WorldWideScience

Sample records for food aid users

  1. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  2. The water footprint of food aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Nicole; Konar, Megan; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find

  3. Food aid: Who needs it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J

    2000-07-01

    In the 1998 food crisis in Rumbek county, South Sudan, Dinka mothers began voluntarily to remove their malnourished children from Oxfam's therapeutic feeding programs. This article explains how the incident has led Oxfam to re-examine its ideas about food aid in the region and to take a fresh look at Dinka ideas of need. It was shown that Dinka ideas of vulnerability do not always coincide with the norm when it comes to food aid distribution. Dinka life revolves around the cattle, which provide milk for the children and the elderly. Thus, they believed that a child whose family or clan has sufficient cattle should not need special attention, even if they happen to be thin occasionally. In view of this, Oxfam decided that the best way forward was to discuss these issues and set up a workshop of women and men involving food decision making. In the workshop, Oxfam explained the purposes and outcomes of giving food to the malnourished, or the ¿weak¿ as the Dinka termed it and this became a negotiation over feeding attendance. It was finally agreed that the chiefs would allow ¿weak¿ children to receive double rations, on the condition that Oxfam discuss the issues with the World Food Programme.

  4. Satisfaction of Elderly Hearing Aid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lorena; Ribas, Angela; Almeida, Gleide; Luz, Idalina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The impact of auditory sensory deprivation in the life of an individual is enormous because it not only affects one's ability to properly understand auditory information, but also the way people relate to their environment and their culture. The monitoring of adult and elderly subjects with hearing loss is intended to minimize the difficulties and handicaps that occur as a consequence of this pathology. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods A clinical and experimental study involving 91 elderly hearing aid users. We used the questionnaire Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life to determine the degree of the satisfaction provided by hearing aids. We evaluated mean global score, subscales, as well as the variables time to use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Results Mean global score was 4.73, the score for Positive Effects 5.45, Negative Factors 3.2, demonstrating that they were satisfied; Services and Costs 5.98: very satisfied ; 3.65 Personal Image: dissatisfied. We observed statistically significant difference for the time of hearing aid use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Conclusion The SADL is a tool, simple and easy to apply and in this study we can demonstrate the high degree of satisfaction with the hearing aids by the majority of the sample collected, increasing with time of use and a greater degree of hearing loss.

  5. Hearing aid user guides: suitability for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the content, design, and readability of printed hearing aid user guides to determine their suitability for older adults, who are the main users of hearing aids. Hearing aid user guides were assessed using four readability formulae and a standardized tool to assess content and design (SAM - Suitability Assessment of Materials). A sample of 36 hearing aid user guides (four user guides from nine different hearing aid manufacturers) were analysed. Sixty nine percent of user guides were rated 'not suitable' and 31% were rated 'adequate' for their suitability. Many scored poorly for scope, vocabulary, aspects of layout and typography, and learning stimulation and motivation. The mean reading grade level for all user guides was grade 9.6 which is too high for older adults. The content, design, and readability of hearing aid user guides are not optimal for older adults and thus may serve as a barrier to successful hearing aid outcomes for this population.

  6. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jackson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals. The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  7. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  8. Degree of satisfaction among hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss (HL is defined as the complete or partial loss of hearing ability. Aims: To characterize (1 the degree of satisfaction among adult and elderly hearing aid (HA users who were treated by a public hearing health service and (2 the relationship between satisfaction and the variables of gender, age, degree of HL, and type of HA. Method: The clinical and experimental study included the administration of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL questionnaire to 110 patients who had used HAs for more than 3 months and were 18 years of age or older. Results: Test patients were sex-balanced (48% were women and had a mean age of 67 years. A relatively high incidence of sensorineural moderate HL was detected in the study patients (66% and device B was the most commonly used HA type (48%. No significant differences were evident between HA satisfaction and sex. The importance placed on services/costs and personal image varied between age groups. Correlation was evident at all levels between user satisfaction and amplification. Decreased satisfaction was observed in individuals with severe and/or profound HL. The type of HA used yielded statistically significant differences in the positive effects referring. Conclusion: No correlations were evident between the different factors proposed. HA users exhibited high levels of satisfaction in all SADL areas.

  9. Integrating protection into food aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bizzarri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Food Programme (WFP does not have a specific protection mandate but its activities are increasingly shaped by awareness of the need to protect women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV.

  10. Food aid and child nutrition in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes R. Quisumbing

    2003-01-01

    "Food aid programs have become increasingly important for disaster relief in many developing countries. In Ethiopia, a drought-stricken economy with one of the lowest per capita incomes in the world, food aid has amounted to almost 10 million metric tons (mt) from 1984 to 1998, almost 10 percent of annual cereal production. Because of the importance of food aid in Ethiopia, much effort has been devoted to evaluation of its effectiveness.....Many evaluations of food aid have examined its impac...

  11. Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants People at Risk of Foodborne Illness Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS Share Tweet ...

  12. Formal auditory training in adult hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss are often able to regain some lost auditory function with the help of hearing aids. However, hearing aids are not able to overcome auditory distortions such as impaired frequency resolution and speech understanding in noisy environments. The coexistence of peripheral hearing loss and a central auditory deficit may contribute to patient dissatisfaction with amplification, even when audiological tests indicate nearly normal hearing thresholds. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to validate the effects of a formal auditory training program in adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: Fourteen bilateral hearing aid users were divided into two groups: seven who received auditory training and seven who did not. The training program was designed to improve auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal and nonverbal sounds and temporal processing (frequency and duration of sounds. Pre- and post-training evaluations included measuring electrophysiological and behavioral auditory processing and administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB self-report scale. RESULTS: The post-training evaluation of the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in P3 latency, improved performance in some of the behavioral auditory processing tests and higher hearing aid benefit in noisy situations (p-value < 0,05. No changes were noted for the control group (p-value <0,05. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that auditory training in adult hearing aid users can lead to a reduction in P3 latency, improvements in sound localization, memory for nonverbal sounds in sequence, auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal sounds and greater benefits in reverberant and noisy environments.

  13. Level of User Satisfaction with Hearing Aids and Environment: The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The main function of hearing is to enable oral communication. Hearing loss impairs communication skills. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods This is a cross-sectional group study comprising 108 subjects (56% men and 44% women. The average age of the subjects was 77 years. These subjects had been recently fitted with their hearing aids and showed sensorineural (90% and mixed (10% hearing loss as determined via the Questionnaire International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids Outcome Inventory (IOI-HA, which determined the benefit and satisfaction obtained by sound amplification. Results The hearing aids improved the quality of life of 52.78% of the patients, which was revealed by their high scores (mean = 27.3. The relationship of the user with the environment was significantly better (p < 0.001 than that of the user with the hearing aid. Conclusion IOI-HA is a simple and easy-to-use tool. Based on the results of this study, we can show a high degree of satisfaction with their hearing aids in the majority of the participants, which improved the quality of life.

  14. Reconstructing the AIDS epidemic among injection drug users in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Hacker

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs in Brazil has been unique in terms of temporal and geographical contrasts. This analysis explores these contrasts through the use of multilevel modeling. Standardized AIDS incidence rates among IDUs for Brazilian municipalities (1986-2000 were used as the dependent variable, with a set of social indicators as independent variables (covariates. In some States of the North/Northeast, the epidemic among IDUs has been incipient. The São Paulo epidemic extended to reach a network of municipalities, most of which located far from the capital. More recently, on a smaller scale, a similar extension has been observed in the southernmost States of the country. Both "number of physicians per inhabitant" and "standard distance to the State capital" were found to be associated with AIDS incidence. AIDS cases among IDUs appeared to cluster in wealthier, more developed municipalities. The relative weight of such extensive dissemination in key, heavily populated States prevails in the Brazilian IDU epidemic, defining a central-western-southeastern strip of wealthier middle-sized municipalities and more recently a southern strip of municipalities deeply affected by the epidemic in this population.

  15. Aid for food security:does it work?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The paper’s objective is to contribute to existing literature by examining whether development aid has any measurable impact on food security, whether the impact is conditioned on the quality of governance, and whether it differs based on the type of aid provided. Methodology Panel-data analysis of 85 developing countries between 1994 and 2011, employing GMM and 2SLS estimators. Findings The paper finds that aid in general has a small positive impact on food security; that multilatera...

  16. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Annabel K; Woods, Kaitlyn; McMahon, Anne; Probst, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user's regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11) and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding followed by thematic analysis with NVivo qualitative analysis software to extract the final themes. Schematic analysis was applied to the final themes related to database format. Desktop analysis also examined the format of six key globally available databases. 24 dominant themes were established, of which five related to format; database use, food classification, framework, accessibility and availability, and data derivation. Desktop analysis revealed that food classification systems varied considerably between databases. Microsoft Excel was a common file format used in all databases, and available software varied between countries. User's also recognised that food composition databases format should ideally be designed specifically for the intended use, have a user-friendly food classification system, incorporate accurate data with clear explanation of data derivation and feature user input. However, such databases are limited by data availability and resources. Further exploration of data sharing options should be considered. Furthermore, user's understanding of food composition data and databases limitations is inherent to the correct application of non-specific databases. Therefore, further exploration of user FCDB training should also be considered.

  17. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel K Clancy

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user's regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11 and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding followed by thematic analysis with NVivo qualitative analysis software to extract the final themes. Schematic analysis was applied to the final themes related to database format. Desktop analysis also examined the format of six key globally available databases. 24 dominant themes were established, of which five related to format; database use, food classification, framework, accessibility and availability, and data derivation. Desktop analysis revealed that food classification systems varied considerably between databases. Microsoft Excel was a common file format used in all databases, and available software varied between countries. User's also recognised that food composition databases format should ideally be designed specifically for the intended use, have a user-friendly food classification system, incorporate accurate data with clear explanation of data derivation and feature user input. However, such databases are limited by data availability and resources. Further exploration of data sharing options should be considered. Furthermore, user's understanding of food composition data and databases limitations is inherent to the correct application of non-specific databases. Therefore, further exploration of user FCDB training should also be considered.

  18. Food Enterprise Web Design Based on User Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Excellent auxiliary food enterprise web design conveyed good visual transmission effect through user experience. This study was based on the food enterprise managers and customers as the main operating object to get the performance of the web page creation, web page design not only focused on the function and work efficiency, the most important thing was that the user experience in the process of web page interaction.

  19. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products.

  20. Education qualification levels and school careers of unilateral versus bilateral hearing aid users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, J.W.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Analyse the difference in school careers and secondary school qualification levels between unilateral hearing aid users and bilateral hearing aid users. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective questionnaire study. SETTING: Postal-based questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Names of adults known to have been f

  1. International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    improved agricultural production practices, marketing systems, farmer training, agro -processing, and agribusiness development...interference in program logistics and delivery mechanisms. Cash vs. Commodities Monetization The monetization (selling in local markets) of food

  2. Acceptance of Noise Growth Patterns in Hearing Aid Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyaldenhoven, Melinda C.; Plyler, Patrick N.; Thelin, James W.; Muenchen, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether the effects of speech presentation level on acceptance of noise could differentiate full-time, part-time, and nonusers of hearing aids and whether these effects could predict hearing aid use. Method: Participants were separated into 3 groups on the basis of hearing aid use: (a) full-time use, (b) part-time use, or (c)…

  3. Current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Xinyue

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing. Even though the number of opioid-type drug users is growing more slowly than in the past, the number of amphetamine-type stimulant users has increased sharply. It has been proven that methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange programs gradually and successfully control HIV/AIDS transmission in drug users. However, it is necessary to enhance these prevention methods and expand their coverage. In addition, the strengthening of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for HIV-infected drug users is crucial for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rapidly growing number of amphetamine-type stimulant users, along with their high-risk behavior, poses a hidden danger of greater HIV/AIDS transmission through sexual intercourse in the near future.

  4. Level 5: user refinement to aid the fusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2003-04-01

    The revised JDL Fusion model Level 4 process refinement covers a broad spectrum of actions such as sensor management and control. A limitation of Level 4 is the purpose of control - whether it be for user needs or system operation. Level 5, User Refinement, is a modification to the Revised JDL model that distinguishes between machine process refinement and user refinement. User refinement can either be human control actions or refinement of the user's cognitive model. In many cases, fusion research concentrates on the machine and does not take full advantage of the human as not only a qualified expert to refine the fusion process, but also as customer for whom the fusion system is designed. Without user refinement, sensor fusion is incomplete, inadequate, and the user neglects its worthiness. To capture user capabilities, we explore the concept of user refinement through decision and action based on situational leadership models. We develop a Fuse-Act Situational User Refinement (FASUR) model that details four refinement behaviors: Neglect, Consult, Rely, and Interact and five refinement functions: Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, and Controlling. Process refinement varies for different systems and different user information needs. By designing a fusion system with a specific user in mind, vis Level 5, a fusion architecture can meet user's information needs for varying situations, extend user sensing capabilities for action, and increase the human-machine interaction.

  5. The Dynamic Effects of U.S. Food Aid On Recipient Country Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Christopher B.; Mohapatra, Sandeep; Snyder, Donald L.

    1996-01-01

    Although food aid may have important medium- to long-tenn effects, there is a glaring absence of empirical research on food aid dynamics. This paper applies structural vector autoregression and dynamic structural equations modeling methods to a panel of production, trade, and food aid data from eighteen countries over the period 1961-95. We find evidence of a J-curve effect of food aid on recipient country commercial food imports, but only modest effects on food production. The implication is...

  6. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods.

  7. Development of a music perception test for adult hearing-aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was two-fold. Firstly to develop a music perception test for hearing aid users and secondly to evaluate the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on music perception with the use of the self-compiled test. This article focuses on the description of the development and validation of a music perception test. To date, the main direction in frequency lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life grew. The Music Perception Test (MPT was designed to evaluate different aspects of rhythm, timbre, pitch and melody. The development of the MPT could be described as design based. Phase 1 of the study included test development and recording while Phase 2 entailed presentation of stimuli to normal hearing listeners (n=15 and hearing aid users (n=4. Based on the findings of Phase 2, item analysis was performed to eliminate or change stimuli that resulted in high error rates. During Phase 3 the adapted version of the test was performed on a smaller group of normal hearing listeners (n=4 and twenty hearing aid users. Results proved that normal hearing adults as well as adults using hearing aids were able to complete all the sub-tests of the MPT although hearing aid users scored less on the various sub-tests than normal hearing listeners. For the rhythm section of the MPT normal hearing listeners scored on average 93.8% versus 75.5% of hearing aid users and 83% for the timbre section compared to 62.3% by hearing aid users. Normal hearing listeners obtained an average score of 86.3% for the pitch section and 88.2% for the melody section compared to the 70.8% and 61.9% respectively obtained by hearing aid users. This implicates that the MPT can be used successfully for assessment of music perception in hearing aid users within the South African

  8. The Customer Citizenship Behaviors of Food Blog Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaung-Hwa Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared with previous studies that have focused on customers’ behavioral intentions or the factors that influence purchase behaviors on blogs or discussion boards, in this study, we examine the factors of independent food blogs or discussion boards that influence users’ customer citizenship behaviors. Six food blogs were selected based on the flow rate and food diaries. 323 Subjects were chosen from the blog user population and then interviewed to develop the data needed for this study. The results indicate that psychological needs, customer satisfaction, and customer-company identification positively affect customer citizenship behaviors. High satisfaction of customer-orientation is a critical management strategy on food blogs. This study adapts physically existing organizational behavior theory through appropriate inference and modification for virtual community. Unlike past studies that focused on customer purchase intention, this study emphasizes customer value and social media of the virtual community.

  9. Knowledge on adaptation process of users of hearing aid

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    Sant'Anna, Leandro Machado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Professionals that work in this area know how important the orientation to the use of auditory device is, which involves the care required to handle and use the equipment and aspects aiming at the adaptation. Objective: To compare the knowledge of both long-term and new users about the adaptation process to the use of auditory device, so as to provide speech and language pathologists with a greater knowledge about the aspects that most influence the adaptation process. Method: This research is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, contemporary, retrospective study. The new and old users answered a questionnaire with information on the auditory device conservation and the adaptation process. The results were compared quantitatively through statistical review and qualitatively. Results: The age of the individuals in this study varied between 28 and 90 years. In some aspects, old and new users presented the same knowledge level. Conclusion: New users of auditory devices have been looking for hearing (re habilitation increasingly later. The action of phonoaudiology in the process of selection and adaptation to auditory devices among experienced and new users is extremely important to an effective acclimatization.

  10. User Centered Design as a Framework for Applying Conversation Analysis in Hearing Aid Consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Matthews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    collaboration, as well as successes and pitfalls. In particular we focus on the role of conversation analysists both from the perspective of the designers and the conversation analysts. To illustrate this, we have selected a project on hearing aid fitting. To understand the perspective of the users (the person...... with hearing loss and the hearing aid fitter is imperative because the compliance rate for hearing aid use is staggeringly low. One of the barriers of hearing aid use lies in problematic encounters between the person with hearing loss and audiologists. Buur, J and Matthews, B. (2008) ‘Participatory Innovation...

  11. Evaluating the 1996 EU food aid reform: Did it really lead to better targeting?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the 1996 EU food aid reform and addresses the question of its impact on improving EU food aid allocation in terms of reaching those countries which are most vulnerable to food insecurity. Using a two-stage regression model the analysis finds that EU food aid in kind is increasingly targeted towards developing countries affected by food insecurity. Most importantly, characteristics such as low calorie supply and balance-of-payments difficulties gained in importance in EU foo...

  12. Second Generation Weather Impacts Decision Aid User’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory Computational and Information Sciences Directorate Battlefield Environment Division (ATTN: RDRL- CIE -M) White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002...layers are selected, the 2-D map overlay will show the layers as a “roll-up” of the highest impact color in each impact grid cell. The user can click in...used to calculate the weather impacts. The color -coded weather impacts for the selected assets at each forecast time are returned and populated into

  13. Information Retention and Overload in First-Time Hearing Aid Users: An Interactive Multimedia Educational Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie; Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Wharrad, Heather

    2015-09-01

    An educational intervention to improve knowledge of hearing aids and communication in first-time hearing aid users was assessed. This intervention was based on the concept of reusable learning objects (RLOs). A randomized controlled trial was conducted. One group received the educational intervention, and the other acted as a control group. RLOs were delivered online and through DVD for television and personal computer. Knowledge of both practical and psychosocial aspects of hearing aids and communication was assessed using a free-recall method 6 weeks postfitting. Knowledge of both practical and psychosocial issues was significantly higher in the group that received the RLOs than in the control group. Moderate to large effect sizes indicated that these differences were clinically significant. An educational intervention that supplements clinical practice results in improved knowledge in first-time hearing aid users.

  14. Guidance to the user of the hearing aid: retention of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo, Tatiane

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different informations are transmitted to the new user of the hearing aid, in a short period of time. The user needs to understand and retain the information to subsequent recovery and action, ensuring the proper use of the device. Objective: check the information retention about the hearing loss and use/care with the hearing aid in new users of these devices. Examine whether there is influence of demographic data and audiologic. Method: Prospective study. Participants: 30 hearing impaired (18 women and 12 men, aged between 18 and 88 years. Were offered verbal orientation supported with ilustrations at the time of audiological diagnosis and adaptation of the hearing aid. There was practice for manipulation of the prosthesis. Three weeks after the adaptation, was performed a evaluation of the retention of information about hearing loss (free recall and use/care with the prosthesis (aided recall. The manipulation of the prosthesis was also evaluated. The responses and comments of the evaluator were noted in a specific protocol and scored. Results: On average the participants retained, respectively, 31,6% and 83,6% of informations about hearing loss in adults and elderly. There was no correlation between the retention of information with the degree in hearing loss, education and socioeconomic level. Conclusion: It's necessary the use of strategies that facilitate and improve the retention of the information about the audiological diagnosis, use and care with the hearing aid for new users of this device.

  15. Web-based auditory self-training system for adult and elderly users of hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, Simone Virginia; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Sigulem, Daniel; Torres Pisa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Adults and elderly users of hearing aids suffer psychosocial reactions as a result of hearing loss. Auditory rehabilitation is typically carried out with support from a speech therapist, usually in a clinical center. For these cases, there is a lack of computer-based self-training tools for minimizing the psychosocial impact of hearing deficiency. To develop and evaluate a web-based auditory self-training system for adult and elderly users of hearing aids. Two modules were developed for the web system: an information module based on guidelines for using hearing aids; and an auditory training module presenting a sequence of training exercises for auditory abilities along the lines of the auditory skill steps within auditory processing. We built aweb system using PHP programming language and a MySQL database .from requirements surveyed through focus groups that were conducted by healthcare information technology experts. The web system was evaluated by speech therapists and hearing aid users. An initial sample of 150 patients at DSA/HRAC/USP was defined to apply the system with the inclusion criteria that: the individuals should be over the age of 25 years, presently have hearing impairment, be a hearing aid user, have a computer and have internet experience. They were divided into two groups: a control group (G1) and an experimental group (G2). These patients were evaluated clinically using the HHIE for adults and HHIA for elderly people, before and after system implementation. A third web group was formed with users who were invited through social networks for their opinions on using the system. A questionnaire evaluating hearing complaints was given to all three groups. The study hypothesis considered that G2 would present greater auditory perception, higher satisfaction and fewer complaints than G1 after the auditory training. It was expected that G3 would have fewer complaints regarding use and acceptance of the system. The web system, which was named Sis

  16. Users' perceptions of the impact of electronic aids to daily living throughout the acquisition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie; Strock, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the experience of seven new users of a particular type of assistive technology through the stages of anticipating, acquiring, and using an electronic aid to daily living. A mixed methods research approach was used to explore each of these stages. The Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale was used to measure the perceived impact of the new assistive technology on users' quality of life, and findings were further explored and developed through open-ended questioning of the participants. Results indicated that preacquisition of the device, users predicted that the electronic aid to daily living would have a positive impact on their feelings of competence and confidence and that the device would enable them in a positive way. One month after acquiring the device a reduced, yet still positive, impact was observed. By 3 and 6 months after acquisition, perceived impact returned to the same positive high level as preacquisition. It is suggested that prior to receiving the device, potential users have positive expectations for the device that are not based in experience. At the early acquisition time, users adjust expectations of the role of the assistive technology in their lives and strive to balance expectations with reality. Three to 6 months after acquiring an electronic aid to daily living, the participants have a high positive view of how the device impacts on their lives based in experience and reality. A model illustrating the electronic aids to daily living acquisition process is proposed, and suggestions for future study are provided.

  17. The Impact of Food Assistance on Dietary Diversity and Food Consumption among People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Groot, Wim

    2016-12-15

    Little is known about the outcomes of food assistance targeted to food insecure people living with HIV/AIDS. Using primary data from Zambia, we estimated the impact of food assistance on the dietary diversity and consumption expenditures of households with HIV infected members receiving antiretroviral therapy. Propensity score matching estimates show that food assistance increased dietary diversity by 9.8 points (23%) mainly through the consumption of food items provided in the ration. Food assistance recipients were 20% points more likely to have acceptable food consumption and 15% points less likely to have poor food consumption than non-recipients. Food assistance also increased food consumption expenditures but had no significant impact on food purchases and total consumption expenditures. Overall, our findings demonstrate that food assistance can be an effective instrument for improving diets and enhancing the food security of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  18. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Scott

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing. Methods A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing knowledge on AIDS/HIV transmission and its relationship with HIV testing. Information from 108 randomly selected drug users who received an educational intervention using cards illustrating situations potentially associated with HIV transmission were assessed using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS. Results Almost 40% of drug users reported having never used condoms and more than 60% reported not using condoms under the influence of substances. Most drug users (80.6% correctly answered that condoms make sex safer, but incorrect beliefs are still common (e.g. nearly 44% believed HIV can be transmitted through saliva and 55% reported that HIV infection can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes, with significant differences between drug users who had and who had not been tested for HIV. MDS showed queries on vaginal/anal sex and sharing syringes/needles were classified in the same set as effective modes of HIV transmission. The event that was further away from this core of properly perceived risks referred to blood donation, perceived as risky. Other items were found to be dispersed, suggesting inchoate beliefs on transmission modes. Conclusions Drug users have an increased HIV infection vulnerability compared to the general population, this specific population expressed relevant doubts about HIV transmission, as well as high levels of risky behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that possessing inaccurate HIV/AIDS knowledge may be a barrier to timely HIV testing. Interventions should be tailored to such specific

  19. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadshe

  20. Treatment of early AIDS dementia in intravenous drug users : High versus low dose peptide T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, TR; Rosen, MI; McMahon, TL; Bridge, TP; OMalley, SS; Pearsall, R; OConnor, PG

    1997-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, double blind, cross-over study tested the efficacy of two different doses of Peptide T in the treatment of nine intravenous drug users with early AIDS dementia who were also receiving methadone and AZT. Subjects received Peptide T doses of either 15 or 1.5 mg daily for four

  1. User-centered design and the development of patient decision aids: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Holly O; Dansokho, Selma Chipenda; Colquhoun, Heather; Coulter, Angela; Dugas, Michèle; Fagerlin, Angela; Giguere, Anik Mc; Glouberman, Sholom; Haslett, Lynne; Hoffman, Aubri; Ivers, Noah; Légaré, France; Légaré, Jean; Levin, Carrie; Lopez, Karli; Montori, Victor M; Provencher, Thierry; Renaud, Jean-Sébastien; Sparling, Kerri; Stacey, Dawn; Vaisson, Gratianne; Volk, Robert J; Witteman, William

    2015-01-26

    Providing patient-centered care requires that patients partner in their personal health-care decisions to the full extent desired. Patient decision aids facilitate processes of shared decision-making between patients and their clinicians by presenting relevant scientific information in balanced, understandable ways, helping clarify patients' goals, and guiding decision-making processes. Although international standards stipulate that patients and clinicians should be involved in decision aid development, little is known about how such involvement currently occurs, let alone best practices. This systematic review consisting of three interlinked subreviews seeks to describe current practices of user involvement in the development of patient decision aids, compare these to practices of user-centered design, and identify promising strategies. A research team that includes patient and clinician representatives, decision aid developers, and systematic review method experts will guide this review according to the Cochrane Handbook and PRISMA reporting guidelines. A medical librarian will hand search key references and use a peer-reviewed search strategy to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the ACM library, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar. We will identify articles across all languages and years describing the development or evaluation of a patient decision aid, or the application of user-centered design or human-centered design to tools intended for patient use. Two independent reviewers will assess article eligibility and extract data into a matrix using a structured pilot-tested form based on a conceptual framework of user-centered design. We will synthesize evidence to describe how research teams have included users in their development process and compare these practices to user-centered design methods. If data permit, we will develop a measure of the user-centeredness of development processes and identify practices that are likely

  2. Using cohort studies to estimate mortality among injecting drug users that is not attributable to AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, L; Hall, W; Warner‐Smith, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Injecting drug use (IDU) and associated mortality appear to be increasing in many parts of the world. IDU is an important factor in HIV transmission. In estimating AIDS mortality attributable to IDU, it is important to take account of premature mortality rates from other causes to ensure that AIDS related mortality among injecting drug users (IDUs) is not overestimated. The current review provides estimates of the excess non‐AIDS mortality among IDUs. Method Searches were conducted with Medline, PsycINFO, and the Web of Science. The authors also searched reference lists of identified papers and an earlier literature review by English et al (1995). Crude mortality rates (CMRs) were derived from data on the number of deaths, period of follow up, and number of participants. In estimating the all‐cause mortality, two rates were calculated: one that included all cohort studies identified in the search, and one that only included studies that reported on AIDS deaths in their cohort. This provided lower and upper mortality rates, respectively. Results The current paper derived weighted mortality rates based upon cohort studies that included 179 885 participants, 1 219 422 person‐years of observation, and 16 593 deaths. The weighted crude AIDS mortality rate from studies that reported AIDS deaths was approximately 0.78% per annum. The median estimated non‐AIDS mortality rate was 1.08% per annum. Conclusions Illicit drug users have a greatly increased risk of premature death and mortality due to AIDS forms a significant part of that increased risk; it is, however, only part of that risk. Future work needs to examine mortality rates among IDUs in developing countries, and collect data on the relation between HIV and increased mortality due to all causes among this group. PMID:16735295

  3. Effects of drug relief hospital-based AIDS educational methods on drug users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Ping LI; Shun Zhen XIAO; Qiao Qin WAN; Sen Lin SONG; Yan Xia TENG

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore a potentially effective training method for the hospital professionals to educate drug users and to enhance their knowledge of HIV infection. One hundred and sixty one subjects, who came from 13 different provinces and were admitted in a drug relief hospital in Beijing, were recruited for this study. The average age of these subjects was 35.21±6.24 year old. The average numbers of years for drug addiction were 7 years,and the average numbers of drug relief treatment received in the past was 5.5 times. The level of AIDS knowledge of these subjects, including pathogenic factors, source of infection, route of transmission and preventive measures, were evaluated before and after receiving the AIDS educational training to these drug users. Our results showed that there was a statistically significant increase (P<0.01) in the knowledge of HIV infection and prevention among these subjects.Positive attitude and behavioral tendencies toward HIV prevention were also improved. Therefore, it is imperative for the medical professionals to incorporate AIDS education into drug relief treatment to achieve the maximum effect on the knowledge of AIDS and improvement of positive attitudes and behaviors toward HIV prevention among drug users.

  4. HIV/AIDS knowledge among adolescent sign-language users in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Victor; Baloyi, Bontle

    2010-09-01

    People with hearing impairment may have difficulty accessing information about HIV/AIDS, especially those who use sign language. Because adolescence is characterised by sexual maturation, it is important to gauge levels of HIV/ AIDS awareness and knowledge in this age group. For this scoping study, we interviewed seven adolescent South African Sign Language (SASL) users (aged 15 to 21) who were attending a school outside Johannesburg which caters for hearing-impaired learners from limited socioeconomic backgrounds. The responses were transcribed and themes were clustered to extract the essence of what was conveyed. The participants appeared to have basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS (e.g. prevention through the use of condoms); however, gaps in their knowledge included misperceptions about contracting HIV infection (e.g. through touching people with HIV or AIDS, or rejecting a person who was possibly HIV-positive as a preventive measure) and confusing HIV disease with other illnesses (e.g. cancer). Overall, the adolescents appeared to have insufficient information about HIV transmission and did not appear to fully understand the consequences of infection. The findings correlate with other research in Africa showing the difficulties experienced by people with disabilities, including hearing impairment, in accessing HIV/ AIDS information. The article advocates for policymakers to include people with hearing impairment, particularly sign language users, in HIV-prevention programmes.

  5. Relationship between food insecurity and mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranka Anema

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the potential impact of food insecurity on mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the potential relationship between food insecurity and all-cause mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART across British Columbia (BC. METHODS: Cross-sectional measurement of food security status was taken at participant ART initiation. Participants were prospectively followed from June 1998 to September 2011 within the fully subsidized ART program. Cox proportional hazard models were used to ascertain the association between food insecurity and mortality, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 254 IDU, 181 (71.3% were food insecure and 108 (42.5% were hungry. After 13.3 years of median follow-up, 105 (41.3% participants died. In multivariate analyses, food insecurity remained significantly associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.07-3.53, after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive IDU reporting food insecurity were almost twice as likely to die, compared to food secure IDU. Further research is required to understand how and why food insecurity is associated with excess mortality in this population. Public health organizations should evaluate the possible role of food supplementation and socio-structural supports for IDU within harm reduction and HIV treatment programs.

  6. The Impact of Food Assistance on Dietary Diversity and Food Consumption among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Groot, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the outcomes of food assistance targeted to food insecure people living with HIV/AIDS. Using primary data from Zambia, we estimated the impact of food assistance on the dietary diversity and consumption expenditures of households with HIV infected members receiving antiretrovir

  7. Impact of HIV and AIDS on food security in Rufiji District, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Kayunze

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatively high prevalence of HIV and AIDS and food insecurity in Rufiji District whilst the linkage between the two problems was not known was the basis of this study. Data were collected amongst 225 households between November 2005 and October 2006 through participatory rural appraisal (PRA, household income and expenditure survey (HIES and structured interviews. Binary logistic regression was used for analysis in which case the dependent variable was food security in terms of food insecure (0 and food secure (1 based on kilocalories consumed per adult equivalent per day. The independent variables included having been affected by HIV and AIDS in terms of not affected (0 and affected (1. The results reveal that the odds for households affected by HIV and AIDS to be food secure were 0.705 times as high as the odds for households not affected by HIV and AIDS to be food secure. This means that households affected by HIV and AIDS were less likely to be food secure as opposed to those not affected by HIV and AIDS. The B statistic for having been affected by HIV and AIDS was negative (B = -0.350 meaning that being affected by HIV and AIDS had negative impact on food security. However, the Wald statistic which shows the magnitude of impact was small (0.251 and not significant (p = 0.617. This shows that HIV and AIDS had little impact on food security. Based on these findings, it is concluded that although being affected by HIV and AIDS has negative impact on food security, it does not automatically make households food insecure, especially in a short run, and that some non-HIV and AIDS factors like high dependency ratio and low ability to buy food have bigger negative impact than that of HIV and AIDS on food security. On the basis of the conclusion, it is recommended that efforts to improve food security amongst households affected by HIV and AIDS should consider both HIV and AIDS and non-HIV and AIDS factors.

  8. Vowel production of Mandarin-speaking hearing aid users with different types of hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Yu-Chen; Lee, Ya-Jung; Tsai, Li-Chiun

    2017-01-01

    In contrast with previous research focusing on cochlear implants, this study examined the speech performance of hearing aid users with conductive (n = 11), mixed (n = 10), and sensorineural hearing loss (n = 7) and compared it with the speech of hearing control. Speech intelligibility was evaluated by computing the vowel space area defined by the Mandarin Chinese corner vowels /a, u, i/. The acoustic differences between the vowels were assessed using the Euclidean distance. The results reveal...

  9. AIDS incidence and mortality in injecting drug users: the AjUDE-Brasil II Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Mauro Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents AIDS incidence and mortality among injecting drug users (IDUs reached by the AjUDE-Brasil II Project. From a cross-sectional survey, 478 IDUs were interviewed in three Brazilian cities: Porto Alegre, São José do Rio Preto, and Itajaí. The cohort was followed up in the Brazilian surveillance database for AIDS and mortality during 2000 and 2001. AIDS incidence was 1.1 cases per 100 person-years, and the mortality rate was 2.8 deaths per 100 person-years. AIDS cases only occurred in IDUs who reported ever having shared injecting equipment. Female gender (RR = 5.30, homelessness (RR = 6.16, and report of previous sexual relations with same-sex partners (RR = 6.21 were associated with AIDS. Deaths occurred only among males. Homelessness (RR = 3.00, lack of income (RR = 2.65, HIV seropositive status (RR = 4.52, and no history of incarceration (RR = 3.71 were also associated with death. These findings support evidence that gender and socioeconomic conditions are both determinants of morbidity and mortality in Brazilian IDUs.

  10. Targeting International Food Aid Programmes: The Case of Productive Safety Net Programme in Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Azadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has experienced more than five major droughts in the past three decades, leading to high dependency on international food aids. Nevertheless, studies indicate that asset depletion has not been prevented; neither did food insecurity diminish. Since 2004/5, the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP has been implemented to improve food security in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Critics point out that the implementation of food aid programmes can have negative impacts as well as positive outcomes for local communities. Accordingly, this survey study aimed to analyse the distribution and allocation of food aids in the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP in Tigray. Results of 479 interviews revealed that targeting different households in the PSNP has been considerably linked to socio-demographic attributes among which age and size of family were decisive factors to receive food aids. Furthermore, older households with smaller family size received more direct support. Inequality between genders was another major finding of this study. When combined with the marital status, there was also a big difference in the percentage of married or unmarried women receiving food aids. These findings could provide fundamental information for policy intervention to correct food security programmes at household level and reduce hunger. Given that, socio-demographic factors can help to identify particular and usually different requirements, vulnerabilities and coping strategies of the members of the food aid programme, so that they can be much more addressed when an emergency happens.

  11. Hearing aid users benefit from induction loop when using digital cellular phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorri, Martti; Piiparinen, Peeta; Huttunen, Kerttu; Haho, Mikko; Tobey, Emily; Thibodeau, Linda; Buckley, Kristi

    2003-04-01

    Hearing aid users have recently been reported to experience problems with electromagnetic interference when using digital cellular phones. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible benefit of an induction loop system developed for use with some cellular phone models, and also to compare the possible benefit in two languages (Finnish and American English) as well as the benefit with two hearing aid technologies (analog versus digital). The study was performed in controlled laboratory conditions at two tertiary care hearing health care centers, one in Oulu, Finland and the other in Dallas, in the United States. The subjects were experienced users of behind-the-ear hearing aids and served as their own controls in three different listening conditions. Thirty-two eligible subjects (20 in Oulu and 12 in Dallas) participated in three test conditions: 1. call with a landline phone, 2. call with a digital cellular phone alone and 3. call with a digital cellular phone coupled to an induction loop. Sentence recognition scores and subjective judgments using a visual analog scale revealed the poorest results with the digital cellular phone alone. When the induction loop was used with the digital cellular phones, sentence recognition scores and the visual analog scale scores were comparable to the scores obtained with a landline phone. The mean sentence recognition score for analog hearing aids was 62.4% (95% confidence interval 50.2 to 74.6) with the landline phone, 12.6% (-1.6 to 26.9) with the digital cellular phone alone, and 63.3% (44.2 to 82.3) when using the digital cellular phone with the induction loop. For digital hearing aids, the sentence recognition scores were 62.4% (51.9 to 72.9), 37.4% (18.0 to 56.8) and 57.6% (39.0 to 76.2), respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the two centers. However, when using the digital cellular phone alone, there was no drop in the sentence recognition scores with the few (N = 5) digital

  12. Relationship between Otolaryngologic Complaints and Systemic Comorbidities Observed in a Group of Hearing Aid Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Optimization of the selection, adaptation, and benefit of hearing aids is necessary to characterize and manage hearing loss, user expectations, otolaryngologic symptoms, and systemic comorbidities. Objective To compare the occurrence of otologic complaints, systemic diseases, and effective use of hearing aids in men and women with deafness. Methods Patients from a Unified Health System–accredited hearing health service, who reported problems in adapting to their hearing aids, were evaluated by a physician and audiologist. An anamnesis, ENT evaluation, and audiological evaluation were performed. Results During the data collection period, 278 subjects came in for follow-up visits; of these, 61 (21% reported otologic or operational problems with their equipment. The most prevalent type of hearing loss was basocochlear, a characteristic of presbycusis, in both men and women; the most frequently reported comorbidities were hypercholesterolemia (more significant in women and hypertension (more significant in men. Fourteen subjects reported using their device discontinuously, with no significant difference between genders; the reasons for discontinuation of use were itching and ringing, with more complaints from women. Conclusion The incidence of systemic and audiological complaints is high in this population. These patients should be evaluated thoroughly, as resolutions of these complaints can contribute to improving the quality of life and assist in the process of hearing aid fitting.

  13. User's manual: Computer-aided design programs for inductor-energy-storage dc-to-dc electronic power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed instructions on the use of two computer-aided-design programs for designing the energy storage inductor for single winding and two winding dc to dc converters are provided. Step by step procedures are given to illustrate the formatting of user input data. The procedures are illustrated by eight sample design problems which include the user input and the computer program output.

  14. CYCLES OF POVERTY, FOOD INSECURITY, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS AMONG AIDS CARE VOLUNTEERS IN URBAN ETHIOPIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2011-05-01

    With the rollout of AIDS therapies, volunteer AIDS care has been promoted across Africa under the assumption that volunteerism is economically imperative in settings of health professional and resource scarcity. As low-income volunteers have become a major part of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment workforces, it is imperative to question how poverty impacts their well-being. This chapter presents epidemiologic data collected during the 2008 food crisis from a sample of 110 AIDS care volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as well as narratives offered by HIV-positive volunteers, highlighting a widely overlooked way in which food insecurity and mental distress impact efforts to treat AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Food insecurity and elevated common mental disorder (CMD) symptom loads were common and tightly linked among the volunteers in the sample. Volunteers who were HIV-positive (17 percent) fared slightly worse in terms of food insecurity and psychosocial well-being. However, positive HIV serostatus was not associated with CMD in multivariate analyses accounting for food insecurity. Narratives illustrate how being HIV-positive shaped experiences of psychosocial stress, which involved unemployment and lack of prospects for marital relationships or strife within them. Our focus demonstrates the potential for mixing ethnographic and epidemiological methods to inform policy questions regarding poverty-reduction through compensation for volunteers' valuable labor, as well as AIDS care program sustainability. [volunteerism, AIDS care, food insecurity, livelihoods, HIV, psychosocial health].

  15. An AIDS model with distributed incubation and variable infectiousness: applications to i.v. drug users in Latium, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, M; Loro, R; Milner, F; Pugliese, A; Rabbiolo, G

    1992-07-01

    An AIDS model with distributed incubation and variable infectiousness is considered and simulated via a second-order numerical method. The method is applied to the HIV epidemic among IV drug users in the Latium region of Italy, using available data on the length of the incubation period before the onset of AIDS, on the infectivity of infected individuals during that period, and on the demography of drug users. The contact rate is adjusted to match the actual number of AIDS cases. The sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the parameters is finally investigated, by performing several simulations.

  16. Evaluation of user satisfaction of hearing aids (HA in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakawa, Aline Megumi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main function of human hearing is enabling oral communication. In this sense, hearing loss impairs severely communication skills and social relationships of individuals. Therefore, the project "USP in Rondônia" of FOB/USP conducts expeditions travelling to the municipality from Monte Negro/RO allowing the promotion of hearing health. Objective: To assess the level of satisfaction user with hearing aids (HA. Method: Was accomplished a prospective study of 18 individuals with hearing loss fitted with hearing aids in the Clinic of Oral and Fono Audiological Health from Monte Negro/RO. For the evaluation, we used the questionnaire for self-assessment IOI-HA (International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids. Results: Concerning the seven domains assessed, it was verified that the average referring to the use was 4.2, the benefit was 3.9, the limiting of residual activity was 3.7; the satisfaction was 4.4, the restriction of participation of residual activity was 3.8, the impact on others was 4.3 and 3.9 for the quality of life. Respecting the factors one and two, it was applied the statistical test t-Student founding no statistically significant difference. However, the analysis of the score relative to factors one and two showed good results as the individual's interaction with his hearing aid and with their environment, respectively. Conclusion: With this study, we can demonstrate the high grade of satisfaction from the use of hearing aids presented by the majority of the sample collected in all domains analyzed.

  17. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  18. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses.

  19. Health and treatment implications of food insufficiency among people living with HIV/AIDS, Atlanta, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Chauncey; Amaral, Christina; White, Denise; Kalichman, Moira O; Pope, Howard; Swetsze, Connie; Jones, Michel; Macy, Rene

    2010-07-01

    HIV/AIDS is concentrated among the inner-city poor and poverty may directly interfere with HIV treatment. This study examined food insufficiency in relation to HIV-related health and treatment. A sample of 344 men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Atlanta, Georgia completed measures of food security, health, and HIV disease progression and treatment. HIV treatment adherence was monitored using unannounced pill counts. Results showed that half of people living with HIV/AIDS in this study lacked sufficient food, and food insufficiency was associated with multiple indicators of poor health, including higher HIV viral loads, lower CD4 cell counts, and poorer treatment adherence. Adjusted analyses showed that food insufficiency predicted HIV treatment non-adherence over and above years of education, employment status, income, housing, depression, social support, and non-alcohol substance use. Hunger and food insecurity are prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS, and food insufficiency is closely related to multiple HIV-related health indicators, particularly medication adherence. Interventions that provide consistent and sustained meals to people living with HIV/AIDS are urgently needed.

  20. Calcium Nutrition Perceptions among Food Bank Users: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shanthi; Hawkins, Nicki

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the differences in the food bank users' perceptions related to calcium nutrition across sex and employment status using a cross-sectional, prospective design at a large food bank in Canada. A total of 197 individuals participated for a response rate of 97%. A structured survey was developed and pilot tested before it was…

  1. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... collected and processed electronically through the FARES. The Web-Based Supply Chain Management system... Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request... individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection for the Food...

  2. Investigating Differences in Preferred Noise Reduction Strength Among Hearing Aid Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Neher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though hearing aid (HA users can respond very differently to noise reduction (NR processing, knowledge about possible drivers of this variability (and thus ways of addressing it in HA fittings is sparse. The current study investigated differences in preferred NR strength among HA users. Participants were groups of experienced users with clear preferences (“NR lovers”; N = 14 or dislikes (“NR haters”; N = 13 for strong NR processing, as determined in two earlier studies. Maximally acceptable background noise levels, detection thresholds for speech distortions caused by NR processing, and self-reported “sound personality” traits were considered as candidate measures for explaining group membership. Participants also adjusted the strength of the (binaural coherence-based NR algorithm to their preferred level. Consistent with previous findings, NR lovers favored stronger processing than NR haters, although there also was some overlap. While maximally acceptable noise levels and detection thresholds for speech distortions tended to be higher for NR lovers than for NR haters, group differences were only marginally significant. No clear group differences were observed in the self-report data. Taken together, these results indicate that preferred NR strength is an individual trait that is fairly stable across time and that is not easily captured by psychoacoustic, audiological, or self-report measures aimed at indexing susceptibility to background noise and processing artifacts. To achieve more personalized NR processing, an effective approach may be to let HA users determine the optimal setting themselves during the fitting process.

  3. Investigating Differences in Preferred Noise Reduction Strength Among Hearing Aid Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Kirsten C.

    2016-01-01

    Even though hearing aid (HA) users can respond very differently to noise reduction (NR) processing, knowledge about possible drivers of this variability (and thus ways of addressing it in HA fittings) is sparse. The current study investigated differences in preferred NR strength among HA users. Participants were groups of experienced users with clear preferences (“NR lovers”; N = 14) or dislikes (“NR haters”; N = 13) for strong NR processing, as determined in two earlier studies. Maximally acceptable background noise levels, detection thresholds for speech distortions caused by NR processing, and self-reported “sound personality” traits were considered as candidate measures for explaining group membership. Participants also adjusted the strength of the (binaural coherence-based) NR algorithm to their preferred level. Consistent with previous findings, NR lovers favored stronger processing than NR haters, although there also was some overlap. While maximally acceptable noise levels and detection thresholds for speech distortions tended to be higher for NR lovers than for NR haters, group differences were only marginally significant. No clear group differences were observed in the self-report data. Taken together, these results indicate that preferred NR strength is an individual trait that is fairly stable across time and that is not easily captured by psychoacoustic, audiological, or self-report measures aimed at indexing susceptibility to background noise and processing artifacts. To achieve more personalized NR processing, an effective approach may be to let HA users determine the optimal setting themselves during the fitting process. PMID:27604781

  4. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations.

  5. The Nutritious Supply Chain : Optimizing Humanitarian Food Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Koen; Fleuren, Hein; den Hertog, Dick; Kavelj, Mirjana; Silva, Sergio; Goncalves, Rui; Ergun, Ozlem; Soldner, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    The UN World Food Programme (WFP) is the largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide, reaching around 80 million people with food assistance in 75 countries each year. To deal with the operational complexities inherent to its mandate, WFP has been developing tools to assist their decision

  6. Food, Aid, and Education in East Africa: Repackaging the Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambach, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' food perspectives in three rapidly diversifying contemporary contexts: a university setting in Kigali, Rwanda where students help to prepare Chinese dumplings; a school garden and canteen in Nairobi, Kenya where students jostle for bowls of beans and rice; and a fast-food restaurant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where…

  7. Vowel production of Mandarin-speaking hearing aid users with different types of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Chen; Lee, Ya-Jung; Tsai, Li-Chiun

    2017-01-01

    In contrast with previous research focusing on cochlear implants, this study examined the speech performance of hearing aid users with conductive (n = 11), mixed (n = 10), and sensorineural hearing loss (n = 7) and compared it with the speech of hearing control. Speech intelligibility was evaluated by computing the vowel space area defined by the Mandarin Chinese corner vowels /a, u, i/. The acoustic differences between the vowels were assessed using the Euclidean distance. The results revealed that both the conductive and mixed hearing loss groups exhibited a reduced vowel working space, but no significant difference was found between the sensorineural hearing loss and normal hearing groups. An analysis using the Euclidean distance further showed that the compression of vowel space area in conductive hearing loss can be attributed to the substantial lowering of the second formant of /i/. The differences in vowel production between groups are discussed in terms of the occlusion effect and the signal transmission media of various hearing devices.

  8. Frequency of word occurrence in communication samples produced by adult communication aid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukelman, D R; Yorkston, K M; Poblete, M; Naranjo, C

    1984-11-01

    Communication samples generated by five nonspeaking adults using Canon Communicators were collected for 14 consecutive days. Samples were analyzed to determine frequency of word occurrence. A core vocabulary of the 500 most frequently occurring words was analyzed further to determine spelling level and proportion of complete communication samples represented by subsets of the core vocabulary list. The 500 core vocabulary words represented 80% of the total words in the combined communication samples for the 5 subjects. Of all messages generated by the subjects, 33% could be communicated in their entirety using words from the core vocabulary list. The communication of the remaining messages required one or more words in addition to the core vocabulary. The spelling grade level of the words in the core vocabulary list did not exceed the seventh grade. The implications of the results for designing and customizing communication aids and for potential user training are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of frequency-lowering algorithms for intelligibility of Chinese speech in hearing-aid users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianbo Xiao; Hui Zhang; Guangshu Hu; Chunhong Liu; Jia Liu

    2009-01-01

    Despite the attention being given to and the knowledge of the benefits of evaluating frequency-lowering algorithms for hearing-impaired people, the causality between these algorithms and their benefits is still not clear. This is aggravated by the fact that comparative research on the methodologies and skills required for fitting an appropriate algorithm to individual patients is lacking. Against this back-drop, the current study has attempted to make progress in this area. In this experiment, six experienced traditional hearing-aid users with severe impairments in the high frequencies were fitted with two different frequency-lowering methods, and weekly hearing tests were con-ducted to track the benefits of such methods. After the experiment, five of the listeners accepted the frequency-lowering algorithms. Both methods showed superior results when compared with the listeners' own hearing aids in most of the tests, and the segmented compression algorithm was indicated to have better "anti-noise" quality and speech intelligibility improvement capabilities. A preference for the appli-cation of proportional compression to unvoiced speech was also found in this algorithm. Unlike in previous studies, all speech materials here are recorded in Chinese. Therefore, the results could also be used to evaluate the benefits of frequency-lowering to the intelligibility of Chinese speech for patients. As a result, an improvement was found, especially in the recognition of consonants. Moreover, no adverse effect was found in intonation recognition.

  10. Trends in the AIDS epidemic among New York City's injection drug users: localized or citywide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Russell; Deren, Sherry; Goldstein, Marjorie F; Friedman, Samuel R; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2002-03-01

    The New York City injection drug user acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (IDU AIDS) epidemic accounts for almost one quarter of AIDS cases in IDUs in the United States. Recent studies have reported declines in seroprevalence and risk behaviors among IDUs in New York City during the 1990s. These trends, however, are based on studies primarily conducted in the city's central borough of Manhattan. This article analyzes data from all five boroughs of New York City to examine trends over phases of the epidemic and to determine the level of prevention services available; an exploratory qualitative study was also conducted to assess access to prevention services and injection practices in areas in the "outer boroughs." Findings indicated that (1) borough differences in services and behaviors existed from early in the epidemic; (2) services have been concentrated in Manhattan; and (3) declines in seroprevalence were greatest among Manhattan-recruited IDUs. Enhancing access to services for IDUs in the boroughs outside Manhattan may be needed to continue the positive trends in all areas of New York City.

  11. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach.

  12. arriba-lib: Analyses of user interactions with an electronic library of decision aids on the basis of log data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Szabo, Elisabeth; Keller, Heidemarie; Kramer, Lena; Krones, Tanja; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2012-12-01

    Computerised log files are important for analysing user behaviour in health informatics to gain insight into processes that lead to suboptimal user patterns. This is important for software training programmes or for changes to improve usability. Technical user behaviour regarding decision aids has not so far been thoroughly investigated with log files. The aim of our study was to examine more detailed user interactions of primary-care physicians and their patients with arriba-lib, our multimodular electronic library of decision aids used during consultations, on the basis of log data. We analysed 184 consultation log files from 28 primary-care physicians. The average consultation time of our modules was about 8 min. Two-thirds of the consultation time were spent in the history information part of the programme. In this part, mainly bar charts were used to display risk information. Our electronic library of decision aids does not generate specific user behaviour based on physician characteristics such as age, gender, years in practice, or prior experience with decision aids. This supports the widespread use of our e-library in the primary-care sector and probably beyond.

  13. HIV/AIDS, food supplementation and livelihood programs in Uganda: a way forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Yager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs to target the root causes of food insecurity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1 lack of resources (2 timing of the transition and (3 logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1 close involvement of community leaders (2 close ties with local and national government (3 diversification of IHLP activities and (4 close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care. CONCLUSION: Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so

  14. Configuring users of cholesterol lowering foods: a review of biomedical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kate

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores how users of foods containing phytosterols are 'configured' within biomedical research and writing on these substances. A growing range of such foods have been launched and marketed on the basis that they actively lower cholesterol. They are among the most prominent examples of a set of foods designated as 'functional foods'. The paper is based on an analysis of biomedical journal articles which address the use of phytosterols as a cholesterol lowering agent in humans. These include both original research papers and commentaries such as review articles, letters, editorials, news items and professional guidelines. My analysis suggests that users are constituted variously as autonomous, self-motivated consumers, patients and publics needing advice, people resistant to pill use, and practitioners looking for something to offer their patients. I characterise the imagined uses of the products as healthy/holistic, lazy/busy/contemporary, and incompetent use. These varying portrayals of users and their use of these food products entail different ways of understanding health identities and different allocations of responsibilities between the technology, user and health care professionals. I conclude that, while experts and regulators may attempt to configure 'correct' uses of these products, relatively little is known about the rationales and practices of actual users.

  15. The advantages and disadvantages of ITC, ITE and BTE hearing aids: diary and interview reports from elderly users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, A E; Upfold, L J; Battaglia, J A

    1990-10-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-the-canal (ITC), in-the-ear (ITE) and behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids for elderly aid users were examined. Two hundred and forty four clients were randomly assigned to one of the three aid types from seven hearing aid manufacturers. The clients' perceived help from their fitting, and the degree of difficulty they encountered over a range of listening situations and environments were rated using a daily diary and a structured interview. Findings indicated that for elderly clients there were no large practical advantages for one aid type over another. While ITC and ITE aids were rated more highly than BTE's in background noise, all three aid types were rated as relatively poor in background noise as well as in groups, in the wind, when using the telephone and in the localisation of sound. All three aid types were rated equally and well for performance in one-to-one conversation in quiet, and for listening to television and radio. Hours of use and reasons for non-use are presented, as are clients' reports on cosmetic issues, manipulative ease and overall satisfaction level with their aids.

  16. Rising oceans, climate change, food aid, and human rights in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Ingrid; Yamada, Seiji; Wong, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change impacts are expected to produce more frequent, longer and unpredictable drought periods with further saltwater intrusion in the Marshall Islands. As a result, a significant return to traditional food cropping is unlikely. This will lead to an increased dependence on food aid, especially in the outer atoll populations. An examination of the nutritional content of food aid suggests it is likely to lead to poor health outcomes. Dependence on food aid has gradually increased over the past 70 years in the Marshall Islands, starting with population relocation because of war and nuclear testing and most recently because of climate change. The authors argue that the health impacts of the supplemental imported diet, combined with migration to population centers, may result in an even greater prevalence of chronic diseases, and exert pressures that lead to more communicable disease, further exacerbating the syndemics in the Marshall Islands. The authors conclude that food aid donors and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government have human rights obligations to ensure that the people in the Marshall Islands have access to adequate nutrition. Accordingly, donors and the government should re-examine the content of food and ensure it is of sufficient quality to meet the right to health obligations.

  17. The social context of food insecurity among persons living with HIV/AIDS in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Bangsberg, David R; Emenyonu, Nneka; Senkungu, Jude K; Martin, Jeffrey N; Weiser, Sheri D

    2011-12-01

    HIV/AIDS and food insecurity are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with each heightening the vulnerability to, and worsening the severity of, the other. Less research has focused on the social determinants of food insecurity in resource-limited settings, including social support and HIV-related stigma. In this study, we analyzed data from a cohort of 456 persons from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, an ongoing prospective cohort of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) initiating HIV antiretroviral therapy in Mbarara, Uganda. Quarterly data were collected by structured interviews. The primary outcome, food insecurity, was measured with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Key covariates of interest included social support, internalized HIV-related stigma, HIV-related enacted stigma, and disclosure of HIV serostatus. Severe food insecurity was highly prevalent overall (38%) and more prevalent among women than among men. Social support, HIV disclosure, and internalized HIV-related stigma were associated with food insecurity; these associations persisted after adjusting for household wealth, employment status, and other previously identified correlates of food insecurity. The adverse effects of internalized stigma persisted in a lagged specification, and the beneficial effect of social support further persisted after the inclusion of fixed effects. International organizations have increasingly advocated for addressing food insecurity as part of HIV/AIDS programming to improve morbidity and mortality. This study provides quantitative evidence on social determinants of food insecurity among PLWHA in resource-limited settings and suggests points of intervention. These findings also indicate that structural interventions to improve social support and/or decrease HIV-related stigma may also improve the food security of PLWHA.

  18. HIV/AIDS patient satisfaction with a food assistance programme in Sofala province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posse, Mariana; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the main factors affecting access and adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in middle- and low-income countries. To mitigate this problem, food assistance interventions are being integrated in ART programmes. As evidence of effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed, evaluating their implementation is important. We measured the satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients with a food assistance programme in Sofala province in Mozambique. This was an observational study that used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. HIV/AIDS patients receiving food assistance took part in focus group discussions (FDGs) and completed a semi-structured questionnaire about their opinions about the programme. Data were analysed using content and factor analysis, percentages of the maximum attainable scores (PMAS) and regression. Patients were satisfied with food assistance and rated it well above 60% of PMAS. Four factors were identified as underlying factors of satisfaction with food assistance. From these factors, patients were satisfied with 2, product availability and the distribution process, and rated these above 60%. They were dissatisfied with the other 2, quantity of products and the enrolment period, and rated these below 60%. From the four factors, only the distribution process was significantly associated with satisfaction with food assistance (p = 0.001). Satisfaction and the helpfulness of food assistance in adherence to ART, as perceived by patients, were significantly associated (p food assistance. Programme managers should focus on the distribution process, quantity of products and enrolment period to further improve satisfaction of patients receiving food assistance.

  19. Utilizing computerized entertainment education in the development of decision aids for lower literate and naïve computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Volk, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Decision aids have been developed by using various delivery methods, including interactive computer programs. Such programs, however, still rely heavily on written information, health and digital literacy, and reading ease. We describe an approach to overcome these potential barriers for low-literate, underserved populations by making design considerations for poor readers and naïve computer users and by using concepts from entertainment education to engage the user and to contextualize the content for the user. The system design goals are to make the program both didactic and entertaining and the navigation and graphical user interface as simple as possible. One entertainment education strategy, the soap opera, is linked seamlessly to interactive learning modules to enhance the content of the soap opera episodes. The edutainment decision aid model (EDAM) guides developers through the design process. Although designing patient decision aids that are educational, entertaining, and targeted toward poor readers and those with limited computer skills is a complex task, it is a promising strategy for aiding this population. Entertainment education may be a highly effective approach to promoting informed decision making for patients with low health literacy.

  20. Acceptable noise level (ANL) with Danish and non-semantic speech materials in adult hearing-aid users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is used for quantification of the amount of background noise subjects accept when listening to speech. This study investigates Danish hearing-aid users' ANL performance using Danish and non-semantic speech signals, the repeatability of ANL, and the association...

  1. Acceptable noise level (ANL) with Danish and non-semantic speech materials in adult hearing-aid users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is used for quantification of the amount of background noise subjects accept when listening to speech. This study investigates Danish hearing-aid users' ANL performance using Danish and non-semantic speech signals, the repeatability of ANL, and the association...

  2. Digital processing technology for bone-anchored hearing aids: randomised comparison of two devices in hearing aid users with mixed or conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Feltham, P; Roberts, S A; Gladdis, R

    2014-02-01

    This study compared the performance of two new bone-anchored hearing aids with older bone-anchored hearing aids that were not fully digital. Fourteen experienced bone-anchored hearing aid users participated in this cross-over study. Performance of their existing bone-anchored hearing aid was assessed using speech-in-noise testing and questionnaires. Participants were then fitted with either a Ponto Pro or a BP100 device. After four weeks of use with each new device, the same assessments were repeated. Speech-in-noise testing for the 50 per cent signal-to-noise ratio (the ratio at which 50 per cent of responses were correct) showed no significant differences between the Ponto Pro and the BP100 devices (p = 0.1) However, both devices showed significant improvement compared with the participants' previous bone-anchored hearing aid devices (p devices in the questionnaire data. Both fully digital bone-anchored hearing aids demonstrated superior speech processing compared with the previous generation of devices. There were no substantial differences between the two digital devices in either objective or subjective tests.

  3. HIV/AIDS prevention among female sexual partners of injection drug users in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pinto, J B; Ramos, R

    1995-01-01

    A participatory community project in the US-Mexico border town of Ciudad Juarez, aimed at helping women who are sex partners of male injection drug users to reduce behaviours which increase their risk for HIV infection, is described and evaluated. The design and implementation of the project were influenced by Paulo Freire's pedagogy in the Latin American tradition of 'popular' education, by Bandura's self-efficacy concepts, and by David Warner's 'barefoot doctor' community health care methodology. Using these approaches the participants were directly involved in the development of teaching materials, and curriculum content and implementation of the project. The programme was evaluated quantitatively using NIDA's AIDS Intake and Follow-up Assessment (AIA/AFA) questionnaires, and qualitatively using open ended interviews. While the AIA/AFA questionnaires detected small changes in the frequency of condom use among the participants, ethnographic interviews detected significant changes in the nature of the behaviours which were placing the women at risk. The changes seem to stem from an increase in the degree of self-esteem, self-efficacy and awareness of the social, economic, and political constraints of their lives. These results demonstrate the need for qualitative measures to be incorporated in the evaluation of community based health education programmes. A series of recommendations is presented to facilitate further development and replication of the programme in similar populations.

  4. 77 FR 20825 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g... for single copies of the guidance document entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and...

  5. 77 FR 20353 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities... agreement offered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) under the United States Warehouse Act (USWA... voluntary program. Warehouse operators that apply for USWA licensing agree to be licensed, comply with...

  6. 76 FR 13972 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement AGENCY... warehouse licenses may be issued under the United States ] Warehouse Act (USWA). Through this notice, FSA is... licenses for agricultural products include grain, cotton, nuts, cottonseed, and dry beans....

  7. HFBUIT: Design Aid Tools For A Human Factor Based User Interface Design

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. S.Qamar Abbas; Shahnaz Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Exploring user interface design and development problems is the core of current HCI research. Although there have been considerableadvancements in computer technology, human factors considerations are still lacking. This results in the user frequently becoming confused or frustrated when trying to interact with the software. Designers should utilize the knowledge about the user to configure the interface for different users, i.e. each user may have different skills, level of experience, or co...

  8. Trends in the AIDS epidemic among New York City’s injection drug users: Localized or citywide?

    OpenAIRE

    Rockwell, Russell; Deren, Sherry; Goldstein, Marjorie F.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Don C Des Jarlais

    2002-01-01

    The New York City injection drug user acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (IDU AIDS)epidemic accounts for almost one quarter of AIDS cases in IDUs in the United States. Recent studies have reported declines in seroprevalence and risk behaviors among IDUs in New York City during the 1990s. These trends, however, are based on studies primarily conducted in the city’s central borough of Manhattan. This article analyzes data from all five boroughs of New York City to examine trends over phases of ...

  9. Epidemiological assessment of food aid in the Bosnian conflict, 1994-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Cockcroft, Anne; Sherr, Lorraine

    2012-04-01

    Surveys in emergency settings are important for the accountability of food aid. Four household surveys conducted between 1994 and 1997 measured the performance of the Bosnia food aid programme, covering a random sample of clusters in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republica Srpska. The team calculated coverage, exclusion and inclusion errors, programme misses, and under-supply. Despite intended universal coverage from 1994-96, 15, 19, and 31 per cent, respectively, did not receive food across the three-year time frame. Households categorised as vulnerable were somewhat more likely to receive food. Programme misses were rare, whereas under-supply fell from 30 per cent in 1994 to four per cent in 1997, as the availability of other food increased. Extrapolation suggested that 61 per cent of the food distributed did not reach households. The programme introduced priority categories for targeting in 1997, yet nearly one-half of the highest priority households did not receive food. Incomplete coverage and weak targeting were related to political constraints. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  10. Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients and processing aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3-10 kGy (0.3-1 mrad) have proved sufficient to reduce the viable counts to a satisfactory level. Ionising radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature. The flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for satisfactory decontamination, and radiation obviates the chemical residue problem. The microflora surviving radiation decontamination of dry ingredients are more susceptible to subsequent antimicrobial treatments. Recontamination can be prevented as the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation could be carried out in commercial containers and would result in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of these commodities is an established technology in several countries and more clearances on irradiated foods are expected to be granted in the near future.

  11. Neuropsychological impairment among intravenous drug users in pre-AIDS stages of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, M C

    1992-01-01

    While much of the current literature concurs that neuropsychological decline does not occur among gay men in the early stages of HIV infection, there is no comparable body of evidence with regard to seropositive intravenous drug users (IVDU). In this study, 45 seropositive (CDC groups 2, 3, and 4a) IVDU in recovery and 55 seronegative IVDU in recovery were given a complete battery of neuropsychological tests measuring attention, language, visual-motor, memory, and conceptual skills. The groups were not significantly different in age, incidence of childhood and adult head injury, types of drugs used, length of use of cocaine, crack, amphetamines and hallucinogens, overdose history, and length of time in recovery. In addition, groups were statistically corrected for education level and length of heroin use. Results indicate that the seropositive participants scored significantly lower on measures of divided attention, visual short-term memory, graphomotor speed and accuracy, auditory language shortterm memory and abstract concept formation. Further analyses revealed that 18% of participants with Persistent Generalized Lymphadenopathy (CDC group III) and 27% of those with constitutional disease (CDC group IVa) were neuropsychologically impaired, as their performance was two standard deviations or more below the normative mean on two or more measures. These results are similar to the reported performance of gay men with full-blown AIDS in a number of studies. It is hypothesized that because of premorbid neurological insult, the toxic effects of drug abuse on brain tissue, and the immunosuppressive effects of the drugs, subcortical brain cells of IVDU are more vulnerable to the invasion of HIV, and neurological deterioration may occur at earlier stages of HIV Spectrum Disease in IVDU than in gay men.

  12. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  13. User-oriented innovation in the food sector: Relevant streams of research and an agenda for future work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to give an overview of relevant streams of research that can form a basis for research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector. We define user-oriented innovation as a process towards the development of a new product or service in which an integrated analysis...... and understanding of the users' wants, needs and preference formation play a key role. We distinguish three relevant streams of research that may provide a basis for research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector: research on the formation of user preferences, research on innovation management......, and research on interactive innovation. We show that the relevance of these three streams of research for the food sector depends on which type of innovation we are dealing with, and we propose a distinction of three types of food innovations depending on which actors in the food chain are involved...

  14. User-oriented innovation in the food sector: Relevant streams of research and an agenda for future work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to give an overview of relevant streams of research that can form a basis for research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector. We define user-oriented innovation as a process towards the development of a new product or service in which an integrated analysis...... and understanding of the users' wants, needs and preference formation play a key role. We distinguish three relevant streams of research that may provide a basis for research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector: research on the formation of user preferences, research on innovation management......, and research on interactive innovation. We show that the relevance of these three streams of research for the food sector depends on which type of innovation we are dealing with, and we propose a distinction of three types of food innovations depending on which actors in the food chain are involved...

  15. 75 FR 22601 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Staff; User Fees for 513(g); Requests for Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... the draft guidance entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for Information.'' This draft guidance describes the user fees associated with 513(g) requests for...

  16. HIV/AIDS prevalence and behaviour in drug users and pregnant women in Kashgar Prefecture: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzwarryne C

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Second Generation sub-population HIV Surveillance was undertaken in Kashgar City and Shache County, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China between December 2003 and January 2004, targeting injecting and mixed method drug users and pregnant and postnatal women. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the epidemic is shifting from a concentrated stage to a more generalised epidemic. One hundred and forty two (142 exclusively injecting drug users (66 and mixed method drug users (injecting and non-injecting-76 participated in this survey. Eight hundred and two (802 pregnant and postnatal women participated in the survey. In Kashgar City and Shache County the serum prevalence of HIV amongst injecting drug users was 56.06%, for mixed method drug users 48.68% and 0.38% in pregnant women. In Shache County HIV infection rates were significantly lower in drug user groups and amongst pregnant and post-natal women, at 2.22% and 0% respectively. The behavioral survey indicated that 15% of injecting drug users have shared needles (however sero prevalence and knowledge in relation to access to clean needles and syringes suggests that this may not reflect the actual situation. Knowledge of prevention of transmission strategies (not sharing needles and condom utilisation is similar between both groups at 60–70%. However it appears that this knowledge has not significantly impacted on behavior such as needle sharing and condom utilisation. In Kashgar City and Shache County there have been very few interventions to support HIV/AIDS prevention, care and control. The results from this survey will inform future directions and the development and implementation of targeted interventions including targeted information dissemination and harm reduction strategies. This survey was funded by the Xinjiang HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care Project, a bilateral project jointly implemented by the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of

  17. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  18. Food insecurity among volunteer AIDS caregivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was highly prevalent but buffered from the 2008 food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Tesfaye, Yihenew Alemu

    2009-09-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the validity and dependability of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), which was developed for international use, among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The HFIAS was translated into Amharic and subsequently tested for content and face validity. This was followed by a quantitative validation study based on a representative sample (n = 99) of female community volunteers (HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers), with whom the HFIAS was administered at 3 time points over the course of 2008, in the context of the local and global "food crisis." By pooling observations across data collection rounds and accounting for intra-individual correlation in repeated measures, we found that the HFIAS performed well according to standards in the field. We also observed slight amelioration in reported food insecurity (FI) status over time, which seems paradoxical given the increasing inaccessibility of food over the same time period due to inflating prices and disappearing food aid. We attempted to resolve this paradox by appealing to self-report-related phenomena that arise in the context of longitudinal study designs: 1) observation bias, in which respondents change their reports according to changing expectations of the observer-respondent relationship or change their behavior in ways that ameliorate FI after baseline self-reports; and 2) "response shift," in which respondents change their reports according to reassessment of internal standards of FI. Our results are important for the validation of FI tools and for the sustainability of community health programs reliant on volunteerism in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Sufficient Protein Quality of Food Aid Varies with the Physiologic Status of Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Meghan; Oyama, Momo; Manary, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Protein quality scores use the amino acid (AA) requirements of a healthy North American child. AA requirements vary with physiologic status. We estimated AA requirements for healthy North American children, children with environmental enteric dysfunction, children recovering from wasting, and children with an acute infection. The protein quality of food aid products was then calculated to determine whether it was sufficient in all these groups, and we found that it may not be adequate for all of them. Physiologic status is important when assessing the protein quality of food aid. Rates of weight gain from 8 published trials treating children with moderate acute malnutrition were abstracted, and protein quality scores from the corresponding food aid products were calculated with the use of the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS). Two DIAAS values were calculated, one in healthy children aged 1-3 y as a reference population and the other in malnourished children aged 1-3 y as a reference population. These data were used to calculate the best fit regression line between weight gain and protein quality. The slope of the regression line was greater when malnourished children were used as a reference population than when healthy children were used (0.128; 95% CI: 0.118, 0.138 compared with 0.097; 95% CI: 0.090, 0.105 measured in g · kg(-1) · d(-1) · DIASS U(-1)). These findings suggest that adjusting AA requirements for physiologic status may more accurately estimate the minimum protein quality of food aid products.

  20. Computer-Aided Authoring System (AUTHOR) User's Guide. Volume I. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Charles R.

    This user's guide for AUTHOR, an automatic authoring system which produces programmed texts for teaching symbol recognition, provides detailed instructions to help the user construct and enter the information needed to create the programmed text, run the AUTHOR program, and edit the automatically composed paper. Major sections describe steps in…

  1. An Automated Evaluation and Critiquing Aid for User Interface Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will leverage our prior work on Adaptive Information Management (AIM) to provide a core reasoning capability usable in a diverse set of tools to aid and assist in...

  2. Impacts of HIV/AIDS mortality on food security and natural resource utilisation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIDS mortality, its linkages as a determinant and consequence of food security and its impact on natural resource utilisation by mainly rural populations, has not been well researched, especially their effects on rural livelihoods. Determining...

  3. Protein Quality, Growth, and Malnutrition: Advances in Science and the Role of Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsett-Morrow, Dacia; LaGrange, Veronique

    2016-03-01

    This article is the introduction to our formal proceedings of the symposium titled "Protein Quality, Growth and Malnutrition: Latest Scientific Findings and the Role of Dairy in Food Aid," held during the Experimental Biology 2015 annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts.

  4. Computer aided boar semen motility analysis for cereulide detection in different food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2007-02-28

    Computer Aided Semen Analysis (CASA) study of the boar semen motility has been demonstrated to be an appropriate assay for detection of cereulide (Bacillus cereus emetic toxin). Application of the boar semen bio-assay to detect cereulide directly in foods requires investigation of potential interference of food components, preservatives and other microbial and chemical food contaminants with the bio-assay. Current study provides evidence that none of included Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A, B, C and D nor B. cereus Hemolysin BL (HBL) and non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and three mycotoxins (Sterigmatocystin, Fumonisin B1 and Patulin) exhibited a toxic impact on semen progressive motility. Aflatoxin M1, M3 and zearalenone impaired semen motility only at concentrations (0.004 mg ml(-1), 0.1 mg ml(-1) and 10 mg ml(-1), respectively) much higher than those found in foods and those permitted by legislation, in comparison to cereulide which induces motility cease at concentrations lower than 20 ng ml(-1). Ten commonly used preservatives, namely potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, (DL) malic acid, citric acid, (L+) tartaric acid, acetic acid, (DL) lactic acid, (L+) ascorbic acid, sodium chloride and sucrose induced no cease in spermatozoa motility even at preservative concentrations higher than permitted by legislation. Dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and acrylamide had no acute effect on spermatozoa motility at concentrations of 500 and 10,000 mg ml(-1), respectively. Robustness of computer aided boar semen motility analysis, tested with 14 different foods inoculated with cereulide producing B. cereus, showed distinct cereulide production in seven samples (although B. cereus growth to counts higher than 8 log CFU g(-1) was noted in 11 samples), in amounts close to those reported in foodborne outbreaks. Test evaluation in 33 samples suspected to hold cereulide showed actual cereulide presence in ten samples and no interference of food matrix

  5. Graphical User Interface (GUI) Design for Ballistic Research Laboratory-Computer-Aided Design’s (BRL-CAD’s) Geometry Difference (GDiff) Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Graphical User Interface ( GUI ) Design for Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design’s (BRL–CAD’s) Geometry Difference (GDiff) Tool...to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 ARL-CR-0756 April 2015 Graphical User Interface ( GUI ...2015 2. REPORT TYPE Contractor Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 06/2014–08/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Graphical User Interface ( GUI ) Design for

  6. Location-aided Distributed Primary User Identification in a Cognitive Radio Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Belanovic, Pavle; Zazo, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    We address a cognitive radio scenario, where a number of secondary users performs identification of which primary user, if any, is transmitting, in a distributed way and using limited location information. We propose two fully distributed algorithms: the first is a direct identification scheme, and in the other a distributed sub-optimal detection based on a simplified Neyman-Pearson energy detector precedes the identification scheme. Both algorithms are studied analytically in a realistic transmission scenario, and the advantage obtained by detection pre-processing is also verified via simulation. Finally, we give details of their fully distributed implementation via consensus averaging algorithms.

  7. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.;

    2010-01-01

    non-crisis conditions, to engage stakeholders and to develop local and regional plans. The handbooks can also be applied as part of the decision-aiding process to develop a recovery strategy following an incident. In addition, the handbooks are useful for training purposes and during emergency......Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...... exercises. To realise their full potential, the handbooks should be customised at national, regional and local levels. © EDP Sciences, 2010...

  8. User Interface Preferences in the Design of a Camera-Based Navigation and Wayfinding Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, Aries; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Development of a sensing device that can provide a sufficient perceptual substrate for persons with visual impairments to orient themselves and travel confidently has been a persistent rehabilitation technology goal, with the user interface posing a significant challenge. In the study presented here, we enlist the advice and ideas of…

  9. Mixed-Initiative Tutorial System to Aid Users of the On-Line System (NLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignetti, Mario C.; And Others

    NLS-SCHOLAR is a prototype system that uses artificial intelligence techniques to teach computer-naive people how to use a powerful and complex text editor. It represents a new type of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system that integrates systematic teaching with actual practice; i.e., one which can keep the user under tutorial supervision…

  10. Applying Web Analytics to Online Finding Aids: Page Views, Pathways, and Learning about Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. O'English

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Online finding aids, Internet search tools, and increased access to the World Wide Web have greatly changed how patrons find archival collections. Through analyzing eighteen months of access data collected via Web analytics tools, this article examines how patrons discover archival materials. Contrasts are drawn between access from library catalogs and from online search engines, with the latter outweighing the former by an overwhelming margin, and argues whether archival description practices should change accordingly.

  11. Dual-microphone and binaural noise reduction techniques for improved speech intelligibility by hearing aid users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefian Jazi, Nima

    Spatial filtering and directional discrimination has been shown to be an effective pre-processing approach for noise reduction in microphone array systems. In dual-microphone hearing aids, fixed and adaptive beamforming techniques are the most common solutions for enhancing the desired speech and rejecting unwanted signals captured by the microphones. In fact, beamformers are widely utilized in systems where spatial properties of target source (usually in front of the listener) is assumed to be known. In this dissertation, some dual-microphone coherence-based speech enhancement techniques applicable to hearing aids are proposed. All proposed algorithms operate in the frequency domain and (like traditional beamforming techniques) are purely based on the spatial properties of the desired speech source and does not require any knowledge of noise statistics for calculating the noise reduction filter. This benefit gives our algorithms the ability to address adverse noise conditions, such as situations where interfering talker(s) speaks simultaneously with the target speaker. In such cases, the (adaptive) beamformers lose their effectiveness in suppressing interference, since the noise channel (reference) cannot be built and updated accordingly. This difference is the main advantage of the proposed techniques in the dissertation over traditional adaptive beamformers. Furthermore, since the suggested algorithms are independent of noise estimation, they offer significant improvement in scenarios that the power level of interfering sources are much more than that of target speech. The dissertation also shows the premise behind the proposed algorithms can be extended and employed to binaural hearing aids. The main purpose of the investigated techniques is to enhance the intelligibility level of speech, measured through subjective listening tests with normal hearing and cochlear implant listeners. However, the improvement in quality of the output speech achieved by the

  12. Considering the effects purchase food balance guide utilizing cable television has on the user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimiko; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Masumi; Moriwaki, Hiroko; Nakamura, Masaru; Takenori, Tatsuaki; Mikami, Hiroshi; Kihara, Kazumitsu; Ono, Takeya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to empirically investigate the needfulness of the Purchased Foodstuffs Balance Guide as designed for its users and also consider its influence on better dietary habits. The participants included 89 students who attended City A's Senior Citizens' College, and the reality of their ICT and dietary habits were surveyed. Next, 27 cable television subscribers were asked to be monitors for testing the Guide. The study took place during a period of September 2013 to March 2014. The results indicated that, for the senior citizens, ICT use was centred on communication with their families and that their awareness or desire was a low in terms of the functions of information transmission, entertainment and receipt of services. Next, after using the Purchased Foodstuffs Balance Guide, its needfulness and its influence on better food habits were examined. As a result, the most frequent response by the participants was that they 'understood [their own] purchasing tendencies' (36.0%), followed by the three items: 'The Guide is useful for managing my nutrition', 'The Guide enabled me to know what foodstuffs are required to supplement my diet' and 'I became more careful about purchasing foodstuffs in a balanced way.' The study showed that 70% of the participants felt that the Purchased Foodstuffs Balance Guide was useful and make decisions when purchasing food using the Guide. This indicates the possibility that the Guide exerts a positive influence on users' awareness of nutritional balance, foodstuff purchasing choices and dietary habits.

  13. [The users of centers for AIDS information and prevention in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain: a study based on cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Aracil, J; Ruiz Pérez, I; Aviñó Rico, M J; Hernández Aguado, I

    1999-01-01

    To measure the usefulness of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and cluster analysis applied to the epidemiological research of HIV infection. The specific are to explore the relationships between the different variables that characterize the users of the AIDS Information and Prevention Center (CIPS) and to identify clusters of characteristics which in terms of the attendance to these centers, could be considered similar. The clinical history the CIPS in the Valencian region in Spain was used as data source. The target population target were intravenous drug users (IDUSs) attending these centers between 1987 and 1994 (n = 6211). Information about socio-demographic and HIV type I infection-related variables (drug use and sexual behaviour) was collected by means of a semistructured questionnaire. A MCA was carried out to obtain a group of quantitative factors that were used in a cluster analysis. A 44.8% HIV type I prevalence was found. Five factors were detected by MCA that explain 51.14% of the total variability, of which sex, age and the usual sexual partner were the variables best explained. Cluster analysis allowed to describe 5 different subgroups of CIPS users according to their socio-demographics characteristics, risk behaviours and serologic status. It is necessary to highlight the categories 1 and 2, which collect the serologic status and the most relevant characteristics of HIV infection. Category I contains users with a negative serology and characterized by being mainly single adolescent men, with a low educational level; they stated that they have no steady sexual partner, do not share syringes and have been intravenous drug users between 3 and 10 years. They mainly come from the city of Alicante. Category 2 contains mainly people that are HIV positive and older. They also share syringes and have been intravenous drug users for a longer time; they have a higher education level and most of them come from the city of Valencia. The proposed method of

  14. Attitude of Health Care Workers (HCWs toward Patients Affected by HIV/AIDS and Drug Users: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Ledda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caring for HIV/AIDS patients and/or drug users requires health care workers (HCWs to have good knowledge of the issues. Cultural differences in HCWs, combined with professional ethics and personal beliefs, could also result in conflicting attitudes, leading to difficulties related to looking after people affected by HIV/AIDS or drug users. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients and/or drug users in a sample of workers operating in a large university hospital in southern Italy. A total of 736 workers were surveyed from May to November 2016. During the periodic occupational health surveillance, a questionnaire was administered about attitudes of discrimination, acceptance and fear towards these patients. Respondents showed average levels of acceptance to HIV/AIDS and drug user patients. As years of experience and professional training increased, scores for discrimination, acceptance of HIV/AIDS, acceptance of drug users and fear decreased. Factors positively influencing levels of attitudes were being female and younger. Supplementary education is needed to strengthen the awareness of HCWs.

  15. An Examination of Users' Influence in Online HIV/AIDS Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Shi, Jingyuan; Chen, Liang; Peng, Tai-Quan

    2016-05-01

    A network perspective was adopted in this study to identify influential users in an online HIV community in China. Specifically, the indegree centrality, outdegree centrality, betweenness centrality, eigenvector centrality, and clustering coefficient of individuals were evaluated to measure the user influence in such a community. Moreover, this study examined how the digital divide, which is presently one of the major social equity issues in the information society, is associated with an individual's influence within the community. Two networks were formed on the basis of the behavioral data retrieved from the HIV community: the follower-followee network and the post-reply network. In the follower-followee network, members from areas with well-developed technologies demonstrated more connections, received more attention, and secured more critical positions in the network than their counterparts. However, such differences were insignificant in the post-reply network.

  16. HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and sexually-transmitted infection prevention among Egyptian substance users

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhoum, Atef

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores cultural influences in high-risk behaviour among Egyptian substance users in the Middle Eastern, conservative, male-dominated and predominantly Muslim society in which they live. It investigates why they practice unprotected sex despite the risk of infection by blood-borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), and the factors influencing their risk practices. The study seeks to inform policy and to improve methods of preventing BBVs/STI...

  17. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  18. User-Friendly, Syntax Directed Input to a Computer Aided Design System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    indepen- dern-. oblems arise in both compu:er aided design and in software development as a result of multipla types cf computz , mUtiple languages...Base CONLAN. Ease CONLAN is defined cy three i- ms , a set of object types and cperations, syntax, and a comPuta-IoL model. It is defined with Primitive...ycsjum on Computer Hardware= DescrT:--c-: -Lanquaqes. ~ p. =-3’EEET73 28. H1Il, F. J., and Petezzcn, J. R., DjZt4- S Lt-= Ms : Hardware O~gan iza,,i.n cand

  19. A tool for hearing aid and cochlear implant users to judge the usability of cellular telephones in field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deer, Maria Soledad

    The auditory experience of using a hearing aid or a cochlear implant simultaneously with a cell phone is driven by a number of factors. These factors are: radiofrequency and baseband interference, speech intelligibility, sound quality, handset design, volume control and signal strength. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool to be used by hearing aid and cochlear implant users in retail stores as they try cell phones before buying them. This tool is meant to be an efficient, practical and systematic consumer selection tool that will capture and document information on all the domains that play a role in the auditory experience of using a cell phone with a hearing aid or cochlear implant. The development of this consumer tool involved three steps as follows: preparation, verification and measurement of success according to a predefined criterion. First, the consumer tool, consisting of a comparison chart and speech material, was prepared. Second, the consumer tool was evaluated by groups of subjects in a two-step verification process. Phase I was conducted in a controlled setting and it was followed by Phase II which took place in real world (field) conditions. In order to perform a systematic evaluation of the consumer tool two questionnaires were developed: one questionnaire for each phase. Both questionnaires involved five quantitative variables scored with the use of ratings scales. These ratings were averaged yielding an Overall Consumer Performance Score. A qualitative performance category corresponding to the Mean Opinion Score (MOS) was allocated to each final score within a scale ranging from 1 to 5 (where 5 = excellent and 1 = bad). Finally, the consumer tool development was determined to be successful if at least 80% of the participants in verification Phase II rated the comparison chart as excellent or good according to the qualitative MOS score. The results for verification Phase II (field conditions) indicated that the Overall Consumer

  20. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford James

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community food programs (CFPs, including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Methods Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n = 94 were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1 month period, along with key informant interviews. Results Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. Conclusions The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would

  1. Interactive voice response self-monitoring to assess risk behaviors in rural substance users living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Blum, Elizabeth R; Xie, Lili; Roth, David L; Simpson, Cathy A

    2012-02-01

    Community-dwelling HIV/AIDS patients in rural Alabama self-monitored (SM) daily HIV risk behaviors using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, which may enhance reporting, reduce monitored behaviors, and extend the reach of care. Sexually active substance users (35 men, 19 women) engaged in IVR SM of sex, substance use, and surrounding contexts for 4-10 weeks. Baseline predictors of IVR utilization were assessed, and longitudinal IVR SM effects on risk behaviors were examined. Frequent (n = 22), infrequent (n = 22), and non-caller (n = 10) groups were analyzed. Non-callers had shorter durations of HIV medical care and lower safer sex self-efficacy and tended to be older heterosexuals. Among callers, frequent callers had lost less social support. Longitudinal logistic regression models indicated reductions in risky sex and drug use with IVR SM over time. IVR systems appear to have utility for risk assessment and reduction for rural populations living with HIV disease.

  2. Hematological particularities and co-infections in injected drug users with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Menezes Brunetta

    Full Text Available HIV patients infected through injected drug use have poorer prognosis than other groups. We evaluated the hematological alterations and rates of co-infections in injected drug use patients with AIDS. Injected drug use patients were younger, predominantly of male gender, and presented lower CD4, total lymphocyte, and platelet counts, but not neutrophil count, than control group. Injected drug use patients had a higher rate of hepatitis C and mycobacteria infection. Furthermore, all injected drug use patients with hemoglobin <10.0 g dL-1 and lymphocyte <1000 µL-1 had CD4 count lower than 100 µL-1. In conclusion, HIV-infected injected drug use patients constitute a special group of patients, and hemoglobin concentration and lymphocyte count can be used as surrogate markers for disease severity.

  3. The influence of oral and written information on antiretroviraldrugs in the knowledge of users with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Pimentel Gomes Fernandes Vieira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of oral and written transmission of information on antiretroviral drugs in knowledge generation in their users and in the retention of information by them. Method: In the first phase, 18 individuals with HIV/AIDS treated at a referral hospital analyzed three brochures containing information on antiretroviral drugs and chose the best. In the second phase, three groups of 47 individuals with HIV/AIDS who received antiretroviral drugs in the same hospital were formed. The first group, considered the control group (group “C” received their medication at the pharmacy as usual, without any additional information; the second group (group “F” received a brochure with information about the drug in use, which should be read at that moment; and the third group (group “O” received orally, the same information detailed in the brochure. All answered a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge on the referred drug. Results: The responses of group “O” had a higher level of agreement with the information they received regarding action of the drug in the body (78.7%, duration of treatment (83%, procedure when missing a dose (91.5% and storage (95.7%. Conclusion: The transmission of information, whether oral or written, generates knowledge and the instructions and information when orally transmitted, in a detailed manner and in appropriate language, are more easily understood and assimilated. It appears also that, in the studied group, oral information resulted more immediately effective than written one.

  4. DESIGNING OF COMPUTER AIDED AND USER INTERACTIVE CNC PART PROGRAMME FOR A MILLING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali DÖNERTAŞ

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a user–interactive computer programme generating CNC part programme according to dialog method has been developed. The design of programme has been prepared like a CAM programme structure. The part programme was established by required parameters asking to the user with a specific order. Subsequently, this parameters are used to create M and G codes, and these codes are showed at a different page on the screen. In addition, these code pages can be stored with "txt" format. This program includes basic processes and the programme design has been prepared for milling machine working according to Fanuc system. The computer programme was written by using Delphi 6 programming language.

  5. Data Organisation in Construction – As an Aid to the User

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Vogelius, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The basic assumption in this paper is, that it will be possible to organise data in construction in a non-hierarchical way, following the lines of facet-based classification. This involves tagging data in a horizontal rather than a vertical order We have experienced a long and intense discussion...... of how to organise data. At a glance the discussion can seem to be merely technical but indeed it involves a broader perspective regarding different understandings of how to perceive, present and organise knowledge. Actors (consultants – contractors) present solutions that are appropriate in relation...... of powerful computer hardware. Today it seems obvious to take the facet-based approach into consideration, making it possible to specify ordering of data to the users' practice and frame of reference, rather than fixing the structure of data already when they are saved to the system. KEYWORDS: Data...

  6. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Moradi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA users (n = 20 with elderly normal-hearing (ENH listeners (n = 20 in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context.

  7. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers’ care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients’ experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58–71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers’ valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation. PMID:20439347

  8. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers' care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients' experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58-71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers' valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation.

  9. Speech perception and quality of life of open-fit hearing aid users

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARCIA, Tatiana Manfrini; JACOB, Regina Tangerino de Souza; MONDELLI, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To relate the performance of individuals with hearing loss at high frequencies in speech perception with the quality of life before and after the fitting of an open-fit hearing aid (HA). Methods The WHOQOL-BREF had been used before the fitting and 90 days after the use of HA. The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) had been conducted in two phases: (1) at the time of fitting without an HA (situation A) and with an HA (situation B); (2) with an HA 90 days after fitting (situation C). Study Sample Thirty subjects with sensorineural hearing loss at high frequencies. Results By using an analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test comparing the three HINT situations in quiet and noisy environments, an improvement has been observed after the HA fitting. The results of the WHOQOL-BREF have showed an improvement in the quality of life after the HA fitting (paired t-test). The relationship between speech perception and quality of life before the HA fitting indicated a significant relationship between speech recognition in noisy environments and in the domain of social relations after the HA fitting (Pearson’s correlation coefficient). Conclusions The auditory stimulation has improved speech perception and the quality of life of individuals. PMID:27383708

  10. School Nutrition and Food Service Techniques for Children with Exceptional Needs: Guidelines for Food Service Personnel, Teachers, Aides, Volunteers, and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Margaret L.; Troftgruben, Judith A.

    Designed to help school food service personnel, teachers, aides, and volunteers extend the benefits of the school meal program to handicapped children, this manual discusses eating problems resulting from such conditions as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, blindness, orthopedic handicaps, and other health impairments. Specific recommendations…

  11. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  12. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Habicht

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target or incorrectly (competitor depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA and inexperienced (iHA HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each. For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics.

  13. A Randomized Trial Comparing Classical Participatory Design to VandAID, an Interactive CrowdSourcing Platform to Facilitate User-Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufendach, Kevin R; Koch, Sabine; Unertl, Kim M; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2017-04-28

    Early involvement of stakeholders in the design of medical software is particularly important due to the need to incorporate complex knowledge and actions associated with clinical work. Standard user-centered design methods include focus groups and participatory design sessions with individual stakeholders, which generally limit user involvement to a small number of individuals due to the significant time investments from designers and end users. The goal of this project was to reduce the effort for end users to participate in co-design of a software user interface by developing an interactive web-based crowdsourcing platform. In a randomized trial, we compared a new web-based crowdsourcing platform to standard participatory design sessions. We developed an interactive, modular platform that allows responsive remote customization and design feedback on a visual user interface based on user preferences. The responsive canvas is a dynamic HTML template that responds in real time to user preference selections. Upon completion, the design team can view the user's interface creations through an administrator portal and download the structured selections through a REDCap interface. We have created a software platform that allows users to customize a user interface and see the results of that customization in real time, receiving immediate feedback on the impact of their design choices. Neonatal clinicians used the new platform to successfully design and customize a neonatal handoff tool. They received no specific instruction and yet were able to use the software easily and reported high usability. VandAID, a new web-based crowdsourcing platform, can involve multiple users in user-centered design simultaneously and provides means of obtaining design feedback remotely. The software can provide design feedback at any stage in the design process, but it will be of greatest utility for specifying user requirements and evaluating iterative designs with multiple options.

  14. Self-report outcome in new hearing-aid users: Longitudinal trends and relationships between subjective measures of benefit and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2006-01-01

    This study focussed on self-report outcome in new hearing-aid users. The objectives of the experiment were changes in self-report outcome over time, and relationships between different subjective measures of benefit and satisfaction. Four outcome inventories and a questionnaire on auditory...

  15. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention.

  16. Using feature objects aided strategy to evaluate the biomethane production of food waste and corn stalk anaerobic co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Yuan, Hairong; Liu, Yanping; Zou, Dexun; Zhu, Baoning; Chufo, Wachemo A; Jaffar, Muhammad; Li, Xiujin

    2015-03-01

    Feature objects aided strategy was used to predict and evaluate the biomethane production of food waste and corn stalk anaerobic co-digestion. The kinetics of co-digestion and mono-digestion of food waste and/or corn stalk was also analyzed. The results indicated that the compositions of food waste and corn stalk were significantly different. The anaerobic digestion of three feature objects at different mixing ratios showed the different biomethane yields and kinetic constants. Food waste and corn stalk co-digestion enhanced the digestion rate and achieved 22.48% and 41.55% higher biomethane production than those of food waste and corn stalk mono-digestion, respectively.

  17. Diagnosis of Food Insecurity and Nutritional Statusof users of the popular restaurants in the Northeast and South of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwellen de Resende MORAES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity occurs when the unmet nutritional needs cause psychological and physiological problems. Thinking about this panorama, this cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the relationship between food insecurity and overweight in the Northeast and South. We used a form to identify the socioeconomic and demographic variables, was also made the calculation of BMI, and applied the Brazilian Scale of Food and Nutritional Insecurity in two regions of Brazil where 807 people were interviewed and 503 in the Northeast region and 304 in the South region. The most prevalent share of family income in both regions was that between ½ to 1 minimum wage. The Northeast region had a higher prevalence of users in food insecurity over the southern region, also presented more socioeconomic differences as lower education and income per capita, a higher proportion of unemployed and users in Food Insecurity in relation to the South. This fact is explained by population have a higher proportion of unemployed and a lower per capita income, leading to reduced power of access to food. Regarding nutritional status, in both regions there was overweight. This data may be indicative of the accelerated process of nutritional transition that lives the Brazilian population.

  18. Efficacy of a food safety comic book on knowledge and self-reported behavior for persons living with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Mark S; Peterson, Caryn E; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Educational materials about foodborne enteric infections intended for this immunocompromised population have not been assessed for their efficacy in improving knowledge or encouraging behavior change. AIDS patients in four healthcare facilities in Chicago, New Orleans, and Puerto Rico were recruited using fliers and word of mouth to healthcare providers. Those who contacted research staff were interviewed to determine food safety knowledge gaps and risky behaviors. A food safety educational comic book that targeted knowledge gaps was created, piloted, and provided to these patients who were instructed to read it and return at least 2 weeks later for a follow-up interview. The overall food safety score was determined by the number of the 26 knowledge/belief/behavior questions from the survey answered correctly. Among 150 patients who participated in both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire, the intervention resulted in a substantial increase in the food safety score (baseline 59%, post-intervention 81%, pcomic book format intervention to educate persons living with AIDS was highly effective. Future studies should examine to what extent long-term behavioral changes result.

  19. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan-Li; Ying Cao, Chris; Xu, Qiang-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective.

  20. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective.

  1. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Cao, Chris; Xu, Qiang-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective. PMID:27579217

  2. Efficacy of a food safety comic book on knowledge and self-reported behavior for persons living with AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Dworkin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Educational materials about foodborne enteric infections intended for this immunocompromised population have not been assessed for their efficacy in improving knowledge or encouraging behavior change. METHODS/RESULTS: AIDS patients in four healthcare facilities in Chicago, New Orleans, and Puerto Rico were recruited using fliers and word of mouth to healthcare providers. Those who contacted research staff were interviewed to determine food safety knowledge gaps and risky behaviors. A food safety educational comic book that targeted knowledge gaps was created, piloted, and provided to these patients who were instructed to read it and return at least 2 weeks later for a follow-up interview. The overall food safety score was determined by the number of the 26 knowledge/belief/behavior questions from the survey answered correctly. Among 150 patients who participated in both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire, the intervention resulted in a substantial increase in the food safety score (baseline 59%, post-intervention 81%, p<0.001. The intervention produced a significant increase in all the food safety knowledge, belief, and behavior items that comprised the food safety score. Many of these increases were from baseline knowledge below 80 percent to well above 90%. Most (85% of the patients stated they made a change to their behavior since receiving the educational booklet. CONCLUSION: This comic book format intervention to educate persons living with AIDS was highly effective. Future studies should examine to what extent long-term behavioral changes result.

  3. The Effectiveness of a Bioactive Food Compound in the Lipid Control of Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Ferreira, Rosângela; de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Rita; Jardim Cury Pontes, Elenir Rose; Aragão do Nascimento, Valter; Aiko Hiane, Priscila

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular events due to decompensated lipid metabolism are commonly found in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients using anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of a bioactive food compound (BFC) containing functional foods on individuals with HIV undergoing HAART. Particularly, this study aims to verify the clinical outcome in the change of the lipid profile due to the use of this compound. This study includes 115 individuals with HIV on HAART. All patients received dietary guidelines; however, sixty-one consumed BFC while fifty-one did not (NO BFC). Biochemical examinations and socio-demographic and clinical profiles were evaluated. As result, in patients using hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs, there was 28.6% decrease in triglyceride levels (p HIV/AIDS patients using HAART are more vulnerable to lipid disorders. PMID:27740592

  4. Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (CASE) Project. User’s Guide: Computer-Aided Structural Modeling (CASM). Version 5.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    w transferred to the laeral resistance localions by tributary wee or continuous bean model . For rigid diaphragms, lateral loads we translerred to the...floors aid roof planes, a Flexible Diaphragm dialog window wil appea Didnu.•e Leeuds aewd On- 0 Siml I.. Model 0 Ceiwmus Bean Model a. Select Simple

  5. Food insecurity among homeless and marginally housed individuals living with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Sheri D; Bangsberg, David R; Kegeles, Susan; Ragland, Kathleen; Kushel, Margot B; Frongillo, Edward A

    2009-10-01

    Food insecurity is a risk factor for both HIV transmission and worse HIV clinical outcomes. We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with food insecurity among homeless and marginally housed HIV-infected individuals in San Francisco recruited from the Research on Access to Care in the Homeless Cohort. We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with food insecurity, which was measured using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Among 250 participants, over half (53.6%) were food insecure. Higher odds of food insecurity was associated with being white, low CD4 counts, recent crack use, lack of health insurance, and worse physical and mental health. Food insecurity is highly prevalent among HIV-infected marginally housed individuals in San Francisco, and is associated with poor physical and mental health and poor social functioning. Screening for and addressing food insecurity should be a critical component of HIV prevention and treatment programs.

  6. Self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation for adult hearing aid users in a developing South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pienaar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impairment has far reaching consequences for affected individuals, in terms of quality of life indicators. In a developing South African context the hearing impaired population is faced with limited aural rehabilitation services. This study evaluated self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation in a group of adults in the public healthcare sector with a standardized outcomes measurement tool (IOI-HA. Sixty-one respondents participated (44% males; 56% females, with a mean age of 69.7 years. Results revealed that the majority of respondents experienced favourable outcomes in all domains of the inventory comprising of: daily use of hearing aids, benefits provided by hearing aids, residual activity limitation, satisfaction with hearing aids, residual participation restriction, impact of hearing difficulties on others, and changes in quality of life. Statistically significant relationships were obtained between the daily use of hearing aids, the degree of hearing loss, and the type of hearing aids fitted, as well as the benefits received from hearing aids in difficult listening environments (p < 0.05. Despite challenges of developing contexts, the mean scores distribution compared positively to similar reports from developed countries. Outcomes of improved quality of life emphasize the importance of providing affordable hearing aids and services to all hearing impaired individuals in South Africa.

  7. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N. de; Ocké, M.C.; Branderhorst, H.A.C.; Friele, R.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functi

  8. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N. de; Ocké, M.C.; Branderhorst, H.A.C.; Friele, R.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functi

  9. Application of the Consumer Decision-Making Model to Hearing Aid Adoption in First-Time Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlani, Amyn M

    2016-05-01

    Since 1980, hearing aid adoption rates have remained essentially the same, increasing at a rate equal to the organic growth of the population. Researchers have used theoretical models from psychology and sociology to determine those factors or constructs that lead to the adoption of hearing aids by first-time impaired listeners entering the market. In this article, a theoretical model, the Consumer Decision-Making Model (CDM), premised on the neobehavioral approach that considers an individual's psychological and cognitive emphasis toward a product or service, is described. Three theoretical models (i.e., transtheoretical, social model of disability, Health Belief Model), and their relevant findings to the hearing aid market, are initially described. The CDM is then presented, along with supporting evidence of the model's various factors from the hearing aid literature. Future applications of the CDM to hearing health care also are discussed.

  10. Effectiveness of an online SUpport PRogramme (SUPR) for older hearing aid users: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janine FJ Meijerink; Marieke Pronk; Bernadette Paulissen; Birgit I Witte; Bregje van der Wouden; Vera Jansen; Sophia E Kramer

    2017-01-01

    ... (care as usual, 34 practices) and hearing aid fitting including SUPR (36 practices). The aim was to recruit a total of 569 older (aged 50+ years) first-time (n=258) and experienced (n=311) HAUs and their CPs...

  11. Screening for anti-nutritional compounds in complementary foods and food aid products for infants and young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer

    2013-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to screen complementary foods from developing countries for the anti-nutritional compounds, phytate, polyphenols, inhibitors of trypsin and chymotrypsin, and lectins. Commercial products based on whole grain cereals were included as a 'worst-case' scenario for anti...

  12. The Efficacy of Short-term Gated Audiovisual Speech Training for Improving Auditory Sentence Identification in Noise in Elderly Hearing Aid Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Shahram; Wahlin, Anna; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker; Lidestam, Björn

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the efficacy and maintenance of short-term (one-session) gated audiovisual speech training for improving auditory sentence identification in noise in experienced elderly hearing-aid users. Twenty-five hearing aid users (16 men and 9 women), with an average age of 70.8 years, were randomly divided into an experimental (audiovisual training, n = 14) and a control (auditory training, n = 11) group. Participants underwent gated speech identification tasks comprising Swedish consonants and words presented at 65 dB sound pressure level with a 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (steady-state broadband noise), in audiovisual or auditory-only training conditions. The Hearing-in-Noise Test was employed to measure participants’ auditory sentence identification in noise before the training (pre-test), promptly after training (post-test), and 1 month after training (one-month follow-up). The results showed that audiovisual training improved auditory sentence identification in noise promptly after the training (post-test vs. pre-test scores); furthermore, this improvement was maintained 1 month after the training (one-month follow-up vs. pre-test scores). Such improvement was not observed in the control group, neither promptly after the training nor at the one-month follow-up. However, no significant between-groups difference nor an interaction between groups and session was observed. Conclusion: Audiovisual training may be considered in aural rehabilitation of hearing aid users to improve listening capabilities in noisy conditions. However, the lack of a significant between-groups effect (audiovisual vs. auditory) or an interaction between group and session calls for further research. PMID:28348542

  13. Quantifying the bystander-effect of 2.5G mobile telephones on the speech perception of digital hearing aid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastarakos, P V; Nikolopoulos, T P; Manolopoulos, L; Stamou, A; Halkiotis, K K; Ferekidis, E; Georgiou, E

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the bystander-effect of 2.5G mobile telephones (2.5G-MTs) on the speech perception of digital hearing-aid (dHA) users. Differences in the susceptibility of behind-the-ear (BTE) compared to in-to-the-ear (ITE) dHAs were also assessed. Prospective-comparative study conducted at a tertiary referral centre (ENT Department) and a HA-fitting laboratory. Key-word recognition scores from open-sentence lists were calculated. Power-analysis determined that a minimum of 60 subjects with SNHL (30 in each group), using either BTE or ITE dHAs, were required for reliable study outcomes. Sixty-four adults were tested with a functioning 2.5G-MT at almost physical contact with their ear; thirty subjects used BTE and 34 ITE dHAs. Aided word recognition score differences between studied groups and within each group, while a 2.5G-MT was activated. Cut-off inclusion criterion regarding baseline aided word recognition score was 75%. Baseline aided word recognition scores for ITE dHAs were better compared to BTE ones (p 5G-MT activation, this difference disappeared. No statistically significant difference in word recognition was observed between the examined groups, or within the BTE group, from the bystander-effect of the 2.5G-MT. ITE dHAs proved more susceptible to electromagnetic interference (p 5G-MTs on the speech perception of dHA users is either minimal, or not significant. The observed compatibility has a positive impact on the lives of millions of people worldwide. The long-standing theory of more interference in BTE compared to ITE HAs is not confirmed by the results of the present study. EBM level of evidence: 2c.

  14. The use of conspicuity aids by cyclists and risk of crashes involving other road users: a protocol for a population based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coupland Carol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids' are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. Methods/Design A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. Discussion This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users.

  15. Aid effectiveness: How is the L’Aquila food security initiative doing?:

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses case studies of Bangladesh, Ghana, Rwanda, and Senegal to assess the degree to which the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative (AFSI) has been implemented within the framework of managing for development results (MfDR) and to evaluate progress in various outcomes, including economic governance, agricultural growth, poverty, and food and nutrition security (FNS).

  16. Evaluating the financial performance of agri-food firms: a multicriteria decision-aid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Baourakis, G.; Zopounidis, C.; Dijk, van G.

    2005-01-01

    Food economists and financial researchers have long been preoccupied by the issue of evaluating the performance of agri-food firms. As the financial restructuring of the agri-business sector during the past two decades or so reflects sweeping changes that have occurred worldwide, questions have aris

  17. Metropolitan social environments and pre-HAART/HAART era changes in mortality rates (per 10,000 adult residents among injection drug users living with AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R Friedman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was developed. METHODS: This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993-2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents from 1993-1995 to 2004-2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993-1995 mortality rates to (partially control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. RESULTS: In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in 'hard drug' arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be

  18. Explaining end-users' intentions to use innovative medical and food biotechnology products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, B.C.; Poortvliet, P.M.; Lugtig, P.; de Bruin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Low public acceptance hinders the successful introduction of biotechnological innovations, such as genetically modified foods or vaccinations against infectious diseases. Earlier studies indicated that a lack of knowledge is not a key barrier to acceptance. This was confirmed in the current study,

  19. Diversity, users' perception and food processing of sorghum: implications for dietary iron and zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the diversity of sorghum and its post-harvest processing into food. We studied the contribution that sorghum can make to Fe and Zn intake by poor people in Africa, using the situation in Benin as a study context. The culinary and sensory characteristics of sorghum crops and

  20. Diversity, users' perception and food processing of sorghum: implications for dietary iron and zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the diversity of sorghum and its post-harvest processing into food. We studied the contribution that sorghum can make to Fe and Zn intake by poor people in Africa, using the situation in Benin as a study context. The culinary and sensory characteristics of sorghum crops and th

  1. Localização sonora em usuários de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individual Sound localization by hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o desempenho, no teste de localização de fontes sonoras, de usuários de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individual (AASI do tipo retroauricular e intracanal, com o desempenho de ouvintes normais, nos planos espaciais horizontal e sagital mediano, para as frequências de 500, 2.000 e 4.500 Hz; e correlacionar os acertos no teste de localização sonora com o tempo de uso dos AASI. MÉTODOS: foram testados oito ouvintes normais e 20 usuários de próteses auditivas, subdivididos em dois grupos. Um formado por 10 indivíduos usuários de próteses auditivas do tipo intracanal e o outro grupo formado por 10 usuários de próteses auditivas do tipo retroauricular. Todos foram submetidos ao teste de localização de fontes sonoras, no qual foram apresentados, aleatoriamente, três tipos de ondas quadradas, com frequências fundamentais em 0,5 kHz, 2 kHz e 4,5 kHz, na intensidade de 70 dBA. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se percentuais de acertos médios de 78,4%, 72,2% e 72,9% para os ouvintes normais, em 0,5 kHz, 2 kHz e 4,5 kHz, respectivamente e 40,1%, 39,4% e 41,7% para os usuários de aparelho de amplificação sonora individual. Quanto aos tipos de aparelhos, os usuários do modelo intracanal acertaram a origem da fonte sonora em 47,2% das vezes e os usuários do modelo retroauricular em 37,4% das vezes. Não foi observada correlação entre o percentual de acertos no teste de localização sonora e o tempo de uso da prótese auditiva. CONCLUSÃO: ouvintes normais localizam as fontes sonoras de maneira mais eficiente que os usuários de aparelho de amplificação sonora individual e, dentre estes, os que utilizam o modelo intracanal obtiveram melhor desempenho. Além disso, o tempo de uso não interferiu no desempenho para localizar a origem das fontes sonoras.PURPOSE: to compare the sound localization performance of hearing aids users, with the performance of normal hearing in the horizontal and sagittal planes, at 0.5, 2 and 4

  2. Economic Implications of Food Demand in Akoko South West, Ondo State, Nigeria: Aids Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Temitope Edun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of food consuming households, estimated the complete demand functions for some selected common food commodities, their prices and expenditure elasticities in Akoko South West (ASW local government in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study examined demand analysis for food in ASW, using primary data with the use of questionnaire on some selected food-consuming households within the study area. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics for estimating demographic variables. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that semolina constituted the largest share of the household total food expenditure, among the low income and rural households but mostly among the married and the medium-size male-headed households who had tertiary-education. The Almost Ideal Demand System results showed that besides being a normal good, price inelastic, and expenditure inelastic, semolina has changed from being a luxury to being a necessity and has become a major food staple in the ASW metropolis. In conclusion, the study discovered that the prices of rice, beans, yam, garri, wheat, yam flour, and semolina were significantly important in the share of household total food budget at constant real income. Finally, the study showed from the result that the importance of semolina in ASW metropolis diet will increase as economic growth continues. This study therefore recommends that effort should be made to boost economic activities of ASW zone. This will increase their income and consequently improve their spending on the nutritious food items. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  3. An Interactive Human Interface Arm Robot with the Development of Food Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NASHWAN D. Zaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A robotic system for the disabled who needs supports at meal is proposed. A feature of this system is that the robotic aid system can communicate with the operator using the speech recognition and speech synthesis functions. Another feature is that the robotic aid system uses an image processing, and by doing this the system can recognize the environmental situations of the dishes, cups and so on. Due to this image processing function, the operator does not need to specify the position and the posture of the dishes and target objects. Furthermore, combination communication between speech and image processing will enables a friendly man-machine to communicate with each other, since speech and visual information are essential in the human communication.

  4. Prótese auditiva: satisfação do usuário com sua prótese e com seu meio ambiente Hearing aid: user satisfaction with their hearing aid and with their environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Fernandes Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o nível de satisfação dos usuários com sua prótese auditiva e com seu meio ambiente. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo de corte transversal, com 256 indivíduos (m= 48,33%; f= 51,67%, com idade média de 50 anos, recém protetizados, com perda auditiva do tipo sensorioneural (n= 268 e mista (n=32, através do questionário de auto-avaliação International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids - IOI-HA para determinar o grau do benefício e a satisfação dada pela amplificação sonora. RESULTADOS: para 68% o uso da prótese melhorou a qualidade de vida, evidenciado pela alta pontuação (média=26,45. A relação do usuário com sua prótese foi significativamente melhor (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the level of user satisfaction with the hearing aids and with their environment. METHODS: cross study of a group, with 256 subjects (m= 48.33%; f= 51.67%, average age of 50 years, just fitted with their hearing aid, with sensorioneural (n=268 and mixed (n=32 hearing impairment, through the Questionnaire International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids Outcome Inventory - IOI-HA to determine the degree of the benefit and the satisfaction brought by the sound amplification. RESULTS: for 68% the use of the hearing aids improved their quality of life, revealed by their high punctuation (mean= 26.45. The relationship of the user with its hearing aid was significantly better (p<0.001* than that related to the environment. In the subjective evaluation of the auditory problems, 78.5% have stated to have auditory problem of light to moderate degree and 21.5% problems of moderately severe to severe. CONCLUSION: the IOI-HA is a tool, simple and easy to apply and it is used as an instrument in helping us during the period of acclimatization with the hearing aid. The improvement in the quality of life of the men that were most referred was about the satisfaction level with the hearing aid and with less impact concerning the others. The level of

  5. Gender differences in progression to AIDS and death from HIV seroconversion in a cohort of injecting dug users from 1986 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hera, M. G; Ferreros, I.; del Amo, J.; de Olalla, P. G.; Hoyos, S. P.; Muga, R.; del Romero, J.; Guerrero, R.; Hernandez-Aguado, I.; and, G

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although the consensus is that gender does not influence HIV progression, its relevance may depend on the setting. Aim: To study gender differences in HIV progression to AIDS and death from 1986 to 2001 in a cohort of injecting drug user (IDU) seroconverters in Spain. Methods: Risk of AIDS and death in persons infected for the same length of time were compared through Kaplan-Meier, allowing for late entry, and Cox regression adjusting for gender, age, and calendar period (before 1992, 1992–1995, 1996–1998, 1999–2001) fitted as time dependent covariates. Results: Of 929 IDU, 24.7% were women. Median seroconversion year was 1993.3 for men and women. 44% of women and 34% of men received antiretroviral therapy. Risk of AIDS was lower in women in univariate (hazard ratio (HR) 0.72; 95%CI:0.51 to 1.01) and multivariate analyses (HR 0.73 95%CI:0.52 to 1.03). A 46% reduction in risk of AIDS for period 1999–2001 compared with 1992–1995 was seen in both men and women (HR: 0.56 (95%CI:0.36 to 0.87). As for mortality, women's risk of death was lower univariately (HR 0.67 95%CI:0.45 to 0.99) although compared with 1992–95, men experienced a 34% reduction in mortality during 1999–2001 (HR 0.66 95%CI:0.40 to 1.01), which was not statistically significant in women. Conclusions: HIV progression was lower in female IDU before and after 1997 and their uptake of antiretroviral therapy was higher than male IDU. The inability to detect a reduction in mortality for women during 1999–2001 is probably attributable to lack of power. Differences in severity of addiction, drug using patterns, and competing causes of death may explain these findings. PMID:15483312

  6. Explaining end-users' intentions to use innovative medical and food biotechnology products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Bob C; Poortvliet, P Marijn; Lugtig, Peter; de Bruin, Marijn

    2014-08-01

    Low public acceptance hinders the successful introduction of biotechnological innovations, such as genetically modified foods or vaccinations against infectious diseases. Earlier studies indicated that a lack of knowledge is not a key barrier to acceptance. This was confirmed in the current study, which examined an integrated theoretical model tested among 579 participants from the Dutch public. The results suggest that communication strategies should instead target attitudes, social norms, and risk perceptions, and appeal to people's tendency (or lack thereof) to be innovative. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Behavior of Service Quality Levels of Fast Food According to the Characteristics of Users. Libertador Municipality of Mérida State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Del Valle Landaeta de Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of the services fast food, an analytical non-experimental research was designed under the quantitative paradigm, to determine the behavior of service quality levels according to the characteristics of users in fast food establishments of the Libertador Municipality of Mérida state was developed. The existence users with a higher level of income perceive a lower level of quality; the existence of two user types or groups was found: independent professionals and students. It is recommended the design of strategies regarding services, prices, communications, distribution, after-sales services, optimization of service times and other aspects importance from users who perceive high income (professionals, who inferentially represent 65.86 % of the service demand.

  8. Simultaneous Voltammetric Determination of Three Herbicides in Food and Water Samples with the Aid of Chemometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Yong-nian; WANG Lin; KOKOT Serge

    2009-01-01

    Differential pulse stripping voltammetry method(DPSV) was applied to the determination of three herbicides,ametryn,cyanatryn,and dimethametryn.It was found that their voltammograms overlapped strongly,and it is difficult to determine these compounds individually from their mixtures.With the aid of chemometrics,classical least squares(CLS),principal component regression(PCR) and partial least squares(PLS),voltammogram resolution and quantitative analysis of the synthetic mixtures of the three compounds were successfully performed.The proposed method was also applied to the analysis of some real samples with satisfactory results.

  9. The Effectiveness of a Bioactive Food Compound in the Lipid Control of Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela dos Santos Ferreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular events due to decompensated lipid metabolism are commonly found in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS patients using anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of a bioactive food compound (BFC containing functional foods on individuals with HIV undergoing HAART. Particularly, this study aims to verify the clinical outcome in the change of the lipid profile due to the use of this compound. This study includes 115 individuals with HIV on HAART. All patients received dietary guidelines; however, sixty-one consumed BFC while fifty-one did not (NO BFC. Biochemical examinations and socio-demographic and clinical profiles were evaluated. As result, in patients using hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs, there was 28.6% decrease in triglyceride levels (p < 0.001 in the NO BFC group, and 18.3% reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p < 0.001 in the BFC group. In patients who did not use hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs in the NO BFC group, there was 30.6% increase in triglycerides, 11.3% total cholesterol and 15.3% LDL-C levels (p < 0.001 while for the BFC group there was 4.5% reduction in total cholesterol (p < 0.001. In conclusion, this study evidenced that the dietary intervention containing BFC positively affected in lipid control, since these HIV/AIDS patients using HAART are more vulnerable to lipid disorders.

  10. Participation, political economy and protection: food aid governance in Darfur, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Helen; Maxwell, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Humanitarian food assistance aims to meet short-term emergency needs, yet often it is sustained over many years and develops its own systems and infrastructure that interact with local governance and local communities. This paper explores the links between participation and local governance, as well as the implications for exclusion of certain groups, the dignity of those involved, and protection issues. The paper proposes a framework for reviewing the governance functions and capacities of local Food Relief Committees, based on the following criteria: accountability; gender equity; legitimacy and authority; representativeness; responsiveness; and transparency. A case study of the Darfur region reviews how local governance evolves as a result of both the wider conflict and of adapting to the international humanitarian system, itself a form of governance. The paper concludes by proposing three strategies for enhancing participation and applying lessons learned: improved analysis of participation; linking programming strategies and protection; and taking account of governance functions and capacities.

  11. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision i...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 41 candidate substances...

  12. Fragment-based docking: development of the CHARMMing Web user interface as a platform for computer-aided drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, Yuri; Frugier, Emilie; Schalk, Vinushka; Caflisch, Amedeo; Woodcock, H Lee

    2014-09-22

    Web-based user interfaces to scientific applications are important tools that allow researchers to utilize a broad range of software packages with just an Internet connection and a browser. One such interface, CHARMMing (CHARMM interface and graphics), facilitates access to the powerful and widely used molecular software package CHARMM. CHARMMing incorporates tasks such as molecular structure analysis, dynamics, multiscale modeling, and other techniques commonly used by computational life scientists. We have extended CHARMMing's capabilities to include a fragment-based docking protocol that allows users to perform molecular docking and virtual screening calculations either directly via the CHARMMing Web server or on computing resources using the self-contained job scripts generated via the Web interface. The docking protocol was evaluated by performing a series of "re-dockings" with direct comparison to top commercial docking software. Results of this evaluation showed that CHARMMing's docking implementation is comparable to many widely used software packages and validates the use of the new CHARMM generalized force field for docking and virtual screening.

  13. Pronto atendimento a usuários de dispositivos de amplificação sonora Emergency care to users of hearing aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Melo Araujo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer características demográficas e audiológicas de sujeitos usuários de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individuais (AASI que solicitaram retorno em um Serviço de Saúde Auditiva e identificar e analisar os motivos do retorno e condutas geradas durante o Pronto Atendimento (PA. MÉTODOS: Os participantes foram 440 sujeitos de idade superior a três anos, com diagnóstico e concessão do AASI no serviço onde foi realizada a pesquisa. Características demográficas, audiológicas e referentes ao uso do AASI foram coletadas em prontuários e ficha específica para o PA. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial. RESULTADOS: O grupo estudado foi caracterizado, em sua maioria, por indivíduos do gênero feminino, idosos, grau de escolaridade no ensino fundamental incompleto, perda auditiva de grau moderado e perda auditiva do tipo neurossensorial bilateral. Quanto ao uso do AASI, a maioria dos sujeitos utilizava aparelho do tipo retroauricular com adaptação binaural. Quanto ao tempo de uso, mais de 70% utilizava o AASI pela primeira vez, 38% o fazia por um período de até 12 meses, e mais de 65% por um período maior que oito horas diárias. As condutas ajuste do AASI e orientação foram mais frequentes para sujeitos com menor tempo de uso do aparelho, enquanto as condutas assistência técnica e reposição, foram mais comuns para os sujeitos com maior tempo de uso. CONCLUSÃO: Conhecer características de pacientes usuários de AASI, assim como os motivos do retorno e condutas geradas, contribui para melhor organização e qualidade do serviço prestado.PURPOSE: To establish the demographic and audiological characteristics of subjects users of hearing aids (HA that requested a return at a Hearing Health Service, and to identify and analyze the reasons for the return and conducts generated during the Emergency Care (EC. METHODS: Participants were 440 subjects older than three

  14. Lack of legal income is strongly associated with an increased risk of AIDS and death in HIV-infected injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, C; Castiel, P; Giral, P; Lhomme, J P; Boubilley, D; Olievenstein, C; Lert, F; Kazatchkine, M D

    1999-08-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of soci-economic status in addition to other risk factors in the progression of HIV disease in a cohort of injecting drug users (IDUs) with a mean follow-up of two years. Between 1989 and 1992, 124 HIV-infected IDUs were recruited in a primary care outpatient clinic providing free consultations and free access to therapy. The main outcome measures were death and AIDs-defining events. The proportion of current daily injectors at entry in the study and at the end of follow-up was 67.7% and 57.2%, respectively. The proportion of individuals on maintenance opioid therapy at entry in the study and at the end of follow-up was 0 and 12.1%, respectively. CD4 cell counts below 200 x 10(6)/L at baseline, positive p24 antigenemia at baseline, the lack of legal income and occasional drug use at entry were risk factors for clinical progression and death. When adjusted in a multivariate analysis, the absence of legal income remained associated with death and occurrence of an AIDS-defining event with a relative risk of 5.2 (1.5-18.1) (p = 0.004). Lack of legal income is a strong risk factor for progression of HIV disease in IDUs, that is independent of CD4 cell count and p24 antigenemia.

  15. The influence of oral and written information on antiretroviral drugs in the knowledge of users with HIV/AIDS - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p251

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Flávia de Castro Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of oral and written transmission of information on antiretroviral drugs in knowledge generation in their users and in the retention of information by them. Method: In the first phase, 18 individuals with HIV/AIDS treated at a referral hospital analyzed three brochures containing information on antiretroviral drugs and chose the best. In the second phase, three groups of 47 individuals with HIV/AIDS who received antiretroviral drugs in the same hospital were formed. The first group, considered the control group (group “C” received their medication at the pharmacy as usual, without any additional information; the second group (group “F” received a brochure with information about the drug in use, which should be read at that moment; and the third group (group “O” received orally, the same information detailed in the brochure. All answered a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge on the referred drug. Results: The responses of group “O” had a higher level of agreement with the information they received regarding action of the drug in the body (78.7%, duration of treatment (83%, procedure when missing a dose (91.5% and storage (95.7%. Conclusion: The transmission of information, whether oral or written, generates knowledge and the instructions and information when orally transmitted, in a detailed manner and in appropriate language, are more easily understood and assimilated. It appears also that, in the studied group, oral information resulted more immediately effective than written one.

  16. Computer aided simulation for developing a simple model to predict cooling of packaged foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Gram; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    A new equation to predict equilibrium temperatures for cooling operations of packaged foods has been deducted from the traditional 1st order solution to Fourier’s heat transfer equations. The equation is analytical in form and only requires measurable parameters, in form of area vs. volume ratio (A...... are too laborious or impossible to conduct. The deducted equation was tested for irregular geometries, unequal heat transfer and headspace restrictions. The new equation predicted equilibrium temperature curves of the simulated cooling with a low error (1.5°C for Fourier numbers below 0.3) and good...

  17. Fears about antiretroviral therapy among users of the internet forum for people living with HIV/AIDS in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudina, Victoria I; Judina, Darja I; King, Elizabeth J

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify different types of fear related to starting and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Russia. Data were collected from the Russian-language internet forum for PLHIV (hivlife.info). Qualitative data analysis focused on the sections of the forum where users discussed health-related issues in order to identify fears related to HIV treatment. The following types of fear were revealed: fear of the illness, fear to learn negative information about one's health, fear of side effects, fear of therapy to be ineffective, fear that the appropriate medications will become unavailable, fear of lifestyle changes, and fear for the well-being of significant others. Efforts to increase the uptake of and adherence to ART should take into account the fears of PLHIV.

  18. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-06-17

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Improved swimming pool achieves higher reproducibility and sensitivity to effect of food components as ergogenic AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kengo; Yamada, Ayumi; Mita, Yukiko; Goto, Ayako; Ishimi, Tomoe; Mabuchi, Haruko; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru; Yasumoto, Kyoden

    2009-06-01

    A previously developed current swimming pool for mice has been used to evaluate many food components that enhance endurance exercise performance. In this article, to improve reproducibility, reliability and sensitivity of this assay system, we improved the spout part to generate a uniform current and divided the pool into six lanes to avoid physical interference between swimming mice. The stability of the current flow was assessed by measuring the surface current speed and water volume from the spout part. Maximum swimming times of ddY and BALB/c mice were measured to assess the reproducibility of the maximum swimming time. The improvement in sensitivity compared to the original equipment was estimated under three physiological conditions: low carbohydrate diet feeding, low blood hemoglobin level, and carbohydrate supplementation during exercise. The new spout part improved uniformity and quick adjustment of surface current, yielding an increase of workload in a stepwise manner during swimming. Exercise workload was increased in proportion to surface current speed, as evidenced by cadence of kicks and serum lactic acid levels. The improved swimming pool showed higher reproducibility of swimming time until fatigue (pswimming time was improved in the swimming pool. The improved swimming pool yielded higher sensitivity for low carbohydrate diet feeding (pswimming pool. The improvement of the swimming pool achieved higher sensitivity and reproducibility in assessing various diet and food components compared to the original swimming pool.

  20. Mulheres vivendo com HIV/Aids parceiras de usuários de drogas injetáveis Women living with HIV/AIDS who are sexual partners of injecting drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia d'Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as percepções de risco, as estratégias de prevenção, sua própria relação com o uso de drogas e do parceiro e suas expectativas quanto ao futuro relatadas por mulheres vivendo com HIV/Aids parceiras de usuários de drogas. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo sobre mulheres vivendo com HIV/Aids, atendidas em serviço especializado no Município de São Paulo. Foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas a 15 mulheres, cuja via de infecção auto-referida foram as relações heterossexuais com parceiro usuário de drogas injetáveis. O roteiro das entrevistas compreendia: infância, história dos relacionamentos amorosos, uso de drogas, impacto da soropositividade no cotidiano, compreensão sobre prevenção de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis, e visão do futuro. A interpretação das entrevistas foi realizada por meio de análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: O estudo indicou diversidade da convivência das mulheres com o uso de drogas próprio e do parceiro. O uso de drogas injetáveis pelo parceiro não foi, prioritariamente, associado ao risco de infecção por HIV/Aids, seja por estratégias de ocultamento do fato, seja por considerarem que a tríade monogamia-fidelidade-confiança teria primazia como forma de proteção. CONCLUSÕES: A diversidade da convivência das mulheres com o uso de drogas deve ser considerada e oportunidades de fala e escuta sobre a questão podem ser importantes para a adoção de estratégias mais efetivas de prevenção e cuidado.OBJECTIVE: To analyze perceptions of risk, prevention strategies, their own relationship with drug use and that of their partner's, and future expectations among women living with HIV/AIDS whose partners are drug users. METHODS: This is a qualitative study of women living with HIV/AIDS who receive specialist treatment in Sao Paulo Municipality. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 women, whose self-reported means of infection were heterosexual

  1. Performance enhancement of MC-CDMA system through novel sensitive bit algorithm aided turbo multi user detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan

    2015-01-01

    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI.

  2. Medical emergency aid through telematics: design, implementation guidelines and analysis of user requirements for the MERMAID project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S; Pomportsis, A; Bountzioukas, S; Beltrame, F; Orsi, G

    1998-01-01

    MERMAID is an EU financed telemedicine project with global reach and 24-h, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model will not be limited to medical diagnostics but it will encompass all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications (audio and video conferencing, multimedia communications, flat file and image transfer with low, medium and high bandwidth data requirements) are considered while the full range of network choices (digital land lines, cellular/wireless, satellite and broadband) are being tested in terms of cost/performance tradeoffs that are inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in their in its life cycle. Finally, out that MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialist care that is best suited in the particular case.

  3. Objective Voice Analysis of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients and Comparison With Hearing Aids Users and Hearing Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Narges; Izadi, Farzad; Salehi, Abolfazl; Dabirmoghaddam, Payman; Yadegari, Fariba; Ebadi, Abbas; Moghadam, Saeed Talebian

    2017-07-01

    Phonation is influenced by hearing as a feedback mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to compare selected acoustic parameters in children using cochlear implants (CIs), those using hearing aids (HA), and their normal-hearing (NH) peers. The participants were 15 children using CI (mean age: 72 months), 15 children using HA (mean age: 74 months), and 15 NH children (mean age: 77 months). The vowel /a/ was produced to measure perturbation and mean fundamental frequency. The six Persian vowels in /CbVCd/ were obtained to extract vowel duration. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results revealed a statistically significant difference between the NH group and the HA group regarding fundamental frequency (F2,51 = 3.443, P vowels were significantly greater in children with CI and HA than in NH children (P production would be enabled. Furthermore, children with hearing impairment potentially regard vowel sound duration as a distinguishing feature, whereas in NH speakers, the duration has the least effect in vowel identification. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 15019 - Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    .../UCM329758.pdf . DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments by May 7, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit...://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForIndustry/UserFees/PrescriptionDrugUserFee/UCM270412.pdf . Section X of the...://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForIndustry/UserFees/PrescriptionDrugUserFee/UCM329758.pdf . The comment...

  5. Experiences with food insecurity and risky sex among low-income people living with HIV/AIDS in a resource-rich setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J Whittle

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forty-nine million individuals are food insecure in the United States, where food insecurity and HIV/AIDS are prevalent among the urban poor. Food insecurity is associated with risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV. No qualitative studies, however, have investigated the mechanisms underlying this relationship either in a resource-rich setting or among populations that include men who have sex with men (MSM. Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance in the San Francisco Bay Area. The interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and perceived associations with sexual risk behaviours. Interviews were conducted in English, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed according to content analysis methods using an inductive-deductive approach. Results: Food insecurity was reported to be a strong contributor to risky sexual practices among MSM and female participants. Individuals described engaging in transactional sex for food or money to buy food, often during times of destitution. Participants also explained how food insecurity could lead to condomless sex despite knowledge of and desire to use safe sexual practices, largely because the need to obtain food in the short term was prioritized over the desire to use barrier protection. Conclusions: Our data extend previous research by demonstrating that food insecurity contributes to transactional and unprotected sex among urban poor individuals in a resource-rich setting, including among MSM. These findings underscore the importance of public health and social intervention efforts focused on structural inequalities.

  6. Development of a web-based patient decision aid for initiating disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs using user-centred design methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Ingrid; Drossaert, Constance H C; Melissant, Heleen C; Taal, Erik; Vonkeman, Harald E; Haagsma, Cees J; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2017-04-26

    A main element of patient-centred care, Patient Decision Aids (PtDAs) facilitate shared decision-making (SDM). A recent update of the International Patient Decision Aids Standards (IPDAS) emphasised patient involvement during PtDA development, but omitted a methodology for doing so. This article reports on the value of user-centred design (UCD) methods for the development of a PtDA that aims to support inflammatory arthritis patients in their choice between disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The IPDAS development process model in combination with UCD methods were applied. The process was overseen by an eight-member multidisciplinary steering group. Patients and health professionals were iteratively consulted. Qualitative in-depth interviews combined with rapid prototyping were conducted with patients to assess their needs for specific functionality, content and design of the PtDA. Group meetings with health professionals were organized to assess patients' needs and to determine how the PtDA should be integrated into patient pathways. The current literature was reviewed to determine the clinical evidence to include in the PtDA. To evaluate usability among patients, they were observed using the PtDA while thinking aloud and then interviewed. The combination of patient interviews with rapid prototyping revealed that patients wanted to compare multiple DMARDs both for their clinical aspects and implications for daily life. Health professionals mainly wanted to refer patients to a reliable, easily adjustable source of information about DMARDs. A web-based PtDA was constructed consisting of four parts: 1) general information about SDM, inflammatory arthritis and DMARDs; 2) an application to compare particular DMARDs; 3) value clarification exercises; and 4) a printed summary of patients' notes, preferences, worries and questions that they could bring to discuss with their rheumatologist. The study demonstrated that UCD methods can be of great value for the

  7. Audio-visual speechreading in a group of hearing aid users. The effects of onset age, handicap age, and degree of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillberg, I; Rönnberg, J; Svärd, I; Ahlner, B

    1996-01-01

    Speechreading ability was investigated among hearing aid users with different time of onset and different degree of hearing loss. Audio-visual and visual-only performance were assessed. One group of subjects had been hearing-impaired for a large part of their lives, and the impairments appeared early in life. The other group of subjects had been impaired for a fewer number of years, and the impairments appeared later in life. Differences between the groups were obtained. There was no significant difference on the audio-visual test between the groups in spite of the fact that the early onset group scored very poorly auditorily. However, the early-onset group performed significantly better on the visual test. It was concluded that the visual information constituted the dominant coding strategy for the early onset group. An interpretation chiefly in terms of early onset may be the most appropriate, since dB loss variations as such are not related to speechreading skill.

  8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 309 (FGE.309): Sodium Diacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate sodium diacetate [FL-no: 16.073] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 309, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. However, although ...... on Food. Based on this group ADI, the use as sodium diacetate as a flavouring substance at the current levels of dietary intake raises no safety concern.......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate sodium diacetate [FL-no: 16.073] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 309, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. However, although...... in principle it would be possible to evaluate sodium diacetate via the Procedure, the Panel considered that this is not necessary, since the substance and its dissociation products are covered by the group ADI for acetic acid and sodium acetate, including sodium diacetate, derived by the Scientific Committee...

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 310 (FGE.310): Rebaudioside A from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate rebaudioside A [FL-no: 16.113], a steviol glycoside. The substance was not considered to have genotoxic potential. Since a comprehensive and adequate...... toxicological database, including human studies, is available for steviol glycosides, the Panel based its evaluation of rebaudioside A on a comparison of the ADI of 4 mg/kg bw, expressed as steviol, established by EFSA, with the estimated dietary exposure figures based on the MSDI and mTAMDI approaches...

  10. Assessment of a handheld fluorescence imaging device as a visual-aid for detection of food residues on processing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of food with pathogenic bacteria can lead to foodborne illnesses. Food processing surfaces can serve as a medium for cross-contamination if sanitization procedures are inadequate. Ensuring that food processing surfaces are correctly cleaned and sanitized is important in the food indust...

  11. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  12. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmer Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater

  13. Achados vestibulares em usuários de aparelho de amplificação sonora individual Vestibular findings in hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Paulin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar os achados vestibulares em pacientes com perda auditiva neurossenssorial usuários de aparelho de amplificação sonora individual. MÉTODOS: vinte pacientes, 11 do sexo feminino e nove do sexo masculino, com idades entre 39 e 85 anos, com perda auditiva neurossenssorial bilateral de grau moderado e severo foram atendidos em uma Instituição de Ensino Superior e submetidos a uma anamnese, inspeção otológica, avaliação audiológica, imitanciometria e ao exame vestibular por meio da vectoeletronistagmografia. RESULTADOS: a dos 20 pacientes avaliados, 18 (90% apresentaram queixa de zumbido, 15 (75% queixa de tontura e oito (40% queixa de cefaléia; b houve predomínio de alteração na prova calórica e no sistema vestibular periférico; c o resultado do exame vestibular esteve alterado em 14 pacientes (70%, sendo, oito casos (40% de síndrome vestibular periférica irritativa e seis casos (30% de síndrome vestibular periférica deficitária; d verificou-se diferença significativa entre o resultado do exame vestibular e o tempo de uso do aparelho de amplificação sonora individual; e dos cinco pacientes que não referiram nenhum sintoma vestibular, quatro (80% apresentaram alteração no exame. CONCLUSÃO: ressalta-se a sensibilidade e importância do estudo funcional do sistema do equilíbrio neste tipo de população, uma vez que podem ocorrer alterações na avaliação labiríntica independente da presença de sintomas.PURPOSE: to check vestibular findings in patients with sensoneural hearing loss, hearing aid users. METHODS: 20 patients (eleven females and nine males aging from 39 to 85-year-old with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, from moderate to severe degrees, were attended in a higher education institution evaluated by medical history, otological inspections, complete basic conventional audiological evaluations, acoustic impedance tests and vectoeletronystagmography. RESULTS: a from the 20 evaluated

  14. Food insecurity and other poverty indicators among people living with HIV/AIDS: effects on treatment and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    Health disparities in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the demands of long-term medication adherence have meant the full benefits of HIV treatment are often not realized. In particular, food insecurity has emerged as a robust predictor of ART non-adherence. However, research is limited in determining whether food insecurity uniquely impedes HIV treatment or if food insecurity is merely a marker for poverty that interferes more broadly with treatment. This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61 % (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structural interventions that address basic survival needs among people living with HIV, especially food security.

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 (FGE.300): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance was not conside...

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 3 (FGE.10Rev3): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 63 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, including additional two substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission R...

  17. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 61 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub...

  18. Counselling in STD/HIV/AIDS in the context of rapid test: Perception of users and health professionals at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernanda T; Both, Nalu S; Alnoch, Edi M; Conz, Jaqueline; Rocha, Katia B

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the perceptions of professionals and users about counselling practices at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre/RS based on interviews with 27 service users and 14 members of the staff. The following categories emerged from thematic analysis: professionals' perceptions on counselling, users' perceptions on counselling and changes in counselling due to the introduction of rapid test procedures. The results show that, although initially there were some imprecision and apparent contradictions in its use, rapid testing was considered an invitation to rethink practices, bringing service closer to users' needs.

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 303 (FGE.303): Spilanthol from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... of the flavouring substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured...... at the use level reported by the Industry, especially in those cases where the annual production values were reported to be small. In consequence, the Panel had reservations about the data on use and use levels provided and the intake estimates obtained by the MSDI approach. In the absence of more precise...

  20. A single measurement of CD38CD8 cells in HIV+, long-term surviving injecting drug users distinguishes those who will progress to AIDS from those who will remain stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebel, K S; Raab, G M; D'Alessandro, C; Armitage, M P; MacKenzie, K M; Struthers, M; Whitelaw, J M; Yang, S

    2000-10-01

    This study compares the predictive power of a single measurement of CD8+CD38+, CD8+CD45RO+ or CD8+CD38+CD45RO+ subpopulations in predicting progression to AIDS in a cohort of HIV+ long-term surviving injecting drug users. The results showed that both the total CD8+ percentage, and the CD8+CD38+ and CD8+CD38+CD45RO+ subpopulations of cells all individually predicted progression to AIDS. In combination with CD4, only the CD8+CD38+ subpopulation enhanced the predictive power of the CD4 percentage alone. The CD8+ percentage correlated negatively with the CD4 percentage and the CD8+CD45RO+ subpopulation did not predict disease progression. The proportion of CD8+CD38+ cells identified which patients with a moderate CD4 level were more likely to progress to AIDS, and conversely, which patients with a low CD4 count were likely to remain clinically stable. The results were consistent irrespective of whether time was measured from the date of seroconversion, or from the date of the test. This study is the first to measure these markers in HIV-infected injecting drug users, and in long-term survivors. The results demonstrate the considerable added value of the CD8+CD38+ cell percentage over the CD4 count alone, in predicting HIV clinical progression.

  1. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 82, Revision 1 (FGE.82Rev1): Consideration of Epoxides evaluated by the JECFA (65 th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for four substances, the information is adequate; but for the substance [FL-no: 07.170] further information on stereoisomerism is required....

  2. Using Small-Scale Adaptation Actions to Address the Food Crisis in the Horn of Africa: Going beyond Food Aid and Cash Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson N. Nkem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The countries Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti are facing the worst food crisis of the 21st century as a result of devastating droughts. The crisis is causing starvation and leading to a lack of access to clean water and sanitation for over 12 million people. Not only are the direct drought effects endured now by the population, but they have weakened response capacity and created diminished prospects of ever achieving future water and food security. Over the coming decades, temperatures in this region will continue to rise and rainfall patterns will change. This will create major problems for food production and availability. Thus, building resilience in communities is indispensable as we adapt our farming systems to the challenges of climate change. This will require practical solutions that can build on processes involving adaptation to climate change. The lessons learned from the UN-led project in Uganda, demonstrate the value of small scale innovative interventions, carried out using democratic approaches to help support adaptation to climate change whilst progressing to achieve food security and chart a new Path to eliminate hunger. These lessons should be our guiding vision as we address the current droughts plaguing the Horn of East Africa and elsewhere.

  3. Assessing the Impact of Food Assistance on Stigma Among People Living with HIV in Uganda Using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWA (HASI-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluccio, John A; Wu, Fan; Rokon, Redwan B; Rawat, Rahul; Kadiyala, Suneetha

    2017-03-01

    HIV-related stigma among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) is prevalent throughout sub-Saharan Africa. There is limited evidence, however, on which interventions are effective in reducing it. We used data from a prospective impact evaluation of a 12-month food assistance intervention among 904 antiretroviral therapy (ART)- naïve PLHIV in Uganda to examine the program impact on stigma. Stigma was measured using the comprehensive HASI-P scale, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87) and was correlated with several related constructs including physical and mental health-related quality of life, disclosure, and physical health symptoms in the sample. Using quasi-experimental difference-in-difference matching methods to better infer causality, we tested whether the intervention improved the overall stigma scale and its subscales. The food assistance intervention had a significant effect on reported internalized (but not external) stigma of approximately 0.2 SD (p stigma scale is a useful tool for measuring and tracking stigma. Food assistance interventions, embedded in an HIV care program, can reduce internalized stigma.

  4. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper, an...

  5. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  6. Research of Urban Households' Food consumption:Based on AIDS Model%我国城镇居民食品消费研究——基于 AIDS 模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈辰; 穆月英

    2015-01-01

    The paper collected urban households' food consumption and price data between 2005 and 2012 of 31 provinces in China.The expenditure elasticity and price elasticity were computed using AIDS model.Based on the results, we discussed food consumption trend and the relationships of different foods.Compared with dietary goal, food consumption of urban households was evaluated and the varying trend was analyzed.Some conclusions were made after research:the influence of cereal and oil consumption was very limited and their share tended to re-duce in future.Outdoor dining, milk and egg consumption would be the main growth points of food consumption. The shares of these foods would increase.Meat, vegetable, fruit and egg consumption would also maintain a compa-rably rapid growth.Price had a small impact to almost of food consumption except aquatic product, milk and egg. There is a certain deviation between food consumption at present and the goal of dietary nutrition.Comparing the e-lasticity of different time, we found that the influence of expenditure was gradually becoming weak.The price re-sponse was also becoming insignificant.%依据2005~2012年我国31个省份城镇居民食品消费支出和价格数据,运用AIDS模型测算了食品消费支出和价格弹性系数,并基于所得结果讨论了居民食品消费需求的影响因素以及食品消费变动态势. 在对各类食品消费的相互关系进行分析的同时,结合膳食营养发展目标对我国城镇居民食品消费进行了评价,分析了食品消费弹性的变化趋势. 研究的主要结论是:未来粮食、油脂消费受支出影响有限,消费份额趋于减少;在外用餐、奶及奶制品、水产品消费是今后食品消费主要增长点,消费份额趋于增加;肉禽及制品、蔬果、蛋类消费将保持较快增速. 除水产品、奶及奶制品和蛋类自价格弹性较大外,多数食品受自身价格的影响较小. 目前食品消费发展方向与未来居民

  7. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    , an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system......Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper...

  8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 301 (FGE.301): A sulphur substituted pyrimidin-derivative and its hydrochloride salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate two flavouring substances, 4-amino-5,6-dimethylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one [FL-no: 16.116] and 4-amino-5,6-dimethylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one...

  9. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 3 (FGE.11Rev3): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical groups 8 and 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 11 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substances ......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all candidate substances....

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3...... concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 27 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  11. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, Revision 1: Bi- and tricyclic secondary, ketones and related esters from chemical groups 7 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate six flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, including an additional two substances in this Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commissi...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity fo the materials of commerce have been provided for all six candidate substances....

  12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2 (FGE.25Rev2): Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 37 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub...... assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For five substances, the composition of the stereoisomeric mixture has to be specified further....

  13. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  14. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response. Complications The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and ...

  15. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda: high-risk groups not targeted by food aid programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Smedemark, Siri Aas; Ovuga, Emilio; Sodemann, Morten

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance System aged 15 years and older were considered eligible. Trained field assistants collected anthropometric measurements (weight and height) and administered questionnaires with information on sociodemographic characteristics, food security, smoking and alcohol. Nutritional status was classified by body mass index. In total, 2062 men and 2924 women participated and were included in the analyses. The prevalence of underweight was 22.3% for men and 16.0% for women, whereas the prevalence of overweight was 1.5% for men and 7.6% for women. In men, underweight was associated with younger (15-19 years) and older age (>55 years) (P < 0.001), being divorced/separated [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-2.99] and smoking (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.67-2.73). For women, underweight was associated with older age (P < 0.001) and hungry-gap rainy season (May-July) (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04-1.69). Widowed or divorced/separated women were not more likely to be underweight. No association was found between education, alcohol consumption or food security score and underweight. Our findings are not in line with the conventional target groups in nutritional programmes and highlight the importance of continuous health and nutritional assessments of all population groups that reflect local social determinants and family structures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Acoustic Analysis of Persian Vowels in Cochlear Implant Users: A Comparison With Hearing-impaired Children Using Hearing Aid and Normal-hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Narges; Yadegari, Fariba; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2016-11-01

    Vowel production in essence is auditorily controlled; hence, the role of the auditory feedback in vowel production is very important. The purpose of this study was to compare formant frequencies and vowel space in Persian-speaking deaf children with cochlear implantation (CI), hearing-impaired children with hearing aid (HA), and their normal-hearing (NH) peers. A total of 40 prelingually children with hearing impairment and 20 NH groups participated in this study. Participants were native Persian speakers. The average of first formant frequency (F1) and second formant frequency (F2) of the six vowels were measured using Praat software (version 5.1.44). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the differences between the three3 groups. The mean value of F1 for vowel /i/ was significantly different (between CI and NH children and also between HA and NH groups) (F2, 57 = 9.229, P vowel /a/, the mean value of F1 was significantly different (between HA and NH groups) (F2, 57 = 3.707, P vowel /o/ was significantly different (F2, 57 = 4.572, P vowel /a/ was significantly different (F2, 57 = 3.184, P vowel spaces than hearing-impaired listeners with hearing aids. Probably, this condition is because CI has a subtly positive impact on the place of articulation of vowels. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. FoodSwitch: A Mobile Phone App to Enable Consumers to Make Healthier Food Choices and Crowdsourcing of National Food Composition Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Trevena, Helen; Goodsell, Chester; Ng, Ka Hung; Webster, Jacqui; Millis, Audra; Goldstein, Stan; Hugueniot, Orla; Neal, Bruce

    2014-08-21

    Front-of-pack nutrition labeling (FoPL) schemes can help consumers understand the nutritional content of foods and may aid healthier food choices. However, most packaged foods in Australia carry no easily interpretable FoPL, and no standard FoPL system has yet been mandated. About two thirds of Australians now own a smartphone. We sought to develop a mobile phone app that would provide consumers with easy-to-understand nutrition information and support the selection of healthier choices when shopping for food. An existing branded food database including 17,000 Australian packaged foods underpinned the project. An iterative process of development, review, and testing was undertaken to define a user interface that could deliver nutritional information. A parallel process identified the best approach to rank foods based on nutritional content, so that healthier alternative products could be recommended. Barcode scanning technology was identified as the optimal mechanism for interaction of the mobile phone with the food database. Traffic light labels were chosen as the preferred format for presenting nutritional information, and the Food Standards Australia New Zealand nutrient profiling method as the best strategy for identifying healthier products. The resulting FoodSwitch mobile phone app was launched in Australia in January 2012 and was downloaded by about 400,000 users in the first 18 months. FoodSwitch has maintained a 4-plus star rating, and more than 2000 users have provided feedback about the functionality. Nutritional information for more than 30,000 additional products has been obtained from users through a crowdsourcing function integrated within the app. FoodSwitch has empowered Australian consumers seeking to make better food choices. In parallel, the huge volume of crowdsourced data has provided a novel means for low-cost, real-time tracking of the nutritional composition of Australian foods. There appears to be significant opportunity for this approach

  18. Evaluation of the effectiveness of stainless steel cooking pots in reducing iron-deficiency anaemia in food aid-dependent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Leisel; Woodruff, Bradley A; Seal, Andrew; Tripp, Kathryn; Mselle, Laurent Sadikiel; Abdalla, Fathia; Bhatia, Rita; Mirghani, Zhara

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of stainless steel (Fe alloy) cooking pots in reducing Fe-deficiency anaemia in food aid-dependent populations. Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Between December 2001 and January 2003, three surveys among children aged 6-59 months and their mothers were conducted in 110 households randomly selected from each camp. The primary outcomes were changes in Hb concentration and Fe status. Two long-term refugee camps in western Tanzania. Children (6-59 months) and their mothers were surveyed at 0, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. Stainless steel pots were distributed to all households in Nduta camp (intervention); households in Mtendeli camp (control) continued to cook with aluminium or clay pots. Among children, there was no change in Hb concentration at 1 year; however, Fe status was lower in the intervention camp than the control camp (serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentration: 6.8 v. 5.9 microg/ml; P pots did not increase Hb concentration or improve Fe status in children or their mothers. The use of stainless steel prevents rusting but may not provide sufficient amounts of Fe and strong educational campaigns may be required to maximize use. The distribution of stainless steel pots in refugee contexts is not recommended as a strategy to control Fe deficiency.

  19. The outcome analysis of different age paragraph hearing aid users%不同年龄段助听器佩戴效果及满意度的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆庆; 周慧芳; 张静; 郭玉玺; 王秀珍

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较分析不同年龄段听力障碍患者助听器佩戴效果及满意度.方法:按年龄将90例听力障碍患者分为3组,19~40岁为A组,41~60岁为B组,61~80岁为C组;分别于助听器佩戴后6周、6个月、12个月评估其助听效果及满意度.结果:助听器每日生活使用满意度调查问卷评分,积极作用、服务与花费以及个人形象A组得分均高于B组和C组,B组得分均高于C组(P<0.01);负面作用A组得分均低于B组和C组,B组得分均低于C组(P<0.01).助听器效果国际性调查问卷评分,A组得分均高于B组和C组,B组得分均高于C组(P<0.01).结论:随佩戴时间的延长各年龄段人群助听器佩戴效果及满意度都是逐渐增加的,但随年龄的增长佩戴效果及满意度是逐渐降低的.%Objectives To compare and analysis outcomes of different age paragraph hearing aid users by questionnaires. Method, The questionnaire was deployed to 90 hearing aid users, 40 females and 50 male, with ages between 19 and 80 years-from junior high school education to university education, suffering binaural severe or moderate sensorineural deafness. The subjects were devided into 3 groups, the A group with ages between 19 and 40 years , the B group with ages between 41 and 60 years, the C group with ages between 61and 80 years. After being fitted with hearing aids for 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months, SADL and IOI-HA were applied to evaluating 90 subjects. The study was carried out through face to face interview or by telephone. Result;There were significant differences in SADL scores of positive effect , service and Personal image among the 3 groups(P<0. 01). The scores of the A group was the highest ,and the B group was higher than the C group. On the contrary, there were significant differences in SADL scores of negative effect among the 3 groups( p<0. 01), with the scores of the A group being the lowest,and the B group being lower than the C group. There were also

  20. Prevention of HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users in Russia: opportunities and barriers to scaling-up of harm reduction programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatchenko-Schmidt, Elena; Renton, Adrian; Gevorgyan, Ruzanna; Davydenko, Ludmila; Atun, Rifat

    2008-02-01

    to examine attitudes of Russian policy-makers and HIV stakeholders towards harm reduction (HR) scale up, focusing on the factors constraining the scale-up process. Semi-structured interviews with representatives of 58 government and non-governmental organisations involved in HIV policies and programmes in Volgograd Region, Russian Federation. We found a considerable diversity of opinion on HR scale-up and suggest that Russia is experiencing the situation of power parity between HR supporters and opponents with many stakeholders being indecisive or cautious to express their views. We identified six main factors which constrain policy decisions in favour of HR scale-up: insufficient financial resources; lack of information on HR effectiveness; perception of HR as being culturally unacceptable; reluctance of IDUs to use the services; opposition from law enforcement agencies and the Russian Church; and unclear legal regulations. We demonstrate a complex interplay between these factors, policy-makers' attitudes and their choices on HR scale-up. A number of actions are needed to achieve a successful scale-up of HR programmes in Russia and similar political contexts: (i) a strategic approach to HR advocacy, targeting neutral and indecisive stakeholders; (ii) more systematic evidence on HR effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in the local context; (iii) HR advocacy targeting law enforcement agencies and the Russian Church; and (iv) aligning best international HR practices with the objectives of local policy-makers, practitioners and service-users.

  1. The moral universe of injecting drug users in the era of AIDS: sharing injecting equipment and the protection of moral standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, E; Chetwynd, J

    1998-12-01

    Recent work on HIV counselling suggests that the protection of the moral status of the recipient is a key factor in the successful uptake of advice. This study suggests it may be equally important in the uptake of health promotion messages. A discourse analysis of the talk of 20 young injecting drug users (IDUs) identified a contradiction between their asserted self-identity as careful and socially responsible injectors, and their admission of risky lending and borrowing of injecting equipment. This contradiction was resolved by the production of discourses of exoneration, differentially tailored to the moral implications of lending and of borrowing. Lenders argued a form of 'market morality' wherein it was the duty of each to accept the consequences of his/her decisions. Lenders were therefore morally exonerated since moral failure was the 'borrowers'. Borrowing was usually depicted as 'desperate measures' for which moral culpability was disavowed because of 'powerlessness'. The exception of routine borrowing, acknowledged as risky and against community norms, was accounted for in a nihilistic discourse of indifference to infection and death. The need for a 'counter discourse' around notions of community is discussed.

  2. Validation of four AIDS-case definitions in HIV-infected intravenous drug users in Barcelona, Spain Validação de quatro definições de caso de aids em usuários de drogas injetáveis em Barcelona, Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio C. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to assess the sensitivity and specificity of four epidemiological AIDS-Case Definitions (CDC-87, CDC-93, Europe-93 and Revised Caracas in HIV-infected intravenous drug users (IDU. The authors carried out a cross-sectional study with 136 IDUs, HIV-infected from a Men Penitentiary Center and from a drug addiction treatment center of Barcelona, Spain, between October/93 and April/94. A protocol, including demographic, clinical and laboratory variables was used by one doctor and the laboratory tests were done in the same institution. After that, the patients were classified in the four Epidemiological AIDS-Case Definitions used by this study. As gold standard we used the CD4 Cell Count (out point 200 or 14% CD4+. The number of AIDS cases varied between 31 and 84 according to the type of AIDS definition. The CDC-93 AIDS definition implied an increase of 170.9% in the number of cases in relation to CDC-87 AIDS-Case Definition. The sensitivities of the CDC-87, CDC-93, Europe-93 and Revised Caracas Epidemiological AIDS - Case Definitions were 34.2, 88.6, 45.6 and 56.9% while the specificities were 93.0, 75.4, 75.4 and 77.2%, respectively. The positive predictive values were between 72.0% (Europe-93 and 87.1% (CDC-87 and the negative predictive values were between 50.0% (Europe-93 and 82.7% (CDC-93. The authors concluded: the sensitivity and specificity of Caracas Revised Epidemiological AIDS-Case Definition was better than Europe-93 AIDS Case Definition. So this Definition can be very useful in countries and situations where the CD4 Cell Count is not available for technical or economical reasons.O objetivo do estudo é observar a sensibilidade e a especificidade de 4 definições epidemiológicas de Caso de Aids ("CDC-87", "CDC-93", "Europa-93"e "Caracas Revisada" em usuários de drogas (ilícitas intravenosas, infectados pelo HIV/VIH. Os autores realizaram um estudo com 136 usuários, infectados pelo HIV/VIH, de um centro

  3. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and... EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A hearing aid is wearable sound-amplifying device that is intended to compensate for impaired hearing....

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Flavouring Group Evaluation 46, Revision 1 (FGE.46Rev1): Ammonia and three ammonium salts from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... in a wide range of food items up to very high amounts. Hydrogen sulphide is also reported to occur naturally in a wide range of food items. In its evaluation, the Panel as a default used the “Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake” (MSDI) approach to estimate the per capita intakes of the flavouring...... substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured at the use...

  5. Investigation on AIDS-related KAP in female sex workers and clients (drug users)%吸毒者中暗娼与嫖客艾滋病相关KAP调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翔; 郑武; 刘旺民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the AIDS related KAP in female sex workers and clients, in particular, drug users, so as to provide basis for health education and behavioral intervention. Methods Basic information and KAP of sex workers and clients from drug rehabilitation centers were investigated, self-designed questionnaire was performed and cluster sampling method was applied. Results In terms of relevant knowledge of AIDS ,80.49% female sex workers thought that the use of condom could prevent AIDS;31.71% of female sex workers thought that the danger of AIDS was far away from them, and 28. 57% of clients had the similar idea( P < 0.05 ). The understanding rate of the AIDS transmission path in the female sex workers and clients was rather low,except that mother-infant breast-feeding path of HIV transmission,the difference was of statistical significance. The ratio of female sex workers resisting sexual freedom was significantly higher than that of the clients ( P < 0.05 ) ; The ratio of sex workers using condom was significantly higher than that of the clients ( P < 0.05). Conclusions Priority should be put on male high-risk group while carrying out the condom-use education and intervention for HIV prevention. Psychological, sexual moral publicity and AIDS-related knowledge education should be reinforced and the intervention of high-risk sexual behavior should be emphasized, in particular, among the drug-using group, including female sex workers and clients.%目的 了解吸毒者中暗娼与嫖客KAP现状,为该类人群的健康教育、行为干预提供依据.方法 应用自行设计的调查问卷,采取整群抽样的方法,对某戒毒所吸毒人员中暗娼与嫖客基本情况、KAP等进行调查分析.结果 艾滋病相关知识的掌握,80.49%的暗娼认为使用安全套可以预防艾滋病;31.71%的暗娼和28.57%的嫖客认为艾滋病离我们很远;暗娼和嫖客对传播途径的知晓率比较,除HIV阳性

  6. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 94, Revision 2 (FGE.94Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic amines and amides evaluated in an addendum to the group of aliphatic and aromatic amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...

  7. 我国吸毒人群艾滋病预防干预效果的Meta分析%Meta Analysis: Effects on HIV/AIDS Intervention in Drug Users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单多; 葛增; 王璐

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of interventions for preventing HIV/AIDS in drug users and provide a basis for future intervention. Methods A computerized literature search was carried out in Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM),Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) ,PubMed,VIP (Chinese) and Wanfang (Chinese) data- bases to collect articles published between 1999 and 2008 concerning the effect of HTV/AIDS intervention in drug-users. The software RevMan4. 2 was employed to analyze the outcomes of sixteen studies. Results Analysis showed that rate different (RD) of awareness on sharing syringes as HTV transmission route and awareness on condom use for HIV prevention were 23% (0. 16 ~0.30) and 13% (0.09 ~0.17) respectively and RD for proportion of sharing needles and syringes during the most recent month was 24% (0.18 ~0.30). Conclusion Interventions on HTV/AIDS prevention in China among drug-users was positively effective.%目的 综合评价我国吸毒人群艾滋病预防干预效果,为在吸毒人群中进行艾滋病预防干预提供依据.方法 计算机检索中国生物医学文献光盘数据库(CBM)、中国学术期刊网全文数据库(CNKI)、PubMed、中文科技期刊全文数据库(VIP)、万方数据库等,收集1999~2008年国内外公开发表的关于我国吸毒人群艾滋病预防干预研究的文献并使用RevMan4.2软件对检索并入选的国内16篇文献进行综合定量的Meta分析.结果 经干预后,吸毒人群对"是否知晓共用注射器可以传播艾滋病"(知识点1)、"是否知晓正确使用安全套可以预防艾滋病"(知识点2)的知晓率分别提高了23%(0.16~0.30)和13%(0.09~0.17)."最近一个月与别人共用注射器的比例"(共针率)降低了24%(0.18~0.30).结论 我国对吸毒人群开展的艾滋病预防干预措施具有较好的效果.

  8. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300, Revision 1 (FGE.300Rev1): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance,cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexyl)-amide [FL-no: 16.115] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300, Revision 1...... (FGE.300Rev1) using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision is made due to a re-evaluation of the flavouring substance, cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexyl)-amide [FL-no: 16.115], as a 90-day dietary study in rats has become available...

  9. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) is a multiregional health program active in Mozambique since 2002 and provides free of charge an integrating package of care consisting of peer to peer nutritional and health education, food supplementation, voluntary counseling and testing, immunological, virological, clinical assessment and HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment). The main goals of this paper are to describe the state of health and nutrition and the adequacy of the diet of a sample of HIV/AIDS patients in Mozambique on HAART and not. A single-arm retrospective cohort study was conducted. 106 HIV/AIDS adult patients (84 in HAART), all receiving food supplementation and peer-to-peer nutritional education, were randomly recruited in Mozambique in two public health centres where DREAM is running. The programme is characterized by: provision of HAART, clinical and laboratory monitoring, peer to peer health and nutritional education and food supplementation. We measured BMI, haemoglobin, viral load, CD4 count at baseline (T0) and after at least 1 year (T1). Dietary intake was estimated using 24h food recall and dietary diversity was assessed by using the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) at T1. Overall, the patients'diet appeared to be quite balanced in nutrients. In the cohort not in HAART the mean BMI values showed an increases but not significant (initial value: 21.9 ± 2.9; final value: 22.5 ± 3.3 ) and the mean haemoglobin values (g/dl) showed a significant increases (initial value: 10.5+ 2.1; final value: 11.5 ± 1.7 pnutritional status improvement was observed in both cohorts. The improvement in BMI was significant and substantially higher in HAART patients because of the impact of HAART on nutritional status of AIDS patients. Subjects on HAART and with a DDS > 5, showed a substantial BMI gain. This association showed an additional expression of the synergic effect of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and

  10. Perfil dos usuários de AASI com vistas à amplificação, cognição e processamento auditivo Profile of hearing aid users with a view to amplification, cognition and auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Nunes Alves Viacelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos usuários de AASI atendidos no Centro de Saúde Auditiva com vistas à amplificação, cognição e processamento auditivo (PA. MÉTODO: participaram do estudo 59 sujeitos com idades entre 41 e 92 anos. Na primeira etapa, realizou-se a coleta dos dados dos prontuários: dados das avaliações audiológica e otorrinolaringológica, anamnese, teste de fala com o AASI em uso, dados do molde e do AASI, orientações recebidas e resultados do treinamento auditivo. Na segunda etapa, foram realizados os testes de Dicótico de Dígitos (DD e Teste de Padrão de Frequência (TPF, Avaliação da Doença de Alzheimer-Cognitiva (ADAS-Cog e a Escala de Depressão Geriátrica (EDG-15. Nessa etapa, participaram 47 sujeitos. RESULTADOS: em relação à idade, 67,80% tem 60 anos ou mais. Os aspectos mais relatados na anamnese foram tontura e zumbido e exposição ao ruído. Na avaliação audiológica, identificou-se perda auditiva neurossensorial de grau moderado e curva descendente como os mais frequentes, coincidindo com os achados imitanciométricos: curva tipo A com reflexos ausentes. No treinamento auditivo, as habilidades que mais apresentaram alterações foram identificação e compreensão. Nos testes DD e TPF, as médias de acertos ficaram abaixo dos padrões de normalidade. No ADAS-Cog, os maiores escores foram palavra evocada, reconhecimento de palavra e compreensão. No EDG, 20 sujeitos apresentam características sugestivas de depressão. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível estabelecer o perfil dos usuários de AASI com vistas à amplificação, cognição e ao PA.PURPOSE: to establish the hearing aid users' profile attended in the Hearing Health Center with a view to amplification, cognition and auditory processing (AP. Method: 59 individuals participated in this study aged between 41 and 92 years old. In the first stage, it was realized the data assortment through the audiology and otolaryngologist evaluations, first

  11. Tendência da epidemia de AIDS em usuários de drogas injetáveis no Município de São Paulo de 1985 a 1997 Trend of the AIDS epidemic in intravenous drug users in the Municipality of São Paulo from 1985 to 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Castelo Branco de Oliveira Bastos

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência da epidemia de AIDS em adultos, no período de 1985 a 1997, no Município de São Paulo, focalizando principalmente os usuários de drogas injetáveis (UDI, considerando o grande impacto da epidemia nesse grupo populacional. METODOLOGIA: A fonte dos dados foi a vigilância de AIDS do Estado de São Paulo. O método estatístico utilizado para a análise de tendência temporal dos 8.558 casos de AIDS entre UDI, e dos 16.756 entre não UDI, foi a regressão polinomial. RESULTADOS: No período de 1985 a 1992 a tendência foi de ascensão para os casos de AIDS entre UDI e não UDI a partir desse ponto e, observou-se um declínio para UDI e manutenção em platô elevado para os não UDI, em conseqüência do crescimento constante do número de casos entre as mulheres e homens heterossexuais. Os coeficientes de regressão ajustados (R²a de todos os modelos ficaram acima de 70%, e os modelos que melhor explicaram as tendências foram os de segunda ordem (parábola, exceto para heterossexuais não UDI cuja tendência foi de aumento linear. CONCLUSÃO: No final do período considerado, os dados sugerem um declínio da epidemia em UDI, a estabilização em níveis elevados para o total de não UDI, e a manutenção da tendência de crescimento da epidemia para pessoas heterossexuais não UDI.OBJECTIVE: To analyze trends of AIDS epidemic among adults, from 1985 to 1997, in the city of São Paulo, focussing primarily on intravenous drug users (IDU, owing to the major impact of the epidemic on this population group. METHODOLOGY: Data from the AIDS surveillance of São Paulo State were analyzed. The statistical method applied to analyze the time series of the 8,558 cases of AIDS among IDU and of the 16,756 cases among non-IDU was polynomial regression. RESULTS: From 1985 to 1992 there was a increase in AIDS cases both in IDU and non-IDU. Thereafter there was a decrease in cases among IDU, while cases among non-IDU leveled off

  12. The impact of food assistance on weight gain and disease progression among HIV-infected individuals accessing AIDS care and treatment services in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Paul E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence evaluating the benefits of programmatic nutrition interventions to HIV-infected individuals in developing countries, where there is a large overlap between HIV prevalence and malnutrition, is limited. This study evaluates the impact of food assistance (FA on change in weight and disease progression as measured by WHO staging. Methods We utilize program data from The AIDS Support Organization (TASO in Uganda to compare outcomes among FA recipients to a control group, using propensity score matching (PSM methods among 14,481 HIV-infected TASO clients. Results FA resulted in a significant mean weight gain of 0.36 kg over one year period. This impact was conditional on anti-retroviral therapy (ART receipt and disease stage at baseline. FA resulted in mean weight gain of 0.36 kg among individuals not receiving ART compared to their matched controls. HIV-infected individuals receiving FA with baseline WHO stage II and III had a significant weight gain (0.26 kg and 0.2 kg respectively compared to their matched controls. Individuals with the most advanced disease at baseline (WHO stage IV had the highest weight gain of 1.9 kg. The impact on disease progression was minimal. Individuals receiving FA were 2 percentage points less likely to progress by one or more WHO stage compared to their matched controls. There were no significant impacts on either outcome among individuals receiving ART. Conclusions Given the widespread overlap of HIV and malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, FA programs have the potential to improve weight and delay disease progression, especially among HIV-infected individuals not yet on ART. Additional well designed prospective studies evaluating the impact of FA are urgently needed.

  13. Multiple stressors in Southern Africa: the link between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, poverty and children's vulnerability now and in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimie, Scott; Casale, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Several countries in Southern Africa now see large numbers of their population barely subsisting at poverty levels in years without shocks, and highly vulnerable to the vagaries of the weather, the economy and government policy. The combination of HIV/AIDS, food insecurity and a weakened capacity for governments to deliver basic social services has led to the region experiencing an acute phase of a long-term emergency. "Vulnerability" is a term commonly used by scientists and practitioners to describe these deteriorating conditions. There is particular concern about the "vulnerability" of children in this context and implications for children's future security. Through a review of literature and recent case studies, and using a widely accepted conceptualisation of vulnerability as a lens, we reflect on what the regional livelihoods crisis could mean for children's future wellbeing. We argue that an increase in factors determining the vulnerability of households - both through greater intensity and frequency of shocks and stresses ("external" vulnerability) and undermined resilience or ability to cope ("internal" vulnerability) - are threatening not only current welfare of children, but also their longer-term security. The two specific pathways we explore are (1) erosive coping strategies employed by families and individuals; and (2) their inability to plan for the future. We conclude that understanding and responding to this crisis requires looking at the complexity of these multiple stressors, to try to comprehend their interconnections and causal links. Policy and programme responses have, to date, largely failed to take into account the complex and multi-dimensional nature of this crisis. There is a misfit between the problem and the institutional response, as responses from national and international players have remained relatively static. Decisive, well-informed and holistic interventions are needed to break the potential negative cycle that threatens the

  14. FAO/INFOODS Guidelines for Checking Food Composition Data Prior to the Publication of a User Table/Database, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food composition data play an essential role in many sectors, including nutrition, health, agriculture, environment, food labeling and trade. Over the last 25 years, International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) has developed many international standards, guidelines and tools to obtain harmo...

  15. 物联网融合环境食品安全云平台用户模型%Research on User Model of Food Security in Cloud Platform under Internet of Things and Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 张龙昌

    2016-01-01

    为了将食品安全信息化与物联网、三网融合环境、云计算结合,从物联网获取食品安全监管的第一手数据并实现食品安全的实时监管;从互联网和云中存储的数据中获取食品安全监管的以往数据实现对食品安全以往数据的监管、举报与处理等;通过三网融合环境下手机、PC、电视等向用户提供食品安全信息一定程度上打破时空限制为用户提供所需的服务;利用云计算的存储、计算和网络能力提高食品安全信息化的存储信息的能力、计算能力和网络通讯的能力,文中研究了物联网融合环境下的食品安全云平台用户模型。首先分析可以利用的食品安全用户模型研究成果,其次从物联网、融合环境、用户类型等角度研究用户,再次提出对应的用户需求模型和用户模型,最后做出了总结。%To combine the food safety information and the Internet of Things,triple play environment,as well as cloud computing,first-hand data from the Internet of Things for the supervision of food safety is obtained and the real-time regulation of food safety is realized;the original data for the supervision of food safety is obtained in the Internet and the cloud to realize the regulation,reports and processing for previous data;the food safety information is provided for users through mobile phone,PC,TV by triple fusion environment to break the limits of time and space to provide the required services;use of cloud storage,computing and network capacity to improve food safety information’s ability to store,computation and the ability of network communication,the user model for food safety cloud platform in IoT environment is studied. First analysis can be made to research the food safety of the user model. Second,from the Internet of Things,inte-gration environment,and the types of user,the users are researched. Then it puts forward the corresponding user requirement model and

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 2 (FGE.11Rev2): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical groups 8 and 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... in the present group have been reported to occur naturally in a wide range of food items. In its evaluation, the Panel as a default used the “Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake” (MSDI) approach to estimate the per capita intakes of the flavouring substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined...... the information provided by the European Flavour Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured at the use level reported by the Industry, especially in those cases where...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during...

  18. Efficient individualization of hearing aid processed sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Due to the large amount of options offered by the vast number of adjustable parameters in modern digital hearing aids, it is becoming increasingly daunting—even for a fine-tuning professional—to perform parameter fine tuning to satisfactorily meet the preference of the hearing aid user. In addition......, the communication between the fine-tuning professional and the hearing aid user might muddle the task. In the present paper, an interactive system is proposed to ease and speed up fine tuning of hearing aids to suit the preference of the individual user. The system simultaneously makes the user conscious of his own...... preferences while the system itself learns the user’s preference. Since the learning is based on probabilistic modeling concepts, the system handles inconsistent user feedback efficiently. Experiments with hearing impaired subjects show that the system quickly discovers individual preferred hearing-aid...

  19. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section 886.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  20. User 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porras, Jari; Heikkinen, Kari; Kinnula, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    and environment, and each has had its effect on the development of technology. The closer we come to the current generation, the bigger is the effect of technology on the characteristics of that generation. User needs guide the technology and the technology shapes the users. This WWRF Outlook analyses......The User 2020 vision is of the changing needs and habits of a user in the future digital world. In order to understand the needs of the future users, we need to look at how users and technology have changed during recent years. The different generations of users are products of their own time...... determined by the era in which they were born. This is due to the fact that digital natives, born in an already “fully” digitalized world with a plethora of ICT services, have a much closer relationship to these solutions than generations before them. This has also shaped the users perspectives and had...

  1. Evaluation of the usability of a mobile Digital Food Guide based on user perception/Avaliacao da usabilidade do Guia Alimentar Digital movel segundo a percepcao dos usuarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caivano, Simone; Ferreira, Beatriz Jansen; Domene, Semiramis Martins Alvares

    2014-01-01

    ...), which is a mobile smartphone app with guidelines on healthy eating. A cross-sectional study evaluated the user perception of the app using the Likert scale, built with 24 assertions organized in three dimensions of analysis...

  2. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  3. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been te...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  4. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  5. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  6. Development of a Decision Aid for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving Intensive Care Unit Patients' and Health Professionals' Participation Using User-Centered Design and a Wiki Platform for Rapid Prototyping: A Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Ariane; Witteman, Holly O; Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2016-02-11

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an intervention used in cases of cardiac arrest to revive patients whose heart has stopped. Because cardiac arrest can have potentially devastating outcomes such as severe neurological deficits even if CPR is performed, patients must be involved in determining in advance if they want CPR in the case of an unexpected arrest. Shared decision making (SDM) facilitates discussions about goals of care regarding CPR in intensive care units (ICUs). Patient decision aids (DAs) are proven to support the implementation of SDM. Many patient DAs about CPR exist, but they are not universally implemented in ICUs in part due to lack of context and cultural adaptation. Adaptation to local context is an important phase of implementing any type of knowledge tool such as patient DAs. User-centered design supported by a wiki platform to perform rapid prototyping has previously been successful in creating knowledge tools adapted to the needs of patients and health professionals (eg, asthma action plans). This project aims to explore how user-centered design and a wiki platform can support the adaptation of an existing DA for CPR to the local context. The primary objective is to use an existing DA about CPR to create a wiki-based DA that is adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailorable to individual patient's risk factors while employing user-centered design. The secondary objective is to document the use of a wiki platform for the adaptation of patient DAs. This study will be conducted in a mixed surgical and medical ICU at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Quebec, Canada. We plan to involve all 5 intensivists and recruit at least 20 alert and oriented patients admitted to the ICU and their family members if available. In the first phase of this study, we will observe 3 weeks of daily interactions between patients, families, intensivists, and other allied health professionals. We will specifically observe 5 dyads of attending intensivists and alert

  7. EFSA CEF Penal (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 212, Revision 2 (FGE.212Rev2): α,β-Unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2.6 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 24 flavouring substances from subgroup 2.6 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 212, Revision 2. The Panel concluded in ...

  8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 06, Revision 3 (FGE.06Rev3): Straight- and branched-chain aliphatic unsaturated primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and esters from chemical groups 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 50 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 6, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the subs...

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 3, Revision 2 (FGE.03Rev2): Acetals of branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and branched- and straight-chain saturated or unsaturated, aldehydes, an ester of a hemiacetal and an orthoester of formic acid, from chemical groups 1, 2 and 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, acetaldehyde ethyl isopropyl acetal [FL-no: 06.137], structurally related to the 58 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group...

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3 (FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider in this revision 3 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, the SCF Opinion on benzoic acid. Furthermore information on stereoisomeric composition for two substa...

  11. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of th...

  12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 3 (FGE.17Rev3): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, including seven additional substances considered in this Revision 3, using the Procedure...... in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. From the in vitro data available, genotoxic potential is indicated for the flavouring substances quinoxaline [FL-no: 14.147] and 2- methylquinoxaline [FL-no: 14.139]. Therefore, the Panel decided that the Procedure could not be applied to these two substances, until.......126, 14.127, 14.128, 14.129, 14.148, 14.161 and 14.170] do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining substance [FL-no: 14.052], additional toxicity data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring...

  13. 人工耳蜗植入者对侧耳佩戴助听器的效果评价%Effectiveness evaluation of contralateral hearing aid for cochlear implant users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱宇虹; 郭梦和

    2004-01-01

    背景:双耳聆听能够更好地进行声源定位,感受立体声,提高听阈5~10dB及增强噪声环境中的言语辨别能力.目的:探讨人工耳蜗植入者对侧耳佩戴助听器的意义和作用.设计:自身和相互对照研究.地点和对象:实验在第一军医大学珠江医院耳鼻咽喉科全军听力中心完成,对象为本科收治的语前聋患者6例,男4例,女2例,年龄7~18岁.方法:均为单耳使用Nucleus24人工耳蜗系统,采用ACE编码策略.于术后开机半年时在不同助听方式下(人工耳蜗+助听器和单独使用人工耳蜗)分别进行声场(啭音)测听、言语功能评估和问卷调查,将结果进行统计分析.主要观察指标:①两种助听方式下测试125,250,500,1 000,2 000,4 000和8 000 Hz的啭音听阈.②言语功能评估.③问卷调查.结果:人工耳蜗+助听器各频率听阈均值(18.89 Hz)较单独使用人工耳蜗声场(啭音)测试的各频率听阈均值(24.17 Hz)为低(t=4.647,P<0.01),频率特性好.50个常用词汇及音节复述得分,人工耳蜗+助听器平均86分,单用人工耳蜗平均84分,说明患者利用两种助听方式均能获得较好的聆听效果.问卷调查显示使用人工耳蜗+助听器比单独使用人工耳蜗在辨别方向,噪声环境中聆听具有更好的效果,但在安静环境下聆听,两者无明显差异.结论:使用人工耳蜗者对侧耳佩戴助听器有助于更好地聆听.%BACKGROUND: Binaural hearing can localize sound, perceive stereo,and help to improve auditory threshold by 5 - 10 dB and the ability to distinguish sounds in noisy environment.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of contralateral hearing aid for cochlear implant users.DESIGN: Auto-control and mutual control study.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: The experiment was conducted at the PLA Hlearing Center of Department of Otorhinolarynagology, Zhujiang Hospital, First Military Medical University. The subjects were 6 prelingually deafened patients (4 males

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 50, Revision 1 (FGE.50Rev1): Consideration of pyrazine derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to pyrazine derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.17Rev2 (2010)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 41 flavouring substances....

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 51, Revision 1: Consideration of alicyclic ketones and secondary alcohols and related esters evaluated by the JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to alicyclic ketones secondary alcohols and related esters in FGE.09Rev3 (2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 20 substances, the information is adequate....

  16. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 87, Revision 2 (FGE.87Rev2): Consideration of bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.47Rev1 (2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... for the materials of commerce have also been considered for the substances evaluated through the Procedure and for all 19 substances, the information is adequate....

  17. User design

    CERN Document Server

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A

    2012-01-01

    User Design offers a fresh perspective on how front-line learners (users) can participate in the design of learning environments. The author challenges the universal assumption that front-line users must be relegated to the role of offering input, and that the actual design activity of learning systems must still be conducted only by experts. The book presents a new set of methods and strategies that show how the tools of professional designers can be effectively shared with broad groups of users and other participants in the process of creating their own learning. Drawing

  18. Find Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Care Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Care Providers tool is a locator that helps people living with HIV/AIDS access medical care and related services. Users can...

  19. Food nanoscience and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a great impact on the food industry. They have increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products and have aided in food preservation through the addition of antimicrobials or the reduction of water activity. These and many other applications have emerged in recent years to transform food science and technology. This book proposes to look at some of these applications and their effect on food production and innovation.

  20. The organizational managing methods in the medical - nursing first aid for group food poisoning events%集体食物中毒事件急救医疗护理组织管理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓亚军; 王义亮; 潘代明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the organizational managing methods for strengthening the medical - nursing first aid for group food poisoning events.Methods The measures included starting emergency plan promptly, optimizing the first aid routine, allocating human resources rationally, strengthening the management of emergency supplies and rationalizing macro - control.Results All the 252 cases of patients were clinically cured.The survival rate was 100.00% and patient satisfaction was 98.00%.No nursing errors and issues happened.Conclusion Efficient organizational management is the powerful guarantee to the successful rescue of group food poisoning patients.%目的 探讨加强集体食物中毒事件急救医疗护理组织管理方法.方法 迅速启动应急预案、优化急救流程、合理调配人力资源、强化急救物资管理、合理宏观调控等.结果 252例患者全部临床治愈出院,抢救成功率100.00%,患者满意度98.00%,无护理差错及纠纷发生.结论 高效的急救医疗护理组织管理工作是集体食物中毒事件救治成功的有力保障.

  1. User-tailored Inter-Widget Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hoisl, Bernhard; Waglecher, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hoisl, B., & Wagenlecher, C. (2010, 16 September). User-tailored Inter-Widget Communication. Extending the Shared Data Interface for the Apache Wookie Engine, International Conference on Interactive Computer Aided Learning 2010, Hasselt, Belgium.

  2. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  3. 77 FR 67820 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a New System of Records; Food and Drug Administration User Fee System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Act, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food Safety Modernization Act, the... remitters may use a Social Security Number as the TIN); Company name or the Organization name; and Data... Internal Revenue Service, issue a subpoena to HHS for records in this system of records, HHS will make...

  4. Usage and users of online self-management programs for adult patients with atopic dermatitis and food allergy : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Leent-de Wit, Ilse; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Knulst, André

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two online self-management programs for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) or food allergy (FA) were developed with the aim of helping patients cope with their condition, follow the prescribed treatment regimen, and deal with the consequences of their illness in daily life. Both progra

  5. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 73, Revision 2 (FGE.73Rev2). Consideration of alicyclic primary alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.12Rev3 (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 18 substances, the information is adequate....

  6. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  7. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  9. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-04

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed.

  10. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis system... sound intensity characteristics emanating from a hearing aid, master hearing aid, group hearing aid...

  11. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 305 (FGE.305): L - Methionylglycine of chemical group 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    use in foods that are not heated or intended to be heated. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the material of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have...

  12. Short-term evaluation of the impact of a fortified food aid program on the micronutrient nutritional status of Argentinian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpeli, Agustina; Ferrari, María Guillermina; Varea, Ana; Falivene, Mariana; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Vojkovic, María; Carmuega, Estéban; Disalvo, Liliana; Apezteguía, María; Pereyras, Silvia; Tournier, Andrea; Vogliolo, Daniel; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2013-11-01

    We studied the impact of a food supplementation program (Plan Más Vida (PMV)) on the micronutrient nutritional condition of pregnant women from low-income families 1 year after its implementation. The food program provided supplementary diet (wheat and maize--fortified flour, rice or sugar, and fortified soup). We performed a prospective, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, evaluating pregnant women at baseline (n = 164) and 1 year after PMV implementation (n = 108). Biochemical tests (hemogram, ferritin, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid), anthropometric assessments (weight and height), and dietary surveys (24 h recall) were performed at the two study points. One year after PMV implementation, no significant changes in anthropometric values were observed. Folic acid deficiency and the risk of vitamin A deficiency (retinol, 20-30 μg/dl) decreased significantly (35.8 to 6.1 % and 64 to 41 %, respectively; p < 0.000). Anemia and prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency values did not change. Diet survey results showed that although nutrient intake increased significantly, it was still below recommendations. Implementation of the PMV and of the government nutritional strategies had a high impact on the prevalence of folic acid deficiency. We also observed a decrease in the risk of vitamin A deficiency, and no impact on iron and zinc nutritional status. Adherence to the specific fortified food (soup) was not good and intra-family dilution and distribution of food was high.

  13. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  14. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  15. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slightly different from the ITC and is nearly hidden in the ear canal. Both canal hearing aids ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  16. Hearing Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A man realized that he needed to purchase ahearing aid, but he was unwilling to spend muchmoney. "How much do they run?"he asked theclerk. "That depends," said. the salesman. "Theyrun from 2 to 2000."

  17. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 8, Revision 3 (FGE.08Rev3): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 70 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. For the substan......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 70 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565....../2000. For the substances 2-methylpropane-2-thiol [FL-no: 12.174], methyl methanethiosulphonate [FL-no: 12.159], 2-methylbutane-2-thiol [FL-no: 12.172] and 2,4,4-trimethyl-1,3-oxathiane [FL-no: 16.057] there is an indication of a genotoxic potential in vitro. Therefore, in the absence of further genotoxicity data...

  18. Simultaneous determination of nine preservatives in food by liquid chromatography with the aid of coagulant in the clean-up process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Jun; Nakajima, Masahiro

    2017-05-01

    A simple HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine preservatives in food including benzoic acid, sorbic acid, dehydroacetic acid, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, isopropyl paraben, propyl paraben, isobutyl paraben and butyl paraben. Samples were extracted with 60 v/v% methanol containing poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) and sodium hydroxide prior to analysis. PAC, which is normally used as a coagulant, was successfully applied to remove interfering substances from the samples. The method showed good linearity with coefficients of determination higher than 0.999 over the range of 0.2-5 µg ml(-1) for all target preservatives. LOQs of the method were in the range of 0.002-0.008 g kg(-1). Method performance was evaluated in a variety of foods demonstrated to have quantitative recoveries of 81.7-102.5% with satisfactory intra-day precision of preservatives.

  19. Low-cost, ready-to-use therapeutic foods can be designed using locally available commodities with the aid of linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibari, Filippo; Diop, El Hadji I; Collins, Steven; Seal, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    According to the United Nations (UN), 25 million children linear programming (LP) analysis was developed and piloted in the design of a RUTF prototype for the treatment of wasting in East African children and adults. The LP objective function and decision variables consisted of the lowest formulation price and the weights of the chosen commodities (soy, sorghum, maize, oil, and sugar), respectively. The LP constraints were based on current UN recommendations for the macronutrient content of therapeutic food and included palatability, texture, and maximum food ingredient weight criteria. Nonlinear constraints for nutrient ratios were converted to linear equations to allow their use in LP. The formulation was considered accurate if laboratory results confirmed an energy density difference <10% and a protein or lipid difference <5 g · 100 g(-1) compared to the LP formulation estimates. With this test prototype, the differences were 7%, and 2.3 and -1.0 g · 100 g(-1), respectively, and the formulation accuracy was considered good. LP can contribute to the design of ready-to-use foods (therapeutic, supplementary, or complementary), targeting different forms of malnutrition, while using commodities that are cheaper, regionally available, and meet local cultural preferences. However, as with all prototype feeding products for medical use, composition analysis, safety, acceptability, and clinical effectiveness trials must be conducted to validate the formulation.

  20. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 216, Revision 1 (FGE.216Rev1). Consideration of genotoxic potential for α,β-unsaturated 2-Phenyl -2-Alkenals from Subgroup 3.3 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of five flavouring substances from subgroup 3.3 of FGE.19. In the Flavouring Group Evaluation 216 (FGE.216) additional genotoxicity...... of animals treated with 2-phenylcrotonaldehyde. Moreover, since the substance was genotoxic only without metabolic activation, it appears necessary to prove the absence of genotoxic effect locally in the gastro intestinal system using the Comet assay....

  1. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2 (FGE.21Rev2): Thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29. Miscellaneous substances from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven of the su...... of commerce have also been considered. For two substances are an identity test lacking and for one has the stereoisomeric composition to be specified....

  2. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 4 (FGE.12Rev4): primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters from chemical groups 1 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 12 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 4 (FGE.12Rev4), including two additional substances, using the Procedure in Commission...... of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 12 candidate substances....

  3. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2 (FGE.13 Rev2) Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side-chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 27 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Three of the su...... of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 24 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 18, Revision 2 (FGE.18Rev2): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols, aromatic tertiary alcohols and their esters from chemical groups 6 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 32 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 18, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for six substances information is lacking....

  5. Experiences about HIV-AIDS preventive-control activities: Discourses from non-governmental organizations professionals and users Experiencias sobre la prevención y el control del VIH-sida: Discursos de los profesionales y usuarios de las organizaciones no gubernamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Berenguera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to identify the experiences of professionals in nongovernmental organizations (NGO in Catalonia (Spain working in HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities and potential areas of improvement of these activities and their evaluation. A further aim was to characterize the experiences, knowledge and practices of users of these organizations with regard to HIV infection and its prevention. Methods: A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted with the participation of both professionals and users of Catalan nongovernmental organizations (NGO working in HIV/AIDS. Theoretical sampling (professional and opportunistic sampling (users were performed. To collect information, the following techniques were used: four focus groups and one triangular group (professionals, 22 semi-structured interviews, and two observations (users. A thematic interpretive content analysis was conducted by three analysts. Results: The professionals of nongovernmental organizations working in HIV/AIDS adopted a holistic approach in their activities, maintained confidentiality, had cultural and professional competence and followed the principles of equality and empathy. The users of these organizations had knowledge of HIV/AIDS and understood the risk of infection. However, a gap was found between knowledge, attitudes and behavior. Conclusions: NGO offer distinct activities adapted to users' needs. Professionals emphasize the need for support and improvement of planning and implementation of current assessment. The preventive activities of these HIV/AIDS organizations are based on a participatory health education model adjusted to people's needs and focused on empowerment.Objetivos: Identificar las experiencias y actividades de las organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONG que trabajan en la prevención y control del VIH/sida, las posibles áreas de mejora de las actividades y de su evaluación, e identificar las experiencias

  6. Blavigator: a navigation aid for blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    José,João; Moreno, M.; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.

  7. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  8. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction...... impacted by hearing loss and (non-) use of hearing technologies. The researchers report on pilot studies from Australia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Switzerland and the USA. Using Conversation Analysis, the studies identify problems and serve as points of departure for possible solutions. Researchers...... and practitioners from the different disciplines (medicine, audiology, hearing rehabilitation, User Centered Design, Conversation Analysis, change business) as well as users of hearing technologies comment on this approach....

  9. 76 FR 79198 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... (76 FR 76738). The document announced a public meeting entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee.''...

  10. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... are some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed ...

  11. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2016. Scientific opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 400 (FGE.400): 3-(1- ((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) of EFSA was requested to deliver a scientific opinion on the implications for human health of the flavouring substance 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)imidazolidine-2...

  12. Hearing Aid with Visual Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention comprises a hearing aid, which has a casing containing a signal receiving part for receiving an audio signal, an audio transducer for providing an audio signal to the user, a signal transmission path between the signal receiving part and the audio transducer, whereby a battery...... is provided for powering the signal receiving part, the signal path and the audio transducer, and where further means are provided for assessing the function of the hearing aid and for generating an electrical indication signal which indicates the function of the hearing aid and where further means...... are provided for intermittently generating a power signal in response to the electrical indication signal and where means are provided for converting the power signal into a light signal, such that the light signal is visible from outside the hearing aid....

  13. Screening for AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-29

    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  14. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 91, Re vision 2 (FGE.91Rev2): Consid eration of simple aliphatic and aromatic sulphides and thiols evaluated by the JECFA (53rd and 68th meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 44 simple aliphatic and aromatic sulphides and thiols evaluated by the JECFA at the 53rd and the 68th meeting. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach...

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 73, Revision 1: Consideration of alicyclic primary alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohol, aldehyde, and esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.12Rev2 (2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 16 substances, the information is adequate....

  16. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  17. GPS User Equipment Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    simulation of range dynamics of the satellite/user paths. The JGA provides four CW signals aid a I’N modulated RF signal so as to simulate up to 5 jummers...VN e (PN) 4 VE e (PE) ViH e (PCT) VN e (PE) - VE e (PN) e (VAT)= VN e (VN) 4 VE e (VE) VH e (VCT)= V e (V) - VE e (VN) V H For the true North (TN

  18. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids) , 2016. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 90, Revision 1 (FGE.90Rev1): consideration of six substances evaluated by JECFA (68th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols, aromatic tertiary alcohols and their esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.18Rev1 and FGE.75Rev1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of EFSA was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary...

  19. Hospitals as food arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2010-01-01

    also identified. Research limitations: The assessment of the dietary changes based on the canteen take-away food was only based on indirect assessments based on interviews with users and non-users and furthermore based on a questionnaire at one of the hospitals. Value/originality: Canteen take...

  20. Daily consumption of ready-to-use peanut-based therapeutic food increased fat free mass, improved anemic status but has no impact on the zinc status of people living with HIV/AIDS: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Adama; Badiane, Abdou; Manga, Noël Magloire; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Sow, Papa Salif; Wade, Salimata

    2016-01-04

    Food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa and malnutrition constitute the main obstacles for successful treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of consuming daily 100 g RUTF (ready-to-use therapeutic food) as supplement, on body composition, anemia and zinc status of hospitalized PLWH in Senegal. A Controlled clinical trial was conducted in 65 PLWH randomly allocated to receive either standard hospital diet alone (Control group: n = 33), or the standard diet supplemented with 100 g RUTF/day (RUTF group: n = 32). Supplementation was continued at home during 9 weeks. Individual dietary intakes were measured and compared to the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Body composition was determined using Bio-Impedance Analysis. Hemoglobin was measured by HemoCue and plasma zinc (PZ) concentration by atomic absorption spectrometry. PZ was adjusted to infection (CRP and α1-AGP). All measures were conducted on admission, discharge and after 9 weeks home-based follow up. 34 and 24% of the patients in RUTF and Control groups were suffering from severe malnutrition (BMI fat-free mass increased significantly by +11% (p = 0.033), and +11.8% (p = 0.033) in the RUTF group, but not in the Control group, while percentage body fat was comparable between groups (p = 0.888). In the RUTF group, fat free mass gain is higher in the patients on ART (+11.7%, n = 14; p = 0.0001) than in those without ART (+6.2%, n = 6; p = 0.032). Anemia decreased significantly with the supplementation, but zinc status, measured using plasma zinc concentration, remained unchanged. Improving PLWH' diet with 100 g RUTF for a long period has a positive impact on muscle mass and anemia but not on the zinc status of the patients. NCT02433743, registered 29 April 2015.

  1. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... of actors, the negotiating strategies they fashion, and the success of those strategies. This approach was employed to examine and compare the experiences of eight countries: Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia. The article presents findings from these country studies...... which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented...

  2. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  3. 78 FR 46962 - Biosimilar User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Biosimilar User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014 AGENCY: Food... announcing the rates for biosimilar user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2014. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Biosimilar User Fee Act of 2012 (BsUFA), which was signed by...

  4. 75 FR 45636 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures... generic new animal drug user fees. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act of 2008 (AGDUFA), authorizes FDA to collect user fees for...

  5. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  6. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  7. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  8. Teaching AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R V

    1989-06-01

    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  9. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how......Can Citizen Consumers Make a Difference? DIIS researcher contributes to a Boston Review - New Democracy Forum In the current issue of Boston Review (November/December 2011), contributors to a ‘New Democracy Forum’ debate whether Citizen Consumers can make a difference in stimulating responsible...

  10. Justine user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.

  11. A study of mercuric oxide and zinc-air battery life in hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, C; Lacey, N K

    1997-09-01

    The requirement to phase out mercuric oxide (mercury) batteries on environmental grounds has led to the widespread introduction of zinc-air technology. The possibility arises that high drain hearing aids may not be adequately catered for by zinc-air cells, leading to poor performance. This study investigated the hearing aid user's ability to perceive differences between zinc-air and mercury cells in normal everyday usage. The data was collected for 100 experienced hearing aid users in field trials. Users report 50 per cent greater life for zinc-air cells in high power aids and 28 per cent in low power aids. The average life of the zinc-air cells range from 15 days in high power to 34 days in low power aids. Users are able to perceive a difference in sound quality in favour of zinc-air cells for low and medium power aids. The hearing aid population is not disadvantaged by phasing out mercury cells.

  12. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids) , 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 65, Revisio n 1 (FGE.65Rev1 ) : Consideration of sulfur - substituted furan derivatives used as flavouring agents evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to a subgroup of substances within the group of ‘ Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side - chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14’ evaluated by JECFA in FGE.13Rev2 (2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 33 substances, the information is adequate....

  13. 76 FR 20305 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot (MFFAPP). The notice stated that eligible applicants...

  14. EFSA Panel on food contact materials, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 2 (FGE.23Rev2): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 22, 26 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs......, 26 and 30, Annex I of the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present Flavouring Group Evaluation deals with 19 candidate substances, which are aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives. Four of the candidate substances are aliphatic ethers, one is an alicyclic...

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 5 (FGE.08Rev5): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since...... of a genotoxic potential in vitro. Therefore, in the absence of further genotoxicity data, the Panel concluded that the Procedure could not be applied to these five substances. For four substances, 3-mercaptooctanal [FL-no: 12.268], 3-mercaptodecanal [FL-no: 12.269], methanedithiol diacetate [FL-no: 12...

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4 (FGE.08Rev4): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since......-no: 12.174], ethyl 2-mercapto-2-methyl propanoate [FL-no: 12.304] and 2,4,4-trimethyl-1,3- oxathiane [FL-no: 16.057] there is an indication of a genotoxic potential in vitro. Therefore, in the absence of further genotoxicity data, the Panel concluded that the Procedure could not be applied to these five...

  17. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  18. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...

  19. ServAR: An augmented reality tool to guide the serving of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Bucher, Tamara; Smith, Shamus P; Collins, Clare E

    2017-05-12

    Accurate estimation of food portion size is a difficult task. Visual cues are important mediators of portion size and therefore technology-based aids may assist consumers when serving and estimating food portions. The current study evaluated the usability and impact on estimation error of standard food servings of a novel augmented reality food serving aid, ServAR. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: 1) no information/aid (control); 2) verbal information on standard serving sizes; or 3) ServAR, an aid which overlayed virtual food servings over a plate using a tablet computer. Participants were asked to estimate the standard serving sizes of nine foods (broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, green beans, kidney beans, potato, pasta, rice, and sweetcorn) using validated food replicas. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared median served weights of each food to reference standard serving size weights. Percentage error was used to compare the estimation of serving size accuracy between the three groups. All participants also performed a usability test using the ServAR tool to guide the serving of one randomly selected food. Ninety adults (78.9% female; a mean (95%CI) age 25.8 (24.9-26.7) years; BMI 24.2 (23.2-25.2) kg/m(2)) completed the study. The median servings were significantly different to the reference portions for five foods in the ServAR group, compared to eight foods in the information only group and seven foods for the control group. The cumulative proportion of total estimations per group within ±10%, ±25% and ±50% of the reference portion was greater for those using ServAR (30.7, 65.2 and 90.7%; respectively), compared to the information only group (19.6, 47.4 and 77.4%) and control group (10.0, 33.7 and 68.9%). Participants generally found the ServAR tool easy to use and agreed that it showed potential to support optimal portion size selection. However, some refinements to the ServAR tool are required to improve the user experience. Use of the

  20. 我国针具交换预防吸毒人员艾滋病传播效果评价的Meta分析%Meta-analysis on the Effect of Needle Exchange on Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDE Among Injecting Drug Users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳辉; 汤清波; 王五红; 谭红专

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of needle exchange for preventing and controlling HIV/AIDS in injecting drug users. Methods A computerized literature search was carried out in CBM (Chinese Biomedical Database), CTKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), Wanfang (Chinese) end VIP (Chinese) databases to collect 35 cohort study articles published between 1999 and 2010 concerning the effect of needle exchange for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in injecting drug users. We also checked the reference lists of relevant articles. And Meta- analyses of 7 articles were performed using RevMan 5. Fixed and random effect models were employed to combine the results after a heterogeneity test, with rate difference (RD) used as the indicator of intervention effect. Results The analysis showed that the RD for knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and control, rate of last time sharing needle to inject drug, rate of last month sharing needle to inject drug, rate of last time condom use during extramarital sex behavior, rate of HIV positive were increased or decreased respectively by 42% (30%~53%), 17% (9%~26%), 23% (16%~31%), 16% (12%~20%), and7% (3%~12%). Conclusions Needle exchange is effective in preventing and controlling HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users.%目的 综合评价我国针具交换预防吸毒人员艾滋病传播效果,为在吸毒人群中开展针具交换综合干预决策提供依据.方法 用计算机检索中国生物医学文献光盘数据库(CBM)、万方数据库、中文科技期刊全文数据库(VIP)、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI),并结合文献追溯的方法,共收集35篇1999-2010年国内外公开发表的关于我国吸毒人员针具交换艾滋病预防随机对照队列干预研究的文献.对符合入选标准的7篇文献使用RevMan 5软件进行Meta分析.用RD作为效应指标,对纳入研究进行一致性检验后,采取固定效应模型或随机效应模型

  1. Computer-Aided Pneumatic Circuit Design

    OpenAIRE

    TEKİNER, Zafer; KORKUT, İhsan

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a user-interactive computer program was developed for computer-aided pneumatic circuit design. The pneumatic circuit elements were selected and designed by the determination of the main principles that are in accordance with the aim the user is going to specify. A database was established by forming IGES files for pneumatic circuit elements. In addition to this database, lists displaying the connection nodes of each element were prepared. The coordinates will be conne...

  2. Common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    articles published in peer reviewed journals and magazines. A number of agencies ... women showed a mild public health problem (Table 2). The 2001 surveys ..... vitamin D intake and lack of exposure to sunshine and the available evidence ...

  3. Food security and HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    less land under cultivation, loss of soil fertility4, less labour- .... weight gain, recovery of physical strength and ability to resume ... very sick would receive an extra special high-protein/calorie ..... from taking surplus produce to the market.

  4. Food Security Policy in a Stochastic World

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman, Irma; Berck, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Food security may be increased by variance-reducing strategies, by food aid, or by development strategies. This paper uses a Korea CGE model, subjected to random fluctuation in world-prices and domestic food productivity, to evaluate these policies. We find that poverty-reducing development strategies are the most effective food-security strategies.

  5. Aids for Handicapped Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids…

  6. AIDS.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from AIDS.gov Read more AIDS.gov tweets AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  7. HIV/AIDS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv

  8. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology and possible risk factors associated with the development of cryptosporidiosis among European patients with AIDS. METHODS: An inception cohort of 6548 patients with AIDS, consecutively diagnosed from 1979 to 1989, from 52 centres in 17 European countries was studied....... Data on all AIDS defining events were collected retrospectively from patients' clinical records. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine for possible risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. RESULTS: Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 432 (6.......6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p...

  9. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology and possible risk factors associated with the development of cryptosporidiosis among European patients with AIDS. METHODS: An inception cohort of 6548 patients with AIDS, consecutively diagnosed from 1979 to 1989, from 52 centres in 17 European countries was studied....... Data on all AIDS defining events were collected retrospectively from patients' clinical records. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine for possible risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. RESULTS: Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 432 (6.......6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p...

  10. The Instructional Quality Inventory IV. Job Performance Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    revise a large portion of the training courses. The Instructional Quality Inventory (IQI) was developed to provide quality control/evaluation procedures for ISD. This report is a job performance aid for IQI users.

  11. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  12. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  13. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  14. Avaliação do nível de satisfação de usuários de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individuais dispensados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde Satisfaction evaluation in users of hearing aid dispensed by the Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Danieli

    2011-06-01

    eficaz para avaliar o nível de satisfação dos usuários de AASIs dispensados pelo SUS avaliados neste estudo. Novas pesquisas são necessárias para complementar estes achados.PURPOSE: To culturally adapt the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL questionnaire to be administered in users of hearing aids dispensed by Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS. METHODS: Participants were 19 subjects, users of hearing aids dispensed by SUS for at least three weeks, with ages 60 or older, who had post-lingual hearing loss. Sixty three percent of them were male and 37% were female, with mean age of 73 years and mean duration of hearing aids use of five months. Subjects answered the SADL questionnaire and a single-item Satisfaction Scale, besides a few additional items. The internal consistency analysis of the SADL was carried out, as well as the descriptive analysis of the results, in order to compare them to the normative data reported by the questionnaire authors. The relationship between SADL's global scores and the Satisfaction Scale were also investigated. RESULTS: The results for the overall scores evidenced that subjects, in average, were satisfied with their hearing aids. The same was true for all subscales of the SADL, and the Personal Image subscale had the largest number of people very satisfied. The results were equivalent to those found by the questionnaire authors, and the SADL showed a good internal consistency (0.71. The single-item Satisfaction Scale was closely related to the global score of the SADL. For both satisfaction measures, most subjects demonstrated to be "satisfied" with their hearing aids, and there was a high significant correlation between both scales (0.935. CONCLUSION: In average, subjects were satisfied with their hearing aids dispensed by SUS. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SADL proved to be an effective instrument to assess the level of satisfaction among the users of hearing aids

  15. Crawling Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  16. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  17. Blisters: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Blisters: First aid Blisters: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff If a blister isn't too painful, try to keep it intact. Unbroken skin over a blister may provide a natural barrier to bacteria and ...

  18. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  19. HIV/AIDS Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS Treatment HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development ... such as hepatitis, malaria, and tuberculosis. Treatment of HIV Infection In the early 1980s when the HIV/ ...

  20. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  2. Analysis of high risk behaviors of Drug users related to HIV/AIDS transmitting in some area of Guangxi%广西部分地区吸毒人群艾滋病传播相关高危行为调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怡; 陈杰; 刘伟; 徐广保; 王海涛; 蓝光华; 周月姣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the HIV/AIDS related high risk behaviors &. HIV, HCV, Syphilis situation a-mong injecting drug users in HAARP covered area in Guangxi, so that can evaluate the intervention measures effectiveness in the future. Methods To understand the injecting drug users HIV/AIDS related risk behaviors through questionnaire interview. Results The sample size is 1,868 in this survey, they are all injecting drug users, The HIV positive detection rate of them is between 3. 1% -17. 7% , the condom use rate of last sex of them is between 6. 0% -15. 1%, there are more than 50% of IDUs get new needle/syringes from local pharmacies and private clinics. There are still needle/syringes sharing behaviors among IDUs in 6 sites, and the condom use rate is very low, especially when they having sex with spouse( or housemate). Conclusion The intervention targeting to both drug users and their sexual partners should be a major focus in the future work, especially to the sexually active IDUs, the intervention should include providing education, counseling and condom promotion. Since most of the IDUs getting new needle/syringes from pharmacies and private clinics, different kinds of free needle/syringes delivering models should be recommended , such as providing needle/syringes exchange services in pharmacies and clinics.%目的 为了解中澳艾滋病亚洲区域项目(HAARP)在广西所覆盖地区,注射吸毒人群与艾滋病传播相关高危行为的现状,及艾滋病病毒(HIV)、丙型肝炎、梅毒感染的现状,用于今后评价干预措施的效果.方法 通过现场问卷调查了解6个市县该类人群与艾滋病传播相关的危险行为特征.结果 6个市县所调查的1 868名注射吸毒人员,HIV抗体阳性检出率在3.1%~17.7%;每个市县都有50%以上的调查对象,其注射器来源于当地的药店或私人诊所.最近一次性行为安全套使用率在6.0%~15.1%.6个市县的注射吸毒人员仍然存在共针行为

  3. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10 Section 338.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  4. Perceptual evaluation of noise reduction in hearing aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, I.

    2013-01-01

    Difficulty to understand speech in noisy situations is the number-one complaint of hearing aid users. Hearing aid manufacturers take measures against the problem of speech in noise by implementing signal-processing algorithms that should reduce background noise. The most widely applied measure again

  5. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program Micronutrient- Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... test new or improved micronutrient- fortified food aid products. FAS defines...

  6. The Work of Hunger: Security, Development and Food-for-Work in Post-crisis Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Food-for-work programs distribute food aid to recipients in exchange for labor, and are an important mode of aid delivery for both public and private aid providers. While debate continues as to whether food-for-work programs are socially just and economically sensible, governments, international institutions, and NGOs continue to tout them as a flexible and cost-effective way to deliver targeted aid and promote community development. This paper critiques the underlying logic of food-for-wor...

  7. Housing for people with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schietinger, H

    1988-01-01

    People with AIDS are homeless for a variety of reasons, including financial devastation, rejection based on fear of contagion or fear of the dying process, and homelessness prior to a diagnosis of AIDS. The author developed and directed the Shanti AIDS Residence Program in San Francisco, the first program to provide housing for people with AIDS. This model is appropriate for single, independent people able to live cooperatively with others. It provides shared living situations for three to six people per apartment, and office staff physically maintain the houses and assure that the needs for community-based home care and other services are met. Other models are proposed for people who are physically or cognitively dependent (and require physical care or supervision in addition to housing), who are socially unable to live cooperatively with others in an unstructured living environment (e.g., active substance users or the emotionally disturbed), or who have families (e.g., mothers with dependent children or gay men who live with their lovers).

  8. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-04-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders.

  9. 77 FR 65199 - Generic Drug User Fee-Backlog Fee Rate for Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee--Backlog Fee Rate for Fiscal Year 2013...) is announcing the ] rate for the backlog fee related to generic drug user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2013. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Generic Drug User...

  10. 78 FR 46958 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures... generic new animal drug user fees. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Animal Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2013, which was signed by the President on June...

  11. The User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  12. User Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....

  13. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  14. Franklin: User Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun (Helen); Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  15. The User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  16. 21 CFR 178.3570 - Lubricants with incidental food contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3570 Lubricants with incidental food contact.... Polybutene, hydrogenated; complying with the identity prescribed under § 178.3740 Do. Polyethylene Do...

  17. Home Health Aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specifications Help to keep clients engaged in their social networks and communities Home health aides, unlike personal care aides , typically work ... self-care and everyday tasks. They also provide social supports and assistance that enable clients to participate in their ... more information about home health aides, including voluntary credentials for aides, visit ...

  18. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted on request by DG SANCO. Addendum to FGE. 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 76, 77, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85 and 87

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... of commerce have also been considered and for eight stereoisomeric substances [FL-no: 06.040, 08.073, 09.371, 09.780, 10.050, 13.060, 13.161 and 16.039], the stereoisomeric composition has to be specified further....

  19. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  20. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  1. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  2. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133... Cheese and Related Products § 133.134 Cream cheese with other foods. (a) Description. Cream cheese with other foods is the class of foods prepared by mixing, with or without the aid of heat, cream cheese...

  3. Reprodutibilidade de um questionário para avaliação de conhecimentos, percepções e práticas em segurança sanitária alimentar de portadores de HIV/AIDS ambulatoriais Reliability of a questionnaire to assess food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices among outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Helena Maia Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Portadores de HIV/AIDS são vulneráveis a muitos tipos de infecções, incluindo aquelas veiculadas por água e alimentos. O alto risco às infecções gastrintestinais poderia ser minimizado através do aconselhamento dietético, no ambiente das unidades de saúde ambulatoriais, visando à adoção de práticas de segurança sanitária alimentar. A pesquisa realizada teve como objetivo, dentre outros, avaliar os conhecimentos, as percepções e práticas em segurança alimentar de portadores de HIV/AIDS ambulatoriais. Para tal, elaborou-se questionário, a partir de cinco áreas temáticas (prevenção da contaminação cruzada; higiene pessoal e ambiental; controle de temperaturas; e consumo de alimentos de risco. O que se apresenta é o estudo de reprodutibilidade desse instrumento, para o qual foi utilizado o procedimento de teste e re-teste. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que os valores kappa oscilaram de forte para 84,6% (33, moderado para 12,8% (5, a discreto para 2,5% (1 das questões testadas. Nossos resultados sugerem que o instrumento apresenta um bom nível de reprodutibilidade sendo uma boa opção para o levantamento de informações sobre segurança alimentar de pacientes portadores de HIV/AIDS.HIV-positive patients are at increased risk of acquiring infections, particularly those related to water and food. The risk could be reduced by educational interventions in the clinical setting related to food safety for the prevention of food-borne diseases. The current study aimed to analyze food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices among HIV-positive outpatients. A questionnaire was organized with five behavioral areas (cross contamination; personal hygiene; household hygiene; temperature control; and control of unsafe foods. The test-retest procedure demonstrated the questionnaire's reliability. Kappa values varied among the questions: high for 84.6% (33; moderate for 12.8% (5; and low for 2.5% (1. Based on the results

  4. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on lipase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FL)

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Morten; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2014-01-01

    The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a lipase (triacylglycerol lipase; EC 3.1.1.3) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA. The lipase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as oils, fats and eggs processing. The dietary exposure was assessed on the basis of data retrieved from the EFSA Compreh...

  5. HEARING AID USE IN PATIENTS WITH PRESBYACUSIS: A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karimaneh A. Eftekharian

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The acceptability of hearing aids in people with presbyacusis has been improved but assessment of whether there is a need for more counseling to increase the number of regular hearing-aid users seems to be important. The aim of this study was to determine if the hearing aid was worn regularly and over a long period of time in people with presbyacusis. A questionnaire survey of patients with presbyacusis who had been fitted with a monaural behind the ear hearing aid for the first time was undertaken. The patients were divided into four groups ranging from 6 months to 3 years after fitting. Overall regular long-term use of the hearing aid was found in the majority of patients with presbyacusis. The main dropout point was within the first year after fitting the hearing aid. The study furthermore revealed a relatively high demand for further help and advice with the hearing aid in all groups.

  6. HIV/AIDS Medicines: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases) Children Approved Antiretroviral Drugs Used for Pediatric Treatment of HIV Infection (Food and Drug Administration) Patient Handouts FDA-Approved HIV Medicines (AIDSinfo) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get HIV/AIDS ...

  7. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 220, Revision 1 (FGE.220Rev1): alpha,beta-Unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.4 of FGE.19: 3(2H)-Furanones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs...... genotoxic effects in germ cells, which theoretically may result in reduced reproductive capacity or in inheritable genetic damage. Reduced reproductive capacity and inheritable genetic damage are toxicological endpoints which differ from carcinogenicity and therefore, the negative results...... that the representative substance for subgroup 4.4b, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one [FL-no: 13.010], is unable to induce adverse effects both on male rat reproductive capacity and dominant lethality. On this basis, the Panel concludes that there is no concern for this substance to induce heritable genetic damage...

  8. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  9. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  10. Food Insecurity, Poor Diet Quality, and Obesity among Food Pantry Participants in Hartford, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina, Kate A.; Martin, Katie S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examine relationships between food security, diet quality, and body mass index (BMI) among food pantry users. Methods: Convenience sample of 212 food pantry clients in Hartford, CT from June, 2010 to May, 2011. Main outcomes included food security (United States Department of Agriculture module), fruit and vegetable consumption (Block…

  11. [Latino Religious Leadership Project of the Latino Commission on AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, G

    1996-01-01

    The Latino community has strong religious and spiritual traditions, and there is a need for spiritual leadership. To address these needs, the Latino Leadership Project of the Latino Commission on AIDS offers prevention and education activities. The Commission refers religious leaders to the Latino community. Churches offer food and clothing banks, and counseling services to persons living with HIV/AIDS.

  12. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on lipase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    . The lipase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as oils, fats and eggs processing. The dietary exposure was assessed on the basis of data retrieved from the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. The food enzyme did not induce gene mutations in bacteria nor......The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a lipase (triacylglycerol lipase; EC 3.1.1.3) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA...... chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. Therefore, there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity. The systemic toxicity was assessed by means of a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in rodents. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level was derived, which compared with the dietary exposure results...

  13. Senior Aids for Senior Readers; A Visual Aids Pamphlet for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Public Library, TX.

    A pamphlet on special aids for senior library users lists items available from the Houston Public Library. Magnifiers (some illuminated), bedspecs (prism glasses), book holders, large print telephone dials, and games suitable for the visually handicapped or bedridden are described. The library's collections of slides and films, both 8mm and 16mm,…

  14. Monitoring driver’s mental workload for user adaptive aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Gebruikers-adaptieve machines gebruiken sensortechnieken en computer algoritmes om interne toestanden van de gebruiker af te leiden en beslissingen te nemen op basis van deze informatie. Toekomstige generaties auto’s zouden hiermee in staat kunnen worden gesteld actie te ondernemen indien de rijcapa

  15. Training Aide: Research and Guidance for Effective Training User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    etc. • Citation – Standard APA format citation including authors, year, title, and source information. • Abstract – Cut & paste from publication if...authors, publication year, citation , abstract, document type, data source, report type, and document creator (Figure 41). Hyperlinks are available...standard APA format last name, first initial. • Year – The year the document was published. • Document Type – Identifies the document source as a

  16. SWATHGEN Computer-Aided Design System User’s Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    cross-sections and 8 longitudi- nal curves at equally spaced polar angles about the lower hull centerline. Hidden lines on the lower hull are removed...while hidden lines on the strut and box are shown dashed. The hull may be shown from any viewpoint given by (R, PHI, THETA). PHI is the polar angle in x...cant angle (radians) STO Toe-out angle (radians) SSS Strut separation at leading edge-waterplane BOX DATA 5 BDD Depth BDC Clearance BDF Forward

  17. User evaluation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine

    2004-01-01

    The BIKVA-model (brugerinddragelse i kvalitetsvurdering) or in english UPQA (User Participation in Quality Assessment) are presented......The BIKVA-model (brugerinddragelse i kvalitetsvurdering) or in english UPQA (User Participation in Quality Assessment) are presented...

  18. User Privacy and Empowerment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2017-01-01

    of personal information and its manage-ment. Thus, empowering users and enhancing awareness are essential to compre-hending the value of secrecy. This paper also introduced latest advances in the domain of privacy issues like User Managed Access (UMA) can state suitable requirements for user empowerment...... and will cater to redefine the trustworthy relationship between service providers and users. Subsequently, this paper con-cludes with suggestions for providing empowerment to the user and developing user-centric, transparent business models.......Today, the service providers are capable of assembling a huge measure of user information using Big data techniques. For service providers, user infor-mation has become a vital asset. The present business models are attentive to collect extensive users’ information to extract useful knowledge...

  19. Sustainable Development of Food Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabech, B.; Georgsson, F.; Gry, Jørn

    to food safety - Strengthen efforts against zoonoses and pathogenic microorganisms - Strengthen safe food handling and food production in industry and with consumers - Restrict the occurrence of chemical contaminants and ensure that only well-examined production aids, food additives and flavours are used...... - Strengthen scientific knowledge of food safety - Strengthen consumer knowledge The goals for sustainable development of food safety are listed from farm to fork". All of the steps and areas are important for food safety and consumer protection. Initiatives are needed in all areas. Many of the goals...... in other areas. It should be emphasized that an indicator will be an excellent tool to assess the efficacy of initiatives started to achieve a goal. Conclusions from the project are: - Sustainable development in food safety is important for humanity - Focus on the crucial goals would optimize the efforts...

  20. AIDS e doenças oportunistas transmissíveis na faixa de fronteira Brasileira AIDS and transmissible opportunistic diseases in the Brazilian border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior

    2010-10-01

    AIDS cases that had been reported by municipalities in the Brazilian border area. METHODS: Brazilian border area municipalities were grouped into three cultural regions; the source data was AIDS cases registered with the Ministry of Health from 1990 to 2003, which were classified according to CDC-adapted, Rio de Janeiro/Caracas and death criteria; detected communicable opportunistic diseases were categorized into groups according to transmission: 1 inhalation agent; 2 contaminated water and/or food ingestion, and 3 interpersonal contact. The descriptive evaluation considered cultural region, years of schooling, sex and age group. RESULTS: Different AIDS incidence patterns were observed among groups of opportunistic diseases in each cultural region. The extreme southern region showed the greatest incidence of AIDS; the absolute incidence of female cases was greatest in the category of heterosexual transmission; the number of male cases was greatest among intravenous drug users; transmission was most frequent in the interpersonal contact group, particularly incidences of candidiasis; tuberculoses and pneumonias were most frequent in the inhalation agent transmission group; the contaminated water/food ingestion transmission group showed an unchanged pattern of absolute incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian border area is a very important and heterogeneous geographic phenomenon; AIDS programs must recognize different cultural geographies.

  1. Transparent User Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking text examines the problem of user authentication from a completely new viewpoint. Rather than describing the requirements, technologies and implementation issues of designing point-of-entry authentication, the book introduces and investigates the technological requirements of implementing transparent user authentication -- where authentication credentials are captured during a user's normal interaction with a system. This approach would transform user authentication from a binary point-of-entry decision to a continuous identity confidence measure. Topics and features: discu

  2. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Keidser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  3. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    technologies or software has been developed. A variety of user requirements are provided illustrating the effect of changing the targeted user group with respect to age,; to the context and the different technologies or software as well as to the difference in viewpoint on ways of involving users...

  4. Network analytical tool for monitoring global food safety highlights China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepusz, Tamás; Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-08-18

    The Beijing Declaration on food safety and security was signed by over fifty countries with the aim of developing comprehensive programs for monitoring food safety and security on behalf of their citizens. Currently, comprehensive systems for food safety and security are absent in many countries, and the systems that are in place have been developed on different principles allowing poor opportunities for integration. We have developed a user-friendly analytical tool based on network approaches for instant customized analysis of food alert patterns in the European dataset from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Data taken from alert logs between January 2003-August 2008 were processed using network analysis to i) capture complexity, ii) analyze trends, and iii) predict possible effects of interventions by identifying patterns of reporting activities between countries. The detector and transgressor relationships are readily identifiable between countries which are ranked using i) Google's PageRank algorithm and ii) the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg. The program identifies Iran, China and Turkey as the transgressors with the largest number of alerts. However, when characterized by impact, counting the transgressor index and the number of countries involved, China predominates as a transgressor country. This study reports the first development of a network analysis approach to inform countries on their transgressor and detector profiles as a user-friendly aid for the adoption of the Beijing Declaration. The ability to instantly access the country-specific components of the several thousand annual reports will enable each country to identify the major transgressors and detectors within its trading network. Moreover, the tool can be used to monitor trading countries for improved detector/transgressor ratios.

  5. Network analytical tool for monitoring global food safety highlights China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Beijing Declaration on food safety and security was signed by over fifty countries with the aim of developing comprehensive programs for monitoring food safety and security on behalf of their citizens. Currently, comprehensive systems for food safety and security are absent in many countries, and the systems that are in place have been developed on different principles allowing poor opportunities for integration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a user-friendly analytical tool based on network approaches for instant customized analysis of food alert patterns in the European dataset from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Data taken from alert logs between January 2003-August 2008 were processed using network analysis to i capture complexity, ii analyze trends, and iii predict possible effects of interventions by identifying patterns of reporting activities between countries. The detector and transgressor relationships are readily identifiable between countries which are ranked using i Google's PageRank algorithm and ii the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg. The program identifies Iran, China and Turkey as the transgressors with the largest number of alerts. However, when characterized by impact, counting the transgressor index and the number of countries involved, China predominates as a transgressor country. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the first development of a network analysis approach to inform countries on their transgressor and detector profiles as a user-friendly aid for the adoption of the Beijing Declaration. The ability to instantly access the country-specific components of the several thousand annual reports will enable each country to identify the major transgressors and detectors within its trading network. Moreover, the tool can be used to monitor trading countries for improved detector/transgressor ratios.

  6. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  7. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ...

  8. Aids and Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    HIV/AIDS patients require surgery sometimes during their illness. ... risks to surgical equipes and analysing preventive strategies to HIV ... problems in patients presenting HIV, AIDS and ... Dentistry, Surgery of Awolowo University in Nigeria3.

  9. First Aid: Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media First Aid: Warts KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Warts Print A ... plantar warts. Signs and Symptoms Of a common wart include: located on back of hands, around nails, ...

  10. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  11. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  12. CaMath user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ben-chin; Daly, B.

    1994-07-13

    CaMath is an external Mathematica package which can be loaded into Mathematica by a user. CaMath consists of a special set of channel access functions which provides the Mathematica users with easy and flexible access of channel information across the IOC networks. It also provides a complete set of process variable event monitoring functions. The available functions for CaMath, their functionality, and their syntax are described herein. This document also gives examples how a Mathematica user can interface to channel access devices. It is assumed that the user is already familiar with using Mathematica. Few examples of Mathematica module of using CaMath functions are also given in this document.

  13. 西宁市女子吸毒人群艾滋病、梅毒及丙肝感染状况监测分析%MONITORING ANALYSIS OF HIV/AIDS, SYPHILIS AND HCV AMONG FEMALE DRUG USERS IN XINING CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付丽琴

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analyse the infection of HIV/AIDS, syphilis and HCV among female drug usera in Xining City. [Methods] We retrospectively analyzed 322 female drug users in our department from January 2009 to October 2011, took their blood and conducted the detections of HIV/AIDS, syphilis antibody and anu'-HCV. [Results] Among 322 female drug users, infection rate of HCV was highest, up to 69.6%, the next were syphilis of 8.7% and HIV of 1.29b.The infection distributed in 340 years, 30-39 years, 20-29 years, HIV distributed 20-29 years, 30-39 years, and syphilis distributed < 20 years, 20-29 years, 30-39 years, and HCV distributed in 30-39 years, ? 40 years, 20-29 years. The highest rate of nationality was Han Chinese nationality, next Hui nationality, Tibetan nationality and others. There were 2 cases of HIV in Han Chinese nationality (0.4%) and Hui nationality (1.4%), the others were 2 cases (33.3%). The incidence of syphilis was 1 case (16.7%) mothers, Hui nationality 11 cases (15.9%), Han nationality 16 cases (6.6%). The incidence of HCV were 6 cases in others (100*), Han nationalityl69 cases (70.1%), Tibetan nationality 4 cases (66.7%), Hui nationality 45 cases (65.2%). Most personnel with drug abuse was married, next unmarried and cohabitant, divorce, widow. HIV and syphilis were most found in the groups of unmarried and cohabitant. HCV was most found in the group of married. [Conclusion] The drug users are with high risk in infection of HIV/AIDS, syphilis and HCV, the major factors are aged, nationality, married and a long time to eat drug will damage the organs, and it should strengthen clinical monitoring.%[目的]分析西宁市女子吸毒人员艾滋病病毒(HⅣ)、梅毒螺旋体(TP)和丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)感染状况.[方法]回顾性分析西宁市2009年1月~2011年10月监测的女性吸毒人员共322例,进行抽血检测Anti-HIV、梅毒抗体、Anti-HCV检查,对其结果进行统计分析.[结果]322例女性

  14. DOSFAC2 user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.L.; Chanin, D.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the DOSFAC2 code, which is used for generating dose-to-source conversion factors for the MACCS2 code. DOSFAC2 is a revised and updated version of the DOSFAC code that was distributed with version 1.5.11 of the MACCS code. included are (1) an overview and background of DOSFAC2, (2) a summary of two new functional capabilities, and (3) a user`s guide. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on xylanase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Hallas-Møller, Torben

    The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a xylanase (endo-1,4-β-xylanase; EC 3.2.1.8) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA...... safety concern. Based on the genetic modifications performed, the manufacturing process, the compositional and biochemical data provided and the toxicological studies, this food enzyme does not raise safety concern under the intended conditions of use....

  16. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  17. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A; Glauser, M P; Weber, R; Katlama, C; Barton, S E; Lundgren, J D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology and possible risk factors associated with the development of cryptosporidiosis among European patients with AIDS. METHODS: An inception cohort of 6548 patients with AIDS, consecutively diagnosed from 1979 to 1989, from 52 centres in 17 European countries was studied. Data on all AIDS defining events were collected retrospectively from patients' clinical records. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine for possible risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. RESULTS: Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 432 (6.6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p < 0.001). The probability was also higher for patients from Central Europe compared with patients from South Europe (4.1% versus 2.5%, p = 0.005). The rate of developing cryptosporidiosis after the diagnosis of AIDS was 3 per 100 patient years of follow-up. The rate was significantly lower for intravenous drug users than for homosexual men (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence limits 0.22-0.54) and for women compared with men (RR 0.43 (0.21-0.87)). The risk was higher in North Europe than in South and Central Europe. In a multivariate analysis only transmission category remained a significant predictor for the development of cryptosporidiosis. CONCLUSION: The development of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients may be associated with sexual risk behaviour. PMID:8698361

  18. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  19. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  20. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest foods, such as soda crackers, toast, gelatin, bananas and rice. Stop eating if your nausea returns. ... food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/the-big-thaw-safe-defrosting- ...

  1. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  2. Fever: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fever: First aid Fever: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fever is a rise in body temperature. It's usually a sign of infection. The ... 2 C) or higher Should I treat a fever? When you or your child is sick, the ...

  3. Stroke: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when normal blood flow to ... next several hours. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  4. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  5. AIDS awareness: Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhar, N

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the level of public awareness of AIDS in India was conducted on 600 men and women from Aligarth town, 180 km east of Delhi, and in Srinagar City in Kashmir Valley. Subjects were chosen from illiterate and below matriculate level; matriculate to graduate level; and graduate and above. Subjects were asked if they had heard of a disease called AIDS, when they first hears about AIDS, what was their 1st source of information, what are the reasons behind the incidence of AIDS and whether they are scared of AIDS. None of the illiterate group had heard of AIDS. 24% of the men and 14% of the women in the matriculate and graduate level group (clerks, mechanics, primary school teachers, businessmen and undergraduate students) had heard of AIDS. 92% of the highest educated group (lawyers, engineers, school principals and university students or teachers) had heard of AIDS. The 8% who had not were mostly women. Most of the highly educated, but fewer of the middle group were afraid of AIDS, but most thought AIDS would not spread in India because "our life pattern is different." None was aware that AIDS can spread from unchecked blood transfusions and re-use of unsterilized needles in hospitals. The most common information sources were newspapers, radio, magazines and friends. Most had not heard of AIDS from doctors or other health workers, or from television, which could be an extremely effective medium to reach people.

  6. Designing State Aid Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  7. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...

  8. "Come back when you're dying:" the commodification of AIDS among California's urban poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Johanna; Quirk, Kathleen; van der Straten, Ariane

    2002-10-01

    As with any other long-term illness, the decline in health that accompanies symptomatic HIV infection often has a profound negative impact on employment and personal finances. However, research to date on the financial consequences of AIDS has focused largely on middle-class working individuals, and cannot account for the experiences of those who are already poor and unemployed at the time of their infection. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 33 Californian heterosexual couples in which one partner was infected with HIV and the other was HIV-negative. Most couples interviewed were low-income, marginally housed, and either former or active substance users. Unlike their middle-class counterparts, it became clear through the course of our study that many participating couples were living in a world in which a positive HIV antibody test or an AIDS diagnosis could result in an improved quality of life by allowing for increased access to Supplemental Security Income, subsidized housing, food and services. This situation is in part a consequence of recent policy decisions related to the "War on Drugs" and welfare reform. These policies have contributed to the creation of an economy of poverty in which the sick, needy, and addicted must compete against each other for scarce resources. Within such an economy, an HIV or AIDS diagnosis may actually operate as a commodity.

  9. International Food Assistance: A U.S. Governmentwide Strategy Could Accelerate Progress Toward Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    Organization ( FAO ). Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of food insecurity , with 1 out of every 3 people undernourished. Global... food security.1 This problem is especially severe in sub-Saharan Africa, the region where food insecurity is most prevalent with 1 out of every 3...estimates of the United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ). As the largest international donor, contributing over half of all food aid

  10. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...... and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding...

  11. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben;

    in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all....../region. The preferred data collection method is field studies. If possible, user researchers choose to go to the field themselves to gain rich insights and to control the data collection process. The main insights companies gain from international user studies are (1) that there are many similarities among end users...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...

  12. AIDS-case surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  13. 75 FR 73103 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Drug User...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Johnny Vilela, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Animal Drug User Fee Cover Sheet; FDA Form 3546...

  14. 76 FR 58277 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request... comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting on the Animal Generic Drug... on the Internet at...

  15. AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, S G; Robey, B

    1988-09-01

    , intravenous drug users, and prison inmates. 3) HIV testing of foreigners and students returning from abroad was discouraged due to its logistic impracticality and consumption of health resources. 4) AIDS education in the schools and sterile needle distribution to drug addicts was encouraged.

  16. Philippines to seek Thai assistance in fighting AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A group of Philippine officials left for Thailand to learn from the Thai government's experience in fighting AIDS. Thailand has one of the highest AIDS levels in Asia and has instituted a variety of public and private programs to deal with the disease. Health Undersecretary Carmencita Reodica, who is leading the delegation, said the Philippines does not expect as many AIDS cases as Thailand. "But if the Philippines does not improve its planning and surveillance system, we could face the same threat in the future," she said. Thailand has a good surveillance program, valuable support services such as mobile clinics, and active private groups fighting AIDS, she said. The group is to meet with Prime Minister Banharn Silpa-archa, who heads the Thai National AIDS Council, and other officials involved in Thailand's anti-AIDS campaign. Thailand has recorded 22,135 AIDS cases and 750,000 people with HIV. In comparison, the Philippine government has documented only 234 AIDS cases in the Philippines and 704 people with HIV. Health officials estimate that as many as 35,000 people in the country are infected with HIV. While Thailand monitors the number of AIDS cases in the general population, the Philippines only monitors the disease among so-called high-risk groups such as prostitutes, homosexuals, and intravenous drug users. Reodica said legislation is needed in the Philippines to support the country's AIDS program, as well as to answer ethical and legal issues concerning AIDS cases. full text

  17. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  18. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  19. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  20. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  1. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  2. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  3. Transgenics, agroindustry and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alejandro León Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty has been implemented constitutionally in Ecuador; however, many of the actions and policies are designed to benefit the dominant model of food production, based in agroindustry, intensive monocultures, agrochemicals and transgenics. This article reflects upon the role of family farming as a generator of food sovereignty, and secondly the threat to them by agroindustry agriculture based in transgenic. The role played by food aid in the introduction of transgenic in Latin America and other regions of the world is also analyzed.

  4. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  5. 21 CFR 338.50 - Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. 338... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 338.50 Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of...

  6. Aide alimentaire et humanitaire : analyses économiques des donneurs aux bénéficiaires

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrière, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Humanitarian and food aid have been widely criticized because of a lack of efficacy. This thesis investigates the behavior of each different actors involved in the process that could explained the relative efficacy of aid. The first part of the work investigates changes in decisions of production, sales and purchases induced by food aid. It looks at the extensive and intensive margin. The second chapter focuses on donors and implementing agencies. It documents humanitarian aid allocation and ...

  7. Adaptive mobility aids for the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Glenn; Gunderson, James; Cvetanovich, Michael; Kell, Steven; Graves, S.; Felder, Robin A.

    2001-10-01

    Loss of mobility in the elderly causes a significant economic burden to caregivers and is one of the most significant determinants of depression and loss of muscle strength and productivity in this age group. Mobility aids can assist with locomotion by providing physical support, however they fail to provide direction guidance and avoidance of obstacles and hazards. This talk will focus on design of intelligent adaptive wheeled walkers. By allowing the user varying degrees of control, from complete to collaborative, these walkers afford the user with the feeling of control, while helping to increase the ease and safety of their daily travels. The control systems of these walkers differ from those of other mobility aids and mobile robots because they must both assist in mobility and provide balance and support, but also give directional aid if necessary. These functions must be performed in a tight loop adaptation with a human whose input may be difficult to predict. Through the use of a wheeled walker equipped with force and sonar sensors, we were able to develop an intelligent self-guided mobility aid that can provide improved independence, autonomy, and quality of life for the elderly.

  8. Network Control Center User Planning System (NCC UPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealy, Brian

    1991-01-01

    NCC UPS is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: UPS overview; NCC UPS role; major NCC UPS functional requirements; interactive user access levels; UPS interfaces; interactive user subsystem; interface navigation; scheduling screen hierarchy; interactive scheduling input panels; autogenerated schedule request panel; schedule data tabular display panel; schedule data graphic display panel; graphic scheduling aid design; and schedule data graphic display.

  9. Processing of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  10. [AIDS research and prevention strategies in Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisch, H

    1997-04-01

    The first case of AIDS was registered in Thailand in 1984; this syndrome was deemed to be mainly a disease affecting homosexuals and foreigners. However, soon thereafter its incidence among prostitutes and intravenous drug users increased. According to 1995 data, the number of AIDS patients was about 20,000 and there were approximately 800,000 HIV-positive people. A 1991 map of the AIDS incidence showed that, after the Bangkok metropolitan area, the province of Chiang Mai in the north exhibited a particularly high rate of infection. According to a medium-range forecast, by the year 2010 there will be close to 2.3 million cumulative HIV infection cases and 1.2 million AIDS cases in Thailand. This corresponds to an infection rate of about 3.2% vs. the present 2%. It is estimated that about 20% of all mortality in the age range of 20-48 years in the year 2000 will be caused by AIDS. In 1995, the prime minister predicted that AIDS would cause a 20% drop of the GDP by 2000. The boom of the economy in the 1980s and the early 1990s led to migration to the cities, where prostitution and drug use are rampant, as well as to the emergence of sex tourism, mainly from Germany (40,000-60,000 Germans traveled to Thailand in 1990). The age-old tradition among married men of seeking out the services of prostitutes, lack of condom use (only 20% of men intend to use it, according to recent studies), and disregard for the AIDS problem among the populace are other factors contributing to the rapid spread of AIDS. UNAIDS has undertaken sex education and other information campaigns to counter the epidemic.

  11. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  12. The User Reconfigured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2015-01-01

    Foundational to HCI is the notion of “the user.” Whether a cognitive processor, social actor, consumer, or even a non- user, the user in HCI has always been as much a technical construct as actual people using systems. We explore an emerging formulation of the user—the subjectivity of in- formation......, and activism. We argue that subjectivi- ties of information clarifies the relationships between de- sign choices and embodied experiences, ways that designers design users and not just products, and ways to cultivate and transform, rather than merely support, human agency....

  13. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  14. Development of a Novel Food Waste Collection Kiosk and Waste-to-Energy Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Franchetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. generates more than 37 million metric tons of food waste each year, and over 95% of it is disposed of at U.S. landfills. This paper describes the development of a novel food waste collection kiosk and business model called “Greenbox” that will collect and store food waste from households and restaurants with incentives for user participation to spur food waste-to-energy production in a local community. Greenbox offers a low-cost collection point to divert food waste from landfills, reduce greenhouse gases from decomposition, and aid in generating cleaner energy. A functional prototype was successfully developed by a team of engineering students and a business model was created as part of a senior design capstone course. Each Greenbox unit has the potential to reduce 275 metric tons of food waste per year, remove 1320 kg of greenhouse gases, and create 470,000 liters of methane gas while providing a payback period of 4.2 years and a rate of return of 14.9%.

  15. Demonstrator 1: User Interface and User Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Describes the user interface and its functionality in a prototype system used for a virtual seminar session. The functionality is restricted to what is needed for a distributed seminar discussion among not too many people. The system is designed to work with the participants distributed at several...

  16. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  17. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  18. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  19. 78 FR 32581 - Tobacco Products, User Fees, Requirements for the Submission of Data Needed To Calculate User...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... any product made or derived from tobacco that is intended for human consumption, including any... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1150 RIN 0910-AG81 Tobacco Products, User Fees... of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...

  20. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  1. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    at home. For this they can thank the National Federation of Gays and Lesbians (LBL). -To develop an adequate core of specialists in AIDS prevention... Homosexuality [Vusie Ginindza; Mbabane THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND, 15 May 91] ...................................... 4 JPRS-TEP-91-012 5 June 1991 2 AIDS TANZANIA...sensitivity and not to sensa- tionalize the issue. Health Workers ’Alarmed’ at rise in AIDS, Homosexuality SWAZILAND MB1505085891 Mbabane THE TIMES

  2. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  3. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  4. UNDO,An Aid for Explorative Learning?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HarldE.Otto

    1992-01-01

    New users of an application system,especially computer novices,can become confused and frustrated after experiencing the first,perhaps not recoverable error situations during the early stages of exploration and learning.System facilities,which let users UNO and REDO executed commands,are suggested to be and aid for active learning and can be used as a method for systematic exploration through recovering from unknown and newly explored (perhapw wrong)system states by cancelling executed commands with UNDO.An explorative learning experiment on a commercial graphics editor with a modified user interface revealed reasons.why one-step recall UNDO does not guarantee successful explorative learning of a comples connitive skill such as graphics editing on computer.

  5. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  6. User programmable virtualized networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.J.; Strijkers, R.J.; Gommans, L.; Laat, C.de

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a User Programmable Virtualized Network, which allows networks to deliver application specific services using network element components that developers can program as part of a users application. The use of special tokens in data or control packets is the basis

  7. Additional user needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorschach, H.E.; Hayter, J.B.

    1986-08-15

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of a discussion group on users' needs held at the Workshop on an Advanced Steady-State Neutron Facility. The discussion was devoted to reactor characteristics, special facilities and siting considerations suggested by user needs.

  8. EMI New User Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, M

    2013-01-01

    This document provides pieces of information about new user communities that directly or indirectly take advantage of EMI Products. Each user community is described via one specific EMI product use case to understand and communicate the current usage of EMI Products in practice.

  9. Section 4. The GIS Weasel User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viger, Roland J.; Leavesley, George H.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The GIS Weasel was designed to aid in the preparation of spatial information for input to lumped and distributed parameter hydrologic or other environmental models. The GIS Weasel provides geographic information system (GIS) tools to help create maps of geographic features relevant to a user's model and to generate parameters from those maps. The operation of the GIS Weasel does not require the user to be a GIS expert, only that the user have an understanding of the spatial information requirements of the environmental simulation model being used. The GIS Weasel software system uses a GIS-based graphical user interface (GUI), the C programming language, and external scripting languages. The software will run on any computing platform where ArcInfo Workstation (version 8.0.2 or later) and the GRID extension are accessible. The user controls the processing of the GIS Weasel by interacting with menus, maps, and tables. The purpose of this document is to describe the operation of the software. This document is not intended to describe the usage of this software in support of any particular environmental simulation model. Such guides are published separately.

  10. A Formal Approach to User Interface Design using Hybrid System Theory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optimal Synthesis Inc.(OSI) proposes to develop an aiding tool for user interface design that is based on mathematical formalism of hybrid system theory. The...

  11. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  12. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  13. User Frustrations as Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the unique skills and technical capabilities available to the entrepreneur. Finally, an in-depth understanding of the user allows the entrepreneur to hone in on the points of difference and resonance that are the foundation of a strong customer value proposition.

  14. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    , deliver and capture the value of an innovatively new device together. From the perspective of the lead user, we show antecedents and effects of social interaction between organizational actors and the lead user on the development of social capital, especially trust and shared imagination. The second case......User innovation and especially the integration of lead users is a key topic in the innovation management literature of recent years. This paper contributes by providing a rare perspective into what easily could be seen as innovation failure, shown from two perspectives. We show how a lack of shared...... imagination hampers participation and kills innovation between interdependent stakeholders at the threshold between invention and innovation in practice. We present a first case in the fun-sport industry where an external lead user and diverse firm representatives in different functions fail to create...

  15. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...... a company’s general attitude and approach to (1) international markets and (2) user studies. Lastly, we present the theoretical ideas and concepts about culture that has informed the research....... in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...

  16. User participation in implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte; Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical...... system by empirically analyzing how management, participating staff, and non-participating staff view the implementation process with respect to areas that have previously been linked to user participation such as system quality, emergent interactions, and psychological buy-in. The participating staff...... experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need...

  17. The PANTHER User Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coram, Jamie L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perkins, David Nikolaus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  18. FACET: The New User Facility at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, C.I.; Decker, F.J.; Erikson, R.; Hast, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Li, S.Z.; Nosochkov, Y.; Phinney, N.; Sheppard, J.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC; Seryi, A.; /Oxford U., JAI; Wittmer, W.; /Michigan State U.

    2011-12-13

    FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests) is a new User Facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Its high power electron and positron beams make it a unique facility, ideal for beam-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration studies. The first 2 km of the SLAC linac produce 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron and positron beams with short bunch lengths of 20 {mu}m. A final focusing system can produce beam spots 10 {mu}m wide. User-aided Commissioning took place in summer 2011 and FACET will formally come online in early 2012. We present the User Facility, the current features, planned upgrades and the opportunities for further experiments. Accelerators are our primary tool for discovering the fundamental laws to the universe. Each new frontier we probe requires a new, more powerful method. Accelerators are therefore increasing in size and cost. The future of this field requires new accelerating techniques that can reach the high energies required over shorter distances. New concepts for high gradient acceleration include utilizing the wakes in plasma and dielectric and metallic structures. FACET was built to provide a test bed for novel accelerating concepts with its high charge and highly compressed beams. As a test facility unlike any other, it has also attracted groups interested in beam diagnostic techniques and terahertz studies. The first phase of the construction was completed in May 2011. Beam commissioning began in June and was interleaved with the installation of five experiments. Users were invited to aid with the commissioning for the month of August during which time experimental hardware and software were checked out and some first measurements were taken. FACET is currently in the process of becoming a Department of Energy User Facility for High Energy Physics.

  19. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV.

  20. 77 FR 72359 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request... comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the following meeting: Animal Generic Drug... Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act (AGDUFA II). Date and Time: The meeting will be held on December...

  1. Antenna Test Facility (ATF): User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ATF. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  2. Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility (VATF): User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the VATF. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  3. Processo de adaptação de próteses auditivas em usuários atendidos em uma instituição pública federal - parte I: resultados e implicações com o uso da amplificação Hearing aids fitting process in users that are seen in a federal public institution: part I -results and implications with the amplification device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Dias de Freitas

    2007-12-01

    , with bilaterally symmetrical hearing losses, sensorineural or mixed, from moderate to moderately severe degrees and hearing aid users of digital or hybrid hearing aids. We carried out an interview approaching topics related to device use, battery handling, ear molds and hearing aids, as well as sound amplification characteristics. RESULTS: 12.90%, 58.06% and 67.74% of the interviewees presented difficulties related to battery, ear molds or capsules and amplification characteristics, respectively. CONCLUSION: the majority of the individuals presented some kind of complaint related to hearing aids characteristics, and difficulties related to users' expectations, communication skills and monetary cost and the Municipal Health Care Network, which all interfered in the audiological rehabilitation.

  4. How do HIV and AIDS impact the use of natural resources by poor rural populations? The case of wild animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Shackleton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of heightened financial and food insecurity, populations adversely affected by HIV and/or AIDS may be more likely to utilise wild natural resources to supplement their diet and livelihoods. Should this effect be pronounced, HIV and AIDS may pose a serious environmental threat. We explored the hypothesis that the presence of factors in the household, such as chronic illness in and recent mortality of individuals in a high HIV-risk age group, as well as the fostering of orphans, are associated with increased utilisation of wild animal products (WAPs at the household level. We randomly surveyed 519 households from four sites in rural South Africa, recording household socio-economic status, the utilisation of wild animal products and health and demographic factors attributed to HIV or AIDS. Binary logistic regressions were used to test if households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction were more likely to have a higher incidence and frequency of WAP utilisation relative to non-afflicted households, after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic variables. We found that, although households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS were generally poorer and had higher dependency ratios, there was no evidence to support the hypothesis that WAP harvesting was associated with either poverty, or markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction. Our findings suggest that generalisations about a possible interaction between HIV and/or AIDS and the environment may not uniformly apply to all categories of natural resources or to all user groups.

  5. User`s guide to MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisue, S.A.; Williams, N.B.; Huber, C.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Chun, K.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1995-12-01

    Welcome to the MIDAS User`s Guide. This document describes the goals of the Munitions Items Disposition Action System (MIDAS) program and documents the MIDAS software. The main text first describes the equipment and software you need to run MIDAS and tells how to install and start it. It lists the contents of the database and explains how it is organized. Finally, it tells how to perform various functions, such as locating, entering, viewing, deleting, changing, transferring, and printing both textual and graphical data. Images of the actual computer screens accompany these explanations and guidelines. Appendix A contains a glossary of names for the various abbreviations, codes, and chemicals; Appendix B is a list of modem names; Appendix C provides a database dictionary and rules for entering data; and Appendix D describes procedures for troubleshooting problems associated with connecting to the MIDAS server and using MIDAS.

  6. Aztec user`s guide. Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    Aztec is an iterative library that greatly simplifies the parallelization process when solving the linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. Aztec is intended as a software tool for users who want to avoid cumbersome parallel programming details but who have large sparse linear systems which require an efficiently utilized parallel processing system. A collection of data transformation tools are provided that allow for easy creation of distributed sparse unstructured matrices for parallel solution. Once the distributed matrix is created, computation can be performed on any of the parallel machines running Aztec: nCUBE 2, IBM SP2 and Intel Paragon, MPI platforms as well as standard serial and vector platforms. Aztec includes a number of Krylov iterative methods such as conjugate gradient (CG), generalized minimum residual (GMRES) and stabilized biconjugate gradient (BICGSTAB) to solve systems of equations. These Krylov methods are used in conjunction with various preconditioners such as polynomial or domain decomposition methods using LU or incomplete LU factorizations within subdomains. Although the matrix A can be general, the package has been designed for matrices arising from the approximation of partial differential equations (PDEs). In particular, the Aztec package is oriented toward systems arising from PDE applications.

  7. The Macroeconomics of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Morrissey, Oliver; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue explores macroeconomic effects of aid from various perspectives through a blend of studies, both conceptual and empirical in nature. The overall aim is to enhance the understanding of the macroeconomic dimensions of aid in the policy and research communities, and to inspire...

  8. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  9. Aid, Development, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  10. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 previous 1 • 2 • ... STDs How Do People Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? Can Someone Get ...

  11. Magnetic Implants Aid Hearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏

    1995-01-01

    The next generation of hearing aids may use tiny magnets that fit inside the ear. Researchersat a California company and an engineer at the University of Virginia are both developing systems that rely on magnets to convey sounds. Conventional hearing aids have three components:a microphone, an amplifier, and a speaker. The microphone picks up sounds and sends them to the am-

  12. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  13. First Aid: Diaper Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Diaper Rash KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Diaper Rash A A A Diaper rash is a common skin condition in babies. ... rash is due to irritation caused by the diaper, but it can have other causes not related ...

  14. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  15. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  16. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  17. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  18. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i...

  19. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  20. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  1. Implantable Heart Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  2. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy...

  3. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  4. AIDS as Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  5. 76 FR 14028 - Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening... FR 47820), entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments.'' In that notice... the development of a generic drug user fee program. FDA is reopening the comment period for...

  6. 76 FR 4119 - Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening... comment period for the notice of public meeting entitled Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request... development of a generic drug user fee program. FDA is reopening the comment period to permit...

  7. 76 FR 24035 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments... gather additional stakeholder input on the development of a generic drug user fee program. A user fee..., to facilitate the timely review of human generic drug applications by FDA, and FDA is currently...

  8. 77 FR 51814 - Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012; Public Meeting... discuss implementation of the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA). GDUFA requires that generic drug manufacturers pay user fees to finance critical and measurable generic drug...

  9. 76 FR 33307 - Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Extension... requested comments to gather stakeholder input on the development of a generic drug user fee program. The..., 75 FR 47820, FDA published a notice soliciting comment on development of a generic drug user...

  10. 76 FR 44014 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments... gather additional stakeholder input on the development of a generic drug user fee program. A user fee..., to facilitate the timely review of human generic drug applications by FDA. FDA has been...

  11. 77 FR 43844 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Drug User...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Drug User Fee Cover Sheet; Form FDA 3794 AGENCY: Food and Drug... 3794 entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee Cover Sheet.'' DATES: Submit either electronic or written... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Generic Drug User Fee Cover Sheet; Form FDA...

  12. Game user experience evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhaupt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating interactive systems for their user experience (UX) is a standard approach in industry and research today. This book explores the areas of game design and development and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as ways to understand the various contributing aspects of the overall gaming experience. Fully updated, extended and revised this book is based upon the original publication Evaluating User Experience in Games, and provides updated methods and approaches ranging from user- orientated methods to game specific approaches. New and emerging methods and areas explored include physiologi

  13. Designing for user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Designing for User Engagement on the Web: 10 Basic Principles is concerned with making user experience engaging. The cascade of social web applications we are now familiar with - blogs, consumer reviews, wikis, and social networking - are all engaging experiences. But engagement is an increasingly common goal in business and productivity environments as well. This book provides a foundation for all those seeking to design engaging user experiences rich in communication and interaction. Combining a handbook on basic principles with case studies, it provides readers with a ric

  14. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  15. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  16. Distributed User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gallud, Jose A; Penichet, Victor M R

    2011-01-01

    The recent advances in display technologies and mobile devices is having an important effect on the way users interact with all kinds of devices (computers, mobile devices, laptops, tablets, and so on). These are opening up new possibilities for interaction, including the distribution of the UI (User Interface) amongst different devices, and implies that the UI can be split and composed, moved, copied or cloned among devices running the same or different operating systems. These new ways of manipulating the UI are considered under the emerging topic of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs). DUIs

  17. Information literacy of the academic library users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Hasenay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Information literacy should be a foundation of any educational system, which would enable students and library users a more efficient way to perform academically and in everyday life. The research goal was to determine the level of information literacy among the students, users of the Library of Faculty of Food and Technology Osijek (PTFOS. A special survey – quiz was used to determine students’ knowledge of library collection and services. The sample of 115 students was surveyed between 16th and 27th of February 2015. The library users are aware of the conditions of using the library collections as well as library services, but they don't read messages on the library's bulletin board, desks and web site. The research results will be used as guidelines for improving information literacy and future research.

  18. Drug use and HIV/AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Lian, Zhi; Zhao, Chengzheng

    2006-03-01

    This paper on drug use and HIV/AIDS in China follows on from the column's May 2005 article on the description of the first methadone maintenance clinic in Beijing. Methadone maintenance clinics and needle exchange programmes are now being implemented in China as a response to the rapid increase in prevalence of HIV/AIDS over the last 10-15 years. It is worth noting that in prior years methadone was available only as for short-term detoxification from opioids and for research purposes. Accordingly, the Department of Health Education and Behavioural Intervention at the National Center for AIDS Prevention and Control in China plans to establish 1,000 methadone replacement clinics within the next 5 years to treat 200,000 heroin-dependent users who are at increased risk of HIV/AIDS. Robert Ali & Rachel HumeniukEditors, Asia Pacific ColumnThe cumulative number of registered drug users in mainland China increased from 70,000 in 1990 to 1.14 million in 2004. Heroin continues to be the most commonly used drug in China; however, polydrug use is popular among heroin users. Sedatives/hypnotics (e.g. triazolam) and other uncontrolled prescription opioids (e.g. pethidine and tramadol) are used commonly in combination with heroin. The majority of drug users (79%) are young people aged between 17 and 35 years and comprise predominantly farmers (30%) and unemployed people (45%). The HIV/AIDS epidemic in China has reached expansion phase (1995-present). It is estimated that the actual number of HIV/AIDS cases reached 840,000, including 80,000 actual AIDS patients, in 2003, with injecting drug users (IDUs) making up the largest proportion of these cases. Although the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS is only 0.065% in the Chinese population overall, there is potential for an explosive spread of HIV/AIDS if preventative measures are not employed. Supported by the Chinese government and other related international organisations, harm reduction strategies such as methadone maintenance

  19. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  20. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables