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Sample records for food borne bacteria

  1. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, Soichi; Akiyoshi, Yuko; O’Toole, George A; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of food additives on biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Thirty-three potential food additives and 3 related compounds were added to the culture medium at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1% (w/w), followed by inoculation and cultivation of five biofilm-forming bacterial strains for the evaluation of biofilm formation. Among the tested food additives, 21 showed inhibitory effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and i...

  2. [Studies on rapid detection of food-borne pathogenic bacteria by nucleic acid testing and related technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Mingzhong; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiumei

    2008-03-01

    The traditional methods of bacteria isolation, cultivation and identification are time-consuming, which can't meet the needs of the control and prevention of food-borne diseases. Recently, various kinds of rapid methods for food-borne pathogenic bacteria detection have emerged with the prompt development of nucleic acid testing technology. The application studies on polymerase chain reaction and the techniques derived from it, nucleic acid isothermal amplification, oligonucleotide microarray, immunomagnetic separation and DNA biosensing on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterohemorrhagic Escherchia coli, etc. were reviewed.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products.

  4. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  5. Antibiotic resistance and assessment of food-borne pathogenic bacteria in frozen foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eunhye; Lee, Dokyung; Jang, Seok; An, Hyangmi; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Kyungjae; Lee, Kangoh; Ha, Namjoo

    2009-12-01

    One hundred ninety-three frozen food samples collected in Korea various public bazaars from October 2006 to September 2007. Staphylococci were detected in 21.8% of frozen food samples. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 17 (8.8%) samples. Other staphylococci isolates were identified as S. warneri (7.8%), S. epidermidis (2.1%), S. xylosus (1.6%), S. eguorum (1%), and S. vitulinus (0.5%). Additionally, the antimicrobial susceptibility of 42 staphylococcal isolates to ten different antimicrobial agents was determined. The staphylococcal isolates demonstrated antimicrobial resistance to mupirocin (31%) oxacillin (14.3%), gentamicin (9.5%), teicoplanin (7.1%) and ciprofloxacin (7.1%). Most of the staphylococcal isolates showed high-level resistance to mupirocin (MIC(90), >128 microg/mL). Fortunately, most of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. The total bacteria and Escherichia coli count were tested to investigate the microbiological quality of frozen foods. From 193 frozen food samples, 43 (22.3%), 34 (17.6%) and 19 (9.8%) samples were shown to be of unacceptable quality due to total bacteria, coliform and E. coli counts, respectively.

  6. Adhesion of food-borne bacteria to stainless steel is reduced by food conditioning films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yin; Jorgensen, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    also decreases adhesion of other food-relevant bacteria. The manipulation of adhesion was not attributable to growth inhibitory effects. Chemical analysis revealed that the stainless steels were covered by homogenous layers of adsorbed proteins. The presence of tropomyocin was indicated by appearance......Preconditioning of stainless steel with aqueous cod muscle extract significantly impedes subsequent bacterial adhesion most likely due to repelling effects of fish tropomyosin. The purpose of this study was to determine if other food conditioning films decrease or enhance bacterial adhesion...... to stainless steel. Attachment of Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2 to stainless steel coated with water-soluble coatings of animal origin was significantly reduced as compared with noncoated stainless steel or stainless steel coated with laboratory substrate or extracts of plant origin. Coating with animal extracts...

  7. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Soichi; Akiyoshi, Yuko; O’Toole, George A.; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of food additives on biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Thirty-three potential food additives and 3 related compounds were added to the culture medium at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1% (w/w), followed by inoculation and cultivation of five biofilm-forming bacterial strains for the evaluation of biofilm formation. Among the tested food additives, 21 showed inhibitory effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in particular, sugar fatty acid esters showed significant anti-biofilm activity. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) exerted their inhibitory effect at the concentration of 0.001%(w/w), but bacterial growth was not affected at this low concentration. Activities of the sugar fatty acid esters positively correlated with the increase of the chain length of the fatty acid residues. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibited the initial attachment of the Staphylococcus aureus cells to the abiotic surface. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) also inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Listeria monocytogenes at 0.01%(w/w), while the inhibition of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa required the addition of a far higher concentration (0.1%(w/w)) of the sugar fatty acid esters. PMID:20089325

  8. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Soichi; Akiyoshi, Yuko; O'Toole, George A; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2010-03-31

    Effects of food additives on biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Thirty-three potential food additives and 3 related compounds were added to the culture medium at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1% (w/w), followed by inoculation and cultivation of five biofilm-forming bacterial strains for the evaluation of biofilm formation. Among the tested food additives, 21 showed inhibitory effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in particular, sugar fatty acid esters showed significant anti-biofilm activity. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) exerted their inhibitory effect at the concentration of 0.001% (w/w), but bacterial growth was not affected at this low concentration. Activities of the sugar fatty acid esters positively correlated with the increase of the chain length of the fatty acid residues. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibited the initial attachment of the S. aureus cells to the abiotic surface. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) also inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Listeria monocytogenes at 0.01% (w/w), while the inhibition of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa required the addition of a far higher concentration (0.1% (w/w)) of the sugar fatty acid esters.

  9. Quercetin Influences Quorum Sensing in Food Borne Bacteria: In-Vitro and In-Silico Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkadesaperumal Gopu

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS plays a vital role in regulating the virulence factor of many food borne pathogens, which causes severe public health risk. Therefore, interrupting the QS signaling pathway may be an attractive strategy to combat microbial infections. In the current study QS inhibitory activity of quercetin and its anti-biofilm property was assessed against food-borne pathogens using a bio-sensor strain. In addition in-silico techniques like molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies were applied to screen the quercetin's potentiality as QS inhibitor. Quercetin (80 μg/ml showed the significant reduction in QS-dependent phenotypes like violacein production, biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide (EPS production, motility and alginate production in a concentration-dependent manner. Synergistic activity of conventional antibiotics with quercetin enhanced the susceptibility of all tested pathogens. Furthermore, Molecular docking analysis revealed that quercetin binds more rigidly with LasR receptor protein than the signaling compound with docking score of -9.17 Kcal/mol. Molecular dynamics simulation predicted that QS inhibitory activity of quercetin occurs through the conformational changes between the receptor and quercetin complex. Above findings suggest that quercetin can act as a competitive inhibitor for signaling compound towards LasR receptor pathway and can serve as a novel QS-based antibacterial/anti-biofilm drug to manage food-borne pathogens.

  10. Inhibition Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Food Born Pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouha Kasra-Kermanshahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disease caused by consuming microbial contaminated food has increased significantly in recent years due to changes in the livelihoods and eating habits of the human populations. Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica are three of the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens and can lead to foodborne diseases. Increased use of antibiotics, has led to development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, there is growing interest in the development of new types of effective and nontoxic antimicrobial compounds. Nowadays, the most extensive research and commercial practices are based on probiotic bacteria. Probiotics, specifically lactic acid bacteria are widely used in the food industry for fermentation but have gained attention from health professionals because of their potential beneficial effects. Now probiotic therapy is thought to be an effective way to improve the gut health and an alternative to antibiotic treatments. They contribute to food safety by their ability to inhibit the growth of several other bacteria. LAB can be used as protective cultures to compete with potential pathogens and other undesired organisms, thereby increasing the safety of the food product.

  11. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial community and food-borne bacteria on restaurant cutting boards collected in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia, and their correlation with grades of food premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Mutalib, Noor-Azira; Amin Nordin, Syafinaz; Osman, Malina; Ishida, Natsumi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Maeda, Toshinari; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2015-05-04

    This study adopts the pyrosequencing technique to identify bacteria present on 26 kitchen cutting boards collected from different grades of food premises around Seri Kembangan, a city in Malaysia. Pyrosequencing generated 452,401 of total reads of OTUs with an average of 1.4×10(7) bacterial cells/cm(2). Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroides were identified as the most abundant phyla in the samples. Taxonomic richness was generally high with >1000 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) observed across all samples. The highest appearance frequencies (100%) were OTUs closely related to Enterobacter sp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida. Several OTUs were identified most closely related to known food-borne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazaki, Cronobacter turisensis, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Hafnia alvei, Kurthia gibsonii, Salmonella bongori, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella tyhpi, Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica ranging from 0.005% to 0.68% relative abundance. The condition and grade of the food premises on a three point cleanliness scale did not correlate with the bacterial abundance and type. Regardless of the status and grades, all food premises have the same likelihood to introduce food-borne bacteria from cutting boards to their foods and must always prioritize the correct food handling procedure in order to avoid unwanted outbreak of food-borne illnesses.

  12. Antibacterial Effects of (Mentha X Piperita L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on the Six Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zandi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Iran is the richest country in terms of distribution of medicinal plants. The antimicrobial effect of plant extracts and essential oils is well known and they are used as a good substitute in food industry to control food-borne pathogens. Due to the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their efficacy against microorganisms, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of peppermint extract in order to control pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Piperita L., which is one of the species of mint; was used in this invitro-experimental study. The extraction was performed by percolation method. Well - agar method was used for antibacterial effects of extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were done for six standard bacteria using microdilution method. The test was performed 3 times for each bacterium. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 and t-test. Results: The lowest MIC of peppermint extract on examined microorganisms were observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (3.25 mg/ ml. Also the maximum diameter of inhibition zone, was related to Staphylococcus aureus (32 mm. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that peppermint extract has a favorable control effect on the growth of food borne pathogens, which can be used as a perfect preservative for keeping food.

  13. Synergistic and antagonistic effect of lactic acid bacteria on tyramine production by food-borne pathogenic bacteria in tyrosine decarboxylase broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuley, Esmeray; Ozogul, Fatih

    2011-08-01

    The effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains on tyramine (TYR) and also other biogenic amines (BA) production by eight common food-borne pathogen (FBP) in tyrosine decarboxylase broth (TDB) was investigated by using a rapid HPLC method. Significant differences were observed among the FBP strains in ammonia (AMN) and BA production apart from tryptamine, histamine (HIS) and spermine formation (pfood-borne pathogenic bacteria, although the effect of some LAB strains on BA production was strain-dependent. Lactococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. resulted in significantly higher TYR accumulation by Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus faecalis in TDB. The presence of Lactococcus and/or Lactobacillus in TDB significantly increased HIS production by A. hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Ent. faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas HIS accumulation was significantly reduced by Staphylococcus aureus, S. paratyphi A and Listeria monocytogenes.

  14. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  15. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%, limonene (11.50%, β-bourbonene (11.23%, cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%, trans-caryophyllene (1.04%, menthone (1.01%, menthol (1%, and terpinen-4-ol (0.99. The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL. Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent.

  16. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%), limonene (11.50%), β-bourbonene (11.23%), cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%), trans-caryophyllene (1.04%), menthone (1.01%), menthol (1%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.99). The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL). Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent.

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

  18. 2013年沈阳市食源性致病菌监测分析%Analysis of food borne pathogenic bacteria monitoring in Shenyang city in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温立海; 赵常志; 刘漪

    2016-01-01

    目的:为了了解沈阳市食源性致病菌污染情况,研究食源性疾病的发生规律,预警食物中毒提供依据。方法:依据国家食源性疾病监测2013年度工作手册,对样品进行检测。结果:共监测乳及乳制品、速冻发面制品、肉及肉制品、水产品等9类样品235份,检出食源性致病菌22份,总检出率9.36%。检出的致病菌分别是金黄色葡萄球菌6株,蜡样芽孢杆菌6株,副溶血性弧菌10株。结论:2013年沈阳市食品存在食源性致病菌污染,应加强本地区食源性致病菌的监测,防止食源性疾病和食物中毒发生。%Objective:In order to understand the pollution situation of food borne pathogenic bacteria in Shenyang City,to study the occurrence regularity of food borne diseases,and to provide evidence for early warning of food poisoning.Methods:According to the national food borne disease monitoring 2013 annual working manual,the samples were detected.Results:235 cases of milk and dairy products,frozen dough products,meat and meat products,aquatic products and so on 9 kinds of samples were monitored,22 food borne pathogenic bacterias were detected,the total detection rate was 9.36%.The detection of pathogenic bacteria were 6 strains of staphylococcus aureus,6 strains of bacillus cereus,10 strains of vibrio parahaemolyticus.Conclusion:In 2013,the food in Shenyang city is contaminated by food borne pathogenic bacteria,which should strengthen the monitoring of food borne pathogenic bacteria in the region to prevent the occurrence of food borne diseases and food poisoning.

  19. Research regarding the antimicrobial activity of essential oils against food borne bacteria and toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA A. DOBRE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against four different bacterial and five fungal strains that are involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus brasiliensis, using two methods: agar disc diffusion method and disc volatilization method. The majority of the selected essential oils presented inhibitory activity against all the microorganisms tested but essential oils of oregano, thyme and clove proved to develop the best antibacterial and antifungal activity both in direct contact and volatilization method and could be used for further investigation in active packaging of food.

  20. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

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    Nina Forss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  1. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G) produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  2. Difficulties in diagnosing food-borne botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Nina; Ramstad, Raimo; Bäcklund, Tom; Lindström, Miia; Kolho, Elina

    2012-05-01

    Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A-G) produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12-36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  3. [Food-borne botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuko; Sawada, Mikio; Ikeguchi, Kunihiko; Nakano, Imaharu

    2012-08-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, and classically presents as palsies of cranial nerves and acute descending flaccid paralysis. Food-borne botulism is the most common form of botulism, and caused by preformed neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Electrophysiological studies play an important role in the early diagnosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis is based on the detection of botulinum toxins in the patient's serum or stool. In Japan, decades ago, botulism type E occurred, though only sporadically, almost every year, but in recent years, has dramatically decreased in frequency. Botulism is a curable disease when treated early and adequately. Differential diagnosis of cranial nerves and limb muscle palsies with rapid exacerbation should include food-borne botulism.

  4. Pan-European resistance monitoring programmes encompassing food-borne bacteria and target pathogens of food-producing and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A; Thomas, V; Klein, U; Marion, H; Moyaert, H; Simjee, S; Vallé, M

    2013-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a concern both for animal and human health. Veterinary programmes monitoring resistance of animal and zoonotic pathogens are therefore essential. Various European countries have implemented national surveillance programmes, particularly for zoonotic and commensal bacteria, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is compiling the data. However, harmonisation is identified as a weakness and an essential need in order to compare data across countries. Comparisons of resistance monitoring data among national programmes are hampered by differences between programmes, such as sampling and testing methodology, and different epidemiological cut-off values or clinical breakpoints. Moreover, only very few valid data are available regarding target pathogens both of farm and companion animals. The European Animal Health Study Centre (CEESA) attempts to fill these gaps. The resistance monitoring programmes of CEESA have been a collaboration of veterinary pharmaceutical companies for over a decade and include two different projects: the European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) programme, which collects food-borne bacteria at slaughter from healthy animals, and the pathogen programmes that collect first-intention target pathogens from acutely diseased animals. The latter comprises three subprogrammes: VetPath; MycoPath; and ComPath. All CEESA projects include uniform sample collection and bacterial identification to species level in various European Union (EU) member states. A central laboratory conducts quantitative susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents either important in human medicine or commonly used in veterinary medicine. This 'methodology harmonisation' allows easy comparisons among EU member states and makes the CEESA programmes invaluable to address food safety and antibiotic efficacy.

  5. The influence of the cell free solution of lactic acid bacteria on tyramine production by food borne-pathogens in tyrosine decarboxylase broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Nurten; Özogul, Fatih; Özogul, Yesim

    2015-04-15

    The function of cell-free solutions (CFSs) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on tyramine and other biogenic amine production by different food borne-pathogens (FBPs) was investigated in tyrosine decarboxylase broth (TDB) using HPLC. Cell free solutions were prepared from four LAB strains. Two different concentrations which were 50% (5 ml CFS+5 ml medium/1:1) and 25% (2.5 ml CFS+7.5 ml medium/1:3) CFS and the control without CFS were prepared. Both concentration of CFS of Streptococcus thermophilus and 50% CFS of Pediococcus acidophilus inhibited tyramine production up to 98% by Salmonella paratyphi A. Tyramine production by Escherichia coli was also inhibited by 50% CFS of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and 25% CFS of Leuconostoc lactis. subsp. cremoris. The inhibitor effect of 50% CFS of P. acidophilus was the highest on tyramine production (55%) by Listeria monocytogenes, following Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (20%) whilst 25% CFS of Leu. mes. subsp. cremoris and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis showed stimulator effects (160%). The stimulation effects of 50% CFS of S. thermophilus and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis were more than 70% by Staphylococcus aureus comparing to the control. CFS of LAB strains showed statistically inhibitor effect since lactic acid inhibited microbial growth, decreased pH quickly and reduced the formation of AMN and BAs. Consequently, in order to avoid the formation of high concentrations of biogenic amines in fermented food by bacteria, it is advisable to use CFS for food and food products.

  6. Emerging food-borne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Praet, N; Deckers, N; Gabriel, S

    2009-08-07

    Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne parasites, with emphasis on transmission routes. In a first part, waterborne parasites transmitted by contaminated food such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are discussed. Also human fasciolosis, of which the importance has only been recognised in the last decades, with total numbers of reported cases increasing from less than 3000 to 17 million, is looked at. Furthermore, fasciolopsiosis, an intestinal trematode of humans and pigs belongs to the waterborne parasites as well. A few parasites that may be transmitted through faecal contamination of foods and that have received renewed attention, such as Toxoplasma gondii, or that are (re-)emerging, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Echinococcus spp., are briefly reviewed. In a second part, meat-borne parasite infections are reviewed. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat infected with cyst stages of these parasites. Meat inspection is the principal method applied in the control of Taenia spp. and Trichinella spp. However, it is often not very sensitive, frequently not practised, and not done for T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. Meat of reptiles, amphibians and fish can be infected with a variety of parasites, including trematodes (Opisthorchis spp., Clonorchis sinensis, minute intestinal flukes), cestodes (Diphyllobothrium spp., Spirometra), nematodes (Gnathostoma, spp., anisakine parasites), and pentastomids that can cause zoonotic infections in humans when consumed raw or not properly cooked. Another important zoonotic food-borne

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts Against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria In Vitro and on Poultry Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some plant extracts are known to contain substances that inhibit the growth of bacteria; therefore, experiments were conducted to examine the ability of extracts of pomegranate, orange, and lemon peels to inhibit the growth of five bacteria associated with processed poultry. The antibacterial activi...

  8. Food-borne zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance of indicator bacteria in urban wild boars in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Porrero, Concepción M; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2013-12-27

    Wildlife is increasingly abundant in urban environments, but little is known about the zoonotic pathogens carried by these populations. Urban wild boars are of particular concern because this species is well-known as a pathogen reservoir, and thus, we studied selected zoonotic pathogens in urban wild boars in Barcelona, Spain (n=41). Salmonella enterica was found in 5.00% (95% CI 0.61-16.91) and Campylobacter coli in 4.88% (95% CI 0.6-16.53) of the animals. E. coli O157:H7 and C. jejuni were not found. Other thermophilic Campylobacter were moderately prevalent (19.51%, 95% CI 8.82-34.87). Additionally, we screened for antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria: resistance was most frequent in Enterococcus faecium (95% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (50%) and Escherichia coli (10%). For the first time resistance to linezolid in bacteria carried by wildlife is reported. These findings pose a concern for public health, and thus, further research is needed on wildlife in urban environments.

  9. 2010年达州市食源性致病菌监测%Monitoring of Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria in Dazhou City in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓; 李德华; 周汉洪; 李红; 常虹; 薛镧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the contamination situation of food - borne pathogen in food market of Dazhou in 2010, so as to identify high - risk foods and provide the basis for food - borne diseases prevention and control in Dazhou City. Methods On - sale raw meat, raw poultry, cooked meat, deep frozen cooked rice products, ready to use non - fermentation bean products, fresh frozen aquatic products, uncooked aquatic products, uncooked vegetables, baby formula rice (grain, bean) powder, icecream, Chinese salad, salad, fresh fruit juice, preserved eggs and raw duck eggs were sampled with stratified multi - stage method, and the following bacteria were detected; Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogens, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Staphylococ-cus aureus, Escherichia coli 0 Enterobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni and Vibrio vulnificus, according to national standard and relevant methods. Results Among a total of 256 samples in 15 classes, 29 strains of food - borne pathogenic bacteria were detected; Vibrio parahemolyticus, 9; Listeria monocytogens , 8; Staphy-lococcus aureus, 6; Salmonella spp, 4; Enterobacter sakazakii 1; Escherichia coli O157: H 7, 1, with a total positive rate of 11. 33%. Higher positive rates were found in fresh frozen aquatic products (42. 86% ) , ice cream (33. 33% ), uncooked aquatic products (20. 00% ) , cooked meat (19. 04% ) , raw meat and ready to use non - fermentation bean products (13. 33% ). Conclusion In Dazhou, major kinds of consumed foods were contaminated by food -borne pathogens. Fresh frozen aquatic products, ice cream, uncooked aquatic products and cooked meat were mainly contaminated respectively by Vibrio parahemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogens.%目的 了解达州市2010年市售食品的食源性致病菌污染状况,为控制和降低食源性疾病提供依据.方法 多级分层抽样市售生畜肉、生禽肉、熟肉制品、速冻熟制米面制品、即食非发酵性豆制品、鲜冻水产品、

  10. Food-Borne Bacterial Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, F. S.

    1966-01-01

    Food poisoning caused by the ingestion of preformed bacterial toxins is considered in relation to comparative symptoms, procedures for extraction and purification of the causal toxins, their chemistry, serology, assay procedures and pharmacology, in so far as these are known. The bacteria discussed in this context are Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Vibrio parahemolyticus. The possible roles of the enterococci, Proteus, E. coli and of unknown species, in relation to production of non-antigenic toxic substances, are discussed briefly. Requirements for prevention of the various forms of bacterial food poisoning are outlined. PMID:5905949

  11. 食品病原微生物快速检测技术研究进展%Research advances for fast detection of food borne pathogenic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春光; 王宏伟; 彭心婷; 苏明明; 徐静; 李莉; 孙兴权; 曹际娟

    2015-01-01

    随着现在食品工业的快速发展,食品安全越来越受到各国的重视。影响食品安全的因素很多,其中食品中的病原微生物是影响食品安全的主要因素之一。为了对食品安全进行有效、快速的监测,控制食品加工中的病原微生物,研究和建立食品病原快速检测方法对于食品质量控制和监管及人们健康也就越来越重要。食源性致病菌的传统检测方法繁琐复杂、周期较长,因而快速、简便、特异的检测方法成为研究的热点。快速检测方法的应用范围非常广泛,并且比传统的检测方法更加敏感。本文主要从分子生物学技术、免疫技术、代谢技术、生物传感器技术等方面介绍了目前国内外用于食品微生物检测的先进技术,并对这些在当前较为先进的主流的快速检测技术进行总结分析,为今后进一步研究和开发新检测技术提供一些参考。%Now with the rapid development of food industry, food safety is concerned all over the world. Many factors affect the food safety, among which pathogenic microbe is one of the most primary factor. In order to effectively and efficiently monitor the food safety, it is more and more important for food quality control and supervision to control the pathogenic microorganism in food processing, and establish the method for rapid detection of food pathogen. Traditional methods for detection of food borne pathogens are quite complex, and cost much time, so more researches focus on the quick, convenient and differential methods. The scope of application of rapid detection method is very extensive, and more sensitive than the traditional detection method. This article introduced several advanced fast detection technology of food pathogenic bacteria, including molecular biology technology, immunity technology, metabolism technology and biosensor technology, and the rapid detection technology of those more advanced analysis and

  12. Bioprotective properties of seaweeds: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against food borne bacteria in relation to polyphenolic content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesika Periyanaina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many years chemical preservatives have been used in food, to act as either antimicrobials or antioxidants or both. In general, consumers regard additive-free foods as safer since preservatives can cause health hazards like asthma and cancer and are suspected to be mutagenic and neurotoxic. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of seaweeds, with a view to developing safer food preservatives. Methods Ten edible seaweeds, which have wide pharmaceutical application, were collected from Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Tamil Nadu, India and evaluated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity against food borne pathogens. Results The results indicate that Gelidiella acerosa has the highest antioxidant activity while Haligra sps exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96. Conclusion Quantitative analysis of the total phenolic content of the seaweeds indicated that Gelidella acerosa and Haligra sps have high phenolic contents, which correlated to their respective antioxidant and antimicrobial activity

  13. Bioprotective properties of seaweeds: in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against food borne bacteria in relation to polyphenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kasi Pandima; Suganthy, Natarajan; Kesika, Periyanaina; Pandian, Shanmugaiahthevar Karutha

    2008-07-10

    For many years chemical preservatives have been used in food, to act as either antimicrobials or antioxidants or both. In general, consumers regard additive-free foods as safer since preservatives can cause health hazards like asthma and cancer and are suspected to be mutagenic and neurotoxic. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of seaweeds, with a view to developing safer food preservatives. Ten edible seaweeds, which have wide pharmaceutical application, were collected from Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Tamil Nadu, India and evaluated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity against food borne pathogens. The results indicate that Gelidiella acerosa has the highest antioxidant activity while Haligra sps exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96). Quantitative analysis of the total phenolic content of the seaweeds indicated that Gelidella acerosa and Haligra sps have high phenolic contents, which correlated to their respective antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

  14. Bacteriocins From Lactic Acid Bacteria: Interest For Food Products Biopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Dortu, C.; Thonart, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: interest for food products biopreservation. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are low molecular weight antimicrobial peptides. They have inhibitory activity against the bacteria that are closed related to the producer strains and a narrow inhibitory spectrum. Nevertheless, most of them have activity against some food-born pathogenic bacteria as Listeria monocytogenes. The application of bacteriocins or bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria in ...

  15. DNA microarray technique for detecting food-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing GAO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the application of DNA microarray technique for screening and identifying multiple food-borne pathogens. Methods The oligonucleotide probes were designed by Clustal X and Oligo 6.0 at the conserved regions of specific genes of multiple food-borne pathogens, and then were validated by bioinformatic analyses. The 5' end of each probe was modified by amino-group and 10 Poly-T, and the optimized probes were synthesized and spotted on aldehyde-coated slides. The bacteria DNA template incubated with Klenow enzyme was amplified by arbitrarily primed PCR, and PCR products incorporated into Aminoallyl-dUTP were coupled with fluorescent dye. After hybridization of the purified PCR products with DNA microarray, the hybridization image and fluorescence intensity analysis was acquired by ScanArray and GenePix Pro 5.1 software. A series of detection conditions such as arbitrarily primed PCR and microarray hybridization were optimized. The specificity of this approach was evaluated by 16 different bacteria DNA, and the sensitivity and reproducibility were verified by 4 food-borne pathogens DNA. The samples of multiple bacteria DNA and simulated water samples of Shigella dysenteriae were detected. Results Nine different food-borne bacteria were successfully discriminated under the same condition. The sensitivity of genomic DNA was 102 -103pg/ μl, and the coefficient of variation (CV of the reproducibility of assay was less than 15%. The corresponding specific hybridization maps of the multiple bacteria DNA samples were obtained, and the detection limit of simulated water sample of Shigella dysenteriae was 3.54×105cfu/ml. Conclusions The DNA microarray detection system based on arbitrarily primed PCR can be employed for effective detection of multiple food-borne pathogens, and this assay may offer a new method for high-throughput platform for detecting bacteria.

  16. 江阴市2009-2011年食源性致病菌监测研究%Monitoring on food - borne pathogenic bacteria in Jiangyin city during 2009 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪国忠; 高海英; 蒋建章; 王均华

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解江阴市市售食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况,寻找本市引起食源性疾病的重点食品,对可能发生的食源性疾病进行预警.方法 采集8大类食品,按国标及相关方法对7种食源性致病菌进行分离、生化及血清学鉴定.结果 604份样品中检出食源性致病菌90份,平均检出率为14.90%,8类食品中,以散装熟肉制品的污染最严重,其次为凉拌菜、生禽肉类;致泻性弧菌检出率为11.09%,以副溶血性弧菌为主,占致泻性弧菌的44.64%;金黄色葡萄球菌检出率为1.71%;单增李斯特菌检出率为7.32%;变形杆菌检出率为6.07%;未检出EHECO157∶H7、沙门氏菌、志贺氏菌.结论 江阴市市售食品中食源性致病菌污染较为严重,散装熟肉制品、凉拌菜、生禽肉类是主要污染食品,应加强细菌性食源性疾病相关危险因子的研究分析,做好食品安全预警工作.%Objective To leam the contamination status of food - borne pathogenic bacteria of food in Jiangyin, look for the key food which caused food origin diseases and early warning the contingent diseases. Method Collecting 8 kinds of food and 7 kinds of food - borne pathogenic bacteria were isolated from them and biochemistry and serological identification them according to national standards and correlation methods. Results Total of 90 food - borne pathogenic bacteria were detected from 604 samples and average detection rate was 14. 90%. Among the 8 kinds of food, no packaging cooked products contamination were the most serious, the second were the cold food and raw meat. The detection rate of diarrhea vibrio was 11. 09% , vibrio parahaemo-lyticus was the primarily, it accounted for 44. 64% , staphylococcus aureus detection rate was 1. 71% , listeria was 7. 32% , bacillus proteus was 6. 07% , no EHECO157: H7, salmonella and shigella. Conclusions The contamination status of food - borne pathogenic bacteria was serious, especially no

  17. 食源性致病菌焦磷酸通用引物测序方法的建立%The Study of Pyrosequencing Method by the Universal Primers for Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新; 王永; 兰青阔; 陈锐; 朱珠; 余景会; 李欧静; 郭永泽

    2013-01-01

      建立一种利用焦磷酸测序技术检测和鉴定沙门氏菌(Salmonellla)、单核细胞增生李斯特菌(Listeria monocytogenes)、金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)和志贺氏菌(Shigella)的方法。通过对4种菌16SrRNA的保守序列可变区的同源性分析,设计出一套适合焦磷酸测序的扩增引物和测序引物,通过可变区位点差异,利用一套通用引物同时鉴别4种食源性致病菌,测序结果与数据库比对判断细菌种属。结果表明:建立的检测方法可在4 h内完成对4种菌的鉴定,测序鉴定结果与国标的传统生化方法完全一致,焦磷酸测序技术可用于食源性致病菌的检测和鉴定。%The method of pyrosequencing technology for identification of Salmonellla spp, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella cereus was established. According to nucleotide homology analysis of 16S rRNA of 4 food-borne pathogenic bacteria,we designed one set of primer,including one universal PCR primers and one pyrosequencing sequencing primer. The 4 pathogenic bacteria were distinguished on the basis of pyrosequencing signal peaks. The result showed that the identification of four-kinds of food-borne pathogenic bacteria was completed in 4 h, the results of identification of bacteria were consistent with the result of GB/T method. The pyrosequencing method can use for detection and identification of food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Echinophora platyloba D.C against some of food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Ehsani, Ali; Hosseini Jazani, Nima; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Mahmoudi, Razzaqh

    2013-01-01

    Echinophora Platyloba D.C as a medicinal plant is used for preservation of foods and treatment of many diseases in different regions of Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and investigation of the antibacterial effects of essential oil as well as methanol extract from aerial part of Echinophora Platyloba D.C against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Thyphimurium and E. coli. Chemical analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) showed that ocimene (26.51%), 2,3-Dimethyl-cyclohexa-1,3-diene (9.87%), alpha-pinene (7.69%) and gamma-dodecanolactone (5.66%) were dominant components of essential oil and the main constituents of methanol extract were o-Cymene (28.66%), methanol (8.50%), alpha-pinene (7.42%) and gamma-decalactone (5.20%). The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive against gram-negative bacteria. The most sensitive bacteria to essential oil and extract of Echinophora Platyloba D.C were L. mono-cytogenes and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of essential oil against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 6250 and 12500 ppm, respectively. MIC of methanol extract against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was 25000 ppm. Therefore, purifying and evaluation of antibacterial effects of the active substances of the essential oil and methanol extract of this plant for future application as antibacterial agents and food preservatives to combat pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms is recommended.

  19. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Echinophora platyloba D.C against some of food-borne pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinophora Platyloba D.C as a medicinal plant is used for preservation of foods and treatment of many diseases in different regions of Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and investigation of the antibacterial effects of essential oil as well as methanol extract from aerial part of Echinophora Platyloba D.C against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Thyphimurium and E. coli. Chemical analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS showed that ocimene (26.51%, 2,3-Dimethyl-cyclohexa- 1,3-diene (9.87%, alpha-pinene (7.69% and gamma-dodecanolactone (5.66% were dominant components of essential oil and the main constituents of methanol extract were o- Cymene (28.66%, methanol (8.50%, alpha-pinene (7.42% and gamma-decalactone (5.20%. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive against gram-negative bacteria. The most sensitive bacteria to essential oil and extract of Echinophora Platyloba D.C were L. mono- cytogenes and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of essential oil against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 6250 and 12500 ppm, respectively. MIC of methanol extract against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was 25000 ppm. Therefore, purifying and evaluation of antibacterial effects of the active substances of the essential oil and methanol extract of this plant for future application as antibacterial agents and food preservatives to combat pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms is recommended.

  20. 实时荧光定量PCR技术在食源性致病菌检测中的应用%Application of Real-time Fluorescent Quantitative PCR for the Detection of Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕艳芳; 马春颖; 励建荣

    2014-01-01

    近年来食源性疾病爆发数量呈上升趋势,食品安全问题已经成为危害人们生命和健康的严重问题,引起了全世界消费者对食品品质、安全和卫生的关注。实时荧光定量PCR技术是在定性PCR技术的基础上发展起来的核酸定量技术,灵敏性高、特异性强,实现了对DNA模板的定量检测,目前已广泛应用于食品检测领域。本文概述了实时荧光定量PCR技术的原理及其在食源性致病菌检测中的应用,并对其应用前景进行了探讨。%The outbreak of food-borne disease has shown a rising trend in recent years, and the problem of food safety seriously threats people’s life and health. Consumers around the world pay much attention to food quality, safety and health. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR technique is a nucleic acid quantitative technique, on the basis of the qualitative PCR technology, having high sensitivity, strong specificity, which has realized the quantita-tive detection of DNA template, and now has been widely used in the field of food detection. This paper summa-rized the principle of real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR technique and its application in the detection of food-borne pathogenic bacteria, and discussed the application prospect.

  1. Emerging Food-borne Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is changing. While in manydeveloping nations the efficient treatment of diarrhoeal diseases through oral rehydration has probably led to the prevention of many food related deaths, the underlying problems have not been solved. In these countries, the disease incidence of food-and waterborne disease is still increasing, and now data from other parts of the world indicate that new foodborne pathogens have emerged as important public health problems. Over the last two decades, bacterial infections caused by Campylobacter and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli have emerged, well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella enteritidis, have increased dramatically in disease incidence and important foodborne pathogens have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. The future strategy for prevention of foodborne disease should be founded in scientifically based evaluations of the whole food production chain ‘from farm to table’, including a description of the most important (risk) factors. Epidemiological studies of outbreaks as well as sporadic cases should be aimed at a better understanding of these factors. In terms of public health importance of the problem, the focus should be on the size of the problem, and the potential for improvement. The indications are that both in developed and developing countries there is significant potential for an improvement of the situation. With this aim in mind, international effort should focus on scientific assessments of the potential for risk reduction under different regional conditions.

  2. Antibiosis of vineyard ecosystem fungi against food-borne microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña; Salazar, Óscar; Vicente, M Francisca; Bills, Gerald F

    2011-12-01

    Fermentation extracts from fungi isolated from vineyard ecosystems were tested for antimicrobial activities against a set of test microorganisms, including five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus EP167, Acinetobacter baumannii (clinically isolated), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CECT 5947) and Candida albicans MY1055) and two probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LCH17 and Lactobacillus brevis LCH23). A total of 182 fungi was grown in eight different media, and the fermentation extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 71 fungi produced extracts active against at least one pathogenic microorganism, but not against any probiotic bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus EP167 was more susceptible to antimicrobial fungi broth extracts than Gram-negative bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Identification of active fungi based on internal transcribed spacer rRNA sequence analysis revealed that species in the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Xylariales dominated. Differences in antimicrobial selectivity were observed among isolates from the same species. Some compounds present in the active extracts were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial metabolites produced by vineyard ecosystem fungi may potentially limit colonization and spoilage of food products by food-borne pathogens, with minimal effect on probiotic bacteria.

  3. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, α-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent.

  4. 湖南省即食食品中食源性致病菌污染状况及耐药性研究%Contamination Status of Food Borne Pathogenic Bacteria in Instant Food in Hunan and Their Antibiotic Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾华云; 王岚; 胡旃; 刘建琪; 张林青; 张红

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解湖南地区即食食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况和耐药性,为预防和控制食源性疾病提供科学依据. 方法 从湖南地区的农贸市场、超市和餐饮单位采集即食食品(凉拌菜和熟肉制品),依据GB 4789-2010和GB/T 4789-2008方法,对样品进行沙门菌等4种食源性致病菌检测,分离菌株使用微量肉汤稀释法进行药敏试验. 结果 991份样品共检出食源性致病菌92株,检出率为9.28%,其中检出金黄色葡萄球菌68株,检出率为6.86%,检出沙门菌和单增李斯特菌各12株,检出率为1.21%,未检出大肠埃希菌O157.药敏结果显示金黄色葡萄球菌和沙门菌均具有一定的耐药性,其中金黄色葡萄球菌对苯唑西林的耐药率高达61.76%,而且多重耐药明显. 结论 湖南地区即食食品存在一定的食源性致病菌污染,应加大卫生监督力度,防止食源性疾病的暴发流行;同时应控制动物饲料中抗生素的添加使用,加强抗生素的管理和耐药性监测.%Objective To investigate the contamination status of food borne pathogenic bacteria in instant food in Hunan and to test their antibiotic resistance, so as to provide evidence for the prevention and control of food borne diseases. Methods Salad and cooked meat were collected in food produce markets, supermarkets and catering units in Hunan province. Four food borne pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella in food were identified in accordance with GB 4789 - 2010 and GB/T 4789 -2008. The bacteria were isolated by broth dilution technique to test their drug sensitivity. Results Totally, 92 strains of food borne pathogenic bacteria were identified in 991 food samples, with an incidence of 9.28% . The detection rate of Staphylococcus aureus was 6.86% (68/991). The detection rates of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were both 1.21% (12/991). Es-cherichia coli O157 was not detected. The drug sensitivity test indicated that Staphylococcus aureus and

  5. Food-borne botulism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebagliati, Victoria; Philippi, Romina; Tornese, Mariela; Paiva, Analia; Rossi, Laura; Troncoso, Alcides

    2009-05-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum toxins. Although the disease is uncommon it is a cause of great concern due to its high rate of mortality. Food-borne outbreaks of botulism occur worldwide and require immediate public health attention and acute care resources. Analysis of outbreaks showed that the food products most often involved were fermented fish products in Alaska; home-canned food, oil preservation and restaurant sauce in the rest of the United States (US) and in London and; and home-canned vegetables, airtight packed food with inappropriate refrigeration, and aerosols in Argentina. The diagnosis is based only on clinical findings matching the disease and previous exposure to suspicious food. Botulism must be immediately identified as even one case suggests the start of an epidemic and should be treated as a public health emergency. Therefore, the purpose of the following review is to recognize the risks associated with the consumption of potentially dangerous foods, and to encourage prevention by seeking to make all public health professionals aware of the dangers of this potentially lethal disease.

  6. Human sparganosis, a neglected food borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Ze-Dong; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Human sparganosis is a food borne zoonosis caused by the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of various diphyllobothroid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat of snakes or frogs, drinking untreated water, or using raw flesh in traditional poultices. More than 1600 cases of sparganosis have been documented worldwide, mostly in east and southeast Asia. Sporadic cases have been reported in South America, Europe, and Africa, and several cases have been described in travellers returning from endemic regions. Epidemiological data suggest that the increased effect of sparganosis on human health is because of greater consumption of raw meat of freshwater frogs and snakes. This Review provides information about the Spirometra parasites and their lifecycles, summarises clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human sparganosis, and describes geographical distribution and infection characteristics of Spirometra parasites in host animals.

  7. Food-borne botulism: still actual topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brola, Waldemar; Fudala, Malgorzata; Gacek, Szymon; Gruenpeter, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Even though since the mid-1990s the number of food-borne botulism cases has systematically decreased and it now occurs in Poland relatively rarely, it is still a real epidemiological problem. There are about 30 cases of botulism in Poland a year, which ranks Poland the first among the European Union. In most cases the symptomatology of botulism is typical, however it does not always fully coincide with the one described in medical manuals which emphasise the dramatic clinical course of botulism with its frequent fatal consequences. Diagnosis of botulism may be difficult because of its rare prevalence and a variable clinical course, especially in old patients. Authors of this paper describe two cases of botulism and diagnostic problems associated with it. PMID:23391950

  8. Current strategies for improving food bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, O P; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Novel concepts and methodologies are emerging that hold great promise for the directed improvement of food-related bacteria, specifically lactic acid bacteria. Also, the battle against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria can now be fought more effectively. Here we describe recent advances in micro

  9. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF FOOD BORNE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION IN SOME EGYPTIAN FOOD food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of food borne bacterial contamination in some Egyptian food. Total viable bacteria and total coliform bacteriawere isolated from different sources of food; carbohydrates (bread, flour and basbousa, vegetables (outer and inner tissues of potato and outer and inner tissues of cucumber and proteins (mincedmeat, cheese and milk. The study resulted in maximum value of total viable bacteria found in outer tissue of potato 68X104±1.0, while the minimum value found in inner tissues of potato andcucumber. The study resulted in total coliform was maximum value in minced meat 6.4X103±0.3. Basbousa and inner tissue of potato and cucumber were free from coliforms. The ability of isolatesto producing proteolytic enzymes was tested, we found that 326 isolate (63.92% from all isolates had this ability, thus we selected most 2 potent proteolytic isolates. The two isolates were identifiedas Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. The identification confirmed by microlog 34.20 system and 16SrRNA for two isolates and the same result was founded. Sensitivity tested for the most potentproteolytic species to 12 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy. The results showed that all species were sensitive to most of antibiotics, except B. cereus which was strongly susceptible to azteronam and ceftazidim. The data showed that raw meat, cooked food products, and raw milk were most commonly contaminated with foodborne pathogens and many pathogens were resistant to different antibiotics. The study provided useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to consumers, which has significant public health impact.

  10. The adaptive response of bacterial food-borne pathogens in the environment, host and food: Implications for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Broussolle, Véronique; Colin, Pierre; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Prieto, Miguel

    2015-11-20

    Bacteria are constantly faced to stress situations in their ecological niches, the food and the host gastrointestinal tract. The capacity to detect and respond to surrounding changes is crucial for bacterial pathogens to survive or grow in changing environments. To this purpose, cells have evolved various sophisticated networks designed to protect against stressors or repair damage caused by them. Challenges can occur during production of foods when subjected to processing, and after food ingestion when confronted with host defensive barriers. Some pathogenic bacteria have shown the capacity to develop stable resistance against extreme conditions within a defined genomic context and a limited number of generations. On the other hand, bacteria can also respond to adverse conditions in a transient manner, through the so-called stress tolerance responses. Bacterial stress tolerance responses include both structural and physiological modifications in the cell and are mediated by complex genetic regulatory machinery. Major aspects in the adaptive response are the sensing mechanisms, the characterization of cell defensive systems, such as the operation of regulatory proteins (e.g. RpoS), the induction of homeostatic and repair systems, the synthesis of shock response proteins, and the modifications of cell membranes, particularly in their fatty acid composition and physical properties. This article reviews certain strategies used by food-borne bacteria to respond to particular stresses (acid, cold stress, extreme pressure) in a permanent or transient manner and discusses the implications that such adaptive responses pose for food safety.

  11. The enhanced mode in SERS detection of food-borne bacteria%表面增强拉曼光谱检测食源性细菌的增强方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪朋; 姚卫蓉

    2012-01-01

    Food-borne illness caused by microbial contamination has become an important health issue.The traditional detection methods need more time and higher costs.Raman spectroscopy as a biometric fingerprint recognition technology has great potential in the rapid identification of bacteria.However,Raman signal was very weak and difficult for practical use.Surface-enhanced Raman(SERS) let analyte close to the rough metal surface,enhanced the Raman signal greatly,so that it would be used in the clinical diagnosis and rapid identification.In this paper,the enhanced mode of SERS detection of bacteria and the binding sites of pathogen to the enhancement reagent were summarized in the application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on detection pathogenic bacteria.There were two major enhancement patterns.One was achieving SERS in the extracellular and intracellular respectively;the other was achieving SERS at the molecular level by functionalizing the nano-materials,which would help develop the new enhanced substrate and learn more about the mechanism of SERS.%因食源性微生物污染引起的疾病已经成为一个重要的卫生问题。传统的检测方法存在着检测时间长、成本高等不足,而拉曼光谱作为一种生物指纹识别技术,在细菌快速鉴定方面具有很大潜力。但是,拉曼光谱信号十分微弱,给实际应用带来了困难。表面增强拉曼光谱(SERS)是将待测物与粗糙金属表面接近,使拉曼信号大大得到增强,使之在临床诊断和快速鉴定方面的应用成为可能。本文以表面增强拉曼光谱检测致病菌为出发点,对增强底物与致病菌的结合方式和结合位点进行了总结。主要的增强方式分2类,一类是分别在细胞外和细胞内实现SERS,另一类是将纳米材料功能化,在分子水平实现SERS。这些增强方式将有利于新的增强底物的开发和增强机理的研究。

  12. The Role of Cold-Shock Proteins in Low-Temperature Adaptation of Food-Related Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Jeroen A.; Rombouts, Frank M.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Vos, Willem M. de; Abee, T.

    2000-01-01

    There is a considerable interest in the cold adaptation of food-related bacteria, including starter cultures for industrial food fermentations, food spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens. Mechanisms that permit low-temperature growth involve cellular modifications for maintaining membrane fluid

  13. Assessment of survival of food-borne microorganisms in the food chain by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Henrik; Arneborg, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, many data on food–borne microorganisms are obtained as an average of a whole population, under the assumption that the individual cells are clonal and therefore identical. However, it is now acknowledged that there may be a large heterogeneity within an isogenic population, and con......Traditionally, many data on food–borne microorganisms are obtained as an average of a whole population, under the assumption that the individual cells are clonal and therefore identical. However, it is now acknowledged that there may be a large heterogeneity within an isogenic population......, and consequently new methods focus on the individual cells. This mini-review will give an overview of the response of food-borne microorganisms; i.e. pathogenic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts, at a single-cell level to various food-related stress conditions, comprising acid-, disinfection-, salt...

  14. [Current status of food-borne diseases in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Akemi

    2012-08-01

    The current status of food-borne diseases in Japan was described. Although the number of outbreaks caused by Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli(except enterohaemorrhagic E. coli) is decreasing, outbreaks by Campylobacter or Norovirus are increasing.

  15. Tyramine and Phenylethylamine Biosynthesis by Food Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Marcobal, A.; Rivas, Blanca de las; Landete, José María; Tabera, Laura; Muñoz, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Tyramine poisoning is caused by the ingestion of food containing high levels of tyramine, a biogenic amine. Any foods containing free tyrosine are subject to tyramine formation if poor sanitation and low quality foods are used or if the food is subject to temperature abuse or extended storage time. Tyramine is generated by decarboxylation of the tyrosine through tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) enzymes derived from the bacteria present in the food. Bacterial TDC have been only unequivocally ident...

  16. Food-Borne Intestinal Bacterial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Maipa, Vassiliki; Voidarou, Chrissoula; Tsiotsias, Arsenis; Papapetropoulou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The foods we eat are rarely sterile. They often provide an ideal environment for microbial survival and growth. Microorganisms present in food can originate from the natural microora of the raw material or can be introduced in the course of harvesting, slaughter, processing, storage and distribution. Microbial growth in foods involves changes including intrinsic or extrinsic factors interacting with the microbial community over time. Undesirable microorganisms in foods can manifest their pre...

  17. Counterpoint: Is Clostridium difficile a food-borne disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jane W

    2013-06-01

    The increase in community associated Clostridium difficile disease paired with recent data on C. difficile in retail foods has led to speculation that C. difficile is a food-borne pathogen. However, there is no current epidemiologic evidence (i.e. restaurant or food-associated outbreaks) to support this hypothesis. Rates of C. difficile recovery from food vary widely across laboratories and may be due to a number of confounding factors. This commentary discusses the results of two published investigations and suggests that higher prevalence rates observed in some food studies may be due to laboratory contamination. The conclusions are that prevalence of C. difficile in retail foods is relatively low and further investigations are required to determine if C. difficile is food-borne.

  18. A quantum-dot-based fluoroassay for detection of food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Elaheh; Moghaddasi, Mohammadali; Farahbakhsh, Afshin; Kazemi, Abbass

    2017-09-01

    Evaluation of the distribution capability of food-borne pathogens existing in food products by taking the advantage of quantum dots (QDs) for their photoluminescence properties was carried out. Bacteria namely Escherichia coli (E. coli) labelled with CdSe-QDs were examined both on an Agar nutrient and ground fish substrates in order to observe their growth rate in different environments in the Lab. A sample with an appropriate concentration ratio 10(7)CFU/mL of bacteria/CdSe-QDs was empirically selected from the samples which were grown on the Agar containing plates. The selected sample was also tested on a ground fish substrate as a real food sample. The bacterial growth was observed under the irradiation of UV light and the growth patterns were investigated for 3 successive days. The growth patterns indicated that E. coli can stay alive and can be distributed on food products so that the growth can be easily monitored. This approach makes bacterial growth on food products detectable so that it can be used as a bacteria-QD assay for an easy detection of food borne pathogens grown on a food sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perspectives on Egg and Food-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are a safe and nutritious food. In the mid-80s there was an increase in the incidence of outbreaks due to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). A large percentage of those outbreaks were associated with consumption of eggs or foods that contained eggs. In recent years, efforts to diminish egg-borne i...

  20. Tyramine and phenylethylamine biosynthesis by food bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcobal, Angela; De las Rivas, Blanca; Landete, José María; Tabera, Laura; Muñoz, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Tyramine poisoning is caused by the ingestion of food containing high levels of tyramine, a biogenic amine. Any foods containing free tyrosine are subject to tyramine formation if poor sanitation and low quality foods are used or if the food is subject to temperature abuse or extended storage time. Tyramine is generated by decarboxylation of the tyrosine through tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) enzymes derived from the bacteria present in the food. Bacterial TDC have been only unequivocally identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in lactic acid bacteria. Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent TDC encoding genes (tyrDC) appeared flanked by a similar genetic organization in several species of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting a common origin by a single mobile genetic element. Bacterial TDC are also able to decarboxylate phenylalanine to produce phenylethylamine (PEA), another biogenic amine. The molecular knowledge of the genes involved in tyramine production has led to the development of molecular methods for the detection of bacteria able to produce tyramine and PEA. These rapid and simple methods could be used for the analysis of the ability to form tyramine by bacteria in order to evaluate the potential risk of tyramine biosynthesis in food products.

  1. 2007~2008年荆州市食源性致病菌监测分析%Monitoring and analysis of food-borne pathogenic bacteria in the City of Jingzhou from 2007 to 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国才; 益琼; 石韬

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解荆州市食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况,为预防和控制食源性疾病提供技术依据. 方法 参照中华人民共和国国家标准GB/T4789-2003(以下简称"国标")以及中国疾病预防控制中心营养与食品安全所颁发的有关检测程序,对荆州市6类食品进行了沙门氏菌、单增李斯特菌、大肠埃希氏菌O157;H_7、副溶血性弧菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和空肠弯曲菌的检测分析. 结果 在119份样品中检出致病菌20株,总检出率为16.8%.其中沙门氏菌检出率13.4%(16/119),副溶血性弧菌检出率9.1%(1/11),金黄色葡萄球菌检出率5.9%(1/17),大肠埃希氏菌O157;H_7检出率1.3%(1/75),单增李斯特氏菌检出率0.8%(1/119),未检出空肠弯曲菌.致病菌检出率最高的为生畜肉,为40.5%(15/37),生禽肉为13.3%(2/15),水产品为8.3%(1/12)、面米食品为11.8%(2/17),即时食品和蔬菜沙拉均未检出致病菌. 结论 荆州市食品食源性致病菌生畜肉和水产品的污染较为严重,应引起有关部门的重视,以防止食源性疾病的发生.%Objective To ascertain food contamination by food-borne pathogens in the City of Jingzhou as a technical basis for prevention and control of food-borne illness. Methods Referring to Chinese National Standard GB/T4789-2003 for Microbiological Testing of Food Sanitation (hereinafter referred to as "GB") as well as relevant testing procedures for Nutrition and Food Safety from the Chinese CDC, six types of food (raw meat, raw poultry, seafood, instant foods, vegetables/salads, foods made from rice or flour) were tested for Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, Escherichia colt O157: H_7 , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Staphylococcus aureus , and Campylobacter jejuni. Results Twenty pathogens were detected in 119 samples, with a total detection rate of 16. 8 %. Pathogens were Salmonella, with a detection rate of 13.4% (11/119) ; V. parahaemolyticus, with a detection rate of 9. 1 % (1/11) ; S. aureus, with a

  2. Food-borne botulism in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlin, Jim; Grant, K A; Little, C L

    2006-12-01

    Food-borne botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by ingestions of neurotoxin [botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs)] produced as a result of the growth of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in foods before consumption. The disease is rare in the United Kingdom, and only 62 cases have been recognized between 1922 and 2005. This report provides a brief review of C. botulinum and food-borne botulism as well as descriptions of the six episodes (33 cases with three deaths) of this disease that occurred in the United Kingdom between 1989 and 2005. The six incidents illustrate the importance of the risk factors of poor processing or storage of commercially prepared foods, improper home preservation of foods and travel to countries where botulism is much more common than in the United Kingdom. Even small outbreaks of food-borne botulism can precipitate a national emergency and inundate public health and acute care provision. This report provides a reminder to public health professions of the occurrence, diagnosis, treatment and control of this rare but serious food-borne disease.

  3. Acanthamoeba polyphaga, a potential environmental vector for the transmission of food-borne and opportunistic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacarso, Immacolata; de Niederhäusern, Simona; Messi, Patrizia; Guerrieri, Elisa; Iseppi, Ramona; Sabia, Carla; Bondi, Moreno

    2012-06-01

    The endosymbiotic relationship could represent for many bacteria an important condition favouring their spread in the environment and in foods. For this purpose we studied the behaviour of some food-borne and opportunistic pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterocolitica) when internalized in Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Our results confirm the capability of the bacteria tested to grow within amoebal hosts. We can observe two types of interactions of the bacteria internalized in A. polyphaga. The first type, showed by Y. enterocolitica and A. hydrophila, was characterized by an early replication, probably followed by the killing and digestion of the bacteria. The second type, showed by E. faecalis and S. aureus was characterized by the persistence and grow inside the host without lysis. Lastly, when amoebae were co-cultured with L. monocytogenes and S. Enteritidis, an eclipse phase followed by an active intracellular growth was observed, suggesting a third type of predator-prey trend. The extracellular count in presence of A. polyphaga, as a result of an intracellular multiplication and subsequent release, was characterized by an increase of E. faecalis, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and S. Enteritidis, and by a low or absent cell count for Y. enterocolitica and A. hydrophila. Our study suggests that the investigated food-borne and opportunistic pathogens are, in most cases, able to interact with A. polyphaga, to intracellularly replicate and, lastly, to be potentially spread in the environment, underlining the possible role of this protozoan in food contamination.

  4. Invasion mechanisms among emerging food-borne protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Nobuko; Tyler, Kevin M; Llewellyn, Martin S

    2011-10-01

    Food-borne parasitic diseases, many known to be more prevalent in poor countries with deficient sanitary conditions, are becoming common worldwide. Among the emerging protozoan parasites, the most prominent is Trypanosoma cruzi, rarely reported in the past to be transmitted by the oral route but currently responsible for frequent outbreaks of acute cases of Chagas disease contracted orally and characterized by high mortality. Several other food-borne protozoans considered emerging include the apicomplexans Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium, as well as Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica. Here, the interactions of these protozoans with the mucosal epithelia of the host are discussed.

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Eighteen Edible Spice Extracts on Five Food-borne Bacteria%十八种辛香料对五种食源性致病菌的抑菌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢惠妮; 潘迎捷; 赵勇; 孙晓红

    2010-01-01

    本实验研究18种辛香料对五种食源性病原菌:单增李斯特菌,大肠杆菌 O157:H7,肠炎沙门氏菌,副溶血性弧菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的抑制作用.辛香料以60℃蒸馏水浸提.研究各种辛香料的最低抑菌浓度(80~5 mg/mL)以及经100℃处理15 min和121 ℃处理15 min的稳定性.结果表明,大部分辛香料具有良好的抑菌效果,尤其是丁香和桂皮对副溶血弧菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的最低抑菌浓度为5 mg/mL.经热处理部分香料失去了抑制作用,如八角,茴香,五香粉,海南白和黑胡椒,但大多数香料保持抑菌效果.这些结果表明,香料可抑制感染海产品的病原菌,同时在加工香料的过程中应该避免高温处理.%The antimicrobial effects of eighteen spices were screened against five food-borne bacterial strains: Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli O157 : H7,Salmonella enteritidis,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,and Staphylococcus aureus.Spices were extracted by hot water(60 ℃).The minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs)of extracts were determined by the agar dilution method ranged from 80 to 5 mg/mL;The stability of extracts were measured by heat treatment(100℃-15 min;121 ℃-15 min).The results showed that most spices have nice antibacterial activity,especially clove and cinnamon powder;The lowest MIC was 5 mg/mL observed in clove and Cassia twig powder act on V.parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus.By heat treatment,part of the spices apparently lost its inhibitory effect,such as star anise,fermel,spiced powder,Hainan white and black pepper,but the majority of spices keep their antibacterial effect.These results suggest that the spices can be practical for protecting seafood from the risk of contamination by food-borne pathogens and avoid high temperature treatment during processing the spices.

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a food-borne pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Sarah; Schwarz, Stefan; Silley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the 1990s, most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was hospital-associated (HA-MRSA); community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) then began to cause infections outside the health-care environment. The third significant emergence of MRSA has been in livestock animals [livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA)]. The widespread and rapid growth in CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA has raised the question as to whether MRSA is indeed a food-borne pathogen. The observations on animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transfer of LA-MRSA have prompted research examining the origin of LA-MRSA and its capacity to cause zoonotic disease in humans. This review summarizes the current knowledge about MRSA from food-producing animals and foods with respect to the role of these organisms to act as food-borne pathogens and considers the available tools to track the spread of these organisms. It is clear that LA-MRSA and CA-MRSA and even HA-MRSA can be present in/on food intended for human consumption, but we conclude on the basis of the published literature that this does not equate to MRSA being considered a food-borne pathogen.

  7. 河池市2009-2010年食品中食源性致病菌污染状况调查%The pollution status of food - borne pathogenic bacteria of food in Hechi city during 2009 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林洪; 韦麒

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the pollution status of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in Hechi city. Method According the monitor guide on security and risk foodstuff of Guangxi to collect and detect the food - borne pathogenic bacteria among 259 samples from 12 kinds of foodstuff, the foodstuff picked out from supermarkets and markets. Results 30 bacterium have been found from the 256 samples and the total detection rate was 11. 6% , among them, the detection rate of cakes was the highest (30% ) . The detection rate of meat, fruit juice, fruit salad, aquatic product, refrigerated foodstuff and salad were 27.3%, 23.8%, 14. 3% , 11.4% , 4. 8% and 4. 8% , reseparately. Among the foodstuff, the pollution of staphylococcus au-reus was quite serious, followed by salmonella, the detection rate were 4.6% and 2.7%, reseparately. Conclusions The foodstuff which directly came into the mouth like cake, juice, fruit salad were the main pollution food. Meat and aquatic product can also bring quite high risk to cause food origin disease.%目的 了解河池市市售食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况.方法 按照《广西省食品安全风险监测工作手册》的要求和检验方法,对河池市辖区内几个较大的市场和超市采集12类259份食品进行6类食源性致病菌检测.结果 256份样品中共检出致病菌30株,总检出率为11.6%.其中以蛋糕制品检出率最高,为30.0%,生肉、果汁制品、水果沙拉、水产品、冰冻食品和凉拌菜的检出率分别为27.3%、23.8%、14.3%、11.4%、4.8%和4.8%;食品中以金黄色葡萄球菌污染较严重,其次是沙门菌,检出率分别为4.6%和2.7%.结论 作为直接入口的蛋糕、果汁制品、水果沙拉是我市食品的主要污染品种,生肉和水产品亦有导致食源性疾病的较高风险.

  8. Toxoplasmosis as a food-borne infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurković-Đaković, O.

    2017-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasite that infects all mammals, including one third of the world population. Long known to cause disease in the developing foetus and in immunosuppressed individuals, a body of data that has emerged in the past decades suggests its role in human pathology may be even more important. The WHO and FAO have recently established toxoplasmosis as a foodborne infection of global concern, with a disease burden the greatest of all parasitic infections. Transmission of toxoplasmosis occurs by ingesting tissue cysts from undercooked meat and meat products, and oocysts from the environment with contaminated fresh produce or water. This review provides an update on the current understanding of toxoplasmosis, focusing on the risk of infection from food of animal origin, with particular reference to the risk in Serbia and the region of South-East Europe.

  9. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter...

  10. [Food-borne botulism: review of five cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Teresa; Costa, Manuela; Almeida, H Cristina; Guimarães, Mário

    2004-01-01

    Food-borne botulism is a disease caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxin, often present in smoked meat, canned food and preserved food; it can occur as sporadic case or as an outbreak. In the last decades there has been an increasing incidence of food-borne botulism in Portugal. The authors do a review of five cases of food-borne botulism, three isolated cases and 2 familiar. Four were associated with the ingestion of smoked ham and one of canned tunafish. The incubation period was 48 hours in one patient and 4 days in another, in the remaining patients it was not possible to determine this period. The clinical picture was dominated in all patients by diplopy, dysphagia, dizziness, blurred vision, dry mouth and constipation, and in two patients there were gastrointestinal complains. In one patient the electromyography findings were compatible with pre-synaptic neuromuscular blockage. A toxin type B was found in the serum of one patient and in the food involved in the two familiar cases. All patients experienced complete recovery with only symptomatic treatment. With this article the authors intend to call attention to this diagnosis, which is not rare, but difficult for someone not familiar with its presentation, being of notice that the diagnosis is essentially clinic with a strong epidemiological history, confirmed by typical electromyography findings and by the identification of the toxin involved. In Portugal there is only descriptions of clinical cases associated with the type B and the type E toxins, not being necessary the resource to the antitoxin therapy.

  11. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm Chi-Wai; Siao-Ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-08-31

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  12. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  13. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter...... to fluoroquinolones, which are used for empirical treatment of diarrhea in humans. Resistance to vancomycin and Synercid((R)) in enterococci is associated with use of similar drugs as growth promoters in food animals. Danish food animal producers have terminated the use of antimicrobial growth promoters. This has...... reduced the total use of antimicrobials by more than 50% and markedly reduced levels of resistance. There is an urgent need to implement globally, WHO principles for prudent use of antimicrobials in food animals. Use of antimicrobials as growth promoters could and should be terminated completely....

  14. Lab-on-chip for the detection of food borne pathogenic bacteria%微流体芯片技术检测食源性致病菌的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炯; 屠丽红; 陈艳新; 秦胜营

    2014-01-01

    Objective To set up an onsite protocol for abrupt emergencies of public health e-vents, with both the sensitivity and accuracy of the lab-on-chip(microfluidic chip), for the detection of food borne pathogenic bacterium including Vibrio cholera , Salmonella , Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Shigellaare exanimated . [ Methods] By comparison of the results from the chips and fluorescence quantitative PCR were analyzed the specificity , sensitivity, accuracy and repeatability of the Lab-on-chip. [ Results] Acceptable specificity , accuracy and repeatability of the chips had been well achieved , the detection limit of the chips for the Vibrio cholera , Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Shigella was 5 ×103 ~103 DNA Copies/mL. [ Conclusion] Lab-on-chip is believed to be a fast , convenient , efficient tool with accept-able accuracy for public health emergencies .%[目的]通过应用微流体芯片( lab-on-chip)技术检测食源性致病菌,包括霍乱弧菌、沙门菌、副溶血性弧菌、志贺菌等细菌的灵敏度和精确度,从而建立突发公共卫生事件现场实验室的解决方案。[方法]分别采用Lab-on-chip平台食源性病原体微流检测芯片和荧光PCR方法对食源性病原菌样本进行检测,对比分析食源性微流芯片检测方法的特异性、敏感度、准确性和重复性。根据Lab-on-chip说明书以及荧光定量PCP试剂盒操作说明进行操作。[结果] Lab-on-chip方法的霍乱弧菌、沙门菌、志贺菌、副溶血性弧菌检出限为5×103~103 DNA Copies/mL。特异性、准确性和重复性都获得了良好的结果。[结论] Lab-on-chip方法具有快速、便捷、高效、准确等优点,可以在突发公共卫生事件中作为良好的检测工具和方法。

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail ...

  16. Food-borne origins of Escherichia coli causing extraintestinal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, Amee R; Johnson, James R

    2012-09-01

    Most human extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections, including those involving antimicrobial resistant strains, are caused by the members of a limited number of distinctive E. coli lineages, termed extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), that have a special ability to cause disease at extraintestinal sites when they exit their usual reservoir in the host's intestinal tract. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that many of the ExPEC strains encountered in humans with urinary tract infection, sepsis, and other extraintestinal infections, especially the most extensively antimicrobial-resistant strains, may have a food animal source, and may be transmitted to humans via the food supply. This review summarizes the evidence that food-borne organisms are a significant cause of extraintestinal E. coli infections in humans.

  17. Prevalence of Selected Food Consumption and Preparation Behaviors Associated with Increased Risks of Food-borne Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klontz, Karl C; Timbo, Babgaleh; Fein, Sara; Levy, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Although not well quantified, a portion of food-borne illnesses results from voluntary behaviors that are entirely avoidable, such as eating raw foods of animal origin or engaging in unsafe food preparation practices...

  18. Food-borne parasitic zoonoses in China: perspective for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Ren-Li; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2008-04-01

    Food-borne parasitic zoonoses (FBPZs) cause death and serious diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and are of both public health significance and socioeconomic importance. The FBPZ problem is severe in mainland China, where approximately 150 million people are suffering from FBPZs and more people are at risk. Here, the current status of the FBPZ problem in mainland China is reviewed and strategies and measures for effective control of FBPZs are proposed. Major parasitic zoonoses transmitted through consumption of infected or contaminated meat, fish, plants and/or water will be discussed.

  19. From ontology selection and semantic web to the integrated information system of food-borne diseases and food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last three decades, the rapid explosion of information and resources on human food-borne diseases and food safety has provided the ability to rapidly determine and interpret the mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis of food-borne pathogens. However, several factors have hindered effective...

  20. Biofilm-associated persistence of food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridier, A; Sanchez-Vizuete, P; Guilbaud, M; Piard, J-C; Naïtali, M; Briandet, R

    2015-02-01

    Microbial life abounds on surfaces in both natural and industrial environments, one of which is the food industry. A solid substrate, water and some nutrients are sufficient to allow the construction of a microbial fortress, a so-called biofilm. Survival strategies developed by these surface-associated ecosystems are beginning to be deciphered in the context of rudimentary laboratory biofilms. Gelatinous organic matrices consisting of complex mixtures of self-produced biopolymers ensure the cohesion of these biological structures and contribute to their resistance and persistence. Moreover, far from being just simple three-dimensional assemblies of identical cells, biofilms are composed of heterogeneous sub-populations with distinctive behaviours that contribute to their global ecological success. In the clinical field, biofilm-associated infections (BAI) are known to trigger chronic infections that require dedicated therapies. A similar belief emerging in the food industry, where biofilm tolerance to environmental stresses, including cleaning and disinfection/sanitation, can result in the persistence of bacterial pathogens and the recurrent cross-contamination of food products. The present review focuses on the principal mechanisms involved in the formation of biofilms of food-borne pathogens, where biofilm behaviour is driven by its three-dimensional heterogeneity and by species interactions within these biostructures, and we look at some emergent control strategies.

  1. Study and Application on Detection of Four Kinds of Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria by Pyrosequencing Technology%焦磷酸测序技术在4种食源性致病菌快速检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新; 王永; 兰青阔; 陈锐; 朱珠; 余景会; 李欧静; 郭永泽

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a detection method for identification of food-borne pathogenic bacteria by using pyrosequencing technology. For this, one pair of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and one pyrosequencing sequencing primer of Salmonellla spp, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella cereus was designed, then the pyrosequencing reaction system and conditions was optimized, the sensitivity of this method was arrived at 10 CFU/mL and has been proven to be highly efficiency, rapid, exact and easy handling. The results provide an informative supplement to fast identified food-borne pathogenic bacteria.%为建立一种利用焦磷酸测序技术检测和鉴定沙门氏菌(Salmonellla)、单核细胞增生李斯特菌(Listeria monocytogenes)、金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)和志贺氏菌(Shigella)的方法,通过对4种菌毒力靶基因特异性序列的同源性分析,设计出适合焦磷酸测序特异性扩增和测序的引物,摸索出最佳的焦磷酸测序反应体系和反应程序,并建立了4种食源性致病菌焦磷酸测序快速检测方法.此方法以传统国标法的前增菌为前提,而省去了后期生化验证的繁琐过程,大大缩短了检测时间,并且其准确性与传统生化验证完全一致,灵敏度可达10 CFU/mL.结果表明,作者建立的焦磷酸测序检测方法具有高效、快速、精准及操作简便等特点,为食源性致病菌的快速鉴定开辟了广阔的前景.

  2. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Diane G; Koopmans, Marion; Verhoef, Linda; Duizer, Erwin; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Sprong, Hein; Opsteegh, Marieke; Langelaar, Merel; Threfall, John; Scheutz, Flemming; van der Giessen, Joke; Kruse, Hilde

    2010-05-30

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainly due to contaminated food and water, as a cause of death will decline worldwide. Evidence for such a downward trend is limited. This prediction presumes that improvements in the production and retail of microbiologically safe food will be sustained in the developed world and, moreover, will be rolled out to those countries of the developing world increasingly producing food for a global market. In this review evidence is presented to indicate that the microbiological safety of food remains a dynamic situation heavily influenced by multiple factors along the food chain from farm to fork. Sustaining food safety standards will depend on constant vigilance maintained by monitoring and surveillance but, with the rising importance of other food-related issues, such as food security, obesity and climate change, competition for resources in the future to enable this may be fierce. In addition the pathogen populations relevant to food safety are not static. Food is an excellent vehicle by which many pathogens (bacteria, viruses/prions and parasites) can reach an appropriate colonisation site in a new host. Although food production practices change, the well-recognised food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, seem able to evolve to exploit novel opportunities, for example fresh produce, and even generate new public health challenges, for example antimicrobial resistance. In addition, previously unknown food-borne pathogens, many of which are zoonotic, are constantly emerging. Current understanding of the trends in food-borne diseases for bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens has been reviewed. The bacterial pathogens are exemplified by those well

  3. Detection and sequencing of plasmid encoded tetracycline resistance determinants (tetA andtetB) from food-borneBacillus cereus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mudasir Ali Rather; Rabinder Singh Aulakh; Jatinder Paul Singh Gill; Abdul Qayoom Mir; Mir Nadeem Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the detection and sequencing of plasmid encoded tetracycline resistance genes(tetA andtetB) from food-borne and standard strains ofBacillus cereus(B. cereus).Methods:APCR was carried out to detect the tetracycline resistance genes(tetA and tetB) in food-borneB. cereus strains and the amplified products were sequenced.Results:The phenotypic resistance against tetracycline was observed in39 of the118 food-borne isolates and two reference strains(MTCC430 andMTCC1307) ofB. cereus.Among the phenotypically resistant isolates,tetA was detected in36 food-borne isolates and two reference strains(MTCC 430 andMTCC1307), whereas,tetB was detected in12 food-borne isolates andMTCC1307 strain. Conclusions:A close association was therefore found between phenotypic resistance against tetracycline and presence of tetracycline resistance genes.ThetetA andtetB gene fragments were amplified, purified and sequenced.The gene sequences of the isolates studied herein were found similar to tetA andtetB gene sequences of other bacteria available inNCBI.The occurrence oftetA and tetB genes inB. cereus indicate the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants from other bacteria intoB. cereus.The transfer of these resistant determinants to other potentially pathogenic bacteria may be a matter of great concern.

  4. Rapid Detection Method of Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria of Establishment and Application by Multiplex PCR%食源性致病菌快速检测方法的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明东; 张臣伟; 张海滨; 周霞; 赵宏坤

    2012-01-01

    101 cfu/mL for Yersinia enterocolitica. Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 20.8% of the samples, whereas Vibrio parahaemolylicus and Yersinia enterocolilica were identified in 1.5% and 13.2%, respectively. Conclusion; The whole test can be completed in 5 h. The results of the experiments demonstrated that the multiplex PCR assay was rapid, simple, sensitive and specific, Which establish important foundation for simultaneous detection for these three bacteria in polluted sample and study on instant detection kit.

  5. Study on Rapid Detection Kit of Food-borne Pathogenic Bacterias by the Multiplex PCR%食源性致病菌快速检测试剂盒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 周明东; 姜彦君; 赵宏坤

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a kit for detection of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Sta. Aureus by multiplex PCR. Methods: Characteristic genes such as invA , hlyA and Nuc were chosen as the target genes for duplex PCR system. Many factors of duplex PCR were optimized. Results: The specificity was satisfactory and the sensitivity was up to 4.7 cfu/mL of Salmonella spp., 17 cfu/mL of Listeria monocytogenes and 4.5 cfu/mL of Sta. Aureus in the system. The whole test can be completed in 5 h. Salmonella was detected in 43.1% (25/58) of the samples, whereas L. Monocytogenes and Sta. Aureus were identified in 10.3%(6/58) and 5.2%(3/58), respectively. Conclusion: The detection kit has the superiority in theory and practical application, and also examines three pathogens once. It can be used for food and raw materials' bio-safety monitoring and also can be used in clinical diagnosis.%目的:研制一种快速检测沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和单核细胞增生李斯特菌的三重PCR试剂盒,并在山东泰安地区禽肉市场采样检测.方法:以沙门氏菌的invA基因、单增李斯特菌溶血素hlyA基因和金黄色葡萄球菌耐热核酸酶Nuc基因序列作为目的基因片段金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门菌和单核细胞增生李斯特菌的特异性抗原基因序列,分别设计1对引物,优化各种工作条件,建立一种多重PCR诊断试剂盒.结果:该试剂盒特异性好,敏感性高,沙门氏菌检出极限为4.7 cft/mL,单核细胞增生李斯特菌检出极限17 cfu/mL,金黄色葡萄球菌检出极限4.5 cfu/mL,可在5h之内得到检测结果.在山东泰安地区取样58份,其中25份样品中检出沙门氏菌阳性,带染率43.1%;6份样品中检出单增李斯特菌阳性,带染率为10.3%;3份样品中检出金黄色葡萄球菌阳性,带染率为5.2%.结论:建立的试剂盒能同时检测上述3种病原菌,可用于食品及其原料的生物安全监测,也可用于兽医临床诊断.

  6. Ecophysiology of food-borne pathogens: Essential knowledge to improve food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeekin, T A; Hill, C; Wagner, M; Dahl, A; Ross, T

    2010-05-30

    The term ecophysiology suggests that a natural connection exists between microbial ecology and microbial physiology, the former being concerned with the responses of microbial populations to environmental influences, and the latter with activities within individual cells. In this contribution we choose to integrate these as far as possible and also indicate how understanding of both is benefiting from advances in molecular biology and informatics. We consider how microbial dispersal relates to microbial survival, recovery and proliferation, including the significance of random factors (stochasticity) in continuation of bacterial lineages, observing that minor environmental changes, can greatly influence the potential for food-borne disease. Homeostasis and membrane transport are identified as potential targets to control food-borne pathogens and the role of compatible solutes in stress protection is presented. Phenotypic variation in genetically homogeneous populations is highlighted as a major component of the overall microbial survival strategy. The marked influence and potential of predictive microbiology as an aid to food safety management is discussed, as is the need for greater knowledge of the ecophysiology of microbes in the growth/no growth region. The application of fundamental scientific principles, including thermodynamics, chemistry and microbial physiology is advocated as the basis for development of theory underpinning microbial ecophysiology. Advancing microbial food safety continues to require development of rapid, quantitative methods as an early warning system and mechanism to curtail microbial food-borne disease outbreaks. However, advances made by technologists and molecular biologists must be combined with knowledge of ecophysiology: e.g. biological rates will continue to constrain resolution of the recalcitrant problem of reducing the time required for enrichment processes. The discussion presented leads to the conclusion that microbial and

  7. [Development of single base extension-tags microarray for the detection of food-borne pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Changyong; Shi, Chunlei; Zhang, Chunxiu; Chen, Jing; Shi, Xianming

    2009-04-01

    We developed single base extension-tags (SBE-tags) microarray to detect eight common food-borne pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Enterobacter sakazaki, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni. With specific PCR primers identified and integrated for eight food-borne pathogens, target sequences were amplified and purified as template DNA of single base extension-tags reaction. The products were hybridized to microarrays and scanned for fluorescence intensity. The experiment showed a specific and simultaneous detection of eight food-borne pathogens. The system limits is 0.1 pg for a genomic DNA and 5x10(2) CFU/mL for Salmonella typhimurium cultures. The single base extension-tags assay can be used to detect food-borne pathogens rapidly and accurately with a high sensitivity, and provide an efficient way for diagnosis and control of disease caused by food-borne pathogens.

  8. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skanseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pal; Zimonja, Monika;

    2007-01-01

    with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host......A major bottleneck in understanding zoonotic pathogens has been the analysis of pathogen co-infection dynamics. We have addressed this challenge using a novel direct sequencing approach for pathogen quantification in mixed infections. The major zoonotic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni....... We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature ( treated...

  9. Food-borne parasitic zoonosis: Distribution of trichinosis in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya Jatesadapattaya Kaewpitoon; Prasit Pengsaa

    2008-01-01

    Trichinosis is among the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper investigates the distribution of the disease in regions of north, northeast, central and south Thailand. Between the earliest recorded of outbreak of trichinosis in Mae Hong Son Province in 1962 and 2006, there have been 135 outbreaks involving 7340 patients and 97 deaths in Thailand. The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. Most infected patients were in the 35-44 year age group, and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women during 1962-2003, with no significant sex difference during 2004-2006. Outbreaks were most common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where raw and under-cooked pork and/or wild animals are eaten. Human infections occur annually in northern Thailand during communal feasts celebrating the Thai New Year. Trichinosis causes have been reported every year, supporting the need for planning education programs.

  10. Food-borne parasitic zoonosis: Distribution of trichinosis in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya Jatesadapattaya; Pengsaa, Prasit

    2008-01-01

    Trichinosis is among the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper investigates the distribution of the disease in regions of north, north-east, central and south Thailand. Between the earliest recorded of outbreak of trichinosis in Mae Hong Son Province in 1962 and 2006, there have been 135 outbreaks involving 7340 patients and 97 deaths in Thailand. The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. Most infected patients were in the 35-44 year age group, and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women during 1962-2003, with no significant sex difference during 2004-2006. Outbreaks were most common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where raw and under-cooked pork and/or wild animals are eaten. Human infections occur annually in northern Thailand during communal feasts celebrating the Thai New Year. Trichinosis causes have been reported every year, supporting the need for planning education programs. PMID:18567073

  11. Current status of food-borne trematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, R; Esteban, J G; Fried, B

    2012-08-01

    Food-borne trematodiases constitute an important group of the most neglected tropical diseases, not only in terms of research funding, but also in the public media. The Trematoda class contains a great number of species that infect humans and are recognized as the causative agents of disease. The biological cycle, geographical distribution, and epidemiology of most of these trematode species have been well characterized. Traditionally, these infections were limited, for the most part, in populations living in low-income countries, particularly in Southeast Asia, and were associated with poverty. However, the geographical limits and the population at risk are currently expanding and changing in relation to factors such as growing international markets, improved transportation systems, and demographic changes. The diagnosis of these diseases is based on parasitological techniques and only a limited number of drugs are currently available for treatment, most of which are unspecific. Therefore, in-depth studies are urgently needed in order to clarify the current epidemiology of these helminth infections and to identify new and specific targets for both effective diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we describe the biology, medical and epidemiological features, and current treatment and diagnostic tools of the main groups of flukes and the corresponding diseases.

  12. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli: An Emerging Enteric Food Borne Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC are quite heterogeneous category of an emerging enteric pathogen associated with cases of acute or persistent diarrhea worldwide in children and adults, and over the past decade has received increasing attention as a cause of watery diarrhea, which is often persistent. EAEC infection is an important cause of diarrhea in outbreak and non-outbreak settings in developing and developed countries. Recently, EAEC has been implicated in the development of irritable bowel syndrome, but this remains to be confirmed. EAEC is defined as a diarrheal pathogen based on its characteristic aggregative adherence (AA to HEp-2 cells in culture and its biofilm formation on the intestinal mucosa with a “stacked-brick” adherence phenotype, which is related to the presence of a 60 MDa plasmid (pAA. At the molecular level, strains demonstrating the aggregative phenotype are quite heterogeneous; several virulence factors are detected by polymerase chain reaction; however, none exhibited 100% specificity. Although several studies have identified specific virulence factor(s unique to EAEC, the mechanism by which EAEC exerts its pathogenesis is, thus, far unknown. The present review updates the current knowledge on the epidemiology, chronic complications, detection, virulence factors, and treatment of EAEC, an emerging enteric food borne pathogen.

  13. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins.

  14. Food-borne pathogens of animal origin-diagnosis, prevention, control and their zoonotic significance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, K; Rajagunalan, S; Chakraborty, S; Verma, A K; Kumar, A; Tiwari, R; Kapoor, S

    2013-10-15

    The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum and Bacillus cereus and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, immuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance

  15. Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goltsman, Eugene [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Auger, Sandrine [Genetique Microbienne; Galleron, Nathalie [Genetique Microbienne; Segurens, Beatrice [Center National Sequencage, F-91057 Evry, France; Simon, Jorg [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Dossat, Carole [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Broussolle, Veronique [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Brillard, Julien [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Sanchis, Vincent [Genetique Microbienne; Nguen-the, Christophe [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Lereclus, Didier [Genetique Microbienne; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wincker, Patrick [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Weissenbach, Jean [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Ehrlich, Dusko [Genetique Microbienne; Sorokin, Alexei [Genetique Microbienne

    2008-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteria containing pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic food poisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presence in natural samples of these bacteria of about 30 clonal complexes. Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due to the major interest for representatives closely related to Bacillus anthracis. Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined, existing data indicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetic tree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomes discussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of the B. cereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severe food-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain should be a representative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacillus cytotoxis or Bacillus cytotoxicus is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared to other B. cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma B factor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, not detected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonal complex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B. cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B. anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge from clinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4, is a typical facultative psychrophile generally found in soil. Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group in terms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence of extra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account for this phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmid in this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicity spread from the psychrophile strain community. The results of this genomic

  16. Determination of histamine in milkfish stick implicated in food-borne poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An incident of food-borne poisoning causing illness in 37 victims due to ingestion of fried fish sticks occurred in September 2014, in Tainan city, southern Taiwan. Leftovers of the victims' fried fish sticks and 16 other raw fish stick samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Two suspected fried fish samples contained 86.6 mg/100 g and 235.0 mg/100 g histamine; levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fried fish samples, this food-borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Moreover, the fish species of suspected samples was identified as milkfish (Chanos chanos, using polymerase chain reaction direct sequence analysis. In addition, four of the 16 commercial raw milkfish stick samples (25% had histamine levels greater than the US Food & Drug Administration guideline of 5.0 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Ten histamine-producing bacterial strains, capable of producing 373–1261 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine, were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains, Enterobacter cloacae (1 strain, Morganella morganii (2 strains, Serratia marcescens (1 strain, Hafnia alvei (1 strain, and Raoultella orithinolytica (1 strain, by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification.

  17. Phytochemical profiles and antimicrobial activity of aromatic Malaysian herb extracts against food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziman, Nurain; Abdullah, Noriham; Noor, Zainon Mohd; Kamarudin, Wan Saidatul Syida Wan; Zulkifli, Khairusy Syakirah

    2014-04-01

    Preliminary phytochemical and flavonoid compounds of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 6 aromatic Malaysian herbs were screened and quantified using Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). The herbal extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 10 food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms using disk diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of herbal extracts were determined. In the phytochemical screening process, both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. hydropiper exhibited presence of all 7 tested phytochemical compounds. Among all herbal extracts, the aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against 7 tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with diameter ranging from 7.0 to 18.5 mm and 6.5 to 19 mm, respectively. The MIC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 18.75 to 175 mg/mL and 0.391 to 200 mg/mL, respectively while the MBC/MFC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 25 to 200 mg/mL and 3.125 to 50 mg/mL, respectively. Major types of bioactive compounds in aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts were identified using RP-HPLC instrument. Flavonoids found in these plants were epi-catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The ability of aqueous Persicaria hydropiper (L.) H. Gross and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm. extracts to inhibit the growth of bacteria is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential. Hence these herbal extracts may be used as natural preservative to improve the safety and shelf-life of food and pharmaceutical products.

  18. H. pylori infection in patients with food-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lioznov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective: to assess clinical features of food-borne diseases in patients with H. pylori infection.Materials and methods: 98 patients with an acute intestinal infection were examined for the presence of helicobacter pylori infection. Clinical and laboratory parameters were estimated in 82 subjects. Patients were distributed to two groups: 41 H. pylori-infected patients (H. pylori IgG antibodies and DNA in feces and41 H. pylori-noninfected patients.Results: in patients with Helicobacter pyloriinfection a higher range of leukocytosis were indicated: 10,7±2,5×109/l vs 8,6±2,6×109/l respectively, р<0,05, and ESR – 16,2±8,7 mm/h vs 11,2±7,8 mm/h respectively, p<0,05. In H. pyloriinfected patients number of bowel movementsand vomitswere indicated more often than those in the control group: (9,4±5,3 vs 6,7±3,6 times/day respectively, р<0,05; and 4,8±3,4 and 1,0±1,4 times/day, р<0,05. Normalization of bowel function was observedearlier in control group compare with H. pylori-infected patients (3,0±0,7 day of disease and 4,4±1,4 day of disease respectively, in р<0,05.Conclusions: H. pylori-infected patients had clinically and laboratory more severe presentation of acute intestinal infection. Clinical improvementin this patientsoccurredat a later date.

  19. Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina;

    2008-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...

  20. Biocontrol and Rapid Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages and Endolysins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jaewoo; Kim, You-Tae; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been suggested as natural food preservatives as well as rapid detection materials for food-borne pathogens in various foods. Since Listeria monocytogenes-targeting phage cocktail (ListShield) was approved for applications in foods, numerous phages have been screened and experimentally characterized for phage applications in foods. A single phage and phage cocktail treatments to various foods contaminated with food-borne pathogens including E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Vibrio spp. revealed that they have great potential to control various food-borne pathogens and may be alternative for conventional food preservatives. In addition, phage-derived endolysins with high host specificity and host lysis activities may be preferred to food applications rather than phages. For rapid detection of food-borne pathogens, cell-wall binding domains (CBDs) from endolysins have been suggested due to their high host-specific binding. Fluorescence-tagged CBDs have been successfully evaluated and suggested to be alternative materials of expensive antibodies for various detection applications. Most recently, reporter phage systems have been developed and tested to confirm their usability and accuracy for specific detection. These systems revealed some advantages like rapid detection of only viable pathogenic cells without interference by food components in a very short reaction time, suggesting that these systems may be suitable for monitoring of pathogens in foods. Consequently, phage is the next-generation biocontrol agent as well as rapid detection tool to confirm and even identify the food-borne pathogens present in various foods.

  1. Biocontrol and Rapid Detection of Food-borne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages and Endolysins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoo eBai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been suggested as natural food preservatives as well as rapid detection materials for food-borne pathogens in various foods. Since Listeria monocytogenes-targeting phage cocktail (ListShield was approved for applications in foods, numerous phages have been screened and experimentally characterized for phage applications in foods. A single phage and phage cocktail treatments to various foods contaminated with food-borne pathogens including E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Vibrio spp. revealed that they have great potential to control various food-borne pathogens and may be alternative for conventional food preservatives. In addition, phage-derived endolysins with high host specificity and host lysis activities may be preferred to food applications rather than phages. For rapid detection of food-borne pathogens, cell-wall binding domains (CBDs from endolysins have been suggested due to their high host-specific binding. Fluorescence-tagged CBDs have been successfully evaluated and suggested to be alternative materials of expensive antibodies for various detection applications. Most recently, reporter phage systems have been developed and tested to confirm their usability and accuracy for specific detection. These systems revealed some advantages like rapid detection of only viable pathogenic cells without interference by food components in a very short reaction time, suggesting that these systems may be suitable for monitoring of pathogens in foods. Consequently, phage is the next-generation biocontrol agent as well as rapid detection tool to confirm and even identify the food-borne pathogens present in various foods.

  2. Environmental Microbiology: Bacteria & Fungi on the Foods We Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, Suzanne; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2007-01-01

    The near daily news reports on food-borne diseases caused by contaminated produce, dairy, or meats suggests to the public that the safety of the U.S. food supply is in jeopardy. These reports, as well as a general distrust in federal agencies due in part to mad cow disease and toxigenic forms of "E. coli" in ground beef, have resulted in an…

  3. Environmental Microbiology: Bacteria & Fungi on the Foods We Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, Suzanne; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2007-01-01

    The near daily news reports on food-borne diseases caused by contaminated produce, dairy, or meats suggests to the public that the safety of the U.S. food supply is in jeopardy. These reports, as well as a general distrust in federal agencies due in part to mad cow disease and toxigenic forms of "E. coli" in ground beef, have resulted in an…

  4. Lactobacillus plantarum strains as a bio-control strategy against food-borne pathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Pia Arena

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the most versatile species extensively used in the food industry both as microbial starters and probiotic microorganisms. Several L. plantarum strains have been shown to produce different antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl, and also bacteriocins and antimicrobial peptides, both denoted by a variable spectrum of action. In the recent decades, the selection of microbial molecules and/or bacterial strains able to produce antagonistic molecules to be used as antimicrobials and preservatives has been attracting scientific interest, in order to eliminate or reduce chemical additives, because of the growing attention of consumers for healthy and natural food products. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of several food-isolated L. plantarum strains, analyzed against the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Antagonistic activity was assayed by agar spot test and revealed that strain L. plantarum 105 had the strongest ability to contrast the growth of L. monocytogenes, while strains L. plantarum 106 and 107 were the most active microorganisms against E. coli O157:H7. The antimicrobial ability was also screened by well diffusion assay and broth micro-dilution method using cell-free supernatants (CFS from each Lactobacillus strain. Moreover, the chemical nature of the molecules released in the CFS, and possibly underlying the antagonistic activity, was preliminary characterized by exposure to different constraints such as pH neutralization, heating, catalase and proteinase treatments. Our data suggest that the ability of L. plantarum cultures to contrast pathogens growth in vitro depends, at least in part, on a pH-lowering effect of supernatants and/or on the presence of organic acids. Cluster analysis was performed in order to group L. plantarum strains according to

  5. Biophysical Evaluation of Food Decontamination Effects on Tissue and Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    employ differential scanning calorimetry, second harmonics generation imaging microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and green fluorescence protein-expressing bacteria and compare our results with those obtained by traditional methods of food quality and safety evaluations. Our results show......Traditionally, the effects and efficiency of food surface decontamination processes, such as chlorine washing, radiation, or heating, have been evaluated by sensoric analysis and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of surface swabs or carcass rinses. These methods suffice when determining probable...... in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam and ultrasound for effective heat transfer and short treatment times, resulting in significant reduction in surface bacteria. We...

  6. Bringing Egg and Food-Borne Disease into Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Safety is an important concern for developed countries all over the world. While there will always be room for improvement, it is important to remember that the US has one of the safest food supplies ever produced in the history of the world. Numerous advancements in the way our food is produ...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhalka Kadariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal food-borne disease: an ongoing challenge in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadariya, Jhalka; Smith, Tara C; Thapaliya, Dipendra

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures.

  9. Gastroenteritis and food-borne disease in elderly people living in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Martyn D; Veitch, Mark G; Hall, Gillian V

    2010-02-01

    Elderly people in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) may be more vulnerable to infectious gastroenteritis and food-borne disease and more likely to experience serious outcomes. We review the epidemiology of gastroenteritis and food-borne diseases in elderly residents of LTCFs to inform measures aimed at preventing sporadic disease and outbreaks. Gastroenteritis in elderly people is primarily acquired from other infected persons and contaminated foods, although infections may also be acquired when residents have poor personal hygiene, have contaminated living environments or water, or have contact with infected pets. Early recognition of outbreaks and implementation of control measures is critical to reduce the effects on LTCF residents and staff members. Although outbreaks among LTCF residents are common, they are challenging to investigate, and there are still major gaps in our knowledge, particularly in regards to controlling noroviruses, the incidence and causes of specific infections, and sources of food-borne disease.

  10. [Endemic, Trend, Research and Direction of Food-borne Parasitic Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-bing

    2015-12-01

    Food-borne parasitic diseases are exhibiting new epidemiological characteristics in such society that is filled with economic development, ecological environmental changes, more frequent population flow, as well as diversities of dietary source and style. The food-borne parasitic diseases have become a major risk factor for food safety and health care, and a global public health problem. In this review, we will give an overview on the epidemiological information of some major food-borne parasitic diseases both in China and in the world, and summarize their emerging characteristics and epidemiological trends. Research on the prevention techniques and pathogenesis of the diseases is reviewed as well. Finally, perspectives are given on the diagnosis/detection, basic mechanisms of the diseases, and the strategies for prevention and transmission interruption.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Seeds of Coriandrum sativum toward Food-borne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, M; Karimi, F; Shariatifar, N; Mohammadpourfard, I; Malekabad, E S

    2015-06-03

    The increasing incidence of drug-resistant pathogens and toxicity of existing antibacterial compounds has drawn attention toward the antimicrobial activity of natural products. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the leaves and seeds of Coriandrum sativum. The five strains of bacteria comprising Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica and Vibrio cholera were used for the antibacterial tests. In this study, antimicrobial effects of the essential oil from the leaves and seeds of Coriandrum sativum were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the inhibition zone and minimum bacteria concentration (MBC). The essential oil from Coriandrum sativum was extracted by steam distillation. The results indicate that the antimicrobial activities against the five pathogens were in the range of 2.5-320 µg/mL. Therefore, an increase in essential oil concentration caused significant increase in inhibitory feature. The essential oil from the leaves and seeds of Coriandrum sativum showed antimicrobial activity against the food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Thus, its oil can be used as an alternative to synthetic food preservative without toxic effects. Also, the oil can be used in biotechnological fields as ingredients in antibiotics and the pharmaceutical industry. These results suggest that the essential oil of C sativum leaves and seeds may have potential use in pharmaceutical and food industries for preservatives or antimicrobial agents.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of toxicity of important food-borne phytotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Martena, M.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Spiegelenberg, W.; Alink, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    At present, there is an increasing interest for plant ingredients and their use in drugs, for teas, or in food supplements. The present review describes the nature and mechanism of action of the phytochemicals presently receiving increased attention in the field of food toxicology. This relates to c

  13. Interaction between Food-borne Pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes) and a Common Soil Flagellate (Cercomonas sp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Wolff, Anders; Madsen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Free-living protozoa may harbor, protect, and disperse bacteria, including those ingested and passed in viable form in feces. The flagellates are very important predators on bacteria in soil, but their role in the survival of food-borne pathogens associated with fruits and vegetables is not well...... understood. In this study, we investigated the interactions between a common soil flagellate, Cercomonas sp., and three different bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes). Rapid growth of flagellates was observed in co-culture with C. jejuni and S....... Typhimurium over the time course of 15 days. In contrast, the number of Cercomonas sp. cells decreased when grown with or without L. monocytogenes for 9 days of co-culture. Interestingly, we observed that C. jejuni and S. Typhimurium survived better when co-cultured with flagellates than when cultured alone...

  14. Prevalence of the main food-borne pathogens in retail food under the national food surveillance system in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Konuma, H; Kamata, Y; Miyahara, M; Takatori, K; Onoue, Y; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T

    2013-01-01

    The National Food Surveillance System in Japan was formed in 1998 to monitor the contamination of retail foods with bacterial pathogens. Approximately 2000-3000 samples were tested annually, and the data from food categories that had more than 400 samples collected during 1998-2008 were analysed. With regard to meat, the frequency of positive samples for Salmonella in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken was 12.7% and 33.5%, respectively. Moreover, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was found in ground meat, organ meat and processed meat, although at a low frequency (0.1%). The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli was 13.3% and 20.9% in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken, respectively. In vegetables and fruit, Salmonella was detected in cucumber, lettuce, sprout and tomato samples at a frequency of around 0.1-0.2%. With regard to seafood, Salmonella was found in 0.5% of oysters for raw consumption. Seafood was not contaminated with STEC O157 or Shigella. Serotype Infantis was the most frequently detected serotype of Salmonella in seafood, followed by the serotypes Typhimurium, Schwarzengrund and Manhattan. In ground chicken, 72.2% of the strains were identified as the serotype Infantis. E. coli, as an indicator of food hygiene, was detected in all food categories. The results show the prevalence of the above-mentioned pathogens in the retail food supplied in Japan; further, they indicate that consumption of raw food carries the risk of contracting food-borne infections.

  15. Biophysical Evaluation of Food Decontamination Effects on Tissue and Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the effects and efficiency of food surface decontamination processes, such as chlorine washing, radiation, or heating, have been evaluated by sensoric analysis and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of surface swabs or carcass rinses. These methods suffice when determining probable...... employ differential scanning calorimetry, second harmonics generation imaging microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and green fluorescence protein-expressing bacteria and compare our results with those obtained by traditional methods of food quality and safety evaluations. Our results show...

  16. Distribution of food-borne Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W D

    2016-01-29

    We identified and analyzed 5 new-type enterotoxin genes, including SEj, SEl, SEq, SEm, and SEr, to explore the distribution of 5 enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus of different origins as well as their correlations and differences. We examined the distribution of the S. aureus enterotoxin genes and their pathogenic mechanisms. A total of 660 specimens were collected from January 2011 to December 2014, and 217 strains of S. aureus were isolated. The template DNA of S. aureus was extracted. The Primer6.0 and Oligo7 software were used to design and synthesize polymerase chain reaction primers. Amplification results were analyzed by electrophoresis, and the amplification products were recovered and sequenced. Thirty-six bacterial strains contained the SEj gene (16.6%), including 15, 8, 8, 4, and 1 strains in fresh meat, quick-frozen food, raw milk, human purulent tissue, and living environment, respectively. Thirty-one bacterial strains contained the SEr gene (14.3%), including 16, 9, and 6 strains in fresh meat, quick-frozen food, and raw milk, respectively. Twenty-one bacterial strains contained the enterotoxin SEq gene (9.7%), including 8, 6, 6, and 1 strains in fresh meat, quick-frozen food, raw milk, and human purulent tissue, respectively. No SEm and SEl genes were detected. Different types of foods carry different types of enterotoxins, providing a basis for quick tracing for food poisoning. Three enterotoxin genes, SEj, SEr, and SEq, showed the highest carrier rate in quick-frozen food. It is imperative to improve their detection in quick-frozen food.

  17. Food-borne trematodiasis: current chemotherapy and advances with artemisinins and synthetic trioxolanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-11-01

    Over 40 million people are infected with food-borne trematodes and 750 million are at risk of food-borne trematodiasis, and yet this tropical disease is neglected. The current arsenal for the treatment and control of food-borne trematodiasis comprises praziquantel and triclabendazole, which were developed 20-30 years ago. The safety, therapeutic profiles and concern about resistance of these two drugs are summarized here. Recent advances with the artemisinins, which are best known for their antimalarial and antischistosomal properties, and the synthetic trioxolanes in different trematode-rodent models are reviewed. Lastly, prospects for the development of a safe, efficacious, inexpensive and broad-spectrum trematocidal drug are considered.

  18. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-08-29

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health.

  19. Dietary Sodium Intakes and Food Sources of Sodium in Canadian-Born and Asian-Born Individuals of Chinese Ethnicity at a Canadian University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana; Willows, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the sodium intake and food sources of sodium of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) individuals at a Canadian university campus. Participants: Healthy adults aged 18-58 years originating from Canada, China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan were recruited from the University of Alberta (n = 40 CBC, n = 41 ABC)…

  20. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Parreira, Ricardo; Nunes, Mónica; Casadinho, Afonso; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. One hundred and forty one blood samples from free-ranging ungulates including 73 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 65 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and three fallow deer (Dama dama) were tested for the presence of Anaplasma marginale/A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.), and Rickettsia spp. DNA by PCR. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in 33 (43.4 %) cervids (31 red deer and two fallow deer) and in two (3.1 %) wild boars while Theileria spp. were found in 34 (44.7 %) cervids (32 red deer and two fallow deer) and in three (4.6 %) wild boar blood samples. Sequence analysis of msp4 sequences identified A. marginale, A. ovis, while the analysis of rDNA sequence data disclosed the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum and T. capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3. Anaplasma spp./Theileria spp. mixed infections were found in 17 cervids (22.4 %) and in two wild boars (3.1 %). All samples were negative for Babesia sp., B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Ehrlichia sp. or Rickettsia sp. This is the first detection of Anaplasma marginale, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, Theileria capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3 in cervids and wild boars from Portugal. Further studies concerning the potential pathogenicity of the different species of  Anaplasma and Theileria infecting wild ungulates, the identification of their vector range, and their putative infectivity to domestic livestock and humans should be undertaken.

  1. Rapid detection, characterization, and enrumeration of food-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been much research activity on the development of methodologies that are rapid, accurate, and ultrasensitive for detecting pathogenic microorganisms in food. Rapid methods include immunological systems such as the lateral flow assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...

  2. Antimicrobial effect of emulsion-encapsulated isoeugenol against biofilms of food pathogens and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogsgård Nielsen, Christina; Kjems, Jørgen; Mygind, Tina; Snabe, Torben; Schwarz, Karin; Serfert, Yvonne; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2017-02-02

    Food-related biofilms can cause food-borne illnesses and spoilage, both of which are problems on a global level. Essential oils are compounds derived from plant material that have a potential to be used in natural food preservation in the future since they are natural antimicrobials. Bacterial biofilms are particularly resilient towards biocides, and preservatives that effectively eradicate biofilms are therefore needed. In this study, we test the antibacterial properties of emulsion-encapsulated and unencapsulated isoeugenol against biofilms of Lis. monocytogenes, S. aureus, P. fluorescens and Leu. mesenteroides in tryptic soy broth and carrot juice. We show that emulsion encapsulation enhances the antimicrobial properties of isoeugenol against biofilms in media but not in carrot juice. Some of the isoeugenol emulsions were coated with chitosan, and treatment of biofilms with these emulsions disrupted the biofilm structure. Furthermore, we show that addition of the surfactant Tween 80, which is commonly used to disperse oils in food, hampers the antibacterial properties of isoeugenol. This finding highlights that common food additives, such as surfactants, may have an adverse effect on the antibacterial activity of preservatives. Isoeugenol is a promising candidate as a future food preservative because it works almost equally well against planktonic bacteria and biofilms. Emulsion encapsulation has potential benefits for the efficacy of isoeugenol, but the effect of encapsulation depends on the properties of food matrix in which isoeugenol is to be applied.

  3. Biophysical Evaluation of Food Decontamination Effects on Tissue and Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the effects and efficiency of food surface decontamination processes, such as chlorine washing, radiation, or heating, have been evaluated by sensoric analysis and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of surface swabs or carcass rinses. These methods suffice when determining probable...... consumer responses or meeting legislative contamination limits. However, in the often very costly, optimization process of a new method, more quantitative and unbiased results are invaluable. In this study, we employed a biophysical approach for the investigation of qualitative and quantitative changes...... in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam and ultrasound for effective heat transfer and short treatment times, resulting in significant reduction in surface bacteria. We...

  4. Bacillus cereus spores and cereulide in food-borne illness

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Ranad

    2009-01-01

    B. cereus is a gram-positive bacterium that possesses two different forms of life:the large, rod-shaped cells (ca. 0.002 mm by 0.004 mm) that are able to propagate and the small (0.001 mm), oval shaped spores. The spores can survive in almost any environment for up to centuries without nourishment or water. They are insensitive towards most agents that normally kill bacteria: heating up to several hours at 90 ºC, radiation, disinfectants and extreme alkaline (≥ pH 13) and acid (≀ pH 1) e...

  5. Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in frozen food (ready to cook food) of animal origin sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouzia Sultana; Kamrunnahar; Hafsa Afroz; Afroz Jahan; Md Fakruddin; Suvamoy Datta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results: A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 samples, of them 35.08% were Gram positive and 64.92% were Gram negative organisms. Highest percentages of isolated organisms were Staphylococcocus spp. (24.56%), Alcaligene spp. (17.54%), Klebshiella spp. (12.28%) and the lowest percentages of organisms were Enterococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp. and Proteus spp. Antibiogram results clearly showed that levofloxacin and imipenem were the most effective drug against the isolates. The less effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid and resistance was highest against ciprofloxacin. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets. Conclusions: This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of toxicity of important food-borne phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Martena, Martijn J; Boersma, Marelle G; Spiegelenberg, Wim; Alink, Gerrit M

    2005-02-01

    At present, there is an increasing interest for plant ingredients and their use in drugs, for teas, or in food supplements. The present review describes the nature and mechanism of action of the phytochemicals presently receiving increased attention in the field of food toxicology. This relates to compounds including aristolochic acids, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, beta-carotene, coumarin, the alkenylbenzenes safrole, methyleugenol and estragole, ephedrine alkaloids and synephrine, kavalactones, anisatin, St. John's wort ingredients, cyanogenic glycosides, solanine and chaconine, thujone, and glycyrrhizinic acid. It can be concluded that several of these phytotoxins cause concern, because of their bioactivation to reactive alkylating intermediates that are able to react with cellular macromolecules causing cellular toxicity, and, upon their reaction with DNA, genotoxicity resulting in tumors. Another group of the phytotoxins presented is active without the requirement for bioactivation and, in most cases, these compounds appear to act as neurotoxins interacting with one of the neurotransmitter systems. Altogether, the examples presented illustrate that natural does not equal safe and that in modern society adverse health effects, upon either acute or chronic exposure to phytochemicals, can occur as a result of use of plant- or herb-based foods, teas, or other extracts.

  7. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10⁹CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10⁷ and 10⁹CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date.

  8. An outbreak of food-borne gastroenteritis due to sapovirus among junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuku, Shuzo; Kumazaki, Makoto; Kitamura, Katsuhiko; Tochikubo, Osamu; Noguchi, Yuzo

    2008-11-01

    The human sapovirus (SaV) causes acute gastroenteritis mainly in infants and young children. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with SaV occurred among junior high school students in Yokohama, Japan, during and after a study trip. The nucleotide sequences of the partial capsid gene derived from the students exhibited 98% homology to a SaV genogroup IV strain, Hu/Angelholm/SW278/2004/SE, which was isolated from an adult with gastroenteritis in Solna, Sweden. An identical nucleotide sequence was detected from a food handler at the hotel restaurant, suggesting that the causative agent of the outbreak was transmitted from the food handler. This is the first description of a food-borne outbreak associated with the SaV genogroup IV strain in Japan.

  9. Phylogenetic and molecular analysis of food-borne shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Elisabeth; Mellmann, Alexander; Semmler, Torsten; Stoeber, Helen; Wieler, Lothar H; Karch, Helge; Kuebler, Nikole; Fruth, Angelika; Harmsen, Dag; Weniger, Thomas; Tietze, Erhard; Schmidt, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Seventy-five food-associated Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were analyzed by molecular and phylogenetic methods to describe their pathogenic potential. The presence of the locus of proteolysis activity (LPA), the chromosomal pathogenicity island (PAI) PAI ICL3, and the autotransporter-encoding gene sabA was examined by PCR. Furthermore, the occupation of the chromosomal integration sites of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), selC, pheU, and pheV, as well as the Stx phage integration sites yehV, yecE, wrbA, z2577, and ssrA, was analyzed. Moreover, the antibiotic resistance phenotypes of all STEC strains were determined. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed, and sequence types (STs) and sequence type complexes (STCs) were compared with those of 42 hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)-associated enterohemorrhagic E. coli (HUSEC) strains. Besides 59 STs and 4 STCs, three larger clusters were defined in this strain collection. Clusters A and C consist mostly of highly pathogenic eae-positive HUSEC strains and some related food-borne STEC strains. A member of a new O26 HUS-associated clone and the 2011 outbreak strain E. coli O104:H4 were found in cluster A. Cluster B comprises only eae-negative food-borne STEC strains as well as mainly eae-negative HUSEC strains. Although food-borne strains of cluster B were not clearly associated with disease, serotypes of important pathogens, such as O91:H21 and O113:H21, were in this cluster and closely related to the food-borne strains. Clonal analysis demonstrated eight closely related genetic groups of food-borne STEC and HUSEC strains that shared the same ST and were similar in their virulence gene composition. These groups should be considered with respect to their potential for human infection.

  10. Hygienic Practice and Knowledge of food borne diseases in Home Kitchen Handlers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food borne illness cases may occur due to improperly prepared or mishandled food, unhygienic sanitation and cleaning practice at home by home kitchen handlers. Objective: To explore the knowledge and practice of literate female of Indore city who are dealing with Home kitchen every day. Methodology: A Cross-Sectional study among 160 participants according to their profession (Health sector workers, Non-health sector workers, House Makers and Students) were selected randomly and in...

  11. RECURRENT EPISODES OF FOOD BORNE BOTULISM IN A 7-YEAR OLD BOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddighi MD

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Botulism is the acute, descending, flaccid paralysis that results when the neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum blocks neuromuscular transmission. C botulinum toxin is the most poisonous substance that blocks neuromuscular transmission and causes death through airway and respiratory muscle paralysis; all forms of botulism manifest neurologically as asymmetric, descending, flaccid paralysis beginning with the cranial nerve musculature. Food-borne botulism results from the ingestion of food in which C botulinum has multiplied and produced its toxin.Patient We report a new case of food-borne botulism in a 7 year old boy with recurrent episodes of weakness, difficulty in swallowing and speech; bilateral ptosis and mydriasis. He had positive history of the same symptoms, documented twice before. The patient’s samples were sent for detection of toxin of Clostridium botulinum, and toxin of C. botulinum, type A was found in his stool sample, confirming our diagnosis. This case was unusual report because our patient has not history of canned food ingestion and also because recurrent episodes of paralysis in this case are unusual findings in botulism.ConclusionIn this report we want to emphasize that canned-food ingestion is not necessary for diagnosis of food-borne botulism and because delayed treatment leads to increase mortality and morbidity, treatment should be initiated promptly on the basis of clinical suspicion

  12. An outbreak of food-borne group A Streptococcus (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis among residents of a dormitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvghad, M R; Naderi, H R; Naderi-Nassab, M; Majdzadeh, R; Javanian, M; Faramarzi, H; Fatehmanesh, P

    2005-01-01

    Epidemics of food-borne pharyngitis due to group A Streptococcus are rarely reported. Here we present an outbreak of food-borne tonsillopharyngitis in female dormitories in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Throat swabs and cultures were performed on a number of patients, and of specimens from the nasopharynx and hands of staff who were involved in food processing. We planned a case-control study for assessing the source of epidemics. 11 out of 17 throat swabs of students were positive for Streptococcus group A and also 2 throat samples from asymptomatic cooks were positive. A DNA fingerprinting study showed that Streptococcus group A strains of 11 students and 1 cook had the same T agglutination pattern and M protein factor (M3/T13). It is suggested that group A streptococci as well as group C and G streptococci can cause epidemic food-borne pharyngitis. Regular health surveillance of food handlers and food preparation processes are important for prevention of such outbreaks.

  13. Transfer of genetic material between pathogenic and food-borne yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentel, M.; Spirek, M.; Jorck-Ramberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    Many pathogenic yeast species are asexual and therefore not involved in intra- or interspecies mating. However, high-frequency transfer of plasmid DNA was observed when pathogenic and food-borne yeasts were grown together. This property could play a crucial role in the spread of virulence and drug...

  14. Impact of food and water-borne diseases on European population health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassini, A.; Colzani, E.; Kramarz, P.; Kretzschmar, M. E.; Takkinen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Composite health measures are increasingly applied in studies aiming at describing the burden of diseases, and food and water-borne diseases (FWDs) are no exception. The Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) is a project led and funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Co

  15. Impact of food and water-borne diseases on European population health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassini, A.; Colzani, E.; Kramarz, P.; Kretzschmar, M. E.; Takkinen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Composite health measures are increasingly applied in studies aiming at describing the burden of diseases, and food and water-borne diseases (FWDs) are no exception. The Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) is a project led and funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and

  16. Transfer of genetic material between pathogenic and food-borne yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentel, M.; Spirek, M.; Jorck-Ramberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    Many pathogenic yeast species are asexual and therefore not involved in intra- or interspecies mating. However, high-frequency transfer of plasmid DNA was observed when pathogenic and food-borne yeasts were grown together. This property could play a crucial role in the spread of virulence and drug...... resistance factors among yeasts....

  17. Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adimpong, David B; Nielsen, Dennis S; Sørensen, Kim I; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    .... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries...

  18. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a challenge for the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first described in the 1940s, but whereas new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. At present, the paucity of new antimicrobials coming into the market has led to the problem of antibiotic resistance fast escalating into a global health crisis. Although the selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (particularly overuse or misuse) has been deemed the major factor in the emergence of bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials, concerns about the role of the food industry have been growing in recent years and have been raised at both national and international levels. The selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (primary production) and biocides (e.g., disinfectants, food and feed preservatives, or decontaminants) is the main driving force behind the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance throughout the food chain. Genetically modified (GM) crops with antibiotic resistance marker genes, microorganisms added intentionally to the food chain (probiotic or technological) with potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, and food processing technologies used at sub-lethal doses (e.g., alternative non-thermal treatments) are also issues for concern. This paper presents the main trends in antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development in recent decades, as well as their economic and health consequences, current knowledge concerning the generation, dissemination, and mechanisms of antibacterial resistance, progress to date on the possible routes for emergence of resistance throughout the food chain and the role of foods as a vehicle for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The main approaches to prevention and control of the development, selection, and spread of antibacterial resistance in the food industry are also addressed.

  19. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, D.G.; Koopmans, M.; Verhoef, L.; Duizer, E.; Aidara-Kane, A.; Sprong, H.; Opsteegh, M.; Langelaar, M.; Threfall, J.; Scheutz, F.; van der Giessen, J.; Kruse, H.

    2010-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainl

  20. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, D.G.; Koopmans, M.; Verhoef, L.; Duizer, E.; Aidara-Kane, A.; Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X; Langelaar, M.; Threfall, J.; Scheutz, F.; van der Giessen, J.; Kruse, H.

    2010-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease,

  1. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, D.G.; Koopmans, M.; Verhoef, L.; Duizer, E.; Aidara-Kane, A.; Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X; Langelaar, M.; Threfall, J.; Scheutz, F.; van der Giessen, J.; Kruse, H.

    2010-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainl

  2. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina; Virginia; Ebani; Simona; Nardoni; Giulia; Fognani; Linda; Mugnaini; Fabrizio; Bertelloni; Guido; Rocchigiani; Roberto; Amerigo; Papini; Francesco; Stefani; Francesca; Mancianti

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pi’evalence of vector-bome bacteria and protozoa in hunting dogs living in Central Italy.Methods:Molecular testing was executed on DNA which was extracted from blood specimens collected from 117 asymptomatic dogs to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum,Babesia canis(B.canis),Bartonella spp..Coxiella burnetii(C.burnetii).Ehrlichia canis.Hepatozoon canis.and Leislnnania infantum.Results:A total of 48 dogs(41.0%) were infested by Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.Tick-borne infections were observed in 64(54.7%) animals.More in detail.38 dogs(32.5%) screened positive for Hepatozoon canis,24(20.5%) for Bartonella rinsonii subsp.berkhoffii.20(17.1%) for Leishmania infantum,6(5.1%) for C.burnetii,5(4.3%) for B.canis(3 B.canis vogeli and 2 B.canis canis),3(2.5%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum,and 2(1.7%) for Ehrlichia canis.Mixed infection by 2 agents occurred in 17(14.5%) subjects,by 3 agents in 7(6.0%) dogs,and by 4 agents in 1(0.9%) animal.Conclusions:The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic.A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C.burnetii,a severe zoonotic agent,in the 5.1% of tested dogs,which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites,but also directly with urine,feces and birth products.

  3. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Skånseng

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A major bottleneck in understanding zoonotic pathogens has been the analysis of pathogen co-infection dynamics. We have addressed this challenge using a novel direct sequencing approach for pathogen quantification in mixed infections. The major zoonotic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, with an important reservoir in the gastrointestinal (GI tract of chickens, was used as a model. We investigated the co-colonisation dynamics of seven C. jejuni strains in a chicken GI infection trial. The seven strains were isolated from an epidemiological study showing multiple strain infections at the farm level. We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature (treated with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host and not the background flora that is important in determining the Campylobacter colonisation pattern. Our results showed that mainly two of the seven C. jejuni strains dominated the Campylobacter flora in the chickens, with a shift of the dominating strain during the infection period. We propose a model in which multiple C. jejuni strains can colonise a single host, with the dominant strains being replaced as a consequence of strain-specific immune responses. This model represents a new understanding of C. jejuni epidemiology, with future implications for the development of novel intervention strategies.

  4. Egg yolk paste for determining some food poisoning bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, C; Nakamaru, E; Mita, M; Uesugi, I; Saito, J

    1988-02-01

    Egg yolk, aseptically prepared from fresh eggs, was partially dehydrated with a 40% high fructose corn syrup solution, and 10% salt was added. This salted yolk paste was added to mannitol salt agar for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus, to NaCl-glycine Kim and Goepfert medium for detection of Bacillus cereus, to Clostridium welchii agar for detection of C. perfringens, and to Gifu anaerobic medium for detection of C. botulinum. These food poisoning bacteria showed the same lecithovitellin (LV) reaction on these media as on the same media prepared with fresh egg yolk. The yolk paste could be stored at -20 C without freezing and did not show any bacterial growth after holding at 25 C for 30 days. The increased salt content resulted from the addition of salted yolk paste to the media did not inhibit the growth of the food poisoning bacteria used in these experiments. For the identification of the food poisoning bacteria used in this work, and which give a LV reaction, salted yolk paste is more convenient to use than yolk separated from fresh shell eggs.

  5. Food and soil-borne Penicillia in Arctic environments: Chemical diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    Penicillia are very common inhabitants of cold environments, including arctic soil, plants, animals, and foods. We have investigated the mycobiota of Greenland inland ice and soil, and found a very unique and pronounced diversity among the Penicillia. Nearly all species were new to science....... The species found in inland ice were both of the soil-borne type, and Penicillia that grow and sporulate well at 25°C. The latter group of Penicillia have been found earlier in refrigerated foods, including P. nordicum, and in glacier ice and melting water from Svalbard (se Sonjak et al., this conference......). This “food-borne group” of arctic fungi also contained some new species, but not as many as in arctic soil. The chemical diversity of the Penicillium species was remarkably high and in most cases even larger than the chemical diversity of Penicillia in the tropics. Several new secondary metabolites were...

  6. Dietary fatty acids and immune response to food-borne bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lisa M; Balan, Kannan V; Babu, Uma S

    2013-05-22

    Functional innate and acquired immune responses are required to protect the host from pathogenic bacterial infections. Modulation of host immune functions may have beneficial or deleterious effects on disease outcome. Different types of dietary fatty acids have been shown to have variable effects on bacterial clearance and disease outcome through suppression or activation of immune responses. Therefore, we have chosen to review research across experimental models and food sources on the effects of commonly consumed fatty acids on the most common food-borne pathogens, including Salmonella sp., Campylobacter sp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Altogether, the compilation of literature suggests that no single fatty acid is an answer for protection from all food-borne pathogens, and further research is necessary to determine the best approach to improve disease outcomes.

  7. Salt induces biosynthesis of hemolytically active compounds in the xerotolerant food-borne fungus Wallemia sebi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botić, Tanja; Kunčič, Marjetka K; Sepčić, Kristina; Knez, Zeljko; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Wallemia sebi is a xerotolerant, ubiquitous, food-borne, mycotoxigenic fungus. An ethanol extract of its mycelium demonstrated a strong hemolytic activity, which was further enhanced at high salt concentrations in the growth medium. Characterization of the extract using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a mixture of sterols and unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the latter as responsible for the hemolytic activity. The lytic activity of the extract is here studied using red blood cells and artificial small lipid vesicles with various lipid compositions. This shows concentration-dependent hemolysis and preferential activity toward lipid membranes with greater fluidity. The W. sebi lytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes shows its potential involvement in the formation of lesions in subcutaneous infections, in farmer's lung disease, and in consumption of food and feed that are contaminated with food-borne W. sebi.

  8. Investigation of Anti-bacterial Activity against Food-borne Pathogens among Korean Domestic Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-hyo Jang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore algal species with anti-bacterial activity against six food-borne pathogens. Among 51 marine algae, Laurencia okamurae Yamada and Dictyopteris undulata Holmes was elucidated to have a potent anti-bacterial activity against food-borne pathogens. Laurencia okamurae Yamada showed the clear zone around agar well on B. cereus, S. aureusand L. monocytogenes-spreading agar plate. Dictyopteris undulata Holmes had the anti-bacterial activity against S. chorelaesuis, B. cereus, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes on bacterial spreading agar plates. Antibacterial activity of L. okamurae Yamada and D. undulata Holmes had specifically susceptibility for B. cereus, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and were superior to streptomycin, the authentic antibiotics. It is anticipated that new food preservatives can be explored and developed on the basis of this study.

  9. From ontology selection and semantic web to an integrated information system for food-borne diseases and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xianghe; Peng, Yun; Meng, Jianghong; Ruzante, Juliana; Fratamico, Pina M; Huang, Lihan; Juneja, Vijay; Needleman, David S

    2011-01-01

    Several factors have hindered effective use of information and resources related to food safety due to inconsistency among semantically heterogeneous data resources, lack of knowledge on profiling of food-borne pathogens, and knowledge gaps among research communities, government risk assessors/managers, and end-users of the information. This paper discusses technical aspects in the establishment of a comprehensive food safety information system consisting of the following steps: (a) computational collection and compiling publicly available information, including published pathogen genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data; (b) development of ontology libraries on food-borne pathogens and design automatic algorithms with formal inference and fuzzy and probabilistic reasoning to address the consistency and accuracy of distributed information resources (e.g., PulseNet, FoodNet, OutbreakNet, PubMed, NCBI, EMBL, and other online genetic databases and information); (c) integration of collected pathogen profiling data, Foodrisk.org ( http://www.foodrisk.org ), PMP, Combase, and other relevant information into a user-friendly, searchable, "homogeneous" information system available to scientists in academia, the food industry, and government agencies; and (d) development of a computational model in semantic web for greater adaptability and robustness.

  10. Rapid Detection Technology of Food-borne Pathogen%食源性致病菌快速检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 刘杰; 李玉兰; 刘芳生

    2013-01-01

    食品安全问题日益受到各国政府和人民的普遍关注.由食源性致病菌引起的食源性疾病是影响食品安全的最主要因素之一.对在食源性致病菌快速检测中应用前景广阔的多重PCR技术、生物芯片技术、酶联免疫法、免疫胶体金技术、蛋白芯片技术及生物传感器技术进行了概述,为食源性致病菌快速检测体系的建立提供依据.%Food safety problems are being paid more and more attention by governments and people from all over the world. Food-borne disease caused by food-bome pathogenic bacteria is one of the most important factors influencing food safety. So some rapid detection technologies such as multiplex PCR, microarray, ELISA, immune colloidal gold, protein microarray and biosensor were introduced, which aimed to provide some basis for the establishment of food-borne pathogenic bacteria rapid detection system.

  11. Carbapenemase producing bacteria in the food supply escaping detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly J Morrison

    Full Text Available Carbapenem antimicrobials are critically important to human health and they are often the only remaining effective antibiotics for treating serious infections. Resistance to these drugs mediated by acquired carbapenemase enzymes is increasingly encountered in gram-negative bacteria and is considered a public health emergency. Animal origin food products are recognized as a potential source of resistant organisms, although carbapenem resistance has only recently been reported. In western countries there are active resistance surveillance programs targeting food animals and retail meat products. These programs primarily target beef, pork and poultry and focus exclusively on E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter spp. and Enterococcus spp. This global surveillance strategy does not capture the diversity of foods available nor does it address the presence of resistance gene-bearing mobile genetic elements in non-pathogenic bacterial taxa. To address this gap, a total of 121 seafood products originating in Asia purchased from retail groceries in Canada were tested. Samples were processed using a taxa-independent method for the selective isolation of carbapenem resistant organisms. Isolates were characterized by phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR and DNA sequencing. Carbapenemase producing bacteria, all blaOXA-48, were isolated from 4 (3.3% of the samples tested. Positive samples originated from China (n=2 and Korea (n=2 and included squid, sea squirt, clams and seafood medley. Carbapenemase producing organisms found include Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Myroides species. These findings suggest that non-pathogenic bacteria, excluded from resistance surveillance programs, in niche market meats may serve as a reservoir of carbapenemase genes in the food supply.

  12. Prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C O Ifeadike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, biological contaminants largely bacteria and other parasites constitute the major causes of food-borne diseases often transmitted through food, water, nails, and fingers contaminated with faeces. Accordingly, food-handlers with poor personal hygiene could be potential sources of infections by these micro-organisms. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive one in which a multistage sampling technique was employed to select 168 food handlers of various types. Subjects′ stool, urine, and fingernail analyses were carried out and the result scientifically scrutinized. Results: Fingernail bacteria isolates include: E. Coli (1.8%, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (17.9%, Staphylococcus aureus(7.1%, Klebsiella species (2.4%, Serratia species (1.2%, Citrobacter species (1.2%, and Enterococcus species (1.8%. The subjects′ stool samples tested positive: For A. lumbricoides (14.9%, T. trichuria (1.8%, S. starcolaris (3.0%, E. histolytica (10.7%, G. lambilia (1.8%, S. mansoni (1.2%, and Taenia species (4.8%. Furthermore, 42.3% and 15.5% of the stool specimen tested positive for Salmonella and Shigella species, respectively. Conclusion: Food establishments should screen and treat staff with active illness, and regularly train them on good personal and workplace hygiene practices.

  13. [Isolation of thermostable direct hemolysin producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus from food using screening by PCR in food-borne outbreaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Hiromi; Shimojima, Yukako; Konishi, Noriko; Monma, Chie; Yano, Kazuyoshi; Kai, Akemi; Morozumi, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2006-07-01

    The producibility of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) is the most important pathogenic factor in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TDH (+) V. parahaemolyticus is usually isolated from patients having V. parahaemolyticus food-borne disease. TDH (+) V. parahaemolyticus is, however, very difficult to isolate from food and environmental samples. In the 5 years from 2000 to 2004 in Tokyo, V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from food samples related to 67 of 227 V parahaemolyticus food-borne outbreaks. In these outbreaks, TDH (+) strains were also tried to isolate using PCR as the screening methods. TDH (+) V. parahaemolyticus strains were able to isolate from enrichment broth in which toxR and tdh genes become positive in PCR. TDH (+) strains of the same serotype with patients were able to be isolated from 23 food samples related to 11 outbreaks (16.4%); 3 outbreaks in 2000, 2 in 2001, 2 in 2002, 1 in 2003, and 3 in 2004. The serotypes of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from food were O3 : K6 (10 samples), O3 : K5 (6 samples), O1 : K25 (4 samples), O3 : K29 (2 samples), O4 : K 8 (1 sample), and O4 : K11 (1 sample). The isolation rate of the TDH (+) strain from enrichment broth differed with samples. In several samples TDH (+) strains were isolated easily only by examining 3 colonies, hence no TDH (+) strains were isolated in spite of the examination of 250 colonies. No correlation was seen between the number of V. parahaemolyticus and the isolation rate of TDH (+) strains in food samples. Screening using PCR is very effective method for isolating TDH (+) V. parahaemolyticus from food samples.

  14. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of food-borne nitriles in a liver in vitro model

    OpenAIRE

    Franziska Kupke; Corinna Herz; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Stefanie Platz; Grace A. Odongo; Simone Helmig; Bartolomé Rodríguez, María M.; Monika Schreiner; Sascha Rohn; Evelyn Lamy

    2016-01-01

    Isothiocyanates are the most intensively studied breakdown products of glucosinolates from Brassica plants and well recognized for their pleiotropic effects against cancer but also for their genotoxic potential. However, knowledge about the bioactivity of glucosinolate-borne nitriles in foods is very poor. As determined by GC-MS, broccoli glucosinolates mainly degrade to nitriles as breakdown products. The cytotoxicity of nitriles in human HepG2 cells and primary murine hepatocytes was margin...

  15. An outbreak of food-borne botulism in Scotland, United Kingdom, November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, L M; Prempeh, H; Little, C; Houston, C; Grant, K; Cowden, J M

    2011-12-08

    An investigation is currently underway to explain an outbreak of food-borne botulism in Scotland. Three children in the same family were confirmed as having botulism following consumption of a meal made with a jar of korma sauce. Residual sauce from the jar, the jar lid and a remnant of the meal, all tested positive for Clostridium botulinum type A toxin. The children are recovering, although two remain ventilated and in intensive care unit.

  16. Food-borne trematodiases in Southeast Asia epidemiology, pathology, clinical manifestation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Intapan, Pewpan M; Maleewong, Wanchai; Brindley, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    The food-borne trematodiases are an important group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Over 40 million people are infected with food-borne trematodes and 750 million (>10% of the world's population) are at risk of these NTDs. Here, we review the life cycles, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention and control of the major food-borne trematodiases in Southeast Asia. We focus particularly on opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini and clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis, which people contract by ingestion of metacercariae in flesh of raw or undercooked freshwater fishes, on fascioliasis caused by Fasciola species, where infection arises from ingestion of metacercariae on water plants such as watercress, and on Paragonimus species, the lung flukes, which use freshwater crabs and other crustaceans as intermediate hosts. We also include information on the intestinal flukes Fasciolopsis buski, the echinostomes and the so-called 'minute intestinal flukes' of the family Heterophyidae. Ecological information, placing emphasis on reservoir hosts, intermediate snail hosts and secondary hosts where applicable, is also reviewed and research needs are highlighted.

  17. Tick-borne bacteria in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Almeida, Aliny P; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-08-01

    Tick-borne bacteria were investigated in 10 free-living jaguars and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. Jaguar sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assays using Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia bellii, Ehrlichia canis, and Coxiella burnetii as crude antigens. All 10 jaguar sera reacted (titer ≥ 64) to at least one Rickettsia species; 4 and 3 sera reacted with E. canis and C. burnetii, respectively. One jaguar presented antibody titer to R. parkeri at least fourfold higher than those to any of the other five Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that this animal was infected by R. parkeri. Ticks collected from jaguars included the species Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma triste, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. No Rickettsia DNA was detected in jaguar blood samples, but an A. triste specimen collected on a jaguar was shown by PCR to be infected by R. parkeri. The blood of two jaguars and samples of A. triste, A. cajennense, and Amblyomma sp. yielded Ehrlichia DNA by PCR targeting the ehrlichial genes 16S rRNA and dsb. Partial DNA sequences obtained from PCR products resulted in a new ehrlichial strain, here designated as Ehrlichia sp. strain Jaguar. A partial DNA sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of this novel strain showed to be closest (99.0%) to uncultured strains of Ehrlichia sp. from Japan and Russia and 98.7% identical to different strains of Ehrlichia ruminantium. The ehrlichial dsb partial sequence of strain jaguar showed to be at most 80.7% identical to any Ehrlichia species or genotype available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis, Ehrlichia sp. strain jaguar grouped in a cluster, albeit distantly, with different genotypes of E. ruminantium. Results highlight risks for human and animal health, considering that cattle ranching and ecotourism are major economic activities in the Pantanal region of Brazil.

  18. An investigation on the diversity of mosquitocidal bacteria and its relationship with incidence of vector borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, P; De Britto, L J; Thirugnanasambantham, K; Ragul, K; Mani, C; Balagangadharan, K

    2015-03-01

    Control of mosquitoes is the most important aspect of public health, as mosquitoes transmit many human diseases, including the fatal infection, Japanese encephalitis. This paper addresses the isolation of new mosquitocidal bacteria from soil samples in the Union Territory of Pondicherry, India, where, no clinical cases of vector borne infections have been reported. Bacterial isolates from soil samples were screened for potential mosquitocidal strains and bioassays against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti) were carried out. Genomic DNA of potential mosquitocidal isolates was amplified and species identification was carried out using BLASTn program (NCBI). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of mosquitocidal bacteria revealed seven potential isolates. SDS-PAGE results have shown that there was considerable difference in the protein profiles. Numerical analysis revealed 4 distinct groups at similarity level 25%. The relationship between VBDs and prevalence of soil mosquitocidal bacteria in the study sites has elicited considerable interest in the diversity of mosquitocidal bacteria and their application for mosquito borne diseases control.

  19. Effect of wastewater-borne bacteria on algal growth and nutrients removal in wastewater-based algae cultivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zhou, Wenguang; Fu, Zongqiang; Cheng, Yanling; Min, Min; Liu, Yuhuan; Zhang, Yunkai; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-09-01

    Centrate, a type of nutrient-rich municipal wastewater was used to determine the effect of wastewater-borne bacteria on algal growth and nutrients removal efficiency in this study. The characteristics of algal and bacterial growth profiles, wastewater nutrient removal and effect of initial algal inoculums were systematically examined. The results showed that initial algal concentration had apparent effect on bacterial growth, and the presence of bacteria had a significant influence on algal growth pattern, suggesting symbiotic relationship between algae and bacteria at the initial stage of algae cultivation. The maximum algal biomass of 2.01 g/L with 0.1g/L initial algal inoculums concentration can be obtained during algae cultivation in raw centrate medium. The synergistic effect of centrate-borne bacteria and microalgae on algae growth and nutrient removal performance at initial fast growth stage has great potential to be applied to pilot-scale wastewater-based algae wastewater system cultivated in continuous or semi-continuous mode.

  20. Decomposing the Household Food Insecurity Gap for Children of U.S.-Born and Foreign-Born Hispanics: Evidence from 1998 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Potochnick, Stephanie; Parsons, Sarah

    2017-03-13

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-K, multivariate analysis, state fixed effects, and regression decomposition, we examine changes in food insecurity for Hispanic kindergarteners between 1998 and 2011, a time period of rapid immigration and political/socio-economic changes. During this time the household food insecurity gap between children of U.S.-born and foreign-born mothers increased by almost 7 percentage points. The factors-child, family, and state-that contributed to the nativity gap differed over time. In both periods, lower familial resources among immigrant families, i.e. endowment effects, contributed to the gap; this was the main component of the gap in 2011 but only one component in 1998. In 1998, heterogeneity in state effects was positively associated with the nativity food insecurity gap. This means that children of foreign-born mothers experience higher household food insecurity than do children of U.S.-born mothers in the same state, even after controlling for child and family characteristics. In 2011, almost half of the gap remained unexplained. This unexplained portion could be driven by differential effects of the Great Recession, growing anti-immigrant sentiment, and/or the relatively large share of unauthorized immigrants in 2011.

  1. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysén, Maria; Thorhagen, Margareta; Brytting, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Andersson, Yvonne; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof

    2009-08-01

    A total of 101 food-borne and waterborne outbreaks that were caused by norovirus and that resulted in more than 4,100 cases of illness were reported to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control from January 2002 to December 2006. Sequence and epidemiological data for isolates from 73 outbreaks were analyzed. In contrast to health care-related outbreaks, no clear seasonality could be observed. Sequence analysis showed a high degree of genetic variation among the noroviruses detected. Genogroup II (GII) viruses were detected in 70% of the outbreaks, and of those strains, strains of GII.4 were the most prevalent and were detected in 25% of all outbreaks. The GII.4 variants detected in global outbreaks in health care settings during 2002, 2004, and 2006 were also found in the food-borne outbreaks. GI strains totally dominated as the cause of water-related (drinking and recreational water) outbreaks and were found in 12 of 13 outbreaks. In 14 outbreaks, there were discrepancies among the polymerase and capsid genotype results. In four outbreaks, the polymerase of the recombinant GII.b virus occurred together with the GII.1 or GII.3 capsids, while the GII.7 polymerase occurred together with the GII.6 and GII.7 capsids. Mixed infections were observed in six outbreaks; four of these were due to contaminated water, and two were due to imported frozen berries. Contaminated food and water serve as important reservoirs for noroviruses. The high degree of genetic diversity found among norovirus strains causing food-borne and waterborne infections stresses the importance of the use of broad reaction detection methods when such outbreaks are investigated.

  2. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    . The emergence and spread of resistant bacteria in the food chain is a major concern as food-producing animals may constitute a huge reservoir for antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, food animals and food of animal origin is traded worldwide, which means that the occurrences of antimicrobial resistance...... in the food supply of one country is currently potentially a problem for all countries....

  3. Astaxanthin from psychrotrophic Sphingomonas faeni exhibits antagonism against food-spoilage bacteria at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Subramanian, Parthiban; Srinivasan, Ramachandran; Karthikeyan, Sivashanmugam; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukaliannan

    2015-10-01

    Food production and processing industry holds a perpetual relationship with microorganisms and their by-products. In the present study, we aimed to identify beneficial cold-adapted bacteria devoid of any food spoilage properties and study their antagonism against common food-borne pathogens at low temperature conditions. Ten isolates were obtained on selective isolation at 5 °C, which were spread across genera Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Psychrobacter, Leuconostoc, Rhodococcus, and Arthrobacter. Methanol extracts of strains were found to contain several bioactive metabolites. Among the studied isolates, methanol extracts of S. faeni ISY and Rhodococcus fascians CS4 were found to show antagonism against growth of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio fischeri at refrigeration temperatures. Characterization of the abundant yellow pigment in methanol extracts of S. faeni ISY through UV-Vis spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed the presence of astaxanthin, which, owing to its presence in very large amounts and evidenced to be responsible for antagonistic activity of the solvent extract.

  4. 南充市散装即食食品中食源性致病菌监测%Monitoring of Food-borne Pathogens in Bulk Ready-to-use Food in Nanchong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵朝珍; 王娟; 徐买成

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解南充市即食食品中食源性致病菌污染状况,为预防和控制食源性疾病提供科学依据.方法 随机抽取具代表性的4类食品,依据国标方法,对584件样品进行沙门菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、单核细胞增生李斯特菌、大肠杆菌O157:H7、志贺菌5种食源性致病菌分离鉴定.结果 584件食品中检出50株致病菌,总检出率为8.56% (50/584).5种食源性致病菌中,金黄色葡萄球菌检出率最高(6.68%),其次为单核细胞增生李斯特菌(1.03%)和沙门菌(0.86%),未检出大肠埃希菌O157和志贺菌.结论 南充市散装即食食品中存在食源性致病菌污染,应加强食品卫生监督管理,防止食源性疾病发生.%Objective To investigate the pollution situation of food - borne pathogens in instant food in Nanchong so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of food - borne diseases. Methods Four types of food from local area were selected randomly as representatives. According to the national standard method 5 kinds of food - borne pathogens were isolated and identified in 584 samples, including Salmonella, Staphylococ-cus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli (E. coli) 0157: H7and Shigella. Results Fifty pathogens was detected in 584 samples, making a total detection rate of 8. 56% ( 50/584). Among the 5 types of food - borne pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus's detection rate was the highest (6. 68% ) , followed by mononu-clear cell hyperplasia Listeria (1. 03% ) and salmonella bacteria (0. 86% ). Coli 0157 and shigella was not detected. Conclusions Food - borne padiogens pollution do widely exists with high risk of spread and infection. The supervision and management of food hygiene should be strengthened in order to prevent food - borne diseases.

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Fructus forsythia Essential Oil and the Application of EO-Loaded Nanoparticles to Food-Borne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fructus forsythia essential oil (FEO with excellent antibacterial activity was rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and the antibacterial mechanism of FEO against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus in vitro. When treated FEO, the zones of inhibition (ZOI of E. coli (20.5 ± 0.25 mm and S. aureus (24.3 ± 0.21 mm were much larger than control (p < 0.05. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of FEO were 3.13 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The antibacterial mechanism of FEO against E. coil was due to the changes in permeability and integrity of cell membrane leading to the leakage of nucleic acids and proteins. With the superior antibacterial activity of FEO, the nano-encapsulation method has been applied in FEO. When compared to FEO and blank chitosan nanoparticles, FEO-loaded nanoparticles (chitosan to FEO of 1:1 can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coil above 90% at room temperature. It is necessary to consider that FEO and FEO-loaded nanoparticles will become promising antibacterial additives for food preservative, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Fructus forsythia Essential Oil and the Application of EO-Loaded Nanoparticles to Food-Borne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Gai, Qing-Yan; Jiao, Jiao; Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Fructus forsythia essential oil (FEO) with excellent antibacterial activity was rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and the antibacterial mechanism of FEO against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in vitro. When treated FEO, the zones of inhibition (ZOI) of E. coli (20.5 ± 0.25 mm) and S. aureus (24.3 ± 0.21 mm) were much larger than control (p antibacterial mechanism of FEO against E. coil was due to the changes in permeability and integrity of cell membrane leading to the leakage of nucleic acids and proteins. With the superior antibacterial activity of FEO, the nano-encapsulation method has been applied in FEO. When compared to FEO and blank chitosan nanoparticles, FEO-loaded nanoparticles (chitosan to FEO of 1:1) can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coil above 90% at room temperature. It is necessary to consider that FEO and FEO-loaded nanoparticles will become promising antibacterial additives for food preservative, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications.

  7. Proposed mechanism of antibacterial mode of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil against food-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial mechanism of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil on membrane permeability of Listeria monocytogenes NCIM 24563 (MIC: 2 mg/mL and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC: 4 mg/mL was determined by measuring the extracellular ATP concentration, release of 260-nm absorbing materials, leakage of potassium ions and measurement of relative electrical conductivity of the bacterial cells treated at MIC concentration. Its mode of action on membrane integrity was confirmed by release of extracellular ATP (1.42 and 1.33 pg/mL, loss of 260-nm absorbing materials (4.36 and 4.19 optical density, leakage of potassium ions (950 and 1000 mmol/L and increase in relative electrical conductivity (12.6 and 10.5% against food-borne pathogenic bacteria L. monocytogenes and E. coli, respectively. These findings propose that C. bonducella oil compromised its mode of action on membrane integrity, suggesting its enormous food and pharmacological potential.

  8. Halophytes, Algae, and Bacteria Food and Fuel Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The constant, increasing demand for energy, freshwater, and food stresses our ability to meet these demands within reasonable cost and impact on climate while sustaining quality of life. This environmental Triangle of Conflicts between energy, food, and water--while provoked by anthropogenic monetary and power struggles--can be resolved through an anthropogenic paradigm shift in how we produce and use energy, water, and food. With world population (6.6 billion) projected to increase 40 percent in 40 to 60 yr, proper development of saline agriculture and aquaculture is required, as 43 percent of the Earth's landmass is arid or semi-arid and 97 percent of the Earth's water is seawater. In light of this, we seek fuel alternatives in plants that thrive in brackish and saltwater with the ability to survive in arid lands. The development and application of these plants (halophytes) become the primary focus. Herein we introduce some not-so-familiar halophytes and present a few of their benefits, cite a few research projects (including some on the alternatives algae and bacteria), and then set theoretical limits on biomass production followed by projections in terms of world energy demands. Based on diverse arid lands with a total size equivalent to the Sahara Desert (8.6(exp 8) ha, or 2.1(exp 9) acres), these projections show that halophyte agriculture and algae systems can provide for the projected world energy demand.

  9. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: production, purification, and food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display numerous antimicrobial activities. This is mainly due to the production of organic acids, but also of other compounds, such as bacteriocins and antifungal peptides. Several bacteriocins with industrial potential have been purified and characterized. The kinetics of bacteriocin production by LAB in relation to process factors have been studied in detail through mathematical modeling and positive predictive microbiology. Application of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures in sourdough (to increase competitiveness), in fermented sausage (anti-listerial effect), and in cheese (anti-listerial and anti-clostridial effects), have been studied during in vitro laboratory fermentations as well as on pilot-scale level. The highly promising results of these studies underline the important role that functional, bacteriocinogenic LAB strains may play in the food industry as starter cultures, co-cultures, or bioprotective cultures, to improve food quality and safety. In addition, antimicrobial production by probiotic LAB might play a role during in vivo interactions occurring in the human gastrointestinal tract, hence contributing to gut health.

  10. Geographic access to food shelves among racial/ethnic minorities and foreign-born residents in the Twin Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Lopez, Amy Maheswaran; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-01-01

    Place-based disparities in access to affordable food sources (e.g., supermarkets) have been well documented, but geographic access to emergency food sources (e.g., food panties, also known as food shelves) is unknown. This study examined the geography of emergency food in the Twin Cities, MN. U.S. Census and American Community Survey data were used to estimate the average distance to the closest food shelf according to area racial/ethnic composition and foreign-born group composition. In adjusted models, areas with the highest proportion of minority groups had shorter distances to the nearest food shelf (0.13-1.03 log-transformed miles, p ethnic minorities and foreign-born groups may have access to emergency food, but efforts are needed to evaluate the healthfulness and culturally relevance of these offerings.

  11. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains as a Bio-Control Strategy against Food-Borne Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Mattia Pia; Silvain, Amandine; Normanno, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco; Drider, Djamel; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the most versatile species extensively used in the food industry both as microbial starters and probiotic microorganisms. Several L. plantarum strains have been shown to produce different antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl, and also bacteriocins and antimicrobial peptides, both denoted by a variable spectrum of action. In recent decades, the selection of microbial molecules and/or bacterial strains able to produce antagonistic molecules to be used as antimicrobials and preservatives has been attracting scientific interest, in order to eliminate or reduce chemical additives, because of the growing attention of consumers for healthy and natural food products. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of several food-isolated L. plantarum strains, analyzed against the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Antagonistic activity was assayed by agar spot test and revealed that strain L. plantarum 105 had the strongest ability to contrast the growth of L. monocytogenes, while strains L. plantarum 106 and 107 were the most active microorganisms against E. coli O157:H7. The antimicrobial ability was also screened by well diffusion assay and broth micro-dilution method using cell-free supernatants (CFS) from each Lactobacillus strain. Moreover, the chemical nature of the molecules released in the CFS, and possibly underlying the antagonistic activity, was preliminary characterized by exposure to different constraints such as pH neutralization, heating, catalase, and proteinase treatments. Our data suggest that the ability of L. plantarum cultures to contrast pathogens growth in vitro depends, at least in part, on a pH-lowering effect of supernatants and/or on the presence of organic acids. Cluster analysis was performed in order to group L. plantarum strains according to their antimicrobial effect

  12. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains as a Bio-Control Strategy against Food-Borne Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Mattia Pia; Silvain, Amandine; Normanno, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco; Drider, Djamel; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the most versatile species extensively used in the food industry both as microbial starters and probiotic microorganisms. Several L. plantarum strains have been shown to produce different antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl, and also bacteriocins and antimicrobial peptides, both denoted by a variable spectrum of action. In recent decades, the selection of microbial molecules and/or bacterial strains able to produce antagonistic molecules to be used as antimicrobials and preservatives has been attracting scientific interest, in order to eliminate or reduce chemical additives, because of the growing attention of consumers for healthy and natural food products. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of several food-isolated L. plantarum strains, analyzed against the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Antagonistic activity was assayed by agar spot test and revealed that strain L. plantarum 105 had the strongest ability to contrast the growth of L. monocytogenes, while strains L. plantarum 106 and 107 were the most active microorganisms against E. coli O157:H7. The antimicrobial ability was also screened by well diffusion assay and broth micro-dilution method using cell-free supernatants (CFS) from each Lactobacillus strain. Moreover, the chemical nature of the molecules released in the CFS, and possibly underlying the antagonistic activity, was preliminary characterized by exposure to different constraints such as pH neutralization, heating, catalase, and proteinase treatments. Our data suggest that the ability of L. plantarum cultures to contrast pathogens growth in vitro depends, at least in part, on a pH-lowering effect of supernatants and/or on the presence of organic acids. Cluster analysis was performed in order to group L. plantarum strains according to their antimicrobial effect

  13. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of food-borne nitriles in a liver in vitro model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupke, Franziska; Herz, Corinna; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Platz, Stefanie; Odongo, Grace A.; Helmig, Simone; Bartolomé Rodríguez, María M.; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Lamy, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Isothiocyanates are the most intensively studied breakdown products of glucosinolates from Brassica plants and well recognized for their pleiotropic effects against cancer but also for their genotoxic potential. However, knowledge about the bioactivity of glucosinolate-borne nitriles in foods is very poor. As determined by GC-MS, broccoli glucosinolates mainly degrade to nitriles as breakdown products. The cytotoxicity of nitriles in human HepG2 cells and primary murine hepatocytes was marginal as compared to isothiocyanates. Toxicity of nitriles was not enhanced in CYP2E1-overexpressing HepG2 cells. In contrast, the genotoxic potential of nitriles was found to be comparable to isothiocyanates. DNA damage was persistent over a certain time period and CYP2E1-overexpression further increased the genotoxic potential of the nitriles. Based on actual in vitro data, no indications are given that food-borne nitriles could be relevant for cancer prevention, but could pose a certain genotoxic risk under conditions relevant for food consumption. PMID:27883018

  14. Food-borne zoonoses, the EU zoonosis legislation and the prospects for food safety and consumer protection during primary animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Frans J M; Vågsholm, Ivar; Korkeala, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted naturally between animals and humans. The control of food-borne zoonoses within the European Union is a prerequisite for assuring a functional internal market and consequently represents an important item on the political agenda. Unfortunately, until recently, gaining a clear view of the current incidence of food-borne zoonoses and the prevalence of its causative agents has been frustrated by the absence of reliable monitoring and reporting systems. Similarly, it has become clear that, Europe wide, one has witnessed only limited success with regard to the control of important food-borne agents such as Salmonella spp. The European Union has adopted legislation to remedy this situation and to control food-borne zoonoses in primary production. This contribution discusses the incentives for introducing EU Directive 2003/99/EC and EU Regulation No. 2160/2003, summarises their essentials and discusses major ramifications of both pieces of legislation for the prevention of food-borne zoonoses. It is concluded that there is reason for cautious optimism concerning human salmonellosis, while for other food-borne zoonoses there should be a call for action.

  15. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial potentials of Lactobacillus helveticus strains isolated from traditional cheese in Sinkiang China against food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xin; Evivie, Smith Etareri; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Luo, Guang-Wen; Liang, Hong-Zhang; Wang, Na-Na; Huo, Gui-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus, an obligatory hetero-fermentative LAB, is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) and is gaining popularity for application in dairy products. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a remarkable role in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria in food products, without disturbing the sensory attributes of the food. In this study, the screening of the antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus helveticus KLDS 1.8701 against four food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43889 in vitro was inspected using the Oxford cup method and mixed culture inhibition assays. The organic acid production and antimicrobial potential of the cell-free supernatants (CFS) have been evaluated via different treatments and analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis results revealed that KLDS 1.8701 exhibited the highest antimicrobial potential compared to other antimicrobial strains. The antimicrobial activity of KLDS 1.8701 resulted from the organic acids in the culture and CFS. From the study, it was found that carbon sources, as well as organic acid production, accelerate the antimicrobial activity of KLDS 1.8701 and the fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were considered the best for improving the proliferation of KLDS 1.8701 and supporting its antimicrobial action. Results of the mixed culture inhibition assays showed that part of the antimicrobial activity resulted from the inhibitory action of the bacteria itself in culture, and this action required cellular contact between the food-borne pathogens and KLDS 1.8701. Conversely, the results of the antimicrobial spectrum assay revealed that some Lactobacilli remained unaffected by KLDS 1.8701. KLDS 1.8701 might also be favorable for use as a supplementary starter in fermented dairy productions. Furthermore, KLDS 1.8701 could survive well under GI tract conditions

  16. Lactic acid bacteria in dairy food: surface characterization and interactions with food matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgain, J; Scher, J; Francius, G; Borges, F; Corgneau, M; Revol-Junelles, A M; Cailliez-Grimal, C; Gaiani, C

    2014-11-01

    This review gives an overview of the importance of interactions occurring in dairy matrices between Lactic Acid Bacteria and milk components. Dairy products are important sources of biological active compounds of particular relevance to human health. These compounds include immunoglobulins, whey proteins and peptides, polar lipids, and lactic acid bacteria including probiotics. A better understanding of interactions between bioactive components and their delivery matrix may successfully improve their transport to their target site of action. Pioneering research on probiotic lactic acid bacteria has mainly focused on their host effects. However, very little is known about their interaction with dairy ingredients. Such knowledge could contribute to designing new and more efficient dairy food, and to better understand relationships between milk constituents. The purpose of this review is first to provide an overview of the current knowledge about the biomolecules produced on bacterial surface and the composition of the dairy matter. In order to understand how bacteria interact with dairy molecules, adhesion mechanisms are subsequently reviewed with a special focus on the environmental conditions affecting bacterial adhesion. Methods dedicated to investigate the bacterial surface and to decipher interactions between bacteria and abiotic dairy components are also detailed. Finally, relevant industrial implications of these interactions are presented and discussed.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Kefir against Various Food Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dana; Kim, Hyunsook; Kang, Il-Byeong; Chon, Jung-Whan; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a unique fermented dairy product produced by a mixture of lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeast. Here, we compared the antimicrobial spectra of four types of kefirs (A, L, M, and S) fermented for 24, 36, 48, or 72 h against eight food-borne pathogens. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Cronobacter sakazakii were used as test strains, and antibacterial activity was investigated by the spot on lawn method. The spectra, potencies, and onsets of activity varied according to the type of kefir and the fermentation time. The broadest and strongest antimicrobial spectrum was obtained after at least 36-48 h of fermentation for all kefirs, although the traditional fermentation method of kefir is for 18-24 h at 25℃. For kefir A, B. cereus, E. coli, S. Enteritidis, P. aeruginosa, and C. sakazakii were inhibited, while B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, S. Enteritidis, P. aeruginosa, and C. sakazakii were inhibited to different extents by kefirs L, M, and S. Remarkably, S. aureus, S. Enteritidis, and C. sakazakii were only inhibited by kefirs L, M, and S, and L. monocytogenes by kefir M after fermentation for specific times, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity is attributable not only to a low pH but also to antimicrobial substances secreted during the fermentation.

  18. Screening of oxalate degrading lactic acid bacteria of food origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Murru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A screening for oxalate degrading abilities was initially carried on within Lactic Acid Bacteria cultures of different food origin. Seventy-nine strains were drop-inoculated onto MRS agar plates containing calcium oxalate. By comparing colonies diameters, 31 strains were used to inoculate, in parallel, MRS and MRS modified by sodium oxalate addition. Differences in the strains’ growth were assessed by colony forming unit counts. For two strains, the growth in oxalate enriched medium was significantly higher; while, for eleven strains an opposite behaviour was recorded. Two strains – probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus LbGG and Enterococcus faecalis 59 – were chosen. The first strain appeared to be able to metabolize oxalate more efficiently than the other tested cultures, while strain 59 appeared unable to gather advantage by oxalates and, indeed, appeared to be inhibited by the salt presence in the medium. Outcomes revealed that higher glucose concentrations may favour oxalates utilization. In MRS with oxalate, but without glucose, citrate was completely metabolized. Evaluation along time confirmed that the oxalate degradation is more significant in presence of glucose. Outcomes may represent a good start for the development of a safe and even probiotic culture able to lower the oxalates content of food.

  19. Hygienic Practice and Knowledge of food borne diseases in Home Kitchen Handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Modiwala, Rajshekhar R Wavare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food borne illness cases may occur due to improperly prepared or mishandled food, unhygienic sanitation and cleaning practice at home by home kitchen handlers. Objective: To explore the knowledge and practice of literate female of Indore city who are dealing with Home kitchen every day. Methodology: A Cross-Sectional study among 160 participants according to their profession (Health sector workers, Non-health sector workers, House Makers and Students were selected randomly and interviewed using self administered questionnaire. Result: It shows that the mean percentage score for the good knowledge and hygienic practice was 79.44% and 71.15%. Knowledge practice scores was significantly (p < 0.0006 different by the levels of education and for Hygienic practice a significant difference (p <0.05 was observed between Health and Non-Health sector worker. Conclusion: Knowledge and Practice among kitchen handlers was significantly (p= 0.0202 higher in Health sector workers than other sectors.

  20. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SIMAROUBA GLAUCA LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE SPOILAGE AND PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Jangale et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Crude ethanol and methanol extracts from dried and fresh leaves of Simarouba glauca were tested for their inhibitory activity against two food borne pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aeureus and Escherichia coli and two food spoilage microorganism (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeurogenosa. Screening for antimicrobial activity using well diffusion assay showed the inhibition against entire tested microorganisms. On the other hand the maximum zone of inhibition was recorded of fresh leaves methanol extract (FLM about 11 mm against Escherichia coli and the lowest zone of inhibition was recorded of fresh leaves methanol extract (FLM about 2 mm against Bacillus subtilis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC’s of extracts were determined using agar dilution method on the same test microorganisms. Fresh leaves methanol (FLM extract gave MIC value ranging from 160 to 10,240 parts per million (ppm. Result showed that the Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive microorganism.

  1. Comparison of three Listeria monocytogenes strains in a guinea-pig model simulating food-borne exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldgaard, Bent; Andersen, Jens Bo; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2009-01-01

    Three different Listeria monocytogenes strains, LO28 (a laboratory strain with truncated InlA), 4446 (a clinical isolate) and 7291 (a food isolate), were compared in a guinea-pig model designed to mimic food-borne exposure. The objectives were (1) to verify the applicability of the animal model f...

  2. Rapid Identification of Food-borne Pathogens by Top-Down Proteomics Using MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid identification of bacterial microorganisms is particularly relevant to efforts to monitor the safety and security of domestically grown and imported foods. Mass spectrometry (MS) is increasingly utilized to identify and characterize bacterial microorganisms and in particular food-borne pathog...

  3. Comparison of Three Different DNA Extraction Methods for Linguatula serrata as a Food Born Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Gilda; Khalatbari-Limaki, Sepideh; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hasan; Gholamrezaei, Mostafa; Hajimohammadi, Bahador; Oryan, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important items in molecular characterization of food-borne pathogens is high quality genomic DNA. In this study, we investigated three protocols and compared their simplicity, duration and costs for extracting genomic DNA from Linguatula serrata. The larvae were collected from the sheep's visceral organs from the Yazd Slaughterhouse during May 2013. DNA extraction was done in three different methods, including commercial DNA extraction kit, Phenol Chloroform Isoamylalcohol (PCI), and salting out. Extracted DNA in each method was assessed for quantity and quality using spectrophotometery and agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively. The less duration was regarding to commercial DNA extraction kit and then salting out protocol. The cost benefit one was salting out and then PCI method. The best quantity was regarding to PCI with 72.20±29.20 ng/μl, and purity of OD260/OD280 in 1.76±0.947. Agarose gel electrophoresis for assessing the quality found all the same. Salting out is introduced as the best method for DNA extraction from L. seratta as a food-borne pathogen with the least costand appropriate purity. Although, the best purity was regarding to PCI but PCI is not safe as salting out. In addition, the duration of salting out was less than PCI. The least duration was seen in commercial DNA extraction kit, but it is expensive and therefore is not recommended for developing countries where consumption of offal is common.

  4. Study in vitro of origin radioprotective food the radioprotective effect in vitro of food borne; Estudio in vitro de radioprotectores de origen alimentario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soraino, J. M.; Sebastia, N.; Almonacid, M.; Alonso, O.; Cervera, J.; Such, E.; Silla, M. A.; Villaescusa, J. I.; Montoro, A.

    2012-07-01

    Study in vitro of origin radioprotective food the radioprotective effect in vitro of food borne substances studied is a first step in developing effective radioprotectors that can prevent radiation damage to healthy tissue., cannot forget that these studies must be accompanied by in vitro studies of toxicity and bioavailability to profile designing radioprotective substance.

  5. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions:: The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic. A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C. burnetii, a severe zoonotic agent, in the 5.1% of tested dogs, which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites, but also directly with urine, feces and birth products.

  6. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria for applications in vegetarian food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charernjiratrakul, W.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 225 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 152 samples of various fermented foods. The strains were investigated for their probiotic properties based on stability in bile salt (0.30% and high acidity (pH 3, growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, ability to grow without vitamin B12. According to the above criteria, 40 isolates were selected. Using an agar spot method, 16 isolates were able to inhibit Salmonella typhimurium, S. typhi, S. enteritidis, S. paratyphi and 4 strains of E. coli O157 : H7 as clear zone greater than 10 mm. Moreover, utilization of protein or fat or starch was also considered. Only 5 isolates were able to utilize protein and further selected for antibiotics sensitivity test. The selected isolates were susceptible to following antibiotics: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin , kanamycin, tetracycline and vancomycin; however they were resistant to ceptazidime and norfloxacin. They all showed better growth in vegetarian medium (coconut juice medium than MRS medium both under static and shaking conditions. Five active isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum LL13, LN18, LP11, LS35 and Pediococcus pentosaceus LT02 by API 50 CH system. All cultures grew well in carrot juice by reducing pH from 6.4 to below 4.0 after 24 h of fermentation at 35oC. The lactic cultures in fermented carrot juice lost their viability about 2 log cycles after 15 days of cold storage at 4oC.

  7. Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to identify the spatial origin of food-borne disease outbreaks. Thereby, the network captures the transportation routes of contaminated foods. The technique only requires spatial information on case reports regularly collected by public health institutions and a model for the underlying food distribution network. The approach is based on the idea of replacing the conventional geographic distance with an effective distance that is derived from the topological structure of the underlying food distribution network. We show that this approach can efficiently identify most probable epicenters of food-borne disease outbreaks. We assess and discuss the method in the context of the 2011 EHEC epidemic. Based on plausible assumptions on the structure of the national food distribution network, the approach can correctly localize the origin of the 2011 German EHEC/HUS outbreak.

  8. A review: Health promoting lactic acid bacteria in traditional Indonesian fermented foods

    OpenAIRE

    Lilis Nuraida

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Indonesian fermented foods can be used as potential sources of probiotics as they commonly contain lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, Weisella and Leuconostoc. The occurrence of LAB in Indonesian fermented foods is not only limited to lactic fermented foods but is also present in foods with molds as the main starter culture. This review aims to describe the significance of Indonesian fermented foods as potential sources of pr...

  9. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis. After several years of an increasing European Union (EU trend, the human campylobacteriosis notification rate has stabilised. In food and animals no EU trends were observed and the occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing EU trend in confirmed human salmonellosis cases observed in recent years continued. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry. In foodstuffs, the reported EU-level Salmonella non-compliance in fresh poultry meat decreased. Human listeriosis increased further, showing an increasing EU trend in 2009-2013. In ready-to-eat foods Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit. Also during 2009-2013, a decreasing EU trend was observed in confirmed yersiniosis cases. Positive findings for Yersinia were mainly reported in pig meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections in humans increased. VTEC was reported from food and animals. A total of 5,196 food-borne outbreaks, including water-borne outbreaks, were reported in the EU. Most food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, followed by viruses, bacterial toxins and Campylobacter, whereas in 28.9 % of all outbreaks the causative agent was unknown. Important food vehicles in strong-evidence food-borne outbreaks were eggs and egg products, followed by mixed food, and fish and fish products. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever, West Nile Virus and tularaemia.

  10. Cerium oxide-chitosan based nanobiocomposite for food borne mycotoxin detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Solanki, Pratima R.; Pandey, M. K.; Ahmad, Sharif; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2009-10-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (NanoCeO2) and chitosan (CH) based nanobiocomposite film deposited onto indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrate has been used to coimmobilize rabbit immunoglobin (r-IgGs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for food borne mycotoxin [ochratoxin-A (OTA)] detection. Electrochemical studies reveal that presence of NanoCeO2 increases effective electro-active surface area of CH-NanoCeO2/indium tin oxide (ITO) nanobiocomposite resulting in high loading of r-IgGs. BSA/r-IgGs/CH-NanoCeO2/ITO immunoelectrode exhibits improved linearity (0.25-6.0 ng/dl), detection limit (0.25 ng/dl), response time (25 s), sensitivity (18 μA/ng dl-1 cm-2), and regression coefficient (r2˜0.997).

  11. Genomic paradigms for food-borne enteric pathogen analysis at the USFDA: case studies highlighting method utility, integration and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, C A; Kotewicz, M L; Jackson, S A; Lacher, D W; Abu-Ali, G S; Patel, I R

    2013-01-01

    Modern risk control and food safety practices involving food-borne bacterial pathogens are benefiting from new genomic technologies for rapid, yet highly specific, strain characterisations. Within the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), optical genome mapping and DNA microarray genotyping have been used for several years to quickly assess genomic architecture and gene content, respectively, for outbreak strain subtyping and to enhance retrospective trace-back analyses. The application and relative utility of each method varies with outbreak scenario and the suspect pathogen, with comparative analytical power enhanced by database scale and depth. Integration of these two technologies allows high-resolution scrutiny of the genomic landscapes of enteric food-borne pathogens with notable examples including Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella enterica serovars from a variety of food commodities. Moreover, the recent application of whole genome sequencing technologies to food-borne pathogen outbreaks and surveillance has enhanced resolution to the single nucleotide scale. This new wealth of sequence data will support more refined next-generation custom microarray designs, targeted re-sequencing and "genomic signature recognition" approaches involving a combination of genes and single nucleotide polymorphism detection to distil strain-specific fingerprinting to a minimised scale. This paper examines the utility of microarrays and optical mapping in analysing outbreaks, reviews best practices and the limits of these technologies for pathogen differentiation, and it considers future integration with whole genome sequencing efforts.

  12. Transfer of tetracycline resistance genes with aggregation substance in food-borne Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Mi; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2015-04-01

    Enterococcus faecalis has the ability to conjugate with the aid of aggregation substance (AS) and inducible sex pheromones to exchange genetic elements in food matrix. To evaluate the food safety condition and the transferable factor, 250 tetracycline-resistant food-borne E. faecalis were collected in Korea. Among the isolates, a majority of tetracycline-resistant isolates (49.6 %) harbored both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes together, followed by tet(M) (19.6 %), and tet(L) (6.8 %) alone. Also, we found the combination of tet(L)/tet(M)/tet(O) or tet(M)/tet(O). We identified two tet(S) genes including the isolate carrying tet(M) + tet(S) genes. Additionally, most E. faecalis were positive for cpd and ccf (both 96.8 %) followed by cob (57.2 %). Through mating experiments, we confirmed E. faecalis possessing the Int-Tn gene and/or any AS gene successfully transferred tet genes to JH2-2 E. faecalis, whereas neither E. faecalis carrying AS genes nor the Int-Tn gene showed the conjugation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results supported a distinct pattern, implying transfer of genetic information. Our study revealed a high occurrence of tetracycline resistance genes in E. faecalis from various foods. The widespread dissemination of tetracycline resistance genes would be promoted to transfer tetracycline resistance genes by pheromone-mediated conjugation systems.

  13. Food-borne pathogens Surveillance in Dalian city during 2011-2013%2011-2013年大连市食源性致病菌监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冰; 徐丹; 陈玉凤; 吕秋月; 于蕾

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解大连市各类食品中食源性致病菌的污染情况,为有效预防和降低食源性疾病的发生提供科学依据.方法 2011-2013年采集大连市市售15类样品,共计758份,进行9种食源性致病菌的分离与鉴定.结果 758件样品中共检测出致病菌42株,总检出率为5.5%.检出食源性致病菌的食品包括:肉及肉制品(5.0%)、生食动物性水产品(9.4%)、即食非发酵豆制品(5.0%)、婴幼儿配方食品(2.9%)、鲜榨果蔬汁(10.0%)、米线凉皮盒饭冷面类(9.1%)、荤素烧烤类食品(3.3%)、冷冻饮品(4.0%)、焙烤食品(4.5%).其中,生食动物性水产品中的副溶血性弧菌检出率为8.9%;米线凉皮盒饭冷面类、即食非发酵豆制品和鲜榨果蔬汁中金黄色葡萄球菌的检出率分别为7.3%、5.0%、5.0%;鲜榨果蔬汁中沙门氏菌的检出率为5.0%,是大连市食源性致病菌风险来源的主要食品品种和项目.结论 大连市市售食品的现状不容乐观,存在不同程度的食源性致病菌污染,特别是部分生食品污染较为严重.应加强市售食品的监督管理,食品加工过程仍应采取烧熟煮透、防止交叉污染等针对性措施,减少由此引起的食源性疾病的发生.%Objective To investigate the situations and levels of main food-borne pathogens bacteria in food in Dalian city,and to provide scientific evidence for controlling and reducing food-borne diseases.Methods 9 kinds of food-borne pathogens were isolated and identified from 758 food samples of 15 types from 2011 to 2013.Results A total of 42 food-borne pathogens were isolated from 758 samples with relevance ratio of S.5%.The mainly food categories polluted by pathogenic bacteria are:meat and cooked meat products (5.0%),raw sea food (9.4%),non-fermented bean products (5.0%),infant formula food (2.9%),fresh fruit and vegetable juice (10.0%),rice noodle/cold noodle/boxed lunch/chilled noodle (9.1

  14. 太原市食品安全风险监测结果分析%Analysis of supervision results of food-borne pathogens in Taiyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 高瑞红; 张晓华; 高丽; 王骥涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the monitoring results of food safety risks of the past six years and the food-borne-disease pathogenic bacteria contamination in food from Taiyuan markets,so as to provide scientific basis for the formulation of food safety policy.Methods Food samples,which were regularly selected from 10 districts of Taiyuan,were delivered to laboratory in the shortest time according to the original storing temperature,and detected according to the programs and methods of the national standards.Results A total of 1 923 samples in 25 kinds were collected,with an overall detection rate of 9.62%;9 kinds of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were detected and isolated,and the detection rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus were higher,respectively as 20.83%,20.49%;the instant rice,milk and dairy product(adult),raw meat,breakfast street food were contaminated seriously;the detection rate of unpacked food was higher than the packaged food.Conclusion Food in Taiyuan is heavily contaminated by food-borne pathogens..The relevant departments should take measures and enhance the supervision to market food,so as to ensure the food safety for citizen.%目的 分析山西省太原市6年食品安全风险监测结果,了解市售食品中食源性致病菌的污染情况,为食品安全管理政策提供科学依据.方法 对太原市10个区(县)食品流通和餐饮服务环节随机抽取样品,按样品原有储存温度要求在最短时间内送达实验室,按相关的食品安全国家标准中规定的程序和方法进行检测.结果 共采集25类1 923份样品,总检出率为9.62%;共对9种食源性致病菌进行检测分析,其中铜绿假单胞菌和蜡样芽胞杆菌的检出率比较高,分别为20.83%、20.49%;盒饭、乳与乳制品(成人)、生肉、流动早餐的污染比较严重;散装食品的检出率高于包装食品.结论 太原市市售食品中食源性致病菌污染较为严重,相关部门应采取措施,

  15. What Bacteria Are Living in My Food?: An Open-Ended Practical Series Involving Identification of Unknown Foodborne Bacteria Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Prascilla; Turner, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    This open-ended practical series titled "Molecular Identification of Unknown Food Bacteria" which extended over a 6-week period was designed with the aims of giving students an opportunity to gain an understanding of naturally occurring food bacteria and skills in contemporary molecular methods using real food samples. The students first isolated…

  16. What Bacteria Are Living in My Food?: An Open-Ended Practical Series Involving Identification of Unknown Foodborne Bacteria Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Prascilla; Turner, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    This open-ended practical series titled "Molecular Identification of Unknown Food Bacteria" which extended over a 6-week period was designed with the aims of giving students an opportunity to gain an understanding of naturally occurring food bacteria and skills in contemporary molecular methods using real food samples. The students first isolated…

  17. Recent advances in bacteriophage based biosensors for food-borne pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Evoy, Stephane

    2013-01-30

    Foodborne diseases are a major health concern that can have severe impact on society and can add tremendous financial burden to our health care systems. Rapid early detection of food contamination is therefore relevant for the containment of food-borne pathogens. Conventional pathogen detection methods, such as microbiological and biochemical identification are time-consuming and laborious, while immunological or nucleic acid-based techniques require extensive sample preparation and are not amenable to miniaturization for on-site detection. Biosensors have shown tremendous promise to overcome these limitations and are being aggressively studied to provide rapid, reliable and sensitive detection platforms for such applications. Novel biological recognition elements are studied to improve the selectivity and facilitate integration on the transduction platform for sensitive detection. Bacteriophages are one such unique biological entity that show excellent host selectivity and have been actively used as recognition probes for pathogen detection. This review summarizes the extensive literature search on the application of bacteriophages (and recently their receptor binding proteins) as probes for sensitive and selective detection of foodborne pathogens, and critically outlines their advantages and disadvantages over other recognition elements.

  18. Recent Advances in Bacteriophage Based Biosensors for Food-Borne Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Poshtiban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are a major health concern that can have severe impact on society and can add tremendous financial burden to our health care systems. Rapid early detection of food contamination is therefore relevant for the containment of food-borne pathogens. Conventional pathogen detection methods, such as microbiological and biochemical identification are time-consuming and laborious, while immunological or nucleic acid-based techniques require extensive sample preparation and are not amenable to miniaturization for on-site detection. Biosensors have shown tremendous promise to overcome these limitations and are being aggressively studied to provide rapid, reliable and sensitive detection platforms for such applications. Novel biological recognition elements are studied to improve the selectivity and facilitate integration on the transduction platform for sensitive detection. Bacteriophages are one such unique biological entity that show excellent host selectivity and have been actively used as recognition probes for pathogen detection. This review summarizes the extensive literature search on the application of bacteriophages (and recently their receptor binding proteins as probes for sensitive and selective detection of foodborne pathogens, and critically outlines their advantages and disadvantages over other recognition elements.

  19. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Aarieke E I; van Asselt, Esther D; Zwietering, Marcel H;

    2012-01-01

    cooking enlarged the heat resistance of the food borne pathogens. Additionally, a high challenge temperature or fast heating rate contributed to the level of heat resistance. The data were used to assess the probability of illness (campylobacteriosis) due to consumption of chicken fillet as a function...

  20. Dry mouth as an initial sign of food-borne botulism: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Maddalena; Scoditti, Umberto; Angelini, Monica; de Giampaulis, Piero; Borrini, Bianca Maria; Macaluso, Guido Maria; Pavesi, Giovanni; Vescovi, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    Botulism is a rare neuroparalytic disease caused by a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. There are different clinical types of botulism. Early diagnosis of the condition is essential for effective treatment. We report a case of food-borne botulism in identical twins characterized by severe initial oral involvement and a review of the literature about the condition.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Cronobacter turicensis LMG 23827, a Food-Borne Pathogen Causing Deaths in Neonates ▿

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of Cronobacter turicensis, an opportunistic food-borne pathogen, which is known as a rare but important cause of life-threatening neonatal infections. Among all proteins of C. turicensis, 223 have been annotated as virulence- and disease-related proteins.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Cronobacter turicensis LMG 23827, a food-borne pathogen causing deaths in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Roger; Lehner, Angelika; Tischler, Patrick; Rattei, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of Cronobacter turicensis, an opportunistic food-borne pathogen, which is known as a rare but important cause of life-threatening neonatal infections. Among all proteins of C. turicensis, 223 have been annotated as virulence- and disease-related proteins.

  3. Validation of a PCR-based method for detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters in a multicenter collaborative trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.;

    2004-01-01

    A PCR-based method for rapid detection of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters was evaluated through a collaborative trial with 12 laboratories testing spiked carcass rinse samples. The method showed an interlaboratory diagnostic sensitivity of 96.7% and a diagnostic specificity of 100% for c...

  4. Top-down proteomic identification of protein biomarkers of food-borne pathogens using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes a step-by-step protocol and discussion of top-down proteomic identification of protein biomarkers of food-borne pathogens using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and web-based software developed in the Pro...

  5. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, F.P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria a

  6. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, F.P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria

  7. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on foodborne bacterial pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial foodborne diseases are caused by consumption of foods contaminated with bacteria and/or their toxins. In this study, we evaluated antibacterial properties of twelve different extracts including turmeric, lemon and different kinds of teas against four major pathogenic foodborne bacteria inc...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L. and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Sayeed Akthar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Piper nigrum (P. nigrum and Cassia didymobotyra (C. didymobotyra (aqueous, methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether against the food borne pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa] and fungi [Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans (C. albicans] and also to investigate the presence of various phytochemicals in the leaf extracts of tested plants. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration were determined by serial dilution method. Results: Methanol leaf extract of test plants exhibited greater antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains. The MIC results showed that ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL. While, ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of S. aureus at concentration of 6.25 mg/mL. The MIC values for ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of C. albicans at concentration of 25.0 mg/mL. While, it was reported that at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum was against the Aspergillus spp. The MIC values of methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of C. albicans and Aspergillus spp. at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration of ethanol, methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum for E. coli and ethanol, methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra for S. aureus was recorded at concentration 12.5 mg/mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration of ethanol and methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum and C. didymobotyra on C. albicans was recorded at concentration of 25.0 mg

  9. Genetic Relatedness among Hepatitis A Virus Strains Associated with Food-Borne Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Gilberto; Xia, Guoliang; Forbi, Joseph C.; Purdy, Michael A.; Rossi, Lívia Maria Gonçalves; Spradling, Philip R.; Khudyakov, Yury E.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic characterization of hepatitis A virus (HAV) strains is commonly accomplished by sequencing subgenomic regions, such as the VP1/P2B junction. HAV genome is not extensively variable, thus presenting opportunity for sharing sequences of subgenomic regions among genetically unrelated isolates. The degree of misrepresentation of phylogenetic relationships by subgenomic regions is especially important for tracking transmissions. Here, we analyzed whole-genome (WG) sequences of 101 HAV strains identified from 4 major multi-state, food-borne outbreaks of hepatitis A in the Unites States and from 14 non-outbreak-related HAV strains that shared identical VP1/P2B sequences with the outbreak strains. Although HAV strains with an identical VP1/P2B sequence were specific to each outbreak, WG were different, with genetic diversity reaching 0.31% (mean 0.09%). Evaluation of different subgenomic regions did not identify any other section of the HAV genome that could accurately represent phylogenetic relationships observed using WG sequences. The identification of 2–3 dominant HAV strains in 3 out of 4 outbreaks indicates contamination of the implicated food items with a heterogeneous HAV population. However, analysis of intra-host HAV variants from eight patients involved in one outbreak showed that only a single sequence variant established infection in each patient. Four non-outbreak strains were found closely related to strains from 2 outbreaks, whereas ten were genetically different from the outbreak strains. Thus, accurate tracking of HAV strains can be accomplished using HAV WG sequences, while short subgenomic regions are useful for identification of transmissions only among cases with known epidemiological association. PMID:24223112

  10. The Relation between Either of Hygiene Food Handlers or Presentation Food and Coliform Bacteria Contamination in the Food Street of Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Badrah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to know the relation between hygiene of food handlers, food presentation, and the coliform bacteria contamination in food street of elementary school in Sidodamai Village. Based on BPOM observation 2013, poisoned data were 342 cases and the highest causes were food and drink (45.91%. According to BPOM bulletin, the highest causes of food quality lowering were microbiology contamination. Usually hygiene lowering and food sanitation causes diarrhea. Samarinda health department data stated Sidomulyo clinic has increasing diarrhea cases every year, and it mostly happens in Sidodamai Village. Student is very susceptible influenced many disease, because the children immunity is more susceptible than adult. This research used total sampling of the population which are 15 samples. The type of this research was descriptive research with cross sectional approach. It also used Rank Spearman test as bivariate analysis. The univariate analysis result showed that 6 samples are contaminated by coliform bacteria, 53.3 % respondent had good hygiene, 46.7% had less good hygiene,60% respondents were good in food presentation, 40% were less good in food presentation. Therefore the bivariate analysis result showed there was relation between the food handlers hygiene (p value = 0.018, food presentation (p value = 0.007 and coliform bacteria contamination in Elementary School food street in Sidodamai Village Samarinda. To sum up, the food handlers hygiene and food presentation has relation with the coliform bacteria contamination in Elementary School food street in Sidodamai Village Samarinda. This research suggests to optimize canteen at the school and pay attention to the container of food presentation.

  11. Diagnostic real-time PCR assays for the detection of emetic Bacillus cereus strains in foods and recent food-borne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Martina; Messelhäusser, Ute; Busch, Ulrich; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2007-03-01

    Cereulide-producing Bacillus cereus can cause an emetic type of food-borne disease that mimics the symptoms provoked by Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the recently discovered genetic background for cereulide formation, a novel 5' nuclease (TaqMan) real-time PCR assay was developed to provide a rapid and sensitive method for the specific detection of emetic B. cereus in food. The TaqMan assay includes an internal amplification control and primers and a probe designed to target a highly specific part of the cereulide synthetase genes. Additionally, a specific SYBR green I assay was developed and extended to create a duplex SYBR green I assay for the one-step identification and discrimination of the two emesis-causing food pathogens B. cereus and S. aureus. The inclusivity and exclusivity of the assay were assessed using a panel of 100 strains, including 23 emetic B. cereus and 14 S. aureus strains. Different methods for DNA isolation from artificially contaminated foods were evaluated, and established real-time assays were used to analyze two recent emetic food poisonings in southern Germany. One of the food-borne outbreaks included 17 children visiting a day care center who vomited after consuming a reheated rice dish, collapsed, and were hospitalized; the other case concerned a single food-poisoning incident occurring after consumption of cauliflower. Within 2 h, the etiological agent of these food poisonings was identified as emetic B. cereus by using the real-time PCR assay.

  12. Self-assembled monolayer based impedimetric platform for food borne mycotoxin detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Pratima Rathee; Kaushik, Ajeet; Manaka, T.; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Iwamoto, M.; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2010-12-01

    A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT) has been fabricated onto a gold (Au) substrate to co-immobilize anti-ochratoxin-A antibodies (AO-IgGs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to detect food borne mycotoxin [i.e., ochratoxin-A (OTA)]. AUT/Auelectrode, AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode and BSA/IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical studies such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical studies reveal that the AUT-SAM with NH2groups provide favorable conditions to immobilize AO-IgGs with better orientation, resulting in enhanced electron transport to obtain improved sensing characteristics. The EIS response studies of the BSA/AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode obtained as a function of OTA concentration reveal that the value of the charge transfer resistance (RCT) increases with increased OTA concentration. The BSA/AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode exhibits linearity over 0.5-6.0 ng/dl, detection limit of 0.08 ng/dl using 3σb/m criteria, response time of 30 s and sensitivity of ~36.83 Ω/ng dl-1 cm-2 with a regression coefficient of 0.999. Attempts have been made to monitor the change in RCT of BSA/AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode on addition of coffee samples.

  13. Zoonotic tick-borne bacteria among wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate the occurrence of infections by the three zoonotic bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l. and Coxiella burnetii in wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy. The spleen samples from 100 hunted wild boars were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays were carried out to detect the three agents. One (1% animal was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reactions were observed for Coxiella burnetii. Wild boars did not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the three investigated agents. However, the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the spleen of the tested animals showed that wild boars can harbor these pathogens, thus ticked that feeding on infected wild boars are likely to become infected, too, which represents a source of infection for other animals and humans. This is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Italy.

  14. Strategies for the use of bacteriocins in Gram-negative bacteria: relevance in food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudêncio, Cláudia Vieira; Dos Santos, Miriam Teresinha; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides that have bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects on other bacteria. The use of bacteriocins has emerged as an important strategy to increase food security and to minimize the incidence of foodborne diseases, due to its minimal impact on the nutritional and sensory properties of food products. Gram-negative bacteria are naturally resistant to the action of bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, which are widely explored in foods. However, these microorganisms can be sensitized by mild treatments, such as the use of chelating agents, by treatment with plant essential oils or by physical treatments such as heating, freezing or high pressure processing. This sensitization is important in food microbiology, because most pathogens that cause foodborne diseases are Gram-negative bacteria. However, the effectiveness of these treatments is influenced by several factors, such as pH, temperature, the composition of the food and target microbiota. In this review, we comment on the main methods used for the sensitization of Gram-negative bacteria, especially Salmonella, to improve the action of bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria: applications to food or health and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Pierre

    2002-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have a long history of use in fermented food products. Progress in gene technology allows their modification by introducing new genes or by modifying their metabolic functions. These modifications may lead to improvements in food technology (bacteria better fitted to technological processes, leading to improved organoleptic properties em leader ), or to new applications including bacteria producing therapeutic molecules that could be delivered by mouth. Examples in these two fields will be discussed, at the same time evaluating their potential benefit to society and the possible risks associated with their use. Risk assessment and expected benefits will determine the future use of modified bacteria in the domains of food technology and health.

  16. Food-borne norovirus-outbreak at a military base, Germany, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoehne Marina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is often transmitted from person-to-person. Transmission may also be food-borne, but only few norovirus outbreak investigations have identified food items as likely vehicles of norovirus transmission through an analytical epidemiological study. During 7-9 January, 2009, 36 persons at a military base in Germany fell ill with acute gastroenteritis. Food from the military base's canteen was suspected as vehicle of infection, norovirus as the pathogen causing the illnesses. An investigation was initiated to describe the outbreak's extent, to verify the pathogen, and to identify modes of transmission and source of infection to prevent further cases. Methods For descriptive analysis, ill persons were defined as members of the military base with acute onset of diarrhoea or vomiting between 24 December 2008, and 3 February 2009, without detection of a pathogen other than norovirus in stools. We conducted a retrospective cohort study within the headquarters company. Cases were military base members with onset of diarrhoea or vomiting during 5-9 January. We collected information on demographics, food items eaten at the canteen and contact to ill persons or vomit, using a self-administered questionnaire. We compared attack rates (AR in exposed and unexposed persons, using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Stool specimens of ill persons and canteen employees, canteen food served during 5-7 January and environmental swabs were investigated by laboratory analysis. Results Overall, 101/815 (AR 12.4% persons fell ill between 24 December 2008 and 3 February 2009. None were canteen employees. Most persons (n = 49 had disease onset during 7-9 January. Ill persons were a median of 22 years old, 92.9% were male. The response for the cohort study was 178/274 (72.1%. Of 27 cases (AR 15.2%, 25 had eaten at the canteen and 21 had consumed salad. Salad consumption on 6 January (aOR: 8.1; 95%CI: 1.5-45.4 and 7

  17. The proteome of spore surface layers in food spoiling bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abhyankar, W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Endospores are dormant, multilayered, highly resistant cellular structures formed in response to stress by certain bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium and other related organisms. In presence of nutrients and favorable conditions spores germinate and grow out as normal vegetative

  18. The role of sigmaB in the stress response of Gram-positive bacteria -- targets for food preservation and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Willem; Abee, Tjakko

    2005-04-01

    The alternative sigma factor sigmaB modulates the stress response of several Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis and the food-borne human pathogens Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In all these bacteria, sigmaB is responsible for the transcription of genes that can confer stress resistance to the vegetative cell. Recent findings indicate that sigmaB also plays an important role in antibiotic resistance, pathogenesis and cellular differentiation processes such as biofilm formation and sporulation. Although there are important differences in the regulation of sigmaB and in the set of genes regulated by sigmaB in B. subtilis, B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, there are also some conserved themes. A mechanistic understanding of the sigmaB activation processes and assessment of its regulon could provide tools for pathogen control and inactivation both in the food industry and clinical settings.

  19. [Antibacterial effect of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Junki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antibacterial activity of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing with Morganella morganii NBRC3848, Raoultella planticola NBRC3317 and Enterobacter aerogenes NCTC10006, we screened nine food additives and four detergents with relatively high inhibitory potency. We prepared food contact material surfaces contaminated with histamine-producing bacteria, and dipped them into fourteen agents (100 µg/mL). Sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and 1-n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride showed antibacterial activity against histamine-producing bacteria. We prepared low concentrations of the five agents (10 and 50 µg/mL) and tested them in the same way. Sodium hypochlorite showed high antibacterial activity at 10 µg/mL, and the other four showed activity at 50 µg/mL. So, washing the material surface with these reagents might be effective to prevent histamine food poisoning owing to bacterial contamination of food contact surfaces.

  20. Antibacterial potential of Jatropha curcas synthesized silver nanoparticles against food borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Chauhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha curcas was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Jc-AgNps which were further evaluated for its antibacterial potential against food borne pathogens. J. curcas leaf extract could synthesize stable silver nanoparticles (Zeta potential: -23.4 mV with absorption band at 430 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR indicated various biological compounds responsible for capping and stabilizing Jc-AgNps in suspension, while the presence of silver was authenticated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX. Jc-AgNps were confirmed to be uniform in shape, size and behaviour through dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis. To investigate the antibacterial activity, disc diffusion and microplate dilution assays were performed and zone of inhibition (ZOI as well as minimum inhibitory/bactericidal concentrations (MIC/MBCs were evaluated against selected bacterial strains. Overall results showed that Escherichia coli (ZOI: 23 mm, MBC: 0.010 mg/ml was the most sensitive organism, whereas Staphylococcus aureus (ZOI: 14.66 mm, MBC: 0.041 mg/ml and Salmonella enterica (ZOI: 16.66 mm, MBC: 0.041 mg/ml were the least sensitive against Jc-AgNps. The detailed microscopic investigations using SEM, TEM and AFM were performed to understand the antibacterial impacts of Jc-AgNps against Listeria monocytogenes. SEM and TEM analysis showed the clear deformation and disintegration of treated L. monocytogenes cells, whereas AFM established a decrease in the height and cell surface roughness (RMS value in the treated L. monocytogenes.

  1. Pathogenic potential and genotypic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni: a neglected food-borne pathogen in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Miliane Rodrigues; Medeiros, Marta Inês Cazentini; Duque, Sheila da Silva; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer

    2017-03-01

    Purpose and methodology.Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. However, there are only a few studies available that have molecularly characterized C. jejuni strains isolated in Brazil. The aim of this study was to genotype 111 C. jejuni strains isolated from sick humans (43), monkey faeces (19), chicken faeces (14), chicken meat (33) and sewage (2) between 1996 and 2016 in Brazil using flaA-SVR (short variable region) sequencing and PFGE. Furthermore, the presence of 16 virulence genes was analysed by PCR. Using PFGE and flaA-SVR sequencing, the 111 C. jejuni strains studied were grouped into three and two clusters, respectively, and some strains of different origin presented a similarity of ≥80 %. In total, 35 flaA-SVR alleles were detected. Alleles gt45, gt49 and gt57 were the most prevalent, in contrast with those frequently described in the PubMLST database. All 111 C. jejuni strains contained the genes flaA, flhA, cadF, docA, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, iamA, ciaB, sodB, dnaJ, pldA, racR and csrA. The wlaN gene was detected in 11 strains (9.9 %), and the virB11 in just one strain (0.9 %). In conclusion, the pathogenic potential of the C. jejuni strains studied was highlighted by the high frequency of the majority of the virulence genes searched. The flaA-SVR sequencing and PFGE results showed that some of the strains studied presented a high genotypic similarity, suggesting potential for transmission between animal sources and humans in this country. Altogether, the results characterize further C. jejuni isolates from Brazil, an important producer and exporter of chicken meat.

  2. Food-borne trematode infections of humans in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Bernard; Abruzzi, Amy

    2010-05-01

    This review examines the literature on imported (allochthonous) and local (autochthonous) cases of food-borne trematode (FBT) infections in the United States of America (USA) from 1890 to 2009. Most of the literature is concerned with imported cases of the opisthorchiids Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini. These flukes cause serious pathology in the liver and biliary system of humans. Chronic cases may induce liver (hepatocarcinoma) and bile duct (cholangiocarcinoma) cancers in humans. Clonorchiasis and opithorchiasis are preventable diseases that can be avoided by eating properly cooked freshwater fish products. Several species of lung flukes in the genus Paragonimus are local or imported FBT in the USA. The endemic cycle occurs in the USA with various local snails and crustaceans serving as intermediate hosts. Paragonimids are acquired when humans eat raw or improperly cooked freshwater crustaceans containing metacercarial cysts. Infection can cause severe lung disease and the symptoms of paragonimiasis often mimic those of tuberculosis and other non-helminthic diseases. Paragonimiasis can be avoided by not eating raw or improperly cooked shellfish. The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica can be acquired by eating raw or uncooked vegetation. The cycle exists in the USA involving local snails and aquatic vegetation. Although some cases are local, most are imported by travelers or immigrants. Fascioliasis can cause serious liver and biliary diseases in humans and consumption of tainted vegetation should be avoided. Lesser known FBT have been reported in the USA including species of Alaria, echinostomids, heterophyids, troglotrematids, and a self-induced infection of Plagiorchis. Treatment of the FBT mentioned in this review consists of various regimens of praziquantel, except for F. hepatica where the drug of choice is triclabendazole.

  3. Research on Effect of Aerobic Exercise and Nutrition Intervention on Food-borne Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social economy and the improvement of people's living standards, the incidence of obesity is increasing year by year. The main purpose of this study is to study the effect to food-borne obese rats combined aerobic exercise with soybean peptide and L-carnitine. The objects of this experiment are the SD obese rats which are successfully modeling, with 6-week training on treadmill and lavaging 10% of nutrient solution everyday (600 mg/ (kg•day L-carnitine and 15 mg/ (kg•day soybean peptide. But for the obese rats in the control group, they will be lavaged with 2 mL of distilled water. During this experiment, we observed the body weight, body length of the obese rats and calculate Lee’s index, detect the index of body weight, body length and the concentration of apolipoprotein. After the experiment, the exercise intervention group, the nutrition intervention group and exercise plus nutrition intervention group, Lee’s indexes of them are obviously lower than obese control group. The differences between two are all significant (p0.05; Nutrition intervention, exercise intervention group and sport plus nutrition intervention all significantly decreased the levels of apoB (p0.05, but sport plus nutrition intervention effect on apoA of obese rats has significant difference (p<0.05. Through the analysis of these results, the experiment shows that feeding high fat and sugar fodder can successful establish obese rats model. Exercise and nutrition intervention can improve lipid metabolism, significantly decreasing apoB concentrations of obese rats, increasing apoA concentrations.

  4. Effect of small chain N acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing signals on biofilms of food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Jamuna Bai; V, Ravishankar Rai

    2016-09-01

    Quorum sensing or cell to cell communication which includes inter- and intra-cellular communication has been implicated in the production of virulence factor and formation of biofilm in food-borne pathogens. In the present study, the effect of quorum sensing signals on the biofilms of food-borne pathogens has been elucidated. N-butryl homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone belonging to acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) family of signaling molecules were investigated for their effect on the biofilm formation (attachment and exopolymeric substance production) in the food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Vibrio parahemolyticus. The signaling molecules at a concentration of 1 µM were capable of increasing biofilm formation in all the tested pathogens. There was an increase in the attachment of the bacterial cells and biomass as observed by microtiter plate assay and exopolymeric substances production in the biofilms in presence of the AHLs. Further, it needs to be elucidated if the effect of AHLS on the biofilms of E. coli and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium is SdiA dependent.

  5. 南京市2007年-2010年食源性致病菌监测分析%Surveillance on food-borne pathogens in food in Nanjing city from 2007 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳华; 江晓; 王炜; 丁洁

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解南京市食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况,为食源性疾病的监测和预警提供科学依据.方法:2007年-2010年采集南京市售食品共计459份,对沙门菌、单核细胞增生李斯特菌、大肠埃希菌0157:H7、金黄色葡萄球菌、空肠弯曲菌和副溶血性弧菌6种食源性致病菌进行监测分析.结果:459份食品样品中,检出致病菌61株,总检出率13.3%.2007年-2010年食源性致病菌检出率分别为25.3%、21.3%、7.9%和6.9%.生肉的污染情况最为严重,检出率为45.8 %,其次是生速食米面制品,检出率为24%,水产品、熟肉制品和凉拌菜的检出率分别为14.1%、13.3%和5.9%.结论:沙门菌和单核细胞增生李斯特菌对南京市食品的污染普遍存在.生肉、生速食米面制品和熟肉制品是可能导致食源性疾病的高危食品.%Objective:To investigate the situations and levels ol main food - borne pathogens bacteria in food in Nanjing city and to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of food - borne diseases. Methods; From 2007 to 2010, 459 retail food samples were collected and analyzed for the occurrence of Salmonella ,Listeria monocytogenes ,Escherichia coli 0157: H7 ,Staphy-lococcus aureus,Campylobacter and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Results.- Among all samples, 61 pathogenic strains were isolated and the overall positive rate were 13. 3%. The positive rate of food - borne pathogens bacteria from 2007 to 2010 were 25. 3% , 21.3% ,7.9% and 6.9% respectively. The positive rate in raw meat, quick -frozen flour and rice products, aquatic products, cooked meat and Chinese cold dishes were 45. 8% , 24% , 14. 1% , 13. 3% and 5. 9% respectively. Conclusion; The results showed that Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes widely existed in foods in Nanjing city. Raw meat, quick - frozen flour and rice products and cooked meats were the higher risk foods to cause food - borne diseases.

  6. 食源性疾病的风险控制%The Risk Control of The Food Borne Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂华

    2016-01-01

    The food borne disease is a main problem in the food safety that it’s risk or harm is bigger. So we must control the food borne disease in the food safety risk by increasing the prevention idea and taking the peltinence ways to control the risk. We must reinforce the supervision production and finish the ilegality in order to avoid the food safety accident.%食源性疾病是食品安全问题中的主要问题,其风险大,危害性大,应成为食品安全风险控制的重点。应当提高预防意识,针对食源性疾病的致病原因,采取有针对性的风险控制对策。要加强对食品生产加工的监管,严惩人为造成食源性食品安全问题的违法行为,有效避免食品安全事故的发生。

  7. Multiplex detection of nine food-borne pathogens by mPCR and capillary electrophoresis after using a universal pre-enrichment medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán eVillamizar-Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Routine microbiological quality analyses in food samples require, in some cases, an initial incubation in pre-enrichment medium. This is necessary in order to assure that small amounts of pathogenic strains are going to be detected. In this work, a universal pre-enrichment medium has been developed for simultaneous growth of Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae family (thirty eight species, twenty seven genera, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. (two species, thirteen strains. Growth confirmation for all these species was achieved in all cases, with excellent enrichments. This was confirmed by plating on the corresponding selective agar media for each bacterium. This GVUM universal pre-enrichment medium could be useful in food microbiological analyses, where different pathogenic bacteria must be detected after a pre-enrichment step. Following, a mPCR reaction for detection of all these pathogens was developed, after designing a set of nine oligonucleotide pairs from specific genetic targets on gDNA from each of these bacteria, covering all available strains already sequenced in GenBank for them. The detection limits have been 1 Genome Equivalent, with the exception of Fam. Enterobacteriaceae (5 GEs. We obtained amplification for all targets (from 70 to 251 bp, depending on the bacteria type, showing the capability of this method to detect the most important industrial and sanitary food-borne pathogens from a universal pre-enrichment medium. This method includes an initial pre-enrichment step (18 h, followed by a mPCR (2 h and a capillary electrophoresis (30 min; avoiding the tedious and long lasting growing on solid media required in traditional analysis (1 to 4 days, depending on the specific pathogen and verification procedure. An external testing of this method was conducted in order to compare classical and mPCR methods. This

  8. Multiplex detection of nine food-borne pathogens by mPCR and capillary electrophoresis after using a universal pre-enrichment medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamizar-Rodríguez, Germán; Fernández, Javier; Marín, Laura; Muñiz, Juan; González, Isabel; Lombó, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Routine microbiological quality analyses in food samples require, in some cases, an initial incubation in pre-enrichment medium. This is necessary in order to ensure that small amounts of pathogenic strains are going to be detected. In this work, a universal pre-enrichment medium has been developed for the simultaneous growth of Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae family (38 species, 27 genera), Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. (two species, 13 strains). Growth confirmation for all these species was achieved in all cases, with excellent enrichments. This was confirmed by plating on the corresponding selective agar media for each bacterium. This GVUM universal pre-enrichment medium could be useful in food microbiological analyses, where different pathogenic bacteria must be detected after a pre-enrichment step. Following, a mPCR reaction for detection of all these pathogens was developed, after designing a set of nine oligonucleotide pairs from specific genetic targets on gDNA from each of these bacteria, covering all available strains already sequenced in GenBank for each pathogen type. The detection limits have been 1 Genome Equivalent (GE), with the exception of the Fam. Enterobacteriaceae (5 GEs). We obtained amplification for all targets (from 70 to 251 bp, depending on the bacteria type), showing the capability of this method to detect the most important industrial and sanitary food-borne pathogens from a universal pre-enrichment medium. This method includes an initial pre-enrichment step (18 h), followed by a mPCR (2 h) and a capillary electrophoresis (30 min); avoiding the tedious and long lasting growing on solid media required in traditional analysis (1–4 days, depending on the specific pathogen and verification procedure). An external testing of this method was conducted in order to compare classical and mPCR methods. This evaluation was

  9. Testing nano-silver food packaging to evaluate silver migration and food spoilage bacteria on chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallocchio, Federica; Cibin, Veronica; Biancotto, Giancarlo; Roccato, Anna; Muzzolon, Orietta; Carmen, Losasso; Simone, Belluco; Manodori, Laura; Fabrizi, Alberto; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    Migration of nanomaterials from food containers into food is a matter of concern because of the potential risk for exposed consumers. The aims of this study were to evaluate silver migration from a commercially available food packaging containing silver nanoparticles into a real food matrix (chicken meat) under plausible domestic storage conditions and to test the contribution of such packaging to limit food spoilage bacteria proliferation. Chemical analysis revealed the absence of silver in chicken meatballs under the experimental conditions in compliance with current European Union legislation, which establishes a maximum level of 0.010 mg kg(-1) for the migration of non-authorised substances through a functional barrier (Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011). On the other hand, microbiological tests (total microbial count, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) showed no relevant difference in the tested bacteria levels between meatballs stored in silver-nanoparticle plastic bags or control bags. This study shows the importance of testing food packaging not only to verify potential silver migration as an indicator of potential nanoparticle migration, but also to evaluate the benefits in terms of food preservation so as to avoid unjustified usage of silver nanoparticles and possible negative impacts on the environment.

  10. Analysis of food-borne pathogen contamination situation in retailed food in Guangzhou in 2010%2010年广州市市售食品中食源性致病菌污染情况检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳璇; 夏丹; 林云万; 侯水平; 张健

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解广州市区主要消费食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况,寻找本市引起食源性疾病的重点食品,对可能发生的食源性疾病进行预测和预报.方法:按照“全国食源性致病菌监测计划”检验技术要求提出的检测方法,采集七类食品,检测沙门菌、单核细胞增生李斯特菌、副溶血性弧菌等项目.结果:264份样品中检出致病菌64份,平均检出率为24.24%;副溶血性弧菌检出率为37.50% (24/64);单增李斯特菌检出率为5.91% (14/237);沙门菌检出率为12.12% (32/264).结论:广州市市售食品中食源性致病菌污染较为严重,应加强细菌性食源性疾病的研究分析,做好食品安全预警预报工作.%Objective:To understand the contamination status of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in main food in Guangzhou, find out the pathogen source and predict the food - borne disease. Methods: Based on the standard operation procedures in the handbook of National Surveillance on Food - borne Pathogenic Bacteria, seven kinds of food samples were collected for detection of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Results: 264 samples were detected, 64 strains of pathogens were detected with an overall positive rate of 24. 24% . Vibrio parahaemolyticus had the highest positive rate of 37. 50% (24/64) , Listeria monocytogenes had the positive rate of 5.91% (14/237) , the positive rate of Salmonella was 12.12% (32/264). Conclusion: The contamination status of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in main consumption of food in Guangzhou was serious. The study on risk factors of food - borne disease and the predictive warning on food safety should be enforced.

  11. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Armin A; Thöns, Christian; Filter, Matthias; Falenski, Alexander; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons) and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available.

  12. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin A Weiser

    Full Text Available FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available.

  13. Matrix-derived combination effects influencing absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of food-borne toxic compounds: implications for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.; Tyrakowska, B.; Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Punt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of food-borne toxic compounds may be influenced by other compounds or constituents present in the food. The present review presents an overview of evidence currently available on food matrix-derived combination effects influencing the ADME ch

  14. Epidemics of emerging animal diseases and food-borne infection problems over the last 5 years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Itsuro

    2006-10-01

    There have been several emerging animal diseases and food-borne infection problems occurring in Japan over the last 5 years. We describe brief pictures of these epidemics and our control activities. As acute contagious and/or emerging animal diseases, the foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak caused by the Pan-Asian topotype of the type O virus occurred in March 2000 after 92 years of FMD-free status. In 2004, four cases of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), which was the first outbreak after 79 years, and caused by the H5N1 subtype, were identified. As part of the responses against these outbreaks, all the animals in the affected farms were destroyed, and movement control areas were established around the infected premises, and a nation-wide intensive survey for FMD and HPAI was performed. As for food-borne or feed-borne infections, the first bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was identified in September 2001 and 19 more cases have been reported until June 2005. A large outbreak of food-borne infection caused by low-fat milk contaminated with enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus, involving more than 13,000 patients, occurred in 2000. In 2003, people who consumed uncooked liver and meat from wild boar and deer developed clinical signs of hepatitis caused by the hepatitis E virus. Pork is also suspected as natural source of virus transmission. Early detection of the first cases and rapid action in preventing and controlling the spread of infections are very important combined with proper risk communication about correct information of the diseases.

  15. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2012. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis, with 214,268 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 91,034 cases reported in 2012. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry. In foodstuffs, Salmonella was most often detected in meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed human listeriosis cases increased to 1,642. Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit from ready-to-eat foods. A total of 5,671 confirmed verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections were reported. VTEC was also reported from food and animals. The number of human tuberculosis cases due to Mycobacterium bovis was 125 cases, and 328 cases of brucellosis in humans were reported. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle increased, and the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle, sheep or goats decreased. Trichinella caused 301 human cases and was mainly detected in wildlife. One domestically acquired human case and one imported human case of rabies were reported. The number of rabies cases in animals increased compared with 2011. A total of 643 confirmed human cases of Q fever were reported. Almost all reporting Member States found Coxiella burnetii (Q fever positive cattle, sheep or goats. A total of 232 cases of West Nile fever in humans were reported. Nine Member States reported West Nile virus findings in solipeds. Most of the 5,363 reported food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella,bacterial toxins, viruses and Campylobacter, and the main food sources were eggs, mixed foods and fish and fishery products.

  16. Molecular bacteria-fungi interactions: effects on environment, food, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlach, Kirstin; Graupner, Katharina; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on bacteria-fungi interactions mediated by secondary metabolites that occur in the environment and have implications for medicine and biotechnology. Bipartite interactions that affect agriculture as well as relationships involving additional partners (plants and animals) are discussed. The advantages of microbial interplay for food production and the risks regarding food safety are presented. Furthermore, recent developments in decoding the impact of bacteria-fungi interactions on infection processes and their implications for human health are highlighted. In addition, this reviews aims to demonstrate how the understanding of complex microbial interactions found in nature can be exploited for the discovery of new therapeutics.

  17. Food-bacteria interplay: pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Frenzel, Elrike; Gohar, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces non-ribosomal peptide synthetase). The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the B. anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion, and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic B. cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain.

  18. Foodbacteria interplay: Pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhling-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces NRPS. The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic Bacillus cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is literally lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Hirokazu; Endou, Fumiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kouichi; Anzai, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Solvent extracts from the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) were prepared using eight different organic solvents, and examined for antibacterial activity against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria. All solvent extracts showed higher antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria than against gram negative bacteria. The TLC-bioautography analysis of the extracts revealed that a yellow spot was detected at Rf value of 0.85, which showed strong antibacterial activity. The UV, MS, and NMR analyses revealed that the antibacterial compound was plumbagin.

  20. Remote Query Resonant-Circuit Sensors for Monitoring of Bacteria Growth: Application to Food Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas G. Bachas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for in-situ remote query monitoring of bacteria growth utilizing a printed thin or thick-film sensor comprised of an inductor-capacitor (LC resonant circuit. The sensor, which is placed within the biological medium of interest and remotely detected using a loop antenna, measures the complex permittivity of the medium. Since bacteria growth increases the complex permittivity of a biological medium the LC sensor can be used to determine bacteria concentration. This paper presents results on monitoring of three different bacteria strains, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli JM109, and Pseudomonas putida, demonstrating application of the sensor for monitoring bacteria growth in milk, meat, and beer. Due to its low unit cost and remote query detection, the sensor is potentially useful for commercial scale monitoring of food quality.

  1. An investigation of indirect conductimetry for detection of some food-borne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, F J

    1990-11-01

    Indirect conductimetry using a rapid automated bacterial impedance technique was investigated. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila and Salmonella spp. grown in Whitley Impedance broth all elicited indirect conductimetric changes. These indirect conductance responses were improved by the addition of 2 g/l glucose to the medium and resulted in maximum changes of 2340-4300 microS with associated maximum rates of change of 520-1210 microS/h. Furthermore, the indirect conductimetric assay detected growth of staphylococci, listeria and salmonella in media containing high concentrations of salts used as selective agents in culture media for the isolation of these organisms.

  2. Biotechnological and in situ food production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Polyols such as mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol are naturally found in fruits and vegetables and are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae. These sugar alcohols are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and in medicine because of their interesting physicochemical properties. In the food industry, polyols are employed as natural sweeteners applicable in light and diabetic food products. In the last decade, biotechnological production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been investigated as an alternative to their current industrial production. While heterofermentative LAB may naturally produce mannitol and erythritol under certain culture conditions, sorbitol and xylitol have been only synthesized through metabolic engineering processes. This review deals with the spontaneous formation of mannitol and erythritol in fermented foods and their biotechnological production by heterofermentative LAB and briefly presented the metabolic engineering processes applied for polyol formation.

  3. Isolation of bacteriocin - producing lactic acid bacteria from 'Ugba' and 'Okpiye', two locally fermented nigerian food condiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, 100 samples each of 'ugba' and 'okpiye' were evaluated for the presence of bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria. Thirty strains showing antibacterial activity against at least one of the indicator organisms were selected from a total of 752 colonies isolated from the condiments. Out of the 30, only five strains retained activity after the pH of the broth supernatant was adjusted to 6.5. When evaluated by the agar-well diffusion assay, the spectra of inhibitory activity showed that Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive indicator organism tested, while Listeria monocytogenes was the most resistant. One strain (UG 2 was active against Escherichia coli. The assays using the cell-free supernatant of the cultures showed that the bacteriocins were completely inactivated by the proteolyses as well as by the chloroform treatment. In ethanol, the activity of the compounds was only partially modified. When incubated in a water bath at 80°C for 30 min, no significant activity loss was recorded. The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocins produced by the lactic acid bacteria has potential for use in biopreservation of condiments against the spoilage and food - borne pathogens.

  4. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paulos; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popul...

  5. Burkholderia bacteria infectiously induce the proto-farming symbiosis of Dictyostelium amoebae and food bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Susanne; Haselkorn, Tamara S; Bashir, Usman; Jimenez, Daniela; Brock, Debra A; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2015-09-01

    Symbiotic associations can allow an organism to acquire novel traits by accessing the genetic repertoire of its partner. In the Dictyostelium discoideum farming symbiosis, certain amoebas (termed "farmers") stably associate with bacterial partners. Farmers can suffer a reproductive cost but also gain beneficial capabilities, such as carriage of bacterial food (proto-farming) and defense against competitors. Farming status previously has been attributed to amoeba genotype, but the role of bacterial partners in its induction has not been examined. Here, we explore the role of bacterial associates in the initiation, maintenance, and phenotypic effects of the farming symbiosis. We demonstrate that two clades of farmer-associated Burkholderia isolates colonize D. discoideum nonfarmers and infectiously endow them with farmer-like characteristics, indicating that Burkholderia symbionts are a major driver of the farming phenomenon. Under food-rich conditions, Burkholderia-colonized amoebas produce fewer spores than uncolonized counterparts, with the severity of this reduction being dependent on the Burkholderia colonizer. However, the induction of food carriage by Burkholderia colonization may be considered a conditionally adaptive trait because it can confer an advantage to the amoeba host when grown in food-limiting conditions. We observed Burkholderia inside and outside colonized D. discoideum spores after fruiting body formation; this observation, together with the ability of Burkholderia to colonize new amoebas, suggests a mixed mode of symbiont transmission. These results change our understanding of the D. discoideum farming symbiosis by establishing that the bacterial partner, Burkholderia, is an important causative agent of the farming phenomenon.

  6. Association between the Hygiene Index Values of Live Fresh Aquatic Products and Food-Borne Diarrhea in the Population of the Ningbo Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of the hygiene index values of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN, histamine (HIS, indole, tetrodotoxin (TTX, and paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic and diarrhetic shellfish poisons (PSP, NSP, ASP, and DSP, respectively in the samples of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea cases in six studied districts were analyzed. Results indicate that the incidence rate of food-borne diarrhea is related to the hygiene index values. Aside from VBN, the main risk factors related to food-borne diarrhea in edible aquatic products include DSP (in marine fish, shrimp, and other shellfishes, NSP, and ASP (in marine shrimp and crab. Hygiene index values among different species were significantly different. No significant difference in the monitoring index values was found among the six different studied districts. The reported cases of food-borne diarrhea were positively associated with VBN and DSP in aquatic products in Haishu, Jiangbei, Zhenhai, and Beilun, as well as VBN and NSP in aquatic products in Jiangdong and Yinzhou. In conclusion, VBN, DSP, NSP, and ASP are important risk factors for the occurring of food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China.

  7. Plant extract-mediated biogenic synthesis of silver, manganese dioxide, silver-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against food- and water-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, Chandran; Ji, Byoung-Jun; Harper, Stacey L; Yun, Soon-Il

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO₂NPs) and silver-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles (Ag-doped MnO₂NPs) were synthesized by simultaneous green chemistry reduction approach. Aqueous extract from the leaves of medicinally important plant Cucurbita pepo was used as reducing and capping agents. Various characterization techniques were carried out to affirm the formation of nanoparticles. HR-TEM analysis confirmed the size of nanoparticles in the range of 15-70 nm and also metal doping was confirmed through XRD and EDS analyses. FT-IR analysis confirmed that the presence of biomolecules in the aqueous leaves extract was responsible for nanoparticles synthesis. Further, the concentration of metals and their doping in the reaction mixture was achieved by ICP-MS. The growth curve and well diffusion study of synthesized nanoparticles were performed against food- and water-borne Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The mode of interaction of nanoparticles on bacterial cells was demonstrated through Bio-TEM analysis. Interestingly, AgNPs and Ag-doped MnO₂NPs showed better antibacterial activity against all the tested bacterial pathogens; however, MnO₂NPs alone did not show any antibacterial properties. Hence, AgNPs and Ag-doped MnO₂NPs synthesized from aqueous plant leaves extract may have important role in controlling various food spoilage caused by bacteria.

  8. Assessment of survival of food-borne microorganisms in the food chain by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Henrik; Arneborg, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, many data on food–borne microorganisms are obtained as an average of a whole population, under the assumption that the individual cells are clonal and therefore identical. However, it is now acknowledged that there may be a large heterogeneity within an isogenic population, and con......- and sugar- and bacteriocin stress, as assessed by Fluorescence Ratio Imaging Microscopy....

  9. PCR detection of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria involved in canned food spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, S; Andre, S; Remize, F

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic bacteria that form highly heat-resistant spores constitute an important group of spoilage bacteria of low-acid canned food. A PCR assay was developed in order to rapidly trace these bacteria. Three PCR primer pairs were designed from rRNA gene sequences. These primers were evaluated for the specificity and the sensitivity of detection. Two primer pairs allowed detection at the species level of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Moorella thermoacetica/thermoautrophica. The other pair allowed group-specific detection of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria of the genera Thermoanaerobacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, Caldanerobium and Caldanaerobacter. After a single enrichment step, these PCR assays allowed the detection of 28 thermophiles from 34 cans of spoiled low-acid food. In addition, 13 ingredients were screened for the presence of these bacteria. This PCR assay serves as a detection method for strains able to spoil low-acid canned food treated at 55°C. It will lead to better reactivity in the canning industry. Raw materials and ingredients might be qualified not only for quantitative spore contamination, but also for qualitative contamination by highly heat-resistant spores.

  10. Incidence of Bacteriocins Produced by Food-Related Lactic Acid Bacteria Active towards Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Papadimitriou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the incidence of bacteriocins produced by 236 lactic acid bacteria (LAB food isolates against pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic oral bacteria. This set of LAB contained several strains (≥17% producing bacteriocins active against food-related bacteria. Interestingly only Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, while Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC 179 and Lactobacillus plantarun ACA-DC 269 produced bacteriocins solely against Streptococcus oralis. Thus, the percentage of strains that were found to produce bacteriocins against oral bacteria was ~1.3%. The rarity of bacteriocins active against oral LAB pathogens produced by food-related LAB was unexpected given their close phylogenetic relationship. Nevertheless, when tested in inhibition assays, the potency of the bacteriocin(s of S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against the three oral streptococci was high. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis revealed that exposure of the target cells to the antimicrobial compounds caused major alterations of key cellular constituents. Our findings indicate that bacteriocins produced by food-related LAB against oral LAB may be rare, but deserve further investigation since, when discovered, they can be effective antimicrobials.

  11. Systems biology and metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for improved fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flahaut, N.A.L.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have long been used in industrial dairy and other food fermentations that make use of their metabolic activities leading to products with specific organoleptic properties. Metabolic engineering is a rational approach to steer fermentations toward the production of desired compou

  12. Use of the alr gene as a food-grade selection marker in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Benchimol, M.G.; Lambert, J.; Palumbo, E.; Deghorain, M.; Delcour, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hols, P.

    2002-01-01

    Both Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum contain a single alr gene, encoding an alanine racemase (EC 5.1.1.1), which catalyzes the interconversion of D-alanine and L-alanine. The alr genes of these lactic acid bacteria were investigated for their application as food-grade selection marker

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among food handlers in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Zaglool

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among the food handlers. Materials and Methods: Two hundred food-handlers were subjected to a cross-sectional study working in the kitchen of a tertiary care hospital, i.e., Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 2 to 27, 2009. The stool samples were examined for intestinal parasites following direct microscopic examination, formol ether concentration (Ritchie, and staining with modified acid fast staining techniques. For enteropathogenic bacteria samples were inoculated onto MacConkey′s agar, deoxycholate citrate agar, xylose lysine deoxycholate agar as per the World Health Organization protocol. Fingernail materials were examined microscopically for enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites. Results: The majority (80% of the food-handlers were young adults aged from 22 to 42 years. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Forty six (23% stool specimens were positive for intestinal paraͼsites. Giardia lamblia 18 (9% was most frequent among the 10 different types of detected intestinal parasites followed by Entamoeba histolytica 9 (4.5%. No pathogenic bacteria were detected in all stool samples, whereas finger nails showed isolation of microorganisms as coagulase-negative staphylococci 79 (39.5%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus 35 (17.5%. Conclusion: The findings emphasized the importance of food handlers as potential sources of infections and suggested health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures.

  14. Two geographically separated food-borne outbreaks in Sweden linked by an unusual Cryptosporidium parvum subtype, October 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, A; Lebbad, M; Insulander, M; Decraene, V; Kling, A; Hjertqvist, M; Wallensten, A

    2012-11-15

    The number of sporadic cases of Cryptosporidium identified in the Stockholm county area increased above the expected limit during October 2010. Additionally, two food-borne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis occurred in two other Swedish cities: Umeå (4 October) and Örebro (9 October). The outbreak investigations did not reveal any responsible food item, however fresh herbs were suspected. Thirty stool samples, originating from all three events, tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed that 27 individuals were infected with C. parvum, two with C. hominis, and one with C. felis. Using sequence analysis of the GP60 glycoprotein gene, a polymorphic marker with high intra-species diversity, we identified the same C. parvum subtype IIdA24G1 in samples from both the Umeå outbreak and the Stockholm area cases, thus indicating a possible outbreak in the Stockholm area and establishing a link between these two events. C. parvum IIdA24G1 has not previously been described in connection with a food-borne outbreak. For the outbreak in Örebro, another subtype was identified: C. parvum IIdA20G1e. These findings demonstrate that subtyping C. parvum isolates using GP60 gene amplification can be used to link cases in an outbreak investigation and we recommend its use in future similar events.

  15. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Collignon, P.

    2008-01-01

    licensing, removing financial incentives, banning or restricting the use of certain drugs, altering prescribers behavior, improving animal health, improving hygiene and implementing microbial criteria for certain types of resistant pathogens for use in the control of trade of both food animals and food....... quantification of the transmission difficult. The exposure of humans to antimicrobial resistance from food animals can be controlled by either limiting the selective pressure from antimicrobial usage or by limiting the spread of the bacteria/genes. A number of control options are reviewed, including drug...

  16. First description of food-borne Salmonella enterica resistance regions R1 and R3 associated with IS26 elements

    OpenAIRE

    Eduarda Gomes-Neves; Vera Manageiro; Eugénia Ferreira; José M Correia da Costa; Manuela Caniça

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the presence of IS26 in food-borne ASSuT-type Salmonella enterica isolates. A new genetic region (R3) wasdescribed, that included a C14 caspase gene between IS26 elements. R3 was present in two Salmonella Rissen isolates from a swine carcass anda meat handler, collected at the same abattoir. Furthermore, a new rearrangement of resistance region R1, harboring the blaTEM-1 gene flanked byIS26 elements, was identified in Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella 4,[5],12:i...

  17. First description of food-borne Salmonella enterica resistance regions R1 and R3 associated with IS26 elements

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes-Neves, Eduarda; Manageiro, Vera; Ferreira, Eugénia; José M Correia da Costa; Caniça, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the presence of IS26 in food-borne ASSuT-type Salmonella enterica isolates. A new genetic region (R3) was described, that included a C14 caspase gene between IS26 elements. R3 was present in two Salmonella Rissen isolates from a swine carcass and a meat handler, collected at the same abattoir. Furthermore, a new rearrangement of resistance region R1, harboring the blaTEM-1 gene flanked by IS26 elements, was identified in Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella 4,[5],1...

  18. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available "Spirulina" food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaka, Elisabeth; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as "Spirulina." While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of "Spirulina" supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of "Spirulina" dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9-157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes.

  19. Interaction of lactic acid bacteria with metal ions: opportunities for improving food safety and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrvčić, Jasna; Stanzer, Damir; Solić, Ema; Stehlik-Tomas, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    Certain species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as well as other microorganisms, can bind metal ions to their cells surface or transport and store them inside the cell. Due to this fact, over the past few years interactions of metal ions with LAB have been intensively investigated in order to develop the usage of these bacteria in new biotechnology processes in addition to their health and probiotic aspects. Preliminary studies in model aqueous solutions yielded LAB with high absorption potential for toxic and essential metal ions, which can be used for improving food safety and quality. This paper provides an overview of results obtained by LAB application in toxic metal ions removing from drinking water, food and human body, as well as production of functional foods and nutraceutics. The biosorption abilities of LAB towards metal ions are emphasized. The binding mechanisms, as well as the parameters influencing the passive and active uptake are analyzed.

  20. Prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andargie, Gashaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Tiruneh, Moges; Huruy, Kahsay

    2008-12-01

    Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training College, Gondar, Ethiopia. Fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. The samples were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria species (41.7%) isolated from fingernail contents, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Klebsiella species (5.5%), Escherichia coli (3.1%), Serratia species (1.58%), Citrobacter species (0.8%), and Enterobacter species (0.8%). Shigella species were isolated from stool samples of four food-handlers (3.1%). None of the food-handlers was positive for Salmonella species and Shigella species in respect of their fingernail contents. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Intestinal parasites detected in the stools of the food-handlers included Ascaris lumbricoides (18.11%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%), hookworm species (0.8%), Gardia lamblia (0.8%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.8%); 1.6% of the study subjects were positive for each of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, hookworm, and G. lamblia. The findings emphasize the importance of food-handlers as potential sources of infections and suggest health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures.

  1. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tham J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Johan Tham,1 Mats Walder,2 Eva Melander,2,3 Inga Odenholt11Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, 2Medical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; 3Department of Infection Control, Laboratory Medicine, Skåne County, SwedenAbstract: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae with Cefotaximase–München (CTX-M enzymes are rapidly increasing worldwide and pose a threat to health care. ESBLs with CTX-M enzymes have been isolated from animals and different food products, but it is unknown if food imported from the Mediterranean area may be a possible reservoir of these bacteria. During 2007–2008, swab samples from food across different retail outlets (mostly food from the Mediterranean countries and Swedish chicken were collected. Escherichia coli strains from Swedish meat and E. coli isolates from unspecified food from a Swedish food testing laboratory were also examined. In 349 of the 419 swab samples, growth of Enterobacteriaceae was found. In most of the samples, there was also growth of Gram-negative environmental bacteria. Air dry-cured products contained significantly less Enterobacteriaceae isolates compared to lettuces; however, none of the examined Enterobacteriaceae harbored ESBLs. This study did not support the theory that imported food from the Mediterranean area or Swedish domestic food might constitute an important vehicle for the dissemination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae; however, a spread from food to humans may have occurred after 2008.Keywords: ESBL, antibiotic resistance, zoonosis, food, Enterobacteriaceae

  2. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M.; Oteo, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Methods Tick species were i...

  3. 2012年大连市食源性致病菌监测分析%Monitoring of food-borne pathogens in Dalian City in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡; 郑晓南; 张磊

    2013-01-01

    目的监测大连市主要食源性致病菌污染状况,为预防食源性疾病和食物中毒提供科学依据。方法在本市的大型超市、农贸市场、餐饮店和专卖店等随机采集11类食品,依据《食品卫生微生物学检验》GB/T4789-2003/2008,对采集样品分别进行副溶血性弧菌、蜡样芽胞杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门氏菌、单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌、志贺氏菌分离、生化及血清学鉴定。结果共监测肉制品、生食动物性水产品、海产品、焙烤食品等11类样品740份,检出食源性致病菌36株,总检出率4.86%(36/740)。其中副溶血性弧菌9株,检出率7.5%(9/120);蜡样芽胞杆菌2株,检出率3.3%(2/60);金黄色葡萄球菌18株,检出率2.9%(18/620);沙门氏菌5株,检出率0.73%(5/682);单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌2株,检出率0.59%(2/340);志贺氏菌未检出。结论大连市食品存在食源性致病菌污染较严重,其中海产品、生食动物性水产品、熟制米面制品、婴幼儿食品、冷面、凉拌菜是主要受污染食品;应加强食源性致病菌的监测,防止食源性疾病和食物中毒发生。%Aim To monitor main food-borne pathogens ,and provide the scientific basis for the prevention of foodborne diseases and food poisoning in Dalian City. Methods The pathogens of Vibrio parahaemolyticu, Bacillus cereus , Staphylococcus aureus,Salmonella,Listeria monocytogenes,and Shigella were isolated,the biochemical and serotypewere tested according to"Methods of microbiology tests for food's hygiene " (GB/T4789-2003[1]/2008[2])Results There 680 food samples in 11 categories including meat, raw food of animal aquatic products, seafood, baked goods ,et al.were tested, 36 bacteria strains of food-borne pathogens were isolated and the total positive rate was 4.86%(36/740).There were 9 Vibrio parahaemolyticu strains with the detection rate of 7.5%(9/120); 2 Bacillus cereus strains with the

  4. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-28

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances.

  5. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms. PMID:22920585

  6. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pophaly Sarang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms.

  7. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pophaly, Sarang Dilip; Singh, Rameshwar; Pophaly, Saurabh Dilip; Kaushik, Jai K; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-08-25

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms.

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: THE IMPORTANCE OF THESE MICROORGANISMS FOR FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Souza Motta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eacters of coccus or rods Gram-positive, catalase negative, non-sporulating, which produce lactic acid as the major end product during the fermentation of carbohydrates. When applied on food, provides beneficial effects to consumers through its functional and technological properties. With this the present review article, explore the potential application of lactic acid bacteria in food. The following genera are considered the principal lactic acid bacteria: Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. These cultures have been used as starter or adjunct cultures for the fermentation of foods and beverages due to their contributions to the sensorial characteristics of these products and by microbiological stability. Their probiotic properties have also been investigated. More recent studies by indigenous cultures have received increased attention in light of the search for isolated cultures of a given raw material and a certain region. These microorganisms are being investigated for its functional and technological potential that may be applied in product development with its own characteristics and designation of origin. Those properties will be discussed in the present review in order to highlight the performance of these bacteria and the high degree of control over the fermentation process and standardization of the final product. The use of autochthonous cultures will be considered due the increase of studies of new cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated of milk and meat of distinct products.

  9. Inhibition of foodborne bacteria by antibacterial coatings printed onto food packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widsten, P; Mesic, B B; Cruz, C D; Fletcher, G C; Chycka, M A

    2017-07-01

    Films containing antibacterial compounds could be used for packaging perishable foods such as fresh fish and meat for sea freighting over long distances. However, existing commercialised options (films with nanosilver zeolites or wasabi extract) are only permitted for food contact in certain regions and films containing alternative antibacterial ingredients are required e.g. for exports to Europe. Certain non-volatile phenolic plant extracts have shown promising antibacterial activity against a wide range of foodborne bacteria in in vitro assays and when integrated in coatings for perishable foods such as fish and meat. Extracts rich in gallotannins tend to show stronger antibacterial effects than other phenols such as flavonoids. Such extracts could be coated onto commercial barrier films by means of flexographic printing-a more industrially feasible option than rod coating or solvent casting typically used in antibacterial coating research. The goal of the present work was to investigate the antibacterial effect of printed latex coatings containing extracts rich in gallotannins and other types of phenolic compounds against 16 common spoilage and pathogenic bacteria of fish and meat. The largest zones of inhibition in disk diffusion assays were obtained with plastic films with coatings containing tannic acid alone, followed by tannic acid with phenolic-rich extracts of feijoa skin or mango seed. Significant inhibition was seen for all bacteria. This study shows that coatings with gallotannins as the main active ingredient can be printed onto commercial barrier films to control the bacteria that limit the shelf-life of fresh fish and meat.

  10. Tracking spore-forming bacteria in food: from natural biodiversity to selection by processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postollec, Florence; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Bernard, Muriel; Divanac'h, Marie-Laure; Pavan, Sonia; Sohier, Danièle

    2012-08-01

    Sporeforming bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment and exhibit a wide range of diversity leading to their natural prevalence in foodstuff. The state of the art of sporeformer prevalence in ingredients and food was investigated using a multiparametric PCR-based tool that enables simultaneous detection and identification of various genera and species mostly encountered in food, i.e., Alicyclobacillus, Anoxybacillus flavithermus, Bacillus, B. cereus group, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. subtilis, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Clostridium, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Moorella and Paenibacillus species. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing was used to extend identification to other possibly present contaminants. A total of 90 food products, with or without visible trace of spoilage were analysed, i.e., 30 egg-based products, 30 milk and dairy products and 30 canned food and ingredients. Results indicated that most samples contained one or several of the targeted genera and species. For all three tested food categories, 30 to 40% of products were contaminated with both Bacillus and Clostridium. The percentage of contaminations associated with Clostridium or Bacillus represented 100% in raw materials, 72% in dehydrated ingredients and 80% in processed foods. In the last two product types, additional thermophilic contaminants were identified (A. flavithermus, Geobacillus spp., Thermoanaerobacterium spp. and Moorella spp.). These results suggest that selection, and therefore the observed (re)-emergence of unexpected sporeforming contaminants in food might be favoured by the use of given food ingredients and food processing technologies.

  11. A review: Health promoting lactic acid bacteria in traditional Indonesian fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Nuraida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Indonesian fermented foods can be used as potential sources of probiotics as they commonly contain lactic acid bacteria (LAB, including species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, Weisella and Leuconostoc. The occurrence of LAB in Indonesian fermented foods is not only limited to lactic fermented foods but is also present in foods with molds as the main starter culture. This review aims to describe the significance of Indonesian fermented foods as potential sources of probiotics and the potential of LAB from fermented foods to promote beneficial health effects. A number of in vitro studies have been carried out to assess the probiotic potential of LAB from fermented foods. Many LAB strains have met the basic requirements for them to be considered as probiotics and possess some functional properties contributing to positive health impacts. Hypocholesterolemic effects, stimulation of the immune system, and prevention of diarrhea by some probiotic strains have been shown in animal studies. However, human studies on the efficacy of probiotic strains are still limited. Two strains isolated from dadih, a fermented buffalo milk, are examples of promising probiotic strains that have gone through human studies. The potential probiotic properties of LAB in Indonesian fermented foods still need to be fully investigated to assess their impact on human health. The studies should also consider factors that may influence the functional properties of probiotics, both in foods and in humans.

  12. Food-borne fungi in fruit and cereals and their production of mycotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    The growth of filamentous fungi in foods and food products results in waste and is costly as well as sometimes hazardous. Many different fungal species can spoil food products or produce mycotoxins or both. As each fungal species produces its own specific, limited number of metabolites...... it is possible to predict which fungi and mycotoxins a given product may contain, when the type of food product and the history of production and storage are known. In Europe, fruit has received minor attention in relation to fungal spoilage, whereas fungal spoilage of cereals has been studied extensively...

  13. Allergenicity in food allergy : influence of food processing and immunomodulation by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Y.M.

    2011-01-01


    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy have become an increasing health problem world-wide, affecting between 20-30% of the total population. Peanut allergy (prevalence ~1%) is a common and persistent food allergy accounting for severe

  14. Allergenicity in food allergy : influence of food processing and immunomodulation by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Y.M.

    2011-01-01


    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy have become an increasing health problem world-wide, affecting between 20-30% of the total population. Peanut allergy (prevalence ~1%) is a common and persistent food allergy accounting for severe all

  15. In vitro approaches to assess bioavailability and human gastrointestinal mobilization of food-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus J

    2008-06-01

    This study reports on the potential for gastrointestinal (GI) mobilization and bioavailability of food-borne PCBs in humans. The development and validation of a GI simulator and operational protocols, developed in compliance with the requirements of German DIN 19738 risk assessment test procedure, are presented. Food, naturally contaminated with PCBs, was homogenized with simulated saliva fluid and shaken in the GI simulator with simulated gastric fluids (containing pepsin, mucine) for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Afterwards, the simulated intestinal fluids (containing pepsin, mucine, trypsin, pancreatin, bile) were added and the mixture shaken for a further 6 h prior to centrifugation and filtration using Buchner funnels to separate the undigested GI residues from GI fluids. PCBs were recovered from GI residues and fluids by Soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively, cleaned up using silica-SFE, and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD). Detailed studies with fish indicate variations in mobilization and bioavailability of Sigma PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138 and 180). For example, the bioavailable fractions (fractions mobilized) in mackerel, salmon, crab and prawn were 0.77, 0.60, 0.54, and 0.72 respectively of the Sigma PCBs initially present in these food samples. The bioavailable fraction was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the PCBs. In mackerel bioavailable fractions for individual PCB congeners ranged from 0.47-0.82, from 0.30-0.70 in salmon, 0.44-0.64 in crab and in prawn from 0.47-0.77. Future studies will focus on understanding better, the variability in bioavailable fractions to be expected for different foodstuffs, in addition to tissue culture techniques using human gut cell lines to investigate a simultaneous mobilization and absorption of food-borne PCBs.

  16. Recent investigations and updated criteria for the assessment of antibiotic resistance in food lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2011-12-01

    The worldwide use, and misuse, of antibiotics for about sixty years in the so-called antibiotic era, has been estimated in some one to ten million tons, a relevant part of which destined for non-therapeutic purposes such as growth promoting treatments for livestock or crop protection. As highly adaptable organisms, bacteria have reacted to this dramatic change in their environment by developing several well-known mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and are becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotics. In recent years, commensal bacteria have become a cause of concern since they may act as reservoirs for the antibiotic resistance genes found in human pathogens. In particular, the food chain has been considered the main route for the introduction of animal and environment associated antibiotic resistant bacteria into the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) where these genes may be transferred to pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. As fundamental microbial communities in a large variety of fermented foods and feed, the anaerobe facultative, aerotolerant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are likely to play a pivotal role in the resistance gene exchange occurring in the environment, food, feed and animal and human GIT. Therefore their antibiotic resistance features and their genetic basis have recently received increasing attention. The present article summarises the results of the latest studies on the most typical genera belonging to the low G + C branch of LAB. The evolution of the criteria established by European regulatory bodies to ensure a safe use of microorganisms in food and feed, including the assessment of their antibiotic resistance is also reviewed.

  17. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed the information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2011. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis with 220,209 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 95,548 cases in 2011. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry, and Salmonella is declining in these populations. In foodstuffs, Salmonella was most often detected in meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed human listeriosis cases decreased to 1,476. Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit from ready-to-eat foods. A total of 9,485 confirmed verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections were reported. This represents an increase of 159.4 % compared with 2010 as a result of the large STEC/VTEC outbreak that occurred in 2011 in the EU, primarily in Germany. VTEC was also reported from food and animals. The number of human yersiniosis cases increased to 7,017 cases. Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated also from pig meat and pigs; 132 cases of Mycobacterium bovis and 330 cases of brucellosis in humans were also reported. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle increased, and the prevalence of brucellosis decreased in cattle and sheep and goat populations. Trichinellosis and echinococcosis caused 268 and 781 human cases, respectively and these parasites were mainly detected in wildlife. The numbers of alveolar and of cystic echinococcosis respectively increased and decreased in the last five years. One imported human case of rabies was reported. The number of rabies cases in animals continued to decrease. Most of the 5,648 reported food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella,bacterial toxins

  18. Plasmids from Food Lactic Acid Bacteria: Diversity, Similarity, and New Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Cui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids are widely distributed in different sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB as self-replicating extrachromosomal genetic materials, and have received considerable attention due to their close relationship with many important functions as well as some industrially relevant characteristics of the LAB species. They are interesting with regard to the development of food-grade cloning vectors. This review summarizes new developments in the area of lactic acid bacteria plasmids and aims to provide up to date information that can be used in related future research.

  19. Cold Plasma as a novel intervention against food-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and other foods by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This fle...

  20. Food-borne fungi in fruit and cereals and their production of mycotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    The growth of filamentous fungi in foods and food products results in waste and is costly as well as sometimes hazardous. Many different fungal species can spoil food products or produce mycotoxins or both. As each fungal species produces its own specific, limited number of metabolites and is ass......The growth of filamentous fungi in foods and food products results in waste and is costly as well as sometimes hazardous. Many different fungal species can spoil food products or produce mycotoxins or both. As each fungal species produces its own specific, limited number of metabolites...... and is associated with particular types of food products, the number of mycotoxins potentially present in a particular product is limited (Filtenborg et al., 1996). If physical changes occur in a product, changes in the association of fungal species found in the product will also occur. With current understanding...... it is possible to predict which fungi and mycotoxins a given product may contain, when the type of food product and the history of production and storage are known. In Europe, fruit has received minor attention in relation to fungal spoilage, whereas fungal spoilage of cereals has been studied extensively...

  1. "Green preservatives": combating fungi in the food and feed industry by applying antifungal lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Agata M; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-01-01

    Fungal food spoilage plays a pivotal role in the deterioration of food and feed systems and some of them are also able to produce toxic compounds for humans and animals. The mycotoxins produced by fungi can cause serious health hazards, including cancerogenic, immunotoxic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects, and Kashin-Beck disease. In addition to this, fungal spoilage/pathogens are causing losses of marketable quality and hygiene of foodstuffs, resulting in major economic problem throughout the world. Nowadays, food spoilage can be prevented using physical and chemical methods, but no efficient strategy has been proposed so far to reduce the microbial growth ensuring public health. Therefore, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can play an important role as natural preservatives. The protection of food products using LAB is mainly due to the production of antifungal compounds such as carboxylic acids, fatty acids, ethanol, carbon dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins. In addition to this, LAB can also positively contribute to the flavor, texture, and nutritional value of food products. This review mainly focuses on the use of LAB for food preservation given their extensive industrial application in a wide range of foods and feeds. The attention points out the several industrial patents concerning the use of antifungal LAB as biocontrol agent against spoilage organisms in different fermented foods and feeds.

  2. Production, properties, and industrial food application of lactic acid bacteria-derived exopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele; Waters, Deborah M; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-02-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are industrially important microorganisms in the development of functional food products and are used as starter cultures or coadjutants to develop fermented foods. There is large variability in EPS production by LAB in terms of chemical composition, quantity, molecular size, charge, presence of side chains, and rigidity of the molecules. The main body of the review will cover practical aspects concerning the structural diversity structure of EPS, and their concrete application in food industries is reported in details. To strengthen the food application and process feasibility of LAB EPS at industrial level, a future academic research should be combined with industrial input to understand the technical shortfalls that EPS can address.

  3. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics.

  4. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mduduzi Paul Mokoena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics.

  5. [Investigation of pathogenic phenotypes and virulence determinants of food-borne Salmonella enterica strains in Caenorhabditis elegans animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Deniz; Şen, Ece

    2015-10-01

    Salmonellosis, caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars with the consumption of contaminated food, is one of the leading food-borne disease that makes microbial food safety an important public health issue. This study was performed in order to determine the antibiotic resistance, serotyping, plasmid profiles and pathogenicity potentials of food-borne Salmonella isolates in Caenorhabditis elegans animal model system in Edirne province, located at Thrace region of Turkey. In this study, 32 Salmonella isolates, of which 26 belonged to Infantis, four to Enteritidis, one to Telaviv and one to Kentucky serovars, isolated from chicken carcasses were used. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. A new C.elegans nematode animal model system was used to determine the pathogenicity potential of the isolates. The antibiotic resistance profiles revealed that one (3.1%) isolate was resistant to gentamicin, two (6.2%) to ciprofloxacin, three (9.4%) to ampicillin, 18 (56.3%) to kanamycin, 19 (60.8%) to neomycin, 25 (78.1%) to tetracycline, 25 (78.1%) to trimethoprim, 26 (81.25%) to nalidixic acid, 27 (84.4%) to streptomycin and 32 (100%) to sulfonamide. All of the 32 strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and ampicillin/sulbactam. High levels of resistance to streptomycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim, sulfonamide, kanamycin and neomycin was determined. According to the plasmid analysis, six isolates (18.75%) harboured 1-3 plasmids with sizes between 1.2 and 42.4 kb. In C.elegans nematode animal model system, the time (in days) required to kill 50% (TD50) of nematodes was calculated for each experimental group. TD50 values of the nematode group fed with S.Typhimurium ATCC 14028 that was used as the positive control and another group fed with E.coli OP50 as the negative control were 4.2 ± 0.5 days and 8.0 ± 0.02 days, respectively. TD50 of the groups fed with Salmonella isolates ranged

  6. Piecewise linear approximations to model the dynamics of adaptation to osmotic stress by food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métris, Aline; George, Susie M; Ropers, Delphine

    2017-01-02

    Addition of salt to food is one of the most ancient and most common methods of food preservation. However, little is known of how bacterial cells adapt to such conditions. We propose to use piecewise linear approximations to model the regulatory adaptation of Escherichiacoli to osmotic stress. We apply the method to eight selected genes representing the functions known to be at play during osmotic adaptation. The network is centred on the general stress response factor, sigma S, and also includes a module representing the catabolic repressor CRP-cAMP. Glutamate, potassium and supercoiling are combined to represent the intracellular regulatory signal during osmotic stress induced by salt. The output is a module where growth is represented by the concentration of stable RNAs and the transcription of the osmotic gene osmY. The time course of gene expression of transport of osmoprotectant represented by the symporter proP and of the osmY is successfully reproduced by the network. The behaviour of the rpoS mutant predicted by the model is in agreement with experimental data. We discuss the application of the model to food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella; although the genes considered have orthologs, it seems that supercoiling is not regulated in the same way. The model is limited to a few selected genes, but the regulatory interactions are numerous and span different time scales. In addition, they seem to be condition specific: the links that are important during the transition from exponential to stationary phase are not all needed during osmotic stress. This model is one of the first steps towards modelling adaptation to stress in food safety and has scope to be extended to other genes and pathways, other stresses relevant to the food industry, and food-borne pathogens. The method offers a good compromise between systems of ordinary differential equations, which would be unmanageable because of the size of the system and for which insufficient data are available

  7. Comparison of two single-use scrub suits in terms of effect on air-borne bacteria in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammelin, A; Blomfeldt, A-M

    2017-03-01

    A low level of air-borne bacteria in the operating room air can be achieved if all staff wear clothes made of low-permeability material (i.e. clean air suits). This study investigated if there was a difference in protective efficacy between two single-use scrubs made of polypropylene by testing them during routinely performed orthopaedic surgical procedures. No significant difference in the colony-forming unit count/m(3) air was found between the two scrubs, so the choice can be based on which scrub type is more comfortable for staff.

  8. Sugar-coated: exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria for food and human health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P M; Ross, R P; Fitzgerald, G F; Caplice, N M; Stanton, C

    2015-03-01

    The human enteric microbiome represents a veritable organ relied upon by the host for a range of metabolic and homeostatic functions. Through the production of metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA), folate, vitamins B and K, lactic acid, bacteriocins, peroxides and exopolysaccharides, the bacteria of the gut microbiome provide nutritional components for colonocytes, liver and muscle cells, competitively exclude potential pathogenic organisms and modulate the hosts immune system. Due to the extensive variation in structure, size and composition, microbial exopolysaccharides represent a useful set of versatile natural ingredients for the food industrial sector, both in terms of their rheological properties and in many cases, their associated health benefits. The exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria that fall within the 35 Lactobacillus and five Bifidobacterium species which have achieved qualified presumption of safety (QPS) and generally recognised as safe (GRAS) status are of particular interest, as their inclusion in food products can avoid considerable scrutiny. In addition, additives commonly utilised by the food industry are becoming unattractive to the consumer, due to the demand for a more 'natural' and 'clean labelled' diet. In situ production of exopolysaccharides by food-grade cultures in many cases confers similar rheological and sensory properties in fermented dairy products, as traditional additives, such as hydrocolloids, collagen and alginate. This review will focus on microbial synthesis of exopolysaccharides, the human health benefits of dietary exopolysaccharides and the technofunctional applications of exopolysaccharide-synthesising microbes in the food industry.

  9. Erythrophore cell response to food-associated pathogenic bacteria: implications for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Janine R; Dukovcic, Stephanie R; Dierksen, Karen P; Carlyle, Calvin A; Caldwell, Bruce A; Trempy, Janine E

    2008-09-01

    Cell-based biosensors have been proposed for use as function-based detectors of toxic agents. We report the use of Betta splendens chromatophore cells, specifically erythrophore cells, for detection of food-associated pathogenic bacteria. Evaluation of erythrophore cell response, using Bacillus spp., has revealed that this response can distinguish pathogenic Bacillus cereus from a non-pathogenic B. cereus ΔplcR deletion mutant and a non-pathogenic Bacillus subtilis. Erythrophore cells were exposed to Salmonella enteritidis, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum. Each bacterial pathogen elicited a response from erythrophore cells that was distinguished from the corresponding bacterial growth medium, and this observed response was unique for each bacterial pathogen. These findings suggest that erythrophore cell response has potential for use as a biosensor in the detection and toxicity assessment for food-associated pathogenic bacteria.

  10. ISOLATION RATE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA FROM SOME FOOD PRODUCTS IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salari

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria usually cause disease in the gastrointestinal tract by colonization and growth in the gastrointestinal tract, where the micro organisms may invade the tissues of host or secretion of an exotoxin that is performed in food and then ingested by the host, examples of second group include: staphylococcal, Bacillus cereus, clostridial (C.botulinum and C.perfringens type A toxin. In this study pathogenic bacteria of 350 food products by culture method were investigated. The results were obtained as follows: Bacillus cereus 12 cases (3.4, Staphylococcus coagulase positive 25(7.1%, Staphylococcus coagulase negative 37 (10.6%, Streptococcus alpha hemolysis 18 (5.1%, Enterococcus 3(0.8% and Klebsiella 5(1.4%.

  11. Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Carvalho-Santos, Zita; Francisco, Ana Patrícia; Fioreze, Gabriela Tondolo; Anjos, Margarida; Baltazar, Célia; Elias, Ana Paula; Itskov, Pavel M; Piper, Matthew D W; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Choosing the right nutrients to consume is essential to health and wellbeing across species. However, the factors that influence these decisions are poorly understood. This is particularly true for dietary proteins, which are important determinants of lifespan and reproduction. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, essential amino acids (eAAs) and the concerted action of the commensal bacteria Acetobacter pomorum and Lactobacilli are critical modulators of food choice. Using a chemically defined diet, we show that the absence of any single eAA from the diet is sufficient to elicit specific appetites for amino acid (AA)-rich food. Furthermore, commensal bacteria buffer the animal from the lack of dietary eAAs: both increased yeast appetite and decreased reproduction induced by eAA deprivation are rescued by the presence of commensals. Surprisingly, these effects do not seem to be due to changes in AA titers, suggesting that gut bacteria act through a different mechanism to change behavior and reproduction. Thus, eAAs and commensal bacteria are potent modulators of feeding decisions and reproductive output. This demonstrates how the interaction of specific nutrients with the microbiome can shape behavioral decisions and life history traits.

  12. Documented outbreaks of botulism:the impact of food-borne transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victoria Rebagliati; Sabrina Chianelli; Mariela Tornese; Laura Rossi; Alcides Troncoso

    2008-01-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum's toxins.Although the disease is uncommon,causes great concern due to its high rate of mortality;foodborne outbreaks of botulism occur world-wide and require immediate public health and acute care resources.This study had a review of outstanding out-breaks published;Journals articles related to the subject.From the outbreaks analysis we found the most in-volved food products were:fermented fish products in Alaska;home canning food,oil preservation and restau-rant sauce in London and USA;home canned vegetables,food airtight packed with inappropriate refrigeration and aerosols in Argentina.In conclusion,the diagnosis is based only on clinical findings matching the disease and previous exposure to suspicious food.Botulism must be immediately identified as one case suggests an epi-demic and should be treated as a public health emergency.Therefore the purpose of the following review is to recognize the associated risks with the consumption of potentially dangerous foods,to help work our way on pre-vention for every public health professional to be aware of the dangers of this potentially lethal disease.

  13. Control of lifespan by food bacteria, nutrient limitation and pathogenicity of food in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Shuhei; Tokumaru, Takaaki; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2011-04-01

    The increased lifespan caused by food limitation has been observed in a wide range of animals including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We show here that the lifespans of eat-2 and eat-5 feeding-defective mutants and a mutant of dbl-1 encoding a TGFβ ligand significantly change between the cultures fed on Escherichia coli strain OP50 or a more nutrient-rich strain HB101. On HB101 food, the eat-2, eat-5 and dbl-1 mutants show increased lifespan compared to that of the wild type. This result is probably due to nutrient limitation because the eat mutations reduce food uptake and the mutation of dbl-1 that regulates expression of several digestive enzymes leads to nutrient limitation. In contrast, the lifespans of the eat-2 and dbl-1 mutants decreased from that of the wild type on OP50 food. We found that live OP50 cells within a worm were markedly more in these mutants than in the wild type, which suggests that impaired digestion of pathogenic OP50 decreased lifespan in the eat-2 and dbl-1 mutants.

  14. Microbial Diagnostic Microarrays for the Detection and Typing of Food- and Water-Borne (Bacterial) Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Tanja; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-10-14

    Reliable and sensitive pathogen detection in clinical and environmental (including food and water) samples is of greatest importance for public health. Standard microbiological methods have several limitations and improved alternatives are needed. Most important requirements for reliable analysis include: (i) specificity; (ii) sensitivity; (iii) multiplexing potential; (iv) robustness; (v) speed; (vi) automation potential; and (vii) low cost. Microarray technology can, through its very nature, fulfill many of these requirements directly and the remaining challenges have been tackled. In this review, we attempt to compare performance characteristics of the microbial diagnostic microarrays developed for the detection and typing of food and water pathogens, and discuss limitations, points still to be addressed and issues specific for the analysis of food, water and environmental samples.

  15. Microbial Diagnostic Microarrays for the Detection and Typing of Food- and Water-Borne (Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kostić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and sensitive pathogen detection in clinical and environmental (including food and water samples is of greatest importance for public health. Standard microbiological methods have several limitations and improved alternatives are needed. Most important requirements for reliable analysis include: (i specificity; (ii sensitivity; (iii multiplexing potential; (iv robustness; (v speed; (vi automation potential; and (vii low cost. Microarray technology can, through its very nature, fulfill many of these requirements directly and the remaining challenges have been tackled. In this review, we attempt to compare performance characteristics of the microbial diagnostic microarrays developed for the detection and typing of food and water pathogens, and discuss limitations, points still to be addressed and issues specific for the analysis of food, water and environmental samples.

  16. Listeriosis in animals, its public health significance (food-borne zoonosis) and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis is an infectious and fatal disease of animals, birds, fish, crustaceans and humans. It is an important food-borne zoonosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular pathogen with unique potential to spread from cell to cell, thereby crossing blood-brain, intestinal and placental barriers. The organism possesses a pile of virulence factors that help to infect the host and evade from host immune machinery. Though disease occurrence is sporadic throughout the world, it can result in severe damage during an outbreak. Listeriosis is characterized by septicaemia, encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, abortion, stillbirth, perinatal infections and gastroenteritis with the incubation period varying with the form of infection. L. monocytogenes has been isolated worldwide from humans, animals, poultry, environmental sources like soil, river, decaying plants, and food sources like milk, meat and their products, seafood and vegetables. Since appropriate vaccines are not available and infection is mainly transmitted through foods in humans and animals, hygienic practices can prevent its spread. The present review describes etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, pathogenesis, public health significance, and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and treatment of this disease. Special attention has been given to novel as well as prospective emerging therapies that include bacteriophage and cytokine therapy, avian egg yolk antibodies and herbal therapy. Various vaccines, including advances in recombinant and DNA vaccines and their modes of eliciting immune response, are also discussed. Due focus has also been given regarding appropriate prevention and control strategies to be adapted for better management of this zoonotic disease.

  17. International linkage of two food-borne hepatitis A clusters through traceback of mussels, the Netherlands, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Verhoef, Linda; Vennema, Harry; Ngui, Siew-Lin; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Whiteside, Chris; Lees, David; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-01-01

    This report describes an outbreak investigation starting with two closely related suspected food-borne clusters of Dutch hepatitis A cases, nine primary cases in total, with an unknown source in the Netherlands. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype IA sequences of both clusters were highly similar (459/460 nt) and were not reported earlier. Food questionnaires and a case-control study revealed an association with consumption of mussels. Analysis of mussel supply chains identified the most likely production area. International enquiries led to identification of a cluster of patients near this production area with identical HAV sequences with onsets predating the first Dutch cluster of cases. The most likely source for this cluster was a case who returned from an endemic area in Central America, and a subsequent household cluster from which treated domestic sewage was discharged into the suspected mussel production area. Notably, mussels from this area were also consumed by a separate case in the United Kingdom sharing an identical strain with the second Dutch cluster. In conclusion, a small number of patients in a non-endemic area led to geographically dispersed hepatitis A outbreaks with food as vehicle. This link would have gone unnoticed without sequence analyses and international collaboration.

  18. Detection of food-borne pathogens by nanoparticle technology coupled to a low-cost cell reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiseux, Isabelle; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Gallant, Pascal; Bourqui, Pascal; Cao, Honghe; Vernon, Marci; Johnson, Roger; Chen, Shu; Mermut, Ozzy

    2010-02-01

    The detection, identification and quantification of pathogenic microorganisms at low cost are of great interest to the agro-food industry. We have developed a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific method for detection of food-borne pathogens based on use of nanoparticles alongside a low cost fluorescence cell reader for the bioassay. The nanoparticles are coupled with antibodies that allow specific recognition of the targeted Listeria in either a liquid or food matrix. The bioconjugated nanoparticles (FNP) contain thousands of dye molecules enabling significant amplification of the fluorescent signal emitted from each bacterium. The developed fluorescence Cell Reader is an LED-based reader coupled with suitable optics and a camera that acquires high resolution images. The dedicated algorithm allowed the counting of each individual nanoparticles-fluorescent bacterial cells thus enabling highly sensitive reading. The system allows, within 1 hour, the recovery and counting of 104 to 108 cfu/mL of Listeria in pure culture. However, neither the Cell Reader nor the algorithm can differentiate between the FNPs specifically-bound to the target and the residual unbound FNPs limiting sensitivity of the system. Since FNPs are too small to be washed in the bioassay, a dual tagging approach was implemented to allow online optical separation of the fluorescent background caused by free FNPs.

  19. Effect of hand wash agents on controlling the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from hands to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischler, George E; Fuls, Janice L; Dail, Elizabeth W; Duran, Melani H; Rodgers, Nancy D; Waggoner, Andrea L

    2007-12-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of two hand wash regimens in reducing transient bacteria on the skin following a single hand wash and the subsequent transfer of the bacteria to a ready-to-eat food item, freshly cut cantaloupe melon. The number of bacteria recovered from hands and the quantity transferred to the melon were significantly less following the use of an antibacterial soap compared with plain soap. The antimicrobial soap achieved > 3-log reductions versus Escherichia coli and 3.31- and 2.83-log reductions versus Shigella flexneri. The plain soap failed to achieve a 2-log reduction against either organism. The bacteria recovered from the melon handled by hands treated with antimicrobial hand soap averaged 2 log. Melon handled following hand washing with plain soap had > 3 log bacteria in the experiments. Based on previously published feeding studies, an infection rate in the range of approximately 15 to 25% would be expected after ingesting melon containing 2 log CFU compared with ingesting greater than the 3 log transferred from hands washed with plain soap, which would result in a higher infection attack rate of 50 to 80%. The data thus demonstrate there is a greater potential to reduce the transmission and acquisition of disease through the use of an antimicrobial hand wash than through the use of plain soap.

  20. An alternative chemical redox method for the production of bispecific antibodies: implication in rapid detection of food borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Owais

    Full Text Available Bi-functional antibodies with the ability to bind two unrelated epitopes have remarkable potential in diagnostic and bio-sensing applications. In the present study, bispecific antibodies that recognize human red blood cell (RBC and the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes were engineered. The procedure involves initial reduction of a mixture of anti-RBC and anti-Listeria antibodies followed by gradual re-oxidation of the reduced disulphides. This facilitates association of the separated antibody chains and formation of hybrid immunoglobulins with affinity for the L. monocytogenes and human RBC. The bispecific antibodies caused the agglutination of the RBCs only in the presence of L. monocytogenes cells. The agglutination process necessitated the specific presence of L. monocytogenes and the red colored clumps formed were readily visible with naked eyes. The RBC agglutination assay described here provides a remarkably simple approach for the rapid and highly specific screening of various pathogens in their biological niches.

  1. Enhanced surveillance on food-borne disease outbreaks: dynamics of cross-contamination in biocidal wash procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munther, Daniel; Wu, Jianhong

    2013-03-21

    Understanding the geographic and temporal spread of food-borne diseases associated with fresh produce is crucial for informing adequate surveillance and control. As a first step towards this goal, we develop and analyze a novel three stage model at the processing/sanitization juncture in the fresh produce supply chain. The key feature of our model is its ability to describe the dynamics of cross-contamination during commercial wash procedures. In general, we quantify the degree of cross-contamination in terms of model parameters. Applying these results in the case of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut romaine lettuce, we identify the mean wash time and free chlorine concentration as critical parameters. In addition to showing how these parameters affect contamination levels, we recommend that in order to prevent potential source misidentification, at least 2.2 mg/L of free chlorine should be used during a wash lasting at least 30s.

  2. Bacillus cereus associated food borne disease : quantitative aspects of exposure assessment and hazard characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of food contaminated with the bacterium Bacillus cereus may lead to either symptoms of vomiting or symptoms of diarrhoea. As the symptoms are rather mild, few patients seek medical attention. Therefore, it is hard to estimate the number of cases. To improve estimation of this number

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus Spp. on Selected Food Spoilage Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Gupta, Piyush; Bhattacharya, Susinjan

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to isolate Lactobacillus species from curd, amla/Indian gooseberry and orange and to assess their antagonistic ability against selected food spoilage bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. isolated from natural food sources. In the approaches used, native Lactobacillus spp. were isolated from amla, orange and curd and identified by standard microbiological methods. Their antagonistic affect was tested by disc diffusion tests against three selected test isolates, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. isolated from tomato, pumpkin, cauliflower, lady's finger, carrot, and milk. There are recent patents also suggesting use of novel strains of Lactobacillus for microbial antagonism. In our present work, the lactobacilli isolated from different food sources showed varied ability to inhibit the growth of test isolates. The growth of test isolates was inhibited by Lactobacillus isolates with one of the Lactobacillus isolate from amla being the most potent inhibitor.

  4. Food-associated lactic acid bacteria with antimicrobial potential from traditional Mexican foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, C; García Almendárez, B E; Martin, S E; Regalado, C

    2006-01-01

    This work was conducted to identify indigenous LAB capable of antimicrobial activity, present in traditional Mexican-foods with potential as natural preservatives. A total of 27 artisan unlabeled Mexican products were evaluated, from which 94 LAB strains were isolated, and only 25 strains showed antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogen indicator microorganism. Most of the inhibitory activity showed by the isolated LAB strains was attributed to pH reduction by organic acids. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus strains were good acid producers, depending on the substrate, and may enhance the safety of food products. Cell free cultures of Leuconostoc mesenteroides CH210, and PT8 (from chorizo and pulque, respectively) reduced the number of viable cells of enteropathogenic E. coli in broth system. Lb. plantarum CC10 (from "madre" of vinegar) showed significant inhibitory effect against S. aureus 8943. E. faecium QPII (from panela cheese) produced a bacteriocin with wide anti-L. monocytogenes activity. Selected LAB from traditional Mexican foods showed good potential as bio-preservatives.

  5. Research Progress on Rapid Detection of Food-Borne Bacterial Pathogens%食源性致病菌快速检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封莉; 黄继超; 刘欣; 黄明; 周光宏

    2012-01-01

    食源性致病菌是引发食源性疾病的主要因素,如何有效地检测出食源性致病菌的存在是食源性疾病预防与控制的关键环节。本文较为系统地介绍了利用免疫学、代谢学、分子生物学和生物传感器等技术手段快速检测食源性致病菌的方法,其中免疫学技术由于快速简便和低操作要求等特点便于目前的普及,而分子生物学方法则是致病菌检测的主要发展方向。%Food-borne diseases are mainly caused by bacterial pathogens present in foods.How to effectively detect food-borne bacterial pathogens is the key to prevent and control food-borne disease.This systematic review describes immunological,metabolomics,molecular biological and biosensor techniques for rapid detection of food-borne bacterial pathogens.Immunological techniques are currently very popular due to rapidity,simplicity and low operating requirements.But molecular biological techniques are the main development direction.

  6. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou V

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vangelis Economou,1 Panagiota Gousia2 1Department of Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Food-Water Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to

  7. Real-time PCR Detection of Food-borne Pathogenic Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Mäde, D.; Löfström, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    -limiting gastrointestinal disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts. Within the last decade, numerous real-time PCR assays have been developed for rapid detection of salmonellae in potentially contaminated food or feed. Some of them were extensively validated and are useful for diagnostic laboratories. Furthermore......, effective sample preparation prior to the analytical real-time PCR assay avoids inhibitory substances disturbing the PCR and contributes to a high sensitivity. We discuss appropriate sample preparation methods including enrichment procedures for various food items and analytical real-time PCR assays...... for the detection of Salmonella and give a state-of-the-art summary what targets are used and how valid the assays are to apply as diagnostic tool. Furthermore, recommendations for selection of an appropriate real-time PCR method are presented....

  8. THE IMPORTANCE AND INCIDENCE OF FOOD BORN HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN MAN, IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Neshat

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of helminth parasite, which is quite prevalent in Iran, can infect man by the oral route. The main sources of infections are meat, vegetables and water. Some of these parasites, e.g. Cysticercus bovis, C. cellulose, Trichinella spairalis and Anisakis larvae, are present in the tissue of food animal. Human infection establish by consuming raw or inadequately cooked pork, beef or fish. The infective stages of some helminths, e.g. Trichostrongylus spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura, Fasciola spp. Dicrocelium dendriticum and Dracuncwlus medinensis may infect man through vegetable and drinking water. Using human and animal manure as fertilizer of the soil, facilitate the transmission of these parasites to man. Contaminated food materials can pay also a role in, human hydatidosis. Hygiene is a key factor in the control of all conditions and both medical and veterinary professions have an important function in this field.

  9. Beneficial Effects of Probiotic and Food Borne Yeasts on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloomeh Moslehi-Jenabian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall.

  10. Beneficial effects of probiotic and food borne yeasts on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Pedersen, Line Lindegaard; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, propiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other be...... beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall....

  11. Dietary Fatty Acids and Immune Response to Food-Borne Bacterial Infections

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Functional innate and acquired immune responses are required to protect the host from pathogenic bacterial infections. Modulation of host immune functions may have beneficial or deleterious effects on disease outcome. Different types of dietary fatty acids have been shown to have variable effects on bacterial clearance and disease outcome through suppression or activation of immune responses. Therefore, we have chosen to review research across experimental models and food sources on the effec...

  12. Food-borne allergic disease%食源性过敏性疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎海芪

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 流行病学 过敏性疾病的患病率近10年来在西方国家呈持续增长趋势,其中对食物的不良反应备受人们关注.大约30%的成年人在一生中至少有1次以上对食物不良反应经历[1].对食物的不良反应(adverse reaction to food)包括食物过敏(food alergy,FA)和食物不耐受(food intolerance,FI).FA用于描述由特殊食物蛋白引起的异常或过强的免疫反应;而FI则用于描述摄入食物或食物添加剂发生异常的生理反应,这种反应是非免疫介导的,可以包括代谢异常(如乳糖酶缺乏)、机体本身的特异反应性或是机体对某些食物内含的药物成分(如久置奶酪中含的酪胺)的易感性增高等.

  13. Characterization of some bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona; Stancu, Mihaela-Marilena; Pelinescu, Diana; Zamfir, Medana

    2014-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from different sources (dairy products, fruits, fresh and fermented vegetables, fermented cereals) were screened for antimicrobial activity against other bacteria, including potential pathogens and food spoiling bacteria. Six strains have been shown to produce bacteriocins: Lactococcus lactis 19.3, Lactobacillus plantarum 26.1, Enterococcus durans 41.2, isolated from dairy products and Lactobacillus amylolyticus P40 and P50, and Lactobacillus oris P49, isolated from bors. Among the six bacteriocins, there were both heat stable, low molecular mass polypeptides, with a broad inhibitory spectrum, probably belonging to class II bacteriocins, and heat labile, high molecular mass proteins, with a very narrow inhibitory spectrum, most probably belonging to class III bacteriocins. A synergistic effect of some bacteriocins mixtures was observed. We can conclude that fermented foods are still important sources of new functional LAB. Among the six characterized bacteriocins, there might be some novel compounds with interesting features. Moreover, the bacteriocin-producing strains isolated in our study may find applications as protective cultures.

  14. Physiological Role of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in Food-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, Vicente; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are widespread signal transduction pathways mainly found in bacteria where they play a major role in adaptation to changing environmental conditions. TCSs generally consist of sensor histidine kinases that autophosphorylate in response to a specific stimulus and subsequently transfer the phosphate group to their cognate response regulators thus modulating their activity, usually as transcriptional regulators. In this review we present the current knowledge on the physiological role of TCSs in species of the families Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae of the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB are microorganisms of great relevance for health and food production as the group spans from starter organisms to pathogens. Whereas the role of TCSs in pathogenic LAB (most of them belonging to the family Streptococcaceae) has focused the attention, the roles of TCSs in commensal LAB, such as most species of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae, have been somewhat neglected. However, evidence available indicates that TCSs are key players in the regulation of the physiology of these bacteria. The first studies in food-associated LAB showed the involvement of some TCSs in quorum sensing and production of bacteriocins, but subsequent studies have shown that TCSs participate in other physiological processes, such as stress response, regulation of nitrogen metabolism, regulation of malate metabolism, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides, among others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In-situ detection of multiple pathogenic bacteria on food surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yating; Horikawa, Shin; Hu, Jiajia; Chen, I.-Hsuan; Hu, Jing; Barbaree, James M.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2015-05-01

    Real-time in-situ detection of pathogenic bacteria on fresh food surfaces was accomplished with phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors. The ME biosensor is constructed of a small rectangular strip of ME material that is coated with a biomolecular recognition element (phage, antibodies or proteins, etc.) that is specific to the target pathogen. This mass-sensitive ME biosensor is wirelessly actuated into mechanical resonance by an externally applied time-varying magnetic field. When the biosensor binds with target bacteria, the mass of the sensor increases, resulting in a decrease in the sensor's resonant frequency. In order to compensate for nonspecific binding, control biosensors without phage were used in this experiment. In previous research, the biosensors were measured one by one. However, the simultaneous measurement of multiple sensors was accomplished in this research, and promises to greatly shorten the analysis time for bacterial detection. Additionally, the use of multiple biosensors enables the possibility of simultaneous detection of different pathogenic bacteria. This paper presents results of experiments in which multiple phage-based ME biosensors were simultaneously monitored. The E2 phage and JRB7 phage from a landscape phage library served as the bio-recognition element that have the capability of binding specifically with Salmonella typhimurium and B. anthracis spores, respectively. Real-time in-situ detection of Salmonella typhimurium and B. anthracis spores on food surfaces are presented.

  16. A glutamic acid-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from Malaysian fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Kedawung Extract (Parkia Roxburghii G. Don on Food Borne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervizal A. M Zuhud, Winiati Pudji Rahayu, C. Hanny Wijaya, Pipi Puspita Sari

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Kedawung is a Leguminosae/Fabaceae which. It is commonly used as traditional medicine for infection and stomach disoders, caused by bacteria.The aim of this study is to examine the potential antimicrobial activity of seed, bark, root and kedawung leaf. It is expected that the result will give information on characteristics and concentration of kedawung part which have the highest antimicrobial activity.The result showed that the bark has the highest antimicrobial activity on Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Extract made from kedawung plant and water (ratio 1:2,b/v was better than those made with ratios of 1 : 1 or 1 : 3 (b/v. Heat did not decrease its antimicrobial activity. Extract concentration of 10% (21.40 mg/ml with contact time of 24 hour decreased bacterial growth but did not inactivate them.

  18. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skanseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pal; Zimonja, Monika

    2007-01-01

    , with an important reservoir in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens, was used as a model. We investigated the co-colonisation dynamics of seven C. jejuni strains in a chicken GI infection trial. The seven strains were isolated from an epidemiological study showing multiple strain infections at the farm level....... We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature ( treated...... with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host...

  19. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skanseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pal; Zimonja, Monika;

    2007-01-01

    with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host....... We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature ( treated...... and not the background flora that is important in determining the Campylobacter colonisation pattern. Our results showed that mainly two of the seven C. jejuni strains dominated the Campylobacter flora in the chickens, with a shift of the dominating strain during the infection period. We propose a model in which...

  20. Mobile antibiotic resistance - the spread of genes determining the resistance of bacteria through food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godziszewska, Jolanta; Guzek, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-07-07

    In recent years, more and more antibiotics have become ineffective in the treatment of bacterial nfections. The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria is associated with circulation of genes in the environment. Determinants of antibiotic resistance may be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. It has been shown that conjugation is one of the key mechanisms responsible for spread of antibiotic resistance genes, which is highly efficient and allows the barrier to restrictions and modifications to be avoided. Some conjugative modules enable the transfer of plasmids even between phylogenetically distant bacterial species. Many scientific reports indicate that food is one of the main reservoirs of these genes. Antibiotic resistance genes have been identified in meat products, milk, fruits and vegetables. The reason for such a wide spread of antibiotic resistance genes is the overuse of antibiotics by breeders of plants and animals, as well as by horizontal gene transfer. It was shown, that resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements, which are isolated from food products, can easily be transferred to another niche. The antibiotic resistance genes have been in the environment for 30 000 years. Their removal from food products is not possible, but the risks associated with the emergence of multiresistant pathogenic strains are very large. The only option is to control the emergence, selection and spread of these genes. Therefore measures are sought to prevent horizontal transfer of genes. Promising concepts involve the combination of developmental biology, evolution and ecology in the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance.

  1. Food-borne diseases associated with frozen berries consumption: a historical perspective, European Union, 1983 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoschi, L; Severi, E; Niskanen, T; Boelaert, F; Rizzi, V; Liebana, E; Gomes Dias, J; Nichols, G; Takkinen, J; Coulombier, D

    2015-07-23

    Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus (NoV) infections in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last five years have highlighted frozen berries as a vehicle of infection. Given the increasing berry consumption in the EU over the last decades, we undertook a review of the existing evidence to assess the potential scale of threat associated with this product. We searched the literature and four restricted-access online platforms for outbreak/contamination events associated with consumption of frozen berries. We performed an evaluation of the sources to identify areas for improvement. The review revealed 32 independent events (i.e. outbreak, food contamination) in the period 1983–2013, of which 26 were reported after 2004. The identified pathogens were NoV, HAV and Shigella sonnei. NoV was the most common and implicated in 27 events with over 15,000 cases reported. A capture–recapture analysis was performed including three overlapping sources for the period 2005–2013. The study estimated that the event-ascertainment was 62%. Consumption of frozen berries is associated with increasing reports of NoV and HAV outbreaks and contamination events, particularly after 2003. A review of the risks associated with this product is required to inform future prevention strategies. Better integration of the available communication platforms and databases should be sought at EU/EEA level to improve monitoring, prevention and control of food-borne-related events.

  2. Evidence That the Enterotoxin Gene Can Be Episomal in Clostridium perfringens Isolates Associated with Non-Food-Borne Human Gastrointestinal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for the diarrheal and cramping symptoms of human C. perfringens type A food poisoning. CPE-producing C. perfringens isolates have also recently been associated with several non-food-borne human gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and sporadic diarrhea. The current study has used restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses to compare the genoty...

  3. Description of Clean and Healthy Behavior of Food Borne Disease Among by School Children Age in Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat Heny Sholikhah; Florentina Sustini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incidence of food borne disease, such as diarrhea, typhoid and hookworm infection in school childrenwere still sufficient susceptible. Lack of clean and healthy behavior became primary cause, so that the agent can easilyenter to the body through the food consumed. The purpose of this study was to descript the clean and healthy behaviors by school children age at Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya. Methods: This study was a crosssectional study. The sample o...

  4. Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments.

  5. Ecophysiological characterization of common food-borne fungi in relation to pH and water activity under various atmospheric compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    The combined effect of pH, water activity (aw), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on growth and sporulation of 10 common food-borne fungi were studied. The use of a multivariate statistical method (PLS) for the analysis of data showed, that the fungi could be grouped according...

  6. Detection of Kudoa septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in patient fecal samples from novel food-borne outbreaks caused by consumption of raw olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuya; Kawai, Takao; Jinnai, Michio; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumeda, Yuko

    2012-09-01

    Kudoa septempunctata is a newly identified myxosporean parasite of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a suspected causative agent of several food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Japan. Here, we report the detection of K. septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in fecal samples of outbreak patients using an efficient method based on real-time PCR. We first performed a spiking experiment to assess whether our previously developed real-time PCR assay was applicable to detect K. septempunctata in feces. Simultaneously, we compared the relative extraction efficacy of K. septempunctata DNA using three commercial kits. Finally, our detection method was validated by testing 45 clinical samples obtained from 13 food-borne outbreaks associated with the consumption of raw flounder and 41 fecal samples from diarrhea patients epidemiologically unrelated to the ingestion of raw fish. We found that the FastDNA Spin Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals) was the most efficient method for extracting K. septempunctata DNA from fecal samples. Using this kit, the detection limit of our real-time PCR assay was 1.6 × 10(1) spores per g of feces, and positive results were obtained for 21 fecal and 2 vomitus samples obtained from the food-borne outbreaks. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the detection of K. septempunctata DNA in patient fecal samples. We anticipate that our detection method will be useful for confirming food-borne diseases caused by K. septempunctata in laboratory investigations.

  7. Bacteriophages to combat foodborne infections caused by food contamination by bacteria of the Campylobacter genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Myga-Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen. According to the European Food Safety Authority report from 2015, the number of reported and confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis exceeds 200 thousands per year, and such trend remains at constant level for several years. The occurrence of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria forces the limitation of antibiotic use in the animal production. Therefore, the European Union allows only using stringent preventive and hygienic treatment on farms. Achieving Campylobacter free chickens using these methods is possible, but difficult to implement and expensive. Utilization of bacterial viruses – bacteriophages, can be a path to provide the hygienic conditions of poultry production and food processing. Formulations applied in the food protection should contain strictly lytic bacteriophages, be non-pyrogenic and retain long lasting biological activity. Currently, on the market there are available commercial bacteriophage preparations for agricultural use, but neither includes phages against Campylobacter. However, papers on the application of bacteriophages against Campylobacter in chickens and poultry products were published in the last few years. In accordance with the estimates, 2-logarithm reduction of Campylobacter in poultry carcases will contribute to the 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Research on bacteriophages against Campylobacter have cognitive and economic

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antibiogramic Activities of the Seeds of Myristica fragrans on Food Borne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emefo, O. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Foodborne diseases have been shown to have direct impact on the health and welfare of a large number of the world population. The in vitro antibiogramic properties of natural spices (Myristica fragrans on common food borne pathogen became necessary both in improving food safety and development of new drugs. Methodology and Results: Test isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected from the culture collection unit of the department of Microbiology, Benson Idahosa University, Nigeria. Seeds of M. fragrans were extracted by soxhlet extractor using ethanol and water, while the oil was obtained by steam distillation. The extracts and oil were tested against the bacterial isolates using agar well diffusion method at varying concentration (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL. The oil of M. fragrans was found to have the highest antibiogramic activity on the selected isolates, followed by its ethanolic extract with zones of inhibition ranging from 0-24 mm and 0-16 mm respectively. The aqueous extract of M. fragrans was found to be effective against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis only at 100 mg/mL. The MIC was also higher in oil extract of M. fragrans compared to its ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Conclusion, Significance and Impact of study: The oil and aqueous extract of M. fragrans showed antibiogramic properties against the bacterial isolates used at different concentrations. Thus, its oil can be used as an alternative to synthetic food preservative found to harbor toxic effects and could also serve as sources for development of new antibiotics.

  9. Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Fermented Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormin, Salasiah; Rusul, Gulam; Radu, Son; Ling, Foo Hooi

    2001-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from several traditional fermented foods such as “tempeh”, “tempoyak” and “tapai” were screened for the production of bacteriocin. One strain isolated from “tempeh” gives an inhibitory activity against several LAB. The strain was later identified as Lactobacillus plantarum BS2. Study shows that the inhibitory activity was not caused by hydrogen peroxide, organic acids or bacteriophage. The bacteriocin production was maximum after 10 hours of incubation with an activity of 200 AU/ml. The bacteriocin was found to be sensitive towards trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, β-chymotrypsin, α-amylase and lysozyme. PMID:22973159

  10. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and norovirus surrogate in suspension and on food-contact surfaces using pulsed UV light (pulsed light inactivation of food-borne viruses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Julie; Morales-Rayas, Rocío; Anoman, Marie-Natacha; Lamhoujeb, Safaa

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inactivation of murine norovirus (MNV-1) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) by pulsed ultraviolet (UV) light. MNV-1 was used as a model for human norovirus. Viral suspensions of about 10(6) PFU/ml were exposed to pulses of UV light for different times and at different distances in a Xenon Steripulse device (model RS-3000C). Inactivation studies were also carried out on 1-cm(2) stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride disks with 10(5) PFU/ml. Inactivation of MNV-1 and HAV at 10.5 cm from the UV source was greater on inert surfaces than in suspension. The presence of organic matter (fetal bovine serum) reduced the effectiveness of pulsed light both in suspension and on surfaces. However, 2-s treatment in the absence of FBS completely inactivated (5 log reduction) the viral load at different distances tested, whether in suspension (MNV-1) or on disks (MNV-1 and HAV). The same treatment in the presence of fetal bovine serum (5%) allowed a reduction of about 3 log. This study showed that short duration pulses represent an excellent alternative for inactivation of food-borne viruses. This technology could be used to inactivate viruses in drinking water or on food-handling surfaces. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selected Essential Oils as Antifungal Agents Against Antibiotic-Resistant Candida spp.: In Vitro Study on Clinical and Food-Borne Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Maroszyńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Candida spp. cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. As a result of the increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogenic yeasts, the interest in alternative agents of antifungal activity is growing. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils (EOs) against Candida clinical and food-borne strains, including antibiotic-resistant isolates, in relation to yeast cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH). Candida strains showed different range of susceptibility to tea tree, thyme, peppermint, and clove oils, and peppermint oil demonstrated the lowest anticandidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.03-8.0% v/v. MIC values for thyme and clove oils ranged from 0.03% to 0.25% v/v, and for tea tree oil-from 0.12% to 2.0% v/v. The exception was Candida tropicalis food-borne strain, the growth of which was inhibited after application of EOs at concentration of 8% v/v. Due to diverse yeast susceptibility to EOs, isolates were divided into five clusters in a principal component analysis model, each containing both clinical and food-borne strains. Hydrophobic properties of yeast were also diversified, and 37% of clinical and 50% of food-borne strains exhibited high hydrophobicity. The study indicates high homology of clinical and food-borne Candida isolates in relation to their susceptibility to anticandidal agents and hydrophobic properties. The susceptibility of yeasts to EOs could be partially related to their CSH. High antifungal activity of examined EOs, also against antibiotic-resistant isolates, indicates their usefulness as agents preventing the development of Candida strains of different origin.

  12. Microbial community analysis of food-spoilage bacteria in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, K; Kawai, Y; Iioka, H; Tanioka, M; Nishimura, J; Kitazawa, H; Tsurumi, K; Saito, T

    2008-08-01

    Custard cream is made from highly nutritive raw materials such as milk and sugar and is easily spoiled by the multiplication of specific microbial contaminants or residents. However, this spoilage microbial community has not been studied. We determined the spoilage microbiota in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods. Using the culture-dependent analysis with various agar media, 185 bacterial colonies and 43 eukaryal colonies were isolated from 7 commercial custard cream products. All bacterial isolates were morphologically, physiologically, and genetically identified as bacilli, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, and psychrotrophic gram-negative rods. Using culture-independent molecular analysis, the PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique, spoilage of the commercial custard creams was found to be caused by bacilli, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophic gram-negative rods, Anoxybacillus sp., Caurobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. bacteria. The detected spoilage bacteria were the same species as previously detected in spoiled milk products and shown in other reports, suggesting that spoilage bacteria in a raw material easily grow in processed foods made from milk. We determined the spoilage microbial communities in commercial custard creams, and these are the first data concerning spoilage microbiota in nonfermented processed foods using a culture-independent analysis. Our study will be useful for the manufacture and safe preservation of dairy products because the first step toward safe food preservation by food manufacturers is to understand the spoilage microbiota in a target food to select optimal preservatives and to reduce the use of food additives.

  13. Simultaneous, specific and real-time detection of biothreat and frequently encountered food-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woubit, Abdela Salah; Yehualaeshet, Teshome; Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Samuel, Temesgen

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial genera Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Yersinia and Francisella include important food safety and biothreat agents causing food-related and other human illnesses worldwide. We aimed to develop rapid methods with the capability to simultaneously and differentially detect all six pathogens in one run. Our initial experiments to use previously reported sets of primers revealed non-specificity of some of the sequences when tested against a broader array of pathogens, or proved not optimal for simultaneous detection parameters. By extensive mining of the whole genome and protein databases of diverse closely and distantly related bacterial species and strains, we have identified unique genome regions, which we utilized to develop a detection platform. Twelve of the specific genomic targets we have identified to design the primers in F. tularensis ssp. tularensis, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, S. dysentriae, S. typhimurium, V. cholera, Y. pestis, and Y. pseudotuberculosis contained either hypothetical or putative proteins, the functions of which have not been clearly defined. Corresponding primer sets were designed from the target regions for use in real-time PCR assays to detect specific biothreat pathogens at species or strain levels. The primer sets were first tested by in-silico PCR against whole genome sequences of different species, sub-species, or strains and then by in vitro PCR against genomic DNA preparations from 23 strains representing six biothreat agents (E.coli O157:H7 strain EDL 933, Shigella dysentriae, Salmonella typhi, Francisella tularensis ssp. tularensis, Vibrio cholera, and Yersinia pestis) and six foodborne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella saintpaul, Shigella sonnei, Francisella novicida, Vibrio parahemolytica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis). Each pathogen was specifically identifiable at the genus and species levels. Sensitivity assays performed using purified DNA showed the lowest detection limit of 640 fg

  14. One Health and Food-Borne Disease: Salmonella Transmission between Humans, Animals, and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Maloy, Stanley

    2014-02-01

    There are >2,600 recognized serovars of Salmonella enterica. Many of these Salmonella serovars have a broad host range and can infect a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects. In addition, Salmonella can grow in plants and can survive in protozoa, soil, and water. Hence, broad-host-range Salmonella can be transmitted via feces from wild animals, farm animals, and pets or by consumption of a wide variety of common foods: poultry, beef, pork, eggs, milk, fruit, vegetables, spices, and nuts. Broad-host-range Salmonella pathogens typically cause gastroenteritis in humans. Some Salmonella serovars have a more restricted host range that is associated with changes in the virulence plasmid pSV, accumulation of pseudogenes, and chromosome rearrangements. These changes in host-restricted Salmonella alter pathogen-host interactions such that host-restricted Salmonella organisms commonly cause systemic infections and are transmitted between host populations by asymptomatic carriers. The secondary consequences of efforts to eliminate host-restricted Salmonella serovars demonstrate that basic ecological principles govern the environmental niches occupied by these pathogens, making it impossible to thwart Salmonella infections without a clear understanding of the human, animal, and environmental reservoirs of these pathogens. Thus, transmission of S. enterica provides a compelling example of the One Health paradigm because reducing human infections will require the reduction of Salmonella in animals and limitation of transmission from the environment.

  15. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-12-30

    Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  16. Two food-borne heterocyclic amines: Metabolism and DNA adduct formation of amino-alpha-carbolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    The amino-alpha-carbolines 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido-[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C) are two mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines formed during ordinary cooking. Amino-alpha-carbolines can be formed in model systems by pyrolyzing tryptophan...... or proteins of animal or vegetable origin, furthermore they are found in many cooked foods, such as fish, meat, and chicken. The specific mutagenicity of the amino-a-carbolines are lower in the Ames Salmonella assay than other heterocyclic amines, but in rodent studies the carcinogenicity of the aminoa, alpha......-carbolines are comparable to other heterocyclic amines. The metabolic pathways of the amino-alpha-carbolines have been studied in vitro and in vivo, and the detoxified phase I and phase II metabolites characterized and quantified. The metabolic activation of the amino-a-carbolines and the formation of DNA-adducts have also...

  17. Evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of anisakis simplex parasite as a food-borne allergen source in seafood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Itziar; Pardo, Miguel Angel

    2010-02-10

    Anisakis simplex has been recognized as an important cause of disease in humans and as a food-borne allergen source. Actually, this food-borne parasite was recently identified as an emerging food safety risk. An A. simplex -specific primer-probe system based on a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection assay has been successfully optimized and validated with seafood samples. In addition, a DNA extraction procedure has been optimized to detect the presence of the nematode in food samples. The assay is a very reliable, specific, and sensitive methodology to detect the presence of traces of this parasite in seafood products, including highly processed samples. As a result, 13 sequences of cytochrome c oxidase II gene were obtained and scrutinized to calculate intra- and interspecific variabilities of 0 and 35-67%, respectively. Finally, an efficiency of 2.07 +/- 0.14 of the assay was calculated, and a limit of detection of 40 ppm parasite in 25 g of sample was also optimized. Actually, the presence of this parasite in several seafood products has been demonstrated, enforcing the necessity of a design for a good manufacturing practice protocol for the processing industry to minimize the presence of this parasite as a food-borne allergen source in seafood products.

  18. Assessment of a regulatory sanitization process in Egyptian dairy plants in regard to the adherence of some food-borne pathogens and their biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumi, Mohamed A; Kamal, Rania M; Abd El Aal, Salah F; Awad, Esmat I

    2012-09-03

    Food-borne pathogens may develop certain strategies that enable them to defy harsh conditions such as chemical sanitization. Biofilm formation represents a prominent one among those adopted strategies, by which food-borne pathogens protect themselves against external threats. Thus, bacterial biofilm is considered as a major hazard for safe food production. This study was designed to investigate the adherence and the biofilm formation ability of some food-borne pathogens on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces using chip assay, and to validate regular sanitizing process (sodium hypochlorite 250 mg/L) for effective elimination of those pathogens. Sixteen pathogenic bacterial strains, previously isolated from raw milk and dairy products at Zagazig city, Egypt (9 Staphylococcus aureus, 4 Cronobacter sakazakii and 3 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium), were chosen for this study. Strains showed different patterns of adherence and biofilm formation on tested surfaces with minor significance between surfaces. The ability of sodium hypochlorite to completely eradicate either adhered or biofilm-embedded pathogens varied significantly depending on the strain and type of surface used. Whilst, sodium hypochlorite reduced tested pathogens counts per cm² of produced biofilms, but it was not able to entirely eliminate neither them nor adherent Cronobacter sakazakii to stainless steel surface. This study revealed that biofilm is considered as a sustainable source of contamination of dairy products with these pathogens, and also emphasized the need of paying more attention to the cleaning and sanitizing processes of food contact surfaces.

  19. DYNAMICS OF TICKS’ INFESTATION WITH BORRELIA GENUS BACTERIA AND TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN KIROV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bessolitsyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis and tick-borne borreliosis (or Lyme disease are one of the most known and the most spread transmissible diseases of human. Nowadays it was proved that these diseases are diagnosed among domestic animals as well. Ixodida ticks are often serve as vectors for these diseases. It is common that only ticks gathered from human after bite are studied for presence of infection. But such approach does not give a full distribution picture of infection among the ticks. Thus, it is necessary to study ticks gathered not only from human but from other sources as well. The aim of this study is to determine the presence of TBEV and Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato genetic material in ticks depending on its species, sexual identity and object it was gathered from in 2007–2016. The main tick vectors were determined. It was shown that percentage of infected with different diseases ticks fluctuates separately during the period of the study. It was also shown that percentage of infected ticks tends to increase. It is often that only tick female are studied as it stay for a long time after the bite. But it was proved that male ticks can also be a vector for diseases. It was proved that percentage of infected male ticks is increasing. The percentage of infected female ticks is also increasing along with general percentage of infected ticks. Fluctuations of percentage of infected ticks among different species was shown. Such fluctuation can be a sign tick’s areal spreading at unusual territories. It can be related to climate change. The difference of percentage of infected ticks of different species can be related to the study of ticks usual for the area and ticks which migrate to the Kirov region. The percentage of infected ticks was also studied. It was also proved that the maximum percentage of infected ticks had the ones gathered from human and minimal percentage had the ones gathered from plants.

  20. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance of Probiotic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Marketed Foods and Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG LIU; ZHUO-YANG ZHANG; KE DONG; JIAN-PING YUAN; XIAO-KUI GUO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the antimicrobial resistance of commercial lactic acid bacteria present in microbial foods and drug additives by analyzing their isolated strains used for fermentation and probioties. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility of 41 screened isolates was tested with disc diffusion and E-test methods after species-level identification. Resistant strains were selected and examined for the presence of resistance genes by PCR. Results Distribution of resistance was found in different species. All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, and imipenem. In addition, isolates resistant to vancomycin, rifampicin, streptomycin, bacitracin, and erythromycin were detected, although the incidence of resistance to these antibiotics was relatively low. In contrast, most strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, and gentamycin. The genes msrC, vanX, and dfrA were detected in strains of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactococcus lactis. Conclusion Antibiotic resistance is present in different species of probiotic strains, which poses a threat to food safety. Evaluation of the safety of lactic acid bacteria for human consumption should be guided by established criteria, guidelines and regulations.

  2. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015 [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments.

  3. An estimate of the cost of acute health effects from food- and water-borne marine pathogens and toxins in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Erin P; Kite-Powell, Hauke; Beet, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Large and growing segments of the United States population consume seafood or engage in marine recreation. These activities provide significant benefits but also bring risk of exposure to marine-borne illness. To manage these risks, it is important to understand the incidence and cost of marine-borne disease. We review the literature and surveillance/monitoring data to determine the annual incidence of disease and health consequences due to marine-borne pathogens from seafood consumption and beach recreation in the USA. Using this data, we employ a cost-of-illness model to estimate economic impacts. Our results suggest that health consequences due to marine-borne pathogens in the USA have annual costs on the order of US$900 million. This includes US$350 million due to pathogens and marine toxins specifically identified as causing food-borne disease, an estimated US$300 million due to seafood-borne disease with unknown etiology, US$30 million from direct exposure to the Vibrio species, and US$300 million due to gastrointestinal illness from beach recreation. Although there is considerable uncertainty about the degree of underreporting of certain pathogen-specific acute marine-related illnesses, the conservative assumptions we have used in constructing our estimate suggest that it should be considered a lower bound on true costs.

  4. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  5. 贵阳市市售鸡肉中五种食源性致病菌污染状况调查研究%Investigation of Five Kinds of Food - borne Pathogen in Retail Chicken Meat in Guiyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧婧; 谭艾娟; 吕世明; 金志强; 方英; 尹泽东

    2012-01-01

    The pollutions of five kinds of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in retail chicken in Guiyang city were, investigated. The results show that the total detection rates of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in 50 retail chicken samples was 48% , among which, the detection rates of Campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, Shigella in 50 retail chicken samples were 24. 0% , 22. 0% , 6. 0% , 2. 0% respectively, and no Listeria monocytogene was determined. The detection rates of frozen chicken and fresh chicken were 55% and 20% , respectively. The detection rate of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in 34 frozen chicken samples in open warket was 58. 8% , among which, the detection rates of Campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, Shigella were 32. 3% , 17. 6% , 5. 9% 2. 9% , 0 respectively. The detection rate of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in six frozen chicken samples that were sold in supermarket was 33. 3% , a-mong which, the detection rates of Campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, Shigella in six samples were 0, 16. 7% , 16. 7% , 0, 0, respectively.%对贵阳市市售鸡肉中5种食源性致病菌的污染情况进行调查,结果表明:50份样品中食源性致病菌总检出率为48%,其中空肠弯曲菌、沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、志贺氏菌和单核细胞增生李斯特菌的检出率分别为24.0%、22.0%、6.0%、2.0%、0,40份冻鸡肉样品的检出率为55%,10份鲜鸡肉样品的检出率为20%.对农贸市场市售冻鸡肉样品进行抽查,34份样品中5种致病菌的检出率为58.8%,其中空肠弯曲菌、沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、志贺氏菌和单核细胞增生李斯特菌的检出率分别为32.3%、17.6%、5.9%、2.9%、0;对6份超市冻鸡肉样品进行检测,食源性致病菌的检出率为33.3%,其中空肠弯曲菌、沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、志贺氏菌和单核细胞增生李斯特菌的裣出率分别为0、16

  6. Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimpong David B

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous fermented food products play an essential role in the diet of millions of Africans. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries. Numerous studies have described antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of LAB from different parts of the world. However, there is limited information on antimicrobial resistance profiles of LAB from Africa. The aim of this study was to characterize 33 LAB previously isolated from three different African indigenous fermented food products using (GTG5-based rep-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and species-specific PCR techniques for differentiation of closely related species and further evaluate their antibiotic resistance profiles by the broth microdilution method and their haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates as indicators of safety traits among these bacteria. Results Using molecular biology based methods and selected phenotypic tests such as catalase reaction, CO2 production from glucose, colonies and cells morphology, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus ghanensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa. The bacteria were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin but resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. Variable sensitivity profiles to tetracycline and gentamicin was observed among the isolates with Lb. plantarum, Lb. salivarius, W. confusa (except strain SK9-5 and Lb. fermentum strains being susceptible to tetracycline whereas Pediococcus strains and Lb. ghanensis strains were resistant. For gentamicin, Leuc. pseudomesenteroides, Lb. ghanensis and Ped. acidilactici strains were resistant to 64

  7. Listeria monocytogenes infection in poultry and its public health importance with special reference to food borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.

  8. Automated analysis of food-borne pathogens using a novel microbial cell culture, sensing and classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kun; Li, Yinglei; Ford, William; Land, Walker; Schaffer, J David; Congdon, Robert; Zhang, Jing; Sadik, Omowunmi

    2016-02-21

    We hereby report the design and implementation of an Autonomous Microbial Cell Culture and Classification (AMC(3)) system for rapid detection of food pathogens. Traditional food testing methods require multistep procedures and long incubation period, and are thus prone to human error. AMC(3) introduces a "one click approach" to the detection and classification of pathogenic bacteria. Once the cultured materials are prepared, all operations are automatic. AMC(3) is an integrated sensor array platform in a microbial fuel cell system composed of a multi-potentiostat, an automated data collection system (Python program, Yocto Maxi-coupler electromechanical relay module) and a powerful classification program. The classification scheme consists of Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) oracle-based system. Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) is performed on standard samples or unknown samples. Then, using preset feature extractions and quality control, accepted data are analyzed by the intelligent classification system. In a typical use, thirty-two extracted features were analyzed to correctly classify the following pathogens: Escherichia coli ATCC#25922, Escherichia coli ATCC#11775, and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC#12228. 85.4% accuracy range was recorded for unknown samples, and within a shorter time period than the industry standard of 24 hours.

  9. 食源性致病菌傅里叶变换红外光谱快速鉴别方法%Screening and Identification Method of Food-borne Pathogens using FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 唐颖; 徐凯; 张之韵; 赵冰; 郭鲁申; 赵渝

    2011-01-01

    利用傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)分析食源性致病菌脂多糖粗提物,建立一种微生物快速筛选、鉴别的方法.分析5种(8株)典型革兰氏阴性食源性致病菌脂多糖的红外光谱特征区段的差异,采用分级聚类分析方法对结果进行比较,并用菌株16srDNA的亲缘性分析进行比对验证.结果表明,革兰氏阴性食源性致病菌脂多糖的光谱特征区间分别为1750~1500 cm-1、1500~1360 cm-1、1160~920 cm-1和890~750 cm-1.聚类结果显示,基于脂多糖的红外光谱分析方法,不仅可以区分不同种属的微生物、致病与非致病性食源性致病菌,而且还能将同种不同分离株的食源性致病菌归类聚合.FTIR结合多元分析方法可用于食源性致病菌的快速筛选研究.%A rapid identification methods of microbial species was established by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of erode lipopolysaccharides extracted from five different kinds of gram-negative food-borne bacteria.According to the difference in each strain's characteristic range, their relationship were compared and identified by clustering method. In addition, the method had been proved to be reliable by the analysis of clustering and phylogenetic tree based on 16srDNA. The result showed that the characteristic ranges of gram-negative food-borne bacterial were 1 750~1 500 cm-1, 1 500~1 360 cm-1, 1 160~920 cm-1 and 890~750 cm-1. Different species of food-borne pathogens can be identified significantly based on the method of FTIR to crude lipopolysaecharides. With these protocols,virulent and avirulent food-borne pathogens can be identified. The result of clustering also demonstrated that this method can classify the strains which were separated from a same species. FTIR combined with a multidimensional approach show high potential as a rapid, accurate and easy-to-use method for the identification of food-borne pathogens. It will bo an important practical tool in the

  10. 食源性寄生虫病的防治%Prevention and treatment of food borne parasitic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许炽熛

    2007-01-01

    食源性寄生虫病(food borne parasitic diseases)是指通过吃了食物中所携带的寄生虫体或幼虫而受感染的寄生虫病,其范围很广,可包括:原虫病、蠕虫病及节肢动物病。随着我国改革开放政策的深入发展,我国经济形势大好,人民生活水平及条件得到明显提高和改善,寄生虫病的种类也发生了改变,土源性寄生虫病的发病率逐渐下降,而食源性寄生虫病的发病率却呈日渐增多的趋势,一些过去较少见的食源性寄生虫病,如鄂口线虫病、肾膨结线虫病、广州管圆线虫病等也比以前多见。过去在山区才能吃到小螃蟹(溪蟹等),现在已运到城市饭店内销售,因而,

  11. Enteropathogenic bacteria and enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from ready-to-eat foods in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomvarin, Chariya; Chantarasuk, Yingrit; Srigulbutr, Sugunya; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri; Chaicumpar, Kunyaluk

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food in the Municipality of Khon Kaen, Thailand. Four categories of 186 food samples were collected: (1) high heat food; (2) low heat food; (3) no heat food; and, 4) on-site prepared fruit juices and beverages. Of the food samples, 145 (78%) failed to meet acceptable microbiological standards, including fruit juice and beverages (100%), no heat food (91.7%), low heat food (81.7%) and high heat food (57.9%). The most frequent bacterial indexes indicating unacceptability were the most probable number (MPN) of coliforms (78%), the bacterial colony count (58%), and the MPN of E. coli (46%). Pathogenic bacteria were found in 6.5% of food samples. Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae non O1 and Aeromonas hydrophila were found in 4.3, 1.6 and 0.5% of the total food samples, respectively. The serovars of Salmonella found in food were S. Derby, S. Give, S. Krefield, S. Paratyphi B, S. Verchow, S. Lexington and S. Senftenberg. Staphylococcus aureus concentrations of >10(2) CFU/g and >10(5) CFU/g were found in 10.8% and 1.1% of the food samples. Enterotoxin types AB and A of S. aureus were found in 2.7% of the food samples. These results indicate that more than half of the ready-to-eat foods tested in Khon Kaen municipality did not meet microbiological national standards and many kinds of enteropathogenic bacteria were found, suggesting food stalls may be a source of foodborne disease.

  12. Tick-borne bacteria in Ixodes ricinus collected in southern Norway evaluated by a commercial kit and established real-time PCR protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarsten, H; Skarpaas, T; Fajs, L; Noraas, S; Kjelland, V

    2015-06-01

    Ticks are important vectors of human pathogens. The knowledge of disease causing agents harboured by ticks in Norway is limited. The focus of this study was (a) to detect the bacteria of medical importance in ticks collected from the vegetation at locations in the southern part of the country and (b) to evaluate a novel commercially available multiplex PCR based method by comparing results with conventional established real-time PCR protocols. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was confirmed to be the most prevalent pathogen detected (31%) among one hundred individually analysed adult ticks. Borrelia miyamotoi, a spirochete associated with relapsing fever, was detected in one sample. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 4% of the ticks, followed by Rickettsia helvetica which was detected in one sample. Similar pathogen prevalence was also detected in 500 ticks analysed in pools. This is the first report of the spotted fever group Rickettsia in Norway. Francisella tularensis, Bartonella species or Coxiella burnetti was not detected. However, due to the low number of ticks analysed, the possible presence of these pathogens in the region cannot be ruled out. All isolates were screened by at least two different molecular methods for each bacterial target; one commercially available multiplex PCR based tick-borne bacteria flow chip system (Master Diagnostica) and corresponding real-time PCR protocols. The comparison of methods verified that most findings were detected by both methods (71 Borrelia, 15 Anaplasma and 2 Rickettsia), whereas two additional Borrelia and Anaplasma infected samples were detected by the real-time protocols.

  13. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Local Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kazakh Traditional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serik Shaikhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptidoglycan (PG is a major component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria and is essential for maintaining the integrity of the bacterial cell and its shape. The bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases, which are capable of cleaving the covalent bonds of PG. They also play an important role in modeling PG, which is required for bacterial growth and division. In an era of increasing antibiotic-resistant pathogens, PG hydrolases that destroy these important structures of the cell wall act as a potential source of new antimicrobials. The aim of this study is to identify the main PG hydrolases of local lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional foods that enhance probiotic activity of a biological preparation. Methods. Lactococcus lactis 17А and Lactococcus garvieae 19А were isolated from the traditional sausage-like meat product called kazy. They were isolated according to standards methods of microbiology. Genetic identification of the isolates were tested by determining the nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA. The Republican collection of microorganisms took strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. Rhamnosus 13-P, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CG-1 B-RKM 0044 from cheese, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei B-RKM 0202 from homemade butter. They used the standard technique of renaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect PG hydrolases activity. Results. According to the profiles of PG hydrolase activity on zymograms, the enzymes of Lactococci 17A and 19A in kazy are similar in electrophoretic mobility to major autolysin AcmA, while the lactobacilli of industrial and home-made dairy products have enzymes similar to extracellular proteins p40 and p75, which have probiotic activity. Conclusions. Use of peptidoglycan hydrolases seems to be an interesting approach in the fight against multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria and could be a valuable tool for the treatment of diseases caused by these microorganisms in Kazakhstan.

  14. Monitoring of food-borne pathogens in Maoming City from 2008 to 2009%2008~2009年茂名市食源性致病菌监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雪梅; 廖国东; 黄水飞; 许铭清; 陈家图; 陈伟冰

    2011-01-01

    Aim To monitor main food-borne pathogens ,and provide the scientific basis for the prevention of foodborne diseases and food poisoning in Maoming City. Methods The pathogens of Salmonella,Listeria monocytogenes,Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were isolated,the biochemical and serotype were tested according to"Methods of microbiology tests for food's hygiene"(GB/r4789-2003[1]/2008[2]) . Results There 273 food samples in 6 categories including uncooked meat of livestock and poultry,cooked meat products ,salad vegetables,beans products ,aquatic products and raw milk were tested,33 bacteria strains of food-borne pathogens were isolated and the total positive rate was 12.09%(33/273). There were 22 Salmonella strains with the detection rate of 8.70% (22/253);3 Listeria monocytogenes strains with the detection rate of 1.19% (3 / 253); 5 Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains with the detection rate of 8.93%(5/56); 5 Staphylococcus aureus strains with the detection rate of 2.65%(3/113); E. coli O157:H7 was not detected. Conclusion Foods were contaminated by food-borne pathogens in MaoMing City,uncooked meat of livestock and poultry,raw milk ,aquatic products and cooked meat products were the main contaminated foods. The work of minotring of foodborne pathogens be lstrengthened to prevent the occurrence of food-borne diseases and food poisoning.%目的 监测茂名市主要食源性致病菌污染状况,为预防食源性疾病和食物中毒提供科学依据.方法 在本市的大型超市、农贸市场、餐饮店和养殖场等随机采集六类食品.依据GB/T4789-2003/2008,对采集样品分别进行沙门菌、单核细胞增生性李斯特菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌O157:H7和副溶血性弧菌分离、生化及血清学鉴定.结果 共监测生禽畜肉、熟肉制品、凉拌菜、豆类制品、水产品及生奶等6类样品273份,检出食源性致病菌33株,总检出率12.09%(33/273).

  15. Phytate degrading activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Ema; Ratisiwi, Febiyani Ndaru; Istiqomah, Lusty; Sembiring, Langkah; Febrisiantosa, Andi

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential of LAB with phytate degrading activity from fermented traditional food grain-based and legume-based. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from different sources of traditional fermented food from Gunungkidul Yogyakarta Indonesia such as gembus tempeh (tofu waste), soybean tempeh, lamtoro tempeh (Leucaena bean) and kara tempeh. Isolation of LAB was performed using Total Plate Count (TPC) on de Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRSA) medium supplemented with CaCO3. They were screened for their ability to degrade myo-inositol hexaphosphate or IP6 by using qualitative streak platemethod with modified de Man Rogosa-MorpholinoPropanesulfonic Acid Sharpe (MRS-MOPS) medium contained sodium salt of phytic acid as substrate and cobalt chloride staining (plate assay) method. The selected isolates were further assayed for phytase activities using quantitative method with spectrophotometer and the two selected isolates growth were optimized. Furthermore, thhe isolates that shown the highest phytase activity was characterized and identified using API 50 CH kitand 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that there were 18 LAB isolates obtained from samplesand 13 isolates were able to degrade sodium phytate based on qualitative screening. According to quantitative assay, the highest phytate degrading activities were found in TG-2(23.562 U/mL) and TG-1 (19.641 U/mL) isolated from gembus tempeh. The phytate activity of TG-2 was optimum at 37 °C with agitation, while the phytate activity of TG-1 was optimum at 45 °C without agitation. Characterization and identification of TG-2 isolate with the highest phytate degrading activity using API 50 CH and 16S rRNA showed that TG-2had homology with Lactobacillus fermentum. It could be concluded that LAB from from fermented traditional food grain-based and legume-based produced the extracellular phytase. Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, tempeh, phytatedegrading activity

  16. Is Lactate an undervalued functional component of lactic acid bacteria-fermented food products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela eGarrote

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signalling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria.

  17. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  18. SCREENING OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM SUDANESE FERMENTED FOODS FOR BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Y. A. Elyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from different types of fermented foods consumed in Sudan. Phenotypic tests revealed that all isolates were homofermentative LAB. Twenty-four isolates produced inhibitory substances primarily active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 2818 and Escherichia coli ATCC 29522. The inhibitory activity of 88% of enterococci and 58% of lactobacilli was recorded from meat isolates, whereas all activity of pediococcal isolates came from fermented milk isolates. The cell-free cultures of 18 isolates exhibiting inhibitory activity was chosen for further investigation such as sensitivity to proteolytic enzyme (pepsin, effect of heat treatment (60°C for 60min, 100°C for 20min and 121°C for 15min and effect of pH ( pH 2.0, pH 6.5, and pH 9.0. The inhibitory activity was eliminated upon treatment with pepsin. The bacteriocin-like substances lost their activity after heating at all temperatures used and at alkaline pH (9.0, whereas they were active at acidic pH (2.0. The antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin-like substances produced by the isolated LAB could prevent spoilage and/or pathogenic microorganism in Sudanese fermented food. Further study should be related with species identification of the producer strains and with the purification and characterization of these becteriocin-like substances in order to explore them in food industry.

  19. PROTEOLYTIC AND FIBRINOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF HALOPHILIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM TWO INDONESIAN FERMENTED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep A. Prihanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of fermented foods as sources of fibrinolytic enzymes is increased in the last decades. Terasi and Jambal roti is Indonesian traditional fermented fish products, which were famous in Java Island. Both are important products in Indonesian dishes, especially in Java. Investigation on halophilic lactic acid bacteria using MRS and M-17 agar obtained seventy four isolated strains. Their proteolytic and fibrinolytic activities were determined using skim milk agar and plasminogen-free fibrin plate. Twenty five isolates showed protease activities, while only four of them secreted fibrinolitic enzyme. The highest proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity was shown by TB1 strain, which is identified as Bacillus coagulans. The 16s rDNA is still in investigating to confirm the TB1 strain identity.

  20. Screening of probiotic lactic acid bacteria from Thai fermented foods for human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantachote, D.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Total of 327 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 179 samples of various Thai fermented foods. The strains were investigated for their probiotic properties based on stability in bile salt (0.15% and high acidity (pH 2, 3 and 4. Moreover, utilization of protein or fat or starch, growth in the absence of vitamin B12 and growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions with no significant difference were also considered. According to the above criteria, 67 strains were selected for antibiotics sensitivity test. The selected strains were susceptible to following antibiotics: ampicillin, cephalothin, cefoperazone, tetracycline andchloramphenicol; however the strains were resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, norfloxacin and polymyxin B. Using agar spot method, only 5 strains were able to inhibit 13 strains of manifest by a bacteria indicator as clear zone greater than 10 mm. A further investigation using co-culture technique showed inhibition of the tested organisms was between 80 and 100 percent. The strains grew under media of MRS and SPY2 (no materials from animal over 36 hours with no significant difference. The strains were investigated for survival in condition of high acidity within 3 hours. It was found that at pH 4 almost 100% were maintained but at pH 2 and 3 the survival reduced approximately 1 log cycle. The strain LA71 which showed the highest survival was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum.

  1. Management and Analysis of Monitoring of Food-borne Diseases%食源性疾病监测管理与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁巧玲

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the monitoring management of food-borne diseases and analyzes the related issues taking the food-borne disease as a topic, firstly make a brief summary of the development situation of world food-borne diseases, intro-duces the concept and connation of food-borne diseases according to the specific condition of our country, analyzes its de-velopment trend and causes, and especially discusses the related measures of active monitoring management on the basis of the above, hoping to arouse more attention and wider communication, thus providing some valuable information of the theo-retical research work and monitoring management practice work for reference.%本文以食源性疾病作为研究主题,探讨食源性疾病监测管理与分析及相关问题。首先结合世界食源性疾病的发展情况对其进行了简要概述;主要以我国的具体情况为准,介绍了食源性疾病的概念与内涵,分析了它的发展趋势及原因,并以此作为基础,重点讨论了主动监测管理的相关措施。希望能够通过本文初步论述可以引起更多的关注与更为广泛的交流,从而为该方面的理论研究工作怀监测管理实践工作提供一些有价值的信息,以供参考。

  2. 建立食源性疾病危机管理机制探讨%Discussion of establishment of crisis management mechanism of food-borne diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新荣; 孙爱国; 郭琴; 王艳

    2011-01-01

    Food-borne diseases severely jeopardize public health and life safety, disrupt normal production and life orders and endanger social stability. In order to solve the problems such as lagged crisis management mechanism of food-borne diseases, personnel structure, professional handling skills and laboratory testing that exists in the current centers for disease control, this paper proposes the crisis management mechanism of food-borne diseases to strengthen the leadership, establish and improve the crisis management operating mechanism of food-borne diseases, improve the professional team quality and strengthen the responsibilities of centers for disease control, and speed up the construction of laboratory capacity and improve the conditions of laboratory equipment.%食源性疾病严重危害公众健康和生命安全,扰乱正常的生产生活秩序,危及社会安定.本文针对当前疾病预防控制机构存在的食源性疾病管理机制滞后、人员结构、专业处置技能、实验室检测等方面存在的问题,提出了强化领导;建立完善食源性疾病危机管理运行机制;提高专业队伍素质,强化疾病控制机构的责任;加快实验室能力建设,完善实验室设备条件的食源性疾病危机管理机制.

  3. A gel-free quantitative proteomics approach to investigate temperature adaptation of the food-borne pathogen Cronobacter turicensis 3032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Paula; Grunau, Alexander; Schneider, Thomas; Hartmann, Isabel; Lehner, Angelika; Stephan, Roger; Gehrig, Peter; Grossmann, Jonas; Groebel, Katrin; Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin

    2010-09-01

    The opportunistic food-borne pathogen Cronobacter sp. causes rare but significant illness in neonates and is capable to grow at a remarkably wide range of temperatures from 5.5 to 47 degrees C. A gel-free quantitative proteomics approach was employed to investigate the molecular basis of the Cronobacter sp. adaptation to heat and cold-stress. To this end the model strain Cronobacter turicensis 3032 was grown at 25, 37, 44, and 47 degrees C, and whole-cell and secreted proteins were iTRAQ-labelled and identified/quantified by 2-D-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. While 44 degrees C caused only minor changes in C. turicensis growth rate and protein profile, 47 degrees C affected the expression of about 20% of all 891 identified proteins and resulted in a reduced growth rate and rendered the strain non-motile and filamentous. Among the heat-induced proteins were heat shock factors, transcriptional and translational proteins, whereas proteins affecting cellular morphology, proteins involved in motility, central metabolism and energy production were down-regulated. Notably, numerous potential virulence factors were found to be up-regulated at higher temperatures, suggesting an elevated pathogenic potential of Cronobacter sp. under these growth conditions. Significant alterations in the protein expression profile and growth rate of C. turicensis exposed to 25 degrees C indicate that at this temperature the organism is cold-stressed. Up-regulated gene products comprised cold-shock, DNA-binding and ribosomal proteins, factors that support protein folding and proteins opposing cold-induced decrease in membrane fluidity, whereas down-regulated proteins were mainly involved in central metabolism.

  4. A protein microarray for the rapid screening of patients suspected of infection with various food-borne helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food-borne helminthiases (FBHs have become increasingly important due to frequent occurrence and worldwide distribution. There is increasing demand for developing more sensitive, high-throughput techniques for the simultaneous detection of multiple parasitic diseases due to limitations in differential clinical diagnosis of FBHs with similar symptoms. These infections are difficult to diagnose correctly by conventional diagnostic approaches including serological approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, antigens obtained from 5 parasite species, namely Cysticercus cellulosae, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Paragonimus westermani, Trichinella spiralis and Spirometra sp., were semi-purified after immunoblotting. Sera from 365 human cases of helminthiasis and 80 healthy individuals were assayed with semi-purified antigens by both a protein microarray and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity and simplicity of each test for the end-user were evaluated. The specificity of the tests ranged from 97.0% (95% confidence interval (CI: 95.3-98.7% to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0% in the protein microarray and from 97.7% (95% CI: 96.2-99.2% to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0% in ELISA. The sensitivity varied from 85.7% (95% CI: 75.1-96.3% to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5-100.0% in the protein microarray, while the corresponding values for ELISA were 82.0% (95% CI: 71.4-92.6% to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5-100.0%. Furthermore, the Youden index spanned from 0.83 to 0.92 in the protein microarray and from 0.80 to 0.92 in ELISA. For each parasite, the Youden index from the protein microarray was often slightly higher than the one from ELISA even though the same antigen was used. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The protein microarray platform is a convenient, versatile, high-throughput method that can easily be adapted to massive FBH screening.

  5. Food-borne pathogens in meat and aquatic products in Jiangsu province,2008-2009%江苏省2008-2009年肉类和水产品食源性致病菌监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕梅; 乔昕; 符晓梅; 沈赟; 袁宝君; 戴月

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the contamination situation of food-borne pathogens in meat and aquatic products in Jiangsu province. Methods According to GB/T 4789 examination method,990 meat and aquatic products from 13 cities in Jiangsu province were detected for Salmonella, Listeria monocytogens , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Campylobacter jejuni , and Escherichia coli O157. Results Among the samples, 161 bacteria strains were isolated with an overall positive rate of 16. 26%. The detection rate of the pathogens for raw meat,cooked meat,frozen aquatic food,and raw aquatic products were 26. 32% ,7.37%, 17.78%, and 14. 78%, respectively. Food products from Taizhou city had the highest positive rate of food-born pathogens,followed by Nanjing and Yangzhou city. Positive rate of foods from wholesale markets was 22. 92% and that of from supermarkets and stores was 15.37% ,and 6. 76% from restaurants. Conclusion There existed food-borne pathogen contamination in meat and aquatic products in Jiangsu province. The intake of cooked meat and raw aquatic food without heating is more likey to cause food-borne diseases.%目的 了解江苏省肉类和水产品中食源性致病菌的污染状况.方法 按照GB/T 4789方法对采自江苏省13个市的肉类和水产品共计990份进行沙门氏菌、单增李斯特菌、大肠埃希菌O157、弯曲菌和副溶血性弧菌检测.结果 990份肉类和水产品中共检出致病菌161株,总检出率为16.26%,生肉类、熟肉类食品、鲜冻水产品、生食水产品检出率分别为26.32%、7.37%、17.78%、14.78%;不同地区样品中,泰州市食源性致病菌总检出率最高,为37.97%,其次为南京市和扬州市;采自农贸批发市场、超市和商店、饭店和食堂的样品中食源性致病菌检出率分别为22.99%、15.37%、6.76%.结论 江苏省肉类和水产品中食源性致病菌污染比较严重,熟肉制品和生食水产品直接入口,可能导致较高的食源性疾病风险.

  6. Case Report: An Outbreak of Food-Borne Typhoid Fever Due to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi in Japan Reported for the First Time in 16 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio; Uryu, Hideko; Yamada, Ritsuko; Kashiwa, Naoyuki; Nei, Takahito; Ehara, Akihito; Takei, Reiko; Mori, Nobuaki; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hayasaka, Tomomi; Kagawa, Narito; Sugawara, Momoko; Suzaki, Ai; Takahashi, Yuno; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    For the first time in 16 years, a food-borne outbreak of typhoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi was reported in Japan. Seven patients consumed food in an Indian buffet at a restaurant in the center of Tokyo, while one was a Nepali chef in the restaurant, an asymptomatic carrier and the implicated source of this outbreak. The multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed 100% consistency in the genomic sequence for five of the eight cases. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Surveillance of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992-2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996-2009) in Italy, with a focus on the Piedmont and Lombardy regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, L; Graziani, C; Biorci, F; Pavan, A; Magliola, R; Ricci, A; Gilli, G; Carraro, E; Busani, L

    2012-02-23

    We describe trends in the occurrence of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992 to 2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996 to 2009) in Italy. In 2002, the Piedmont region implemented a surveillance system for early detection and control of food-borne disease outbreaks; in 2004, the Lombardy region implemented a system for surveillance of all notifiable human infectious diseases. Both systems are internet based. We compared the regional figures with the national mean using official notification data provided by the National Infectious Diseases Notification System (SIMI) and the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), in order to provide additional information about the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy. When compared with the national mean, data from the two regional systems showed a significant increase in notification rates of non-typhoid salmonellosis and infectious diarrhea other than non-typhoid salmonellosis, but for foodborne disease outbreaks, the increase was not statistically significant. Although the two regional systems have different objectives and structures, they showed improved sensitivity regarding notification of cases of acute infectious gastroenteritis and, to a lesser extent, food-borne disease outbreaks, and thus provide a more complete picture of the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy.

  8. Safe use of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria in food: Bridging the gap between consumers, green groups, and industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sybesma, W; Hugenholtz, J; de Vos; Smid, E J

    2006-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU), the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production is not widely applied and accepted. In contrast to the United States of America, the current EU legislation limits the introduction of functional foods derived from GMOs that may bring a clear benefit to the consumer. Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria (GM-LAB) can be considered as a different class of GMOs, and the European Union is preparing regulations for the risk assessment of genet...

  9. Antioxidant properties of certain cereals as affected by food-grade bacteria fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Wu, Sz-Jie; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2014-04-01

    The effects of fermentation by 2 food-grade bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum) on antioxidant activities and the contents of phenolics and flavonoids in 4 cereals (specifically adlay, chestnut, lotus seed, and walnut) were determined and compared with those of their non-fermented counterparts. Results showed that antioxidant properties observed in the fermented and non-fermented cereals may vary with fermented starters. Fermentation was observed to increase the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts. The effects on Bacillus-fermented cereals were stronger than on Lactobacillus-fermented cereals. In IC50 values (mg/mL) of extracts, the extracts of fermented cereal showed a stronger DPPH radical scavenging and ferric-reducing activities. Fermentation did not significantly alter the Fe(2+)-chelating activity in the extracts of chestnuts and lotus seeds. All cereals were shown significantly inhibited the production of LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) without creating obvious cytotoxic effects in the macrophage cells. These results suggest that the fermentation process enables cereal-based foods with enhanced antioxidant capacities to contribute to health and nutritional improvements in consumers.

  10. Biopolymers from lactic acid bacteria. Novel applications in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, María I; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms widely used in the fermented food industry worldwide. Certain LAB are able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) either attached to the cell wall (capsular EPS) or released to the extracellular environment (EPS). According to their composition, LAB may synthesize heteropolysaccharides or homopolysaccharides. A wide diversity of EPS are produced by LAB concerning their monomer composition, molecular mass, and structure. Although EPS-producing LAB strains have been traditionally applied in the manufacture of dairy products such as fermented milks and yogurts, their use in the elaboration of low-fat cheeses, diverse type of sourdough breads, and certain beverages are some of the novel applications of these polymers. This work aims to collect the most relevant issues of the former reviews concerning the monomer composition, structure, and yields and biosynthetic enzymes of EPS from LAB; to describe the recently characterized EPS and to present the application of both EPS-producing strains and their polymers in the fermented (specifically beverages and cereal-based) food industry.

  11. Biopolymers from lactic acid bacteria. Novel applications in foods and beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Torino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are microorganisms widely used in the fermented food industry worldwide. Certain LAB are able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS either attached to the cell wall (capsular EPS or released to the extracellular environment (EPS. According to their composition, LAB may synthesize heteropolysaccharides or homopolysaccharides. A wide diversity of EPS are produced by LAB concerning their monomer composition, molecular mass, and structure. Although EPS-producing LAB strains have been traditionally applied in the manufacture of dairy products such as fermented milks and yogurts, their use in the elaboration of low-fat cheeses, diverse type of sourdough breads, and certain beverages are some of the novel applications of these polymers. This work aims to collect the most relevant issues of the former reviews concerning the monomer composition, structure, and yields and biosynthetic enzymes of EPS from LAB; to describe the recently characterized EPS and to present the application of both EPS-producing strains and their polymers in the fermented (specifically beverages and cereal-based food industry.

  12. Biopolymers from lactic acid bacteria. Novel applications in foods and beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, María I.; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms widely used in the fermented food industry worldwide. Certain LAB are able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) either attached to the cell wall (capsular EPS) or released to the extracellular environment (EPS). According to their composition, LAB may synthesize heteropolysaccharides or homopolysaccharides. A wide diversity of EPS are produced by LAB concerning their monomer composition, molecular mass, and structure. Although EPS-producing LAB strains have been traditionally applied in the manufacture of dairy products such as fermented milks and yogurts, their use in the elaboration of low-fat cheeses, diverse type of sourdough breads, and certain beverages are some of the novel applications of these polymers. This work aims to collect the most relevant issues of the former reviews concerning the monomer composition, structure, and yields and biosynthetic enzymes of EPS from LAB; to describe the recently characterized EPS and to present the application of both EPS-producing strains and their polymers in the fermented (specifically beverages and cereal-based) food industry. PMID:26441845

  13. Barley β-Glucans-Containing Food Enhances Probiotic Performances of Beneficial Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia P. Arena

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the majority of prebiotics in the market are derived from non-digestible oligosaccharides. Very few studies have focused on non-digestible long chain complex polysaccharides in relation to their potential as novel prebiotics. Cereals β-glucans have been investigated for immune-modulating properties and beneficial effects on obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cholesterol levels. Moreover, β-glucans have been reported to be highly fermentable by the intestinal microbiota in the caecum and colon, and can enhance both growth rate and lactic acid production of microbes isolated from the human intestine. In this work, we report the effects of food matrices containing barley β-glucans on growth and probiotic features of four Lactobacillus strains. Such matrices were able to improve the growth rate of the tested bacteria both in unstressed conditions and, importantly, after exposure to in vitro simulation of the digestive tract. Moreover, the effect of β-glucans-containing food on bacterial adhesion to enterocyte-like cells was analyzed and a positive influence on probiotic-enterocyte interaction was observed.

  14. Food insecurity and socio-demographic characteristics in two UK ethnic groups: an analysis of women in the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Madeleine; Uphoff, Eleonora P; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Small, Neil; Doherty, Bob; Pickett, Kate E

    2017-03-28

    The use of foodbanks has risen sharply in the UK; however, the epidemiology of UK food insecurity is undeveloped. This study contributes to the field by analysing socio-demographic risk factors for food insecurity in a female, ethnically diverse population. Data from the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort were matched with data on food insecurity from the nested BiB1000 study (N = 1280). Logistic regression was used to model food insecurity in relation to ethnicity and socio-demographic factors. Food insecurity, reported by 13.98% of the sample, was more likely among White British than Pakistani women (crude Odds Ratio (OR) 1.94, 95% CI: 1.37; 2.74, adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.57; 3.59). In fully adjusted analyses, food insecurity was associated with a range of socio-economic measures, particularly the receipt of mean-tested benefits (adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.41; 3.15) and perception of financial insecurity (adjusted OR 8.91, 95% CI: 4.14; 19.16 for finding it difficult/very difficult compared to living comfortably). The finding that food insecurity prevalence may be higher than previously thought and that food insecurity is highly associated with socio-economic status, notably benefit receipt, is a cause for concern necessitating an urgent policy response.

  15. Effects of Some Food Additives on Biofilm Formation of Food-Borne Staphylococcus aureus%食品添加剂对食源性金黄色葡萄球菌生物被膜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽斯; 张文艳; 许佳晶; 刘彦兰; 黄宝威; 张宏梅

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of food additives on biofilm formation (BF), Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) from spoiled food were isolated and identified. BF of this strain was tested in 96-well microplates in the presence of food additives. The results showed that BF of the strains was inhibited by low concentrations of preservatives (potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate). No biofilm was formed when the concentration of anticorrosive reached 0.4 g/L or higher. The BF inhibiting capacity of potassium sorbate was much greater than that of sodium benzoate. Generally, glycol mannate sulfate had greater BF inhibiting action than diacylglycerol at concentrations of 2--4g/L. Glycol mannate sulfate and diacylglycerol had maximum BF inhibiting capacity at concentrations of 3 g/L and 4 g/L, respectively. For sucrose ester emulsifier, SE7 and SE13 inhibited BF at concentrations of 0.3 -- 4 g/L, while SE11 inhibited BF at all concentrations tested. Nonionic surfactants such as Span-60 and Tween-80 showed different effects on BF of S.aureus, which might be related to their amphipathic property. In summary, all these tested food additives had inhibitory effect on biof'flm formation of food-borne S. aureus. This study will provide references for the prevention and control of bacteria biofilm formation.%从腐败食品分离筛选金黄色葡萄球菌,研究食品添加剂对金黄色葡萄球菌生物被膜的影响。按国标方法鉴定金黄色葡萄球菌。在不同质量浓度的防腐剂和乳化剂作用的情况下,用96孔板法检测金黄色葡萄球菌生物被膜形成情况。结果表明:在添加低质量浓度防腐剂山梨酸钾和苯甲酸钠后,金黄色葡萄球菌成膜能力受抑制,当两者质量浓度均≥0.4g/L时无成膜作用,且山梨酸钾抑制成膜趋势比苯甲酸钠明显;添加单甘酯后,质量浓度3g/L成膜率最低,而双甘酯质量浓度4g/L成膜率最低,两者比较,在质量浓度2

  16. Association between the consumption of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry and the occurrence of resistant bacteria among food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1999-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals...... animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimens to limit the development of resistance is incomplete. Surveillance programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption...... or humans. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes following the use of antimicrobial agents is relatively well documented and it seems evident that all antimicrobial agents will select for resistance. However, current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food...

  17. Workshop on the Application of Genomic Tools for the Rapid Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Isolates in Food-borne Disease Outbreak Investigations Ottawa, ON, February 24-25, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    pathogens by WGS is leading to a shift in paradigm. At the CDC, WGS began with the investigation of the Haiti cholera outbreak in 2010. The CDC is...Workshop on the Application of Genomic Tools for the Rapid Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Isolates in Food-borne Disease Outbreak ...Characterization of Bacterial Isolates in Food-borne Disease Outbreak Investigations Ottawa, ON, February 24-25, 2014

  18. Description of Clean and Healthy Behavior of Food Borne Disease Among by School Children Age in Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Heny Sholikhah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of food borne disease, such as diarrhea, typhoid and hookworm infection in school childrenwere still sufficient susceptible. Lack of clean and healthy behavior became primary cause, so that the agent can easilyenter to the body through the food consumed. The purpose of this study was to descript the clean and healthy behaviors by school children age at Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya. Methods: This study was a crosssectional study. The sample of this study were 112 of fifth grade students at Babat Jerawat I Elementary school, District Pakal Surabaya, selected by purposive sampling of 121 students who met the inclusion criteria. Data of clean and healthy behavior were collected by observation and interviews focused on a group of school children using questionnaires, checklists and interview guides. Data analysis was done by using descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that the clean and healthy behaviors about food borne disease, the majority of school children in Elementary school Babat Jerawat I District Pakal Surabaya included in good criteria (51.8% and small portion of these included less category (48.2%. Conclusion:Clean and Healthy Behavior of food borne disease in school children age had good criteria, but still need attention formany factors that influence it, such as the availability of facilities, affordability snacks outside of school and examples ofunhealthy behaviors in family environment. Recommendation: Improve the cooperation between the school and localhealth officials to tighten rules on the management of snack vending around schools, and do continuous education both within the school and the child’s school community.

  19. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from chili bo, a Malaysian food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J J; Pot, B; Christensen, H; Rusul, G; Olsen, J E; Wee, B W; Muhamad, K; Ghazali, H M

    1999-02-01

    Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28 degreesC with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg-1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison of their sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein patterns with a SDS-PAGE database of LAB. Isolates from product A were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus farciminis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecalis, and Weissella confusa. Five strains belonging to clusters which could not be allocated to existing species by SDS-PAGE were further identified by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. One strain was distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Two strains were related to Weissella at the genus or species level. Two other strains did not belong to any previously described 16S rRNA group of LAB and occupied an intermediate position between the L. casei/Pediococcus group and the Weissella group and species of Carnobacterium. The latter two strains belong to the cluster of LAB that predominated in product B. The incidence of new species and subspecies of LAB in chili bo indicate the high probability of isolation of new LAB from certain Southeast Asian foods. None of the isolates exhibited bacteriocin activity against L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and LMG 17682.

  20. 要重视小儿食源性疾病的防治%Paying attention to the prevention and treatment of food-borne disease in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永绥

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 食源性疾病的概念 1988年冬春上海市民因生食毛蚶发生31万余例甲型肝炎大流行,2002年又有南京市误食混有毒鼠强的早餐发生42例死亡、300余例中毒的悲惨事件,这两起事件都是食源性的,即食源性疾病(food-borne disease).食源性疾病是指饮水(包括饮料)和食物内含有对人体有害物质,或被微生物、寄生虫和有毒物质污染所引起的疾病[与饮水有关的又称水源性疾病(water-borne illness)].

  1. Association of Levels of Antibodies from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Extracellular Proteins of Food and Probiotic Bacteria

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    Arancha Hevia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is an autoimmune disease characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa and is related to an abnormal immune response to commensal bacteria. Our aim of the present work has been to explore the levels of antibodies (IgG and IgA raised against extracellular proteins produced by LAB and its association with IBD. We analyzed, by Western-blot and ELISA, the presence of serum antibodies (IgA and IgG developed against extracellular protein fractions produced by different food bacteria from the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. We used a sera collection consisting of healthy individuals (HC, n=50, Crohn's disease patients (CD, n=37, and ulcerative colitis patients (UC, n=15. Levels of IgA antibodies developed against a cell-wall hydrolase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus GG (CWH were significantly higher in the IBD group (P<0.002; n=52. The specificity of our measurements was confirmed by measuring IgA antibodies developed against the CWH peptide 365-VNTSNQTAAVSAS-377. IBD patients appeared to have different immune response to food bacteria. This paper sets the basis for developing systems for early detection of IBD, based on the association of high levels of antibodies developed against extracellular proteins from food and probiotic bacteria.

  2. Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria and in situ amylase expression during traditional fermentation of cereal foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin Anthony; Narbad, Arjan

    2012-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in traditional fermented foods consumed in different countries. Study of their taxonomic structure and diversity is necessary for starter culture selection, improved safety and nutritional enhancement. To achieve these objectives, microbial genomic typing methods were used to study genetic differences of autochthonous bacteria and their distribution in two traditional African fermented cereal foods. A total of 85 predominant bacterial species were isolated from ogi and kunu-zaki obtained from Northern and Southern geographical region of Nigeria. They were identified using combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on rpoA, pheS and atpA genes as well as M13-PCR gel fingerprints. The results showed that Lactobacillus fermentum was the most frequently isolated species in ogi (71.4%) and kunu-zaki (84.5%). Other species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Non lactic acid bacteria isolated from these foods were species belonging to the Bacillus and Staphylococcus. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis of the M13-PCR fingerprints for LAB strains showed clonal diversity among strains of the same species. In vitro and in situ expression of amylase gene during fermentation by amylolytic L. plantarum ULAG11 was detected, indicating the potential usefulness of such species for development of starter cultures and for controlled fermentation processes.

  3. Novel touchdown-PCR method for the detection of putrescine producing gram-negative bacteria in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlichová, Leona; Buňková, Leona; Koutný, Marek; Valenta, Tomáš; Buňka, František

    2013-06-01

    Formation of biogenic amines may occur in food due to metabolic activities of contaminating Gram-negative bacteria. Putrescine is assumed to be the major biogenic amine associated with microbial food spoilage. Gram-negative bacteria can form putrescine by three metabolic pathways that can include eight different enzymes. The objective of this study was to design new sets of primers able to detect all important enzymes involved in the production of putrescine by Gram-negative bacteria. Seven new sets of consensual primers based on gene sequences of different bacteria were designed and used for detection of the speA, adiA, adi, speB, aguA, speC, and speF genes. A newly developed touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using these primers was successfully applied on several putrescine-producers. Selected PCR products were sequenced and high similarity of their sequences (99-91%) with known sequences of the corresponding genes confirmed high specificity of the developed sets of primers. Furthermore, all the investigated bacteria produced both putrescine and agmatine, an intermediate of putrescine production, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. The developed new touchdown PCR method could easily be used to detect potential foodborne Gram-negative producers of putrescine. The newly developed sets of primers could also be useful in further research on putrescine metabolism in contaminating microbiota.

  4. A novel plasmid for delivering genes into mammalian cells with noninvasive food and commensal lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Ji, Xin; Jin, Ling; Spear, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Using food and commensal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as vehicles for DNA delivery into epithelial cells is a new strategy for vaccine delivery or gene therapy. However, present methods for DNA delivery with LAB have suffered low efficiency. Our goal was to develop a new system to deliver DNA into epithelial cells with high efficiency using food and commensal LAB. An Escherichia coli-LAB shuttle plasmid, pLKV1, for DNA delivery into eukaryotic cells was constructed. Two reporter plasmids with green and red fluorescent protein genes were also constructed to monitor the uptake of protein and DNA, respectively. Bacteria delivering these reporter plasmids into Caco-2 cells were monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Several methods that weaken the bacterial cell wall prior to co-culture with Caco-2 cells were evaluated for their role in the improvement of gene transfer efficiency. Treating Streptococcus gordonii with penicillin and lysozyme greatly increased its rate of gene delivery to mammalian cells compared to untreated control bacteria, while glycine pretreatment promoted the highest gene transfer rate for Lactococcus lactis. Uptake of green fluorescent bacteria by Caco-2 cells showed that the cell wall-weakening treatment promoted the internalization of the noninvasive bacteria into Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, we have developed a noninvasive system using LAB as a vehicle for vaccine delivery or gene therapy, and tested this system in vitro with Caco-2 cells.

  5. Assessment of Tetracyclines Residues and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in Conventional and Organic Baby Foods

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    Mónica Guarddon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Children are very vulnerable to bacterial infections and they are sometimes subject to antimicrobials for healing. The presence of resistance genes may counteract effects of antimicrobials. This work has thereby compared the amount of tetracycline resistance genes, tet(A and tet(B, between conventional and organic meat-based or vegetable-based baby foods and used the quantification of these genes to assess the presence of tetracycline residues in these samples. Counts of bacteria harboring the tet(A gene were higher than those containing tet(B, and there was no difference between the organic and the conventional samples. Samples with detectable amounts of tetracycline residues were also positive for the presence of tet genes, and when the presence of the genes was not detected, the samples were also negative for the presence of residues. The percentages of tetracycline residues were higher in organic samples than in conventional ones. It cannot be concluded that organic formulas are safer than conventional ones for the studied parameters.

  6. Effects of probiotic bacteria in dogs with food responsive diarrhoea treated with an elimination diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, S N; Benyacoub, J; Allenspach, K; Gaschen, F; Ontsouka, E; Reuteler, G; Cavadini, C; Knorr, R; Blum, J W

    2006-08-01

    We evaluated whether a probiotic supplementation in dogs with food responsive diarrhoea (FRD) has beneficial effects on intestinal cytokine patterns and on microbiota. Twenty-one client-owned dogs with FRD were presented for clinically needed duodeno- and colonoscopy and were enrolled in a prospective placebo (PL)-controlled probiotic trial. Intestinal tissue samples and faeces were collected during endoscopy. Intestinal mRNA abundance of interleukin (IL)-5, -10, -12p40 and -13, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta1 and interferon (IFN)-gamma were analysed and numbers of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae and supplemented probiotic bacteria were determined in faeces. The Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index, a scoring system comprising general attitude, appetite, faecal consistency, defecation frequency, and vomitus, decreased in all dogs (p dogs receiving probiotic cocktail (FRD(PC)) and FRD dogs fed PL (FRD(PL)) during treatment (p dogs after probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, all dogs clinically improved after treatment, but cytokine patterns were not associated with the clinical features irrespective of the dietary supplementation.

  7. Actuality of food borne disease and suggestion on food sanitation supervision for international navigational shipping%食源性疾病现状及国际航行船舶食品卫生监管建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱文毅; 钱进; 胡月珍; 丁永健

    2011-01-01

    @@ 世界卫生组织(WHO)给食源性疾病下的定义:食源性疾病(food borne disease,FBD)是指由于摄食,进入人体的各种致病因子所引起的一类疾病,这类疾病通常具有感染性质或中毒性质.

  8. 潜江市2010年-2011年食源性致病菌监测分析%Surveillance analysis of food - pathogenic bacteria in Qianjiang in 2010 and 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓勇; 黄先慧; 邓琴; 陈梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解潜江市售食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况及分布.方法:按照湖北省食源性致病菌监测方案的要求,2010和2011两年在潜江市6个监测点内采集十六类市售食品共计331份,对其进行沙门菌、单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌O157∶H7、副溶血性弧菌、蜡样芽胞杆菌、阪崎肠杆菌七种食源性致病的监测分析.结果:331份食品样品中,分离出目的菌14株,其中沙门菌4株,单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌2株,蜡样芽胞杆菌2株,金黄色葡萄球菌6株,总检出率4.23%.结论:通过主动监测,掌握食源性致病菌的分布情况,及早发现食品的安全隐患,有助于进一步确立风险管理决策,降低人群食源性疾病的发病率.%Objective:To understand the pollution status and distribution of food - borne pathogens in commercial food in Qianjiang city. Methods; In accordance with "Hubei provincial monitoring program on food -borne pathogens" ,331 food samples in 16 kinds collected from 6 monitoring places were detected and analyzed for salmonella bacillus, listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli O157;H7, vibrio parahaemolyticus, bacillus cereus and enterobacter sakazakii in 2010 and 2011. Results; 14 aim bacteria strains were isolated from 331 food samples (4.23% ) , 4 salmonella strains, 2 listeria monocytogenes strains, 2 bacillus cereus strains and 6 staphylococcus aureus strains. Conclusion j Active monitoring on distribution of food - borne pathogens contributed to find potential safety hazard early, so as to set risk management plan and reduce the incidence of food - borne diseases.

  9. A food-grade cloning vector for lactic acid bacteria based on the nisin immunity gene nisI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, T M; Saris, P E J

    2002-08-01

    A new food-grade cloning vector for lactic acid bacteria was constructed using the nisin immunity gene nisI as a selection marker. The food-grade plasmid, pLEB 590, was constructed entirely of lactococcal DNA: the pSH 71 replicon, the nisI gene, and the constitutive promoter P45 for nisI expression. Electroporation into Lactococcus lactis MG 1614 with 60 international units (IU) nisin/ml selection yielded approximately 10(5) transformants/ micro g DNA. MG 1614 carrying pLEB 590 was shown to be able to grow in medium containing a maximum of 250 IU nisin/ml. Plasmid pLEB 590 was successfully transformed into an industrial L. lactis cheese starter carrying multiple cryptic plasmids. Suitability for molecular cloning was confirmed by cloning and expressing the proline iminopeptidase gene pepI from Lactobacillus helveticus in L. lactis and Lb. plantarum. These results show that the food-grade expression system reported in this paper has potential for expression of foreign genes in lactic acid bacteria in order to construct improved starter bacteria for food applications.

  10. Factors Affecting Microbial Load and Profile of Potential Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria from Household Kitchen Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela; Latouche, Melissa Cathleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study the bacterial load and isolate potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria from kitchen tables, including preparation tables and dining tables. Methods. A total of 53 households gave their consent for participation. The samples were collected by swabbing over an area of 5 cm by 5 cm of the tables and processed for bacterial count which was read as colony forming units (CFU), followed by isolation and identification of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Result. Knowledge about hygiene was not always put into practice. Coliforms, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., and S. aureus were detected from both dining and preparation tables. The mean CFU and presence of potential pathogens were significantly affected by the hygienic practices of the main food handler of the house, materials of kitchen tables, use of plastic covers, time of sample collection, use of multipurpose sponges/towels for cleaning, and the use of preparation tables as chopping boards (p Kitchen tables could be very important source of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria causing foodborne diseases. Lack of hygiene was confirmed by presence of coliforms, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp. The use of plastic covers, multipurpose sponges, and towels should be discouraged.

  11. 革兰氏阳性食源性致病菌%G+ Food-borne Pathogens Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚霄; 陈盼

    2008-01-01

    本文针对肉制品中常常出现的肉毒梭菌(Clostridium botulinum)、产气英膜杆菌(Clostridium perfringens)、单增李斯特菌(Listeria monocytongenes)、蜡样芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)和金黄色葡萄球(Staphylococcus aureus)等五种重要的G+食源性致病菌的生物学特性、致病性、流行病学特征、检测方法和控制措施作一综述.

  12. An outbreak of food-borne salmonellosis linked to a bread takeaway shop in Ben Tre City, Vietnam

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    Thuan Huu Vo

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Stuffed bread was the likely vehicle of the outbreak. The laboratory testing capacity for serotypes of Salmonella should be strengthened in Vietnam. Food-handler training in basic food safety measures should be improved.

  13. Design and Elementary Evaluation of a Highly-Automated Fluorescence-Based Instrument System for On-Site Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens

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    Zhan Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple, highly-automated instrument system used for on-site detection of foodborne pathogens based on fluorescence was designed, fabricated, and preliminarily tested in this paper. A corresponding method has been proved effective in our previous studies. This system utilizes a light-emitting diode (LED to excite fluorescent labels and a spectrometer to record the fluorescence signal from samples. A rotation stage for positioning and switching samples was innovatively designed for high-throughput detection, ten at most in one single run. We also developed software based on LabVIEW for data receiving, processing, and the control of the whole system. In the test of using a pure quantum dot (QD solution as a standard sample, detection results from this home-made system were highly-relevant with that from a well-commercialized product and even slightly better reproducibility was found. And in the test of three typical kinds of food-borne pathogens, fluorescence signals recorded by this system are highly proportional to the variation of the sample concentration, with a satisfied limit of detection (LOD (nearly 102–103 CFU·mL−1 in food samples. Additionally, this instrument system is low-cost and easy-to-use, showing a promising potential for on-site rapid detection of food-borne pathogens.

  14. Design and Elementary Evaluation of a Highly-Automated Fluorescence-Based Instrument System for On-Site Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhan; Zhang, Jianyi; Xu, Lizhou; Li, Yanbin; Chen, Siyu; Ye, Zunzhong; Wang, Jianping

    2017-02-23

    A simple, highly-automated instrument system used for on-site detection of foodborne pathogens based on fluorescence was designed, fabricated, and preliminarily tested in this paper. A corresponding method has been proved effective in our previous studies. This system utilizes a light-emitting diode (LED) to excite fluorescent labels and a spectrometer to record the fluorescence signal from samples. A rotation stage for positioning and switching samples was innovatively designed for high-throughput detection, ten at most in one single run. We also developed software based on LabVIEW for data receiving, processing, and the control of the whole system. In the test of using a pure quantum dot (QD) solution as a standard sample, detection results from this home-made system were highly-relevant with that from a well-commercialized product and even slightly better reproducibility was found. And in the test of three typical kinds of food-borne pathogens, fluorescence signals recorded by this system are highly proportional to the variation of the sample concentration, with a satisfied limit of detection (LOD) (nearly 10²-10³ CFU·mL(-1) in food samples). Additionally, this instrument system is low-cost and easy-to-use, showing a promising potential for on-site rapid detection of food-borne pathogens.

  15. 徐州市常见食源性致病菌的监测结果分析%Analysis of monitoring results of common food-borne pathogens in Xuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静静; 孙永红; 杨晋川; 张雷; 郭惠; 王路梅; 杜阳光; 晏嘉璐; 薛诚; 苗升浩

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解本地区食品中致病菌污染流行情况,为食品安全风险评估,风险预警,针对性的采取控制措施提供依据.方法:根据食品(卫生)微生物学检验国家标准和《食源性致病菌监测工作手册》进行鉴定.结果:总检出率为14.26% (95/666);水产品致病菌检出率最高为25.96%(活鲜冻类28.57%,生食/半生食类23.64%),主要是副溶血性弧菌(22.12%);其次是肉及肉制品为21.28%(生肉31.91%;熟肉10.64%),主要是单增李斯特菌(12.23%);餐饮食品为13.24%,速冻米面食品为13.04%;生食/半生食蔬菜检出率最低(2.27%);生禽肉中沙门菌和水产品中副溶血性弧菌污染菌量高.结论:肉和水产品,食品安全高风险;餐饮食品、速冻米面食品污染较严重;焙烤食品、豆制品等有一定的污染.%Objective: To understand the local prevalence of pathogens in food pollution, and to provide references for food safety risk assessment, risk warning and targeted control measures. Methods: Samples were detected according to national standards of food microbiology testing and " Handbook for Food - borne pathogens surveillance network". Results: The overall detection rate was 14.26% (95/666). The highest rate of pathogenic bacteria was found in aquatic products(25.96% , 28.57% for the fresh and frozen aquatic products, 23.64% for raw food/half raw aquatic products) ,with the highest detection rate in Vibrio parahaemolyticus (22. 12% ) ; then the second highest positive rate of pathogenic bacteria was found in meat and meat products (21. 28% , raw meat accounted for 31.91% ; cooked meats accounted for 10. 64% ) , followed by restaurant food ( 13. 24% ) ,fast - freeze rice and flour food (13. 04% ) , and raw or half cooked vegetables had the lowest detection rate (2. 27% ). Salmonella in raw meat of poultry and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in aquatic products were high volume. Conclusion: Meat and aquatic products had high

  16. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ206, a potential probiotic strain with antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing; Zhou, Qingqing

    2016-11-20

    Lactobacilli strains have been considered as important candidates for manufacturing "natural food", due to their antimicrobial properties and generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. Lactobacillus plantarum LZ206 is a potential probiotic strain isolated from raw cow milk, with antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, including Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes), Gram-negtive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica), and fungus Candida albicans. To better understand molecular base for its antimicrobial activity, entire genome of LZ206 was sequenced. It was revealed that genome of LZ206 contained a circular 3,212,951-bp chromosome, two circular plasmids and one predicted linear plasmid. A plantaricin gene cluster, which is responsible for bacteriocins biosynthesis and could be associated with its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, was identified based on comparative genomic analysis. Whole genome sequencing of L. plantarum LZ206 might facilitate its applications to protect food products from pathogens' contamination in the dairy industry.

  18. Beneficial Effect of Bidens pilosa on Body Weight Gain, Food Conversion Ratio, Gut Bacteria and Coccidiosis in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cicero L T; Chung, Chih-Yao; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Yang, Chu-Wen; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat gastrointestinal diseases in chickens. Here, we studied the impact of the edible medicinal plant, B. pilosa, on growth performance, gut bacteria and coccidiosis in chickens. First, we found that B. pilosa significantly elevated body weight gain and lowered feed conversion ratio in chickens. Next, we showed that B. pilosa reduced cecal damage as evidenced by increased hemorrhage, villus destruction and decreased villus-to-crypt ratio in chicken ceca. We also performed pyrosequencing of the PCR ampilcons based on the 16S rRNA genes of gut bacteria in chickens. Metagenomic analysis indicated that the chicken gut bacteria belonged to 6 phyla, 6 classes, 6 orders, 9 families, and 8 genera. More importantly, we found that B. pilosa affected the composition of bacteria. This change in bacteria composition was correlated with body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gut pathology in chickens. Collectively, this work suggests that B. pilosa has beneficial effects on growth performance and protozoan infection in chickens probably via modulation of gut bacteria.

  19. Interaction Of ZnO Nanoparticles With Food Borne Pathogens Escherichia coli DH5α and Staphylococcus aureus 5021 & Their Bactericidal Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pawan; Thakur, Rajesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2011-12-01

    Bactericidal activity of ZnO nanoparticles (np) against the food borne pathogens E. coli DH5α (Gram-ve) and & S. aureus 5021 (Gram+ve), and the mechanism of their interaction with target microbes was studied. Bactericidal activity of ZnO np was attributed to disruption of cell membrane causing cytoplasmic leakage, which was measured by quantifying the leakage of nucleic acids, proteins and K+ ions from the cells using UV-VIS Spectrophotometry and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, respectively. Cell membrane disruption was observed through TEM. It is proposed that both the abrasiveness and the surface oxygen species of ZnO np are responsible for their biocidal properties.

  20. 食品行业中常用消毒剂对食源性单核细胞增生李斯特菌的抑菌作用研究%Bacteriostatic effect of common disinfectants in food industry to food-borne Listeria monocytogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬旸; 石磊; 曾晓敏; 何建华; 闫鹤

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bacteriostatic effect of common disinfectants in food industry to Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne pathogenic bacteria, were investigated, to obtain more knowledge of the tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes to various disinfectants, and to provides the basis for the scientific use of disinfectant. Methods The bacterial inhibition ring test was employed to detect the bacteriostatic effect of 5 common disinfectants in food industry to a total of 73 food-borne Listeria monocytogenes isolates. Results In general use concentration, peracetic acid, iodophor and chlorhexidine do not have antibacterial effect to food-borne Listeria monocytogenes, 84 disinfection and bromogeramine have antibacterial effect. Peracetic acid has the complete bacteriostatic action with the concentration of 0.9% or higher. Chlorhexidine with the concentration of 0.5% or higher also confers complete bacteriostatic action to Listeria monocytogenes. Conclusion 84 disinfection, bromogeramine, peracetic acid with the concentration of 0.9% or higher, and chlorhexidine with the concentration of 0.5% or higher have bacteriostatic effect to food-borne Listeria monocytogenes, and thus are suitable to be applied in sterilization in the prevention and control of food-borne Listeria monocytogenes.%目的 研究食品行业中常用消毒剂对重要食源性致病菌单核细胞增生李斯特菌的抑菌效果,明确食源性单核细胞增生李斯特菌对各种消毒剂的耐受情况,为消毒剂的科学使用提供依据.方法 选取5大类食品行业常用消毒剂,采用抑菌环试验检测其对73株食源性单核细胞增生李斯特菌的抑菌效果.结果 过氧乙酸、碘伏及洗必泰在常规使用浓度下对食源性单核细胞增生李斯特菌不具备有效抑菌作用,84消毒液及新洁尔灭在常规使用浓度下具备抑菌作用,过氧乙酸浓度达0.9%及以上,洗必泰浓度达0.5%及以上时,具有完全抑菌作用.结论 对于

  1. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: international and Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Anita; Abdullah, Swaid

    2015-05-01

    Food borne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with chemical matter, heavy metals, parasites, fungi, viruses and Bacteria. Bacillus cereus is one of the food-borne disease causing Bacteria. Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. Their spores may be present on various types of raw and cooked foods, and their ability to survive high cooking temperatures requires that cooked foods be served hot or cooled rapidly to prevent the growth of this bacteria. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now known about the toxins produced by various strains of this species, so that its significance in such episodes are clearer. However, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported worldwide.

  2. Inhibition of food-related bacteria by antibacterial substances produced by Pseudomonas sp. strains isolated from pasteurized milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Beatriz Ferreira Rangel; Jean Thiago Alves Soares; Mariana Maciel Pereira; Bruna Rachel de Britto Peçanha; Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira Costa; Janaína dos Santos Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the production of antimicrobial substances by strains of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from pasteurized milk and their potential action against food-related bacteria were investigated. Samples of pasteurized milk were purchased from arbitrarily chosen commercial establishments in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Of the four samples analyzed, three presented several typical colonies of Pseudomonas. About 100 colonies were chosen and subjected to biochemical tests for confirmation o...

  3. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from Hussuwa, a traditional African fermented sorghum food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Nuha M K; Huch, Melanie; Schuster, Tobias; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Dirar, Hamid A; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2010-09-01

    The diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with Hussuwa fermentation, a Sudanese fermented sorghum food, was studied using a polyphasic taxonomical approach. Predominant strains could be well characterised based on a combination of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods such as ARDRA, rep-PCR and RAPD-PCR, as well as 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representative strains. Thus, the majority (128 of 220, 58.3%) of strains exhibited phenotypic properties typical of heterofermentative lactobacilli and of these, 100 strains were characterised more closely using the genotyping methods. The majority (97/100) strains could be characterised as Lactobacillus fermentum strains. Seventy-two of 220 strains (32.7%) showed phenotypic properties that are characteristic of pediococci. Of 41 selected strains investigated by genotyping techniques, 38 (92.7%) could be characterised as Pediococcus acidilactici strains, while three (7.3%) could be characterised as Pediococcus pentosaceus strains. The Hussuwa fermentation thus appears to be dominated by L. fermentum strains and P. acidilactici strains. For this reason, we selected representative and predominant strains as potential starter cultures for Hussuwa fermentation. These strains, L. fermentum strains BFE 2442 and BFE 2282 and P. acidilactici strain BFE 2300, were shown on the basis of RAPD-PCR fingerprinting to predominate in a model fermentation when used as starter cultures inoculated at 1 x 10(6) CFU/g and to lower the pH of the fermentation to below pH 4.0 within 48 h. These cultures should be studied for further development as starter preparations in pilot scale studies in actual field fermentations.

  4. Toward Probiotict Food Product from Meat Through Isolation and Identification Lactic Acid Bacteria As Probiotic Culture Stater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunilas Yunilas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic food products of meat can provide extensive benefits, to increase the shelf life and nutritional value also improve the taste. The use of lactic acid bacteria culture (LAB derived from the isolation of the meat and the addition of probiotic cultures (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in fermented sausage processing is expected to produce a probiotic sausage products with nutritional value, and better shelf life and improve health. This study aimed to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB of meat as a starter culture fermented sausages. The parameters observed were gram test, catalase, motility, gas production, type of fermentation, growth at various temperatures and pH. The results were obtained 28 isolates, 17 isolates were able to produce acid and 8 of them are lactic acid bacteria (LAB with the characteristics of gram-positive, catalase negative, not motile, produces gas, are hetero and homo fermentative, optimum growth temperature of 300C and a few of them are able to grow on pH 3.5. Lactic acid bacteria that able to be combined with probiotics as sausage starter culture to the probiotic food products of meat.

  5. Evaluation of dry sheet medium culture plate (Compactdry TC) method for determining numbers of bacteria in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, S; Kodaka, H

    2000-05-01

    The Compactdry, a ready-to-use and self-diffusible dry medium sheet culture system, has been developed by the Nissui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. for enumerating bacteria in food. The Compactdry consists of special spread sheet with culture medium that is the same as standard method nutrients, a cold water-soluble gelling agent, and a unique plastic dish. The procedure for bacterial examination in a sample solution (1 ml) is to just inoculate a test solution into the center of the self-diffusible medium and incubate at 35 degrees C for 48 h. The Compactdry TC (CTC) for the enumeration of total aerobic bacteria from 97 food samples was compared with the standard plate count (SPC) method and 3M Petrifilm aerobic count plates (PAC). The correlation coefficients between the CTC and SPC method, the CTC and PAC, and the PAC and SPC method were 0.97, 0.99, and 0.97, respectively. The Compactdry system is useful for the enumeration of total aerobic bacteria in food and may be a possible suitable alternative to the conventional pour-plate or the Petrifilm plate methods.

  6. 2011年-2013年泰安市婴幼儿食品食源性致病菌污染状况调查%Investigation on contamination of food borne pathogens in infants foods of Tai'an from 2011 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金华; 张新峰; 陆娟娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the contamination of food borne pathogens from infants foods in Tai'an,so as to provide some scientific basis for early warning ofinfants food borne disease and control of food safety management.Methods According to GB4789-2010 and GB/T4789-2003 standard method,we performed iaolatioin,biochemical identification and serological identification of Bacillus cereus,Enterobacter sakazakii,Staphylococcus aureus,in four kinds of infants foods samples,including milk powder,ground rice,nutrient biscuit and flour products.Results We had checked up 220 samples from 2011 to 2013,as a result,there were 34 pathogenic bacteria to be found,(total detection rate was 15.5 %,34/220),involved 27 Bacillus cereus (with detection rate 12.3%,27/220),5 Enterobacter sakazakii (with detection rate 2.3%,5/220),2 Staphylococcus aureus(with detection rate 0.9%,2/220).There was significant difference of the contamination rates in 3 pathogenic bac.teria(x2 =34.668,P <0.001).The contamination rate detected in milk powder was 22.9% (16/70),ground rice 14.3% (8/56),nutrient biscuit 10.5% (6/57),flour products 10.8% (4/37).Conclusion Food borne pathogens contamination existed in infants food in Tai'an,and milk powder is the main contamination food,while the main pathogenic is bacteria Bacillus cereus.%目的 了解泰安市要幼儿食品食源性致病菌污染状况,为要幼儿食源性疾病预警及食品安全管理提供科学依据.方法 依据GB4789-2010及GB/T4789-2003检测程序对婴幼儿食品(包括奶粉、米粉、营养饼干、面制品4类)进行腊样芽孢杆菌、阪崎肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌的分离培养及鉴定.结果 2011年-2013年220份样品中共检出致病菌34株,总检出率为15.5% (34/220).其中腊样芽孢杆菌检出27株,检出率为12.3% (27/220);阪崎肠杆菌检出5株,检出率为2.3% (5/220);金黄色葡萄球菌检出2株,检出率为0.9% (2/220),不同致病菌检出

  7. Monitoring result of food-borne pathogens in Yulin City of Guangxi from 2010-2011%2010-2011年广西玉林市食源性致病菌检测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗铭; 梁炯明; 叶瑞国; 陆运龙; 彭丽; 宋斌; 张耀平

    2013-01-01

    vegetable juice (7. 69% ) , instant non-fermented bean products (3.70% ) and cooked meat products (3.23% ). Pathogenic bacteria were not found in other samples. [ Conclusion] There are many hidden food safety problems in Yulin City. The food inspection departments should focus on high-risk foods to reduce the incidence of food-borne diseases.

  8. A review of food-grade vectors in lactic acid bacteria: from the laboratory to their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, José Maria

    2017-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a long history of use in fermented foods and as probiotics. Genetic manipulation of these microorganisms has great potential for new applications in food safety, as well as in the development of improved food products and in health. While genetic engineering of LAB could have a major positive impact on the food and pharmaceutical industries, progress could be prevented by legal issues related to the controversy surrounding this technology. The safe use of genetically modified LAB requires the development of food-grade cloning systems containing only the DNA from homologous hosts or generally considered as safe organisms, and not dependent antibiotic markers. The rationale for the development of cloning vectors derived from cryptic LAB plasmids is the need for new genetic engineering tools, therefore a vision from cryptic plasmids to applications in food-grade vectors for LAB plasmids is shown in this review. Replicative and integrative vectors for the construction of food-grade vectors, and the relationship between resistance mechanism and expression systems, will be treated in depth in this paper. Finally, we will discuss the limited use of these vectors, and the problems arising from their use.

  9. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply; the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form, and as menaquinones (MK), a collection of isomers mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Though multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about ...

  10. 2010年上海市市售食品中食源性致病菌监测结果分析%Analysis on monitoring data of pathogenic bacteria contamination in food from Shanghai markets in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雷军; 王颖; 彭少杰; 田明胜; 王李伟; 徐晨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the contaminating characteristics of pathogenic bacteria in food from Shanghai markets. Methods To get the food samples in Shanghai food monitoring points randomly in 2010 and detect 11 pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and so on. Results The total positive ratio of pathogenic bacteria in food samples account for 7.6%. The mainly food categories polluted by pathogenic bacteria are left-over rice food (25.0% ) , raw poultry meat (21.7% ) , raw livestock meat ( 19.0% ) , raw seafood ( 14.4% ) , ready-to-eat food (4.5%) and quick-frozen boiled food made of glour (1.7%). In addition, Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood (21.0% ) , Lister monocytogene in raw pourtry meat (19. 8% ) and Salmonella in raw pork (11. 6% ) are the mainly pathogenic bacteria combinations which may cause food-borne diseases, and cooket meat, milk products, raw eggs, ready-to-eat vegetable without cooking, frozen drinks, pastry and non-fermented bean products were negative in detecting pathogenic bacteria in 2010. Conclusion Some food, especially some raw products in Shanghai markets can be polluted by pathogenic bacteria. Thoroughly cooking and preventing cross-contamination need to be done to improve food safety.%目的 掌握上海市市售食品中食源性致病菌污染状况.方法 在全市监测网点抽检各类食品,开展沙门茵等11种食源性致病菌的监测.结果 各类食品中食源性致病菌总体检出率为7.6%,检出食源性致病菌的食品包括剩饭(25.0%)、生禽肉(21.7%)、生畜肉(19.0%)、水产品(14.4%)、餐饮即食食品(4.5%)和速冻熟制米面制品(1.7%).其中,海产品中的副溶血性弧茵、生禽肉中单增李斯特茵、生猪产品中的沙门菌的检出率分别为21.0%,19.8%和11.6%,是本市食源性致病菌风险来源的主要食品品种和项目.熟食卤味、乳制品、鸡蛋、生食蔬菜、冷饮饮料、糕点、非发酵豆制品等食品均

  11. Risk-based control of food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica in the Italian fermented sausages Cacciatore and Felino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataragas, M; Bellio, A; Rovetto, F; Astegiano, S; Decastelli, L; Cocolin, L

    2015-05-01

    Fermentation is the most important killing step during production of fermented meats to eliminate food-borne pathogens. The objective was to evaluate whether the food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica may survive during the production of two Italian fermented sausages. Sausage batter was inoculated with five strains of L. monocytogenes or S. enterica (ca. 10(5)-10(6) cfu/g) and their kinetic behavior was monitored during production. Both pathogens survived relatively well (in Cacciatore L. monocytogenes and S. enterica inactivation was ca. 0.38±0.23 and 1.10±0.24 log cfu/g, respectively; in Felino was ca. 0.39±0.25 and 1.62±0.38 log cfu/g, respectively) due to the conditions prevailing during production (slow dehydration rate, small reduction of water activity and fermentation temperature mainly below 20 °C during the first 48 h of fermentation). Quantitative analysis of data originating from challenge tests provide critical information on which combinations of the process parameters would potentially lead to better control of the pathogens.

  12. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for Simultaneous Detection and Identification of the NIAID Category B Bacterial Food and Water-borne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Mark S.; Pingle, Maneesh; Das, Sanchita; Hussain, Aashiq; Ocheretina, Oksana; Charles, Macarthur; Larone, Davise H.; Spitzer, Eric D.; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. The goal of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR/LDR assay for the detection of all NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. To validate the PCR/LDR assay, clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were tested. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay was assessed using a large number of seeded culture-negative stool specimens and a smaller set of clinical specimens from Haiti. The overall sensitivity ranged from 91 to 100% (median 100%) depending on the species. For the majority of organisms the sensitivity was 100%. The overall specificity based on initial testing ranged from 98% to 100% depending on the species. After additional testing of discordant samples the lowest specificity was 99.4%. PCR/LDR detected additional category B agents (particularly diarrheagenic E. coli) in 11/40 specimens from Haiti that were culture-positive for V. cholerae and in approximately 1% of routine culture-negative stool specimens from a hospital in New York. This study demonstrated the ability of the PCR/LDR assay to detect a large comprehensive panel of category B enteric bacterial pathogens as well as mixed infections. This type of assay has the potential to provide earlier warnings of possible public health threats and more accurate surveillance of food and water-borne pathogens. PMID:24709368

  13. Isolation and Taxonomic Identity of Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Retail Foods and Animal Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Chris; Vijayakumar, Paul; Adhikari, Raj; Jagannathan, Badrinath; Gautam, Dhiraj; Muriana, Peter M

    2015-03-19

    Bacteriocin-producing (Bac⁺) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a variety of food products and animal sources. Samples were enriched in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) Lactocilli broth and plated onto MRS agar plates using a "sandwich overlay" technique. Inhibitory activity was detected by the "deferred antagonism" indicator overlay method using Listeria monocytogenes as the primary indicator organism. Antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes was detected by 41 isolates obtained from 23 of 170 food samples (14%) and 11 of 110 samples from animal sources (10%) tested. Isolated Bac⁺ LAB included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, and Enterococcus thailandicus. In addition to these, two Gram-negative bacteria were isolated (Serratia plymuthica, and Serratia ficaria) that demonstrated inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis (S. ficaria additionally showed activity against Salmonella Typhimurium). These data continue to demonstrate that despite more than a decade of antimicrobial interventions on meats and produce, a wide variety of food products still contain Bac⁺ microbiota that are likely eaten by consumers and may have application as natural food preservatives.

  14. 韶关市市售食品中食源性致病菌污染监测结果分析%Analysis on monitoring data of pathogenic bacteria contamination in food from Shaoguan markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓俊兴; 徐子强; 唐建红; 钟启丽; 邓华美

    2013-01-01

    , Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes Lester bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigel a spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Enterobacter sakazaki , Bacil us cereus 9 kinds of food-borne pathogens.Results:In the monitoring of 5 kinds of 276 food samples, There were 37 strains of food-borne pathogens, The total positive rate was 13.41%. The cooked meat product detection rate was 21.88% (14/64), Eating raw aquatic products of animal detection rate was 17.50% (14/80),baking food detection rate was 11.67% (7/60),infant food detection rate was 8.33% (2/24),cold dish not detected food-borne pathogens. Cooked meat products of different point of sale of food-borne pathogenic bacteria was statistical y significant difference in detection rate (P 0.05).Conclusion:In food products in Shaoguan has been influenced by 4 kinds of food-borne pathogens pol ution, Contamination of food is cooked meat, raw food, aquatic animal products of aquatic products as the main contaminated food,The food safety risk assessment and control of the source region between the food safety risk monitoring objective and feasible, must fol ow the representative, than the statistical design principle, reliability, as far as possible to reduce the random error and selection bias and information bias.

  15. Large and prolonged food-borne multistate hepatitis A outbreak in Europe associated with consumption of frozen berries, 2013 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, E; Verhoef, L; Thornton, L; Guzman-Herrador, B R; Faber, M; Sundqvist, L; Rimhanen-Finne, R; Roque-Afonso, A M; Ngui, S L; Allerberger, F; Baumann-Popczyk, A; Muller, L; Parmakova, K; Alfonsi, V; Tavoschi, L; Vennema, H; Fitzgerald, M; Myrmel, M; Gertler, M; Ederth, J; Kontio, M; Vanbockstael, C; Mandal, S; Sadkowska-Todys, M; Tosti, M E; Schimmer, B; O Gorman, J; Stene-Johansen, K; Wenzel, J J; Jones, G; Balogun, K; Ciccaglione, A R; O' Connor, L; Vold, L; Takkinen, J; Rizzo, C

    2015-07-23

    In May 2013, Italy declared a national outbreak of hepatitis A, which also affected several foreign tourists who had recently visited the country. Molecular investigations identified some cases as infected with an identical strain of hepatitis A virus subgenotype IA. After additional European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries reported locally acquired and travel-related cases associated with the same outbreak, an international outbreak investigation team was convened, a European outbreak case definition was issued and harmonisation of the national epidemiological and microbiological investigations was encouraged. From January 2013 to August 2014, 1,589 hepatitis A cases were reported associated with the multistate outbreak; 1,102 (70%) of the cases were hospitalised for a median time of six days; two related deaths were reported. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations implicated mixed frozen berries as the vehicle of infection of the outbreak. In order to control the spread of the outbreak, suspected or contaminated food batches were recalled, the public was recommended to heat-treat berries, and post-exposure prophylaxis of contacts was performed. The outbreak highlighted how large food-borne hepatitis A outbreaks may affect the increasingly susceptible EU/EEA general population and how, with the growing international food trade, frozen berries are a potential high-risk food.

  16. Isolation and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from ready-to-eat food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, W J; Asmundson, R V; Huang, C M

    1996-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from a range of foods sold in ready-to-eat form were screened for bacteriocin production. Twenty-two bacteriocin-producing cultures were isolated from 14 of the 41 foods sampled. Bacteriocin-producing isolates from meat, fish and dairy products were Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species typically found associated with these products. Most of these isolates gave only a narrow inhibitory spectrum although two showed activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Fruit and vegetable products gave a broader range of organisms but most of the bacteriocin-producing cultures were found to be strains of Lactococcus. Several lactococci produced a nisin-like activity, and showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against the indicator strains tested. The ease with which bacteriocin-producing strains could be isolated implies that they are already being safely consumed in food, and highlights the potential for using bacteriocin-producing cultures for biopreservation, especially in association with minimally processed products.

  17. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases.

  18. Monitoring of Food - borne Pathogens in Yongzhou City in 2011%2011年永州市食源性致病菌监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓉; 唐旭辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of food - bome pathogens contamination in market - sold foods in Yongzhou, Hunan Province. Methods The food -bome pathogens, including Salmonella spp. , Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Shigella spp., Escherichia coli O157 :H7 and Enterobacter sakaza-kii were detected according to the Handbook of National Surveillance Network on Food - borne Diseases in 2011. Results Totally 20 strains of pathogens were identified in the 198 samples collected from cooked meat products, egg products, quick frozen cooked rice products, ready - to - use non- fermented soybean products, cakes or biscuit, cold and dressed vegetable, fresh fruits or vegetables juice, rice noodles (fast foods, rice noodles and cold noodles) and infant foods, with a total detection rate of 10.10%. Among 9 kinds of foods samples detected, the pathogen detection rate of quick frozen cooked rice products was the highest (27.27%). The pathogen detection rates in cooked meat products, rice noodles, cakes, cold and dressed vegetable, fresh fruits or vegetables juice and infant foods were 18.18%, 18.18%, 9.09%, 9.09%, 4.55% and4.55%, respectively. Conclusions The market - sold foods in Yongzhou Gty, especially the quick frozen cooked rice products, cooked meat products and rice noodles, are contaminated to by pathogens some extend. The food supervision and law enforcement departments should pay more attention to monitoring these food products so as to decrease and prevent the food - borne diseases effectively.%目的 了解湖南省永州市食品中食源性致病菌污染状况.方法 依据国家食源性疾病监测网2011年度工作手册,进行沙门菌、单增李斯特菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌、志贺菌、大肠埃希菌O157、阪崎肠杆菌的检测.结果 检测熟肉制品、蛋制品、速冻熟制米面制品、即食非发酵性豆制品、糕点及饼干、凉拌菜、鲜榨果蔬

  19. Exploring Post-Treatment Reversion of Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Bacteria of Food Animals as a Resistance Mitigation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Victoriya V; KuKanich, Butch; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial drug use in food animals is associated with an elevation in relative abundance of bacteria resistant to the drug among the animal enteric bacteria. Some of these bacteria are potential foodborne pathogens. Evidence suggests that at least in the enteric nontype-specific Escherichia coli, after treatment the resistance abundance reverts to the background pre-treatment levels, without further interventions. We hypothesize that it is possible to define the distribution of the time period after treatment within which resistance to the administered drug, and possibly other drugs in case of coselection, in fecal bacteria of the treated animals returns to the background pre-treatment levels. Furthermore, it is possible that a novel resistance mitigation strategy for microbiological food safety could be developed based on this resistance reversion phenomenon. The strategy would be conceptually similar to existing antimicrobial drug withdrawal periods, which is a well-established and accepted mitigation strategy for avoiding violative drug residues in the edible products from the treated animals. For developing resistance-relevant withdrawals, a mathematical framework can be used to join the necessary pharmacological, microbiological, and animal production components to project the distributions of the post-treatment resistance reversion periods in the production animal populations for major antimicrobial drug classes in use. The framework can also help guide design of empirical studies into the resistance-relevant withdrawal periods and development of mitigation approaches to reduce the treatment-associated elevation of resistance in animal enteric bacteria. We outline this framework, schematically and through exemplar equations, and how its components could be formulated.

  20. Analysis of an Epidemiological Survey of Food Borne Disease%一起食源性疾病的流行病与调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇

    2016-01-01

    目的:在食源性疾病(亚硝酸盐中毒)的调查、处置、准确判定,需要实验室提供科学、准确的数据支持。方法对食物中毒事件中可疑食品、调料、生物样本(呕吐物、排泄物)等进行实验室检验,与亚硝酸盐的中毒量、致病(死)量比较判定。结果实验室检验结果的准确,能快速、准确为流行病调查结果提供依据,并认定亚硝酸盐中毒。结论判定食源性疾病(亚硝酸盐中毒)离不开实验室科学、准确的检验数据。%Objective The investigation, disposal and accurate determination of food borne disease (nitrite poisoning) need the support of laboratory to provide scientific and accurate data. Methods The suspicious food, condiment, biological sam-ples (vomit, feces) were tested in laboratory, and the amount of nitrite poisoning and pathogenic and lethal amount were compared and determined. Results Laboratory test results are accurate, which can quickly and accurately provide the basis for epidemiological survey results, and identify nitrite poisoning. Conclusion Determination of food borne disease (nitrite poisoning) can not be separated from laboratory science and accurate test data.

  1. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinan Guo

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The outbreak of gastroenteritis was caused mainly by bread products contaminated with norovirus GII. A food handler with an asymptomatic norovirus GII infection was the possible source of infection.

  2. Use of Case Studies to Introduce Undergraduate Students to Principles of Food Microbiology, Molecular Biology, and Epidemiology of Food-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Monica A.; Sumner, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Mock outbreaks of infectious disease offer the ability to introduce principles of food microbiology, ecology, and epidemiology to undergraduate students using an inquiry driven process. Students were presented with an epidemiological case study detailing patient history, clinical presentation, and foods recently consumed. The students then had to…

  3. Some Technological Challenges in the Addition of Probiotic Bacteria to Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.

    In North-America, up to 93% of consumers believe certain foods have health benefits that may reduce the risk of disease (Clydesdale, 2005). Using a strict definition, limited to food and drinks that tend to make specific health claims of some kind on the packaging or in advertising, the functional foods (FF) and drinks market in the five major European markets, the USA, Japan and Australia had a combined value of 16 billion USD in 2005 (Leatherhead Food International, 2006). Dairy products account for nearly 43% of this market, which is almost entirely made up of fermented dairy products (Leatherhead Food International, 2006).

  4. 湖北省随州市2009年-2011年食源性致病菌污染状况分析%Analysis of contamination status of food-borne pathogens in Suizhou from 2009 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭芳; 黄晓敏; 彭斌; 王永光; 李月; 刘晓辉; 陈平

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解随州市食品中致病菌的污染现状,确定污染来源,掌握和分析我市食品安全状况,及时发现食品安全隐患,为食品风险做好预警.方法:依据GB/T4789-2008和GB/T4789-2010检测标准和国家食源性致病菌监测工作手册,对2009年-2011年在全市采集的10类食品进行沙门菌、单增李斯特菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、副溶血性弧菌、EHEC O157:H7五种致病菌的检测.结果:检测的424份样品中,致病菌的总检出率为8.96% (38/424),其中金黄色葡萄球菌检出率最高5.73%(20/349),单增李斯特菌检出率3.22%(11/342),副溶血弧菌检出率3.03%(1/33);EHEC O157:H7检出率0.94% (2/212);沙门菌检出率0.94% (4/424);未检出空肠弯曲菌.10类食品中致病菌阳性检出率最高的为速冻米面食品占14.55%,其次为生畜(禽)肉占14.29%,凉拌菜占13.04%,豆制品占11.43%等.结论:随州市居民主要消费食品存在食源性致病菌污染,其中速冻米面、生禽(畜)肉、凉拌菜、豆制品等是主要受污染的食品品种.金黄色葡萄球菌、单增李斯特菌是随州市食源性疾病发生的危险因素.%Objective: To understand the contamination status of food - borne pathogens in food in Suizhou, to i-dentify the source of pollutions and grasp the food security situation, and to discover hidden troubles for food safety. Methods: From 2009 to 2011, according to GB/T4789 -2008,GB/T4789 -2010 and national food - borne pathogenic bacteria monitoring manual, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemo-lyticus, EHEC 0157:H7 were detected in 10 kinds of food. Results: Among the 424 test samples, the overall detection rate was 8.96% (38/424) , in which Staphylococcus aureus was the highest (5.73% , 20/349) , Listeria monocytogenes detection rate was 3.22% (11/342) , Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 3.03% (1/33) , EHEC 0157: H7 was 0. 94% (2/212) , Salmonella was 0.94% (4/424) , while

  5. Geno- and phenotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. strains isolated from African indigenous fermented food products and their applications in the food and feed industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adimpong, David Bichala

    biotechnological and food bio-processing applications especially as live culture is the responsibility of the producer. This requires careful safety evaluations such as sensitivity to antimicrobial agents and production of virulence factors. The aim of this PhD Thesis was to characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB......-decomposition analyses. In order to be able to accommodate strain ZN7a-9 within the L. delbrueckii subsp. taxon and to additionally distinguish it from the recognised members of this taxon, it was proposed as a new L. delbrueckii subspecies; Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. jakobsenii subsp. nov. (Appendix II...

  6. 2011年大连市食源性致病菌监测分析%Monitoring of food-borne pathogens in Dalian City in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓南; 李瑞; 王凡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To monitor main food-borne pathogens ,and provide the scientific basis for the prevention of foodborne diseases and food poisoning in Dalian City. Methods In the city supermarkets, farmers' markets, restaurants and specialty stores were randomly collected 10 food samples were collected seven pathogen monitoring indicators based on "Microbiological examination of food hygiene GB/T4789-2003/2008 including: Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Shigella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterobacter sakazakii isolation, biochemical and serological identification. Results monitored cooked meat products, raw food of animal aquatic products, salad, freshly squeezed fruit and vegetable juices for a total of 204 samples, the detection of foodborne pathogens 13, the detection rate of 6.37% (13/204). Conclusion Dalian Food and more polluting presence of foodborne pathogens, including freshly squeezed fruit and vegetable juices, raw food animal aquatic products, rice noodle Cold, cooked meat products, soy products are mainly contaminated food; should strengthen foodborne pathogens monitoring, to prevent food-borne diseases and food poisoning.%目的监测大连市主要食源性致病菌污染状况,为预防食源性疾病和食物中毒提供科学依据。方法在本市的大型超市、农贸市场、餐饮店和专卖店等随机采集10类食品,依据《食品卫生微生物学检验》GB/T4789-2003/2008,对采集样品进行7项致病菌监测指标包括:沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌、大肠杆菌O157、志贺氏菌、副溶血性弧菌、阪崎肠杆菌分离、生化及血清学鉴定。结果共监测熟肉制品、生食动物性水产品、凉拌菜、鲜榨果蔬汁等共计204份样品,检出食源性致病菌13株,总检出率6.37%(13/204)。结论大连市食品存在食源性致病菌污染较严重,其中鲜榨果蔬汁、生食动物性水产品

  7. Multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection of histamine-, tyramine-, and putrescine-producing lactic acid bacteria in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcobal, Angela; de las Rivas, Blanca; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Muñoz, Rosario

    2005-04-01

    In a screening of primers, we have selected three pairs of primers for a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, which potentially produce histamine, tyramine, and putrescine on fermented foods. These primers were based on sequences from histidine, tyrosine, and ornithine decarboxylases from LAB. Under the optimized conditions, the assay yielded a 367-bp DNA fragment from histidine decarboxylases, a 924-bp fragment from tyrosine decarboxylases, and a 1,446-bp fragment from ornithine decarboxylases. When the DNAs of several target organisms were included in the same reaction, two or three corresponding amplicons of different sizes were observed. This assay was useful for the detection of amine-producing bacteria in control collection strains and in a LAB collection. No amplification was observed with DNA from nonproducing LAB strains. This article is the first describing a multiplex PCR approach for the simultaneous detection of potentially amine-producing LAB in foods. It can be easily incorporated into the routine screening for the accurate selection of starter LAB and in food control laboratories.

  8. Interspecies interactions result in enhanced biofilm formation by co-cultures of bacteria isolated from a food processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røder, Henriette L; Raghupathi, Prem K; Herschend, Jakob; Brejnrod, Asker; Knøchel, Susanne; Sørensen, Søren J; Burmølle, Mette

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can lead to poor hygienic conditions in food processing environments. Furthermore, interactions between different bacteria may induce or promote biofilm formation. In this study, we isolated and identified a total of 687 bacterial strains from seven different locations in a meat processing environment and evaluated their biofilm formation capability. A diverse group of bacteria was isolated and most were classified as poor biofilm producers in a Calgary biofilm device assay. Isolates from two sampling sites, the wall and the meat chopper, were further examined for multispecies biofilm formation. Eight strains from each sampling site were chosen and all possible combinations of four member co-cultures were tested for enhanced biofilm formation at 15 °C and 24 °C. In approximately 20% of the multispecies consortia grown at 15 °C, the biofilm formation was enhanced when comparing to monospecies biofilms. Two specific isolates (one from each location) were found to be present in synergistic combinations with higher frequencies than the remaining isolates tested. This data provides insights into the ability of co-localized isolates to influence co-culture biofilm production with high relevance for food safety and food production facilities.

  9. Interspecies interactions result in enhanced biofilm formation by co-cultures of bacteria isolated from a food processing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Herschend, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    examined for multispecies biofilm formation. Eight strains from each sampling site were chosen and all possible combinations of four member co-cultures were tested for enhanced biofilm formation at 15°C and 24°C. In approximately 20% of the multispecies consortia grown at 15°C, the biofilm formation......Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can lead to poor hygienic conditions in food processing environments. Furthermore, interactions between different bacteria may induce or promote biofilm formation. In this study, we isolated and identified a total of 687 bacterial strains from seven...... different locations in a meat processing environment and evaluated their biofilm formation capability. A diverse group of bacteria was isolated and most were classified as poor biofilm producers in a Calgary biofilm device assay. Isolates from two sampling sites, the wall and the meat chopper, were further...

  10. The European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance data among zoonotic and indicator bacteria in 2011, submitted by 26 European Union Member States, were jointly analysed by the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Data covered resistance in zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates from humans, food and animals, and in indicator Escherichia coli and enterococci isolates from animals and food. Data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals and food were also presented. Resistance in isolates from humans were mainly interpreted using clinical breakpoints, while animal and food isolate resistance was interpreted using epidemiological cut-off values. Resistance was commonly found in isolates from humans, animals and food, although disparities in resistance were frequently observed between Member States. High resistance levels were recorded to ampicillin, tetracyclines and sulfonamides in Salmonella isolates from humans, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones remained low. In Salmonella and indicator Escherichia coli isolates from fowl, pigs, cattle and meat thereof, resistance to ampicillin, tetracyclines and sulfonamides was also commonly detected, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was low. Moderate to high resistance to (fluoroquinolones was observed in Salmonella isolates from turkeys, fowl and broiler meat. In Campylobacter isolates from human cases, resistance to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracyclines was high, while resistance to erythromycin was low to moderate. High resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracyclines was observed in Campylobacter isolates from fowl, broiler meat, pigs and cattle, whereas much lower levels were observed for erythromycin and gentamicin. Among the indicator enterococci isolates from animals and food, resistance to tetracyclines and erythromycin was commonly detected. The

  11. Role of Tyramine Synthesis by Food-Borne Enterococcus durans in Adaptation to the Gastrointestinal Tract Environment ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Palencia, Pilar; Fernández, Maria; Mohedano, Maria Luz; Ladero, Victor; Quevedo, Cristina; Alvarez, Miguel A.; López, Paloma

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines in food constitute a human health risk. Here we report that tyramine-producing Enterococcus durans strain IPLA655 (from cheese) was able to produce tyramine under conditions simulating transit through the gastrointestinal tract. Activation of the tyramine biosynthetic pathway contributed to binding and immunomodulation of enterocytes. PMID:21097601

  12. Role of tyramine synthesis by food-borne Enterococcus durans in adaptation to the gastrointestinal tract environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Palencia, Pilar; Fernández, Maria; Mohedano, Maria Luz; Ladero, Victor; Quevedo, Cristina; Alvarez, Miguel A; López, Paloma

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines in food constitute a human health risk. Here we report that tyramine-producing Enterococcus durans strain IPLA655 (from cheese) was able to produce tyramine under conditions simulating transit through the gastrointestinal tract. Activation of the tyramine biosynthetic pathway contributed to binding and immunomodulation of enterocytes.

  13. Role of Tyramine Synthesis by Food-Borne Enterococcus durans in Adaptation to the Gastrointestinal Tract Environment ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Palencia, Pilar; Fernández, Maria; Mohedano, Maria Luz; Ladero, Victor; Quevedo, Cristina; Alvarez, Miguel A.; López, Paloma

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic amines in food constitute a human health risk. Here we report that tyramine-producing Enterococcus durans strain IPLA655 (from cheese) was able to produce tyramine under conditions simulating transit through the gastrointestinal tract. Activation of the tyramine biosynthetic pathway contributed to binding and immunomodulation of enterocytes.

  14. Evidence of a species complex within the food-borne trematode Opisthorchis viverrini and possible co-evolution with their first intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Wongkham, Sopit; Laha, Thewarach; Pipitgool, Vichit; Tesana, Smarn; Chilton, Neil B; Petney, Trevor N; Andrews, Ross H

    2007-05-01

    The food-borne trematodes, Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus and Clonorchis sinensis, have long been recognized as the cause of major human health problems, with an estimated 40 million infected persons. Of the three species of liver fluke, only O. viverrini is classified as a type 1 carcinogen because of its role as an initiator of chronic inflammation and the subsequent development of cholangiocarcinoma. At present, there are no techniques for the early diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma and it is fatal for most patients. There is considerable variation in parasite prevalence and disease presentation in different geographical areas, the latter of which may be associated with genetic differences among parasites. In the present study, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to provide a comprehensive genetic characterization of O. viverrini from different geographical localities in Thailand and the Peoples' Democratic Republic of Laos. Parasites from different localities were compared genetically at 32 enzyme loci. The results of the genetic analyses are sufficient to reject the null hypothesis that O. viverrini represents a single species. Therefore, O. viverrini consists of at least two genetically distinct, yet morphologically similar (i.e. cryptic) species. Moreover, there was also separation of the different populations of snails (i.e. the first intermediate hosts) into two distinct genetic groups that corresponded with the delineation of O. viverrini into two species. This suggests that there may be a history of co-evolution in this host-parasite lineage. Additionally, five distinct genetic groups of parasites were detected, each of which occurred within a different and independent river wetland system. Our findings have major implications for the implementation of effective control and surveillance programs targeted to these medically important food-borne parasites.

  15. Monitoring of Food-borne Pathogens in Ya'an in 2011%2011年雅安市食源性病原菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉; 熊建明; 杨振宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the major pathogens in food - borne illness caused by food contamination in Ya'an ctiy and to improve capabilities of detection, early warning and control of food - borne illness in Ya'an. Methods According to Workbook of Monitoring Food - borne Pathogens in 2011 (Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention) , 9 kinds of food were detected. Results A total of 180 samples included in 9 kinds (20 samples for each kind) were detected. Coliforms were found in following 8 kinds of food: cooked meat, frozen cooked rice products, ready - to - eat fermented soy products, infant formula powder and infant corn -based complementary food, cakes and biscuits, cold dishes, fresh fruit and vegetable juices, rice noodles, Liangpi, noodles and boxed meal. The detection rates were respectively 25% , 20% , 60% , 10% , 30% , 50% , 40% and 20%. The detection rates of mold in frozen of cooked rice products, pastries and cookies were 100% ; staphyhcoccus aureus in fresh fruit and vegetable juices, 5% ; monocytogenes listeria monocytogenes in frozen cooked rice products, 5%. Salmonella, Escherichia coli 0157, Shigella, Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus bacteria were not found in all the samples. Conclusion The sanitary situations of bulks or self - made direct - eat food, such as ready - to - eat fermented soy products, cold dishes, fresh fruit and vegetable juices, frozen cooked rice products, cakes and biscuits are not optimistic.The supervision and regulation of such kinds of food should be strengthened to secure food consumption.%目的 了解雅安市食品污染中引起食源性疾病的重要致病菌,提高雅安地区食源性疾病检测、预警和控制能力.方法 按照中国疾病预防控制中心营养与食品安全所《2011年食源性致病菌监测工作手册》,检测9大类食品.结果 抽检9大类食品各20件,共计180件.熟肉制品、速冻熟制米面制品、即食非发酵性

  16. TrpA1 Regulates Defecation of Food-Borne Pathogens under the Control of the Duox Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jo Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen expulsion from the gut is an important defense strategy against infection, but little is known about how interaction between the intestinal microbiome and host immunity modulates defecation. In Drosophila melanogaster, dual oxidase (Duox kills pathogenic microbes by generating the microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS, hypochlorous acid (HOCl in response to bacterially excreted uracil. The physiological function of enzymatically generated HOCl in the gut is, however, unknown aside from its anti-microbial activity. Drosophila TRPA1 is an evolutionarily conserved receptor for reactive chemicals like HOCl, but a role for this molecule in mediating responses to gut microbial content has not been described. Here we identify a molecular mechanism through which bacteria-produced uracil facilitates pathogen-clearing defecation. Ingestion of uracil increases defecation frequency, requiring the Duox pathway and TrpA1. The TrpA1(A transcript spliced with exon10b (TrpA1(A10b that is present in a subset of midgut enteroendocrine cells (EECs is critical for uracil-dependent defecation. TRPA1(A10b heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes is an excellent HOCl receptor characterized with elevated sensitivity and fast activation kinetics of macroscopic HOCl-evoked currents compared to those of the alternative TRPA1(A10a isoform. Consistent with TrpA1's role in defecation, uracil-excreting Erwinia carotovora showed higher persistence in TrpA1-deficient guts. Taken together, our results propose that the uracil/Duox pathway promotes bacteria expulsion from the gut through the HOCl-sensitive receptor, TRPA1(A10b, thereby minimizing the chances that bacteria adapt to survive host defense systems.

  17. Effect of the cortex-lytic enzyme SleC from non-food-borne Clostridium perfringens on the germination properties of SleC-lacking spores of a food poisoning isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2010-11-01

    The hallmark of bacterial spore germination is peptidoglycan cortex hydrolysis by cortex-lytic enzymes. In spores of Clostridium perfringens wild-type strain SM101, which causes food poisoning, the sole essential cortex-lytic enzyme SleC is activated by a unique serine protease CspB. Interestingly, the non-food-borne wild-type strain F4969 encodes a significantly divergent SleC variant (SleCF4969) and 3 serine proteases (CspA, CspB, and CspC). Consequently, in this study we evaluated the functional compatibility of SleCF4969 and SleCSM101 by complementing the germination phenotypes of SM101ΔsleC spores with sleCF4969. Our results show that although pro-SleCF4969 was processed into mature SleCF4969 in the SM101ΔsleC spores, it partially restored spore germination with nutrient medium, with a mixture of ʟ-asparagine and KCl, or with a 1:1 chelate of Ca2+ and dipicolinic acid. While the amount of dipicolinic acid released was lower, the amount of hexosamine-containing material released during germination of SM101ΔsleC(sleCF4969) spores was similar to the amount released during germination of SM101 wild-type spores. The viability of SM101ΔsleC(sleCF4969) spores was 8- and 3-fold lower than that of SM101 and F4969 spores, respectively. Together, these data indicate that the peptidoglycan cortex hydrolysis machinery in the food poisoning isolate SM101 is functionally divergent than that in the non-food-borne isolate F4969.

  18. Enterotoxigenic profiles and polymerase chain reaction detection of Bacillus cereus group cells and B. cereus strains from foods and food-borne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y M; Sheu, S J; Chen, Y L; Tsen, H Y

    1999-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is one of the important food pathogens. Since B. cereus group cells, such as B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis and B. mycoides, share many phenotypical properties and a high level of chromosomal sequence similarity, it is interesting to investigate the virulence profiles for B. cereus group cells, including B. cereus strains isolated from foods and samples associated with food-poisoning outbreaks. For this investigation, the presence of enterotoxin genes, such as those of haemolysin BL, B. cereus enterotoxin T and enterotoxin FM, were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Meanwhile, their enterotoxin activities were assayed using the BCET-RPLA kit, haemolytic patterns on sheep blood agar and their cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results showed that there were 12 enterotoxigenic profiles for the 98 B. cereus group strains collected. In addition, if any of the three types of enterotoxins was present in the B. cereus group cells, these cells were shown to be cytotoxic to the CHO cells. Similar enterotoxigenic profiles could be found among strains of B. cereus, B. mycoides and B. thuringiensis. Thus, all B. cereus group strains may be potentially toxigenic and the detection of these cells in foods is important. We thus designed PCR primers, termed Ph1/Ph2, from the sphingomyelinase gene of B. cereus cells. These primers were specific for all B. cereus group strains and could be used for the detection of B. cereus cells contaminated in food samples.

  19. Negligible Colon Cancer Risk from Food-Borne Acrylamide Exposure in Male F344 Rats and Nude (nu/nu) Mice-Bearing Human Colon Tumor Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Sondagar, Chandni; Kapal, Kamla; Aziz, Syed A.; Caldwell, Don; Mehta, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet) reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control) or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM) or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu) mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control) or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a “complete carcinogen”, but acts as a “co-carcinogen” by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters. PMID:24040114

  20. The macrocyclic peptide antibiotic micrococcin P(1) is secreted by the food-borne bacterium Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 and inhibits Listeria monocytogenes on soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnio, M C; Höltzel, A; Rudolf, M; Henle, T; Jung, G; Scherer, S

    2000-06-01

    Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 was found to produce a substance exhibiting a bacteriostatic effect on a variety of gram-positive bacteria. The metabolite was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and semipreparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the high purity of the compound and revealed a molecular mass of 1,143 Da. By two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy the substance was identified as micrococcin P(1) which is a macrocyclic peptide antibiotic that has not yet been reported for the genus Staphylococcus. A total of 95 out of 95 Listeria strains and 130 out of 135 other gram-positive bacteria were inhibited by this substance, while none of 37 gram-negative bacteria were affected. The antilisterial potential of this food-grade strain as a protective starter culture was evaluated by its in situ application in cheese-ripening experiments under laboratory conditions. A remarkable growth reduction of Listeria monocytogenes could be achieved compared to control cheese ripened with a nonbacteriocinogenic type strain of Staphylococcus equorum. In order to prove that inhibition was due to micrococcin P(1), a micrococcin-deficient mutant was constructed which did not inhibit L. monocytogenes in cheese-ripening experiments.

  1. The Macrocyclic Peptide Antibiotic Micrococcin P1 Is Secreted by the Food-Borne Bacterium Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 and Inhibits Listeria monocytogenes on Soft Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnio, Markus C.; Höltzel, Alexandra; Rudolf, Melanie; Henle, Thomas; Jung, Günther; Scherer, Siegfried

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 was found to produce a substance exhibiting a bacteriostatic effect on a variety of gram-positive bacteria. The metabolite was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and semipreparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the high purity of the compound and revealed a molecular mass of 1,143 Da. By two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy the substance was identified as micrococcin P1 which is a macrocyclic peptide antibiotic that has not yet been reported for the genus Staphylococcus. A total of 95 out of 95 Listeria strains and 130 out of 135 other gram-positive bacteria were inhibited by this substance, while none of 37 gram-negative bacteria were affected. The antilisterial potential of this food-grade strain as a protective starter culture was evaluated by its in situ application in cheese-ripening experiments under laboratory conditions. A remarkable growth reduction of Listeria monocytogenes could be achieved compared to control cheese ripened with a nonbacteriocinogenic type strain of Staphylococcus equorum. In order to prove that inhibition was due to micrococcin P1, a micrococcin-deficient mutant was constructed which did not inhibit L. monocytogenes in cheese-ripening experiments. PMID:10831414

  2. Discovery of novel biopreservation agents with inhibitory effects on growth of food-borne pathogens and their application to seafood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahad, Ouissal Bourouni; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Barros-Velàzquez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Selection of protective cultures is relevant in order to biopreserve and improve the functional safety of food products, mainly through inhibition of spoilage and/or pathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, the present study investigated potential applications of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the biopreservation of fish and shellfish products. For this purpose, a collection of 84 LAB strains isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) was identified and characterized for their inhibitory activities against the most relevant seafood-spoilage and pathogenic bacteria potentially present in commercial products. The bioactive strains belonged to the genus Enterococcus and exhibited inhibition against Carnobacterium sp, Bacillus sp, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio anguillarum. Treatment of cell-free extracts of the LAB strains with proteases revealed the proteinaceous nature of the inhibition. Interestingly, the cell-free extracts containing bacteriocins remained 100% active after treatment up to 100 °C for 30 min or 121 °C for 15 min. Molecular analysis led to identification of the bacteriocins investigated, including enterocins A, B, L50 and P. All of these proteins demonstrated remarkable anti-Listeria activity and were found to be heat-resistant small class IIa bacteriocins. The results presented in this work open the way for potential applications of these LAB strains to the biopreservation of minimally-processed seafood products.

  3. Molecular and immunological approaches in quantifying the air-borne food allergen tropomyosin in crab processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Sandip D; Thomassen, Marte R; Saptarshi, Shruti R; Nguyen, Hong M X; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Bang, Berit E; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-09-01

    Tropomyosin is a cross-reactive allergenic protein present in ingested shellfish species. Exposure and sensitization to this protein via inhalation is particularly important in the crustacean processing industry where workers are continuously exposed to the aerosolized form of this allergen. The aim of this study was to develop an antibody-based immunoassay to enable the specific and sensitive quantification of aerosolized tropomyosin present in the environment of two crab processing facilities. Anti-tropomyosin antibody was generated in rabbits against tropomyosins from four different crustacean species. These antibodies were purified using recombinant tropomyosin using an immuno-affinity column. The recombinant tropomyosin was also used as an allergen standard for the sandwich ELISA. In order to quantify aerosolized tropomyosin, air collection was performed in the personal breathing zone of 80 workers during two crab processing activities, edible crab (Cancer pagurus) and king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) using polytetrafluoroethylene filters. The purified antibody was able to detect tropomyosin selectively from different crustaceans but not from vertebrate sources. The limit of detection (LOD) for the developed sandwich ELISA was 60 picogram/m(3) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) 100 picogram/m(3). Immunoassay validation was based on linearity (R(2) 0.999), matrix interference test (78.8±6.5%), intra-assay CV (9.8%) and inter-assay CV (11%). The novel immunoassay was able to successfully identify working activities, which generated low, medium or high concentrations of the aerosolized food allergen. We describe an IgG antibody-based immunoassay for quantification of the major food allergen tropomyosin, with high sensitivity and specificity. This modified immunological approach can be adapted for the detection of other aerosolized food allergens, assisting in the identification of high-risk allergen exposure areas in the food industry.

  4. Effect of Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil on food-borne Penicillium aurantiogriseum and Penicilium chrysogenum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Ivana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes. The difficulty of controlling these undesirable molds, as well as the growing interest of the consumers in natural products, have been forcing the industry to find new alternatives for food preservation. The modern trends in nutrition suggest the limitation of synthetic food additives or substitution with natural ones. Aromatic herbs are probably the most important source of natural antimicrobial agents. Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil has been known as an interesting source of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food preservation. In the this work, we have investigated the effect of essential oil obtained from O. heracleoticum on growth of six isolates of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and four isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from meat plant for traditional Petrovacka sausage (Petrovská klobása production. The findings reveal that the essential oil of O. heracleoticum provides inhibition of all of fungal isolates tested. O. heracleoticum L. essential oil exhibited higher antifungal activity against the isolates of P. chrysogenum than the isolates of P. aurantiogriseum. O. heracleoticum essential oil showed a MIC value ranging from 25 to 100 μL/mL. The fungi cultivated in the medium with higher concentration of essential oil showed certain morphological changes. The alterations included lack of sporulation and loss of pigmentation.

  5. 2009-2011年梧州市食品中食源性致病菌监测结果%Surveillance results of food-borne pathogens in food in Wuzhou City from 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼桂江; 彭美薇; 盘珍梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解梧州市食品中食源性致病菌污染状况,为食源性疾病监测和预防控制提供科学依据.方法 按照GB/T 4789 - 2010和2011年国家食源性疾病监测工作手册进行检测和鉴定.结果 2009年120份食品中副溶血性弧菌检出率为35.00%,沙门菌检出率为14.17%,金黄色葡萄球菌检出率为10.00%,单增李斯特菌和大肠杆菌0157∶H7未检出.2010年150份食品中副溶血性弧菌检出率为48.00%,沙门菌检出率为9.33%.金黄色葡萄球菌检出率为2.53%,单增李斯特菌检出率为2.41%,大肠杆菌0157∶H7和阪崎肠杆菌未检出.2011年175份食品中副溶血性弧菌检出率为17.39%,阪崎肠杆菌的检出率为5.26%,金黄色葡萄球菌的检出率为4.61%,单增李斯特菌的检出率为2.92%,沙门菌和大肠杆菌0157:H7未检出.结论 该市食品存在安全隐患,重点食物中致病菌检出率都很高,食品安全执法部门应采取有效监管措施,减少和避免食源性中毒的发生.%[ Objective] To know the pollution condition of food-borne pathogens in food in Wuzhou City, provide a scientific basis for prevention and monitoring of food-borne diseases. [ Methods ] The detection and identification was performed according to GB/T 4789-2010 and the National food-borne disease monitoring handbook. [Results] Among 120 food samples collected in 2009, the detection rate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus was 35.00% , 14. 17% and 10.00% respectively. Iisteria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157: H7 were not found. Among 150 samples collected in 2010, the detection rate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Iisteria monocytogenes respectively was 48.00% ,9. 33% , 2. 53% and 2.41%. Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Enterobacter sakazakii were not found. Among 175 samples collected in 2011, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus aureus and Iisteria monocytogenes

  6. Bacteriocins of food grade lactic acid bacteria in hurdle technology for milk and dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of high temperature/short time (HTST) pasteurization has proven effective in eliminating microbial contaminants from raw milk; however some thermoduric bacteria and spore-formers have been reported to survive pasteurization at low numbers. Furthermore, improper pasteurization, post-pasteuri...

  7. Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tarkhineh, a traditional Iranian fermented food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faride Tabatabaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarkhineh is a traditional Iranian fermented product produced from a mixture of doogh and wheat grout. The purposes of the present study were identifying of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated and Changes of lactic acid bacteria flora throughout spontaneous fermentation of Tarkhineh. Results have shown a total of ten strains of LAB were isolated from Tarkhineh on the 3th day of fermentation using MRS agar plates and identified on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. The isolates were identified as L.nagelii(67%, L.bifermentans(21.3%, Leu.cermoris(6%, L.fructosus(1.45%, L.fermentum(1%, L.intestinalis(0.9%, L.agilis(0.9% L.acidipiscis(0.9% was reported, and approximately %1 of isolated samples remained unknown. The naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria load was found to vary between 1.97×105 and 4.3×105 cfu/gr. The main source of lactic acid bacteria was found to be the doogh.

  8. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 1: Physicochemical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity, and Main Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This paper reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices.

  9. Porous Silicon-Based Biosensors: Towards Real-Time Optical Detection of Target Bacteria in the Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad-Ivanir, Naama; Shtenberg, Giorgi; Raz, Nitzan; Gazenbeek, Christel; Budding, Dries; Bos, Martine P.; Segal, Ester

    2016-11-01

    Rapid detection of target bacteria is crucial to provide a safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. Herein, we present an optical biosensor for identification and quantification of Escherichia coli (E. coli, used as a model indicator bacteria species) in complex food industry process water. The biosensor is based on a nanostructured, oxidized porous silicon (PSi) thin film which is functionalized with specific antibodies against E. coli. The biosensors were exposed to water samples collected directly from process lines of fresh-cut produce and their reflectivity spectra were collected in real time. Process water were characterized by complex natural micro-flora (microbial load of >107 cell/mL), in addition to soil particles and plant cell debris. We show that process water spiked with culture-grown E. coli, induces robust and predictable changes in the thin-film optical interference spectrum of the biosensor. The latter is ascribed to highly specific capture of the target cells onto the biosensor surface, as confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The biosensors were capable of selectively identifying and quantifying the target cells, while the target cell concentration is orders of magnitude lower than that of other bacterial species, without any pre-enrichment or prior processing steps.

  10. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwamoto, R; Spenkelink, A; Rietjens, I M C M; Punt, A

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment.

  11. Enrichment followed by quantitative PCR both for rapid detection and as a tool for quantitative risk assessment of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Jacobsen, N. R.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    in chickens. Chicken rinse samples were enriched in Bolton broth for 20 h, a simple and rapid (1-h) resin-based DNA extraction was performed, and DNA samples were then tested with two instrument platforms: ABI-PRISM 7700 and RotorGene 3000. The method was validated against an International Standard....... The amplification efficiency in both platforms was 90%, although the linear range of amplification of purified genomic DNA was 1.5 x 10(1) to 1 x 10(7) (R-2 = 1.00) for the RotorGene and 10(3) to 10(7) (R-2 = 0.99) for the ABI-PRISM. In RotorGene and ABI-PRISM the levels of precision of detection as determined......As part of a large international project for standardization of PCR (Food-PCR; www.pcr.dk), a multiplex, multiplatform, ready-to-go enrichment followed by a real-time PCR method, including an internal amplification control, was developed for detection of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters...

  12. Application of the Central Limit Theorem in microbial risk assessment: high number of servings reduces the Coefficient of Variation of food-borne burden-of-illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-02-15

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is proposed as a means of understanding microbial risk in foods from a Public Health perspective. One variant of the CLT states that as the number of random variables, each with a finite mean and variance, increases (→∞), the distribution of the sum (or mean) of those variables approximates a normal distribution. On the basis of the CLT, the hypothesis introduced by this paper states that the Coefficient of Variation (CV) of the annual number of food-borne illness cases decreases as a result of a larger number of exposures (or servings) (n). Second-order Monte-Carlo analysis and classical statistics were used to support the hypothesis, based on existing risk models on Listeria monocytogenes in deli meat products focused on elderly people in the United States. Likewise, the hypothesis was tested on epidemiological data of annual incidence of salmonellosis and listeriosis in different countries (i.e. different n). Although different sources of error affected the accuracy of the results, both the Monte-Carlo analysis (in silico) and epidemiological data (in vivo), especially for salmonellosis, demonstrated that the CV of the annual number of cases decreased as n increased as stated by the CLT. Furthermore, results from this work showed that classical statistical methods can be helpful to provide reliable risk estimates based on simple and well-established statistical principles.

  13. mcr-1 is borne by highly diverse Escherichia coli isolates since 2004 in food-producing animals in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Garch, F; Sauget, M; Hocquet, D; LeChaudee, D; Woehrle, F; Bertrand, X

    2017-01-01

    In November 2015, a plasmid-mediated colistin resistance, MCR-1, was described in animals, food and humans in China, and it was considered as a potential emerging threat to public health. Therefore, we screened for the mcr-1 gene a European collection of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli (n=218) and Salmonella spp. (n=74) isolated from diseased food-producing animals between 2004 and 2014 and characterized the mcr-1-positive clones. Screening for mcr-1 gene was performed by PCR on isolates for which inhibition diameter was coli isolates were then characterized by phylogrouping, multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion testing or by broth microdilution. Among the collection, 42 E. coli and three Salmonella spp. were positive for mcr-1, with continuous detection since 2004 mainly from bovine and swine digestive infections. Most of the mcr-1-positive strains were resistant to amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole but remained susceptible to cephalosporins, carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam. All but one isolate were resistant to colistin, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of >2 mg/L. Most of the mcr-1-positive E. coli belonged to the phylogroup A with two prevalent clonal complexes, CC10 and CC165, in which sequence type 10 and sequence type 100 were overrepresented and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing revealed a high diversity of pulsotypes. MCR-1 was detected yearly in European food-producing animal since 2004 with a high diversity of pulsotypes supporting the dissemination of mcr-1 via plasmids. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Penicillium subgenus Penicillium - A guide to identification of food and air-borne terverticillate Penicillia and their mycotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium have terverticillate penicilli and are related to the ascomycete genus Eupenicillium series Crustacea, Many of its species are very common, being associated with stored foods of human beings and other animals, but also with animal dung and building......) are most diagnostic and consistent, but the classification proposed is also supported by the physiological and nutritional characters. The ecology and biogeography of the species is discussed and data on extrolites, both mycotoxins and pharmaceutically active compounds, is listed. Descriptions and colour...

  15. REVIEW. BACTERIAS ACIDO LÁCTICAS: PAPEL FUNCIONAL EN LOS ALIMENTOS BACTÉRIAS ÁCIDO LÁCTICAS: PAPEL FUNCIONAL NOS ALIMENTOS REVIEW LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN THE FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO ADOLFO PARRA HUERTAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Las bacterias ácido lácticas han sido importantes en los alimentos por siglos por su considerable contribución al valor de los productos. Debido a varias de sus propiedades metabólicas, las bacterias ácido lácticas desempeñan un papel importante en la industria alimentaria, por su contribución significante al sabor, olor, textura, características sensoriales, propiedades terapéuticas y valor nutricional de los productos alimentarios. Este grupo está compuesto de un número de géneros incluyendo Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc y Pediococcus. Algunos de los metabolitos producidos por las este tipo de bacterias son ácidos orgánicos, sustancias preservantes, polisacáridos, vitaminas, endulzantes, olores y sabores entre otros. Esta revisión se enfoca en estudiar la importancia de las bacterias acido lácticas en los alimentos.As bacterias ácido lácticas têm sido importantes nos alimentos por séculos pela sua considerável contribuição ao valor dos produtos. Devido a varias das suas propriedades metabóllcas, as bacterias ácido lácticas desempenham um papel importante na industria alimentar, pela sua contribulção significante ao sabor, cheiro, textura, características sensoriais, propriedades terapêuticas e valor nutrlcional dos produtos alimentar. Este grupo está constituido de um número de gêneros incluindo Lactococcus, Lactobaclllus, Enterococcus, Etreptococcus, Leuconostoc e Pediococcus. Alguns dos metabolltos produzidos por este tipo de bacterias são ácidos orgãnicos, sustãncias preservadoras, poli-sacáridos, vitaminas, adoçantes, cheiros e sabores entre outros. Esta revisão se enfoca em estudar a importãncia das bacterias ácido lácticas nos alimentos.Lactic acid bacteria have been important in food for centuries for their significant contribution to product value. Because several of its metabolic properties, lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the food

  16. Prevalence of swine Hepatitis E virus in Europe and its role as emerging zoonosis and food-borne pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Sarno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is responsible for enterically-transmitted acute hepatitis, a selflimiting disease in humans occurring via fecal-oral route. Hepatitis E virus is classified in the Hepeviridae family and consists of at least four genotypes. Genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans and associated with epidemics in developing countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are responsible for sporadic cases worldwide. Among all hepatitis (A, B, C and D, HEV is the only one with animal reservoirs. Swine HEV is widespread among pig population and several studies show phylogenetic relatedness between human and swine strains supporting the zoonotic hypothesis. Sporadic cases have also been linked to consumption of raw or undercooked food from infected animals. Therefore, swine strains of HEV pose not only a zoonotic risk but also food safety concerns. To assess this hypothesis, further investigations are required. The aim of the present article is to present a short overview on the HEV knowledge with respect to pig and human prevalence and its role as emerging zoonosis.

  17. Occurrence and characterization of food-borne pathogens isolated from fruit, vegetables and sprouts retailed in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojkovská, Hana; Myšková, Petra; Gelbíčová, Tereza; Skočková, Alena; Koláčková, Ivana; Karpíšková, Renáta

    2017-05-01

    Food of non-animal origin is a major component of the human diet and has been considered to pose a low risk from the point of view of bacteriological safety. However, an increase in the number of outbreaks of illness caused by such pathogens and linked to the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables have been reported from around the world recently. Salmonella spp., STEC (Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli) and Listeria monocytogenes are among the most frequently identified agents. Additionally, the transmission of antibiotic resistant strains including also the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to humans via the food chain is one of the greatest public health problems being confronted today. Therefore, we focused on the bacterial safety of fruit, vegetables and sprouts on sale in the Czech Republic. One strain (0.3%) of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type PT8, one strain (0.3%) of MRSA and 17 strains (5.0%) of L. monocytogenes were isolated from a total of 339 collected samples. The most problematic commodities were frozen fruit and vegetables (packed and unpacked) and fresh-cut vegetables. Our findings indicate deficiencies in hygiene practices during harvesting, processing and distribution of these commodities. Although sprouts and berries are the most likely to be contaminated by human pathogens, only two samples were positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of emerging food-borne pathogenic Arcobacter spp. isolated from pre-cut (ready-to-eat) vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Anna; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Marchetti, Patrizia; Celano, Gaetano Vitale; Colao, Valeriana; Terio, Valentina; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Figueras, Maria José; Di Pinto, Angela

    2016-11-01

    Given that changes in consumer food behaviours have led to an increase in the demand for pre-cut ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables, and that few data are currently available on the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in such foods, the aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. that carry virulence-associated genes on pre-cut RTE vegetables, using cultural and molecular methods. Arcobacter was detected using biomolecular identification methods in 44/160 (27.5%) of the samples, of which 40/44 (90.9%) isolates corresponded to A. butzleri and 4/44 (9.1%) to A. cryaerophilus. Studying the incidence of 9 virulence-associated genes revealed the widespread distribution of these genes among the Arcobacter isolates tested. The results obtained in our research provided plenty of information on the health risks associated with the direct consumption of raw vegetables, and highlight the need to implement further studies at each level of the production chain, in order to obtain further information to help protect human health.

  19. 食源性疾病暴发风险模型的构建及预测方法研究%The risk model construction and prediction method of food-borne disease outbreaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建跃; 楼江红; 吴铭宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the models and evaluate the epidemiological risks of food-borne disease outbreaks.Methods Risk of food-borne disease outbreaks would be graded by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.The food security experts in Zhejiang were organized to determine the weights of evaluation factors by Delphi method.The risk model of food-borne disease outbreaks should be constructed by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation,and to be discussed and verified.Results All of food-borne disease outbreaks risk level was the security level in four counties in Zhoushan.The score in 4 counties were 48(Dinghai),66(Putuo),41(Daishan) and 47(Shengsi),respectively.Conclusions Risk model of food-bome disease outbreaks is not only suitable for the food-borne disease outbreaks risk,but also to guide the residents food intake and avoid significant suffering from food-borne disease.%目的 构建评价食源性疾病暴发流行病学风险的模型.方法 采用模糊综合评判法对食源性疾病暴发的风险进行量化分级,组织浙江省内食品安全方面的专家通过德尔菲法确定评价因子的权重.利用模糊数学综合评判法构建食源性疾病暴发的风险模型构建,并对该模型进行验证和讨论.结果 舟山市4个县(区)均属于“安全”区域,食源性疾病暴发风险评价分值分别为:定海区48分、普陀区66分、岱山县41分、嵊泗县47分.结论 食源性疾病暴发的风险模型不仅适合食源性疾病暴发风险的评价,而且对指导居民食品摄入并且避免患食源性疾病有重要意义.

  20. The Importance of Endospore-Forming Bacteria Originating from Soil for Contamination of Industrial Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Heyndrickx

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific endospore formers have become important contaminants in industrial food processing. The direct or indirect soil route of contamination or dispersal is the start of events or processes in the agrofood chain that eventually leads to important problems or concerns for food safety and/or quality. Three important food sectors are discussed in this paper. In the dairy sector, Bacillus cereus, the most important pathogen or spoilage organism in this sector, and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the most important spoiler in certain cheeses, both contaminate pasteurized milk through the faecal and/or (at least for B. cereus the direct soil route. In the fruit juice industry, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, present on raw fruits, has become a major quality-target organism. In the ready-to-eat food sector, B. cereus and other aerobic endospore formers are introduced via vegetables, fruits, or herbs and spices, while anaerobic spore formers like nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium estertheticum pose safety and spoilage risks in chilled packaged foods, respectively.

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum LB95 impairs the virulence potential of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens in HT-29 and Vero cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Virna; Silva, Ana Carla; Cabrita, Paula; Peres, Cidália; Malcata, Xavier; Brito, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are amongst the most important agents responsible for food outbreaks occurring worldwide. In this work, two Lactobacillus spp. strains (LABs), Lactobacillus plantarum (LB95) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (LB13), previously isolated from spontaneously fermenting olive brines, and two reference probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, were investigated for their ability to attenuate the virulence of the aforementioned pathogens using animal cell culture assays. In competitive exclusion assays, the relative percentages of adhesion and invasion of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis were significantly reduced when the human HT-29 cell line was previously exposed to LB95. The relative percentage of invasion by Listeria monocytogenes was significantly reduced when HT-29 cells were previously exposed to LB95. In the cytotoxicity assays, the cell-free supernatant of the co-culture (CFSC)of VTEC with LB95 accounted for the lowest value obtained amongst the co-cultures of VTEC with LABs, and was significantly lower than the value obtained with the co-culture of VTEC with the two probiotic reference strains. The cytotoxicity of CFSC of VTEC with both LB95 and LB13 exhibited values not significantly different from the cell-free supernatant of the nonpathogenic E. coli B strain. Our results suggested that LB95 may be able to attenuate the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens; together with other reported features of these strains, our data reveal their possible use in probiotic foods due to their interesting potential in preventing enteric infections in humans.

  2. Surtos de enfermidades transmitidas por alimentos causados por Salmonella Enteritidis Food borne disease outbreaks caused by Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline T.M. Peresi

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: São descritos surtos de salmonelose notificados no período de julho de 1993 a junho de 1997 na região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, tendo em vista os vários surtos de veiculação alimentar ocasionados por Salmonella nessa região. MÉTODO: Foram obtidos 19 inquéritos epidemiológicos para análise de dados, 87 amostras de fezes e 38 amostras de alimentos, incluindo 12 de ovos para análise microbiológica. Cepas de Salmonella foram submetidas a sorotipagem, fagotipagem e teste de sensibilidade a 13 agentes antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: Foram acometidas 906 pessoas com 295 hospitalizações. Cepas de Salmonella Enteritidis Fagotipo 4 foram isoladas de 80,5% das coproculturas, de todas amostras de alimentose de 41,7% dos ovos. Em 22 (95,7% surtos os a salmonela foi veiculada por alimentos contendo ovos crus ou semicrus. Os testes de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos revelaram sensibilidade à maioria das cepas. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando os resultados obtidos, torna-se necessária a implantação e intensificação de medidas de controle na produção e armazenamento dos ovos, além da orientação à população quanto aos riscos no consumo inadequado desse alimento.OBJECTIVE: It is to describe outbreaks of salmonellosis reported from July 1993 through June 1997 in the Northwest region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, one of the areas where several foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis have been recently detected. METHOD: Data of 19 epidemiological investigations were analysed; 87 stool specimens and 38 food samples (including 12 of shell eggs were processed for microbiological analysis. Salmonella strains were identified by serotyping, phagetyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. RESULTS: There were 906 ill persons including 295 hospitalized patients. Phage type 4 (PT 4 Salmonella Enteritidis strains were isolated from 80.5% of stool samples, from all food samples and from 41.7% of eggs. Of the outbreaks, 95.7% were

  3. 食源性大肠杆菌的PCR检测%PCR Detection of Food-borne E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席美丽; 只帅; 王小璞; 杨保伟; 王新

    2011-01-01

    In order to apply PCR technology in the food safety, a multiple PCR protocol was developed to detect pathogenic E. Coli in food. Primers for uidA and seven virulence genes were designed, and the detection limit of E. Coli were determined in artificially contaminated water and milk using general PCR and real-time PCR. It was demonstrated that two multiple PCRs can identify seven virulence gene and uidA gene for pathogenic E. Coli. The detection limits of general PCR and real-time PCR test were the same: for artificially contaminated water, the detection limit was 2. 8 X 102 cfu/mL; for contaminated milk, the detection limit was 2. 8 X 104 cfu/mL.%为了将PCR技术更好地应用于食品安全检测,利用多重PCR对大肠杆菌uidA基因和7种毒理基因进行扩增,并对人为污染大肠杆菌的水和牛奶进行普通和实时定量PCR限度检测.结果发现,2组多重PCR反应即可完成uidA和7种毒理基因的检测;普通PCR和实时定量PCR检测限度相同,对人为污染水检测限度为2.8×102 cfu/mL,对人为污染牛奶的检测限度为2.8×104 cfu/mL.

  4. InlA Promotes Dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes to the Mesenteric Lymph Nodes during Food Borne Infection of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Ghanem, Elsa N.; Jones, Grant S.; Myers-Morales, Tanya; Patil, Pooja D.; Hidayatullah, Achmad N.; D'Orazio, Sarah E. F.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal Listeria monocytogenes infection is not efficient in mice and this has been attributed to a low affinity interaction between the bacterial surface protein InlA and E-cadherin on murine intestinal epithelial cells. Previous studies using either transgenic mice expressing human E-cadherin or mouse-adapted L. monocytogenes expressing a modified InlA protein (InlAm) with high affinity for murine E-cadherin showed increased efficiency of intragastric infection. However, the large inocula used in these studies disseminated to the spleen and liver rapidly, resulting in a lethal systemic infection that made it difficult to define the natural course of intestinal infection. We describe here a novel mouse model of oral listeriosis that closely mimics all phases of human disease: (1) ingestion of contaminated food, (2) a distinct period of time during which L. monocytogenes colonize only the intestines, (3) varying degrees of systemic spread in susceptible vs. resistant mice, and (4) late stage spread to the brain. Using this natural feeding model, we showed that the type of food, the time of day when feeding occurred, and mouse gender each affected susceptibility to L. monocytogenes infection. Co-infection studies using L. monocytogenes strains that expressed either a high affinity ligand for E-cadherin (InlAm), a low affinity ligand (wild type InlA from Lm EGDe), or no InlA (ΔinlA) showed that InlA was not required to establish intestinal infection in mice. However, expression of InlAm significantly increased bacterial persistence in the underlying lamina propria and greatly enhanced dissemination to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Thus, these studies revealed a previously uncharacterized role for InlA in facilitating systemic spread via the lymphatic system after invasion of the gut mucosa. PMID:23166492

  5. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  6. Phylloplane bacteria increase the negative impact of food limitation on insect fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olson, Grant L.; Myers, Judith H.; Hemerik, Lia; Cory, Jenny S.

    2017-01-01

    1. When populations of herbivorous insects increase in density, they can alter the quantity or quality of their food. The impacts of diet-related stressors on insect fitness have been investigated singly, but not simultaneously. 2. Foliage quantity and quality of red alder, Alnus rubra, were

  7. Food-borne disease related behavior analysis of family food providers in the floating population of Hangzhou city%流动人口食源性疾病相关行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄利明; 刘辉; 陈树昶; 王妮; 沈利明; 盛金芳; 朱晓霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study food-borne disease related behavior of the floating population in Hangzhou city. Methods A questionnaire on food-borne disease related behaviors was formulated based on Delphi method. A family-based retrospective investigation was conducted by unified trained investigators to analyze the frequency of food-borne disease related behaviors of family food providers during the past month in several floating-population centers of Hangzhou city. The investigation was conducted among 150 adults of every survey spot quarterly during a one-year period. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results According to all 1 781 valid recovery questionnaires, 82.42%subjects had a family income less than 50 000 yuan per year and 87.42%of them had junior-middle-school or lower levels of education. The proportions of subjects who always cleaned kitchen tools, covered the garbage can and kept house out of flies, roaches and mice were 42.50%, 55.87% and 61.09%, respectively. The proportions of subjects who always purchased intact packaged food and food under warranty were 39.70%and 52.33%, respectively. The proportions of subjects who always used tapped water, cleaned hands before food processing, cooked eggsand other foods till well-done were 66.03%, 51.94%, 53.62%, 35.99% and 32.62%, respectively. The proportions of subjects who always stored food in containers with cover and for no more than 3 days in freezer were 20.89%and 30.88%, respectively. The frequencies of food-borne disease related behaviors mentioned above were significantly higher among migrants who originated from urban areas, received education above junior-middle-school and had a family income no less than 50 000 yuan/y than the others (P<0.05). Conclusion In order to correct the risky behaviors during food consuming, processing and storage, targeted intervention is necessary among family food providers of floating population families.%目的:了解流动人口食源性疾病相关行为。

  8. Enteric bacteria of food ice and their survival in alcoholic beverages and soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Francesca, Nicola; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mahony, Jennifer; De Martino, Simone; Stucchi, Carlo; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levels of enteric bacteria in ice cubes produced in different environments (home-made, prepared in bars and pubs with ice machines and produced in industrial plants) and to determine their survival in different alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were found in almost all samples analysed. All industrial and the majority of home-made samples did not contain coliforms. Enterococci were not identified in domestic samples while they were detected in two industrial and three bar/pub samples. The samples collected from bars and pubs were characterized by the highest levels of enteric bacteria. Fourteen strains representing 11 species of eight bacterial genera were identified, some of which are known agents of human infections. The most numerous groups included Enterococcus and Stenotrophomonas. The survival of Enterococcus faecium ICE41, Pantoea conspicua ICE80 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ICE272, that were detected at the highest levels (100-400 CFU/100 mL thawed ice) in the ice cubes, was tested in six drinks and beverages characterized by different levels of alcohol, CO2, pH and the presence of antibacterial ingredients. The results showed a species-specific behaviour and, in general, a reduction of the microbiological risks associated with ice after its transfer to alcoholic or carbonated beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Till death do us part: stable sponge-bacteria associations under thermal and food shortage stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Pita

    Full Text Available Sporadic mass mortality events of Mediterranean sponges following periods of anomalously high temperatures or longer than usual stratification of the seawater column (i.e. low food availability suggest that these animals are sensitive to environmental stresses. The Mediterranean sponges Ircinia fasciculata and I. oros harbor distinct, species-specific bacterial communities that are highly stable over time and space but little is known about how anomalous environmental conditions affect the structure of the resident bacterial communities. Here, we monitored the bacterial communities in I. fasciculata (largely affected by mass mortalities and I. oros (overall unaffected maintained in aquaria during 3 weeks under 4 treatments that mimicked realistic stress pressures: control conditions (13°C, unfiltered seawater, low food availability (13°C, 0.1 µm-filtered seawater, elevated temperatures (25°C, unfiltered seawater, and a combination of the 2 stressors (25°C, 0.1 µm-filtered seawater. Bacterial community structure was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. As I. fasciculata harbors cyanobacteria, we also measured chlorophyll a (chl a levels in this species. Multivariate analysis revealed no significant differences in bacterial T-RFLP profiles among treatments for either host sponge species, indicating no effect of high temperatures and food shortage on symbiont community structure. In I. fasciculata, chl a content did not significantly differ among treatments although TEM micrographs revealed some cyanobacteria cells undergoing degradation when exposed to both elevated temperature and food shortage conditions. Arguably, longer-term treatments (months could have eventually affected bacterial community structure. However, we evidenced no appreciable decay of the symbiotic community in response to medium-term (3 weeks environmental

  10. Development of antibiotic-resistant strains for the enumeration of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in stored foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, C D; Davies, A R

    1994-12-01

    Strains of Aeromonas spp., Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4, Salmonella typhimurium, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC) and Yersinia enterocolitica resistant to streptomycin, nalidixic acid and a combination of both antibiotics were selected. When compared with the parent strains, most of the antibiotic-resistant strains had slightly slower growth rates at their optimum incubation temperature but the difference was reduced progressively when the temperature was lowered. Some antibiotic-resistant strains had considerably slower growth rates in the presence of the relevant antibiotic and these were not used further. Several agar and impedance media with added streptomycin and nalidixic acid were assessed for the enumeration of the antibiotic-resistant strains in artificially contaminated stored foods. Differential/selective media were required to enumerate low numbers of antibiotic-resistant strains in certain foods. The following agar and impedance media were selected: Aeromonas Agar (Ryan) for Aeromonas spp., Xylose Lysine Agar and Lysine Iron Cysteine Neutral Red Medium for Salmonella, Eosin Methylene Blue Agar and Coliform Medium for VTEC, and Yersinia Selective Agar without selective agents for Yersinia enterocolitica. The agar and impedance media have been used successfully to enumerate antibiotic-resistant strains inoculated into foods and stored at different temperatures.

  11. Food contamination in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for food hygiene and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, A R; Isah, E C; Lofor, P V O; Ojide, C K

    2010-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of food contamination in the fast food restaurants operating in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Three hundred and fifty food handlers were selected by means of a systematic sampling method and interviewed using a semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaire. One hundred and sixty-eight samples of ready-to-eat food and 45 stool samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for the presence of bacteria (excluding anaerobic bacteria). More than half of the respondents (n=184, 52.6%) had no training in food hygiene and safety. Only 149 (42.6%) respondents knew that micro-organisms can contaminate food. The prevalence of food contamination in the fast food restaurants was found to be 37.5%. Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly isolated bacteria, while salad, meat pie and fried rice were the most commonly contaminated foods. There is need for the relevant local authorities to ensure that the food sold to consumers in fast food restaurants is safe, wholesome and fit for human consumption in order to prevent outbreaks of food-borne illnesses. Also, there should be regular training/retraining and health education of these food handlers in all aspects of food hygiene and safety. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social and Economic Aspects of the Transmission of Pathogenic Bacteria between Wildlife and Food Animals: A Thematic Analysis of Published Research Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, A; Young, I; Rajić, A; Greig, J; LeJeune, J

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife is a known reservoir of pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella spp. Transmission of these pathogens between wildlife and food animals can lead to damaging impacts on the agri-food industry and public health. Several international case studies have highlighted the complex and cross-sectoral challenges involved in preventing and managing these potential transmission risks. The objective of our study was to develop a better understanding of the socio-economic aspects of the transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals to support more effective and sustainable risk mitigation strategies. We conducted qualitative thematic analysis on a purposive sample of 30/141 articles identified in a complementary scoping review of the literature in this area and identified two key themes. The first related to the framing of this issue as a 'wicked problem' that depends on a complex interaction of social factors and risk perceptions, governance and public policy, and economic implications. The second theme consisted of promising approaches and strategies to prevent and mitigate the potential risks from transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals. These included participatory, collaborative and multidisciplinary decision-making approaches and the proactive incorporation of credible scientific evidence and local contextual factors into solutions. The integration of these approaches to address 'wicked problems' in this field may assist stakeholders and decision-makers in improving the acceptability and sustainability of future strategies to reduce the transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals.

  13. Diversity of sporadic symbionts and nonsymbiotic endophytic bacteria isolated from nodules of woody, shrub, and food legumes in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Räsänen, Leena A; Aseffa, Fassil; Hailemariam, Asfaw; Lindström, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    Fifty-five bacterial isolates were obtained from surface-sterilized nodules of woody and shrub legumes growing in Ethiopia: Crotalaria spp., Indigofera spp., and Erythrina brucei, and the food legumes soybean and common bean. Based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the majority of the isolates were identified as Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the genera Achromobacter, Agrobacterium, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Enterobacter, Mesorhizobium, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Rhizobium, Serratia, and Variovorax. Seven isolates were Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Planomicrobium, and Rhodococcus. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting showed that each strain was genetically distinct. According to phylogenetic analysis of recA, glnII, rpoB, and 16S rRNA gene sequences, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Agrobacterium were further classified into six different genospecies: Agrobacterium spp., Agrobacterium radiobacter, Rhizobium sp., Rhizobium phaseoli, Mesorhizobium sp., and putative new Rhizobium species. The strains from R. phaseoli, Rhizobium sp. IAR30, and Mesorhizobium sp. ERR6 induced nodules on their host plants. The other strains did not form nodules on their original host. Nine endophytic bacterial strains representing seven genera, Agrobacterium, Burkholderia, Paenibacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Serratia, were found to colonize nodules of Crotalaria incana and common bean on co-inoculation with symbiotic rhizobia. Four endophytic Rhizobium and two Agrobacterium strains had identical nifH gene sequences with symbiotic Rhizobium strains, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Most symbiotic and nonsymbiotic endophytic bacteria showed plant growth-promoting properties in vitro, which indicate their potential role in the promotion of plant growth when colonizing plant roots and the rhizosphere.

  14. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwamoto, R., E-mail: reiko.kiwamoto@wur.nl; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.

  15. Effect of lauric arginate, nisin Z, and a combination against several food-related bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayaiying, Rinrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Cutter, Catherine N

    2014-10-01

    The effects of lauric arginate (LAE) and nisin Z, alone or in combination, on cell damage were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Brochothrix thermosphacta, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, efflux of potassium and phosphate ions, and growth inhibition. A combination of LAE with nisin Z caused severe and dramatic changes in the cytoplasmic membrane and cell lysis of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The combination treatment also caused significant potassium and phosphate ion leakage of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and B. thermosphacta, when compared with other treatments: 16.62±1.05, 50.35±0.81 and 45.47±1.15mg/L of potassium ion and 122.66±8.81, 97.96±3.31 and 26.47±13.97mg/L of phosphate ion after treatment for 6h, respectively. Bacteria were reduced by approximately 7log10CFU/mL within the first hour of treatment and then cells were unable to grow for the remainder of the experiment. Treatment with LAE alone resulted in changes in cellular morphology, coagulation of the cytoplasm, and low level leakage of potassium and phosphate ions in all bacteria tested. Treatment of L. monocytogenes and B. thermosphacta with nisin Z (320AU/mL of final concentration) resulted in the formation of membrane channels and leakage of potassium and phosphate ions at rather high levels; but the bacteriocin was not effective against E. coli O157:H7. LAE or nisin Z reduced growth of both L. monocytogenes and B. thermosphacta by approximately 7log10CFU/mL. Conversely, E. coli O157:H7 was not inhibited by treatments with nisin Z, but decreased by approximately 4.45log10CFU/mL after treatment with LAE. These findings provide additional information on the mode of action of these compounds on bacterial populations.

  16. Hospitalization records as a tool for evaluating performance of food- and water-borne disease surveillance systems: a Massachusetts case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan M Mor

    Full Text Available We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial "signal" depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR. Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems.

  17. 2011年沧州市食源性致病菌污染状况调查%Investigation on contamination status of food-borne pathogens in Cangzhou City in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢俊荣; 王春东; 毕红杰; 李秀芝

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective]To understand the contamination status of pathogens in food in Cangzhou city during 2011, provide a scientific basis for the surveillance of food-borne disease and food poisoning in Cangzhou City. [ Methods ] Based on the National technical guide for food-bome pathogens surveillance (2011), the isolation, biochemical identification and serotype identification of total bacteria counts, coliform group, fungus, Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus, listeria monocytogenes, Esche-richia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella and Enterobacter sakazakii were conducted in 10 types of food. [Results]24 strains of pathogen were detected in 466 samples, and the detection rate was 1.2% (24/2 030). There were 8 strains of Salmonella with the detection rate of 1. 7% (8/466) , 2 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with the detection rate of 9. 5% (2/21) , 11 strains of Listeria monocytogenes with the detection rate of 2.6% (11/462) , 1 strain of Staphylococcus aureus with the detection rate of 0.2% (1/445) and 2 Bacillus cereus with the detection rate of 2.2% (2/90). Escherichia coli O157: H7, Shigella and Enterobacter sakazakii was not detected. [Conclusion]There exists contamination of food-bome pathogens in food in Cangzhou City during 2011, especially cold dish. Health supervising departments should strengthen the management of food product and sale to prevent the food-borne diseases.%目的 了解2011年沧州市食品中致病菌的污染状况,为该市食源性疾病和食物中毒监测提供科学依据.方法 依据2011年全国食源性致病菌监测技术指南,对10类食品进行菌落总数、大肠菌群、霉菌、沙门菌、副溶血性弧菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌、单核细胞增生李斯特菌、大肠杆菌O157:H7、金黄色葡萄球菌、志贺菌、阪崎肠杆菌等11种致病菌分离、生化及血清型鉴定.结果 466份样品分别检测不同致病菌2 030份,检出致病菌24株,致病菌检出率为1.2% (24

  18. In vitro activity of plant extracts against biofilm-producing food-related bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nostro, Antonia; Guerrini, Alessandra; Marino, Andreana; Tacchini, Massimo; Di Giulio, Mara; Grandini, Alessandro; Akin, Methap; Cellini, Luigina; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Saraçoğlu, Hatice T

    2016-12-05

    The identification of effective antimicrobial agents also active on biofilms is a topic of crucial importance in food and industrial environment. For that purpose methanol extracts of Turkish plants, Ficus carica L., Juglans regia L., Olea europaea L., Punica granatum L. and Rhus coriaria L., were investigated. Among the extracts, P. granatum L. and R. coriaria L. showed the best antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 78-625μg/ml for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and 312-1250μg/ml for Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SubMICs produced a significant biofilm inhibition equal to 80-60% for L. monocytogenes and 90-80% for S. aureus. The extracts showed also the highest polyphenol content and the strongest antioxidant activity. Bioassay-guided and HPLC procedures demonstrated the presence of apigenin 4'-O-β-glucoside in P. granatum L. and myricetrin and quercitrin in R. coriaria L. Antigenotoxicity of plant extracts was also observed The present findings promote the value-adding of P. granatum L. and R. coriaria L. leaves as natural antimicrobial/antioxidant agents for control of food-related bacterial biofilms.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of molecular typing methods for major food-borne microbiological hazards and their use for attribution modelling, outbreak investigation and scanning surveillance: Part 1 (evaluation of methods and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of molecular typing methods that can be applied to the food-borne pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes is presented. This evaluation is divided in two parts. Firstly, commonly used molecular typing methods are assessed against a set of predefined criteria relating to discriminatory capacity, reproducibility, repeatability and current or potential suitability for international harmonisation. Secondly, the methods are evaluated for their appropriateness for use in different public health-related applications. These applications include outbreak detection and investigation, attribution modelling, the potential for early identification of food-borne strains with epidemic potential and the integration of the resulting data in risk assessment. The results of these evaluations provide updated insights into the use and potential for use of molecular characterisation methods, including whole genome sequencing technologies, in microbial food safety. Recommendations are also made in order to encourage a holistic and structured approach to the use of molecular characterisation methods for food-borne pathogens; in particular, on the importance of structured co-ordination at international level to help overcome current limitations in harmonisation of data analysis and interpretation.

  20. Antimicrobial Activities of Maize Silk Extracts against Food Spoilage and Food-borne Pathogens%玉米须提取物对食品腐败菌及致病菌抑制作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪丽莲; 谭仁祥

    2001-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of maize (Zea mays. L.) silks extracted with organic solvents were tested against seven food spoilage and food-borne pathogens for the first time.Ethanol (95%,v/v) extracts were ascertained to be the optimum by permitting the maximum yield and the highest antimicrobial activity.The MICs (minimum inhibition concentrations,in g/100g) of maize silk extracts were determined as 1.5 against Escherichia coli,3.0 against Staphylococcus aureus,3.0 against Pseudomonas fluorescens,1.5 against Salmonella typhimurium,2.0 against Bacillus subtilis,2.5 against Bacillus cereus,and 2.0 against Proteus vulgaris,respectively.Influences of food properties including mid-range pH values,storage temperature and time on the activities of the maize extracts were examined.The dependence of the activity on routine food sterilization conditions was measured as well.Therefore,the maize silk extracts could serve as potent,safe and effective food preservatives by means of controlling food properties and processing conditions.%首次以玉米须提取物对7种常见的食品腐败菌及致病菌进行抑菌试验,发现玉米须的乙醇提取物的效果最好,其最低抑菌浓度(MIC)为3.0 g/100g。此外,对食品加工条件(如杀菌方式等)及食品介质(如pH)对玉米须提取物抑菌活性的影响也作了研究。结果表明,玉米须提取物在常规食品杀菌条件(UHT)及中酸到酸性环境下抑菌活性稳定,因而可作为潜在的食品防腐剂。

  1. Inhibition of food-related bacteria by antibacterial substances produced by Pseudomonas sp. strains isolated from pasteurized milk

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    Ana Beatriz Ferreira Rangel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of antimicrobial substances by strains of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from pasteurized milk and their potential action against food-related bacteria were investigated. Samples of pasteurized milk were purchased from arbitrarily chosen commercial establishments in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Of the four samples analyzed, three presented several typical colonies of Pseudomonas. About 100 colonies were chosen and subjected to biochemical tests for confirmation of their identity. Eighteen strains of the Pseudomonas genus were identified and submitted to tests for the production of antimicrobial substances. Twelve strains (66.7% were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, four (22.2% as P. aeruginosa, one (5.5% as P. mendocina and one (5.5% as P. pseudoalcaligenes. Only two P. fluorescens strains were unable to produce any antimicrobial substance against any of the indicator strains tested. Most of the strains presented a broad spectrum of action, inhibiting reference and food-related strains such as Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Hafnia alvei, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Five antimicrobial substance-producing strains, which presented the broadest spectrum of action, were also tested against Staphylococcus aureus reference strains and 26 Staphylococcus sp. strains isolated from foods, some of which were resistant to antibiotics. The producer strains 8.1 and 8.3, both P. aeruginosa, were able to inhibit all the staphylococcal strains tested. The antimicrobial substances produced by strains 8.1 and 8.3 did not seem to be typical bacteriocins, since they were resistant to the three proteolytic enzymes tested. Experiments involving the characterization of these substances are being carried out in order to evaluate their biotechnological application.

  2. Production of Synbiotic Yogurt-Like Using Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Functional Food

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    M. Astawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as culture starter. Indigenous probiotic lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus 2B4, were applied in the making of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like with 5% of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS as a prebiotic source. The aim of this study was to determine the best formula of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like among four formulas: F1 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus, F2 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12, F3 (L. bulgaricus+ S. thermophilus + L. acidophilus 2B4, and F4 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12 + L. acidophilus 2B4 to be choosen and followed detection of it’s flavor to improve the product quality and consumer acceptance. The results showed that the F3 synbiotic yogurt made from mixed culture L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and L. acidophilus 2B4 had the highest antibacterial effect against Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Addition of 1.75% natural corn starch as a stabilizer produced optimum improvement in yoghurt consistency and minimize whey separation. Result of sensory evaluation indicated that the yoghurt with addition of 1% strawberry flavor and 0.1% vanilla flavor were ranked at first and second. Yoghurts were still good to be consumed after 15 d storage period at the refrigeration temperature (10 oC.

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Onion and some Antibiotics on a Number of Important Bacteria in Terms of Food Hygiene

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    Anzabi Younes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of edible onion plant and a number of common antibiotics in the case of some important bacteria regarding food hygiene. Materials and Methods: The sensitivity or resistance of standard strains of 9 important species of transmissible pathogenic bacteria, through food in laboratory Mueller Hinton agar medium and using blank paper discs containing onion extract, 9 standard synthetic chemicals, and antibiotics by agar disk diffusion method (disk diffusion agar, were investigated. Results: The findings of this study showed that, of the 9 species of bacteria tested, the aqueous extract of onion only has relatively small antibacterial activity on the 2 species of Staphylococcus aureus and clostridium perfringens. Statistical analysis of the results also indicated that there was no significant relationship among the different antibiotics used and the edible onion aqueous extract, and the resistance or susceptibility of isolates. Moreover, there was a difference between different antibiotics tested in this study and aqueous extract of onion, regarding the number of resistant bacteria, and intermediate and moderate susceptibility, and susceptibility to the antibacterial compounds. Conclusion: It seems that the aqueous extract of onions cannot be used as an alternative to commonly used antibiotics to fight important bacteria in terms food hygiene.

  4. Adhesion of Pathogenic Bacteria to Food Contact Surfaces: Influence of pH of Culture

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    Akier Assanta Mafu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces in cultures with different pHs (6, 7, and 8 was studied. The results indicated that the type of material had no effect on the attachment capacity of microorganisms, while environmental pH influenced the adhesion of A. hydrophila, E. coli, and S. aureus to both solid substrates. The attachment of S. Enteritidis (P>.05 was not affected by the type of substrate or the culture pH, whereas E. coli displayed the weakest affinity for both polystyrene and glass surfaces. No correlation was established between the physicochemical properties of the materials, or the bacterial and the rate of bacterial adhesion, except for S. aureus. Photomicrographs have shown that surfaces were contaminated by small clusters of S. Enteritidis while S. aureus invaded the food contact surfaces in the form of small chains or cell aggregates.

  5. Isolation, screening and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafei, H A; Abd-El-Sabour, H; Ibrahim, N; Mostafa, Y A

    2000-03-01

    100 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented foods (yoghurt, milk cream, sour dough and milk) were screened for bacteriocin production. Twenty six strains producing a nisin-like bacteriocin were selected. Most of these isolates gave only a narrow inhibitory spectrum, although one showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against the indicator strains tested, this strain was determined as Lactococcus lactis. The influence of several parameters on the fermentative production of nisin by Lactococcus lactis was studied. Production of nisin was optimal at 30 degrees C and in the pH range 5.5-6.3. The effect of different sulphur and nitrogen sources on Lactococcus lactis growth and nisin production was studied. Magnesium sulfate and manganese sulfate were found to be the best sulphur sources while triammonium citrate was the best inorganic nitrogen source and meat extract, peptone and yeast extract were the best organic nitrogen source for nisin production.

  6. Effect of root exudates of various plants on composition of bacteria and fungi communities with special regard to pathogenic soil-borne fun