test showed an increasing of color degree upon fortified by iron sulfate and decreasing of upon fortified by FeNaEDTA in both type of flour.
Andon, M B; Peacock, M; Kanerva, R L; De Castro, J A
Determine calcium (Ca) absorption from Ca fortified orange and apple juice. Absorbability was assessed by measuring 45Ca absorption in healthy women (mean age 57 years, n = 57/group) and whole body 47Ca retention in adult female beagle dogs (n = 6/group) and young adult male rats (n = 6/group). Women received 6.24 mmol (250 mg) Ca as calcium citrate malate fortified orange juice (CCM-OJ) or apple juice (CCM-AJ). Dogs received 3.12 mmol (125 mg) Ca as CCM-OJ or CCM-AJ. Rats were administered 0.15 mmol (6 mg) Ca as either milk, CCM-OJ, or CCM-AJ. Additional 47Ca whole body retention experiments in rats measured the effects of differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of the juices on Ca absorption. Mean +/- SEM percent Ca fractional absorption was greater (p composition of Ca fortified juices, we found that the greater fructose and lower organic acid content of apple juice accounted for its greater Ca absorbability. CCM fortified versions of orange and apple juice have high Ca absorbability and are potentially important vehicles for increasing dietary Ca intake. The greater Ca absorption from CCM-AJ compared with CCM-OJ is accounted for by differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of the juices. These data suggest that by modifying common beverage ingredients, products with even greater Ca absorbability could be formulated.
Vliet, T. van; Jacobs, R.G.J.M.; Deckere, E. de; Berg, H. van den; Bree, A. de; Put, N.M.J. van der
Objective: To determine the effect of folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 fortified spreads on the blood concentrations of these vitamins and homocysteine. Design and setting: A 6-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel trial carried out in a clinical research center. Subjects: One
Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing
Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…
Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered compared with control rats (vehicle administered. This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1, total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK, and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.
Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji
To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.
Full Text Available Background: Fortification of milk formulas with iron is a strategy widely used, but the absorption of non-heme iron is low. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of two iron fortified milk formulas designed to cover toddlers´ nutritional needs. These milks were fortified with iron sulfate stabilized with maltodextrin and citric acid. Methods: 15 women (33–47 years old participated in study. They received on different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of Formula A; 200 mL of Formula B; 30 mL of a solution of iron and ascorbic acid as reference dose and 200 mL of full fat cow’s milk fortified with iron as ferrous sulfate. Milk formulas and reference dose were labeled with radioisotopes 59Fe or 55Fe, and the absorption of iron measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe. Results: The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow’s milk (p < 0.001. The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow’s milk (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers´ requirements of this micronutrient.
Imane El Menchawy
Full Text Available Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N=195, aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT milk and the fortified group received (FG daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 9 months (T9. Hemoglobin (Hb was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p=0.037. Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%; more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary treatment is often recommended as the first line of treatment for women with mild iron deficiency. Although it is well established that ascorbic acid enhances iron absorption, it is less clear whether the consumption of ascorbic acid rich foods (such as kiwifruit with meals fortified with iron improves iron status. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the consumption of ZESPRI® GOLD kiwifruit (a fruit high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal increases iron status in women with low iron stores. Methods/Design Eighty nine healthy women aged 18-44 years with low iron stores (serum ferritin (SF ≤ 25 μg/L, haemoglobin (Hb ≥ 115 g/L living in Auckland, New Zealand were randomised to receive an iron fortified breakfast cereal (16 mg iron per serve and either two ZESPRI® GOLD kiwifruit or a banana (low ascorbic acid and carotenoid content to eat at breakfast time every day for 16 weeks. Iron status (SF, Hb, C-reactive protein (CRP and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, ascorbic acid and carotenoid status were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. Anthropometric measures, dietary intake, physical activity and blood loss were measured before and after the 16 week intervention. Discussion This randomised controlled intervention study will be the first study to investigate the effect of a dietary based intervention of an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal combined with an ascorbic acid and carotenoid rich fruit on improving iron status in women with low iron stores. Trial registration ACTRN12608000360314
Mavil May C. Cervo
Full Text Available This randomized, single-masked, controlled trial examined the effects of nutrient-fortified milk-based formula supplementation on nutritional status, nutrient intake, and psychomotor skills of selected preschool children with mean age of 4.10 ± 0.14 years. The study participants were divided equally into three major groups, normal, underweight, and severely underweight based on WHO-Child Growth Standards, and were further divided into two groups: fortified milk group who was given two glasses of fortified milk (50 g of powdered milk/serving a day for twelve weeks in addition to their usual diet and the nonintervention group who was not given fortified milk and thus maintained their usual intake. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, and psychomotor developmental score were analyzed. Results showed that consumption of two servings of fortified milk a day for twelve weeks significantly increased the height of preschool children by 1.40 cm, weight by 1.35 kg, body mass index by 0.96 kg/m2, mid-upper arm circumference by 0.66 cm, and psychomotor scores by 13.74% more than those children who did not consume fortified milk (p<0.0001. Hence, fortified milk-based supplement in the diet of preschool children improved overall nutritional status, nutrient intake, and performance in psychomotor scale. This study is registered in Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140923-000234.
Cervo, Mavil May C; Mendoza, Diane S; Barrios, Erniel B; Panlasigui, Leonora N
This randomized, single-masked, controlled trial examined the effects of nutrient-fortified milk-based formula supplementation on nutritional status, nutrient intake, and psychomotor skills of selected preschool children with mean age of 4.10 ± 0.14 years. The study participants were divided equally into three major groups, normal, underweight, and severely underweight based on WHO-Child Growth Standards, and were further divided into two groups: fortified milk group who was given two glasses of fortified milk (50 g of powdered milk/serving) a day for twelve weeks in addition to their usual diet and the nonintervention group who was not given fortified milk and thus maintained their usual intake. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, and psychomotor developmental score were analyzed. Results showed that consumption of two servings of fortified milk a day for twelve weeks significantly increased the height of preschool children by 1.40 cm, weight by 1.35 kg, body mass index by 0.96 kg/m 2 , mid-upper arm circumference by 0.66 cm, and psychomotor scores by 13.74% more than those children who did not consume fortified milk ( p < 0.0001). Hence, fortified milk-based supplement in the diet of preschool children improved overall nutritional status, nutrient intake, and performance in psychomotor scale. This study is registered in Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140923-000234.
Mannar, M G Venkatesh; van Ameringen, Marc
Iron, iodine, and vitamin A deficiencies prevent 30% of the world's population from reaching full physical and mental potential. Fortification of commonly eaten foods with micronutrients offers a cost-effective solution that can reach large populations. Effective and sustainable fortification will be possible only if the public sector (which has the mandate and responsibility to improve the health of the population), the private sector (which has experience and expertise in food production and marketing), and the social sector (which has grass-roots contact with the consumer) collaborate to develop, produce, and promote micronutrient-fortified foods. Food fortification efforts must be integrated within the context of a country's public health and nutrition situation as part of an overall micronutrient strategy that utilizes other interventions as well. Identifying a set of priority actions and initiating a continuous dialogue between the various sectors to catalyze the implementation of schemes that will permanently eliminate micronutrient malnutrition are urgently needed. The partners of such a national alliance must collaborate closely on specific issues relating to the production, promotion, distribution, and consumption of fortified foods. Such collaboration could benefit all sectors: National governments could reap national health, economic, and political benefits; food companies could gain a competitive advantage in an expanding consumer marketplace; the scientific, development, and donor communities could make an impact by achieving global goals for eliminating micronutrient malnutrition; and by demanding fortified foods, consumers empower themselves to achieve their full social and economic potential.
Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.
Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…
Hoppe, Camilla Francis; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Jacobsen, Anne Stine
of antinutrients has not been examined. Different lines of evidence suggest that dairy proteins have beneficial effects on vulnerable groups. Here we review the evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV or AIDS....... Adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF improves the protein quality, allowing a reduction in total amount of protein, which could have potential metabolic advantages. It also allows for a reduced content of soy and cereal and thereby a reduction of potential antinutrients. It is possible that adding...... is important for acceptability in vulnerable groups. The most important disadvantage is a considerable increase in price. Adding 10-15% milk powder would double the price, which means that such a product should be used only in well-defined vulnerable groups with special needs. The potential beneficial effects...
Hekmat, Sharareh; Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert
The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 (o)C.
Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, Mahmood
Iron deficiency, anemia, is the most prevalent nutritional problem in the world today. The objective of this study was to consider the effectiveness of consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels as two sources of dietary iron on status of iron nutrition and response of hematological characteristics of women at reproductive ages. Eight healthy female, single or non pregnant subjects, aged 20-37 y consumed 30 g of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal (providing 7.1 mg iron/day) plus 30 g of pumpkin seed kernels (providing 4.0 mg iron/day) for four weeks. Blood samples collected on the day 20 of menstrual cycles before and after consumption and indices of iron status such as reticulocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), serum ferritin, iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin and transferrin saturation percent were determined. Better response for iron status was observed after consumption period. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the pre and post consumption phase for higher serum iron (60 +/- 22 vs. 85 +/- 23 ug/dl), higher transferrin saturation percent (16.8 +/- 8.0 vs. 25.6 +/- 9.0%), and lower TIBC (367 +/- 31 vs. 339 +/- 31 ug/dl). All individuals had higher serum iron after consumption. A significant positive correlation (r=0.981, p=0.000) between the differences in serum iron levels and differences in transferrin saturation percentages and a significant negative correlation (r=-0.916, pfoods contribute to maintaining optimal nutritional status and minimizing the likelihood of iron insufficiencies and use of fortified ready-to-eat cereals is a common strategy. The results showed that adding another food source of iron such as pumpkin seed kernels improves the iron status. Additional and longer studies using these two food products are recommended to further determine the effect of iron fortification on iron nutrition and status among the target population, and mainly in young
Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad
Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke.
Hansen, Max; Nielsen, Sussi Bæch; Thomsen, A.D.
The efficacy of intake of iron fortified, wholemeal rye bread on iron status of young women with low iron stores was evaluated in a 5 month single-blind intervention study. Two parallel groups of women (20-38 y) were given 144 g of rye bread/d either fortified with 6 mg iron as ferrous fumarate/100...... stores of young women with poor iron status which were otherwise reduced by intake of the unfortified control bread....
Hiligsmann, M.; Burlet, N.; Fardellone, P.; Al-Daghri, N.; Reginster, J.-Y.
Summary The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60?years. Introduction This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60?years. Methods We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life...
Bruyeron, Olivier; Denizeau, Mirrdyn; Berger, Jacques; Trèche, Serge
Sustainable approaches to improving infant and young child feeding are needed. The Nutridev program worked in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to test different strategies to improve complementary feeding using fortified products sold to families. To review the experiences of programs producing and marketing fortified complementary foods and to report on the feasibility of local production and marketing of fortified complementary foods to increase usage of high-quality foods among children of low-income families in a self-sustaining manner. Project documents, surveys of mothers, and production and sales reports were reviewed. Nutridev experience in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso demonstrates that it is possible to produce affordable, high-quality complementary foods and supplements locally in developing countries. Strategies to make products readily available to the targeted population and to convince this population to consume them yielded mixed results, varying greatly based on the strategy utilized and the context in which it was implemented. In several contexts, the optimal approach appears to be strengthening the existing food distribution network to sell complementary foods and supplements, with the implementation of a temporary promotion and nutrition education network in partnership with local authorities (e.g., health services) to increase awareness among families about the fortified complementary food product and optimal feeding practices. In urban areas, where the density of the population is high, design and implementation of specific networks very close to consumers seems to be a good way to combine economic sustainability and good consumption levels.
Common variants in CYP2R1 and GC genes are both determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations after UVB irradiation and after consumption of vitamin D₃-fortified bread and milk during winter in Denmark.
Nissen, Janna; Vogel, Ulla; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Madsen, Katja H; Nexø, Bjørn A; Andersen, Rikke; Mejborn, Heddie; Bjerrum, Poul J; Rasmussen, Lone B; Wulf, Hans Christian
Little is known about how the genetic variation in vitamin D modulating genes influences ultraviolet (UV)B-induced 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. In the Food with vitamin D (VitmaD) study, we showed that common genetic variants rs10741657 and rs10766197 in 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1) and rs842999 and rs4588 in vitamin D binding protein (GC) predict 25(OH)D concentrations at late summer and after 6-mo consumption of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃)-fortified bread and milk. In the current study, called the Vitamin D in genes (VitDgen) study, we analyzed associations between the increase in 25(OH)D concentrations after a given dose of artificial UVB irradiation and 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in or near genes involved in vitamin D synthesis, transport, activation, or degradation as previously described for the VitmaD study. Second, we aimed to determine whether the genetic variations in CYP2R1 and GC have similar effects on 25(OH)D concentrations after artificial UVB irradiation and supplementation by vitamin D₃-fortified bread and milk. The VitDgen study includes 92 healthy Danes who received 4 whole-body UVB treatments with a total dose of 6 or 7.5 standard erythema doses during a 10-d period in winter. The VitmaD study included 201 healthy Danish families who were given vitamin D₃-fortified bread and milk or placebo for 6 mo during the winter. After UVB treatments, rs10741657 in CYP2R1 and rs4588 in GC predicted UVB-induced 25(OH)D concentrations as previously shown in the VitmaD study. Compared with noncarriers, carriers of 4 risk alleles of rs10741657 and rs4588 had lowest concentrations and smallest increases in 25(OH)D concentrations after 4 UVB treatments and largest decreases in 25(OH)D concentrations after 6-mo consumption of vitamin D₃-fortified bread and milk. Common genetic variants in the CYP2R1 and GC genes modify 25(OH)D concentrations in the same manner after artificial UVB-induced vitamin D and consumption of vitamin D₃-fortified
Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A
The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.
Chen, Di; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Piao, Wei; Tang, Yanbin; Li, Jin; Gao, Jie; Huo, Junsheng
To evaluate the effect of iron fortified soy sauce on improving the anemia of boarding school students. A total of 3029 students of the boarding schools in the 27 provinces in China including 1576 boys and 1453 girls were treat with the iron-fortified soy sauce for 12 months. The concentration of hemoglobin was detected before and after intervention. The statistical analysis was conducted to analyze the anemia rate and the hemoglobin concentration in boarding school students. After the intervention, the average hemoglobin of students were increased from 142.1 g/L to 146.5 g/L compared to the baseline. The boys average haemoglobin concentration increased 6.7 g/L, girls average haemoglobin concentration increased 1.9 g/L. They were significantly higher than those of the baseline (P boarding school students, reduce anemia prevalence of students significantly.
Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael
The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention with mandat......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... the initiation and termination of vitamin D fortification programmes. In total, four sets of analyses were performed. Information on birth weight was available in the Copenhagen School Health Record Register for all school children in Copenhagen. The mean birth weight was lower among the exposed than non...
Pigaryov Evgeniy M.
Full Text Available A fragment of the bronze-cast enkolpion cross discovered in 2011 in the territory of the Golden Horde Selitrennoye fortified site is made public. The item is the right-hand medallion of the four-fold enkolpion cross with a rectangular crypt and cross-shaped medallions at the ends of the branches. The right-hand branch medallion contains a schematic half-length image of the virgin and an illegible monogram. Similar images are known from findings made in various regions of Russia. Crosses of the type were common in the 13th–15th centuries. The enkolpion cross from the Selitrennoye fortified site most likely refers to the 14th century; it probably belonged to a representative of the Russian community of the city.
Landim, Liejy Agnes; Pessoa, Marcia Luiza Dos Santos Beserra; Brandão, Amanda de Castro Amorim Serpa; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Marcos Antônio de Mota Araújo, Marcos Antônio De Mota Araújo; Rocha, Maurisrael De Moura; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes; Moreira-Araújo, Regilda Saraiva Dos Reis
Nutritional intervention in pre-school children using cookies prepared with wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (CWFFeFA) and cookies prepared with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) flour fortified with iron and zinc and wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (CCFFeZn + WFFeFA). To assess the impact of the ingestion of CWFFeFA and CCFFeZn + WFFeFA by pre-school children, using the cowpea variety BRS-Xiquexique, to control iron-deficiency anaemia. Nutritional intervention was conducted in municipal day care centres selected at random (n = 262) involving pre-school children aged 2 to 5 years living in Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. To assess the socioeconomic data, BMI-for-age, haemoglobin levels before and after intervention, and dietary intake, the children were divided into group 1 (G1), which received CWFFeFA (30 g), and group 2 (G2), which received CCFFeZn + WFFeFA (30 g). Food acceptance was evaluated daily. The prevalence of anaemia in G1 and G2 before the nutritional intervention was 12.2% (n = 18) and 11.5% (n = 30), respectively. After intervention, the prevalence decreased to 1.4% in G1 (n = 2) and to 4.2% in G2 (n = 11). Food acceptance by pre-school children in G1 and G2 was 97.4% and 94.3%, respectively. The use of both types of cookie formulations decreased the prevalence of anaemia among pre-school children, and CCFFeZn + WFFeFA yielded the greatest decrease.
Gusriadi, Depri; Sukmiwati, Mery; ', Dahlia
This study was intended to evaluate the nutritional value of instant noodlesfortified with catfish flour. Instant noodles were prepared from a mixture of wheatflour (50%), sweat potato flour (10%), egg (15%), salt (0,7%), water (23%),cooking oil (0,3%) and Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (1%). The noodles wereprepared by fortifying the mixture with catfish flour at a level of 0%, 5%, 10%,and 15 % respectively. Instant noodles was evaluated for sensory quality andproximate composition (moisture, prot...
DANIELA CARDOSO UMBELINO CAVALLINI
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The objective of this study was to prepare a soy yogurt, fortifi ed with microencapsulated FeSO4.7H2O (12mg of iron/l and calcium citrate (600mg of calcium/l, and evaluate the stability of the fi nal product during the storage at 10Â°C. The soy yogurt without addition of iron and calcium was used as control. Analysis of these samples was done once a week, during 28 days, for: pH, titratable acidity, rheological properties (viscosity and consistency, sensory characteristics (acceptance test and enumeration of viable cells (L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. The pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, consistency and acceptance test data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukeyâ€™s test. During the storage was observed a decrease in the pH and increase in the titratable acidity, due to the lactic cultures to be continue viable (107CFU/g in the product. The fortifi ed yogurt exhibited lower viscosity, but this parameter did not change signifi cantly (pï‚£0,05 during the storage time. The acceptance test results showed that the control and fortifi ed samples did not exhibit signifi cant differences (pï‚£0,05, during the studied period, in relation to the all sensory attributes evaluated. In conclusion, the present work enabled the development of a iron and calcium fortifi ed soy yogurt, stable during 28 days at 10Â°C, that could be used in the prevention and control of mineral defi ciencies in general population.
Vanda Pereira; Ana C. Pereira; Juan P. Pérez Trujillo; Juan Cacho; José C. Marques
The current study was focused on the impact of accelerated ageing (heating step) on the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of fortified wines. In this sense, three Madeira wines from two commonly used grape varieties (one red and the other white) were analysed during the heating, at standard (45°C, 3 months) and overheating (70°C, 1 month) conditions, following a precolumn derivatization procedure using iodoacetic acid, o-phthaldialdehyde, and 2-mercaptoethanol, carried out in the injecti...
Joana Aguiar; Berta Nogueiro Estevinho; Lúcia Silveira Santos
Background: Functional foods fortified with antioxidants are gaining more popularity since consumption alone of foods naturally rich in antioxidants is insufficient to reduce oxidative stress associated with various diseases. Despite their beneficial effects, natural antioxidants present in coffee are sensitive to heat, light and oxygen, limiting their application in the food industry. Although microencapsulation is able to protect the antioxidant from degradation, mask its taste and control ...
Sandhu, Amanjot; Fast, Sharla; Bonnar, Kari; Baier, Ronald John; Narvey, Michael
To describe the results of utilizing a human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMHMF) as rescue therapy to meet nutritional requirements in very low birth weight and preterm infants demonstrating feeding intolerance to bovine-based human milk fortifier (BHMF) in the Canadian Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) setting. At two Level III NICUs in Winnipeg, MB, Canada, a rescue protocol was implemented to provide HMHMF for infants demonstrating intolerance to BHMF. To qualify for rescue, infants were required to experience two episodes of significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with fortification with BHMF. A case series report was conducted retrospectively examining the success of rescue therapy, growth rates, protein, and calorie intakes before and after initiation of HMHMF in seven infants. Seven infants (birth weight 723 ± 247 g, gestation 25.3 ± 3.4 weeks) were treated with rescue fortification with HMHMF. All infants were transitioned off parenteral nutrition (PN) without relapse of GI symptoms. Growth rate, protein, and calorie intakes improved with the use of HMHMF. Very low birth weight and preterm infants with GI intolerance to BHMF were successfully rescued with use of HMHMF. Improvements in growth were achieved without need for supplementation with PN through achievement of sufficient enteral calorie and protein intakes.
Sourdeau, P; Evrard, J-M; Remy, G; Hecq, J-D
Ophtalmic infections and inflammations are often encountered during hospitalization. They require the preparation of "fortified" ophtalmic solutions, i.e. pharmaceutical ophtalmic solutions which are hyperconcentrated in active substance. The data of physicochemical stabilities are modified and it is therefore essential to gather the results of the various publications devoted to this subject. In 2006, an initial literature review was undertaken to identify the molecules mostly used in the preparation of fortified ophtalmic solutions in hospital. A second review of the literature in 2010 has enriched the knowledge about it. Two new drugs have entered the summary table: amikacin and ticarcillin disodium. Date on 12 molecules already known in 2006 were updated to improve clinical practices. A review of the literature was undertaken in order to collect the results of the molecules mostly used for the preparation of the fortified ophtalmic solutions in hospitals. A summary table, indicating the active substance, its concentration, the assay method, the storage temperature and physicochemical modifications, presents all the results. This review of literature makes it possible to match stability and validity period to these preparations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Whey protein can improve quality of life and vitamin E can reduce oxidative stress. Due to the reduced quality of life in hemodialysis patients, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of whey beverage fortified with vitamin E on quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Ninety two 17 to 65 years old patients who were on hemodialysis were randomly assigned to four groups of (i 1 receiving whey beverage fortified with vitamin E, (ii 2 receiving whey beverage, (iii 3 receiving vitamin E, and (iv 4 as the control group receiving no intervention. SF- 12 questionnaire was used for assessing quality of life in the participants. Results: Bodily pain score improved significantly in group 3 while, a significant decline was seen for bodily pain in control group. An improvement was seen in groups 1 and 2. Physical health showed a significant improvement in group 1. Considering social functioning scores, improvement in whey beverage and vitamin E groups was seen. An improvement of quality of life in whey beverage fortified with vitamin E was noticed. Conclusion: Whey protein and vitamin E were shown to reduce oxidative stress and their effect on neurotransmitters in brain such as serotonin and dopamine leads to improvement in quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Doing longer studies with questionnaires such as SF-36, may help precise investigation of whey protein and vitamin E effects on quality of life of hemodialysis patients.
Takeungwongtrakul, Sirima; Benjakul, Soottawat
Characteristics and storage stability of biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO) were determined. The addition of MSO increased spread ratio, whilst decreased the thickness of biscuit. The highest hardness of biscuit was obtained with addition of 9 or 12% MSO. Biscuit surface showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated ( p < 0.05). The addition of MSO up to 6% had no adverse effect on biscuit quality and acceptability. When biscuits added with 6% MSO were stored under different illumination conditions (light and dark), lipid oxidation in all samples increased throughout the storage of 12 days. Light accelerated lipid oxidation of biscuits as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values and abundance of volatile compounds. No marked change in EPA, DHA and astaxanthin contents were noticeable in biscuit fortified with MSO after 12 days of storage. Therefore, the biscuit could be fortified with MSO up to 6% and must be stored in dark to assure its oxidative stability.
Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani
Food fortification is the addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food whether or not it is normally contained in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency of one or more nutrients in the population or specific population groups. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain comprehensive information towards consumption of Targeted Fortified Products (TFP) among rural and urban mothers of children rural and urban mothers were selected from Primary Health Centre, Achrol Village and Uniara Hospital in Jaipur, Rajasthan. The data were collected using a selfadministered questionnaire. The current nutritional status of children was determined by anthropometric measurements. A total of 53.33% rural and 65.33% urban mothers had knowledge (P=0.046), amongst which 52.67% rural and 66.00% urban mothers (P= 0.026) consumed TFP directed towards mothers. In addition, 56% rural and 94.67% urban mothers had knowledge (P=0.000) about TFP directed towards children, amongst which 19.33% rural and 50.67% urban mothers (P=0.000) fed their children with TFP. There was significantly less awareness regarding consumption of TFP directed towards both pregnant women and children among rural when compared to urban population. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the traditional beliefs and family influences of region rather than the knowledge obtained. There is a need of intensive coordinated efforts to create awareness among mothers to enhance the maternal and child diets through TFP.
Nemati, Mahnaz; Kamilah, Hanisah; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah
Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception. In vitro availability of calcium in TBP-fortified cookies or TCP-fortified cookies were comparable at 38.9% and 39.5%, respectively. These values were higher than the readings from TBP-fortified bread (36.7%) or TCP-fortified bread (37.4%). Sensory evaluation of bakery products containing TBP or TCP elicited comparable scores for the two additives from test panels. Hence, TBP could be used in the production of high calcium bakery products that would enjoy consumer acceptance.
Omar, Rasha M; Ismail, Hanaa M; El-Lateef, Bothyna M Abd; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Sheta, Manal
This paper studied the possible effect of folic acid in fortified Baladi bread on the prevention of colon cancer development in rats. Wheat flour samples (82% extraction rate) and soy bean flour were analyzed to determine their folic acid contents using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Unfortified and folic acid fortified Baladi breads were prepared. Samples from each step of bread preparation were analyzed for folic acid concentration. Protein, fat, ash, fibers and carbohydrates percentages were also determined. Rats were divided into five groups, four of them were injected subcutaneously with dimethylhydrazine (DMH). After 15 weeks, the rats were sacrificed for pathological examination. Results showed that the folic acid content in wheat flour (82% extraction rate) was found to be highly significantly lower than that in soybean flour. After baking, folic acid content in all breads was found to decrease significantly. The highest protein and fat contents were found in soybean flour fortified Baladi bread. The colons of rats of groups 3 (fed 5% soy flour fortified Baladi bread) and 5 (fed Baladi bread fortified with 5% soy flour+8 mg folic acid/kg wheat flour) were the mostly affected by DMH injection as premalignant changes were observed.
Liu, Tian-Tian; Dang, Dan; Lv, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Teng-Fei; Du, Jin-Feng; Wu, Hui
To compare the growth of preterm infants fed standard protein-fortified human milk with that containing human milk fortifier (HMF) with a higher-than-standard protein content. Published articles reporting randomized controlled trials and prospective observational intervention studies listed on the PubMed®, Embase®, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the keywords 'fortifier', 'human milk', 'breastfeeding', 'breast milk' and 'human milk fortifier'. The mean difference with 95% confidence intervals was used to compare the effect of HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content on infant growth characteristics. Five studies with 352 infants with birth weight ≤ 1750 g and a gestational age ≤ 34 weeks who were fed human milk were included in this meta-analysis. Infants in the experimental groups given human milk with higher-than-standard protein fortifier achieved significantly greater weight and length at the end of the study, and greater weight gain, length gain, and head circumference gain, compared with control groups fed human milk with the standard HMF. HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content can improve preterm infant growth compared with standard HMF. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio
The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schauss, Alexander G.; Clewell, Amy; Balogh, Lajos; Szakonyi, Ilona Pasics; Financsek, Istvan; Horvath, Janos; Thuroczy, Julianna; Beres, Erzsebet; Vertesi, Adel; Hirka, Gabor
The safety of an acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active ® , fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 μg/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active ® juice is non-toxic.
Haro-Vicente, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Conesa, Darío; Rincón, Francisco; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Vidal, Maria Luisa
Food iron (Fe) fortification is an adequate approach for preventing Fe-deficiency anemia. Poorly water-soluble Fe compounds have good sensory attributes but low bioavailability. The reduction of the particle size of Fe fortificants and the addition of ascorbic acid might increase the bioavailability of low-soluble compounds. The present work aims to compare the Fe absorption and bioavailability of micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate (MDFP) (poorly soluble) to ferrous sufate (FS) (highly soluble) added to a fruit juice in presence or absence of ascorbic acid (AA) by using the hemoglobin repletion assay in rats. After a hemoglobin depletion period, four fruit juices comprised of (1) FS, (2) MDFP, (3) FS + AA, (4) MDFP + AA were produced and administered to a different group of rats (n = 18) over 21 days. During the repletion period, Fe balance, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), relative bioavailability (RBV) and Fe tissue content were determined in the short, medium and long term. Fe absorption and bioavailability showed no significant differences between fortifying the fruit juice with FS or MDFP. The addition of AA to the juice enhanced Fe absorption during the long-term balance study within the same Fe source. HRE and Fe utilization increased after AA addition in both FS and MDFP groups in every period. Fe absorption and bioavailability from MDFP were comparable to FS added to a fruit juice in rats. Further, the addition of AA enhanced Fe absorption in the long term, as well as Fe bioavailability throughout the repletion period regardless of the Fe source employed.
Petrariu, F D; Gavăt, Viorica; Cozma, A G T
Destruction and pollution of soil and ground water resources is probably the most important ecological problem facing the next generation. Checkable standards which certify healthy food products are required by the regulation on organic farming of the EU and should also be applied for conventional food production. Ecological food contains at least 95% of ingredients from an organic farming environment, without interference from pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or other chemicals and it is totally different from dietary, functional, enriched, fortified, probiotic food. Ecological food is tastier and contains more essential amino-acids, vitamin C, and micro-nutriments than usual food. Two major effects generated by choosing ecological food are the environmental protection and human' health improvement. Buying an ecological product represents the effect of a certain attitude. Children's nutrition starts with the most genuine ecological product: breast milk. Every parent should give to his child healthy and tasty food, for proper development. Decreasing artificial chemicals in the diet and the environment represents the first step to a healthier life.
Marchetta, Claire M.; Devine, Owen J.; Crider, Krista S.; Tsang, Becky L.; Cordero, Amy M.; Qi, Yan Ping; Guo, Jing; Berry, Robert J.; Rosenthal, Jorge; Mulinare, Joseph; Mersereau, Patricia; Hamner, Heather C.
Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992–3 2014) with both natural food folat...
Wieringa, Frank T; Laillou, Arnaud; Guyondet, Christophe; Jallier, Vincent; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Berger, Jacques
Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. However, it is unknown whether differences in cooking methods or in production of rice premix affect the final amount of micronutrient consumed. This paper presents a study that quantified the losses of five different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12) in fortified rice that was produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) during cooking and five different cooking methods (absorption method with or without soaking, washing before cooking, cooking in excess water, and frying rice before cooking). Fortified rice premix from six different producers (two for each technique) was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was prepared in triplicate, using the five different cooking methods, and retention of iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folic acid was determined. It was found that the overall retention of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and folic acid was between 75% and 100% and was unaffected by cooking method, while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by cooking method, with retention ranging from 0% (excess water) to 80% (soaking), depending on the cooking method and producer of the rice premix. No systematic differences between the different production methods were observed. We conclude that different cooking methods of rice as used in different regions of the world do not lead to a major loss of most micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin A. The factors involved in protecting vitamin A against losses during cooking need to be identified. All production techniques of rice premix yielded similar results, showing that coating is not inferior to extrusion techniques. Standard overages (50%) for vitamin B12 and folic acid are too high. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Oladoja, N.A.; Ademoroti, C.M.A.; Idiaghe, J.A.; Oketola, A.A.
The study aimed at providing a low-cost treatment for brewery wastewater, which was achieved by mixing clay with stone-pebbles to improve the low permeability of water through clay beds. The combination (clay/stone-pebbles) was used in columns for the treatment of brewery wastewater. The crystal chemistry of the clay samples was studied using X-ray diffractometer. Three principal clay minerals (kaolin, illite and smectite) were detected in the samples. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to study the geochemistry of the clay samples. The results of the geochemical studies showed that all the samples were hydrated aluminosilicates. Performance efficiency studies were conducted to determine the best combination ratio of clay to stone-pebbles, which showed that combination ratio 3:1 (clay/stone pebbles, w/w) performed better. The flow-rate studies showed that brewery wastewater had longer residence time in non fortified clay than in fortified clay. The flow-rate of the wastewater in the percolating media varied from one medium to another. Two modes of treatment (batch and continuous) were used. The effluent passed through the continuous treatment mode had better quality characteristics as compared with the effluent passed through the batch treatment mode. The effect of repeated use of the fortified column on the performance efficiency was also studied. The pH, total solids, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent was monitored over time. The results of the COD monitored over time were analysed using breakthrough curves. The different columns were found to have different bed volumes at both the break through and exhaustion points. (author)
Davis Anne M
Full Text Available Abstract Background/Objectives Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. Subjects/Methods This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold + Lutein. Two hundred thirty-two (232 infants ≤ 14 days postnatal age were randomized and 220 (94.8% completed the study. Weight (g, head circumference (cm, and length (cm were measured at Weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. The primary endpoint was weight gain (g/day from baseline to Week 16. Safety was assessed through monitoring of study events (SEs throughout the study and evaluation of selected blood chemistry tests performed at Week 16. Results Infants in both treatment groups demonstrated appropriate growth. No differences between treatment groups were found in any of the measures of growth at any of the measurement time points. Both study formulas were well tolerated. The mean values of all measured blood chemistry parameters fell within the modified normal ranges for infants, and the values for both groups for any measured parameter were similar. Conclusions Infants fed lutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.
B S Chandrashekar
Full Text Available Background: Finasteride acts by reducing dihydrotestosterone levels, thereby inhibiting miniaturization of hair follicles in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA. Oral finasteride is associated with side effects such as decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, and gynecomastia. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of maintaining hair growth with 5% topical minoxidil fortified with 0.1% finasteride in patients with AGA after initial treatment with 5% topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for two years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment was done in 50 male patients aged 20-40 years with AGA. All the patients had been initially treated with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for a period of two years, after which the oral finasteride was replaced with topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. Five of 50 patients had discontinued the treatment for a period of 8-12 months and were then resumed with only topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. The patients′ case sheets and photographs were reviewed by independent observers and the efficacy of minoxidil-finasteride combination was assessed. Results: Of the 45 patients who underwent a continuous treatment for AGA, 84.44% maintained a good hair density with topical minoxidil-finasteride combinatio. Of the five patients who discontinued oral finasteride for 8-12 months, four demonstrated good improvement in hair density when treatment was resumed with topical minoxidil-finasteride combination. Conclusion: Topical finasteride can be considered for hair density maintenance after initial improvement with oral finasteride, thereby obviating the indefinite use of oral finasteride.
Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. transglutaminase (RTGase was used to cross-link whey protein isolate (WPI and its ability to induce gelation was investigated. The rheological and textural properties of WPI were improved with RTGase treatment. Set-type yoghurts fortified with 1% WPI powder treated with RTGase at the level of 2.5 and 10 unit/g protein were studied. Chemical, rheological, textural and organoleptic properties of the yoghurt treated with RTGase were better than these of the control yoghurt.
Fiorentino, Marion; Perignon, Marlène; Khov, Kuong
OBJECTIVE: Even though current policy is strongly focused on the crucial first '1000 days', it might be still possible to enhance cognitive function during the pre-adolescent and adolescent years by improving micronutrient status. In Cambodia, nutritional status is poor. Provision of rice fortified...... with micronutrients through a school meal programme (SMP) could be a cost-effective strategy to help improve health and school performance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different micronutrient-fortified rice formulations on cognitive function in Cambodian children. SETTING: Sixteen...
Sablah, Mawuli; Baker, Shawn K; Badham, Jane; De Zayas, Alfred
The scaling up nutrition (SUN) policy framework requires extensive public–private partnership (PPP). Malnutrition is multi-dimensional and should engage multi-sectoral platforms. The SUN policy however did not fully embrace the dynamics of harnessing PPP. The objectives of the present paper are to highlight the reasons for the apprehension around PPP and illustrate how effective coordination of PPP in West Africa has contributed to implementing large-scale food fortification with micronutrients as a complementary nutrition intervention. The experience of Helen Keller International (HKI) in scaling up food fortification was emphasised with understanding of the factors contributing to indifference by the international community to private sector contribution to SUN. The roles of different stakeholders in a PPP are elucidated and the process linked to who, why and how to engage. The private sector provides direct nutrition services while the public sector creates the enabling environment for the private sector to thrive on social values. Through this approach fortified vegetable oil and wheat flour are now reaching over 70% of the population in West Africa. As a neutral broker HKI coordinated and facilitated dialogue among the different stakeholders. The core competencies of each stakeholder were harnessed and each partner was held accountable. It concludes that multi-sectoral relationship must be transparent, equitable and based on shared mutual interests. The rules and values of PPP offer opportunities for SUN.
Evolution of Serum 25OHD in Response to Vitamin D3-Fortified Yogurts Consumed by Healthy Menopausal Women: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing the Interactions between Doses, Baseline Vitamin D Status, and Seasonality.
Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Dontot-Payen, Flore; Rouy, Emilien; Walrand, Stephane; Rousseau, Brigitte
inversely baseline-dependent increase in s25OHD; and (3) a seasonal effect that highlights the importance of VitD 3 -fortified foods during winter, even at 5 µg/d, in healthy menopausal women.
Evolution of Serum 25OHD in Response to Vitamin D3–Fortified Yogurts Consumed by Healthy Menopausal Women: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing the Interactions between Doses, Baseline Vitamin D Status, and Seasonality
Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Dontot-Payen, Flore; Rouy, Emilien; Walrand, Stephane; Rousseau, Brigitte
improvement related to fortified yogurt consumption; (2) an inversely baseline-dependent increase in s25OHD; and (3) a seasonal effect that highlights the importance of VitD3-fortified foods during winter, even at 5 µg/d, in healthy menopausal women. PMID:28976265
Full Text Available With the iron-fortified milk as research object, this paper makes a research on the influence of iron on the dielectric properties and wave absorption properties and effect of nutritional components, such as casein and whey protein in milk, and thermostability in the process of microwave heating, and rapid heat transfer method in ferrous gluconate–milk and ferrous chloride–milk, respectively. The results show that the iron of ionic form has greater influence to convert microwave to heat energy and the effect of microwave absorption properties was greater for ferrous chloride than for ferrous gluconate at high concentration. The effect of different forms of iron on the composition of milk was different, and the composition of milk systems was more stable by microwave heating, but the rapid heat transfer method is superior in the aim of increasing the nutritional value of milk. The ferrous gluconate–milk system has a better thermal stability than ferrous chloride–milk system. From the aspect of dielectric induction, the paper discovers the response rules of iron and evaluates the microwave thermal safety of the traditional and the iron-fortified products by microwave heating.
Fenwick, Eva K; Xie, Jing; Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Lim, Lyndell L; Flood, Victoria M; Finger, Robert P; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L
To explore the association between alcohol consumption and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this cross-sectional study, patients with type 2 diabetes answered questions on consumption of low and full-strength beer, white wine/champagne, red wine, fortified wines, and spirits. Never, moderate and high consumption of each alcoholic beverage, and overall alcoholic beverage consumption, were defined as 14 standard drinks/week, respectively. DR was categorized into none; non vision-threatening DR (VTDR) and VTDR. Multivariable logistic regression determined the associations between alcohol consumption and DR. Of the 395 participants (mean age±SD [standard deviation] 65.9±10.4years; males=253), 188 (47.6%) consumed alcohol and 235 (59.5%) had any DR. Compared to no alcohol consumption, moderate alcohol consumption (overall) was significantly associated with reduced odds of any DR (OR=0.47, 95% CI [confidence interval] 0.26-0.85). Moderate consumption of white wine/champagne or fortified wine was also associated with reduced odds of any DR (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.91, and OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.62, respectively). Similar results were observed for non-VTDR and VTDR. The amount and type of alcohol are associated with risk of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the protective effect of alcohol consumption and DR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gowda, Avinash; Sharma, Vivek; Goyal, Ankit; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit
Microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP) was supplemented for the fortification of α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3 fatty acid) in ice cream. Processing parameters were optimized in terms of the stage of homogenization of ice-cream mix, level of fortification (3, 4 and 5%) and flavors (vanilla, butter scotch and strawberry). Data revealed that free fatty acids increased significantly during first 15 days in all the samples and then remained constant. Peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value first increased up to 30 and 45 days, respectively; and then decreased followed by a gradual increase up to 120 days. Fatty acids profile showed 18.74-21.38% decrease in ALA content in fortified ice creams after 120 days. A serving of 100 g of freshly prepared functional ice cream was able to meet ~ 45% of the RDA (1.4 g ALA/day), which reduced to 35.37-36.56% on the end of storage i.e. 120 days. Overall, it can be concluded that MFOP was oxidative stable in ice-cream throughout the storage, which could be fortified successfully at 4% (w/w) level.
The molecule responsible for this aroma in sweet fortified wines has been identified to the sotolon. According to its content, this molecule can influence differently the aroma of wines. Less than of 300 µg/1, sotolon takes part of « prune » aroma, whereas between 300 and 600 µg/1, it is responsible for the « dried prickly-pear, dried fruit » aroma. More than of 600 µg/1, the sweet natural wines are characterised by « rancio » character. An oxidising conservation is essential for high content of sotolon. An accidental oxidising during ageing in bottle, according for instance with a poor quality of the cork, may increase the formation of this compound in some sweet fortified wines. With the same âge and for the same level of the oxidation, the red sweet natural wines have always a lower sotolon content than the whites. The presence of polyphenolic compounds, by slowing down oxidising phenomena and by reducing the accumulation of ethanal essential for the sotolon formation, explains the lower content of this molecule in the red wines. The sotolon formation in the sweet natural wines has been studied through many experimentations on wines and model solutions at the laboratory and the winery scales. We show that the formation of sotolon during conservation and oxidising ageing of sweet natural wines essentially depends on chemical phenomena.
Fallavollita, F.; Ugolini, A.
Fortresses and castles are important symbols of social and cultural identity providing tangible evidence of cultural unity in Europe. They are items for which it is always difficult to outline a credible prospect of reuse, their old raison d'être- namely the military, political and economic purposes for which they were built- having been lost. In recent years a Research Unit of the University of Bologna composed of architects from different disciplines has conducted a series of studies on fortified heritage in the Emilia Romagna region (and not only) often characterized by buildings in ruins. The purpose of this study is mainly to document a legacy, which has already been studied in depth by historians, and previously lacked reliable architectural surveys for the definition of a credible as well as sustainable conservation project. Our contribution will focus on different techniques and methods used for the survey of these architectures, the characteristics of which- in the past- have made an effective survey of these buildings difficult, if not impossible. The survey of a ruin requires, much more than the evaluation of an intact building, reading skills and an interpretation of architectural spaces to better manage the stages of documentation and data processing. Through a series of case studies of fortified buildings in ruins, we intend to describe the reasons that guided the choice of the methods and tools used and to highlight the potentials and the limits of these choices in financial terms.
Barbosa, Teresa Negreira Navarro; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo; Palma, Domingos; Ancona-Lopez, Fábio; Braga, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini
To evaluate the impact of the fortification of rolls with microencapsulated iron sulfate with sodium alginate on the hemoglobin levels in preschoolers as compared to controls. Double-blind randomized controlled trial comprised of children aged 2 to 6 years with initial hemoglobin exceeding 9 g/dL from four not-for-profit daycares randomly selected in the city of São Paulo - Brazil. Children of 2 daycares (n = 88) received rolls with fortified wheat flour as the exposed group (EC) and children of 2 daycares (n = 85) received rolls without fortification as the control group (CG) over a 24-week period. Rolls with 4 mg iron each were offered once a day, five days a week. Hemoglobin concentrations were determined in capillary blood by HemoCue® at three moments of trial: baseline (Ml), after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention (M2, M3). Hemoglobin concentration presented significant increase up to M3 in EG (11.7-12.5-12.6 g/dL) and in CG (11.1-12.4-12.3 g/dL) with higher elevations in children initially with anemia. There was significant reduction in the occurrence of anemia from 22% to 9% in EG and from 47% to 8.2% in CG at M3. Rolls fortified with microencapsulated iron sulfate were well tolerated, increased hemoglobin levels and reduced the occurrence of anemia, but with no difference compared to the control group.
Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.
This work is the third and last part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on fortified UHT low-fat milk. The milk was stored under light with an intensity of 700 lux in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying
O. O. Ologunde
Full Text Available The success of any agricultural innovation depends on its adoption by farmers. The study evaluates the determinants of adoption of vitamin A bio-fortified cassava variety among farmers by investigating the level of adoption and determinants of adoption among farmers. Three stages of random sampling procedure were used to select 240 cassava farmers. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive statistics and a logit regression model. The study revealed that the level of adoption of vitamin A bio-fortified cassava variety is low (38.72%. The study also revealed that access to media, contact with extension agents, access to vitamin A bio-fortified cassava stem, amongst others, are the determinants of adoption of vitamin A bio-fortified cassava variety in the study area. It is therefore recommended that awareness about the new cassava technology should be prioritized to sensitize the farmers, and stems of these cassava varieties should be readily made available to farmers to take advantage of the benefit of the innovation.
The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...
Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R; Zahedirad, Maliheh; Mohammadi, Mehrdad; Hosseini, S Hedayat; Abdollahi, Zahra; Salehi, Foroozan; Mirzay Razaz, Jalaledin; Shariatzadeh, Nastaran; Kalayi, Ali; Lotfollahi, Neda; Maleki, Mohammad-Reza
Bread can potentially be a suitable vehicle for fortification with vitamin D. This study was undertaken to evaluate the following: 1) the bioavailability of vitamin D from the fortified Iranian bread and 2) the possible effects of daily consumption of the fortified bread on certain health aspects. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted over 8 weeks in 90 healthy subjects aged 20-60 years. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups: 1) fortified bread (FP; 50 g bread fortified with 25 μg vitamin D3 plus placebo daily; n = 30); 2) supplement (SP; 50 g plain bread plus 25 μg vitamin D supplement daily; n = 30); and 3) control (CP; 50 g plain bread plus placebo daily; n = 30). Initial and final anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed. The within-group changes of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were 39.0 ± 22.6 (P bread could be potentially effective in raising circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of the population to nearly adequate levels.
Víctor Lluís Pérez Garcia
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze three significant examples of defensive walls from South-East Asia made of solid stone blocks (both rock as well as stone-like laterite and provided with different but equivalent functions –a fortified imperial capital-city (Angkor Thom, in Cambodia, a fortified royal citadel (Ho Citadel, in the North of Vietnam and a royal palace with a partly fortified appearance (Ratu Boko, in Java Island, Indonesia–, focusing on their constructive and technical characteristics and establishing parallels between them and their closest counterparts, from China and India. We will see how their design and structure can be closely related to the fortifications of neighbouring empires, as places of origin of their strong cultural influences and, at the same time, we will try to identify the local particularities. We will pay special attention to the form of the fortified enceintes, considering the long tradition of the quadrangular plan in the walls of royal capitals, inspired in the ideal model of Chinese and Indian cities. Our research also make us think that the walls of Ratu Boko, despite their functions as symbolic limits or for retaining the soil, could also have had a defensive purpose, no matter if secondary, or at least they could be used to provide protection to the complex in case of external menace.
... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] BioMETRX, Inc., Biopure Corp. (n/k/a PBBPC, Inc.), Distributed Energy Systems Corp., Fortified Holdings Corp., Knobias, Inc., and One IP Voice... securities of Distributed Energy Systems Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period...
Andang'o, P.E.A.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Ayah, R.; West, C.E.; Mwaniki, D.; Wolf, de C.A.; Kraaijenhagen, R.; Kok, F.J.; Verhoef, H.
Background Sodium iron edetic acid (NaFeEDTA) might be a more bioavailable source of iron than electrolytic iron, when added to maize flour. We aimed to assess the effect, on children's iron status, of consumption of whole maize flour fortified with iron as NaFeEDTA or electrolytic iron. Methods 516
Aditya, N P; Espinosa, Yadira Gonzalez; Norton, Ian T
Increased health risk associated with the sedentary life style is forcing the food manufacturers to look for food products with specific or general health benefits e.g. beverages enriched with nutraceuticals like catechin, curcumin rutin. Compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins are the good choice of bioactive compounds that can be used to fortify the food products to enhance their functionality. However due to low stability and bioavailability of these bioactives (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic) within the heterogeneous food microstructure and in the Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT), it becomes extremely difficult to pass on the real health benefits to the consumers. Recent developments in the application of nano-delivery systems for food product development is proving to be a game changer which has raised the expectations of the researchers, food manufacturers and consumers regarding possibility of enhancing the functionality of bioactives within the fortified food products. In this direction, nano/micro delivery systems using lipids, surfactants and other materials (carbohydrates, polymers, complexes, protein) have been fabricated to stabilize and enhance the biological activity of the bioactive compounds. In the present review, current status of the various delivery systems that are used for the delivery of hydrophilic bioactives and future prospects for using other delivery systems that have been not completely explored for the delivery of hydrophilic bioactives e.g. niosomes; bilosomes, cubosomes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effect of Balanced Salt Solution Plus (BSS Plus, Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA and fortified regular BSS on the cornea and lens, when used for continuous irrigation in pars plana vitrectomy (PPV surgery. Methods: Prospective, investigator masked, randomised study. Forty patients were randomly assigned to undergo PPV using BSS Plus (n=20 or fortified BSS (n=20 [regular BSS, fortified with 10.5 cc. of dextrose in water (D5W and 13.1cc. of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate]. Intraoperative features of the corneal epithelium, postoperative changes in the corneal endothelial cell denstiy (ECD at 3 months, and clarity of the lens during surgery and postoperatively were evaluated. Results: Intraoperative epithelial changes were similar in both groups with 7 (35% of the cases having the epithelium removed in the BSS Plus group and 8 (40% in the BSS fortified group (P=0.23. The mean differences in ECD (3 months versus preoperative in the operated eyes when adjusted for changes in the control eye showed no difference with the type of BSS (P=0.98. Intraoperative lens changes were more significant (P=0.018 in the BSS fortified group. Postoperative lens status at 3 months was similar for both groups. Though there was a trend towards worse postoperative nuclear sclerosis change in the BSS fortified group, it was not significant (P=0.160. Conclusion: Standard BSS fortified with dextrose and bicarbonate is an efficacious infusion fluid during pars plana vitrectomy. Both solutions showed comparable effects on postoperative corneal endothelial cell density and corneal epithelial changes intraoperatively. BSS fortified has more lenticular changes intraoperatively than BSS Plus although no lens had to be removed in either group. The study implications are important since BSS fortified is significantly less expensive than BSS Plus.
Ferrar, L; van der Hee, R M; Berry, M; Watson, C; Miret, S; Wilkinson, J; Bradburn, M; Eastell, R
Premenopausal women with low calcium intakes consumed calcium-fortified ice cream daily for 28 days. Bone markers, NTX, CTX and PTH decreased significantly by 7 days, with some evidence of a calcium dose-dependent effect. Bone marker responses were observed within 1 h of consuming ice cream. Body weight remained constant over 28 days. Dietary calcium is important for lifelong bone health. Milk is a good source of bioavailable calcium, but consumption has declined among young adults. The aims were to determine whether calcium-fortified ice cream, a palatable source of calcium, produces significant, sustainable changes in bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in premenopausal women with calcium intake below recommended UK levels. Eighty women, ages 20-39 years (calcium intake ice cream containing 96, 244, 459 or 676 mg calcium daily for 28 days. Urinary NTX/Cr, serum CTX, PINP, 1,25D and PTH were measured (baseline, days 1, 7 and 28). Acute changes in CTX and PTH were measured over 5 h (n = 29 women). There were significant mean decreases by 7 days in NTX/Cr, CTX, PTH and 1,25D and increases in PINP (one sample t tests), with a significant dose-dependent effect on CTX analysis of covariance. Only CTX remained suppressed at 28 days. Serum CTX and PTH decreased within 1 h. Body weight did not change significantly between baseline and 28 days. Daily consumption of calcium-fortified ice cream by premenopausal women may significantly reduce levels of the bone resorption marker serum CTX, without stimulating weight gain. The ice cream could be incorporated into the diet to replace low-calcium snacks and thus help individuals with habitually low calcium intakes to meet recommended intakes. The 244 mg calcium preparation would provide more than a quarter of the UK daily recommended nutrient intake for premenopausal women.
Tang, A L; Shah, N P; Wilcox, G; Walker, K Z; Stojanovska, L
The objective of this study was to enhance calcium solubility and bioavailability from calcium-fortified soymilk by fermentation with 7 strains of Lactobacillus, namely, L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, ATCC33200, ATCC 4356, ATCC 4461, L. casei ASCC 290, L. plantarum ASCC 276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. The parameters that were used are viability, pH, calcium solubility, organic acid, and biologically active isoflavone aglycone content. Calcium-fortified soymilk made from soy protein isolate was inoculated with these probiotic strains, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then stored for 14 d at 4 degrees C. Soluble calcium was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Organic acids and bioactive isoflavone aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein, were measured using HPLC. Viability of the strains in the fermented calcium-fortified soymilk was > 8.5 log(10) CFU/g after 24 h fermentation and this was maintained for 14-d storage at 4 degrees C. After 24 h, there was a significant increase (P casei ASCC 290 demonstrated the highest increase with 89.3% and 87.0% soluble calcium after 24 h, respectively. The increase in calcium solubility observed was related to lowered pH associated with production of lactic and acetic acids. Fermentation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the level of conversion of isoflavones into biologically active aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein. Our results show that fermenting calcium-fortified soymilk with the selected probiotics can potentially enhance the calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified soymilk due to increased calcium solubility and bioactive isoflavone aglycone enrichment.
Hiligsmann, M; Burlet, N; Fardellone, P; Al-Daghri, N; Reginster, J-Y
The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60 years. This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60 years. We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life years gained, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained of the recommended intake of dairy products in the general French population over 60 years for 1 year (2015). A validated microsimulation model was used to simulate three age cohorts for both women and men (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years). The incremental cost per QALY gained of vitamin D-fortified dairy products compared to the absence of appropriate intake was estimated in different populations, assuming the cost of two dairy products per day in base case. The total lifetime number of fractures decreased by 64,932 for the recommended intake of dairy products in the general population over 60 years, of which 46,472 and 18,460 occurred in women and men, respectively. In particular, 15,087 and 4413 hip fractures could be prevented in women and men. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products also resulted in 32,569 QALYs and 29,169 life years gained. The cost per QALY gained of appropriate dairy intake was estimated at €58,244 and fall below a threshold of €30,000 per QALY gained in women over 70 years and in men over 80 years. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products have the potential to substantially reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures in France and seem an economically beneficial strategy, especially in the general population aged above 70 years.
Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula
Pasta is considered as an effective carrier of prohealth ingredients in food fortification. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of antioxidant potential of wheat pasta affected by fortification with powdered parsley leaves. A special attention was paid to effectiveness of fortification in the light of proteinphenolic interactions. To improve antioxidant activity of pasta, part of wheat flour was replaced with powdered parsley leaves from 1% to 4% (w/w). The total phenolics content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using in vitro assays - abilities to scavenge free radicals (ABTS) and to reduce iron (III) (FRAP). Predicted phenolic contents and antioxidant activity were calculated. To determine the protein-phenolics interactions SE-HPLC and SDS-PAGE techniques were used. Fortification of pasta had a positive effect on its phenolic contents and antioxidant properties. The highest phenolics level and antioxidant activity of pasta were obtained by supplementation with 4% of parsley leaves. However, in most cases experimental values were significantly lower than those predicted. The protein profiles obtained after SDS-PAGE differed significantly among control and enriched pasta. Furthermore, the addition of parsley leaves to pasta resulted in increase of peaks areas obtained by SE-HPLC. Results indicate the occurrence of the protein-phenolics interactions in fortified pasta. Overall, the effectiveness of fortification and consequently biological effect is limited by many factors including interactions between phenolics and pasta proteins. In the light of this results the study of potential interaction of bioactive supplements with food matrix should be taken into account during designing new functional food products.
Full Text Available Background: Food fortification is the addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food whether or not it is normally contained in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency of one or more nutrients in the population or specific population groups. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain comprehensive in¬formation towards consumption of Targeted Fortified Products (TFP among rural and urban mothers of children < 3 years in Jaipur, India.Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2012, three hundred rural and urban mothers were selected from Primary Health Centre, Ach¬rol Village and Uniara Hospital in Jaipur, Rajasthan. The data were col¬lected using a self-administered questionnaire. The current nutritional sta¬tus of children was determined by anthropometric measurements. Results: A total of 53.33% rural and 65.33% urban mothers had know¬ledge (P=0.046, amongst which 52.67% rural and 66.00% urban mothers (P= 0.026 consumed TFP directed towards mothers. In addition, 56% rural and 94.67% urban mothers had knowledge (P=0.000 about TFP directed towards children, amongst which 19.33% rural and 50.67% urban mothers (P=0.000 fed their children with TFP.Conclusion: There was significantly less awareness regarding consump¬tion of TFP directed towards both pregnant women and children among rural when compared to urban population. Attitudes seemed to be go¬verned by the traditional beliefs and family influences of region rather than the knowledge obtained. There is a need of intensive coordinated efforts to create awareness among mothers to enhance the maternal and child diets through TFP.
Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee
In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.
Golyeva Alexandra A.
Full Text Available The article presents the first results of the comprehensive scientific research conducted on the Bulgar fortified settlement site in 2011. Samples for analysis were selected in the form of series of vertical columns from excavation walls. The species of trees used in the construction, the composition of the mud bricks and the bonding mortar, as well as the genesis of individual cultural layers have been identified. It has been found out that the settlement development and functioning had been reciprocating in nature: periods of intense habitation of its individual sections were followed by short stages of desolation. In all investigated soil columns with the cultural layers there are streaks consisting solely of phytoliths and cuticle casts. A possible explanation of the phenomenon may be that the plot was covered with layers of manure of significant length and capacity. This conclusion is debatable and requires further research.
Gainullin, I. I.; Khomyakov, P. V.; Usmanov, B. M.
Archaeological monuments are an essential part of the cultural landscape. Modern condition of archaeological monuments of the Republic of Tatarstan is discussed in this article. Fortified settlements, with the system of defensive fortifications were selected as the objects of study, as they are easily identified by remote sensing data. Due to the fact, that most of monuments are located on the small rivers banks, the first task of our study was to assess the risk of their destruction by natural processes. The second objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in archaeological sites destruction. One of the main used methods is archival and modern remote sensing data analysis that also made able to correct the form of study settlements in comparison with existing plans as well as their size and location in the landscape. The results of research will help to identify trends in monuments state and to quantify the risks of their destruction.
Philipp, Claudia; Buckow, Roman; Silcock, Pat; Oey, Indrawati
Characteristic attributes of pea-protein fortified, extruded rice snacks were evaluated by mechanical, acoustic and descriptive sensory analysis. The addition of pea protein isolate (0 to 45% (w/w)) to rice flour and extruder screw speed strongly affected the expansion behaviour and therefore, textural attributes of extruded snack products. The sensory panel described the texture of highly expanded extrudates as crisp, while low expanded extrudates were perceived as hard, crunchy and non-crisp. Results of the instrumental and sensory analysis were compared and showed a high correlation between mechanical and sensory hardness (r=0.98), as well as acoustic and sensory crispness (r=0.88). However, poor and/or negative correlations between acoustic and sensory hardness and crunchiness were observed (r=-0.35 and -0.84, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Herrero-Barbudo, Carmer; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada; Pérez-Sacristán, Belén
We assessed the bioavailability of lutein from lutein-fortified fermented milk using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Twenty-four volunteers were randomized to take lutein-fortified fermented milk at two levels of fortification. Single-dose bioavailability study (2x100 ml, ca. 8 or 16 mg of lutein) was performed using a three-point approach (baseline, 3.5 and 6.5 h). Multiple-dose study consisted of consuming one serving/day (ca. 4 or 8 mg/100 ml) for 14 days. Blood samples for biochemical, hematological and lutein analysis were drawn at baseline, Day 7 and Day 14. In vitro bioaccessibility was assessed by a static gastrointestinal digestion model. Lutein content, in vitro ester hydrolysis and micellarization, and lutein concentrations achieved in serum were analyzed by HPLC. In vivo, post-prandial response was higher using the high content fermented milk, but the percentage of absorption was not different according to the dose consumed. Net increments at Day 7 and Day 14 were significantly higher on consuming the high-dose milk as well. In vitro, lutein ester hydrolysis was incomplete regardless of the amount initially present. Free lutein released was higher using the high-dose fermented milk, but the percentage of hydrolysis was similar at both levels of fortification. In the micellar phase, the percentage of free and total lutein was not different according to the dose. Our results support the suitability of the fermented milk as a carrier of lutein esters and an in vivo dose-dependent effect upon regular consumption and suggest the usefulness of in vitro models to provide relevant information to predict in vivo responses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mara N.G. Santos
Full Text Available Context: Bio-fortified sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamarck beta-carotene rich, has been included in the most vulnerable population’s diet with the purpose of reducing health disturbances associated with hipovitaminosis. Aims:To evaluate a physical and chemical analysis of total carotenes and beta-carotene and to determine the antioxidant potential as well as to carry out a sensorial analysis of the bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamarck (BDB in nature and processed. Methods: BDB was processed as sweet (in natura, paste and syrup and physicochemical characteristics were compared, total carotenoids, beta-carotene, antioxidant activity (DPPH and microbiological and sensory analyses were performed. Results:The analysis of total carotenoids, beta-carotene and anti-oxidant potential showed the following results: BDB in nature – 11.81 mg/100 g/440.5 mg/100 g/26.30%; sweet paste – 0.61 mg/100 g/53.5 mg/100 g/53.40% and savored syrup – 0.85 mg/100 g/46.0 mg/100 g/14.30%. The methods of conservation avoided the coliforms growth at 35 and 45°C, Staphylococcus coagulasa positivo, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella in all elaborated candies. The sensorial analysis didn’t detect significant differences among the syrup or paste. Conclusions: The conservation methods have an important function keeping the physical, chemical characteristics and sensorial of BDB, although they can influence in their chemical and nutritional composition, mainly in relation to the quantity of total carotenoids and beta-carotene.
Lavelli, Vera; Corey, Mark; Kerr, William; Vantaggi, Claudia
Intermediate moisture products made from blanched apple flesh and green tea extract (about 6mg of monomeric flavan 3-ols added per g of dry apple) or blanched apple flesh (control) were produced, and their quality attributes were investigated over storage for two months at water activity (a(w)) levels of 0.55 and 0.75, at 30°C. Products were evaluated for colour (L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) Hunter's parameters), phytochemical contents (flavan 3-ols, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcones, ascorbic acid and total polyphenols), ferric reducing antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit formation of fructose-induced advanced glycation end-products. During storage of the fortified and unfortified intermediate moisture apples, water availability was sufficient to support various chemical reactions involving phytochemicals, which degraded at different rates: ascorbic acid>flavan 3-ols>dihydrochalcones and chlorogenic acid. Colour variations occurred at slightly slower rates after green tea addition. In the intermediate moisture apple, antioxidant and anti-glycoxidative properties decreased at similar rates (half-life was about 80d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C). In the green tea-fortified intermediate moisture apple, the antioxidant activity decreased at a slow rate (half-life was 165d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C) and the anti-glycoxidative properties did not change, indicating that flavan 3-ol degradation involved the formation of derivatives that retained the properties of their parent compounds. Since these properties are linked to oxidative- and advanced glycation end-product-related diseases, these results suggest that green tea fortification of intermediate moisture apple products could be a valuable means of product innovation, to address consumers' nutritional needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug−1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug−1 for streptococci and >106 cfug−1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009
Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc
Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrea Marcelo Correa
Full Text Available Introduction:The enterobacteria of the Erwinia spp genus produce disease in potatoes, which is a tuber of mass consumption. The regulation of DNA methylation can regulate the proliferation of Erwinia in such a way that the concentrations of folic acid may have an effect on the microorganism pathogenic ability. On the other hand, the folic acid prevents the appearance of neural tube defects in humans. Objective: To evaluate folic acid as a bacteriostatic agent of Erwinia and, at the same time, as part of the fortification of mass consumption food such as the potatoes. Materials and methods: The biochemical characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi was carried out and its growth compared to different concentrations of folic acid was studied. Results: When increasing the concentrations of the vitamin from 0.3 µg/L up to 6.8 µg/L, the bacterial growth of Erwinia chrysanthemi is inhibited. The vitamin inhibits the growth in cultivation of Erwinia chrysanthemi and acts as a bacteriostatic agent. This aspect is of great importance given that, theoretically, if potatoes were fortified with micro-nutrient, this would act against the infectious agent and, at the same time, contribute to the adequate intake of the vitamin in the general population.
Malnutrition during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with poor birth outcomes. This study compared maternal and offspring anthropometry for moderately malnourished pregnant women receiving ready-to-use supplemental food (RUSF), a fortified corn-soy blend (CSB+) with a daily multiple mi...
Zimmermann, M.B.; Lynch, S.R.; Bothwell, T.
Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify staple foods. This paper summarizes physical and chemical measurements that were conducted to assess the bioavailability of these iron powders relative to ferrous sulfate, along with validation of these assessments from a study with human subjects.
Full Text Available In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP, on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron and vitamin A (VA status of Cambodian schoolchildren. The FORISCA-UltraRice+NutriRice study was a double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen schools participating in WFP-SMP were randomly assigned to receive extrusion-fortified rice (UltraRice Original, UltraRice New (URN, or NutriRice or unfortified rice (placebo six days a week for six months. Four additional schools not participating in WFP-SMP were randomly selected as controls. A total of 2440 schoolchildren (6–16 years old participated in the biochemical study. Hemoglobin, iron status, estimated using inflammation-adjusted ferritin and transferrin receptors concentrations, and VA status, assessed using inflammation-adjusted retinol-binding protein concentration, were measured at the baseline, as well as at three and six months. Baseline prevalence of anemia, depleted iron stores, tissue iron deficiency, marginal VA status and VA deficiency were 15.6%, 1.4%, 51.0%, 7.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. The strongest risk factors for anemia were hemoglobinopathy, VA deficiency, and depleted iron stores (all p < 0.01. After six months, children receiving NutriRice and URN had 4 and 5 times less risk of low VA status, respectively, in comparison to the placebo group. Hemoglobin significantly increased (+0.8 g/L after three months for the URN group in comparison to the placebo group; however, this difference was no longer significant after six months, except for children without inflammation. MMFR containing VA effectively improved the VA status of schoolchildren. The impact on hemoglobin and iron status was limited, partly by sub-clinical inflammation. MMFR combined with non
Full Text Available Prebiotics play significant role in life support of microorganisms of human gastrointestinal tract, and normal functional state of intestinal biocenosis is sufficient condition for human health. Intestinal microbiocenosis is a component of regulation of proteins and lipids metabolism, vitamins synthesis, detoxication process in intestine, etc. prebiotics include a number of disaccharides (lactulose, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (inulin, cellulose, etc.. Fructose polymer — inulin — provides growth of bifido- and lactobacteria, improves metabolism and has immunomodulating activity. Formation of intestinal micro biocenosis in infant is provided by prebiotics of breast milk. Further state of micro biocenosis, which is necessary for growth and development of child, is determined by adequate intake of prebiotics from fruits, vegetables and cereals. It is reasonable to use special baby foods fortified with prebiotics (for example, inulin.Key words: prebiotics, intestinal microflora, inulin.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:121-125
Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide 600million preschool children are anemic. Of these more than 50% is due to Iron deficiency anemia (IDA. WHO and CDC (2008 reports state that low income countries have more IDA. During childhood, anemia causes growth retardation, compromised mental abilities, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development etc. Iron requirements are always high in developing countries, owing to the fact that, there is always more susceptibility of parasitic infestations and infectious diseases. Loss of appetite and anorexia is a major symptom associated with IDA. It has been postulated that even early stages of Iron deficiency can cause a iron dependent dopamine receptors which alters neuro transmission and in turn cognitive functions. (Liebel et al 1979 Alteration in dopamine is associated with altered perception, memory and motivation (Beard2001. Bhatia and Sheshadri in the year 1993, reported that, iron deficient children perform very less on psychomotor test than non- anemic children. Cognitive tasks involve hippocampal and pre-frontal complex of the brain. An iron deficiency can cause significantly low cognitive impact and behavioral change (Lozoff 2000. Indian diets contain adequate amounts of iron. Since absorption gets affected by phytates and other inhibiting factors, its bio-availability goes down. Apart from that, the intake of meat products which are rich in heme iron is low. Hence, food fortification could be the practical approach to deliberately increase the content of an essential micro-nutrient, in order to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit with minimal health risk (WHO-2004. Public health approaches towards the control and prevention of any deficienciesis to start a supplementation programme of fortification of foods with a suitable minerals and compounds. Along with Iron deficiency, prevalence of Iodine deficiency poses a great challenge to
Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide 600million preschool children are anemic. Of these more than 50% is due to Iron deficiency anemia (IDA. WHO and CDC (2008 reports state that low income countries have more IDA. During childhood, anemia causes growth retardation, compromised mental abilities, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development etc. Iron requirements are always high in developing countries, owing to the fact that, there is always more susceptibility of parasitic infestations and infectious diseases.Loss of appetite and anorexia is a major symptom associated with IDA. It has been postulated that even early stages of Iron deficiency can cause a iron dependent dopamine receptors which alters neuro transmission and in turn cognitive functions. (Liebel et al 1979 Alteration in dopamine is associated with altered perception, memory and motivation (Beard2001. Bhatia and Sheshadri in the year 1993, reported that, iron deficient children perform very less on psychomotor test than non- anemic children. Cognitive tasks involve hippocampal and pre-frontal complex of the brain. An iron deficiency can cause significantly low cognitive impact and behavioral change (Lozoff 2000.Indian diets contain adequate amounts of iron. Since absorption gets affected by phytates and other inhibiting factors, its bio-availability goes down. Apart from that, the intake of meat products which are rich in heme iron is low. Hence, food fortification could be the practical approach to deliberately increase the content of an essential micro-nutrient, in order to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit with minimal health risk (WHO-2004. Public health approaches towards the control and prevention of any deficienciesis to start a supplementation programme of fortification of foods with a suitable minerals and compounds.Along with Iron deficiency, prevalence of Iodine deficiency poses a great challenge to address
Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Tonetto, Paola; Peila, Chiara; Cresi, Francesco; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Moro, Guido E; Spada, Elena; Milani, Silvano; Giribaldi, Marzia; Antoniazzi, Sara; Conti, Amedeo; Cavallarin, Laura
Fortification of human milk is a standard practice for feeding very low birth weight infants. However, preterm infants often still experience suboptimal growth and feeding intolerance. New fortification strategies and different commercially available fortifiers have been developed. Commercially available fortifiers are constituted by a blend of ingredients from different sources, including plant oils and bovine milk proteins, thus presenting remarkable differences in the quality of macronutrients with respect to human milk. Based on the consideration that donkey milk has been suggested as a valid alternative for children allergic to cow's milk proteins, due to its biochemical similarity to human milk, we hypothesized that donkey milk could be a suitable ingredient for developing an innovative human milk fortifier. The aim of the study is to evaluate feeding tolerance, growth and clinical short and long-term outcomes in a population of preterm infants fed with a novel multi-component fortifier and a protein concentrate derived from donkey milk, in comparison to an analogous population fed with traditional fortifier and protein supplement containing bovine milk proteins. The study has been designed as a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial. Infants born milk-based multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement, or a combination of a novel multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement derived from donkey milk. The fortification protocol followed is the same for the two groups, and the two diets were designed to be isoproteic and isocaloric. Weight, length and head circumference are measured; feeding tolerance is assessed by a standardized protocol. The occurrence of sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis and adverse effects are monitored. This is the first clinical study investigating the use of a human milk fortifier derived from donkey milk for the nutrition of preterm infants. If donkey milk derived products will be shown to improve the feeding
Kelly, F; Gibney, E R; Boilson, A; Staines, A; Sweeney, M R
Neural tube defects are largely preventable by the maternal periconceptual consumption of folic acid. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of synthetic folic acid in foods and the range of food stuffs with added folic acid available to consumers in Ireland at the current time. Three audits of fortified foods available in supermarkets in the Republic of Ireland were conducted. Researchers visited supermarkets and obtained folic acid levels from nutrition labels in 2004, 2008 and 2013/4. Levels were compared using MS Excel. The profile of foods fortified with folic acid in 2013/4 has changed since 2004. The percentage of foods fortified with folic acid has decreased as has the level of added folic acid in some food staples, such as fat/dairy spreads. Bread, milk and spreads no longer contain as much folic acid as previously (2004 and 2008). This may contribute to a decrease in folate intake and therefore may contribute to an increase in NTD rates. Research on current blood concentrations of folate status markers is now warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol
This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.
Wang, Bo; Chen, Junshi; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Li, Liming
To assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce in an iron deficient population. This study was an uncontrolled, community-based, before-after study, which was implemented in three counties of Shijiazhuang Municipality. The intervention was a social mobilization and social marketing strategy. Adult women older than 20 years of age participated in the evaluation protocol. The main outcomes included KAP relevant to IDA. Cross-sectional samples were used to assess the outcomes at baseline and 1 year later. Knowledge and attitudes of adult women had changed positively, and the percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P marketing had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women in the iron deficient population.
Al-Khalidi, Banaz; Chiu, Winnie; Rousseau, Dérick; Vieth, Reinhold
To assess the bioavailability and safety of vitamin D3 from fortified mozzarella cheese baked on pizza. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 96 apparently healthy, ethnically diverse adults were randomized to consume 200 IU or 28 000 IU vitamin D3 fortified mozzarella cheese with pizza once weekly for a total of 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline (week 1) and final (week 10) visits for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other biochemical measures. The primary outcome compared serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D between groups at 10 weeks. The secondary outcome evaluated the safety of vitamin D dosing protocol as measured by serum and urine calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased by 5.1 ± 11 nmol/L in the low-dose group (n = 47; P = 0.003), and by 73 ± 22 nmol/L in the high-dose group (n = 49; P pizza.
Koo, Winston; Tice, Hilary
Use of multinutrient fortifiers is standard of care for small preterm infants fed exclusively human milk. However, adequacy of human milk fortifiers (HMFs) to meet the recommended intake for macronutrients and micronutrients is now known. Nutrient content of human milk fortified according to manufacturer's recommendations was compared at isocaloric levels for 1 human milk-based (HMF-A), 2 bovine milk protein-based (HMF-B, HMF-C), and 2 preterm infant formulas (PTF-B, PTF-C). In addition, 4 multivitamin supplements were compared. At 130 kcal/kg, intake of macronutrients was similar to the recommendation, although deficient and excess intake of micronutrient occurred with all fortifiers. Four to 9 micronutrients were absent in HMF or PTF (biotin, choline, inositol, carnitine, taurine, molybdenum, iodine, selenium, or chromium). For the remainder, HMF resulted in deficient intake for 1-13 micronutrients, occurring most frequently with HMF-A. Excess micronutrients (3-15 at <50% and 1-3 at 109%-437%) occurred with all HMF and most frequently with HMF-B and HMF-C. At 150 kcal/kg, deficient intake improved but generally remained below recommendation, while excess intake became exaggerated. PTF and multivitamin formulations do not fully compensate for the deficiencies and can result in extremely high micronutrient intake. At the recommended energy intake for very low birth weight infants, many micronutrients are absent or are present in grossly inadequate amounts, and several micronutrients are in excess. Reformulation of HMF is urgently needed since PTF or multivitamin supplement only partially corrects some deficiencies while providing some nutrients in excess. ( JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. XXXX;xx:xx-xx).
Lafraia, Joao Ricardo Barusso; Meniconi, Vitor Marcio de Marco; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Antonio Humberto Pereira de [Federacao das Industria do Estado de Minas Gerais (FIEMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Burman, Michel Jaques; Freire, Luiz Gustavo de Melo [Accenture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
The strategy to fortify the engineering activities in the downstream sector consists in the creation of the Center of Excellence in Engineering. The main objectives of the Center are the following: promote the knowledge transfer between experienced and junior professionals and retain the knowledge generated in specific engineering project. Hence the union of all those factors above will result in a valuable asset which is the development of engineering capabilities among the project team ('learn by doing methodology'). (author)
Ramón Canul, L. G.; Betancur Ancona, D. A.; Castellanos Ruelas, A. F.; Chel Guerrero, L. A.
Caloric and protein malnutrition in children has led to the development of programs that design and distribute nutritionally enhanced products in México. That is why this study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of consumption of corn tortillas fortified with lysine and tryptophan, on growth of malnourished preschool children in two rural areas of Yucatan. An original population of 156 pre-school children originated from two rural communities, Canicab and Ticopó, with ages between ...
Singh, Sujatha; Nelapati, Krishnaiah
To study the effect of different food processing techniques on the degradation of organochlorine compounds (α, β, ɣ and δ hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH)) residues in both natural and fortified samples of milk. Raw milk samples are collected from the local areas of Hyderabad, India. Naturally and fortified milk samples (HCH) were subjected to various food processing techniques, pasteurization (63ºC for ½ h), sterilization (121ºC for 15 min) and boiling for 5 min and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in milk with slight modification. The final mean residual concentration of pesticide in milk after heat processing and percentage of degradation were calculated with respective treatments. Heat treatments are highly effective on reduction of mean residual concentration of HCH in milk. In which Sterilization and boiling proved to be more effective in degradation of HCH isomers.
Full Text Available Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS, and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER, biological values (BV, and net protein utilization (NPU values of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design: To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results: The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions: The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly
THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981
Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Hanif, Abu A M; Merrill, Rebecca D; Campbell, Rebecca K; Kumkum, Mehnaz Alam; Shaikh, Saijuddin; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Parveen, Monira; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul
Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are widely used to prevent undernutrition in early childhood in food-insecure settings. We field tested enhanced Wheat Soy Blend (WSB++)-a FBF fortified with micronutrients, milk powder, sugar, and oil-in preparation for a complementary food supplement (CFS) trial in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Formative work was conducted to determine the optimal delivery method (cooked vs. not) for this CFS, to examine mothers' child feeding practices with and acceptance of the WSB++, and to identify potential barriers to adherence. Our results suggest WSB++ is an acceptable CFS in rural Bangladesh and the requirement for mothers to cook WSB++ at home is unlikely to be a barrier to its daily use as a CFS in this population.
Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.
Mullie, P; Guelinckx, I; Clarys, P; Degrave, E; Hulens, M; Vansant, G
The aim of our research was to describe cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants associated with functional food consumption. Cross-sectional design in 5000 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the functional food consumption frequency was recorded. Margarines fortified with phytosterols or phytostanols were used on a daily basis by 26.3% of the responders. Only 4.7% took a daily portion of probiotics, whereas 14.0% consumed one or more portions of nuts a week. One man out of three consumed one cup of tea daily, whereas 10.2% consumed one glass of red wine daily. Three or more portions of fruit a day were consumed by 19.1%, and two or more portions of vegetables a day by 26.6%. Only 12.3% consumed a portion of fatty fish weekly. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, use of vitamin supplements, smoking, marital status, cultural background, educational and income level, the daily consumption of fortified margarines increased with age. The consumption of fermented dairy products increased with physical activity and with the use of vitamin supplements. The consumption of fortified margarines, nuts, tea and fatty fish was strongly influenced by cultural background, with higher consumptions for Flemish-speaking men compared with French-speaking persons. Daily consumption of red wine was higher in French-speaking men and in higher educated men. Finally, functional food consumption was associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Age, physical activity, level of education, use of vitamin supplements and cultural background are predictors of functional food consumption patterns.
The study comprises a systematic and quantitative evaluation of potential intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impact vitamin C degradation in a real food matrix. The supernatant of centrifuged apple purée was fortified in vitamin C, and degradation was followed without stirring. Model discrimination indicated better fit for the zero order model than the first order model which was hence chosen for determination of rate constants. pH influenced strongly vitamin C degradation in citrate-phosph...
This commentary sketches out the politics of the expansion of affordable, fast-moving nutraceutical products into rural India, with a focus on fortified foods and beverages. It examines the relationships between industry, government and humanitarian organisations that are being forged alongside the development of markets for nutraceuticals; the production of evidence and the harnessing of science to support nutraceutical companies’ claims; the ways in which nutraceuticals are being marketed a...
Ram Janak Yadav
Full Text Available Background and Objective: The concept of food fortification is relatively uncommon in India. Hence, sometimes due to ignorance or due to paucity of research to assess the impact of fortifying supplementary food in large feeding programmes, there is an apprehension that fortification may either lead to imbalance of nutrients in the body or may not really improve the nutritional status of people consuming marginal diets. This has lead to a prudent approach in taking bold decisions to fortify the ICDS supplementary food to reduce micronutrient malnutrition in different states. The current research planned to provide empirical evidence on the impact of fortified ICDS supplementary food through a well-conducted community based research study among the children between 12-59 months under programmatic conditions in state of Uttar Pradesh. Methods: The sampling design adopted was quasi experimental design under programme conditions. The study was taken up in Kanpur dehat district of UP. The block where fortified food was to be initiated constituted the experimental universe where as those blocks where fortified food was not to be initiated form the control universe. One block namely Maitha was taken as Experimental block and Rajpur as Control block. The base line was done in both the blocks. However, no intervention with fortified food could take place in Maitha and hence substituted by neighboring block Rasulabad. This block was named as benchmark block. Later after six months; benchmark survey was done in Rasulabad block. An end line survey was done after one year of intervention in all three blocks. At the base line, care was taken that experimental block and control block match in terms of socio economic and demographic parameters. Later, while substituting Maitha by Rasulabad at bench mark stage, it was assured that these two blocks matched in terms of socio economic and demographic parameters.The sample size worked out as 750 which were
Ram Janak Yadav
Full Text Available Background and Objective: The concept of food fortification is relatively uncommon in India. Hence, sometimes due to ignorance or due to paucity of research to assess the impact of fortifying supplementary food in large feeding programmes, there is an apprehension that fortification may either lead to imbalance of nutrients in the body or may not really improve the nutritional status of people consuming marginal diets. This has lead to a prudent approach in taking bold decisions to fortify the ICDS supplementary food to reduce micronutrient malnutrition in different states. The current research planned to provide empirical evidence on the impact of fortified ICDS supplementary food through a well-conducted community based research study among the children between 12-59 months under programmatic conditions in state of Uttar Pradesh. Methods: The sampling design adopted was quasi experimental design under programme conditions. The study was taken up in Kanpur dehat district of UP. The block where fortified food was to be initiated constituted the experimental universe where as those blocks where fortified food was not to be initiated form the control universe. One block namely Maitha was taken as Experimental block and Rajpur as Control block. The base line was done in both the blocks. However, no intervention with fortified food could take place in Maitha and hence substituted by neighboring block Rasulabad. This block was named as benchmark block. Later after six months; benchmark survey was done in Rasulabad block. An end line survey was done after one year of intervention in all three blocks. At the base line, care was taken that experimental block and control block match in terms of socio economic and demographic parameters. Later, while substituting Maitha by Rasulabad at bench mark stage, it was assured that these two blocks matched in terms of socio economic and demographic parameters.The sample size worked out as 750 which were
Lu, Henna Fung Sieng
Marine phospholipids (PL) contain a high level of eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), which have documented beneficial effect on human health. In addition, marine PL are more advantageous than crude or refined fish oils. Marine PL are more resistant to oxidation, provide...... of current marine PL that was used for emulsion preparation and food application. In addition, the oxidative stability and sensory quality of marine PL fortified products varied depending on the quality and source of marine PL used for fortification. Although the attempts to incorporate marine PL into food...... better bioavailability and ability to form liposomes. All these unique properties of marine PL make them an attractive choice as ingredients for food fortification. Nowadays, a wide range of food products fortified with n-3 triglycerides (TAG) are available worldwide. However, the feasibility of using...
Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM
and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...... is generally higher in children than in adults. Conclusion: The risk of excessive intakes is relatively low for the majority of nutrients with a few exceptions. Children are the most vulnerable group as they are more likely to exhibit high intakes relative to the UL. There is a need to develop improved methods...
Dal Bello, B; Torri, L; Piochi, M; Zeppa, G
The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum. The vegetable oils were added to partially skim milk before lactic fermentation at a concentration adequate enough to cover at least 10% of the recommended daily intake of 2 g/d of α-linolenic acid according to EC regulation no. 432/2012. Microbiological (lactobacilli and streptococci, yeast, and molds), chemical (pH, syneresis, proximate composition, fatty acids, oxidation stability), and sensory evaluations were assessed for all of the fortified yogurts after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluations were conducted at 21 d of storage at 4°C. Among the yogurts produced, those that were supplemented with flaxseed and blackcurrant oils exhibited the highest α-linolenic acid content (more than 200mg/100 g of yogurt) at the end of storage. The addition of oil did not influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria that were higher than 10(7) cfu/g at 21 d of storage. All of the yogurts were accepted by consumers, except for those supplemented with raspberry and E. plantagineum oils due to the presence of off flavors. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung
The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113
Reshmi, S K; Sudha, M L; Shashirekha, M N
The aim of this study was to evaluate the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in breads incorporated with pomelo fruit (Citrus maxima) segments. Volume of the white and brown breads supplemented with pomelo fresh segments increased, while the crumb firmness decreased. Bread with 20% fresh and 5% dry pomelo segments were sensorily acceptable. Bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, naringin and carotenoids were retained to a greater extent in bread containing dry pomelo segments. The pomelo incorporated bread had higher levels of resistant starch fractions (3.87-10.96%) with low predicted glycemic index (62.97-53.13%), despite their higher total starch (69.87-75.47%) content compared to control bread. Thus pomelo segments in the product formulations lowered the glycemic index probably by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activity which could be attributed to naringin. Hence fortified bread prepared from pomelo fruit segment is recommended to gain nutritional value and to decrease the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The current study was focused on the impact of accelerated ageing (heating step on the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of fortified wines. In this sense, three Madeira wines from two commonly used grape varieties (one red and the other white were analysed during the heating, at standard (45°C, 3 months and overheating (70°C, 1 month conditions, following a precolumn derivatization procedure using iodoacetic acid, o-phthaldialdehyde, and 2-mercaptoethanol, carried out in the injection loop prior to RP-HPLC-FLD detection. Eighteen amino acids were identified, with arginine being the most abundant. An important decrease of the amino acid levels was detected during the standard heating (up to 30%, enhanced up to 61% by the temperature increase. Cysteine, histidine, and asparagine revealed the greatest decreases at 45°C. Conversely, some amino acids, such as asparagine, slightly increased. Four biogenic amines were identified but always in trace amounts. Finally, it was observed that the accelerated ageing did not favour the biogenic amine development. The results also indicate that the heating process promotes the amino acid transformation into new ageing products.
Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung
The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity.
Serb Silvana Valentina
Full Text Available The Fortified Churches from Transylvania represent an important category of historical and religious sights of the anthropic touristic potential - historic cultural potential of this region. However, they are not exploited from a touristic point of view at their fair value, one reason being the weak promoting activity, especially the lack of information among citizens about the existence of these churches. In this paper, I intend to highlight on the information level awareness among the Romanian citizens regarding the existence of these churches, to identify which are the most well known and visited churches and to establish the profile of those who visit the churches. In the end, the results of this research impose a set of measures to improve the level of information among the Romanian citizens concerning the existence of this historic and religious heritage. The paper is relevant for the doctoral research project called Marketing Places - religious and historical sights of touristic interest from Transylvania under the guidance of Professor Doctor Marius Pop, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, during 1st of October 2009 - 1st of October 2012.
Cibulskis, C C; Armbrecht, E S
To compare the incidence of metabolic acidosis and feeding intolerance associated with powdered or acidified liquid human milk fortifier (HMF). This retrospective study evaluated infants ⩽ 32 weeks gestational age or ⩽ 1500 g birth weight who received human milk with either powdered or acidified liquid HMF (50 consecutively born infants per group). Primary outcomes tracked were metabolic acidosis (base excess less than -4 mmol l(-1) or bicarbonate less than 18 mmol l(-1)), feeding intolerance (gastric residual > 50% feed volume, > 3 loose stools or emesis per day, abdominal tenderness or distention), necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset infection, death, length of hospital stay and ability to remain on HMF. Demographics, feeding practices, growth parameters and laboratory data were also collected. Significantly more infants who received acidified liquid HMF developed metabolic acidosis (P acidosis or feeding intolerance than those on powdered HMF (P acidosis and to be switched off HMF than those who received powdered HMF. Growth in the liquid HMF group was no different than the powdered group, despite higher protein intake.
Full Text Available In this study, yoghurt was produced from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk with whey protein isolate (3 % w/v and fortified with 3 % (w/v traditional samphire molasses (TSM (YTSM, 3 % (w/v TSM+0.1% (w/v κ-carrageenan (YTSMC or 3 % (w/v TSM+0.05 % (w/v xanthan gum (YTSMX. In yoghurt samples, physical-chemical properties, texture, color and sensory analysis were determined on the 1st, 5th, 10th and 14th days of storage, while total phenolics (TF levels were determined on the 14th, 24th, 32nd, 48th, 72nd, 120th, 240th and 336th hours of storage. In all samples during storage, hardness and viscosity increased along with the acidity increase, although the increases in YTSM and YTSMC were lower than in YTSMX. In YTSMX, in spite of the increase in acidity after the 1st day, serum separation was very low while viscosity and hardness values were higher compared to the other samples. YTSMX was found to be superior to the other samples in terms of physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory properties. Total phenolic contents and L*a*b* levels increased in all samples throughout storage, the highest values of which were in YTSMX. After the 5th day of the storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus became the dominant microbial flora. After the 5th day of storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus levels were highest in YTSMX.
Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing
To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E(R)), control rural (C(R)), experimental urban (E(U)), and control urban (C(U)). Urban and rural areas in Guizhou province, China. Women 19 to 70 years old (n = 193 in rural areas and n = 179 in urban areas). A mass-media campaign to promote use of FeSS was conducted throughout Guizhou province. In the intervention areas, social marketing strategies using integrated 6 Ps (product, price, place, promotion, policy, and partnership) were implemented from December 2004 to February 2006. Knowledge of FeSS; benefits, barriers, and intention to purchase; availability of FeSS; behaviors regarding purchase and use of FeSS. Analysis of covariance, paired T test and cross-tabulations were used. The alpha level was set at .05. Compared with the baseline, perceived benefits of FeSS, barriers (BARRI) and intention to buy (INTEN) significantly improved within both experimental groups (P marketing of FeSS is feasible and effective to improve knowledge, perception (perceived benefits and overcoming barriers), intention to purchase, and consumption of FeSS among women in Guizhou, China.
Bugarchev Alexey I.
Full Text Available The authors analyze new numismatic finds from Bolgar fortified settlement, dig CLXXXV, which was excavated in 2013. All numismatic findings (240 coins can be divided into three groups: stray silver coins – 23 pieces dating to the 13th – 14th centuries, a hoard of silver coins – 37 dangs of the 14th century, and copper dinars and pools of the 13th – 14th centuries – 180 pieces. Most of these were coined by the mint in Bolgar (Bolgar al-Makhrusa – 82 pieces. Other coins represents mints in Saray (Saray al-Makhrusa, Saray al-Dzhadid, Gulistan, the Crimea and Mokhsha. Chronologically, most coins are dated by the middle of the 13th century – 44 copies, and by 1330s –1340s – 91 pieces. Although the structure of the hoard is typical for Bulgar hoards of the 14th century, this one is particularly valuable for the fact that its exact location is known precisely. Numerous copper coins allow undertaking a metrological analysis for each group – the copper dinars of the 13th century and the pools of the 1320s – early 1360s. The youngest dang in the hoard dates to 1362–1363, as the pools of Hyzr Khan do. This made the authors to infer that the monetary circulation in this part of the city stopped in the first half of the 1360s.
Mills, S R; Wilcox, C R; Ibrahim, K; Roberts, H C
Undernutrition affects over 44% of hospitalised older people, who often dislike oral nutritional supplements (ONS). This review summarises the evidence for an alternative strategy, using energy and protein dense meals (via fortification) or snacks (supplementation) to increase the dietary energy and protein intake of older inpatients. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews (May 1996 to May 2016) that used fortification or supplementation to increase the energy or protein intake of patients (mean age ≥60 years) in hospitals or rehabilitation centres. Ten articles (546 patients, mean age 60-83 years) were identified. Compared with usual nutritional care, six studies using either energy or protein based fortification and supplementation significantly increased intake of energy (250-450 kcal day -1 ) or protein (12-16 g day -1 ). Two studies enriched menus with both energy and protein, and significantly increased both energy (698 kcal day -1 and 21 kJ kg -1 ) and protein (16 g and 0.2 g kg -1 ) intake compared to usual care. ONS was similar to supplementation in one study but superior to fortification in another. Four studies reported good acceptability of enriched products and two studies that found they were cost-effective. Compared with usual nutritional care, energy- and protein-based fortification and supplementation could be employed as an effective, well-tolerated and cost-effective intervention to improve dietary intake amongst older inpatients. This strategy may be particularly useful for patients with cognitive impairment who struggle with ONS, and clinical trials are required to compare these approaches and establish their impact on functional outcomes. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.
NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The length of proposed Mars missions and the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system, which will need a five-year shelf life. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortification nutrients will remain stable through a long duration exploration mission at sufficient levels if compatible formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX) such that the vitamin concentration per serving equaled 25% of the recommended daily intake after two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermo-stabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced, with and without the vitamin premix, to assess the impact of the added fortification on color and taste and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The addition of fortification to spaceflight foods did not greatly alter the organoleptic properties of most products. In most cases, overall acceptability scores remained above 6.0 (minimum acceptable score) following six months and one year of low-temperature storage. Likewise, the color of fortified products appears to be preserved over one year of storage. The only exceptions were Grilled pork Chop and Chicken Noodle Soup whose individual components appeareddegrade rapidly over one year of storage. Finally, most vitamins appeared to be stable during long-term storage. The only exception was thiamin, which degraded rapidly during the first year of storage at
Hasler, Clare M; Brown, Amy C
All foods are functional at some physiological level, but it is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that functional foods that include whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. ADA supports research to further define the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Health claims on food products, including functional foods, should be based on the significant scientific agreement standard of evidence and ADA supports label claims based on such strong scientific substantiation. Food and nutrition professionals will continue to work with the food industry, allied health professionals, the government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding functional foods and thus should continue to educate themselves on this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, from plant, animal, and microbial food sources, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk and health promotion. This position paper reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this evolving area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer be evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient content alone. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components and evaluating their role in health promotion will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration
Gelli, Aulo; Al-Shaiba, Najeeb; Espejo, Francisco
The provision of food in and through schools has been used to support the education, health, and nutrition of school-aged children. The monitoring of financial inputs into school health and nutrition programs is critical for a number of reasons, including accountability, transparency, and equity. Furthermore, there is a gap in the evidence on the costs, cost-efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of providing food through schools, particularly in areas of high food insecurity. To estimate the programmatic costs and cost-efficiency associated with providing food through schools in food-insecure, developing-country contexts, by analyzing global project data from the World Food Programme (WFP). Project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The average yearly expenditure per child, standardized over a 200-day on-site feeding period and an average ration, excluding school-level costs, was US$21.59. The costs varied substantially according to choice of food modality, with fortified biscuits providing the least costly option of about US$11 per year and take-home rations providing the most expensive option at approximately US$52 per year. Comparisons across the different food modalities suggested that fortified biscuits provide the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery (particularly vitamin A and iodine), whereas on-site meals appear to be more efficient in terms of calories delivered. Transportation and logistics costs were the main drivers for the high costs. The choice of program objectives will to a large degree dictate the food modality
Solon, Florentino S; Sarol, Jesus N; Bernardo, Allan B I; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Mehansho, Haile; Sanchez-Fermin, Liza E; Wambangco, Lorena S; Juhlin, Kenton D
This study aimed to determine the effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage on the micronutrient status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of schoolchildren assigned to receive either the fortified or nonfortified beverage with or without anthelmintic therapy. Data on hemoglobin level, urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level, physical fitness, and cognitive performance were collected at baseline and at 16 weeks post-intervention. The fortified beverage significantly improved iron status among the subjects that had hemoglobin levels performance (nonverbal mental ability score). The study showed that consumption of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage for 16 weeks had significant effects on iron status, iodine status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance among iron- and/or iodine-deficient Filipino schoolchildren. Anthelmintic therapy improved iron status of anemic children and iodine status of the iron-adequate children at baseline but it had no effect on physical fitness and cognitive performance. The results from the clinical study showed that a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage could play an important role in preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies.
Wahyuni, H. I.; Suthama, N.; Mangisah, I.; Krismiyanto, L.
The research aimed to evaluate meat calcium and protein content of local chicken fed diet fortified with a combination of Lactobacillus sp and Dahlia Inulin. One hundred and twenty birds of 4 months old local chicken with average body weight of 1001 g were assigned in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were the farmer formulated ration (FF) and the improved ration (IR), fortified with 1.2% inulin and 1.2 ml Lactobacillus sp. (FFIL and IRIL). Parameters were calcium retention, protein coefficient digestibility, meat calcium and protein mass, and cumulative body weight gain. The results showed that all parameters were significantly affected by dietary treatments. The improved ration resulted in higher calcium retention and protein coefficient digestibility than the farmer formulated ration when fed by both with and without fortification of dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. Meat protein mass of chicken fed by both FR and IR fortified with dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. showed higher value than chicken fed by unfortified FR and IR. Cumulative body weight gain of chicken fed by both FR and IR fortified with dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. also showed higher value than chicken fed by without fortification. In conclusion, both FR and IR fortified with dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. improved meat protein mass and cumulative body weight gain, especially the farmer formulated ration was pronouncedly improved by fortification of Lactobacillus sp. and dahlia inulin.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are 146 million underweight children in the developing world, which contribute to up to half of the world's child deaths. In high burden regions for malnutrition, the treatment of individual children is limited by available resources. Here, we evaluate a large-scale distribution of a nutritional supplement on the prevention of wasting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A new ready-to-use food (RUF was developed as a diet supplement for children under three. The intervention consisted of six monthly distributions of RUF during the 2007 hunger gap in a district of Maradi region, Niger, for approximately 60,000 children (length: 60-85 cm. At each distribution, all children over 65 cm had their Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC recorded. Admission trends for severe wasting (WFH<70% NCHS in Maradi, 2002-2005 show an increase every year during the hunger gap. In contrast, in 2007, throughout the period of the distribution, the incidence of severe acute malnutrition (MUAC<110 mm remained at extremely low levels. Comparison of year-over-year admissions to the therapeutic feeding program shows that the 2007 blanket distribution had essentially the same flattening effect on the seasonal rise in admissions as the 2006 individualized treatment of almost 60,000 children moderately wasted. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the potential for distribution of fortified spreads to reduce the incidence of severe wasting in large population of children 6-36 months of age. Although further information is needed on the cost-effectiveness of such distributions, these results highlight the importance of re-evaluating current nutritional strategies and international recommendations for high burden areas of childhood malnutrition.
Schauss, Alexander G; Clewell, Amy; Balogh, Lajos; Szakonyi, Ilona Pasics; Financsek, Istvan; Horváth, János; Thuroczy, Julianna; Béres, Erzsébet; Vértesi, Adél; Hirka, Gabor
The safety of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active®, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 μg/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active® juice is non-toxic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engle-Stone, Reina; Nankap, Martin; Ndjebayi, Alex O; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Killilea, David W; Gimou, Marie-Madeleine; Houghton, Lisa A; Friedman, Avital; Tarini, Ann; Stamm, Rosemary A; Brown, Kenneth H
Background: Few data are available on the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification programs. Objective: We assessed the impact of mandatory wheat flour fortification on micronutrient status in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon. Methods: We conducted representative surveys 2 y before and 1 y after the introduction of fortified wheat flour. In each survey, 10 households were selected within each of the same 30 clusters ( n = ∼300 households). Indicators of inflammation, malaria, anemia, and micronutrient status [plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12] were assessed among women aged 15-49 y and children 12-59 mo of age. Results: Wheat flour was consumed in the past 7 d by ≥90% of participants. Postfortification, mean total iron and zinc concentrations of flour samples were 46.2 and 73.6 mg/kg (target added amounts were 60 and 95 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal anemia prevalence was significantly lower postfortification (46.7% compared with 39.1%; adjusted P = 0.01), but mean hemoglobin concentrations and child anemia prevalence did not differ. For both women and children postfortification, mean plasma concentrations were greater for ferritin and lower for sTfR after adjustments for potential confounders. Mean plasma zinc concentrations were greater postfortification and the prevalence of low plasma zinc concentration in women after fortification (21%) was lower than before fortification (39%, P 50% greater postfortification. Conclusion: Although the pre-post survey design limits causal inference, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12 status increased among women and children in urban Cameroon after mandatory wheat flour fortification.
Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor
The US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has grouped foods and beverages into three classes: "Go," "Slow," and "Whoa," as part of a children's guide to eating right. Using nutrient composition data in the 2004 Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, this descriptive study compared the Go, Slow, and Whoa food classes to tertiles of food rankings generated by the Nutrient Rich Foods Index. A total of 1,045 foods and beverages were first assigned into Go, Slow, and Whoa classes and then ranked by the Nutrient Rich Foods Index nutrient profile model. The Nutrient Rich Foods Index model was based on nine nutrients to encourage: protein, fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, calcium, iron, magnesium, and potassium; and on three nutrients to limit: saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium, all calculated per 100 calories. Both the Go, Slow, and Whoa and the Nutrient Rich Foods Index models readily distinguished between energy-dense and nutrient-rich beverages and foods, and the three Go, Slow, and Whoa classes closely corresponded to tertiles of Nutrient Rich Foods Index scores. There were some disagreements in the class assignment of fortified cereals, some dairy products, and diet beverages. Unlike the Go, Slow, and Whoa model, the Nutrient Rich Foods Index model produced continuous scores that could be used to rank foods within a given class. The study provides an illustration of how diverse nutrient profiling systems can be used to identify healthful foods and beverages. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nichols, Erin; Aburto, Nancy; Masa'd, Hanan; Wirth, James; Sullivan, Kevin; Serdula, Mary
The iron spot test (IST) is a simple qualitative technique for determining the presence of added iron in fortified flour. IST performance in bread has never been investigated. If found to perform well, the IST has the potential to provide a field-friendly method for testing bread and thus support the monitoring and evaluation of flour fortification programs. To assess the performance of the IST in Arabic bread made from white wheat flour. Bread samples were collected from 1,737 households during a national micronutrient survey in Jordan. A subsample of Arabic bread (n = 44) was systematically selected for testing by both the IST and spectrophotometry (criterion reference). Performance measures (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) were calculated using five cutoffs to define the presence of added iron, including > or = 15.0 ppm (approximate level of natural iron in Arabic bread) and four additional cutoffs based on test performance. The iron contents of samples testing negative by IST ranged from 10.4 to 18.4 ppm, with one outlier at 41.0 ppm, which was excluded from subsequent analyses. The iron contents of samples testing positive by IST ranged from 16.1 to 38.4 ppm. With the exception of negative predictive values for the two lowest cutoffs (> or = 15.0 and > or = 16.1 ppm), all performance measures exceeded 83.3%. These results show promise for the IST as an inexpensive, field-friendly method for testing bread that could have a useful role in the monitoring and evaluation process for flour fortification programs.
Sriwattana, S; Laokuldilok, N; Prinyawiwatkul, W
A 3-component mixture experiment was used to optimize the formulation of broken-rice based snack fortified with protein and fiber based on consumer sensory acceptability. Soy protein isolate and guar gum were used as a good source of protein and fiber, respectively, according to DRV (daily reference value) based on a 2000-calorie diet. A consumer panel evaluated sensory acceptability of color, crispness, and flavor, and overall liking of 12 experimental broken-rice based snack formulations. Predicted models derived from the restricted nonintercept regression analysis were used to plot mixture response surfaces (MRS) of each sensory attribute. Areas within the MRS plots having predicted acceptability scores of at least 6.5 (on a 9-point hedonic scale) for color, crispness, flavor, and overall liking were selected to derive a predicted optimum formulation range. Flavor acceptability was a limiting factor in attaining the optimum formulation range, which consisted of 40% to 48% broken-rice flour, 8% to 16% guar gum, and 20% to 33% soy protein isolate. To verify the obtained predicted models, the formulation containing 48% broken-rice flour, 8% guar gum, and 20% soy protein isolate, which was located in the optimum area, was chosen to support our effort to utilize and add value to broken rice. Selected physicochemical measurements of the chosen optimized formulation were determined. One serving size (30 g) of the chosen optimized snack product provided 6.58 g protein and 3.80 g dietary fiber, which met the US FDA definition of a good source of protein and dietary fiber.
Economos, Christina D; Moore, Carolyn E; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kuder, Julia; Chen, Tai; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Meydani, Mohsen; Klein, Ellen; Biancuzzo, Rachael M; Holick, Michael F
Provision of fortified juices may provide a convenient method to maintain and increase blood fat-soluble vitamins. To determine whether children consuming orange juice fortified with calcium and combinations of vitamins D, E, and A could increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], α-tocopherol, and retinol levels. A 12-week randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. One hundred eighty participants (aged 8.04±1.42 years) were recruited at Tufts (n=70) and Boston University (n=110) during 2005-2006. Of those recruited, 176 children were randomized into three groups: CaD (700 mg calcium+200 IU vitamin D), CaDEA (700 mg calcium+200 IU vitamin D+12 IU vitamin E+2,000 IU vitamin A as beta carotene), or Ca (700 mg calcium). Children consumed two 240-mL glasses of CaD, CaDEA, or Ca fortified orange juice daily for 12 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, and retinol concentrations. Changes in 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, retinol, and parathyroid hormone concentrations were examined. Covariates included sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and baseline 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, retinol, or parathyroid hormone levels. Multivariate models and repeated measures analysis of variance tested for group differences with pre-post measures (n=141). Baseline 25(OH)D was 68.4±27.7 nmol/L (27.4±11.10 ng/mL) ), with 21.7% of participants having inadequate 25(OH)D (vitamin D and 12 IU vitamin E increased 25(OH)D and α-tocopherol concentrations in young children within 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koistinen, Ville M; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati
in an in vitro colon model, the metabolites were analyzed using two different methods applying mass spectrometry. While phenolic acids were released more extensively from the bioprocessed bran bread and ferulic acid had consistently higher concentrations in the bread type during fermentation, there were only......Cereal bran is an important source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids. We aimed to study the phenolic acid metabolism of native and bioprocessed rye bran fortified refined wheat bread and to elucidate the microbial metabolic route of phenolic acids. After incubation...
Jensen, C B; Gamborg, M; Berentzen, T L
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prenatal vitamin-D deficiency may be associated with increased risk of obesity later in life. Using two national vitamin-D fortification programs as the setting for a societal experiment, we investigated whether exposure to vitamin-D from fortified margarine and low-fat milk...... during foetal life was associated with body size at 7 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Vitamin-D fortification of margarine was mandatory in Denmark from 1961 to 1985, and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk was permitted from 1972 to 1976. Using information on body mass index (BMI) Z-score at the age...
Huo, Jun Sheng; Yin, Ji Yong; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Lu, Zhen Xin; Regina, Moench-Pfanner; Chen, Jun Shi; Chen, Chun Ming
To assess the effect of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA)-fortified soy sauce on anemia prevalence in the Chinese population. A systematic review was performed to identify potential studies by searching the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, WHO Library, HighWire, CNKI, and other sources. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce with that of non-fortified soy sauce. Anemia rates and hemoglobin levels were the outcomes of interest. Inclusion decisions, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria for anemia rate analysis, of which 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for hemoglobin analysis. All included studies assessed the effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on anemia rates and hemoglobin concentrations. After the intervention, the hemoglobin concentration increased and anemia rates decreased significantly as compared with the non-fortified soy sauce groups. For anemia rates, data from 16 studies could be pooled, and the pooled estimate odds ratio was 0.25 (95% CI 0.19-0.35). For hemoglobin concentrations, data from 12 studies could be pooled, and the pooled weighted mean difference was 8.81 g/L (95% CI 5.96-11.67). NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce has a positive effect on anemia control and prevention in the at-risk population. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Casey, P.J.; Speckman, K.R.; Ebert, F.J.; Hobbs, W.E.
A radioisotope dilution (RID) method for the determination of vitamin B 12 is presented. The method combines a standard extraction procedure (AOAC 43.108, 12th ed.) with a commercially available RID assay kit. The method was evaluated on a wide range of fortified and unfortified food products. Recovery studies on both groups yielded average recoveries of 98.1 and 95.8%, respectively. Reproducibility data generated from replicate analysis on both groups gave a relative standard deviation of 6.9% for the fortified group and 9.2% for the unfortified group. For the samples studied, the mean vitamin B 12 content determined by the RID method was 8.01 μ/100 g vs a mean of 7.54 μg/100 g by the AOAC microbiological method; the correlation coefficient was r = 0.983
Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo; Kim, Soyoung
This study attempted to determine the effects of restrictions on television (TV) food advertising on children's food environments in South Korea. It examined changes that occurred in the marketing mix of food companies following enactment of those restrictions. An on-line survey was conducted with marketers or R&D managers of 108 food companies. A questionnaire was used to inquire about changes that occurred in Product, Place, Price and Promotion as a result of the restrictions placed on TV food advertising. Analysis was performed on the data collected from the responding 63 food companies (58.3%). The results of their answers showed that among the four marketing mix components the restrictions exerted relatively stronger effects on Product. Effects were stronger on companies that produced foods within the product categories of Energy-Dense and Nutrient-Poor foods (EDNP companies) in comparison with companies that did not (non-EDNP companies). The restrictions exerted positive effects on EDNP companies with respect to compliance with labeling requirements and reinforcement of nutritional contents examination, as well as changes to products such as reducing unhealthy ingredients and fortifying nutrients. Overall, the results revealed the possibility that restrictions on TV food advertising could improve children's food environments by encouraging EDNP companies to make favorable product changes. On the one hand, the results also found that some food companies attempted to bypass the regulations by changing marketing channels from TV to others and by reducing product serving sizes. Thus, future measures should be implemented to prevent food companies from bypassing regulations and to control children's exposure to marketing channels other than TV.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...
Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...
Full Text Available The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA], and the Hen’s Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used
Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad
The objective of this study was to evaluate different antioxidants for anthocyanin (ACY) retention in vitamin C fortified cranberry juice and assess its quality. Cranberry juice was fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and added hesperidin, catechin, and gallic acid at different concentrations. Juice was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. ACYs, vitamin C, color intensity, and browning index (BI) were evaluated at 2-day intervals. Gallic acid was found to be the most effective antioxidant against ACYs degradation and significantly (p<0.05) increased red color intensity by 37% and ACY concentration by 41%, compared to the control. After 16-day storage, the BI of gallic acid-added juice was significantly lower (0.80 vs 1.00) than the control juice. The outcome of this research provided a potential solution of using gallic acid to preserve a health-beneficial component (ACYs), and endogenous red color in cranberry juice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad
Color degradation in cranberry juice during storage is the most common consumer complaint. To enhance nutritional quality, juice is typically fortified with vitamin C. This study determined effect of gallic acid, a natural antioxidant, for the preservation of anthocyanins (ACYs) and color, and estimated kinetics of ACYs and color degradation. Juice, fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and 0-320mg/100mL gallic acid, was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. Total monomeric anthocyanins and red color intensity were evaluated spectrophotometrically and data were used to determine degradation rate constants (k values) and order of reaction (n) of ACYs and color. Due to high correlation, k and n could not be estimated simultaneously. To overcome this difficulty, both n and k were held at different constant values in separate analyses to allow accurate estimation of each. Parameters n and k were modeled empirically as functions of vitamin C, and of vitamin C and gallic acid, respectively. Reaction order n ranged from 1.2 to 4.4, and decreased with increasing vitamin C concentration. The final model offers an effective tool that could be used for predicting ACYs and color retention in cranberry juice during storage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Aguirre Arenas, Judith; Chávez Villasana, Adolfo; Medina Carranza, Blanca Estela; García Villegas, Elsy Aidee; Carrasco Quintero, María del Refugio; Guarneros Soto, Noé
To estimate changes in anemia status in preschool age children at 9 months after the provision of soy- and iron-fortified cornflour. A non-experimental pre-post evaluation study was performed in a sample of 98 boys and 96 boys aged between 6 and 24 months. We analyzed demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical variables. During the 9-month period, the hemoglobin level increased from 11.0 to 11.9 mg/dL (p<0,001). The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <11.0mg/dL) decreased from 52.6% to 25.3% (p<0,001). The indicators of height for age and body mass index changed from -2.1 (-5.5 to 2.8) to -2.3 (-6.5 to 1.3) (p<0,001) and from 0,4 (-3.1 to 2.9) to 0,7 (-2.2 to 3.9) (p<0,001), respectively. The decreased prevalence of anemia suggests that the provision of soy- (3%) and iron-fortified flour is a viable alternative for combating childhood anemia. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Magsadia, Clarita R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Lloyd, Beate B.; Hilmers, David C.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
This study evaluated the effects of a multi-micronutrient fortified juice drink given in different frequencies of consumption on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of schoolchildren. Hb was measured in 2423 schoolchildren aged 6- to 9-years-old at baseline. All anemic children (n = 246) were randomly allocated into groups: Daily dose (HD: high dose), 5X/week (MD: Moderate Dose), 3X/week (LD: Low Dose) and unfortified (Control). Pre- and post-study measurements of micronutrients were collected from 228 children. At the endpoint, significant Hb increases were observed in all groups, but there was no significant difference between groups. There was a significant reduction in anemia prevalence in all groups from 100% to 36% (Control), 30% (LD), 23% (MD) and 26% (HD). No dose-response effect was observed in Hb in this population. Most likely, this resulted from better than expected micronutrient status and lower than expected severity of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in this cohort. It is unlikely that the addition of a fortified beverage to school feeding programs in this population would have a positive impact. Whether such an intervention would be cost-effective as a preventative approach needs to be assessed. This study demonstrates the importance of targeting such interventions to appropriate populations. PMID:28895887
Ramaiah, K D; Thiruvengadam, B; Vanamail, P; Subramanian, S; Gunasekaran, S; Nilamani, N; Das, P K
A diethylcarbamazine (DEC)-fortified salt intervention programme was implemented between 1982 and 1986 in Karaikal district, Union territory of Pondicherry, south India, to control Culex transmitted bancroftian filariasis. The intervention reduced the microfilaria (Mf) rate from 4.49% to 0.08%. To eliminate the residual microfilaraemia, the health department detected and treated Mf carriers from 1987 to 2005 and mass-administered drugs in 2004 and 2005. Surveillance from 1987 to 2005 revealed persistent microfilaraemia in 0.03-0.42% of the population. In 2006, we conducted a more detailed Mf survey and a child antigenaemia (Ag) survey in 15 urban wards and 17 rural villages. These surveys showed an overall Mf rate of 0.46% in the high-risk urban areas and 0.18% in the rural areas; none of the sampled children was positive for Ag. All detected Mf carriers were >20 years old. The age of the youngest Mf carrier was 30 years in urban and 21 years in rural areas, which suggests that transmission was interrupted and there was no incidence of new Mf case after cessation of DEC salt programme. Eleven of 15 urban and 15 of 17 villages were totally free from microfilaraemia. Nevertheless, three of 15 surveyed urban localities and two of 17 villages showed >1% Mf rate. Thus, it seems that (i) post-intervention very low levels of microfilaraemia can continue as long as 20 years; (ii) 0.60-0.70% Mf rate is a safe level and at this level recrudescence of infection may not occur; (iii) there can be isolated localities with >1% Mf rate and their detection for further intervention measures could be challenging in larger control/elimination programmes and (iv) the residual infection mostly gets concentrated in the adult population, in underdeveloped urban areas and in historically highly endemic or large endemic rural areas. These groups and areas should be targeted with rigorous intervention measures such as mass drug administration to eliminate the residual infection.
Full Text Available The use of human milk fortifiers (HMF helps to meet the high nutritional requirements of the human milk-fed premature infant. Previously available powdered products have not met the protein requirements of the preterm infant population and many neonatologists add powder protein modulars to help meet protein needs. The use of powdered products is discouraged in neonatal intensive care units (NICU due to concern for invasive infection. The use of a commercially available acidified liquid product with higher protein content was implemented to address these two concerns. During the course of this implementation, poor growth and clinically significant acidosis of infants on Acidified Liquid HMF (ALHMF was observed. The purpose of this study was to quantify those observations by comparing infant outcomes between groups receiving the ALHMF vs. infants receiving powdered HMF (PHMF. A retrospective chart review compared outcomes of human milk-fed premature infants <2000 g receiving the ALHMF (n = 23 and the PHMF (n = 46. Infant growth, enteral feeding tolerance and provision, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, metabolic acidosis, and diaper dermatitis were compared between the two groups. No infants were excluded from this study based on acuity. Use of ALHMF resulted in a higher incidence of metabolic acidosis (p = 0.002. Growth while on HMF as measured in both g/kg/day (10.59 vs. 15.37, p < 0.0001 and in g/day (23.66 vs. 31.27, p = 0.0001 was slower in the ALHMF group, on increased mean cal/kg/day (128.7 vs. 117.3, p = 0.13 with nearly twice as many infants on the ALHMF requiring increased fortification of enteral feedings beyond 24 cal/ounce to promote adequate growth (48% vs. 26%, p = 0.10. Although we were not powered to study NEC as a primary outcome, NEC was significantly increased in the ALHMF group. (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.03. Use of a LHMF in an unrestricted NICU population resulted in an increase in clinical complications within a high
Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; González de Cosío, Teresa
Inadequate complementary feeding partially explains micronutrient deficiencies in the first 2 y of life. To prevent malnutrition, the Mexican government implemented the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which transferred either food baskets containing micronutrient-fortified milk and animal food products or cash to beneficiary families along with educational sessions. This study evaluated the impact of PAL on 2 indicators of complementary feeding: minimum dietary diversity and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods in children aged 6-23 mo. A secondary analysis of the original PAL evaluation design was conducted through a randomized community trial implemented with 3 intervention groups (food basket with education, food basket without education, and cash transfer with education) and a control. The impact of PAL after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in 2 cross-sectional groups of children aged 6-23 mo at baseline and at follow-up in a panel of 145 communities by using difference-in-difference models. Only children who lived in households and communities that were similar between treatment groups at baseline were included in the analysis. These children were identified by using a propensity score. Of the 3 intervention groups, when compared with the control, only the food basket without education group component increased the consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods by 31.2 percentage points (PP) (P diversity by 21.6 PP (P effective than cash transfers. The fact that the 2 food basket groups differed in the observed impact does not allow for more convincing conclusions to be made about the education component of the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01304888. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka
A chronic disease/risk factor prevention framework with three policy environments--communications, physical and economic--was used to organize population level interventions that address the "over consumption of dietary salt", a key risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The framework was then used to map the population based strategies to reduce dietary salt consumption being applied in three countries in the Americas--Argentina, Canada and Chile--each with a history of multi-sector approaches to deal with the risk factors for chronic disease, offering a north versus south perspective. Results show that in all three countries policy instruments are concentrated in the communications environment, e.g., media and education campaigns and/or regulations for standardized information on the salt or sodium content of packaged food products. Notable gaps are the requirement for nutrient information on meals and food items prepared by food establishments and restrictions on advertising and marketing of foods to children. In the physical environment, referring to the sodium levels in commercially prepared foods and meals available on the market, voluntary reformulation of food products is underway at this time in the three countries. Argentina and Chile began with bread and have gradually added other food categories; Canada at the outset is addressing all food categories where products have added salt. Argentina alone is at this point actively approaching regulations to limit the salt content of food, preferring this over ongoing monitoring of voluntary targets. No government in the three counties has yet considered action in the economic environment, a complex area where the research on and initiatives to limit or disadvantage energy-dense food products to address obesity may also capture foods that are highly salted. In the meantime, with recent research estimating substantially higher gains in population health from government legislation to limit salt in foods
Noonan, Gregory O; Ackerman, Luke K; Begley, Timothy H
Metal food and drink cans are commonly coated with epoxy films made from phenolic polymers produced from bisphenol A (BPA). It is well established that residual BPA monomer migrates into can contents during processing and storage. While a number of studies have reported BPA concentrations in foods from foreign markets and specialty foods on the U.S. market, very few peer-reviewed data for the BPA concentrations in canned food from the U.S. market were available. This study quantified BPA concentrations in 78 canned and two frozen food products from the U.S. market using an adaptation of a previously reported liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The tested products represented 16 different food types that are from the can food classifications that constitute approximately 65% of U.S. canned food sales and canned food consumption. BPA was detected in 71 of the 78 canned food samples but was not detected in either of the two frozen food samples. Detectable BPA concentrations across all foods ranged from 2.6 to 730 ng/g. Large variations in BPA concentrations were found between different products of the same food type and between different lots of the same product. Given the large concentration ranges, the only distinguishable trend was that fruits and tuna showed the lowest BPA concentrations. Experiments with fortified frozen vegetables and brine solutions, as well as higher BPA concentrations in canned food solids over liquid portions, clearly indicated that BPA partitions into the solid portion of foods.
Kapsokefalou, Maria; Alexandropoulou, Isidora; Komaitis, Michail; Politis, Ioannis
The objectives of the present study were: to compare the solubility and dialyzability of various iron fortificants (iron pyrophosphate, ferrous bis-glycinate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous lactate, ferrous sulfate) added, in the presence of ascorbic acid, to pasteurized milk samples produced under laboratory conditions; and to compare the solubility and dialyzability of iron in commercial pasteurized, UHT and condensed milk products available in the Greek market fortified with various vitamins and minerals including iron and targeted towards infants (6-12 months old) and toddlers. Iron solubility and dialyzability were determined using a simulated gastrointestinal digestive system. Ferrous dialyzable iron (molecular weight lower than 8000) was used as an index for prediction of iron bioavailability. Ferrous dialyzable iron in pasteurized milk samples fortified with iron pyrophosphate, ferrous lactate and ferrous bis-glycinate was higher (P iron in products fortified with ferrous lactate was not different (P > 0.05) from those fortified with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous dialyzable iron in four condensed commercial milk products was higher (P iron was higher (P iron source, milk processing and the overall product composition affect formation of ferrous dialyzable iron and may determine the success and effectiveness of iron fortification of milk.
Ghelichi, Sakhi; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús
Physical and oxidative stability of 5% (by weight) cod liver oil-in-water emulsions fortified with common carp (C. carpio) roe protein hydrolysate (CRPH) were examined. CRPH was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of discarded roe by using Alcalase 2.4 L for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min to yield different...
Della Lucia, Ceres M; Vaz Tostes, Maria das Graças; Silveira, Carlos Mário M; Bordalo, Lívia A; Rodrigues, Fabiana C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia S D; Costa, Neuza Maria B
This study aimed to evaluate iron (Fe) bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (FP) by Ultra Rice (UR) technology with or without addition of yacon flour as a source of 7.5% of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Diets were supplied with 12 mg iron/kg from the following sources: ferrous sulfate (FS - control diet), fortified rice with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (Ultra Rice) (UR diet), ferrous sulfate + yacon flour (FS + Y diet) or Ultra Rice + yacon flour (UR + Y diet). Blood samples were collected at the end of depletion and repletion stages for determination of hemoglobin concentration and calculation of the relative biological value (RBV). Also, the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) (acetic, propionic and butyric acids) from animals' stools and caecum weight were determined. The UR diet showed high iron bioavailability (RBV = 84.7%). However, the addition of yacon flour in the diet containing fortified rice (UR + Y diet) decreased RBV (63.1%) significantly below the other three groups (p flour showed higher acetic acid values compared to those who did not. In conclusion, fortified UR with micronized ferric pyrophosphate showed high iron bioavailability but the addition of yacon flour at 7.5% FOS reduced iron bioavailability despite increased caecum weight and SCFA concentration.
Moghaddam, Asma Salari; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholam Reza; Maracy, Mohammad Reza
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and has become a major threat for global health. Recent studies reported that the soy has beneficial effects in diabetic mellitus patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soybean flour fortified bread consumption on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women. This randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 30 type 2 diabetic women. At first, a 2-week run-in period was applied. Then, participants were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group were asked to replace 120 g of soybean flour fortified bread with the same amount of their usual bread intake or other cereal products for 6 weeks. After a 4 weeks washout period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Mean (±standard deviation) age and body mass index of subjects was 45.7 ± 3.8 years and 29.5 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), respectively. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on metabolic profile. We found a reduction in serum triglycerides (change difference: -3.7, P = 0.82), serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (change difference: -11.2, P = 0.50), insulin (change difference: -3.6, P = 0.7), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (change differences: -0.57, P = 0.45) after 6 weeks but these changes were not statistically significant. No significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, high-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol levels were found. Six weeks consumption of soybean flour fortified bread among diabetic patients had no significant effects on metabolic profile.
Asma Salari Moghaddam
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and has become a major threat for global health. Recent studies reported that the soy has beneficial effects in diabetic mellitus patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soybean flour fortified bread consumption on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women. Methods: This randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 30 type 2 diabetic women. At first, a 2-week run-in period was applied. Then, participants were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group were asked to replace 120 g of soybean flour fortified bread with the same amount of their usual bread intake or other cereal products for 6 weeks. After a 4 weeks washout period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Results: Mean (±standard deviation age and body mass index of subjects was 45.7 ± 3.8 years and 29.5 ± 3.9 kg/m 2 , respectively. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on metabolic profile. We found a reduction in serum triglycerides (change difference: -3.7, P = 0.82, serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (change difference: -11.2, P = 0.50, insulin (change difference: -3.6, P = 0.7, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (change differences: -0.57, P = 0.45 after 6 weeks but these changes were not statistically significant. No significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, high-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol levels were found. Conclusions: Six weeks consumption of soybean flour fortified bread among diabetic patients had no significant effects on metabolic profile.
Bradbury, Kathryn E; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Oey, Indrawati; Aitchison, Cindy; Parnell, Winsome; Fleming, Liz; Brown, Rachel C; Skeaff, C Murray
To estimate the folate status of New Zealand women of childbearing age following the introduction, in 2010, of a new voluntary folic acid fortification of bread programme. The 2011 Folate and Women's Health Survey was a cross-sectional survey of women aged 18-44 years carried out in 2011. The survey used a stratified random sampling technique with the Electoral Roll as the sampling frame. Women were asked about consumption of folic-acid-fortified breads and breakfast cereals in a telephone interview. During a clinic visit, blood was collected for serum and erythrocyte folate measurement by microbiological assay. A North Island (Wellington) and South Island (Dunedin) city centre in New Zealand. Two hundred and eighty-eight women, of whom 278 completed a clinic visit. Geometric mean serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were 30 nmol/l and 996 nmol/l, respectively. Folate status was 30-40 % higher compared with women of childbearing age sampled as part of a national survey in 2008/09, prior to the introduction of the voluntary folic acid bread fortification programme. In the 2011 Folate and Women's Health Survey, reported consumption of fortified bread and fortified breakfast cereal in the past week was associated with 25 % (P=0·01) and 15 % (P=0·04) higher serum folate concentrations, respectively. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations have increased in New Zealand women of childbearing age since the number of folic-acid-fortified breads was increased voluntarily in 2010. Consumption of fortified breads and breakfast cereals was associated with a higher folate status.
Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.
Full Text Available Micronutrient malnutrition (MNM can affect all age groups, but young children and women of reproductive age are most at risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD and Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA are two important Public Health problems. Out of 342 districts surveyed, so far IDD is a major public health problem in 286 districts. No state in India is free from iodine deficiency (1. Iron Deficiency Anaemia is reported in about 70% of the population across all age groups (2. The magnitude of Vitamin B12 deficiency is documented to be about 73.5% in the adolescents (3 and Zinc deficiency is reported in about 49.4% amongst children (4. In addition, there are deficiencies of other micronutrients and minerals like Folic Acid, Vitamin D which are of public health concern. Fortification of food is one of three primary strategies to combat micronutrient deficiencies. Fortification is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO as "the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, i.e. Vitamins and minerals (including trace elements in a food irrespective of whether the nutrients were originally present in the food before processing or not, so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and to provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health”. Food fortification is one of the most cost effective ways to make up for the deficient vitamins and minerals in low quality diets. The edible salt is the most widely used food vehicle for fortification with micronutrients (5. Fortification of salt with iodine, to prevent IDD, under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme, is in operation since 1962 (1. This intervention has led to significant prevention and control of IDD (6. Recently, the technology has been developed for fortification of salt with iron and iodine commonly known as DFS, to simultaneously
The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations
Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo
Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.
Sui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Weibiao
Anthocyanin-rich black rice extract powder (ABREP) as a nutraceutical source was fortified into bread. The quality and digestibility behaviors of bread with ABREP were evaluated through instrumental and in vitro digestion studies. The quality of bread with 2% of ABREP was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control bread; however, increasing the ABREP level to 4% caused less elasticity and higher density of bread. A mathematical model was further developed to systemically describe the trajectory of bread digestion. The digestion rates of bread with ABREP were found to be reduced by 12.8%, 14.1%, and 20.5% for bread with 1%, 2%, and 4% of ABREP, respectively. Results of the study suggest that the fortification of anthocyanins into bread could be an alternative way to produce functional bread with a lower digestion rate and extra health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soto-Méndez, María José; Campos, Raquel; Hernández, Liza; Orozco, Mónica; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W
To compare variety and diversity patterns and dietary characteristics in Guatemalan women. Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were conducted in convenience samples of 20 rural Mayan women and 20 urban students. Diversity scores were computed using three food-group systems.Variety and diversity scores and dietary origin and characteristics were compared between settings using independent t-test or Mann-Whitney-U-test. Dietary variety and diversity were generally greater in the urban sample when compared to the rural sample, depending on the number of days and food-group system used for evaluation.The diet was predominantly plant-based and composed of non-fortified food items in both areas.The rural diet was predominantly composed of traditional,non-processed foods. The urban diet was mostly based on non-traditional and processed items. Considerations of intervention strategies for dietary improvement and health protection for the Guatemalan countryside should still rely on promotion and preservation of traditional food selection.
... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...
Rojanarata, Theerasak; Tankul, Junlathip; Woranaipinich, Chayanee; Potawanich, Paweena; Plianwong, Samarwadee; Sakulma, Sirinart; Saehuan, Choedchai
The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of fortified cefazolin sodium ophthalmic solutions (50 mg mL⁻¹) extemporaneously prepared in commercial artificial tears containing 2 different types of preservatives, namely the surfactants and oxidants. Fortified cefazolin sodium solutions were prepared by reconstituting cefazolin for injection with sterile water and further diluted with Tears Naturale II or Natear, 2 commercial artificial tears containing polyquaternium-1 and sodium perborate, respectively, as preservatives. The solutions were then kept at room temperature (28°C) or in the refrigerator (4°C). During the 28-day period, the formulations were periodically examined for the physical appearance, pH, and the remaining drug concentrations. The antibacterial potency was evaluated as the minimal inhibitory concentration against Staphylococcus aureus strain ATCC 29923 by broth dilution technique. The activity of the preservatives was demonstrated by antimicrobial effectiveness tests. On day 28, the microbial contamination in the preparations was tested. The stability profiles of cefazolin solutions prepared in Tears Naturale II, Natear, and water were not different, but they were significantly influenced by the storage temperature. The refrigerated formulations showed no loss of drug and antibacterial potency as well as alteration of physical appearance and pH throughout the 28 days. In contrast, those kept at room temperature showed gradual change in color and odor. The degradation of drug exceeded 10% from day 3 and the decrease of antibacterial potency could be observed at week 3. All cefazolin solutions prepared in artificial tears retained the antimicrobial activity of preservatives and were free from bacterial and fungal contamination throughout the 28-day period of study. Cefazolin sodium ophthalmic solutions can be extemporaneously prepared in Tears Naturale II or Natear without the influence from different types of preservatives used in
Gliguem, H; Birlouez-Aragon, I
Monitoring the nutritional quality of dietetic milk throughout its shelf life is particularly important due to the high susceptibility of some vitamins to oxidation, and the continuous development of the Maillard reaction during storage. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the vitamin C content and protein modification by denaturation and glycation on fortified milk samples (growth milks) destined for 1- to 3-yr-old children. The influences of the sterilization process, formulation, packaging, and storage duration at ambient temperature in the dark were studied. Vitamin C degradation was particularly influenced by type of packaging. The use of a 3-layered opaque bottle was associated with complete oxidation of vitamin C after 1 mo of storage, whereas in the 6-layered opaque bottle, which has an oxygen barrier, the vitamin C content slowly decreased to reach 25% of the initial concentration after 4 mo of storage. However, no significant effect of vitamin C degradation during storage could be observed in terms of Maillard reaction, despite the fact that a probable impact occurred during sterilization. Furosine content and the FAST (fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and soluble tryptophan) index-indicators of the early and advanced Maillard reaction, respectively-were significantly higher in the in-bottle sterilized milk samples compared with UHT samples, and in fortified milk samples compared with cow milk. However, after 1 mo, the impact of storage was predominant, increasing the furosine level and the FAST index at similar levels for the differently processed samples. The early Maillard reaction developed continuously throughout the storage period.In conclusion, only packaging comprising an oxygen and light barrier is compatible with vitamin C fortification of milk. Furthermore, short storage time or low storage temperature is needed to retard vitamin C degradation, protein denaturation, and development of the Maillard reaction.
Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, 75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving human milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08). Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk. PMID:22900590
J. Dik F. Habbema
Full Text Available Background: Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving the immune-function of HIV patients. Objective: Assess the impact of micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt on the immune function of HIV patients. Design: We performed a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with CD4 count as primary outcome among HIV patients naïve to anti-retroviral treatment. Secondary outcomes included hematological parameters, incidence of diarrhea and clinical symptoms. A total of 112 HIV patients were randomized to receive a micronutrient fortified yogurt with (n = 55 or without additional probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (n = 57 for four weeks. Results: An average decline in CD4 count of −70 cells/μL (95% CI: −154 to −15 was observed in the micronutrient, probiotic group versus a decrease of −63 cells/μL (95% CI: −157 to −30 in the micronutrient control group (p = 0.9. Additional probiotic supplementation was well tolerated and not associated with adverse events. No difference between groups was detected in incidence of diarrhea or clinical symptoms. An improvement of hemoglobin levels was observed for all subjects, based upon a mean difference from baseline of 1.4 g/L (SD = 6 (p = 0.02. Conclusion: The addition of probiotics to a micronutrient fortified yogurt was well tolerated by HIV patients but was not associated with a further increase in CD4 count after one month.
Tenta, Roxane; Moschonis, George; Koutsilieris, Michael; Manios, Yannis
To assess the effectiveness of a dietary intervention combined with fortified dairy products on bone metabolism and bone mass indices in postmenopausal women. Forty postmenopausal women (55-65 years old) were equally randomized into a dietary group (DG), receiving daily and for 30 months, 1,200 mg of calcium and 7.5 μg of vitamin D(3) for the first 12 months that increased to 22.5 μg for the remaining 18 months of intervention through fortified dairy products; and a control group (CG). Differences in the changes of bone metabolism and bone mass indices were examined with repeated measures ANOVA. A significant increase was observed for PTH levels only in the CG during the first six winter months of intervention (p = 0.049). After 30 months of intervention, during winter, serum 25(OH)D significantly decreased in the CG while remained in the same high levels as in the summer period in the DG. Serum RANKL levels decreased significantly in the DG compared with the increase in the CG during the 30-month intervention period (p = 0.005). Serum CTx decreased significantly in the DG after six (-0.08; -0.12 to -0.03) and 12 (-0.03; -0.08 to -0.02) months of intervention. Finally, the DG had more favorable changes in total body BMD than the CG (p effective in producing favorable changes in several bone metabolism and bone mass indices and in counterbalancing seasonal variations in hormonal and biochemical molecules.
Chhoun, Chamnan; Kloppenborg Heick Skau, Jutta; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Roos, Nanna; Touch, Bunthang; Chea, Mary; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques
Background and objective: The nutritional quality of CF in developing countries is often insufficient to sustain optimal growth. The Winfood project evaluated the efficacy of two new, processed rice-fish based CF with local ASF in Cambodia: non-fortified ‘WinFood’ (WF) with 14% by dry-weight ASF from small-sized fish (Esomus longimanus and Paralaubuca typus) and edible spiders (Haplopelma sp.); an adjusted ‘lite’ WinFood (WF-L) with 10% by dry-weight ASF from small-sized fish of mixed species, and fortified with minerals and vitamins. The products were precooked by extrusion. The WF-products were compared with two standard products from World Food Programme: Corn-Soy-Blend (CSB+) and CSB++ (8% by dry-weight skimmed-milk powder), in a single-blinded randomized trial. Methods: 419 Cambodian infants at age 6 months were randomized to daily rations of one of the four products for nine months period. BC (deuterium dilution) and iron status (serum ferritin and hemoglobin) were measured before and after intervention; and anthropometry (knee-heel-length, length, weight, MUAC, head circumference and skinfolds) monthly. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat. Results: Among 358 children completing the study, no significant difference in BC between the groups where found, but knee-heel length increments differed (P = 0.046: WF-L: 3.6 cm, CSB++: 3.6 cm, WF: 3.5 cm, CSB+: 3.4 cm), suggesting that micronutrient-fortified products with 8-10% ASF (CSB++ and WF-L) promoted better linear growth than products without fortification or ASF. Knee-heel and total length increment was significantly higher in the highest food compliance quartile compared to the lowest, across food groups. There were no differences in ferritin and hemoglobin concentration. There was higher prevalence of anemic children in the WF group. Conclusion: Products with ASF (milk or small fish) and micronutrient premix resulted in slightly better linear growth. Small fish is a cheap ASF with high potential
The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs
Melse-Boonstra, A; Pee, S; Martini, E; Halati, S; Sari, M; Kosen, S; Muhilal; Bloem, M
To estimate the potential of various industrially produced foods, to serve as a carrier for micronutrient fortification based on the frequency of their consumption in different socio-economic strata; to determine the role of fortified instant noodles as a source of micronutrients; to assess the contribution of plant foods, animal foods and fortified foods to vitamin A intake. A survey was conducted in rural South Sulawesi and urban South Kalimantan between November 1996 and January 1997. Households (1500 in South Sulawesi; 2112 in South Kalimantan) were selected randomly by multi-stage cluster sampling. From each household, data were collected from the mother and her youngest child (0-5 y). Mothers were interviewed on various topics, including socio-economic status, food consumption, receipt of high-dose vitamin A capsules, health and nutritional status. Monosodium glutamate and salt were consumed daily in almost all households in both areas, and consumption was not associated with socio-economic status. Instant noodles were consumed in nearly all households in both areas, but consumption of fortified noodles was related to socio-economic status; it was highest among households of government employees and private investors, and lowest among farmers and share-croppers. Vegetables were the most important source of vitamin A in rural South Sulawesi, while foods of animal origin were the most important source in urban South Kalimantan. The results support double or triple fortification of salt and/or monosodium glutamate with iodine, vitamin A and/or iron. Efforts to overcome associated technical and logistical difficulties are urgently needed. Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions (OMNI); United States Agency for International Development (USAID). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 822-827
It will take to scale the manufacture and distribution of a shelf-stable salt, ... Public and private sector models, based on consumer response and policy dialogue, will be ... This project is funded under the Canadian International Food Security ...
Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...
Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...
Yogurt is a popular dairy product made by the bacterial fermentation of milk. It is considered nutritious and has probiotics as a result of fermentation that benefit digestive health when consumed. Protein fortification of foods is an effective way to deliver increased satiety to consumers. Chickpea...
European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public Consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on establishing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines
taken into account in the final opinion. EFSA had received 60 contributions from 19 interested parties (individuals, non-governmental organisations, industry organisations, academia and national assessment bodies). After a meeting with national experts on Dietary Reference Values which was held...... of diet-health relationships, possible adverse health effects of excessive consumption of sugar(s), sugar-sweetened beverages, the performance of risk-benefit analysis, the contribution of food supplements and fortified food as nutrient sources in the diet, and to the section on implementation...
This commentary sketches out the politics of the expansion of affordable, fast-moving nutraceutical products into rural India, with a focus on fortified foods and beverages. It examines the relationships between industry, government and humanitarian organisations that are being forged alongside the development of markets for nutraceuticals; the production of evidence and the harnessing of science to support nutraceutical companies' claims; the ways in which nutraceuticals are being marketed and distributed in rural areas; and the concepts of health and well-being that are being promulgated through those marketing campaigns. Lastly, it asks what kinds of impact fast-moving nutraceuticals are likely to have on the lives of India's rural poor. It concludes by questioning how smooth a transition to nutraceutical consumption Big Food marketing strategies can really facilitate and how readily low-income families seeking to feed their families and safeguard health will actually adopt concepts of wellness and internalise micro-nutrient associated risks.
Lidio M. Valdez
Full Text Available La aparición de los asentamientos fortificados y el origen del conflicto violento son temas poco discutidos en el contexto de la arqueología peruana. Considero que es oportuno investigar y determinar cuándo y por qué surgieron los primeros asentamientos fortificados. El propósito central de este artículo está precisamente orientado a responder tales interrogantes y discutir el tema del conflicto violento en el valle de Acarí y, por extensión, en la costa sur del Perú. Las evidencias arqueológicas disponibles señalan que, durante el periodo Intermedio Temprano, Tambo Viejo fue un asentamiento defendido por varias estructuras perimétricas. Otros sitios contemporáneos de Tambo Viejo en Acarí también fueron fortificados. Además, existe en el mismo valle evidencia tangible de violencia en la forma de prisioneros que posteriormente fueron decapitados. En contraste a la evidencia proveniente de Acarí, no existen asentamientos del periodo Intermedio Temprano identificables como fortificaciones, lo que hace de los sitios de Acarí los primeros asentamientos fortificados de toda la costa sur. ENGLISH: The emergence of violent conflict and of fortified settlements is a subject little studied within Peruvian archaeology. However, I consider it vital to investigate and determine the time and the reasons under which fortified settlements were first established. The central aim of this paper is to discuss when and why fortified settlements emerged first in the Acari Valley and, by extension, in the south coast of Peru. Available archaeological evidence indicates that during the Early Intermediate Period, Tambo Viejo was a fortified settlement protected by several massive walls. Other neighbouring sites in Acari were also fortified. Furthermore, in Acari there is conclusive evidence for violence in the form of decapitated individuals. In contrast to evidence coming from Acari, not a single Early Intermediate Period settlement from other
Hansen, Henning Otte
and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...
Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong
The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)
Mols, H.; Warnaar, M.; Methorst, B.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Onwezen, M.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Kortstee, H.J.M.; Genderen, van R.A.
These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food
Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline
are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...
This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs
von Moos, Lea M; Schneider, Mirjam; Hilty, Florentine M; Hilbe, Monika; Arnold, Myrtha; Ziegler, Nathalie; Mato, Diogo Sales; Winkler, Hans; Tarik, Mohamed; Ludwig, Christian; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Langhans, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Michael B; Sturla, Shana J; Trantakis, Ioannis A
Nanotechnology offers new opportunities for providing health benefits in foods. Food fortification with iron phosphate nanoparticles (FePO 4 NPs) is a promising new approach to reducing iron deficiency because FePO 4 NPs combine high bioavailability with superior sensory performance in difficult to fortify foods. However, their safety remains largely untested. We fed rats for 90 days diets containing FePO 4 NPs at doses at which iron sulfate (FeSO 4 ), a commonly used food fortificant, has been shown to induce adverse effects. Feeding did not result in signs of toxicity, including oxidative stress, organ damage, excess iron accumulation in organs or histological changes. These safety data were corroborated by evidence that NPs were taken up by human gastrointestinal cell lines without reducing cell viability or inducing oxidative stress. Our findings suggest FePO 4 NPs appear to be as safe for ingestion as FeSO 4 .
de Ambrosis, A; Vishnumohan, S; Paterson, J; Haber, P; Arcot, J
The aim of the study was to measure the relative bioavailability of labeled pteroylglutamic acid (13C5-PteGlu) from a pectin-coated fortified rice in vivo to measure any effect of the edible coating on folic acid bioavailability. Healthy volunteers (N=26) aged 18-39 years received three test meals in three randomized short-term cross-over trials: Trial 1: aqueous 400 μg 13C5-PteGlu, Trial 2: 200 g cooked white rice+400 μg 13C5-PteGlu,Trial 3: 200 g fortified cooked white rice with pectin-coated premix containing 400 μg 13C5-PteGlu. Blood samples were drawn at 0,1,2,5 and 8 h postprandial. The concentration of 13C5-5 methyl-tetrahydrofolate appearing in plasma was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. For 24 h before baseline estimation and during the area under the curve (AUC) study, the subjects were placed on a low folate diet (∼100 μg/day). The relative bioavailability of the folic acid following Trial 3 was measured by comparing the 13C5-5 methyl-tetrahydrofuran (THF) AUC with Trials 1 and 2. The bioavailability of folic acid in a pectin-coated rice premix was 68.7% (range 47-105) and 86.5% (range 65-115) in uncoated fortified rice relative to aqueous folic acid. This study is the first demonstration of the bioavailability of folate in pectin-coated fortified rice in humans.
Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Azlaf, Mehdi; El Menchawy, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Mouzouni, Fatima-Zahra; Barkat, Amina; Aguenaou, Hassan
Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID) affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine) or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.
Chiang, C-C; Lin, J-M; Chen, W-L; Chiu, Y-T; Tsai, Y-Y
In an in vitro study, fixed-combination fortified vancomycin and amikacin ophthalmic solutions (VA solution) had the same potency and stable physical properties as the separate components. In this retrospective clinical study, we evaluated the efficacy of the topical VA solution in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer and comparison with separate topical fortified vancomycin and amikacin. Separate topical fortified eye drops was used prior to January 2004 and switched to the VA solution afterwards in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer. The medical records of 223 patients diagnosed with bacterial corneal ulcers between January 2002 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 122 patients in the VA group and 101 in the separate group. Cure was defined as complete healing of the ulcer accompanied by a nonprogressive stromal infiltrate on two consecutive visits. No significant difference was found between the VA and separate therapy group. The mean treatment duration was 15.4 days in the VA group and 16.1 days in the separate therapy group. The average hospital stay was 5.4 days (VA) and 7.2 days (separate antibiotics). Stromal infiltration regressed significantly without further expansion in both groups. All corneal ulcers completely re-epithelialized without complications related to drugs. VA solution provided similar efficacy to the conventional separate therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers; however, it is more convenient and tolerable, promotes patient's compliance, avoids the washout effect, and reduces nurse utilization. Hence, VA solution is a good alternative to separate therapy.
The Effects of Probiotic Soymilk Fortified with Omega-3 on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, Haematological and Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Parameters in Streptozotocin Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats
Mohsen Mohammadi Sartang
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic soymilk fortified with omega-3 in diabetic rats. Methods. Soymilk (SM, fermented soymilk (FSM, and fermented soymilk fortified with omega-3 (FSM + omega-3 were prepared. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups of 13 animals per group. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ 15 min after the intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide (NA. Normal control (NC and diabetic control (DC rats received 1 mL/day of distilled water and three groups of diabetic rats were given 1 mL/day of SM, FSM, and FSM + omega-3 products by oral gavage for 28 days. Results. Three products significantly (P<0.05 reduced blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations compared to the DC group, with the maximum reduction seen in the FSM + omega-3 group. Body weight, red blood cells (RBC, haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit, and superoxide dismutase (SOD also significantly increased in the FSM + omega-3 group. In the FSM + omega-3 group, MDA level compared with the SM and FSM groups and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP concentrations compared with the DC and FSM groups were significantly lower (P<0.05. Conclusion. Fermented soymilk fortified with omega-3 may be beneficial in diabetes.
Kruger, Marlena C; Chan, Yoke Mun; Lau, Lee Ting; Lau, Chin Chin; Chin, Yit Siew; Kuhn-Sherlock, Barbara; Todd, Joanne M; Schollum, Linda M
In Malaysia, hip fracture incidence is higher in Chinese women than other ethnic groups. This study compared the effects of a high-calcium vitamin D fortified milk with added FOS-inulin versus regular milk over 1 year on aspects of bone health in Chinese postmenopausal women in Malaysia. One-hundred and twenty-one women (mean age 59 (± 4) years) were randomized into two groups: control (n = 60; regular milk, 428 mg calcium per day) or intervention (n = 61; fortified milk at 1200 mg calcium, 96 mg magnesium, 2.4 mg zinc, 15 μg vitamin D and 4 g FOS-inulin per day). At baseline, weeks 12, 24, 36 and 52, parathyroid hormone (PTH), C-Telopeptide of Type I Collagen (CTx-1), Procollagen I Intact N-Terminal propeptide (PINP) and vitamin D levels were assessed. Bone density (BMD) was measured at baseline and week 52 using a GE Lunar iDXA. Body mass index, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD did not differ between groups at baseline. Over 52 weeks, mean plasma 25 (OH) D 3 levels increased to 74.8 nmol/L (intervention group) or remained at 63.1 nmol/L (control group) (p milk, the fortified milk suppressed bone turnover markers and tended to increase femoral neck BMD.
Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; González-Vizcayno, Carmen; Delgado, Marco A; Vaquero, M Pilar
Fe-deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem. We studied the influence of consuming an Fe-fortified fruit juice on Fe status in menstruating women. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks of duration was performed. Subjects were randomised into two groups: the P group (n 58) or the F group (n 64), and consumed, as a supplement to their usual diet, 500 ml/d of a placebo fruit juice or an Fe-fortified fruit juice, respectively. The Fe-fortified fruit juice, containing microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate, provided 18 mg Fe/d (100 % of the RDA). At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight and Fe parameters were determined: total erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), Hb, serum Fe, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The fruit juice consumption involved increased intake of carbohydrates and vitamin C, and increased BMI within normal limits. Ferritin was higher in the F group after week 4 (P juice improves Fe status and may be used to prevent Fe-deficiency anaemia.
Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou
Full Text Available Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.
O'Leary, Paula F G
Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.
Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to compare the effect of six vegetable oils added to feeding mixtures that were administered to broiler chickens on the content of major fatty acids in chicken meat. The experiment started with 90 one-day-old Ross 308 meat hybrid male chickens that were divided into six groups. Chickens were fed complete feeding mixtures for the prefattening (BR1, fattening (BR2, and post-fattening (BR3 of broiler chickens. The BR1 feeding mixture was administered to chickens aged 1-10 days, the BR2 feeding mixture was given from Day 11 to Day 30, and the BR3 feeding mixture was then administered until Day 42. The BR1 feeding mixture that was administered to all six groups during the first ten days of the experiment was supplemented with soybean oil. BR2 and BR3 feeding mixtures used to feed chickens aged 11-42 days were fortified with soybean oil (SO Group, rapeseed oil (RO Group, sunflower oil (SFO Group, flaxseed oil (FO Group, olive oil (OO Group, and evening primrose oil (EPO Group. The vegetable oils used differed by the composition of fatty acids, particularly by the content of oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid. The use of the above-described experimental diets in young broilers from Day 11 to 42 had a significant effect on the content of fatty acids in the fat from breast and thigh muscles. The content of α-linolenic acid in breast and thigh muscles of broilers that received the feed containing flaxseed oil (21.16 g/100 g of oil and 17.13 g/100 g of oil, respectively significantly increased (p ⪬ 0.01. The highest content of linoleic acid (p ⪬ 0.01 in breast and thigh muscles was found in chickens that were fed the feed containing primrose oil (59.13 g/100 g and 51.71 g/100 g. A significant increase (p ⪬ 0.01 in the level of oleic acid was detected in both breast and thigh muscles of broilers that received olive oil fortified feed (52.44 g/100 g and 43.70 g/100 g of oil. No significant variation was
DEC-fortified salt has been used successfully as a principal public health tool to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) in China and, less extensively, in several other countries. Studies from 1967 to the present conducted in Brazil, Japan, Tanzania, India, China, and Taiwan involving administration of DEC salt for 18 days to 1 year, have shown this intervention to be effective for both bancroftian and brugian filariasis, as measured by reductions in both microfilarial density and positivity, and in some studies through reduction in mosquito positivity rates as well. Furthermore, studies suggest specific advantages from using DEC salt, including lack of side effects, particularly for bancroftian filariasis, and ability to reduce prevalence below 1% when used in conjunction with standard regimens of DEC tablets. However, use of DEC salt as a control tool suffers from a concern that health authorities might find it difficult to manage a programme involving a commodity such as salt. In the past decade, the very successful global efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency through universal salt iodization have demonstrated that partnership with the salt industry can be both successful and effective as a public health tool. Use of DEC salt can be most successfully implemented in areas in which (a) there is adequate governmental support for its use and for elimination of filariasis, (b) filariasis-endemic areas are clearly defined, (c) political leaders, health officials and the salt industry agree that DEC salt is an appropriate intervention, (d) the salt industry is well-organized and has known distribution patterns, (e) a successful national salt iodization effort exists, (f) a monitoring system exists that ensures adequacy of salt iodine content during production and that can also measure household coverage, and (g) measurement of impact on transmission of LF with the new antigen or filarial DNA detection methods can be established. There are advantages and disadvantages
Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.
Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna
Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), a staple food in semi-arid parts of the world, is a rich source of nutrients and bioactive components comparable to rice and wheat but with higher fibre content. Unprocessed and processed finger millet (whole flour (WFM), sieved flour (SFM), wafers and vermicelli with altered matrices (added Fe or Zn or reduced fibre)) were analysed for chemical composition, bioaccessible Fe, Zn and Ca, in vitro digestible starch (IVSD) and protein (IVPD) and bioactive components (polyphenols and flavonoids). WFM and SFM flours differed significantly in their composition. Sieving decreased the content of both nutrients and antinutrients in WFM but increased their digestibility/bioaccessibility. WFM products with Zn and Fe showed highest IVPD, whereas SFM products with Fe showed highest IVSD. Products with externally added Fe and Zn showed maximum bioaccessibility of Fe and Zn respectively. WFM had the highest levels of total polyphenols and flavonoids, 4.18 and 15.85 g kg⁻¹ respectively; however, bioaccessibility was highest in SFM vermicelli. The availability of nutrients and bioactive components was influenced by both processing methods and compositional alterations of the food matrix in finger millet products, and bioaccessibility of all constituents was higher in vermicelli (wet matrix) than in wafers (dry matrix). Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio
Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a "functional food" by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA.
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The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed
Dainelli, Livia; Xu, Tingting; Li, Min; Zimmermann, Diane; Fang, Hai; Wu, Yangfeng; Detzel, Patrick
To model the long-term cost-effectiveness of consuming milk powder fortified with potassium to decrease systolic blood pressure (SBP) and prevent cardiovascular events. A best case scenario analysis using a Markov model was conducted. 8.67% of 50-79 year olds who regularly consume milk in China, including individuals with and without a prior diagnosis of hypertension. The model simulated the potential impact of a daily intake of two servings of milk powder fortified with potassium (+700 mg/day) vs the consumption of a milk powder without potassium fortification, assuming a market price equal to 0.99 international dollars (intl$; the consumption of a milk powder without potassium fortification, assuming a market price equal to intl$0.99 for the latter and to intl$1.12 for the first (+13.13%). Both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the results. Estimates of the incidence of cardiovascular events and subsequent mortality in China were derived from the literature as well as the effect of increasing potassium intake on blood pressure. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of a milk powder fortified with potassium taking into consideration the direct medical costs associated with the cardiovascular events, loss of working days and health utilities impact. With an ICER equal to int$4711.56 per QALY (quality-adjusted life year) in the best case scenario and assuming 100% compliance, the daily consumption of a milk powder fortified with potassium shown to be a cost-effective approach to decrease SBP and reduce cardiovascular events in China. Healthcare savings due to prevention would amount to intl$8.41 billion. Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results. Together with other preventive interventions, the consumption of a milk powder fortified with potassium could represent a cost-effective strategy to attenuate the rapid rise in
Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.
Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a
The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af
Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...
Nackers, Fabienne; Broillet, France; Oumarou, Diakité; Djibo, Ali; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Guerin, Philippe J; Rusch, Barbara; Grais, Rebecca F; Captier, Valérie
Standard nutritional treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) relies on fortified blended flours though their importance to treat this condition is a matter of discussion. With the newly introduced World Health Organization growth standards, more children at an early stage of malnutrition will be treated following the dietary protocols as for severe acute malnutrition, including ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). We compared the effectiveness of RUTF and a corn/soy-blend (CSB)-based ...
Full Text Available Typically, probiotics are consumed in dairy based products such as yogurt. However, given the rise in various diet types, non-dairy alternatives have been developed, such as inoculating fruit juices with probiotics. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic strain exerting a number of human health benefits such as the prevention of urinary tract infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in apple cider, orange, and grape juice when fortified with either 4% short chain or 4% long chain inulin fiber over 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. The secondary objective was to determine consumer acceptability of apple cider and orange juice samples using the hedonic scale. All of the fruit juice samples achieved a mean viable count of at least 107 CFU/mL during 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. According to the sensory evaluation, which evaluated samples according to appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability, apple cider juice with long chain inulin fiber proved to have the highest score for all characteristics except appearance. Therefore, this study indicated a potential for probiotic fruit juices as a valid alternative to dairy based probiotic products.
Dianti, EP; Anjani, G.; Afifah, DN; Rustanti, N.; Panunggal, B.
Goat milk kefir fortified vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 can be an alternative to improve insulin resistance. Fortification of vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 could affect the balance of complex ecosystems of bacteria and yeasts in goat milk kefir. We analyzed the nutritional quality and microbiology of goat milk kefir during storage. This experiment was done with completely randomized design consisted of five treatments, ie storage day 0, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 15th. Vitamin B12, vitamin D3, protein were analyzed using spectrophotometric, fat using babcock method, total lactic acid bacteria using total plate count, pH with pH meter, and viscosity using ostwald method. During 15 days in refrigerated storage, there was no significant difference (p>0,05) of vitamin B12 concentration, protein, fat, and viscosity of kefir. Storage time of the final product caused the decrease of vitamin D3 concentration between day 9 and 15 (p=0,038), pH (p=0,023), and total lactic acid of kefir (p=0,0001). Total lactic acid bacteria increased until 9 days of storage (6161 ± 1.296x107cfu / ml), but decreased to 24% on day 15 (150 ±7.78x107cfu/ml). pH kefir tends to fluctuate during storage with the highest pH value of 4,38 on day-3, and lowest 4.13 on day-9.
Akalın, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A
The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.
Hackl, Laura; Speich, Cornelia; Zeder, Christophe; Sánchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Adelmann, Horst; de Pee, Saskia; Tay, Fabian; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego
Background: Rice can be fortified with the use of hot or cold extrusion or coating, but the nutritional qualities of the resulting rice grains have never been directly compared. Objective: Using fortified rice produced by coating or hot or cold extrusion, we compared 1 ) iron and zinc absorption with the use of stable isotopes, 2 ) iron and zinc retention during cooking, and 3 ) starch microstructure. Methods: We conducted 2 studies in young women: in study 1 [ n = 19; mean ± SD age: 26.2 ± 3.4 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 21.3 ± 1.6], we compared the fractional iron absorption (FAFe) from rice meals containing isotopically labeled ferric prophosphate ( 57 FePP), zinc oxide (ZnO), citric acid, and micronutrients fortified through hot extrusion (HER1) with rice meals fortified through cold extrusion containing 57 FePP, ZnO, citric acid, and micronutrients (CER); in study 2 ( n = 22; age: 24 ± 4 y; BMI: 21.2 ± 1.3), we compared FAFe and fractional zinc absorption (FAZn) from rice meals fortified through hot extrusion (HER2) compared with rice meals fortified through coating containing 57 FePP, ZnO, a citric acid and trisodium cirate mixture (CA/TSC), and micronutrients (COR) relative to rice meals extrinsically fortified with ferrous sulfate (reference). Rice types HER1 and CER contained citric acid, whereas types HER2 and COR contained CA/TSC. We assessed retention during standardized cooking experiments and characterized the rice starch microstructure. Results: FAFe (95% CI) was greater from CER [2.2% (1.4%, 3.4%)] than from HER1 [1.2% (0.7%, 2.0%)] ( P = 0.036). There was no difference in FAFe between HER2 [5.1% (3.7%, 7.1%)] and COR [4.0% (2.9%, 5.4%)] ( P = 0.14), but FAFe from COR was lower than that from the reference meal [6.6% (4.9%, 9.0%)] ( P = 0.003), and the geometric mean FAZn (95% CI) did not differ between HER2 [9.5% (7.9%, 11.6%)] and COR [9.6% (8.7%, 10.7%)] ( P = 0.92). Cooking in a rice-to-water ratio of 1:2 resulted in iron and zinc
The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined
This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products
Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)
Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab
Loveren H van; LPI
Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal,
Simultaneous determination of ascorbic, dehydroascorbic, isoascorbic, and dehydroisoascorbic acids in meat-based food products by liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence detection: a method extension.
Ali, M S; Phillippo, E T
A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determining ascorbic, dehydroascorbic, isoascorbic, and dehydroisoascorbic acids in mostly single-component food products was evaluated for use in analysis of multicomponent meat-based food products such as TV dinners. Ground-beef samples were used as blanks for repeatability studies. Samples were fortified with 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm of mixed standards of ascorbic acid and isoascorbic acid. Means of 12 recoveries at 4 levels of fortification were 102.5 and 83.5%, respectively, for ascorbic acid and isoascorbic acid, with coefficients of variation of 6.7 and 15.2%, respectively. TV dinner products (21 samples) from a local grocery store were analyzed for vitamin C content. Samples prepared with a commercial food processor and a food grinder were compared. The commercial food processor was more capable than the food grinder in producing a homogeneous sample, which is critical to the method.
Dean, L L; Klevorn, C M; Hess, B J
In recent years, there has been increased interest in antioxidant-rich products by consumers wanting to enhance the health benefits of their diet. Chocolate has been identified as a natural source of antioxidant compounds, which resulted in the development of polyphenol-enriched chocolate products that are now available commercially. This study investigated the use of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut skins as a novel antioxidant source for the enrichment of milk chocolate. The extracts were encapsulated with maltodextrin to lessen their bitterness. Antioxidant potential of the encapsulated peanut skin extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl radical quenching assay. Encapsulated peanut skins were found to have a corrected Trolox equivalency of 31.1 μmol/g of chocolate up to 0.8% (w/w). To produce a product with an antioxidant content similar to that of dark chocolate yet which maintained the milder flavor of milk chocolate, the best estimate threshold of encapsulated peanut skin extract in chocolate was 0.9 % (w/w) based on the standard method (American Society of Testing Materials; ASTM E-679). Consumer liking of milk chocolate enhanced by adding subthreshold (0.8 % (w/w)) inclusion levels of encapsulated peanut skin extract was found to be at parity with milk chocolate as a control. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Soares, Manoel S; Magalhães, Amanda O; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Alvares, Thiago S; Conte, Carlos A
Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%), pasta with 6% (PTF6%), 12% (PTF12%), 17% (PTF17%), and 23% (PTF23%) of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), pH, water activity (aw), and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p pasta with tilapia flour decreased (p pasta containing 12%, 17%, and 23% of tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p pasta with 6% of tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C.
Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA for n-3 PUFA.
Zhong, Jinfeng; Yang, Rong; Cao, Xiaoyi; Liu, Xiong; Qin, Xiaoli
Fish oil has several dietary benefits, but its application in food formulations is limited because of its poor water-solubility, easy oxidation and strong odor. The purposes of this study were to produce a fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion and to evaluate the effect of adding this nanoemulsion on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurts. Adding fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion resulted in a significant reduction in the acidity and syneresis of yogurt. Yogurt with the nanoemulsion had significantly lower peroxide value (0.28 mmol/L after 21 days) and higher retention of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents (decreased to 95% and 94% of its initial value, respectively) than yogurt with fish oil/γ-oryzanol (peroxide value = 0.65 mmol/L; eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents decreased to 72% and 53% of its initial value, respectively). Fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion incorporated into yogurt had closer sensory attributes scores to plain yogurt. This study may have important implications for the application of fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion in yogurt.
The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)
In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)
Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm
evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...
Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro
Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)
Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled
Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.
Al-Otaibi, Mutlag M; Haddadin, Jamal S; Haddadin, Malik S Y
Date fruit based products are gaining popularity among the consumers in almost all date growing countries due to its added nutritional value. Therefore, novel products were developed by combining two types of foods i.e., soft ripened cheeses and date fruit syrups or date powder. This study is the first to report the surface mold-ripened cheese production with date syrup and date powder. Model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus, Penicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum. Date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture were added at the stage of curdling. Based on the kinetic growth of the microbial groups in all the treatments, there was no change in the growth of these in various date palm product. On the contrary It may be said that addition of the date fruit product supports their growth. After 35 days, the amounts of total poly phenols were 128.3 ± 1.01, 81.8 ± 1.11, 33.5 ± 2.19, 156.23 ± 1.27 mg GAE/100 g in the cheeses support with date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture, respectively. Antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.13 IC50 (date syrup-2) to 82.23 IC50 (date syrup-1). Based on the chemical characteristics and sensory analysis, the study results showed the potential for innovative application of date products for developing new functional dairy products as an ideal medium for the delivery of biological active compounds with beneficial health effects over.
Waserman Susan; Watson Wade
Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnost...
Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Exploring Current and Novel Methods for the Detection and Diagnosis of Food Allergy: the Clinical Approach * Adriano Mari and Enrico Scala...
Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ix I. CLINICAL ASPECTS 1. Clinical Manifestations of Food Allergic Disease * Tamara T. Perry, Amy M. Scurlock, and Stacie M. Jones...
Ozyurt, Vasfiye Hazal; Ötles, Semih
Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fibre. Diets high in dietary fibre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre. Recently, food manufacturers have responded to consumer demand for foods with a higher fibre content by developing products in which highfibre ingredients are used. Different food processing methods also increase the dietary fiber content of food. Moreover, its chemical and physical properties may be affected by food processing. Some of them might even improve the functionality of fibre. Therefore, they may also be applied as functional ingredients to improve physical properties like the physical and structural properties of hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity. This study was conducted to examine the effect of different food processing methods on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.
Capps, Oral; Park, John L
The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).
Santika, Otte; Fahmida, Umi; Ferguson, Elaine L
Effective population-specific, food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are required to combat micronutrient deficiencies. To facilitate their formulation, a modeling approach was recently developed. However, it has not yet been used in practice. This study therefore aimed to use this approach to develop CFR for 9- to 11-mo-old Indonesian infants and to identify nutrients that will likely remain low in their diets. The CFR were developed using a 4-phase approach based on linear and goal programming. Model parameters were defined using dietary data collected in a cross-sectional survey of 9- to 11-mo-old infants (n = 100) living in the Bogor District, West-Java, Indonesia and a market survey of 3 local markets. Results showed theoretical iron requirements could not be achieved using local food sources (highest level achievable, 63% of recommendations) and adequate levels of iron, niacin, zinc, and calcium were difficult to achieve. Fortified foods, meatballs, chicken liver, eggs, tempe-tofu, banana, and spinach were the best local food sources to improve dietary quality. The final CFR were: breast-feed on demand, provide 3 meals/d, of which 1 is a fortified infant cereal; > or = 5 servings/wk of tempe/tofu; > or = 3 servings/wk of animal-source foods, of which 2 servings/wk are chicken liver; vegetables, daily; snacks, 2 times/d, including > or = 2 servings/wk of banana; and > or = 4 servings/wk of fortified-biscuits. Results showed that the approach can be used to objectively formulate population-specific CFR and identify key problem nutrients to strengthen nutrition program planning and policy decisions. Before recommending these CFR, their long-term acceptability, affordability, and effectiveness should be assessed.
Hiligsmann, Mickael; Neuprez, Audrey; Buckinx, Fanny; Locquet, Médéa; Reginster, Jean-Yves
Dairy products are rich in nutrients that positively influence bone health and hence fracture risk, and have therefore been recommended and used for fracture prevention. To help decision makers to efficiently allocate scare resources, it is further important to assess the public health and economic impact of any health intervention. In recent years, several studies have been conducted to estimate the public health and/or economic impact of dairy products but no overview is currently available. This article aims therefore to summarize evidence and review articles that estimated the public health and/or economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention. A literature review was conducted using PubMed to identify original studies that assessed the public health and/or economic impact of dairy products (or of calcium/vitamin D supplementation) for fracture prevention up to January 15, 2017. Seven articles were identified. Different strategies were used by the authors to model the economic/public health impact of dairy products. The four studies assessing the public health impact of dairy products revealed a substantial benefit in terms of fracture prevented, life years, disability-adjusted life years and/or quality-adjusted life years gained. Studies assessing the cost-effectiveness revealed that the use of dairy products is generally cost-effective in the general population aged above 70 years, and from the age of 60 years in populations at high risk of fractures. This systematic review suggests that the use of dairy products could substantially reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seem to be an economically beneficial strategy.
Colaizy Tarah T
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9 and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064 were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, th percentile at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54. Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal, 21% (mixed, p = 0.08. Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk.
Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries.
Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Myatt, Mark
Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1 ) poverty, 2 ) poor dietary diversity, and 3 ) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1 ) consumption of the vehicle, 2 ) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3 ) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1 ) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3 ) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches
Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries123
Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Myatt, Mark
Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1) poverty, 2) poor dietary diversity, and 3) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1) consumption of the vehicle, 2) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches are needed
Ossola, Carolina; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Río Segade, Susana; Caudana, Alberto; Cagnasso, Enzo; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca
Moscato nero d'Acqui is an Italian aromatic black winegrape variety characterized by a low content of anthocyanins (mostly tri-substituted), a satisfactory content of high molecular mass tannins, and a fair amount of terpenes. The grapes were subjected to a postharvest dehydration process under controlled thermohygrometric conditions (16-18°C, 55-70 RH%, 0.6m/s air speed) with the aim to produce three different special wine types (fortified, sfursat, and passito) from fresh, partially dehydrated (27°Brix), and withered (36°Brix) grapes, respectively. Chemical traits of produced grapes and wines were then evaluated through spectrophotometric, HPLC, and GC-MS methods. Increased contents of skin phenolic compounds and reduced extractable contents of seed phenolic compounds were observed as dehydration progressed. Few significant differences were found in the anthocyanin profile of grapes, although the relative abundance of coumaroylated anthocyanins was higher in dehydrated grapes. The predominant free volatile compound found in grapes was geraniol, which decreased with increasing water loss, whereas the contents of major glycosylated volatile compounds increased even above the concentration effect. The changes in the phenolic composition among wines agreed with those among grape skins. Fortified wines were chromatically unsatisfactory probably due to the low content of total anthocyanins, whereas sfursat and passito wines meet good chromatic characteristics as a result of the concentration effect during grape dehydration. Fortified and sfursat wines had free aroma profiles richer in 2-phenylethanol and citronellol, whereas passito wines were mainly composed of 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate, citronellol being the predominant terpenol in all the wine types studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marasabessy, Ismael; Sudirjo, Fien
One of health problems phenomenon in Indonesian and the world is increasing the degenerative disease because human’s bad habits of eating that having less fiber. Source of fiber which is relatively abundant in eastern Indonesia is seaweed that is very precise to fortified on local food that aims to be more nutritious and economically valuable. The purpose of this study is to got appropriate seaweed fortification technique to produce Seaweed Crispy Enbal (SCE) as typical food from Kei islands that rich in fiber and preferred by consumers. The research was done in two stages. The first stage is to analyze quality of fiber and HCN content of seaweed and enbal flour as SCE raw material, and the two-stage is fortified fiber to enbal lempeng using two types of raw materials, namely pulp seaweed and flour seaweed. The results showed that the fiber content of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii and flour enbal respectively 7.01% and 4%, while HCN content less than 3 mg/kg. Fortification techniques using pulp seaweed better than others. It is because pulp seaweed produces seaweed crispy enbal with high value of sensory (really like) with having fiber content is 7.48%.
... precautions should be taken at every stage a food takes — from preparation to cooking to storing leftovers. A lot of this responsibility falls on grown-ups, but kids can help fight germs, too. One of the best ways is to ... to prepare foods. When should you wash? Before you start helping — ...
Veer, van der Lomme C.
In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law
Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the definition of food peptidomics and highlight the role of this approach in food and nutrition sciences. Similar to living organisms, food peptidome may be defined as the whole peptide pool present in a food product or raw material. This definition also covers peptides obtained during technological processes and/or storage. The area of interest of food peptidomics covers research concerning the origin of peptidome, its dynamic changes during processing and/or storage, the influence of its presence, the composition and changes in the pool of peptides on the properties of food products or raw materials as well as the methods applied in research into this group of compounds. The area of interests of food peptidomics would include biological activity, functional properties, allergenicity, sensory properties and information on the product or resource authenticity and origin as well as its history and relationships. Research methods applied in food peptidomics, with special emphasis on computational methods, are also summarized.
Ridder, M. de
Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no
This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs
Schwenk, Nancy E.
An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)
A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)
Jennifer S. Laurent
Full Text Available Disordered eating behaviors are implicated in the development and persistence of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative perspective of obese youth’s eating behaviors through the lens of their parent as they attempt to create healthy changes. An in-depth secondary analysis was conducted for the construct of food intimacy that evolved as part of a larger study investigating how parents promote health for their obese child. Seventeen parents of 10- to 14-year-old obese youth were interviewed. Themes and concepts were developed using grounded theory. Parents described child behaviors such as losing control and sneaky eating to obtain food, as well as using food for comfort, pleasure, and simply loving food. The relationship between these children and food was identified as the over-arching theme, food intimacy. This study highlights the intimate relationship these children developed with food and the powerful influence of this relationship on their eating behaviors. This suggests that prescribed interventions such as exercising more and eating less may be ineffective in certain obese children, and that more focus should be placed on investigating the relationship an obese child has with food.
Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de
Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub
The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus
Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai
Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92–17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46–13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33–33.53 and 5.30–11.53 fold increase in the ...
Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei
Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)
McBride, Anne E
Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.
Tharrey, Marion; Olaya, Gilma A; Fewtrell, Mary; Ferguson, Elaine
The aim of the study was to use linear programming (LP) analyses to adapt New Complementary Feeding Guidelines (NCFg) designed for infants aged 6 to 12 months living in poor socioeconomic circumstances in Bogota to ensure dietary adequacy for young children aged 12 to 23 months. A secondary data analysis was performed using dietary and anthropometric data collected from 12-month-old infants (n = 72) participating in a randomized controlled trial. LP analyses were performed to identify nutrients whose requirements were difficult to achieve using local foods as consumed; and to test and compare the NCFg and alternative food-based recommendations (FBRs) on the basis of dietary adequacy, for 11 micronutrients, at the population level. Thiamine recommended nutrient intakes for these young children could not be achieved given local foods as consumed. NCFg focusing only on meat, fruits, vegetables, and breast milk ensured dietary adequacy at the population level for only 4 micronutrients, increasing to 8 of 11 modelled micronutrients when the FBRs promoted legumes, dairy, vitamin A-rich vegetables, and chicken giblets. None of the FBRs tested ensured population-level dietary adequacy for thiamine, niacin, and iron unless a fortified infant food was recommended. The present study demonstrated the value of using LP to adapt NCFg for a different age group than the one for which they were designed. Our analyses suggest that to ensure dietary adequacy for 12- to 23-month olds these adaptations should include legumes, dairy products, vitamin A-rich vegetables, organ meat, and a fortified food.
The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB) [de
Full Text Available Fermented foods share an integral part of age-old wisdom from ancient Indian civilization. Over the generations, this pioneering practice of food fermentation has expanded and improved to preserve and fortify the available food resources, particularly to meet the hidden hunger. India, being the second largest producer of rice, has a great history of traditional rice-based fermented foods with different tastes and textures linked with cultural diversity and mostly prepared by rural women following village art techniques. Some of them have been scientifically investigated and it has been revealed that microflora in natural or starter culture plays imperative roles to bio-embolden the rice with varieties of health promoting macronutrients and micronutrients, phytochemicals, and other functional components during fermentation. In this review, some explorative information on traditional rice-based foods and beverages has been assembled to illustrate the global interest in Indian food heritage and their functional aspects. The review also deals with the preparation of raw materials, traditional processing, composition, and ethno-medicinal importance of each food to encourage entrepreneurs to develop large-scale production to meet the growing market demand of functional foods.
Phillips, Melissa M
Vitamins are essential for improving and maintaining human health, and the main source of vitamins is the diet. Measurement of the quantities of water-soluble vitamins in common food materials is important to understand the impact of vitamin intake on human health, and also to provide necessary information for regulators to determine adequate intakes. Liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) based methods for water-soluble vitamin analysis are abundant in the literature, but most focus on only fortified foods or dietary supplements or allow determination of only a single vitamin. In this work, a method based on LC/MS and LC/MS/MS has been developed to allow simultaneous quantitation of eight water-soluble vitamins, including multiple forms of vitamins B3 and B6, in a variety of fortified and unfortified food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Optimization of extraction of unbound vitamin forms and confirmation using data from external laboratories ensured accuracy in the assigned values, and addition of stable isotope labeled internal standards for each of the vitamins allowed for increased precision.
This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)
Selma Coelho Liberato
Full Text Available Vitamins are essential to life. Inadequate eating habits, high caloric intake and metabolic defects lead to micronutrient deficiencies, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. The increasing intake of industrialized foods, combined with low vitamin stability has led to the common practice of adding these nutrients to processed foods. This review discusses the terminology, availability, intake and risk of hypervitaminosis, due to the intake and nutritional importance of foods fortified with vitamins. The addition of nutrients should occur in foods that are effectively consumed by the target population and must meet the real needs of a significant segment of the population. In Brazil, a total of 166 products available in supermarkets are vitamin-enriched. A 10-year study involving children and adolescents in Germany showed that 90% of those surveyed used at least one fortified food. During this 10-year period, 472 fortified products were consumed. The enrichment of foods should be based on the needs of each country and, if possible, regional needs. For instance, in order to increase its intake, Vitamin D is added to foods in Denmark during the winter, mainly for the elderly. However, in Brazil, there is no evidence of the need to fortify food with this vitamin. A survey showed that of the 76 enriched dairy products, 37 contained vitamin D. Food-fortification is a very important strategy to solve nutritional deficiency problems, but it can also cause many health problems.Vitaminas são nutrientes essenciais à vida. Hábitos alimentares inadequados, alto consumo energético e falhas no metabolismo levam a deficiências de micronutrientes, que afetam mais de dois bilhões de pessoas mundialmente. O consumo, cada vez maior, de alimentos industrializados, somado à baixa estabilidade das vitaminas, têm induzido à prática de adição de nutrientes aos alimentos processados. Esta revisão discute terminologia, disponibilidade, ingestão e
Manno, Daniela; Kowa, Priscilla K.; Bwalya, Hellen K.; Siame, Joshua; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Baisley, Kathy; De Stavola, Bianca L.; Jaffar, Shabbar; Filteau, Suzanne
It is uncertain whether multiple micronutrients benefit the mental and psychomotor development of young children in developing countries. We conducted a randomised double-blind controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a richly micronutrient-fortified v. a basal fortified porridge on mental and psychomotor development in Zambian infants. Infants (n 743) were randomised at age 6 months to receive either the richly fortified or the basal fortified infant food and were followed up until 18 months of age. All the infants were evaluated monthly for achievement of a series of developmental milestones. The Bayley scales of infant development II were administered to a subsample of 502 infants at 6, 12 and 18 months. Rich micronutrient fortification had no significant benefit on the following: (a) number of developmental milestones achieved (rate ratio at 12 months = 1·00; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·05; P=0·81, adjusted for sex, socio-economic status and maternal education, with similar results at 15 and 18 months); (b) ages of walking unsupported (hazard ratio (HR) 1·04; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·24; P=0·63, adjusted for the above covariates) and of speaking three or four clear words (HR 1·01; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·20; P=0·94, adjusted for the above covariates); (c) mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of the Bayley scales (scores difference adjusted for baseline scores, age at the assessment, sex, socio-economic status, maternal education, language, age and HIV status: MDI 0·3 (95 % CI −0·5, 1·1), P=0·43; PDI −0·1 (95 % CI −0·9, 0·7), P=0·78). In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis that rich micronutrient fortification improves Zambian infants’ mental and motor development. PMID:21733297
Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel
There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (PD2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (PD2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (PD2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool.
Shah, Vinit Mahendra; Tandon, Radhika; Satpathy, Gita; Nayak, Niranjan; Chawla, Bhavna; Agarwal, Tushar; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Vajpayee, Rasik B
Comparative evaluation of efficacy of monotherapy with moxifloxacin (0.5%) or gatifloxacin (0.3%) with combination therapy of cefazolin (5%) and tobramycin (1.3%) in treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients diagnosed with bacterial keratitis (ulcer diameter 2-8 mm) were randomized to 1 of the 3 treatment groups (tobramycin 1.3% and cefazolin 5%, gatifloxacin 0.3%, or moxifloxacin 0.5%). After obtaining corneal scrapings, assigned study medication was instilled hourly for 48 hours and tapered as per clinical response. Healing of ulcer, duration to cure, adverse reactions, antibiogram profile, treatment failures, final visual acuity, and corneal opacity size were evaluated. A total of 61 patients were enrolled [cefazolin and tobramycin (n = 20), gatifloxacin (n = 21), and moxifloxacin (n = 20)]. Overall, 57 patients (93%) healed on treatment. On comparison of the mean time taken to heal, no statistically significant difference was found among all the 3 treatment groups (P = 0.98). Positive bacterial culture was obtained in only 38 patients (62%). There was no significant difference in the bacterial isolates in each treatment group. There were 4 (7%) treatment failures (perforation or nonhealing ulcer): 1 (5%) each in moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin group and 2 (10%) in fortified antibiotics group. All regimens were well tolerated. The study failed to find a difference in the efficacy of monotherapy with fourth-generation fluoroquinolones in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers of 2-8 mm size when compared with combination therapy of fortified antibiotics.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reviews suggest common infectious diseases continue to be a major cause of death among preschool children in developing countries. Identification of feasible strategies to combat this disease burden is an important public health need. We evaluated the efficacy of adding prebiotic oligosaccharide and probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 to milk, in preventing diarrhea, respiratory infections and severe illnesses, in children aged 1-4 years as part of a four group study design, running two studies simultaneously. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a community based double-masked, randomized controlled trial, children 1-3 years of age, willing to participate, were randomly allocated to receive either control milk (Co; n = 312 or the same milk fortified with 2.4 g/day of prebiotic oligosaccharide and 1.9x10(7 colony forming unit (c.f.u/day of probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (PP; n = 312. Children were followed up for 1 year providing data for 1-4 years. Biweekly household surveillance was conducted to gather information on compliance and morbidity. Both study groups were comparable at baseline; compliance to intervention was similar. Overall, there was no effect of prebiotic and probiotic on diarrhea (6% reduction, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -1 to 12%; p = 0.08. Incidence of dysentery episodes was reduced by 21% (95% CI: 0 to 38%; p = 0.05. Incidence of pneumonia was reduced by 24% (95% CI: 0 to 42%; p = 0.05 and severe acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI by 35% (95% CI: 0 to 58%; p = 0.05. Compared to children in Co group, children in PP group had 16% (95% CI: 5 to 26%, p = 0.004 and 5% (95% CI: 0 to 10%; p = 0.05 reduction in days with severe illness and high fever respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Milk can be a good medium for delivery of prebiotic and probiotic and resulted in significant reduction of dysentery, respiratory morbidity and febrile illness. Overall, impact of diarrhea was not significant. These